Science.gov

Sample records for impact exercise modalities

  1. Effects of exercise modality on metabolic rate and body composition.

    PubMed

    Sale, J E; McCargar, L J; Crawford, S M; Taunton, J E

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of exercise as a strategy for weight management in overweight women. Specifically, the effects of exercise modality on resting energy expenditure (REE) and body composition [sum of skinfolds and fat-free mass (FFM)] were examined. Participants included 41 overweight, sedentary women aged 25-49 years who had a defined history of dieting. Experimental (n = 26) and control (n = 15) participants were recruited separately. Participants in the experimental group were randomly assigned to either an endurance- or a resistance-training exercise class. Exercise classes designed for a sedentary population were scheduled three times per week for a duration of 3 months. Results indicated that exercise modality had no effect on REE. Exercise, regardless of modality, had a significant effect on body composition (p = 0.0001) as shown by a significant decrease in the sum of skinfolds for the two exercise groups relative to the control group (p < 0.0001). No differences in fat-free mass were observed between groups. Regardless of modality, exercise also resulted in an increased estimated maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), based on a 1-mile walking test (p = 0.012). The pattern of weight change of the groups was different (p = 0.029) over the 3-month period. Whereas the exercise groups maintained their weight, the control group gained weight (approximately 2.5 kg). Thus, although exercise modality had no effect, the benefits of exercise per se, such as decreased body fat, increased fitness level, and weight maintenance, were observed in this population.

  2. Implicit Interaction: A Modality for Ambient Exercise Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; O'Grady, M. J.; O'Hare, G. M. P.

    Ambient Exercise refers to the implicit exercise that people undertake in the course of their everyday duties - a simple example being climbing stairs. Increasing awareness of the potential health benefits of such activities may well contribute to an increase in a person’s well-being. Initially, it is necessary to monitor and quantify such exercise so that personalized fitness plans may be constructed. In this paper, the implicit interaction modality is harnessed to enable the capturing of ambient exercise activity thereby facilitating its subsequent quantification and interpretation. The novelty of the solution proposed lies in its ubiquity and transparency.

  3. Exercise modality and selected coronary risk factors: a multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Fang, C L; Sherman, W M; Crouse, S F; Tolson, H

    1988-10-01

    To evaluate group differences in coronary risk which could be attributed to the modality of habitual exercise, selected physiologic and lipid indices of coronary artery disease (CAD) were measured in 57 endurance trained (ET), strength trained (ST), or sedentary (SED) men (19 per group, aged 21 to 44 yr). Initial data reduction accomplished with principle component analysis identified three factors with eigenvalues greater than one. Orthogonal rotation of the preliminary solution demonstrated that low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), percent body fat (%BF) and VO2max, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) could be used to represent Factors 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The subsequent MANOVA using these variables proved significant. Post hoc analysis via simultaneous confidence intervals indicated that LDL-C group differences were not significant. Values for %BF and HCL-C in the ST group (14.0% and 1.17 mmol.l-1, respectively) were between but did not differ significantly from respective values in the ET (11.8% and 1.34 mmol.l-1) and SED (18.7% and 1.13 mmol.l-1) groups. However, %BF and HDL-C differences between the ET and SED groups were significant. The VO2max of the ET subjects (63.2 ml.kg-1.min-1) was significantly higher than that of either the ST or SED subjects (49.5 and 46.7 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively). These results suggest that ET is the most effective modality of exercise for CAD risk reduction while benefits derived from ST are minimal. PMID:3264042

  4. Exercise training modalities and strategies to improve exercise performance in patients with respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Almeida, P; Rodrigues, F

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory diseases who are symptomatic and whose daily living activities are often restricted. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs are designed to improve the physical and emotional condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote long-term adherence to health-enhancing behavior. Exercise training is at the core of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs. The benefits of exercise training include decreased dyspnea, improved health-related quality of life, fewer days of hospitalization, and decreased health-care utilization. To gain PR benefits, patients should be able to complete an exercise training program, preferably with high intensity exercise, and it is likely that these benefits will translate into a change from a pattern of a sedentary lifestyle to a physically active lifestyle. Chronic respiratory patients, namely COPD patients, have a low exercise tolerance due to multiple factors, such as dynamic hyperinflation and peripheral muscle dysfunction. In this article, the authors describe a variety of modalities and strategies to overcome exercise limitations and improve the effects of exercise training. PMID:24290562

  5. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode. PMID:26501683

  6. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode.

  7. Exercise Modality Choices One Year After Intervention in Previously Inactive Older Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Stathokostas, Liza; Jones, Gareth R

    2016-07-01

    A convenience sample of 176 healthy, community-dwelling, inactive older adults (mean age 70 ± 5 years; 62 males, 114 females) were tracked for one year. The purpose was to describe the exercise modality choices older adults make one year following participation in an exercise and education intervention. Telephone follow-up contacted 137 participants (78%, men = 50, women = 87) and 62% of the men and 69% of the women reported to be "currently exercising." Exercising independently was the most common type of exercise reported by 81% and 64% of men and women, respectively. Walking was the most commonly reported modality by both genders. The setting of exercise was most often reported to be at home or outside for both men and women. The main reason for continued participation at 12 months was for overall health (50% of men and 40% of women). Little variation was observed for exercise modality choice. Future interventions should consider a variety of exercise and physical activity opportunities for older adults.

  8. Impact of Learning Modalities on Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenouillet, Fabien; Kaplan, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on the analysis of academic results of 692 undergraduate and graduate students in two disciplines in a French university who attended their courses using one out of four possible learning modalities. Within the two disciplines, Art History and Educational Sciences, students chose between face-to-face learning (on campus),…

  9. Impact of exercise training on arterial wall thickness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Thijssen, Dick H. J.; Cable, N. Timothy; Green, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Thickening of the carotid artery wall has been adopted as a surrogate marker of pre-clinical atherosclerosis, which is strongly related to increased cardiovascular risk. The cardioprotective effects of exercise training, including direct effects on vascular function and lumen dimension, have been consistently reported in asymptomatic subjects and those with cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. In the present review, we summarize evidence pertaining to the impact of exercise and physical activity on arterial wall remodelling of the carotid artery and peripheral arteries in the upper and lower limbs. We consider the potential role of exercise intensity, duration and modality in the context of putative mechanisms involved in wall remodelling, including haemodynamic forces. Finally, we discuss the impact of exercise training in terms of primary prevention of wall thickening in healthy subjects and remodelling of arteries in subjects with existing cardiovascular disease and risk factors. PMID:22150253

  10. The value of electrical stimulation as an exercise training modality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currier, Dean P.; Ray, J. Michael; Nyland, John; Noteboom, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary exercise is the traditional way of improving performance of the human body in both the healthy and unhealthy states. Physiological responses to voluntary exercise are well documented. It benefits the functions of bone, joints, connective tissue, and muscle. In recent years, research has shown that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) simulates voluntary exercise in many ways. Generically, NMES can perform three major functions: suppression of pain, improve healing of soft tissues, and produce muscle contractions. Low frequency NMES may gate or disrupt the sensory input to the central nervous system which results in masking or control of pain. At the same time NMES may contribute to the activation of endorphins, serotonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptides, and ACTH which control pain and may even cause improved athletic performances. Soft tissue conditions such as wounds and inflammations have responded very favorably to NMES. NMES of various amplitudes can induce muscle contractions ranging from weak to intense levels. NMES seems to have made its greatest gains in rehabilitation where directed muscle contractions may improve joint ranges of motion correct joint contractures that result from shortening muscles; control abnormal movements through facilitating recruitment or excitation into the alpha motoneuron in orthopedically, neurologically, or healthy subjects with intense sensory, kinesthetic, and proprioceptive information; provide a conservative approach to management of spasticity in neurological patients; by stimulation of the antagonist muscle to a spastic muscle stimulation of the agonist muscle, and sensory habituation; serve as an orthotic substitute to conventional bracing used with stroke patients in lieu of dorsiflexor muscles in preventing step page gait and for shoulder muscles to maintain glenohumeral alignment to prevent subluxation; and of course NMES is used in maintaining or improving the performance or torque producing

  11. Modalities of submaximal exercises on ratings of perceived exertion by young girls: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lazaar, Nordine; Esbri, Carine; Gandon, Nicolas; Ratel, Sébastien; Doré, Eric; Duché, Pascale

    2004-12-01

    This pilot study compared the rating of perceived exertion scores (RPE) in young girls for two modalities of exercises (running vs cycling) performed at the same absolute heart rate. 23 girls, ages 8 to 11 years, from a gymnastic club performed graded, intermittent, and submaximal running and cycling exercises at a similar absolute heart rate (+/-5 bpm). These exercises consisted of three stages of 3 min. duration separated by 1-min. recovery intervals. RPE was estimated using the Children's Effort Rating Table scale at the end of each stage of each exercise. Mean ratings were only significantly different during cycling, compared to running for the Stage 3 (cycling 5.3+/-2.7 and running 7.0+/-1.9, p < .05). During low exercise intensity, measured as heart rate, the modality of exercise does not seem to affect RPE. In contrast, with high heart rates, RPE are higher during cycling than running, so it is necessary to take account of the type of exercise. PMID:15739831

  12. Influence of Exercise Modality on Cerebral-Ocular Hemodynamics and Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, Brent; Martin, David; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Gonzales, Rebecca; Matz, Timothy; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Stenger, Michael; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Scott, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: (a) Exercise training is beneficial for cardiac, muscle, and bone health, however, its effects on the development of visual impairment due to intracranial pressure (VIIP) remain controversial, (b) Resistive exercise without a Valsalva has been shown to increase intracranial pressure (ICP) by 3 mmHg, while with a Valsalva the increase is 18 mmHg, (c) Similar increases in intraocular pressure (IOP) have been observed during weight lifting, (d) Aerobic exercise also induces hemodynamic changes that impact ICP and IOP. During moderate-intensity exercise increases in cerebral blood flow and velocity occur, suggesting that moderate-intensity exercise could further increase intracranial blood volume and therefore ICP; and (e) Importantly, however, it is unknown how regional differences in cerebrovascular hemodynamics impact ocular pressure and global cerebral inflow and outflow during exercise with a cephalad fluid shift.

  13. Comparison of the Shake Weight® Modality Exercises When Compared to Traditional Dumbbells

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Jordan M.; Cook, Isaac; Di Brezzo, Ro; Gray, Michelle; Vincenzo, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals are continuously looking for faster, more efficient methods with which to develop physical fitness. This has led to the development of products and programs marketed towards increasing physical fitness in minimal time. The Shake Weight® (SW) has been advertised to increase muscular strength among other factors in less time than traditional weightlifting. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity of the SW to a traditional dumbbell (DB) performing the same exercises. Twelve men (22.9 ± 1.6 years) and 13 women (23.0 ± 1.9 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects performed the chest shake (CS), biceps shake (BS), and triceps shake (TS) using the SW and DW. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were exhibited for all muscles. EMG activity was recorded for the pectoralis major (PM), triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB), anterior deltoid (AD), trapezius (TR), and rectus abdominus (RA) and compared to detect differences between modalities. EMG activity for each muscle group was reported as a percentage of each subject’s individual MVIC. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the SW and DB modalities during each exercise for all muscles except the BB (p < 0.05). During the CS exercise muscle activity was significantly greater for DB in the BB muscle when compared to the SW mode (50.8 ± 28.9%; 35.8 ± 30.8%). The SW did not have any advantage over the DB for any exercise, nor for any muscle group. Further, no muscle group during any of the SW trials exhibited an MVIC over 60%, the level necessary to increase muscular strength. Key points An oscillating dumbbell is not significantly effective for eliciting muscle activity when compared to traditional dumbbells performing the same exercises. The SW modality did not elicit >60% MVIC which is reportedly required for increases in muscle strength. PMID:24150082

  14. Comparing exercise training modalities in heart failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Justien; Beckers, Paul; Taeymans, Jan; Vrints, Christiaan; Vissers, Dirk

    2016-10-15

    Exercise training (ET) is suggested to improve exercise capacity, prognosis, quality of life (QOL) and functional modifications of the heart in patients with heart failure (HF). However, it is not clear which modality is best. In order to assess the effectiveness of different ET modalities on prognostic cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) parameters, QOL and left ventricular remodeling, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were selected in three databases. The primary outcome data were peak oxygen uptake, ventilation over carbon dioxide slope, oxygen uptake efficiency slope, exercise oscillatory ventilation, rest and peak pulmonary end-tidal CO2. Secondary variables were QOL, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD). Twenty RCTs (n=811) met the a priori stated inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized into four different groups: "interval training (IT1) versus combined interval and strength training (IT1S)" (n=156), "continuous training (CT1) versus combined continuous and strength training (CT1S)" (n=130), "interval training (IT2) versus continuous training (CT2)" (n=501) and "continuous training (CT3) versus strength training (S3)" (n=24). No significant random effects of exercise modality were revealed assessing the CPET parameters. There was a significant improvement in QOL applying CT1S (P<0.001). Comparing IT2 with CT2, LVEDD and LVEF were significantly improved favoring IT2 (P<0.001). There is some evidence to support that interval training is more effective to improve LVEF and LVEDD. The fact that patients with HF are actively involved in any kind of ET program seems sufficient to improve the prognosis, QOL and anatomic function. PMID:27434363

  15. Effect of exercise modality on oxygen uptake kinetics during heavy exercise.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M; McConnell, A M

    1999-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the oxygen uptake (VO2) slow component during high-intensity exercise have yet to be established. In order to explore the possibility that the VO2 slow component is related to the muscle contraction regimen used, we examined the pulmonary VO2 kinetics during constant-load treadmill and cycle exercise at an exercise intensity that produced the same level of lactacidaemia for both exercise modes. Eight healthy subjects, aged 22-37 years, completed incremental exercise tests to exhaustion on both a cycle ergometer and a treadmill for the determination of the ventilatory threshold (defined as the lactate threshold, Th1a) and maximum VO2 (VO2max). Subsequently, the subjects completed two "square-wave" transitions from rest to a running speed or power output that required a VO2 that was halfway between the mode-specific Th1a and VO2max. Arterialised blood lactate concentration was determined immediately before and after each transition. The VO2 responses to the two transitions for each exercise mode were time-aligned and averaged. The increase in blood lactate concentration produced by the transitions was not significantly different between cycling [mean (SD) 5.9 (1.5) mM] and running [5.5 (1.6) mM]. The increase in VO2 between 3 and 6 min of exercise; (i.e. the slow component) was significantly greater in cycling than in running, both in absolute terms [290 (102) vs 200 (45) ml x min(-1); P<0.05] and as a proportion of the total VO2 response above baseline [10 (3)% vs 6 (1)%; P < 0.05]. These data indicate that: (a) a VO2 slow component does exist for high-intensity treadmill running, and (b) the magnitude of the slow component is less for running than for cycling at equivalent levels of lactacidaemia. The greater slow component observed in cycling compared to running may be related to differences in the muscle contraction regimen that is required for the two exercise modes.

  16. Vibration exercise as a warm-up modality for deadlift power output.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Coley, Karl W; Pritchard, Hayden J; Barnes, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Vibration exercise (VbX) has gained popularity as a warm-up modality to enhance performance in golf, baseball, and sprint cycling, but little is known about the efficacy of using VbX as a warm-up before resistance exercise, such as deadlifting. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a deadlift (DL)-specific warm-up, VbX warm-up, and Control on DL power output (PO). The DL warm-up (DL-WU) included 10, 8, and 5 repetitions performed at 30, 40, and 50% 1-repetition maximum (1RM), respectively, where the number of repetitions was matched by body-weight squats performed with vibration and without vibration (Control). The warm-up conditions were randomized and performed at least 2 days apart. Peak power (PP), mean power, rate of force development (RFD), and electromyography (EMG) were measured during the concentric phase of 2 consecutive DLs (75% 1RM) at 30 seconds and 2:30 minutes after the warm-up conditions. There was no significant (p > 0.05) main effect or interaction effect between the DL-WU, VbX warm-up, and Control for PP, mean power, RFD, and EMG. Vibration exercise warm-up did not exhibit an ergogenic effect to potentiate muscle activity more than the specific DL-WU and Control. Therefore, DL PO is affected to a similar extent, irrespective of the type of stimuli, when the warm-up is not focused on raising muscle temperature. PMID:25353078

  17. Vibration exercise as a warm-up modality for deadlift power output.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Coley, Karl W; Pritchard, Hayden J; Barnes, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Vibration exercise (VbX) has gained popularity as a warm-up modality to enhance performance in golf, baseball, and sprint cycling, but little is known about the efficacy of using VbX as a warm-up before resistance exercise, such as deadlifting. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a deadlift (DL)-specific warm-up, VbX warm-up, and Control on DL power output (PO). The DL warm-up (DL-WU) included 10, 8, and 5 repetitions performed at 30, 40, and 50% 1-repetition maximum (1RM), respectively, where the number of repetitions was matched by body-weight squats performed with vibration and without vibration (Control). The warm-up conditions were randomized and performed at least 2 days apart. Peak power (PP), mean power, rate of force development (RFD), and electromyography (EMG) were measured during the concentric phase of 2 consecutive DLs (75% 1RM) at 30 seconds and 2:30 minutes after the warm-up conditions. There was no significant (p > 0.05) main effect or interaction effect between the DL-WU, VbX warm-up, and Control for PP, mean power, RFD, and EMG. Vibration exercise warm-up did not exhibit an ergogenic effect to potentiate muscle activity more than the specific DL-WU and Control. Therefore, DL PO is affected to a similar extent, irrespective of the type of stimuli, when the warm-up is not focused on raising muscle temperature.

  18. FEMA Asteroid Impact Tabletop Exercise Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark; Jennings, Barbara; Carvey, Brad; Fogleman, William

    2015-05-19

    We describe the computational simulations and damage assessments that we provided in support of a tabletop exercise (TTX) at the request of NASA's Near-Earth Objects Program Office. The overall purpose of the exercise was to assess leadership reactions, information requirements, and emergency management responses to a hypothetical asteroid impact with Earth. The scripted exercise consisted of discovery, tracking, and characterization of a hypothetical asteroid; inclusive of mission planning, mitigation, response, impact to population, infrastructure and GDP, and explicit quantification of uncertainty. Participants at the meeting included representatives of NASA, Department of Defense, Department of State, Department of Homeland Security/Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the White House. The exercise took place at FEMA headquarters. Sandia's role was to assist the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in developing the impact scenario, to predict the physical effects of the impact, and to forecast the infrastructure and economic losses. We ran simulations using Sandia's CTH hydrocode to estimate physical effects on the ground, and to produce contour maps indicating damage assessments that could be used as input for the infrastructure and economic models. We used the FASTMap tool to provide estimates of infrastructure damage over the affected area, and the REAcct tool to estimate the potential economic severity expressed as changes to GDP (by nation, region, or sector) due to damage and short-term business interruptions.

  19. FEMA Asteroid Impact Tabletop Exercise Simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Boslough, Mark; Jennings, Barbara; Carvey, Brad; Fogleman, William

    2015-05-19

    We describe the computational simulations and damage assessments that we provided in support of a tabletop exercise (TTX) at the request of NASA's Near-Earth Objects Program Office. The overall purpose of the exercise was to assess leadership reactions, information requirements, and emergency management responses to a hypothetical asteroid impact with Earth. The scripted exercise consisted of discovery, tracking, and characterization of a hypothetical asteroid; inclusive of mission planning, mitigation, response, impact to population, infrastructure and GDP, and explicit quantification of uncertainty. Participants at the meeting included representatives of NASA, Department of Defense, Department of State, Department of Homeland Security/Federal Emergencymore » Management Agency (FEMA), and the White House. The exercise took place at FEMA headquarters. Sandia's role was to assist the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in developing the impact scenario, to predict the physical effects of the impact, and to forecast the infrastructure and economic losses. We ran simulations using Sandia's CTH hydrocode to estimate physical effects on the ground, and to produce contour maps indicating damage assessments that could be used as input for the infrastructure and economic models. We used the FASTMap tool to provide estimates of infrastructure damage over the affected area, and the REAcct tool to estimate the potential economic severity expressed as changes to GDP (by nation, region, or sector) due to damage and short-term business interruptions.« less

  20. Influence of Exercise Modality on Cerebral-Ocular Hemodynamics and Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J.; Martin, D.; Crowell, B.; Goetchius, E.; Seponski, C.; Gonzales, R.; Matz, T.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Stenger, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate and high intensity aerobic or resistance exercise has clearly identified benefits for cardiac, muscle, and bone health. However, the impact of such exercise - either as a mitigating or an exacerbating factor - on the development of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is unknown. Accordingly, our aim was to characterize the effect of an acute bout of resistance (RE), moderate-intensity continuous (CE), and high-intensity interval exercise (IE) during a cephalad fluid shift on cerebral-ocular hemodynamics and pressures. Methods: 10 male subjects (36 plus or minus 9 years) completed 4 testing days in a 15 degree head-down tilt (HDT): (1) assessment of maximum volume of O (sub 2), (2) RE session (4 sets of 12 repetition maximum leg press exercise), (3) CE session (30 minutes of cycling at 60 percent maximum volume of O (sub 2)), and (4) IE session (4 by 4-minute intervals of exercise at 85 percent maximum volume of O (sub 2) with 3-minute active rest periods). During each session, blood flow (Vivid-e, GE Healthcare) in extracranial arteries (common carotid artery, CCA; internal carotid artery, ICA; external carotid artery, ECA and vertebral artery, VA), and mean blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA), internal jugular pressure (IJP; VeinPress), and intraocular pressure (IOP; Icare PRO) were measured at rest, at the end of each resistance or interval set, and every 5 minutes during continuous exercise. Translaminar pressure gradient (TLPG) was estimated by subtracting IJP from IOP. Results: There were no differences across days in pre-exercise resting blood flows or pressures. IOP decreased slightly from HDT rest (20.2 plus or minus 2.3 millimeters of mercury) to exercise (RE: 19.2 plus or minus 2.8 millimeters of mercury; CE: 18.9 plus or minus 3.2 millimeters of mercury; IE: 20.1 plus or minus 2.8 millimeters of mercury), while IJP decreased during CE (31.6 plus or minus 9.5 millimeters of mercury) and RE

  1. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Pournot, Hervé; Tindel, Jérémy; Testa, Rodolphe; Mathevon, Laure; Lapole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV) as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude). Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE), immediately after exercise (POST-EX) and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC). Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001) and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025) when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210). LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations. Key points Bouts of barbell curl exercise induce an immediate increased passive stiffness of the biceps brachii muscle, as evidenced by greater shear elastic modulus measured by supersonic shear imaging. The administration of a vibratory massage did not reduce this acute exercise-induced increased stiffness. PMID:26957937

  2. Impact of emergency preparedness exercise on performance.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Foluso; McCarthy, Tara; Biddinger, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prior participation in preparedness exercises was predictive of better performance on objective measures of response. We conducted a statewide tabletop exercise that focused on a hazardous materials (HAZMAT) scenario and assessed performance using our developed evaluation tool. The evaluative score was analyzed in relation to the number of HAZMAT exercises in the past 3 years, participation in prior CHEMPACK-specific exercise, hospital size, teaching status of the hospital, preparedness training experience, and participants years of experience in preparedness activities. Hospitals that had participated in more exercises in the past 3 years performed significantly better than hospitals that had participated in fewer exercises. No significant differences were found between the performance of hospitals in relation to size, teaching status, preparedness training experience, and participants' years of experience in preparedness activities. Our results suggest that more frequent participation in exercises may result in improved overall response.

  3. Impact of emergency preparedness exercise on performance.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Foluso; McCarthy, Tara; Biddinger, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prior participation in preparedness exercises was predictive of better performance on objective measures of response. We conducted a statewide tabletop exercise that focused on a hazardous materials (HAZMAT) scenario and assessed performance using our developed evaluation tool. The evaluative score was analyzed in relation to the number of HAZMAT exercises in the past 3 years, participation in prior CHEMPACK-specific exercise, hospital size, teaching status of the hospital, preparedness training experience, and participants years of experience in preparedness activities. Hospitals that had participated in more exercises in the past 3 years performed significantly better than hospitals that had participated in fewer exercises. No significant differences were found between the performance of hospitals in relation to size, teaching status, preparedness training experience, and participants' years of experience in preparedness activities. Our results suggest that more frequent participation in exercises may result in improved overall response. PMID:23903400

  4. Inter-modal comparisons of acute energy expenditure during perceptually based exercise in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Kyung; Nho, Hosung; H Whaley, Mitchell

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that if exercise intensity is established by perceived effort, the metabolic demand varies among exercise machines and the treadmill optimizes energy expenditure (EE). However, these studies have been completed utilizing young people with normal body fat percentages. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether there was a difference in acute EE when obese people used different exercise modes at a self-selected intensity (ratings of perceived exertion 11-12) commonly recommended for overweight individuals. Twelve obese subjects (7 male; 5 female; BMI>29 kg/m(2)), aged 37-71 y completed two familiarization trials on four machines: treadmill (TM), stationary cycle (C), body trec elliptical arm/leg (BT), and airdyne (AD). On separate days, subjects then completed a 15 min trial on each machine at a self-selected intensity corresponding to a target RPE of 11-12 on the Borg 15-point scale. Machine order was randomly assigned, and subjects were blinded to the workload throughout each trial. Workload was self-adjusted during the first 5 min and then remained stable for the rest of the trial. Physiological data were obtained during the last 5 min of each trial. The BT produced the highest rate of EE among exercise machines and C the lowest. These results suggest that perceptually-based exercise prescriptions are not reliable across modes typically found in a fitness center environment, and that weight-bearing arm/leg exercise optimizes EE during self-selected exercise of moderate intensity in obese subjects.

  5. The psychosocial impact of exercising with epilepsy: A narrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Collard, Sarah S; Marlow, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Research has presented the benefits of and barriers to exercise for people with epilepsy through quantitative means. However, individual experiences through qualitative investigations have been absent. This research will present the narratives of people with epilepsy exercising over time and, as a result, develop further understanding of the psychosocial impact of exercising with epilepsy. Four interviews were conducted over the course of one year (one every three to four months) with four participants (aged 23-38years) who varied in seizure type and control (16 interviews in total). A narrative analysis was used to analyze their exercise experiences. Results showed that exercise creates a positive effect on psychological and physical well-being. However, prevention from exercise as a result of medical advice or recurrent seizures can create negative effects such as social isolation, anxiety, lack of confidence, frustration, and anger. Adaptations of decreasing exercise intensity level and partaking in different physical activities are techniques used to lessen the negative impact and maintain an exercise routine. Time was shown to be an important factor in this adaptation as well as portrayed the cyclical responses of negative and positive emotions in regard to their exercise life. These findings provide valuable insight into the psychosocial benefits of and barriers to exercising with epilepsy and draw attention to the individual differences in how a person with epilepsy copes with uncontrolled seizures and their impact on his/her exercise routine. This knowledge can lead to future research in exploring how a person with epilepsy can overcome these barriers to exercise and encourage more people with epilepsy to enjoy the benefits of exercise.

  6. Dual-cycle ergometry as an exercise modality during prebreathe with 100 percent oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, Cristine L.; Fischer, Michele D.; Webb, James T.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to reduce prebreathe time requirements prior to extravehicular activities and high-altitude flights, a combined arm and leg exercise task proposes to enhance denitrogenation by incorporation of both upper and lower body musculature at a moderately high work intensity during prebreathe with 100% oxygen. Preliminary findings indicated peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) levels attained on the dual-cycle ergometer do not differ significantly from those levels attained on the treadmill. Eight male subjects were exercised to VO2peak using leg-only cycle ergometry and dual-cycle ergometry on separate days. Preliminary data during dual-cycle ergometry showed arm work equaling 30% of the leg workrate at each stage of the incremental test resulted in arm fatigue in several subjects and a reduced VO2peak compared to dual-cycle ergometry with arm work at 20%. Thus, the 20% workrate was used during the dual-cycle VO2peak trial. On a third experimental day, subjects performed a 10 minute exercise test at a workrate required to elicit 75% of VO2peak for each subject on the dual-cycle ergometer. Blood lactate response to the exercise was monitored as an objective measure of fatigue. Peak VO2 levels attained on the leg-only and the dual-cycle ergometry tasks were not significantly different. Blood lactate levels were significantly elevated following the dual-cycle ergometry at 75% VO2peak. However, lactate levels show the expected rate of decline during recovery and, as demonstrated in the literature, should return to baseline levels within 30 minutes following exercise cessation. Thus, dual-cycle ergometry at 75% VO2peak appears to be a valid exercise for use during prebreathe and should not contribute to fatigue during subsequent EVA's.

  7. Multi-modal characterization of rapid anterior hippocampal volume increase associated with aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Adam G.; Dennis, Andrea; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Matthews, Lucy; Morris, Martyn; Kolind, Shannon H.; Foxley, Sean; Jenkinson, Mark; Nichols, Thomas E.; Dawes, Helen; Bandettini, Peter A.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus has been shown to demonstrate a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of tasks and experiences. For example, the size of the human hippocampus has been shown to increase in response to aerobic exercise. However, it is currently unknown what underlies these changes. Here we scanned sedentary, young to middle-aged human adults before and after a six-week exercise intervention using nine different neuroimaging measures of brain structure, vasculature, and diffusion. We then tested two different hypotheses regarding the nature of the underlying changes in the tissue. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of a vascular change as has been previously reported. Rather, the pattern of changes is better explained by an increase in myelination. Finally, we show hippocampal volume increase is temporary, returning to baseline after an additional six weeks without aerobic exercise. This is the first demonstration of a change in hippocampal volume in early to middle adulthood suggesting that hippocampal volume is modulated by aerobic exercise throughout the lifespan rather than only in the presence of age related atrophy. It is also the first demonstration of hippocampal volume change over a period of only six weeks, suggesting gross morphometric hippocampal plasticity occurs faster than previously thought. PMID:26654786

  8. Impact of Physical Exercise on Endocrine Aging.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Joseph A M J L

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise may be vital to the maintenance of the endocrine system with aging and its helps to restore loss of activity of the endocrine system with aging. There is evidence that physical exercise induces activity of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and so produces anabolic effects in skeletal muscles. Mechano growth factor (MGF), a locally produced isoform of IGF-1, has been hypothesized to be important for the maintenance of skeletal muscles with aging. Short-term high-resistance exercise results in an increase of MGF mRNA in young but not in elderly subjects. Reported changes in levels of circulating sex steroid hormones in men after different types of (acute and chronic) physical exercise are mixed and not consistent. In addition, physical exercise may increase local effects of sex steroid hormones, and this may be more important than levels of circulating sex steroids for the maintenance and function of skeletal muscles. In elderly women, both increased physical exercise and reduced body fat may decrease levels of circulating sex hormones. Aging is further associated with changes in the dynamic functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but these changes may be attenuated/modified by aerobic training. Chronic exercise does not alter circulating cortisol levels in elderly subjects. PMID:27348867

  9. Physiological responses during downhill walking: A new exercise modality for subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Burtin, Chris; Hornikx, Miek; Demeyer, Heleen; De Bent, Kristien; van Remoortel, Hans; Osadnik, Christian R; Janssens, Wim; Troosters, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle quadriceps low-frequency fatigue (LFF) during exercise promotes improvements in exercise capacity with exercise training. In healthy subjects, eccentric muscle work induced by downhill walking (DW) generates higher muscular stress, whilst metabolic cost is lower compared to level walking (LW). We investigated quadriceps LFF and metabolic cost of DW in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ten participants (67 ± 7 years, FEV1 51 ± 15% predicted) performed DW, DW carrying a load (DWL) of 10% body weight via vest and LW, in random order. Quadriceps potentiated twitch force (TWqpot) was assessed before and after each walk, and muscle damage was assessed before and 24 hours after each walk via serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. Ventilation (VE) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured via breath-by-breath analysis during each walk. DW and DWL resulted in a greater decrease in TWqpot (-30 ± 14 N in DW, p < 0.05; and -22 ± 16 N in DWL, p < 0.05) compared to LW (-3 ± 21 N, p > 0.05). CK levels only increased 24 hours following DW and DWL (p < 0.05). DW and DWL showed lower VE and VO2 than LW (p < 0.05). DW is associated with enhanced quadriceps LFF and lower cardiorespiratory costs than LW. The addition of a chest load to DW does not seem to enhance these effects. PMID:25758676

  10. Impact of an exercise program on adherence and fitness indicators.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Roger; Gilleland, Diana

    2016-05-01

    Adherence to exercise is one of the most problematic health behaviors. This pilot study describes the impact of an exercise program on adherence to exercise and fitness indicators for overweight and obese adults enrolled in an insurance reimbursed exercise plan. Chart reviews were conducted retrospectively in a convenience sample of 77 subjects from a human performance lab (HPL) at a large southern university. Charts from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed for health history, fitness indicators (fitness level, weight, BMI, hip/waist ratio, % body fat, BP, HR, cholesterol), and adherence (number of exercise sessions/month). Exercise supervision was operationalized in two phases over 12 months: Phase I (3 months supervised exercise) and Phase II (9 months unsupervised exercise). Fifty-eight participants completed Phase I, and 8 completed Phase II. Six-nine percent of those completing Phase I visited the gym at least 8 times/month with significant (α=.05) improvement in all fitness indicators. Those visiting <8 times/month had improvement in fitness level, weight, BMI, and % body fat. Twenty-four subjects continued into Phase II, with only eight completing Phase II. Of those eight, only one subject visited the HPL at least 8 times/month. Health history data including co-morbidities, symptoms, habits, perceived tension, job stress, and fitness level were not associated with adherence. Symptoms of swollen, stiff, painful joints, and swollen ankles and legs were associated with decreased adherence to exercise. Supervised exercise was positively related to adherence and improved fitness indicators. Adults with joint symptoms may require more support. Based on these pilot data, designing a study with a larger sample and the inclusion of barriers and facilitators for adherence to self-directed exercise would allow additional analysis. Innovative interventions are needed that mimic the supervised environment, shifting responsibility for the exercise plan from the supervisor to

  11. Modal response of a composite plate due to impact

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Shah, A.H.; Datta, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Dynamic response of a fiber reinforced composite plate to an impact load has been studied in this paper. The analysis technique is based on the representation of the elastodynamic field in the plate in terms of guided wave-modes supported by the plate For this purpose, the exact dispersion equation governing the modes has been solved by the Muller`s method, using as starting estimates the wavenumbers that solve the eigenvalue problem obtained by employing a Rayleigh-Ritz type procedure. This avoids the problem of a complicated (and sometimes unreliable) root search needed to solve the transcendental dispersion equations. It is shown that this procedure assures computation of a sufficient number of modes (propagating, nonpropagating, or evanescent) with desirable accuracy. The dynamic field in the plate is then expressed as a sum of the modes. Attention has been focused here on the flexural motion of the plate. Numerical results are presented to show the frequency dependence of the shear stress distribution in the plate.

  12. Impact of medical therapy on atheroma volume measured by different cardiovascular imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Sinno, Mohamad C N; Al-Mallah, Mouaz

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that affects most vascular beds. The gold standard of atherosclerosis imaging has been invasive intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Newer noninvasive imaging modalities like B-mode ultrasound, cardiac computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to assess these vascular territories with high accuracy and reproducibility. These imaging modalities have lately been used for the assessment of the atherosclerotic plaque and the response of its volume to several medical therapies used in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. To study the impact of these medications on atheroma volume progression or regression, imaging modalities have been used on a serial basis providing a unique opportunity to monitor the effect these antiatherosclerotic strategies exert on plaque burden. As a result, studies incorporating serial IVUS imaging, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), B-mode ultrasound, electron beam computed tomography (EBCT), and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging have all been used to evaluate the impact of therapeutic strategies that modify cholesterol and blood pressure on the progression/regression of atherosclerotic plaque. In this review, we intend to summarize the impact of different therapies aimed at halting the progression or even result in regression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease evaluated by different imaging modalities. PMID:20672024

  13. Impact of Medical Therapy on Atheroma Volume Measured by Different Cardiovascular Imaging Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Sinno, Mohamad C. N.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that affects most vascular beds. The gold standard of atherosclerosis imaging has been invasive intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Newer noninvasive imaging modalities like B-mode ultrasound, cardiac computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to assess these vascular territories with high accuracy and reproducibility. These imaging modalities have lately been used for the assessment of the atherosclerotic plaque and the response of its volume to several medical therapies used in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. To study the impact of these medications on atheroma volume progression or regression, imaging modalities have been used on a serial basis providing a unique opportunity to monitor the effect these antiatherosclerotic strategies exert on plaque burden. As a result, studies incorporating serial IVUS imaging, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), B-mode ultrasound, electron beam computed tomography (EBCT), and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging have all been used to evaluate the impact of therapeutic strategies that modify cholesterol and blood pressure on the progression/regression of atherosclerotic plaque. In this review, we intend to summarize the impact of different therapies aimed at halting the progression or even result in regression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease evaluated by different imaging modalities. PMID:20672024

  14. Appetite control and energy balance: impact of exercise.

    PubMed

    Blundell, J E; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Hopkins, M

    2015-02-01

    Exercise is widely regarded as one of the most valuable components of behaviour that can influence body weight and therefore help in the prevention and management of obesity. Indeed, long-term controlled trials show a clear dose-related effect of exercise on body weight. However, there is a suspicion, particularly fuelled by media reports, that exercise serves to increase hunger and drive up food intake thereby nullifying the energy expended through activity. Not everyone performing regular exercise will lose weight and several investigations have demonstrated a huge individual variability in the response to exercise regimes. What accounts for this heterogeneous response? First, exercise (or physical activity) through the expenditure of energy will influence the energy balance equation with the potential to generate an energy deficit. However, energy expenditure also influences the control of appetite (i.e. the physiological and psychological regulatory processes underpinning feeding) and energy intake. This dynamic interaction means that the prediction of a resultant shift in energy balance, and therefore weight change, will be complicated. In changing energy intake, exercise will impact on the biological mechanisms controlling appetite. It is becoming recognized that the major influences on the expression of appetite arise from fat-free mass and fat mass, resting metabolic rate, gastric adjustment to ingested food, changes in episodic peptides including insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and tyrosine-tyrosine, as well as tonic peptides such as leptin. Moreover, there is evidence that exercise will influence all of these components that, in turn, will influence the drive to eat through the modulation of hunger (a conscious sensation reflecting a mental urge to eat) and adjustments in postprandial satiety via an interaction with food composition. The specific actions of exercise on each physiological component will vary in strength from

  15. An impact excitation system for repeatable, high-bandwidth modal testing of miniature structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bediz, Bekir; Korkmaz, Emrullah; Burak Ozdoganlar, O.

    2014-06-01

    Miniature components and devices are increasingly seen in a myriad of applications. In general, the dynamic behavior of miniature devices is critical to their functionality and performance. However, modal testing of miniature structures poses many challenges. This paper presents a design and evaluation of an impact excitation system (IES) for repeatable, high-bandwidth, controlled-force modal testing of miniature structures. Furthermore, a dynamic model of the system is derived and experimentally validated to enable the identification of the system parameters that yield single-hit impacts with desired bandwidth and force magnitude. The system includes a small instrumented impact tip attached to a custom designed flexure-based body, an automated electromagnetic release mechanism, and various precision positioners. The excitation bandwidth and the impact force magnitude can be controlled by selecting the system parameters. The dynamic model of the system includes the structural dynamics of the flexure-based body, the electromagnetic force and the associated eddy-current damping, and the impact event. A validation study showed an excellent match between the model simulations and experiments in terms of impact force and bandwidth. The model is then used to create process maps that relate the system parameters to the number of hits (single vs. multiple), the impact force magnitudes and the excitation bandwidths. These process maps can be used to select system parameters or predict system response for a given set of parameters. A set of experiments is conducted to compare the performances of the IES and a (manual) miniature impact hammer. It is concluded that the IES significantly improves repeatability in terms of the impact bandwidth, location, and force magnitude, while providing a high excitation-bandwidth and excellent coherence values. The application of the IES is demonstrated through modal testing of a miniature contact-probe system.

  16. Exercise Training in Group 2 Pulmonary Hypertension: Which Intensity and What Modality.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Daugherty, John; Bond, Samantha; Phillips, Shane A; Guazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left-sided heart disease (LSHD) is a common and disconcerting occurrence. For example, both heart failure (HF) with preserved and reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFrEF) often lead to PH as a consequence of a chronic elevation in left atrial filling pressure. A wealth of literature demonstrates the value of exercise training (ET) in patients with LSHD, which is particularly robust in patients with HFrEF and growing in patients with HFpEF. While the effects of ET have not been specifically explored in the LSHD-PH phenotype (i.e., composite pathophysiologic characteristics of patients in this advanced disease state), the overall body of evidence supports clinical application in this subgroup. Moderate intensity aerobic ET significantly improves peak oxygen consumption, quality of life and prognosis in patients with HF. Resistance ET significantly improves muscle strength and endurance in patients with HF, which further enhance functional capacity. When warranted, inspiratory muscle training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation are becoming recognized as important components of a comprehensive rehabilitation program. This review will provide a detailed account of ET programing considerations in patients with LSHD with a particular focus on those concomitantly diagnosed with PH. PMID:26569571

  17. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  18. Intermittent Palm Cooling's Impact on Resistive Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Caruso, J F; Barbosa, A; Erickson, L; Edwards, R; Perry, R; Learmonth, L; Potter, W T

    2015-10-01

    To examine palm cooling's (15 °C) impact, subjects performed 3 four-set leg press workouts in a randomized sequence. Per workout they received 1 of 3 treatments: no palm cooling, palm cooling between sets, or palm cooling between sets and post-exercise. Dependent variables were examined with three-way ANOVAs; average power underwent a three-way ANCOVA with body fat percentage as the covariate. Simple effects analysis was our post hoc and α=0.05. Left hand skin temperatures produced a two-way interaction (no palm cooling, palm cooling between sets>palm cooling between sets and post-exercise at several time points). A "high responder" subset had their data analyzed with an additional three-way ANOVA that again produced a two-way interaction (palm cooling between sets>no palm cooling>palm cooling between sets and post-exercise at multiple time points). Blood lactate results included a two-way interaction (no palm cooling>palm cooling between sets, palm cooling between sets and post-exercise at 0 min post-exercise). Average power yielded a two-way interaction (palm cooling between sets, palm cooling between sets>no palm cooling for the fourth set). Intermittent palm cooling hastened heat removal and blood lactate clearance, as well as delayed average power decrements. PMID:26038879

  19. Osteo-cise: Strong Bones for Life: Protocol for a community-based randomised controlled trial of a multi-modal exercise and osteoporosis education program for older adults at risk of falls and fractures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis affects over 220 million people worldwide, and currently there is no ‘cure’ for the disease. Thus, there is a need to develop evidence-based, safe and acceptable prevention strategies at the population level that target multiple risk factors for fragility fractures to reduce the health and economic burden of the condition. Methods/design The Osteo-cise: Strong Bones for Life study will investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a multi-component targeted exercise, osteoporosis education/awareness and behavioural change program for improving bone health and muscle function and reducing falls risk in community-dwelling older adults at an increased risk of fracture. Men and women aged ≥60 years will participate in an 18-month randomised controlled trial comprising a 12-month structured and supervised community-based program and a 6-month ‘research to practise’ translational phase. Participants will be randomly assigned to either the Osteo-cise intervention or a self-management control group. The intervention will comprise a multi-modal exercise program incorporating high velocity progressive resistance training, moderate impact weight-bearing exercise and high challenging balance exercises performed three times weekly at local community-based fitness centres. A behavioural change program will be used to enhance exercise adoption and adherence to the program. Community-based osteoporosis education seminars will be conducted to improve participant knowledge and understanding of the risk factors and preventative measures for osteoporosis, falls and fractures. The primary outcomes measures, to be collected at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months, will include DXA-derived hip and spine bone mineral density measurements and functional muscle power (timed stair-climb test). Secondary outcomes measures include: MRI-assessed distal femur and proximal tibia trabecular bone micro-architecture, lower limb and back maximal muscle strength

  20. Exercise training as vascular medicine: direct impacts on the vasculature in humans.

    PubMed

    Green, Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Exercise training decreases cardiovascular risk, but effects on traditional risk factors do not fully account for this benefit. Exercise directly impacts upon arterial shear stress, a stimulus to antiatherogenic adaptation in vascular function and remodeling. This review considers the impact of exercise training on vascular adaptation in large and small arteries in humans.

  1. The impact of modality and working memory capacity on achievement in a multimedia environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromfors, Charlotte M.

    This study explored the impact of working memory capacity and student learning in a dual modality, multimedia environment titled Visualizing Topography. This computer-based instructional program focused on the basic skills in reading and interpreting topographic maps. Two versions of the program presented the same instructional content but varied the modality of verbal information: the audio-visual condition coordinated topographic maps and narration; the visual-visual condition provided the same topographic maps with readable text. An analysis of covariance procedure was conducted to evaluate the effects due to the two conditions in relation to working memory capacity, controlling for individual differences in spatial visualization and prior knowledge. The scores on the Figural Intersection Test were used to separate subjects into three levels in terms of their measured working memory capacity: low, medium, and high. Subjects accessed Visualizing Topography by way of the Internet and proceeded independently through the program. The program architecture was linear in format. Subjects had a minimum amount of flexibility within each of five segments, but not between segments. One hundred and fifty-one subjects were randomly assigned to either the audio-visual or the visual-visual condition. The average time spent in the program was thirty-one minutes. The results of the ANCOVA revealed a small to moderate modality effect favoring an audio-visual condition. The results also showed that subjects with low and medium working capacity benefited more from the audio-visual condition than the visual-visual condition, while subjects with a high working memory capacity did not benefit from either condition. Although splitting the data reduced group sizes, ANCOVA results by gender suggested that the audio-visual condition favored females with low working memory capacities. The results have implications for designers of educational software, the teachers who select software, and

  2. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  3. Analyzing Exercise Training Effect and Its Impact on Cardiorespiratory and Cardiovascular Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laumakis, Paul J.; McCormack, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a statistical investigation of the impact of heart rate levels on training effect for a specific exercise regimen, including an analysis of post-exercise heart rate recovery. Results indicate optimum target values for both average and maximum heart rate during exercise in order to improve both cardiorespiratory and…

  4. Greater impact of acute high-intensity interval exercise on post-exercise executive function compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Takeuchi, Tatsuya; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Isaka, Tadao; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    Aerobic moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MCE) can improve executive function (EF) acutely, potentially through the activation of both physiological and psychological factors. Recently, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) has been reported to be more beneficial for physical adaptation than MCE. Factors for EF improvement can potentially be more enhanced by HIIE than by MCE; but the effects of HIIE on EF remain unknown. Therefore, we aimed to examine to what extent HIIE impacts post-exercise EF immediately after exercise and during post-exercise recovery, compared with traditional MCE. Twelve healthy male subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise based on either HIIE or MCE protocols in a randomized and counterbalanced order. The HIIE protocol consisted of four 4-min bouts at 90% of peak VO2 with 3-min active recovery at 60% of peak VO2. A volume-matched MCE protocol was applied at 60% of peak VO2. To evaluate EF, a color-words Stroop task was performed pre- and post-exercise. Improvement in EF immediately after exercise was the same for the HIIE and MCE protocols. However, the improvement of EF by HIIE was sustained during 30 min of post-exercise recovery, during which MCE returned to the pre-exercise level. The EF response in the post-exercise recovery was associated with changes in physiological and psychological responses. The present findings showed that HIIE and MCE were capable of improving EF. Moreover, HIIE could prolong improvement in EF during post-exercise recovery. For the first time, we suggest that HIIE may be more effective strategy than MCE for improving EF.

  5. Pancreas-Kidney transplantation: Impact of dialysis modality on the outcome.

    PubMed

    Martins, La Salete; Malheiro, Jorge; Pedroso, Sofia; Almeida, Manuela; Dias, Leonidio; Henriques, António C; Silva, Donzília; Davide, José; Cabrita, António; Noronha, Irene L; Rodrigues, Anabela

    2015-08-01

    It remains controversial whether dialysis modality prior to SPKT (simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation) affects the outcome. We analyzed outcomes in type 1 diabetic patients undergoing SPKT, comparing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) groups: 119 had been on HD; 39 on PD. They were comparable except regarding dialysis time, higher in HD patients (30 ± 23 vs. 21 ± 15 months, P = 0.003). Thrombosis-driven relaparotomy was more frequent in PD patients (12.8% vs. 1.7%, P = 0.014). Pancreas loss due to infection was higher in PD patients (12.8% vs. 3.4%, P = 0.042). Thrombosis-related kidney loss was more frequent in PD patients (5.1%, vs. 0% in HD patients, P = 0.058). Thirteen deaths occurred, more within the PD group (17.9% vs. 5%; P = 0.011), being infection the leading cause (13.5%, vs. 1.7% in HD patients, P = 0.010). Patient survival was inferior in PD patients. Besides PD, cardiovascular disease and graft failure were independent predictors of patient death. In conclusion, PD patients more frequently complicated with intra-abominal infection leading to pancreatic loss and with renal thrombosis, with adverse impact on survival. As a PD first strategy in end-stage renal disease patients is generally associated with good outcomes, these gloomier results after SPKT urge for careful adjustment of infection and thrombosis prophylactic protocols in PD patients.

  6. Exercise impact on sustained attention of ADHD children, methylphenidate effects.

    PubMed

    Medina, José A; Netto, Turibio L B; Muszkat, Mauro; Medina, Afonso C; Botter, Denise; Orbetelli, Rogério; Scaramuzza, Luzia F C; Sinnes, Elaine G; Vilela, Márcio; Miranda, Mônica C

    2010-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to a deficiency of central catecholamines (CA) in cognitive, biochemical, and physical tests, and pharmaceutical intervention may have no effect if it is not accompanied by changes in the environment. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that central CA are responsible for the increase in speed reaction seen after physical activity (PA) and to measure the impact of high intensity PA on the sustained attention of 25 children diagnosed with ADHD consistent with the Disease Statistical Mental-IV (DSM-IV) criteria. It is possible that practicing sports assists in the management of the disorder. The children were divided between users (US) and non-users (NUS) of methylphenidate (MTP), and the groups were compared to evaluate the effect of the drug on cognition after PA. Post-exercise performance on Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT) was not affected by MTP, we observed significant improvements in response time, and we saw normalization in the impulsivity and vigilance measures. These results suggest that the improvements in cognition after physical effort are not CA dependent. Additionally, our results suggest that children's attention deficits can be minimized through PA irrespective of treatment with MTP. Additional studies are necessary to confirm that exercise mitigates the harmful symptoms of ADHD.

  7. [Exercise-induced shear stress: Physiological basis and clinical impact].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Romero, Fernando; Saavedra, María Javiera

    2016-01-01

    The physiological regulation of vascular function is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, where an imbalance between synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is one of its main mechanisms. In this context, the shear stress is one of the most important mechanical stimuli to improve vascular function, due to endothelial mechanotransduction, triggered by stimulation of various endothelial mechanosensors, induce signaling pathways culminating in increased bioavailability of vasodilators molecules such as nitric oxide, that finally trigger the angiogenic mechanisms. These mechanisms allow providing the physiological basis for the effects of exercise on vascular health. In this review it is discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in the vascular response induced by shear stress and its impact in reversing vascular injury associated with the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in our population. PMID:27118039

  8. [Exercise-induced shear stress: Physiological basis and clinical impact].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Romero, Fernando; Saavedra, María Javiera

    2016-01-01

    The physiological regulation of vascular function is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, where an imbalance between synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is one of its main mechanisms. In this context, the shear stress is one of the most important mechanical stimuli to improve vascular function, due to endothelial mechanotransduction, triggered by stimulation of various endothelial mechanosensors, induce signaling pathways culminating in increased bioavailability of vasodilators molecules such as nitric oxide, that finally trigger the angiogenic mechanisms. These mechanisms allow providing the physiological basis for the effects of exercise on vascular health. In this review it is discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in the vascular response induced by shear stress and its impact in reversing vascular injury associated with the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in our population.

  9. Modal approach for nonlinear vibrations of damped impacted plates: Application to sound synthesis of gongs and cymbals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducceschi, M.; Touzé, C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a modal, time-domain scheme for the nonlinear vibrations of perfect and imperfect plates. The scheme can take into account a large number of degrees-of-freedom and is energy-conserving. The targeted application is the sound synthesis of cymbals and gong-like musical instruments, which are known for displaying a strongly nonlinear vibrating behaviour. This behaviour is typical of a wave turbulence regime, in which the wide-band spectrum of excited modes is observable in the form of an energy cascade. The modal method is selected for its versatility in handling complex damping laws that can be implemented easily by selecting appropriate damping values in each one of the modal equations. In the first part of the paper, the modal method is explained in its generality, and it will be seen that the method is valid for plates with arbitrary geometry and boundary conditions as long as the eigenmodes are known. Secondly, a time-integration, energy-conserving scheme for perfect and imperfect plates is presented, and implementation comments are given in order to treat efficiently the high-dimensionality of the resulting dynamical system. The scheme is run with appropriate parameters in order to produce sound samples. A simple impact law is considered for the excitation, whereas the flexibility of the method is highlighted by showing simulations for free-edge circular plates and simply-supported rectangular plates, together with various damping laws.

  10. Impact of different orthodontic treatment modalities on Airway: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Qahtani, Nasser D. Al

    2016-01-01

    This review focused on airway dysfunctions and orthodontic treatment modalities. A systematic search of the dental literature was performed using PubMed and Web of Science library database. Different combinations of search terms related to airway and orthodontic treatment were used. Any Non-English articles were excluded. Among titles found, abstract and full articles were reviewed. References from all the relevant articles were hand-searched to include more articles. Forty articles which were found relevant were included in the review. Surgical, orthopedic and fixed appliance therapy has been advocated by clinicians to treat patients with airway dysfunctions. These treatment modalities differ from patient to patient and have to be considered based on lot of criterion. The reviewed studies were not convincing in providing information about the orthodontic treatment modalities; further research regarding the same could be encouraging. PMID:27022385

  11. Surveying New Testament Survey: The Impact of Demographics and Modality on an Introductory New Testament Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruehler, Bart B.

    2014-01-01

    Both adult and traditional students at Indiana Wesleyan University take an introductory New Testament course in conventional, compressed, and accelerated formats and through online and onsite settings. This wide variety of demographics and modalities raises the issues of if and how the various incarnations of this course facilitate the achievement…

  12. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  13. Modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel and the consequent energy impacts. [Intercity travel under 500 miles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the impacts of strategies to effect modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel (defined herein as intercity travel under 500 miles) from energy-intensive modes to those modes that are less energy-intensive. A series of individual strategies, ranging from incentives to the less energy-intensive modes (bus, rail) to penalties to the more energy-intensive modes (auto, air) was examined to determine energy saved and policy implications relative to strategy implementation. The most effective of the individual strategies were then combined in all permutations, and the analysis was repeated. As part of the analytical process, effects of factors other than energy (user cost and time, emissions, government subsidy, and travel fatailities) were examined in a benefit/cost analysis. Finally, energy savings, benefit/cost impacts, implementation considerations, and policy implications were evaluated to arrive at conclusions as to the effectiveness of the more-influential strategies and to the overall effectiveness of induced modal shifts. The principal conclusion of the study is that the maximum 1980 energy saving that might be realized by modal shifts, discounting the concurrent effects of demand suppression and improvement of mode efficiency, is approximately 83 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (46,500 bbl gasoline per day), 3.8% of the total projected 1980 energy consumption in the short-haul transportation sector and 0.23% of the total US petroleum use. It was also concluded that strategies to achieve these small savings by modal shifts would result in significant economic, social, and business disruptions.

  14. Impact of sympathetic nervous system activity on post-exercise flow-mediated dilatation in humans.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ceri L; Lewis, Nia C S; Carter, Howard H; Thijssen, Dick H J; Ainslie, Philip N; Green, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Transient reduction in vascular function following systemic large muscle group exercise has previously been reported in humans. The mechanisms responsible are currently unknown. We hypothesised that sympathetic nervous system activation, induced by cycle ergometer exercise, would contribute to post-exercise reductions in flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Ten healthy male subjects (28 ± 5 years) undertook two 30 min sessions of cycle exercise at 75% HR(max). Prior to exercise, individuals ingested either a placebo or an α1-adrenoreceptor blocker (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg(-1)). Central haemodynamics, brachial artery shear rate (SR) and blood flow profiles were assessed throughout each exercise bout and in response to brachial artery FMD, measured prior to, immediately after and 60 min after exercise. Cycle exercise increased both mean and antegrade SR (P < 0.001) with retrograde SR also elevated under both conditions (P < 0.001). Pre-exercise FMD was similar on both occasions, and was significantly reduced (27%) immediately following exercise in the placebo condition (t-test, P = 0.03). In contrast, FMD increased (37%) immediately following exercise in the prazosin condition (t-test, P = 0.004, interaction effect P = 0.01). Post-exercise FMD remained different between conditions after correction for baseline diameters preceding cuff deflation and also post-deflation SR. No differences in FMD or other variables were evident 60 min following recovery. Our results indicate that sympathetic vasoconstriction competes with endothelium-dependent dilator activity to determine post-exercise arterial function. These findings have implications for understanding the chronic impacts of interventions, such as exercise training, which affect both sympathetic activity and arterial shear stress.

  15. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  16. Impact of oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Steinbacher, Peter; Eckl, Peter

    2015-04-10

    It is well established that muscle contractions during exercise lead to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle. These highly reactive molecules have many deleterious effects, such as a reduction of force generation and increased muscle atrophy. Since the discovery of exercise-induced oxidative stress several decades ago, evidence has accumulated that ROS produced during exercise also have positive effects by influencing cellular processes that lead to increased expression of antioxidants. These molecules are particularly elevated in regularly exercising muscle to prevent the negative effects of ROS by neutralizing the free radicals. In addition, ROS also seem to be involved in the exercise-induced adaptation of the muscle phenotype. This review provides an overview of the evidences to date on the effects of ROS in exercising muscle. These aspects include the sources of ROS, their positive and negative cellular effects, the role of antioxidants, and the present evidence on ROS-dependent adaptations of muscle cells in response to physical exercise.

  17. Internalized societal attitudes moderate the impact of weight stigma on avoidance of exercise.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A

    2011-04-01

    Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts. PMID:20948515

  18. Impact of Treatment Modalities on Survival of Patients With Locoregional Esophageal Squamous-Cell Carcinoma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Shan; Hung, Wei-Heng; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Hsu, Po-Kuei; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2016-03-01

    The optimal treatment modality for locoregional esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still undetermined. This study investigated the treatment modalities affecting survival of patients with ESCC in Taiwan.Data on 6202 patients who underwent treatment for locoregional esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma during 2008 to 2012 in Taiwan were collected from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Patients were stratified by clinical stage. The major treatment approaches included definitive chemoradiotherapy, preoperative chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy, esophagectomy followed by adjuvant therapy, and esophagectomy alone. The impact of different treatment modalities on overall survival was analyzed.The majority of patients had stage III disease (n = 4091; 65.96%), followed by stage II (n = 1582, 25.51%) and stage I cancer (n = 529, 8.53%). The 3-year overall survival rates were 60.65% for patients with stage I disease, 36.21% for those with stage II cancer, and 21.39% for patients with stage III carcinoma. Surgery alone was associated with significantly better overall survival than the other treatment modalities for patients with stage I disease (P = 0.029) and was associated with significantly worse overall survival for patients with stage III cancer (P < 0.001). There was no survival risk difference among the different treatment methods for patients with clinical stage II disease.Multimodality treatment is recommended for patients with stage II-III esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. Patients with clinical stage I disease can be treated with esophagectomy without preoperative therapy. PMID:26962818

  19. Neurobiological Alterations Induced by Exercise and Their Impact on Depressive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Helmich, Ingo; Latini, Alexandra; Sigwalt, Andre; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Budde, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background: The impact of physical activity on brain metabolic functions has been investigated in different studies and there is growing evidence that exercise can be used as a preventive and rehabilitative intervention in the treatment of depressive disorders. However, the exact neuronal mechanisms underlying the latter phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. The present article summarises key results derived from studies that focussed on the neurobiological impact of exercise on brain metabolic functions associated with depressive disorders. Since major depressive disorder (MDD) is a life threatening disease it is of great significance to find reliable strategies to prevent or to cure this illness. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review (1) the physiological relationship between physical activity and depressive disorders and (2) the potential neurobiological alterations induced by exercise that might lead to the relief of mental disorders like depression. Methods: We searched electronic databases for literature concerning the relationship between exercise and depression from 1963 until 2009. Results: The data suggests an association between physical inactivity and higher levels of depressive symptoms. Properly designed studies could show that exercise training can be as effective as antidepressive medications. Conclusion: The exact mechanisms how exercise affects the brain are not fully understood and the literature lacks of well designed studies concerning the effects of exercise training on depressive disorders. But the observed antidepressant actions of exercise are strong enough that it already can be used as an alternative to current medications in the treatment of depressive disorders. PMID:21283646

  20. The impact of time on predicate forms in the manual modality: Signers, homesigners, and silent gesturers*

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to create spoken forms that can be understood on the spot. But the manual modality, in large part because of its iconic potential, allows us to construct forms that are immediately understood, thus requiring essentially no time to develop. This paper contrasts manual forms for actions produced over 3 time spans—by silent gesturers who are asked to invent gestures on the spot; by homesigners who have created gesture systems over their lifespans; and by signers who have learned a conventional sign language from other signers—and finds that properties of the predicate differ across these time spans. Silent gesturers use location to establish co-reference in the way established sign languages do, but show little evidence of the segmentation sign languages display in motion forms for manner and path, and little evidence of the finger complexity sign languages display in handshapes in predicates representing events. Homesigners, in contrast, not only use location to establish co-reference, but also display segmentation in their motion forms for manner and path and finger complexity in their object handshapes, although they have not yet decreased finger complexity to the levels found in sign languages in their handling handshapes. The manual modality thus allows us to watch language as it grows, offering insight into factors that may have shaped and may continue to shape human language. PMID:25329421

  1. Impact of dehydration on a full body resistance exercise protocol.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Justin A; Green, James M; Bishop, Phillip A; Richardson, Mark T; Neggers, Yasmin H; Leeper, James D

    2010-05-01

    This study examined effects of dehydration on a full body resistance exercise workout. Ten males completed two trials: heat exposed (with 100% fluid replacement) (HE) and dehydration (approximately 3% body mass loss with no fluid replacement) (DEHY) achieved via hot water bath (approximately 39 degrees C). Following HE and DEHY, participants performed three sets to failure (using predetermined 12 repetition maximum) of bench press, lat pull down, overhead press, barbell curl, triceps press, and leg press with a 2-min recovery between each set and 2 min between exercises. A paired t test showed total repetitions (all sets combined) were significantly lower for DEHY: (144.1 +/- 26.6 repetitions) versus HE: (169.4 +/- 29.1 repetitions). ANOVAs showed significantly lower repetitions (approximately 1-2 repetitions on average) per exercise for DEHY versus HE (all exercises). Pre-set rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and pre-set heart rate (HR) were significantly higher [approximately 0.6-1.1 units on average in triceps press, leg press, and approached significance in lat pull down (P = 0.14) and approximately 6-13 b min(-1) on average in bench press, lat pull down, triceps press, and approached significance for overhead press (P = 0.10)] in DEHY versus HE. Session RPE difference approached significance (DEHY: 8.6 +/- 1.9, HE: 7.4 +/- 2.3) (P = 0.12). Recovery HR was significantly higher for DEHY (116 +/- 15 b min(-1)) versus HE (105 +/- 13 b min(-1)). Dehydration (approximately 3%) impaired resistance exercise performance, decreased repetitions, increased perceived exertion, and hindered HR recovery. Results highlight the importance of adequate hydration during full body resistance exercise sessions.

  2. Training for happiness: the impacts of different positive exercises on hedonism and eudaemonia.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Miguel Pereira; da Palma, Patricia Jardim; Garcia, Bruno Cardoso; Gomes, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical conceptions on happiness have generally considered two broad perspectives: hedonic enjoyment and eudaemonia. However, most research on how to improve people's happiness has focused primarily on the enhancement of hedonic happiness. In this longitudinal experimental study we test the differential impact of two positive exercises-Best Possible Selves and the Lottery Question-on hedonic and eudaemonic happiness. The hypothesis that the practice of the Best Possible Selves exercise would increase hedonic happiness was confirmed. This effect was immediate and maintained a week after the exercise. Furthermore, this exercise also increased eudaemonic happiness. However, its effect decreased after a week. Contrary to what was expected the Lottery Question exercise decreased both eudaemonic happiness and hedonic happiness over time. We discuss implications of this study for the literature on positive psychological and behavioral interventions to increase happiness.

  3. Training for happiness: the impacts of different positive exercises on hedonism and eudaemonia.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Miguel Pereira; da Palma, Patricia Jardim; Garcia, Bruno Cardoso; Gomes, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical conceptions on happiness have generally considered two broad perspectives: hedonic enjoyment and eudaemonia. However, most research on how to improve people's happiness has focused primarily on the enhancement of hedonic happiness. In this longitudinal experimental study we test the differential impact of two positive exercises-Best Possible Selves and the Lottery Question-on hedonic and eudaemonic happiness. The hypothesis that the practice of the Best Possible Selves exercise would increase hedonic happiness was confirmed. This effect was immediate and maintained a week after the exercise. Furthermore, this exercise also increased eudaemonic happiness. However, its effect decreased after a week. Contrary to what was expected the Lottery Question exercise decreased both eudaemonic happiness and hedonic happiness over time. We discuss implications of this study for the literature on positive psychological and behavioral interventions to increase happiness. PMID:27376012

  4. The impact of exercise on thyroid hormone metabolism in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kanaka-Gantenbein, C

    2005-09-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of energy metabolism and may influence energy processes during physical exercise. There are controversial results concerning thyroid hormone metabolism during strenuous exercise in adult athletes and only scant data concerning the impact of strenuous exercise on thyroid hormone metabolism in children and adolescents. Although some studies demonstrate a transient change in thyroid hormones during intense physical performance, most studies agree that these changes are of minor impact, practically reflecting the relative negative energy balance during strenuous exercise. This state of hypometabolism during intense physical performance has also been confirmed in highly trained female young athletes, who may be also characterized by reproductive axis dysfunction, manifested either as luteal-phase deficiency or amenorrhea, alongside the typical constellation of low T3, insulin and leptin levels. More importantly, strenuous exercise during childhood or adolescence is mostly accompanied by a delay of skeletal maturation, and height and may have a long-lasting negative effect on growth and acquisition of maximum bone mass. In conclusion, although thyroid hormones are only transiently or insignificantly changed during strenuous exercise, adequate caloric intake should be guaranteed in highly performing young athletes in order to counteract the relative negative energy balance and prevent alterations in endocrine-metabolic profile. Moreover, when growth and pubertal progression in very young athletes are significantly impaired, a reduction in the intensity of the physical exercise should be advocated in order to guarantee better final height and adequate acquisition of bone mass.

  5. Impact of Exercise and Education in Adults of Lubbock, Texas: Implications for Better Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Boles, Annette N; Khan, Hafiz; Lenzmeier, Taylor A; Molinar-Lopez, Veronica A; Ament, James C; TeBrink, Kate L; Stonum, Kathleen; Gonzales, Ruben M; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the exercise and educational intervention in the city of Lubbock via GET FiT Lubbock (GFL) program. The GFL program was designed to increase exercise and educational opportunities, which positively impact health risk factors in Lubbock residents. The GFL program design included the recruitment of subjects to participate on a team that consisted of four individuals, each subject tracked their exercise minutes, and their educational session attendance. The tracking of exercise and educational sessions was done on the GFL website. Biometric testing was conducted pre- and post- intervention. The program was located within the Lubbock community in places that were close to their place of residence. The intervention included walking and educational sessions, including goal setting lectures, nutrition information, and exercise demonstrations. Study participants, included male and female adults who tracked their exercise time and educational sessions. Exercise minutes and educational session attendance were self-reported. Our data analysis revealed that significant difference was found between pre- and post- intervention measures, including weight, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Significant difference was found for weight, BMI, and HDL in females. Based on these findings, we conclude that the intervention showed positive effects on exercise and lifestyle. PMID:27242507

  6. Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele modulates the immediate impact of acute exercise on prefrontal function.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Matteo; Clough, Peter J; Dyer, Charlotte E; Vince, Rebecca V; Waby, Jennifer S; Midgley, Adrian W; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-01-01

    The difference between Apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers and non-carriers in response to single exercise sessions was tested. Stroop and Posner tasks were administered to young untrained women immediately after walking sessions or moderately heavy exercise. Exercise had a significantly more profound impact on the Stroop effect than on the Posner effect, suggesting selective involvement of prefrontal function. A significant genotype-by-exercise interaction indicated differences in response to exercise between ε4 carriers and non-carriers. Carriers showed facilitation triggered by exercise. The transient executive down-regulation was construed as due to exercise-dependent hypofrontality. The facilitation observed in carriers was interpreted as better management of prefrontal metabolic resources, and explained within the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis framework. The findings have implications for the interpretation of differences between ε4 carriers and non-carriers in the benefits triggered by long-term exercise that might depend, at least partially, on mechanisms of metabolic response to physical activity. PMID:25218559

  7. Impact of Exercise and Education in Adults of Lubbock, Texas: Implications for Better Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Annette N.; Khan, Hafiz; Lenzmeier, Taylor A.; Molinar-Lopez, Veronica A.; Ament, James C.; TeBrink, Kate L.; Stonum, Kathleen; Gonzales, Ruben M.; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the exercise and educational intervention in the city of Lubbock via GET FiT Lubbock (GFL) program. The GFL program was designed to increase exercise and educational opportunities, which positively impact health risk factors in Lubbock residents. The GFL program design included the recruitment of subjects to participate on a team that consisted of four individuals, each subject tracked their exercise minutes, and their educational session attendance. The tracking of exercise and educational sessions was done on the GFL website. Biometric testing was conducted pre- and post- intervention. The program was located within the Lubbock community in places that were close to their place of residence. The intervention included walking and educational sessions, including goal setting lectures, nutrition information, and exercise demonstrations. Study participants, included male and female adults who tracked their exercise time and educational sessions. Exercise minutes and educational session attendance were self-reported. Our data analysis revealed that significant difference was found between pre- and post- intervention measures, including weight, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Significant difference was found for weight, BMI, and HDL in females. Based on these findings, we conclude that the intervention showed positive effects on exercise and lifestyle. PMID:27242507

  8. A comparison of low- and high-impact forced exercise: Effects of training paradigm on learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, John A.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we compared two types of forced exercise—a low impact paradigm to minimize stress, which included speeds up to 10 m/min and a stressful high impact paradigm, with speeds up to 21 m/min. 150 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to the low impact, high impact, or sedentary control conditions and were tested on the rotorod and Morris water maze (MWM) as indices of motor learning and spatial memory. We found that five weeks of stressful high speed forced exercise led to significant improvement in rotorod performance, as high impact runners outperformed both low impact runners and controls at 15 and 25 RPM speeds. These differences were the result of improved physical fitness due to exercise and likely do not reflect enhanced learning in these mice. In the MWM, five weeks of stressful high impact exercise led to significant impairment in spatial memory acquisition compared to low impact runners and controls. Low impact exercise for 10 weeks significantly improved retention of spatial memory compared to high impact exercise. Results suggested that these two paradigms produced different effects of forced exercise on learning and memory. The low impact paradigm led to some improvements, whereas the stressful high impact program caused significant impairment. Comparison of these two paradigms begins to address the window between the beneficial and detrimental effects of forced exercise, and have suggested a boundary of exercise intensity that leads to impairment in learning. PMID:22402029

  9. Exercise of young thoroughbred horses increases impact strength of the third metacarpal bone.

    PubMed

    Reilly, G C; Currey, J D; Goodship, A E

    1997-11-01

    Exercise can have a profound effect on bone mass, but little is known of its effect on bone's material properties. In this experiment, our hypothesis was that a large difference in the training regimen of young thoroughbreds would produce a measurable difference in the mechanical properties of their bone material. When they were about 19 months old, eight thoroughbred racehorses were given one of two exercise regimens that lasted for 19 weeks: four horses (controls) were walked for 40 minutes a day but had no other exercise, and the remaining four (exercised) were additionally trotted for 20 minutes a day and given progressively intensive exercise on a treadmill. Mechanical testing to failure was performed on longitudinal beam specimens of the mid-diaphysis of the metacarpal. There was no difference in Young's modulus or bending strength between the two groups, although these properties varied somewhat depending on the position within the cortex from which the specimens had come. The specimens from the exercised horses had a slightly higher toughness, as measured by work (area under the load-deformation curve). They had a considerably higher impact strength. The impact strength of specimens from the outer cortex was also higher than that of those from the inner cortex in both groups. Impact strength correlated positively with the amount of microcracking produced during testing. Microcracking is related to structural and microstructural features in the bone. Increased loading caused the bone to respond in a way that enhanced its ability to microcrack and hence its toughness.

  10. Observation, Identification, and Impact of Multi-Modal Plasma Responses to Applied Magnetic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Nikolas

    2015-11-01

    Experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated that multiple kink modes with comparable amplitudes can be driven by applied nonaxisymmetric fields with toroidal mode number n=2, in good agreement with ideal MHD models. In contrast to a single-mode model, the structure of the response measured using poloidally distributed magnetic sensors changes when varying the applied poloidal spectrum. This is most readily evident in that different spectra of applied fields can independently excite inboard and outboard magnetic responses, which are identified as distinct plasma modes by IPEC modeling. The outboard magnetic response is correlated with the plasma pressure and consistent with the long wavelength perturbations of the least stable, pressure driven kinks calculated by DCON and used in IPEC. The models show the structure of the pressure driven modes extends throughout the bad curvature region and into the plasma core. The inboard plasma response is correlated with the edge current profile and requires the inclusion of multiple kink modes with greater stability, including opposite helicity modes, to replicate the experimental observations in the models. IPEC reveals the resulting mode structure to be highly localized in the plasma edge. Scans of the applied spectrum show this response induces the transport that influences the density pump-out, as well as the toroidal rotation drag observed in experiment and modeled using PENT. The classification of these two mode types establishes a new multi-modal paradigm for n=2 plasma response and guides the understanding needed to optimize 3D fields for independent control of stability and transport. Supported by US DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. The Impact of Obesity and Exercise on Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.; Payne, V. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major concern in the aging population and degrades health, motor functions and cognition in older adults. The effects of obesity are pervasive and challenging to health-care systems, making this a widespread and critically important public health dilemma. In this review, we examine the relationship between obesity, cognitive aging, and related dysfunctions. Potential neural mechanisms underlying such relationship are described. We propose that cost-effective exercises can be employed to cope with obesity and cognitive declines in older adults. Finally, we discuss implications and future research directions. PMID:24391586

  12. Impact of exercise on quality of life and body-self perception of patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Topsakal, Nuri; Atilgan, Oya Erkut; Alcalar, Nilufer; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Cotuk, Hasan Birol; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2014-02-01

    In acromegaly the impact of therapy on well-being and self-perception of patients is not clearly defined. The data existing on the effect of treatment on health-related quality of life in patients with acromegaly is inconclusive. In this study we addressed the effect of exercise on health-related quality of life, symptoms of depression and perception of body image in patients with acromegaly. Patients with acromegaly were stratified into two groups according to their participation in a prescheduled program of exercise. Participants in the study group performed exercise for 75 min a day for 3 days a week during cosecutive 3 months. Warming, cardio, strength, balance and stretching moves applied in every course. Both the exercise group and control group were asked to complete a questionnaire on quality of life, symptoms of depression and self-perception of body image. Each questionnaire was answered by both groups before the beginning of the exercise program (at month-0) and after the completion of the program (at month-3). In exercise group after the completion of exercise period there was a tendency towards decreament in body mass index and IGF-I, although not statistically significant (p = 0.08 and p = 0.09). Self-assessment of body image improved significantly after participation in the exercise program (p = 0.01). Present findings support that exercise may be an adjunctive method for patients with acromegaly to improve self esteem and perception. PMID:23377883

  13. Late-onset exercise in female rat offspring ameliorates the detrimental metabolic impact of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Hasnah; Caruso, Vanni; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-10-01

    Rising rates of maternal obesity/overweight bring the need for effective interventions in offspring. We observed beneficial effects of postweaning exercise, but the question of whether late-onset exercise might benefit offspring exposed to maternal obesity is unanswered. Thus we examined effects of voluntary exercise implemented in adulthood on adiposity, hormone profiles, and genes involved in regulating appetite and metabolism in female offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed either normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 5 weeks before mating and throughout gestation/lactation. At weaning, female littermates received either chow or HFD and, after 7 weeks, half were exercised (running wheels) for 5 weeks. Tissues were collected at 15 weeks. Maternal obesity was associated with increased hypothalamic inflammatory markers, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression in the arcuate nucleus. In the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), Y1 receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor, and TNF-α mRNA were elevated. In the hippocampus, maternal obesity was associated with up-regulated fat mass and obesity-associated gene and TNF-α mRNA. We observed significant hypophagia across all exercise groups. In female offspring of lean dams, the reduction in food intake by exercise could be related to altered signaling at the PVN melanocortin 4 receptor whereas in offspring of obese dams, this may be related to up-regulated TNF-α. Late-onset exercise ameliorated the effects of maternal obesity and postweaning HFD in reducing body weight, adiposity, plasma leptin, insulin, triglycerides, and glucose intolerance, with greater beneficial effects in offspring of obese dams. Overall, hypothalamic inflammation was increased by maternal obesity or current HFD, and the effect of exercise was dependent on maternal diet. In conclusion, even after a significant sedentary period, many of the negative impacts of maternal obesity could be improved by

  14. Dietary nitrate supplementation: impact on skeletal muscle vascular control in exercising rats with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Colburn, Trenton D; Wright, Jennifer L; Craig, Jesse C; Fees, Alex; Jones, Andrew M; Allen, Jason D; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2016-09-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) results in central and peripheral derangements that ultimately reduce skeletal muscle O2 delivery and impair exercise tolerance. Dietary nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation improves skeletal muscle vascular function and tolerance to exercise. We tested the hypothesis that NO3 (-) supplementation would elevate exercising skeletal muscle blood flow (BF) and vascular conductance (VC) in CHF rats. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced (coronary artery ligation) in young adult male rats. After 21 days of recovery, rats randomly received 5 days of NO3 (-)-rich beetroot juice (CHF + BR, n = 10) or a placebo (CHF, n = 10). Mean arterial pressure (carotid artery catheter) and skeletal muscle BF (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured during treadmill exercise (20 m/min, 5% grade). CHF-induced dysfunction, as determined by myocardial infarction size (29 ± 3% and 33 ± 4% in CHF and CHF + BR, respectively) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (18 ± 2 and 18 ± 2 mmHg in CHF and CHF + BR, respectively), and exercising mean arterial pressure (131 ± 3 and 128 ± 4 mmHg in CHF and CHF + BR, respectively) were not different (P > 0.05) between groups. Total exercising hindlimb skeletal muscle BF (95 ± 5 and 116 ± 9 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) in CHF and CHF + BR, respectively) and VC (0.75 ± 0.05 and 0.90 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1) in CHF and CHF + BR, respectively) were 22% and 20% greater in BR-supplemented rats, respectively (P < 0.05). During exercise, BF in 9 and VC in 10 hindlimb muscles and muscle portions were significantly greater in the CHF + BR group. These results provide strong evidence that dietary NO3 (-) supplementation improves skeletal muscle vascular function during exercise in rats with CHF and, thus, support the use of BR as a novel therapeutic modality for the treatment of CHF.

  15. National Cancer Data Base Analysis of Radiation Therapy Consolidation Modality for Cervical Cancer: The Impact of New Technological Advancements

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Beant S.; Lin, Jeff F.; Krivak, Thomas C.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Laskey, Robin A.; Ross, Malcolm S.; Lesnock, Jamie L.; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To utilize the National Cancer Data Base to evaluate trends in brachytherapy and alternative radiation therapy utilization in the treatment of cervical cancer, to identify associations with outcomes between the various radiation therapy modalities. Methods and Materials: Patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer in the National Cancer Data Base who received treatment from January 2004 to December 2011 were analyzed. Overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors associated with type of boost radiation modality used and its impact on survival. Results: A total of 7654 patients had information regarding boost modality. A predominant proportion of patients were Caucasian (76.2%), had stage IIIB (48.9%) disease with squamous (82.0%) histology, were treated at academic/research centers (47.7%) in the South (34.8%), and lived 0 to 5 miles (27.9%) from the treating facility. A majority received brachytherapy (90.3%). From 2004 to 2011, brachytherapy use decreased from 96.7% to 86.1%, whereas intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) use increased from 3.3% to 13.9% in the same period (P<.01). Factors associated with decreased brachytherapy utilization included older age, stage IVA disease, smaller tumor size, later year of diagnosis, lower-volume treatment centers, and facility type. After controlling for significant factors from survival analyses, IMRT or SBRT boost resulted in inferior overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.55; P<.01) as compared with brachytherapy. In fact, the survival detriment associated with IMRT or SBRT boost was stronger than that associated with excluding chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 1.61′ 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.04′ P<.01). Conclusions: Consolidation brachytherapy is a critical treatment component for

  16. Impact of Overt and Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Exercise Tolerance: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankhaar, Jeannette A. C.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Jansen, Jaap A. C. G.; Zelissen, Pierre M. J.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review describes the state of the art of the impact of hypothyroidism on exercise tolerance and physical performance capacity in untreated and treated patients with hypothyroidism. Method: A systematic computer-aided search was conducted using biomedical databases. Relevant studies in English, German, and Dutch, published…

  17. Clinical impact of time of day on acute exercise response in COPD.

    PubMed

    Chan-Thim, Emilie; Dumont, Marie; Moullec, Grégory; Rizk, Amanda K; Wardini, Rima; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Paquet, Jean; de Lorimier, Myriam; Parenteau, Simon; Pepin, Véronique

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the impact of time of day on the acute response to incremental exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Fourteen subjects (nine men) aged 71 ± 7 years with moderate to severe airflow obstruction (FEV1: 58 ± 13% predicted) followed a counterbalanced randomized design, performing three symptom-limited incremental cycling tests at 8:00, 12:00, and 16:00 hours on different days, each preceded by a spirometry. COPD medications were withdrawn prior to testing. No overall time effect was found for peak exercise capacity (p = 0.22) or pulmonary function (FEV1, p = 0.56; FVC, p = 0.79). However, a large effect size (f = 0.48) was observed for peak exercise capacity and several pulmonary function parameters. For peak exercise capacity, the average within-subject coefficient of variation was 5.5 ± 3.9% and the average amplitude of change was 7 ± 5W. Seven subjects (50%) showed diurnal changes at levels equal to or beyond the minimal clinically important difference for both peak exercise capacity and pulmonary function. In this sub-group, peak exercise capacity was greatest at 16:00 hours (p = 0.03, ƒ = 1.04). No systematic time-of-day effect on peak exercise capacity was obtained in COPD patients in the present pilot study. However, based on the observed effect size and on the average amplitude of change and within-subject variations seen across testing times, the guidelines recommendation that time of day be standardized for repeat exercise testing in COPD should be maintained.

  18. Eye exercises of acupoints: their impact on refractive error and visual symptoms in Chinese urban children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints involve acupoint self-massage. These have been advocated as a compulsory measure to reduce ocular fatigue, as well as to retard the development of myopia, among Chinese school children. This study evaluated the impact of these eye exercises among Chinese urban children. Methods 409 children (195 males, 47.7%), aged 11.1 ± 3.2 (range 6–17) years, from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were recruited. All had completed the eye exercise questionnaire, the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS), and a cycloplegic autorefraction. Among these, 395 (96.6%) performed the eye exercises of acupoints. Multiple logistic regressions for myopia and multiple linear regressions for the CISS score (after adjusting for age, gender, average parental refractive error, and time spent doing near work and outdoor activity) for the different items of the eye exercises questionnaire were performed. Results Only the univariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for “seriousness of attitude” towards performing the eye exercises of acupoints (0.51, 0.33-0.78) showed a protective effect towards myopia. However, none of the odds ratios were significant after adjusting for the confounding factors. The univariate and multiple β coefficients for the CISS score were -2.47 (p = 0.002) and -1.65 (p = 0.039), -3.57 (p = 0.002) and -2.35 (p = 0.042), and -2.40 (p = 0.003) and -2.29 (p = 0.004), for attitude, speed of exercise, and acquaintance with acupoints, respectively, which were all significant. Conclusions The traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints appeared to have a modest effect on relieving near vision symptoms among Chinese urban children aged 6 to 17 years. However, no remarkable effect on reducing myopia was observed. PMID:24195652

  19. The Impact of Incentives on Exercise Behavior: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Strohacker, Kelley; Galarraga, Omar; Williams, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of reinforcing exercise behavior with material incentives is unclear. Purpose Conduct a systematic review of existing research on material incentives for exercise, organized by incentive strategy. Methods Ten studies conducted between January 1965 and June 2013 assessed the impact of incentivizing exercise compared to a non-incentivized control. Results There was significant heterogeneity between studies regarding reinforcement procedures and outcomes. Incentives tended to improve behavior during the intervention while findings were mixed regarding sustained behavior after incentives were removed. Conclusions The most effective incentive procedure is unclear given the limitations of existing research. The effectiveness of various incentive procedures in promoting initial behavior change and habit formation, as well as the use of sustainable incentive procedures should be explored in future research. PMID:24307474

  20. Impact of Cross-Tie Properties on the Modal Behavior of Cable Networks on Cable-Stayed Bridges.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Javaid; Cheng, Shaohong; Ghrib, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic behaviour of cable networks is highly dependent on the installation location, stiffness, and damping of cross-ties. Thus, these are the important design parameters for a cable network. While the effects of the former two on the network response have been investigated to some extent in the past, the impact of cross-tie damping has rarely been addressed. To comprehend our knowledge of mechanics associated with cable networks, in the current study, an analytical model of a cable network will be proposed by taking into account both cross-tie stiffness and damping. In addition, the damping property of main cables in the network will also be considered in the formulation. This would allow exploring not only the effectiveness of a cross-tie design on enhancing the in-plane stiffness of a constituted cable network, but also its energy dissipation capacity. The proposed analytical model will be applied to networks with different configurations. The influence of cross-tie stiffness and damping on the modal response of various types of networks will be investigated by using the corresponding undamped rigid cross-tie network as a reference base. Results will provide valuable information on the selection of cross-tie properties to achieve more effective cable vibration control.

  1. Impact of Cross-Tie Properties on the Modal Behavior of Cable Networks on Cable-Stayed Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Javaid; Cheng, Shaohong; Ghrib, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic behaviour of cable networks is highly dependent on the installation location, stiffness, and damping of cross-ties. Thus, these are the important design parameters for a cable network. While the effects of the former two on the network response have been investigated to some extent in the past, the impact of cross-tie damping has rarely been addressed. To comprehend our knowledge of mechanics associated with cable networks, in the current study, an analytical model of a cable network will be proposed by taking into account both cross-tie stiffness and damping. In addition, the damping property of main cables in the network will also be considered in the formulation. This would allow exploring not only the effectiveness of a cross-tie design on enhancing the in-plane stiffness of a constituted cable network, but also its energy dissipation capacity. The proposed analytical model will be applied to networks with different configurations. The influence of cross-tie stiffness and damping on the modal response of various types of networks will be investigated by using the corresponding undamped rigid cross-tie network as a reference base. Results will provide valuable information on the selection of cross-tie properties to achieve more effective cable vibration control. PMID:26167539

  2. The impact of long-term confinement and exercise on central and peripheral stress markers.

    PubMed

    Jacubowski, A; Abeln, V; Vogt, T; Yi, B; Choukèr, A; Fomina, E; Strüder, H K; Schneider, S

    2015-12-01

    Long-term isolation has been reported to have impact on psycho-physiological performance in humans. As part of the 520 days isolation study (MARS500, n=6) from June 3rd 2010 to November 4th 2011, this study aimed to show that stress caused by isolation and confinement is mirrored in cortical activity and cortisol levels and that exercise is a valid countermeasure. Cortical activity was measured by electroencephalography (EEG) pre- and post-moderate exercise every two weeks, salivary cortisol was taken every 60 days. Data show a decrease of global cortical activity, in both alpha- and beta-activity (p<.05-p<.001), and an increase of salivary cortisol (p<.05-p<.001), during the isolation, indicating that isolation acts as a chronic stressor with impact on cortical activity and cortisol levels. Moderate exercise leads to an increase (p<.01) in cortical activity. Therefore, during long-term space missions the factor isolation must be kept in mind as the reduction of cortical activity and the heightened stress level could impair performance. However moderate exercise might be able to counteract this impairment. PMID:26387624

  3. The impact of long-term confinement and exercise on central and peripheral stress markers.

    PubMed

    Jacubowski, A; Abeln, V; Vogt, T; Yi, B; Choukèr, A; Fomina, E; Strüder, H K; Schneider, S

    2015-12-01

    Long-term isolation has been reported to have impact on psycho-physiological performance in humans. As part of the 520 days isolation study (MARS500, n=6) from June 3rd 2010 to November 4th 2011, this study aimed to show that stress caused by isolation and confinement is mirrored in cortical activity and cortisol levels and that exercise is a valid countermeasure. Cortical activity was measured by electroencephalography (EEG) pre- and post-moderate exercise every two weeks, salivary cortisol was taken every 60 days. Data show a decrease of global cortical activity, in both alpha- and beta-activity (p<.05-p<.001), and an increase of salivary cortisol (p<.05-p<.001), during the isolation, indicating that isolation acts as a chronic stressor with impact on cortical activity and cortisol levels. Moderate exercise leads to an increase (p<.01) in cortical activity. Therefore, during long-term space missions the factor isolation must be kept in mind as the reduction of cortical activity and the heightened stress level could impair performance. However moderate exercise might be able to counteract this impairment.

  4. A method to study the impact of chemically-induced ovarian failure on exercise capacity and cardiac adaptation in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Perez, Jessica N; Constantopoulos, Eleni; McKee, Laurel; Regan, Jessica; Hoyer, Patricia B; Brooks, Heddwen L; Konhilas, John

    2014-04-07

    The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases in post-menopausal women, yet, the role of exercise, as a preventative measure for CVD risk in post-menopausal women has not been adequately studied. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of voluntary cage-wheel exercise and forced treadmill exercise on cardiac adaptation in menopausal mice. The most commonly used inducible model for mimicking menopause in women is the ovariectomized (OVX) rodent. However, the OVX model has a few dissimilarities from menopause in humans. In this study, we administered 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to female mice, which accelerates ovarian failure as an alternative menopause model to study the impact of exercise in menopausal mice. VCD selectively accelerates the loss of primary and primordial follicles resulting in an endocrine state that closely mimics the natural progression from pre- to peri- to post-menopause in humans. To determine the impact of exercise on exercise capacity and cardiac adaptation in VCD-treated female mice, two methods were used. First, we exposed a group of VCD-treated and untreated mice to a voluntary cage wheel. Second, we used forced treadmill exercise to determine exercise capacity in a separate group VCD-treated and untreated mice measured as a tolerance to exercise intensity and endurance.

  5. The Impact of Social Structure on Mate Selection: An Empirical Evaluation of an Active-Learning Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, John F.

    2002-01-01

    States that individualistic orientation of most U.S. college students presents a persistent problem for teaching sociology. Provides an empirical evaluation using an active-learning exercise. Focuses on whether mate selection increases student understanding of social structure's impact on marital choice. Indicates that the exercise participants…

  6. The Impact of Exercise on Suicide Risk: Examining Pathways through Depression, PTSD, and Sleep in an Inpatient Sample of Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Collin L.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Souter, Tasha; Vannoy, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Suicide has a large public health impact. Although effective interventions exist, the many people at risk for suicide cannot access these interventions. Exercise interventions hold promise in terms of reducing suicide because of their ease of implementation. While exercise reduces depression, and reductions in depressive symptoms are linked to…

  7. Chronotropic Incompetence During Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes: Aetiology, Assessment Methodology, Prognostic Impact and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Keytsman, Charly; Dendale, Paul; Hansen, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    During incremental exercise tests, chronotropic incompetence (CI), which is the inability of the heart rate (HR) to rise in proportion to an increase in metabolic demand, is often observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the fact that CI is associated with exercise intolerance and elevated risks of development of cardiovascular disease and premature death, this clinical anomaly is often ignored or overlooked by clinicians and physiologists. CI is, however, a significant clinical abnormality that deserves further attention, examination and treatment. The aetiology of CI in T2DM remains poorly understood and is complex. Certain T2DM-related co-morbidities or physiological anomalies may contribute to development of CI, such as altered blood catecholamine and/or potassium levels during exercise, structural myocardial abnormalities, ventricular and/or arterial stiffness, impaired baroreflex sensitivity and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Clinicians should thus be aware of the potential presence of yet undetected anomalies or diseases in T2DM patients who experience CI during exercise testing. However, an effective treatment for CI in T2DM is yet to be developed. Exercise training programmes seem to be the only potentially effective and feasible interventions for partial restoration of the chronotropic response in T2DM, but it remains poorly understood how these interventions lead to restoration of the chronotropic response. Studies are thus warranted to elucidate the aetiology of CI and develop an effective treatment for CI in T2DM. In particular, the impact of (different) exercise interventions on CI in T2DM deserves greater attention in future studies.

  8. Impact of modified glucose target and exercise interventions on vascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Grover, Steven A; Da Costa, Deborah; Lowensteyn, Ilka; Yale, Jean-François; Rahme, Elham

    2006-04-01

    Potent glucose-lowering medications other than metformin may impede weight loss in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Supervised exercise programs improve glycemic control without significantly enhancing weight loss; their impact on fitness and blood pressure in T2D remains unclear. In this pilot study, 42 type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to (i) liberalized (10 mmol/l) OR strict (7 mol/l) preprandial glucose thresholds for adjustment of medication other than metformin and (ii) dietary counseling with OR without supervised exercise (2 x 2 factorial design). Weight (-1.2% versus -0.3%, p=0.38) and hemoglobin A1C changes (-0.8% versus 0%, p=0.37) were similar for glucose threshold-defined groups. Dietary counseling with supervised exercise participants had greater improvement in mean arterial pressure than those not randomized to an exercise program (-3.3% versus 1.1%, p=0.02). Overall weight (-1.5% versus 0%, p=0.06) and fitness changes (5.4% versus 1.5%, p=0.18) were not significantly different between these groups, but weight (-1.6% versus 0%, p=0.03) and fitness changes (21.3% versus 1.5%, p=0.03) were significantly greater among those who attended >or=75% of exercise classes. Liberalizing preprandial thresholds neither enhances weight loss nor compromises hemoglobin A1C. T2D patients who consistently participate in supervised exercise programs may experience modest weight loss and significant improvements in fitness and blood pressure.

  9. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  10. Physical modalities other than stretch in spastic hypertonia.

    PubMed

    Gracies, J M

    2001-11-01

    This article reviews various physical modalities that have been used in spastic hypertonia, particularly superficial heat and cold, diathermies (ultrasound, microwave, and short-wave irradiation), electrical stimulation (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), implanted spinal stimulation (rectal stimulation), and massage (deep friction, superficial contact). The duration of the effects of most physical therapies is relatively short (e.g., cooling, heating, and massage), which often may limit their application to immediate prestretch or pre-exercise periods. The potential capacity of ultrasound therapy to improve the efficacy of chronic stretch in lengthening muscle may be a promising option. The neurodestructive potential of high intensity microwave for the personnel involved and controlled evidence of its value is required before this modality can be recommended in spasticity. Overall, controlled, double-blind studies are mandated to evaluate the long-term impact of repeated use of these short-term modalities on function and recovery in patients with spasticity.

  11. Emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Bickford, Erica; Holloway, Tracey; Karambelas, Alexandra; Johnston, Matt; Adams, Teresa; Janssen, Mark; Moberg, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We present an examination of the potential emissions and air quality benefits of shifting freight from truck to rail in the upper Midwestern United States. Using a novel, freight-specific emissions inventory (the Wisconsin Inventory of Freight Emissions, WIFE) and a three-dimensional Eulerian photochemical transport model (the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ), we quantify how specific freight mode choices impact ambient air pollution concentrations. Using WIFE, we developed two modal shift scenarios: one focusing on intraregional freight movements within the Midwest and a second on through-freight movements through the region. Freight truck and rail emissions inventories for each scenario were gridded to a 12 km × 12 km horizontal resolution as input to CMAQ, along with emissions from all other major sectors, and three-dimensional time-varying meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The through-freight scenario reduced monthly mean (January and July) localized concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by 28% (-2.33 ppbV) in highway grid cells, and reduced elemental carbon (EC) by 16% (-0.05 μg/m(3)) in highway grid cells. There were corresponding localized increases in railway grid cells of 25% (+0.83 ppbV) for NO2, and 22% (+0.05 μg/m(3)) for EC. The through-freight scenario reduced CO2 emissions 31% compared to baseline trucking. The through-freight scenario yields a July mean change in ground-level ambient PM2.5 and O3 over the central and eastern part of the domain (up to -3%).

  12. Impact Forces of Plyometric Exercises Performed on Land and in Water

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, Orna A.; Shimojo, Hirofumi; Takagi, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aquatic plyometric programs are becoming increasingly popular because they provide a less stressful alternative to land-based programs. Buoyancy reduces the impact forces experienced in water. Purpose: To quantify the landing kinetics during a range of typical lower limb plyometric exercises performed on land and in water. Study Design: Crossover design. Methods: Eighteen male participants performed ankle hops, tuck jumps, a countermovement jump, a single-leg vertical jump, and a drop jump from 30 cm in a biomechanics laboratory and in a swimming pool. Land and underwater force plates (Kistler) were used to obtain peak impact force, impulse, rate of force development, and time to reach peak force for the landing phase of each jump. Results: Significant reductions were observed in peak impact forces (33%-54%), impulse (19%-54%), and rate of force development (33%-62%) in water compared with land for the majority of exercises in this study (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The level of force reduction varies with landing technique, water depth, and participant height and body composition. Clinical Relevance: This information can be used to reintroduce athletes to the demands of plyometric exercises after injury. PMID:23016022

  13. The impact of time cost of physical exercise on health outcomes by older adults: the DR's EXTRA Study.

    PubMed

    Kuvaja-Köllner, Virpi; Valtonen, Hannu; Komulainen, Pirjo; Hassinen, Maija; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    When the motivation for exercise is high and people are retired, the cost of time used for physical exercise may be lower and individuals may exercise more compared to individuals with a low motivational level and in working life. The aim was to study the effect of time cost of physical exercise on the amount of physical exercise and on health-related quality of life. We used 2-year data (n = 1,292) from a 4-year randomised controlled trial in a population-based sample of Eastern Finnish men and women, 57-78 years of age at baseline, in 2005-2006. In the statistical analysis, physical exercise and health outcomes were assumed to be endogenous variables explained with a set of exogenous variables. The statistical modelling was done by panel data instrumental variable regressions. Health-related quality of life was evaluated by the RAND 36-item survey and motives for exercise with a questionnaire. Joy as the motivation for physical exercise and retirement increased the amount of physical exercise per week (p < 0.001). A higher amount of exercise was associated with physical (p < 0.001) and mental (p < 0.001) components of quality of life. Moreover, a higher amount of physical exercise decreased the metabolic risk factor score (p < 0.001). The motivation and extra time, i.e. retirement, have a significant impact on the time spent on physical exercise (p < 0.001). Our data agree with the theory that high motivation and retirement lower the time cost of physical exercise. The results emphasise that motivation and the labour market position are important in determining the cost of physical exercise.

  14. The Impact of Pulmonary Arterial Pressure on Exercise Capacity in Mild-to-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Manika, Katerina; Pitsiou, Georgia G.; Boutou, Afroditi K.; Tsaoussis, Vassilis; Chavouzis, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Marina; Fotoulaki, Maria; Stanopoulos, Ioannis; Kioumis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an often complication of severe cystic fibrosis (CF); however, data on the presence and impact of pulmonary vasculopathy in adult CF patients with milder disease, is very limited. Aim. To investigate, for the first time, the impact of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PASP) on maximal exercise capacity in adults with mild-to-moderate cystic fibrosis, without PH at rest. Methods. This is a Case Control study. Seventeen adults with mild-to-moderate CF, without PH at rest (cases) and 10 healthy, nonsmoking, age, and height matched controls were studied. All subjects underwent maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing and echocardiography before and within 1 minute after stopping exercise. Results. Exercise ventilation parameters were similar in the two groups; however, cases, compared to controls, had higher postexercise PASP and decreased exercise capacity, established with lower peak work rate, peak O2 uptake, anaerobic threshold, and peak O2 pulse. Furthermore, the change in PASP values before and after exercise was strongly correlated to the parameters of exercise capacity among cases but not among controls. Conclusions. CF adults with mild-to-moderate disease should be screened for the presence of pulmonary vasculopathy, since the elevation of PASP during exercise might contribute to impaired exercise capacity. PMID:22900167

  15. Temporal Changes in Left Ventricular Mechanics: Impact of Bed Rest and Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. M.; Downs, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of more sensitive and specific echocardiographic techniques such as speckle tracking imaging may address the current limitations of conventional cardiac imaging techniques to provide insight into the extent and time course of cardiac deconditioning following spaceflight or headdown tilt bed rest (HDTBR). METHODS Speckle tracking assessment of longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain and twist was used to evaluate the impact of 70 days of HDTBR (n=7) and HDTBR + exercise (n=11) on temporal changes in LV mechanics. Echocardiograms were performed pre (BR-2), during (BR31, 70), and following (BR+4hr) HDTBR. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of HDTBR on cardiac variables in control and exercise subjects. RESULTS After sedentary HDTBR, longitudinal (-19.0 +/- 1.8% vs. -14.9 +/- 2.4%) and radial (15.0 +/- 1.9% vs. 11.3 +/- 2.2%) strain and twist (18.0 +/- 4.0deg vs. 17.0 +/- 3.6deg) were significantly impaired. In contrast, exercise preserved LV mechanics, and there were non-significant improvements from BR-2 to BR70 in longitudinal strain (-18.7 +/- 1.5% vs. -20.4 +/- 2.7%), radial strain (13.2 +/- 2.4% vs. 14.2 +/- 1.6%), and twist (16.3 +/- 3.6deg vs. 18.6 +/- 5.9deg). CONCLUSIONS Using speckle tracking echocardiography provides important new insights into temporal changes in LV mechanics during disuse and exercise training.

  16. Impact of Treadmill Exercise on Efficacy Expectations, Physical Activity, and Stroke Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Shaughnessy, Marianne; Michael, Kathleen; Resnick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors are at high risk for cardiovascular mortality which can be in part mitigated by increasing physical activity. Self–efficacy for exercise is known to play a role in adoption of exercise behaviors. This study examines self-reported psychological outcomes in a group of 64 stroke survivors randomized to either a 6-month treadmill training program or a stretching program. Results indicated that regardless of group, all study participants experienced increased self efficacy (F=2.95, p=0.09) and outcome expectations for exercise (F= 13.23, p<0.001), and improvements in activities of daily living as reported on the Stroke Impact Scale (F=10.97, p=0 .002). No statistically significant between-group differences were noted, possibly due to the fact that specific interventions designed to enhance efficacy beliefs were not part of the study. Theoretically based interventions should be tested to clarify the role of motivation and potential influence on exercise and physical activity in the post-stroke population. PMID:22210302

  17. The time-frame of acute resistance exercise effects on football skill performance: the impact of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Carlos Barbero, Jose; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Apostolos Spyridon; Margonis, Konstantinos; Michailidis, Yannis; Avloniti, Alexandra; Theodorou, Anastasios; Kambas, Antonis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recovery rate of football skill performance following resistance exercise of moderate or high intensity. Ten elite football players participated in three different trials: control, low-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 8-10 repetitions/set, 65-70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and high-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 4-6 repetitions/set, 85-90% 1RM) in a counterbalanced manner. In each experimental condition, participants were evaluated pre, post, and at 24, 48, 72 h post exercise time points. Football skill performance was assessed through the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test, long passing, dribbling, shooting and heading. Delayed onset muscle soreness, knee joint range of motion, and muscle strength (1RM) in squat were considered as muscle damage markers. Blood samples analysed for creatine kinase activity, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count. Passing and shooting performance declined (P < 0.05) post-exercise following resistance exercise. Strength declined post-exercise following high-intensity resistance exercise. Both trials induced only a mild muscle damage and inflammatory response in an intensity-dependent manner. These results indicate that football skill performance is minimally affected by acute resistance exercise independent of intensity suggesting that elite players may be able to participate in a football practice or match after only 24 h following a strength training session. PMID:23301779

  18. The time-frame of acute resistance exercise effects on football skill performance: the impact of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Carlos Barbero, Jose; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Apostolos Spyridon; Margonis, Konstantinos; Michailidis, Yannis; Avloniti, Alexandra; Theodorou, Anastasios; Kambas, Antonis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recovery rate of football skill performance following resistance exercise of moderate or high intensity. Ten elite football players participated in three different trials: control, low-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 8-10 repetitions/set, 65-70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and high-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 4-6 repetitions/set, 85-90% 1RM) in a counterbalanced manner. In each experimental condition, participants were evaluated pre, post, and at 24, 48, 72 h post exercise time points. Football skill performance was assessed through the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test, long passing, dribbling, shooting and heading. Delayed onset muscle soreness, knee joint range of motion, and muscle strength (1RM) in squat were considered as muscle damage markers. Blood samples analysed for creatine kinase activity, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count. Passing and shooting performance declined (P < 0.05) post-exercise following resistance exercise. Strength declined post-exercise following high-intensity resistance exercise. Both trials induced only a mild muscle damage and inflammatory response in an intensity-dependent manner. These results indicate that football skill performance is minimally affected by acute resistance exercise independent of intensity suggesting that elite players may be able to participate in a football practice or match after only 24 h following a strength training session.

  19. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension. PMID:26840705

  20. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P.; Frighetto, P.D.; Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension. PMID:26840705

  1. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  2. Wound care: biofilm and its impact on the latest treatment modalities for ulcerations of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul J; Steinberg, John S

    2012-06-01

    Biofilm is an increasingly important topic of discussion in the care of the chronic diabetic foot wound. Treatment modalities have focused on biofilm reduction or eradication through debridement techniques, topical therapies, negative pressure therapy, and ultrasound. In addition, advanced wound healing modalities, such as bioengineered alternative tissues, require optimal wound bed preparation with specific consideration of biofilm reduction before their application. Although fundamental principles of diabetic wound care still apply, critical thought must be given to biofilm before implementing a treatment plan for the closure of these complex wounds.

  3. Examining the Impact of Student Use of Multiple Modal Representations in Constructing Arguments in Organic Chemistry Laboratory Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Brian; Choi, Aeran

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine students’ use of multiple modal representations within their written arguments as a consequence of completing a series of investigations of an organic chemistry laboratory course. One hundred and eleven students from a major Midwestern university were involved in using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach where they are required to use the argument structure of question, claim, evidence and reflection in completing the written report for their instructor on their laboratory investigations. Results indicate that students who achieved a high score for embedded multiple modal representations in the evidence section also constructed high quality arguments. That is, students who were able to embed multiple modal representations in evidence made strong reasoned connections to support their claim(s) and construct a cohesive argument. Further, there were strong correlations between the laboratory examination score and holistic quality of argument. This study suggests there is a need to build support structures pedagogically for the individual in order to help students understanding the role and function of multiple modal representations in science.

  4. Integrating Argument-Based Science Inquiry with Modal Representations: Impact on Science Achievement, Argumentation, and Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbag, Mehmet; Gunel, Murat

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of integrating the Argument-Based Science Inquiry (ABSI) approach with multi-modal representations on students' achievement, and their argumentation and writing skills. The study was conducted with 62 female and 57 male college students at the Central Anatolian Turkish University. All participants…

  5. 77 FR 20097 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Georgia Multi-Modal Passenger Terminal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ..., Georgia 30308. Telephone: (404) 631-1197. Email: jocox@dot.ga.gov . Brian Smart, Federal Transit....smart@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In accordance with Section 6002 of SAFETEA- LU, FTA and GDOT... point for its variety of existing and future inter-city, regional and local modal services. At the...

  6. Impact of Exercise on Innate Immunity in Multiple Sclerosis Progression and Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Alison; Cronin, Owen; Ryan, Aisling M.; Sweeney, Brian; Yap, Siew M.; O'Toole, Orna; Allen, Andrew P.; Clarke, Gerard; O'Halloran, Ken D.; Downer, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic progressive immune-mediated neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammatory demyelination and consequent axonal deterioration. It accounts for functional deterioration and lasting disability among young adults. A body of literature demonstrates that physical activity counteracts fatigue and depression and may improve overall quality of life in MS patients. Furthermore, much data indicates that exercise ameliorates chronic neuroinflammation and its related pathologies by tipping cytokine profiles toward an anti-inflammatory signature. Recent data has focused on the direct impact of exercise training on the innate immune system by targeting toll-like receptors (TLRs), signaling pattern recognition receptors that govern the innate immune response, shedding light on the physiological role of TLRs in health and disease. Indeed, TLRs continue to emerge as players in the neuroinflammatory processes underpinning MS. This review will highlight evidence that physical activity and exercise are potential immunomodulatory therapies, targeting innate signaling mechanism(s) to modulate MS symptom development and progression. PMID:27313534

  7. The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Anson, J Greg; Palmer, Craig D; Hellemans, Ien J; Cotter, James D

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of 96-125 h of competitive exercise on cognitive and physical performance. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop test (n = 9) before, during, and after the 2003 Southern Traverse adventure race. Strength (MVC) and strength endurance (time to failure at 70% current MVC) of the knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles were assessed before and after racing. Changes in vertical jump (n = 24) and 30-s Wingate performance (n = 27) were assessed in a different group of athletes. Complex response times were affected by the race (16% slower), although not significantly so (P = 0.18), and were dependent on exercise intensity (less so at 50% peak power output after racing). Reduction of strength (P < 0.05) of the legs (17%) and arms (11%) was equivalent (P = 0.17). Reductions in strength endurance were inconsistent (legs 18%, P = 0.09; arms 13%, P = 0.40), but were equivalent between limbs (P = 0.80). Similar reductions were observed in jump height (-8 +/- 9%, P < 0.01) and Wingate peak power (-7 +/- 15%, P = 0.04), mean power (-7 +/- 11%, P < 0.01), and end power (-10 +/- 11%, P < 0.01). We concluded that: moderate-intensity exercise may help complex decision making during sustained stress; functional performance was modestly impacted, and the upper and lower limbs were affected similarly despite being used disproportionately. PMID:19437188

  8. Impact of Exercise on Innate Immunity in Multiple Sclerosis Progression and Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Barry, Alison; Cronin, Owen; Ryan, Aisling M; Sweeney, Brian; Yap, Siew M; O'Toole, Orna; Allen, Andrew P; Clarke, Gerard; O'Halloran, Ken D; Downer, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic progressive immune-mediated neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammatory demyelination and consequent axonal deterioration. It accounts for functional deterioration and lasting disability among young adults. A body of literature demonstrates that physical activity counteracts fatigue and depression and may improve overall quality of life in MS patients. Furthermore, much data indicates that exercise ameliorates chronic neuroinflammation and its related pathologies by tipping cytokine profiles toward an anti-inflammatory signature. Recent data has focused on the direct impact of exercise training on the innate immune system by targeting toll-like receptors (TLRs), signaling pattern recognition receptors that govern the innate immune response, shedding light on the physiological role of TLRs in health and disease. Indeed, TLRs continue to emerge as players in the neuroinflammatory processes underpinning MS. This review will highlight evidence that physical activity and exercise are potential immunomodulatory therapies, targeting innate signaling mechanism(s) to modulate MS symptom development and progression. PMID:27313534

  9. The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Anson, J Greg; Palmer, Craig D; Hellemans, Ien J; Cotter, James D

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of 96-125 h of competitive exercise on cognitive and physical performance. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop test (n = 9) before, during, and after the 2003 Southern Traverse adventure race. Strength (MVC) and strength endurance (time to failure at 70% current MVC) of the knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles were assessed before and after racing. Changes in vertical jump (n = 24) and 30-s Wingate performance (n = 27) were assessed in a different group of athletes. Complex response times were affected by the race (16% slower), although not significantly so (P = 0.18), and were dependent on exercise intensity (less so at 50% peak power output after racing). Reduction of strength (P < 0.05) of the legs (17%) and arms (11%) was equivalent (P = 0.17). Reductions in strength endurance were inconsistent (legs 18%, P = 0.09; arms 13%, P = 0.40), but were equivalent between limbs (P = 0.80). Similar reductions were observed in jump height (-8 +/- 9%, P < 0.01) and Wingate peak power (-7 +/- 15%, P = 0.04), mean power (-7 +/- 11%, P < 0.01), and end power (-10 +/- 11%, P < 0.01). We concluded that: moderate-intensity exercise may help complex decision making during sustained stress; functional performance was modestly impacted, and the upper and lower limbs were affected similarly despite being used disproportionately.

  10. The sports performance application of vibration exercise for warm-up, flexibility and sprint speed.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Darryl

    2013-01-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a resurgence of vibration technology to enhance sport science especially for power and force development. However, vibration exercise has been trialled in other areas that are central to athlete performance such as warm-up, flexibility and sprint speed. Therefore, the aim of this review was to attempt to gain a better understanding of how acute and short-term vibration exercise may impact on warm-up, flexibility and sprint speed. The importance of warming up for sporting performance has been well documented and vibration exercise has the capability to be included or used as a standalone warm-up modality to increase intramuscular temperature at a faster rate compared to other conventional warm-up modalities. However, vibration exercise does not provide any additional neurogenic benefits compared to conventional dynamic and passive warm-up interventions. Vibration exercise appears to be a safe modality that does not produce any adverse affects causing injury or harm and could be used during interval and substitution breaks, as it would incur a low metabolic cost and be time-efficient compared to conventional warm-up modalities. Acute or short-term vibration exercise can enhance flexibility and range of motion without having a detrimental effect on muscle power, however it is less clear which mechanisms may be responsible for this enhancement. It appears that vibration exercise is not capable of improving sprint speed performance; this could be due to the complex and dynamic nature of sprinting where the purported increase in muscle power from vibration exercise is probably lost on repeated actions of high force generation. Vibration exercise is a safe modality that produces no adverse side effects for injury or harm. It has the time-efficient capability of providing coaches, trainers, and exercise specialists with an alternative modality that can be implemented for warm-up and flexibility either in isolation or in

  11. The effect of different intensities of treadmill exercise on cognitive function deficit following a severe controlled cortical impact in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiafeng; Li, Aiping; Zhang, Yuling; Dong, Xiaomin; Shan, Tian; Wu, Yi; Jia, Jie; Hu, Yongshan

    2013-01-01

    Exercise has been proposed for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the proper intensity of exercise in the early phase following a severe TBI is largely unknown. To compare two different treadmill exercise intensities on the cognitive function following a severe TBI in its early phase, rats experienced a controlled cortical impact (CCI) and were forced to treadmill exercise for 14 days. The results revealed that the rats in the low intensity exercise group had a shorter latency to locate a platform and a significantly better improvement in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The high intensity exercise group showed a longer latency and a mild improvement in spatial memory compared to the control group rats in the MWM; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and p-CREB protein levels in the contralateral hippocampus were increased significantly in the low intensity exercise group. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of low intensity of treadmill exercise is beneficial for improving cognitive function and increasing hippocampal BDNF expression after a severe TBI in its early phase.

  12. Equivalence in Dose Fall-Off for Isocentric and Nonisocentric Intracranial Treatment Modalities and Its Impact on Dose Fractionation Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Descovich, Martina; Cho, Y.-B.; Chuang, Cynthia; Huang, Kim; Laperriere, Normand J.; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Larson, David A.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether dose fall-off characteristics would be significantly different among intracranial radiosurgery modalities and the influence of these characteristics on fractionation schemes in terms of normal tissue sparing. Methods and Materials: An analytic model was developed to measure dose fall-off characteristics near the target independent of treatment modalities. Variations in the peripheral dose fall-off characteristics were then examined and compared for intracranial tumors treated with Gamma Knife, Cyberknife, or Novalis LINAC-based system. Equivalent uniform biologic effective dose (EUBED) for the normal brain tissue was calculated. Functional dependence of the normal brain EUBED on varying numbers of fractions (1 to 30) was studied for the three modalities. Results: The derived model fitted remarkably well for all the cases (R{sup 2} > 0.99). No statistically significant differences in the dose fall-off relationships were found between the three modalities. Based on the extent of variations in the dose fall-off curves, normal brain EUBED was found to decrease with increasing number of fractions for the targets, with alpha/beta ranging from 10 to 20. This decrease was most pronounced for hypofractionated treatments with fewer than 10 fractions. Additionally, EUBED was found to increase slightly with increasing number of fractions for targets with alpha/beta ranging from 2 to 5. Conclusion: Nearly identical dose fall-off characteristics were found for the Gamma Knife, Cyberknife, and Novalis systems. Based on EUBED calculations, normal brain sparing was found to favor hypofractionated treatments for fast-growing tumors with alpha/beta ranging from 10 to 20 and single fraction treatment for abnormal tissues with low alpha/beta values such as alpha/beta = 2.

  13. Predictive value of exercise myocardial perfusion imaging in the Medicare population: the impact of the ability to exercise

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Venu; Houghtaling, Penny; Lieber, Elizabeth; Brunken, Richard C.; Cerqueira, Manuel D.; Jaber, Wael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the prognostic value of quantitative single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with exercise and pharmacologic stress is well established, the prognostic and management value in the Medicare age population is less clear. Methods The prospectively populated Cleveland Clinic nuclear cardiology database was used to identify 5,994 consecutive pateints, age >65 years [1,664 (28%) exercise MPI, mean age 72.4±5.1, 74% male], who underwent MPI between January 2004 and January 2008. Clinical baseline variables, post test 90 days revascularization and MPI variables were analyzed. Overall and stratified nonparametric survival estimates were obtained by Kaplan-Meier method. Median follow-up time was 2.4 years. Parametric hazard modeling with bootstrap bagging methods was used to determine prognostic variables predicting mortality. Results There was no difference in mortality in patients with an abnormal MPI vs. those with normal MPI. Amongst the patients who underwent exercise MPI, there were 103 (6%) deaths and 121 (8.2%) revascularizations. Only lower exercise capacity (<7 METs) and higher end systolic volume (ESV) predicted mortality. Although a larger amount of ischemia influenced down stream revascularization ischemia, revascularization of patients with an abnormal exercise MPI did not offer a survival benefit (log rank P value=0.01). Conclusions In the a Medicare age population, exercise MPI perfusion variables influenced rates of revascularization but failed to provide incremental significant risk-stratification beyond exercise capacity. Maximum METs achieved appears to be a better predictor of survival. PMID:24649419

  14. Impact of diet, exercise end diet combined with exercise programs on plasma lipoprotein and adiponectin levels in obese girls

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ounis, Omar; Elloumi, Mohamed; Amri, Mohamed; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Tabka, Zouhair; Lac, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of three programs, diet restriction (D), individualized exercise training (E) at the maximal lipid oxidation point (LIPOXmax) and diet combined with exercise (D+E), on body mass, plasma lipoprotein and adiponectin levels in obese girls. Eighteen obese adolescents girls aged 12-14 years were studied. A longitudinal intervention was carried out, consisting of a two-month diet (D; -500 kcal·day-1), of individualized exercise (E; 4 days/week, 90 min·day-1) and of diet combined with exercise (D+E). Body mass, body mass index (BMI), body fat mass, waist circumference, substrate crossover point, LIPOXmax point, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) index, fasting levels of lipids and circulatory adiponectin, were measured in all subjects before and after the program. In subjects of the D+E group, body mass, BMI, body fat mass, waist circumference, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol / high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio were significantly lower, and HDL-C and adiponectin were higher after the program than that of subjects in the D or E groups. Diet/exercise improved the ability to oxidize lipids during exercise (crossover point: + 18.5 ± 3.4 of % Wmax; p < 0.01 and fat oxidation rate at LIPOXmax: + 89.7 ± 19.7 mg·min-1; p < 0.01). In the D+E group, significant correlations were found between changes in body mass and adiponectin and between changes in the TC/HDL-C ratio and LIPOXmax. These findings show that the combined program of diet restriction and individualized exercise training at the LIPOXmax point is necessary to simultaneously improve body mass loss, adiponectin levels, as well as metabolic parameters, in obese girls. Key pointsDiet combined with exercise training improved body composition, adiponectin levels and metabolic parameters in obese girls.Diet only decreases body mass and LDL-C without improving fat oxidation and HDL- C.Individualized exercise training at LIPOXmax point

  15. Association of muscle strength, power, and optimal shortening velocity with functional abilities of women with chronic osteoarthritis participating in a multi-modal exercise program.

    PubMed

    Kostka, Joanna S; Czernicki, Jan W; Kostka, Tomasz J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the relative association of quadriceps muscle strength and power as well as optimal shortening velocity (υ(opt)) to physical functioning in 28 women aged 50-87 years with chronic osteoarthritis participating in a three-week multimodal exercise program. Quadriceps muscle strength, power, υ(opt), and functional performance using the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale, Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, Tinetti test, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6-MWT) were assessed pre- and postrehabilitation. With rehabilitation, patients improved the values of strength, power, and the results of all functional tests. Both at baseline and postrehabilitation, functional status was more strongly related to power and υ(opt) than to strength. Functional gains obtained with rehabilitation were not related to changes in power or υ(opt), and only very modestly related to changes in strength. Future studies should assess the benefits and feasibility of power- and velocity-oriented training in patients with osteoarthritis.

  16. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters. PMID:26696715

  17. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters. PMID:26696715

  18. Experimental Guidelines for Studies Designed to Investigate the Impact of Antioxidant Supplementation on Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott K.; Smuder, Ashley J.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Hudson, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    Research interest in the effects of antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress and human performance continues to grow as new scientists enter this field. Consequently, there is a need to establish an acceptable set of criteria for monitoring antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage in tissues. Numerous reports have described a wide range of assays to detect both antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage to biomolecules, but many techniques are not appropriate in all experimental conditions. Here, the authors present guidelines for selecting and interpreting methods that can be used by scientists to investigate the impact of antioxidants on both exercise performance and the redox status of tissues. Moreover, these guidelines will be useful for reviewers who are assigned the task of evaluating studies on this topic. The set of guidelines contained in this report is not designed to be a strict set of rules, because often the appropriate procedures depend on the question being addressed and the experimental model. Furthermore, because no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate in every experimental situation, the authors strongly recommend using multiple assays to verify a change in biomarkers of oxidative stress or redox balance. PMID:20190346

  19. The impact of targeted shortened preclinical exercises on student perceptions and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sukotjo, Cortino; Thammasitboon, Kewalin; Howell, Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2007-08-01

    The Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) introduced problem-based learning (PBL) into the dental curriculum in 1994 as a part of curriculum reform. During the reorganization, departments were consolidated, and courses were taught in an interdisciplinary fashion rather than in a discipline-based approach. The changes required a reduction in lecture and preclinical clock hours, which might have affected student performance and anxiety levels. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare the HSDM didactic and laboratory preclinical hours in Endodontics, Operative, and Prosthodontics before and after PBL implementation; 2) compare the HSDM didactic and laboratory preclinical hours in Endodontics, Operative, and Prosthodontics with other schools nationwide; 3) measure students' perceptions of their levels of stress and self-confidence at two time points during their preclinical and clinical years; 4) investigate the correlation between the number of preclinical hours and the students' stress level and self-confidence; and 5) evaluate the impact of shortened preclinical hours on the performance of HSDM students on the National Board Dental Examination Parts I and II. A survey regarding the students' level of stress, self-confidence, and preparation to treat patients during preclinical laboratory exercises was distributed to the HSDM classes of 2005 and 2006 (n=70). The HSDM preclinical curriculum hours were compared to national data as reported by the American Dental Association (ADA). Cross-tabulations were constructed, and the Fisher's exact test was conducted to examine the relationships between the variables. We found that HSDM preclinical hours in Endodontics, Operative, and Prosthodontics were significantly lower than at other schools. During the preclinical exercises, the Prosthodontics preclinical exercises were found to be the most stressful and provided the lowest self-confidence in treating patients as compared to the other preclinical subject areas

  20. Impact of a Simulation Exercise on Pharmacy Student Attitude toward Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Sedlacek, Renee K.; Watson, Susan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of a simulation on pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty using the Attitude toward Poverty (ATP) Short Form scale. Methods. Second-year pharmacy students participated in the 3-hour Missouri Association for Community Action Poverty Simulation. Students completed a survey of the ATP Short Form scale prior to and following participation in the simulation. Results. Significant improvements in attitude were noted in 15 of 21 ATP Short Form items. Improvements in the stigma and structural domains were significant while improvement in the personal deficiency domain was not significant. Conclusions. This poverty simulation exercise positively altered pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty. When combined with didactic and experiential curriculum, this simulation may enhance student achievement of the 2013 Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcome subdomain of cultural sensitivity. PMID:27073274

  1. Impact of Authentic Learning Exercises on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy to Perform Bullying Prevention Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teachers and preservice teachers may neglect intervening into and/or leading efforts to prevent bullying because they the lack confidence to do so. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of authentic learning exercises on health education preservice teachers' self-efficacy to perform bullying prevention…

  2. MIPAS-Family-evaluation of a new multi-modal behavioral training program for pediatric headaches: clinical effects and the impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Wolf-Dieter; Petermann, Franz; Gerber-von Müller, Gabriele; Dollwet, Maren; Darabaneanu, Stephanie; Niederberger, Uwe; Schulte, Ilva Elena; Stephani, Ulrich; Andrasik, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Several meta-analyses have demonstrated that the combination of electrical muscle activity and Temperature Biofeedback could be regarded as gold standard in chronic pediatric headaches. However, these techniques seem to be uneconomical and furthermore they are not directed to improve the social competence as well as resolve possible impairments in daily activities of the child. Therefore, multi-modal behavioral techniques have been proposed, but no studies comparing these with the gold standard were conducted. The present study compared the impact of a new multi-modal behavioral education and training program--MIPAS-Family--with a combined Biofeedback treatment, evaluating clinical efficacy as well as the effect on the quality of life (QoL) of children with chronic headaches. Thirty-four children and adolescents with recurrent headache, ranging from 7 to 16 years, were randomly assigned to the MIPAS-Family (N = 19) or the Biofeedback (N = 15) condition. All patients were diagnosed by the criteria of the International Headache Society. The children and their parents completed headache diaries, diaries of daily living activities and a QoL questionnaire (KINDL). Both groups showed significant improvements concerning the headache intensity and headache duration. We found no significant differences in the main headache parameters between both treatments. After the treatments, the children were less disturbed by their headaches in the domains school, homework, and leisure time. In conclusion, MIPAS-Family is as effective as Biofeedback but it is more cost-effective and addresses the whole family and the daily activities.

  3. The impact of daily exercise on the mobility, balance and urine control of cognitively impaired nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Jirovec, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this intervention study was to examine the impact of a daily exercise regimen on the mobility, balance, and urine control of a sample of cognitively impaired elderly nursing home residents. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used with 15 elderly, cognitively impaired, incontinent nursing home residents. Data were collected regarding walking distance, speed of walking, balance ability, ability to rise from a chair unassisted, ability to walk unassisted, and incidence of urinary incontinence before and after a month of daily assisted walking. Subjects were able to walk significantly greater distances before tiring after the exercise regimen. In addition, the incidence of urinary incontinence was significantly decreased.

  4. Making acute hospital exercises more realistic without impacting on healthcare delivery.

    PubMed

    Riley, Paul W; Dalby, David J; Turner, Elizabeth A

    Exercises can suffer from a lack of realism that reduces the value of the exercise in terms of the positive experience of the participant and the possibility that outcomes are based on artificialities created by the exercise environment. It is important to minimise these so that participants actively engage and recommendations are based on robust observations. Field exercises provide the most realistic format in which to exercise but are disruptive to normal working and expensive. In a health environment, anything but the most minimal disruption to normal service would be considered unacceptable. This paper describes a possible alternative that combines different exercise formats with a simple, but well thought-out, patient simulation tool to explore the health response to two different mass casualty events. Key outcomes from these exercises are discussed to demonstrate the potential of this system when applied to the health community.

  5. The impact of automatically activated motivation on exercise-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Banting, Lauren K; Dimmock, James A; Grove, J Robert

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of motivational primes on participants (N = 171) during a cycling task. Relative to participants primed with a controlled motivational orientation, it was hypothesized that participants primed for autonomous motivation would report greater feelings of enjoyment, effort, and choice in relation to the cycling activity and report greater exercise intentions. Members of the autonomous prime group were expected to exercise for longer, at a greater percentage of their heart rate maximum, and report lower levels of perceived exertion than those in the controlled prime condition. It was found that, relative to participants in the controlled prime group, those who received the autonomous prime enjoyed the exercise more, exercised at a greater percentage of heart rate maximum, and reported a lower rating of perceived exertion. Furthermore, participants experiencing the controlled prime exercised for less time and had lower intentions to exercise than did other participants. Results highlight the importance of automatic processes in activating motivation for exercise. PMID:21808080

  6. An introduction to physical therapy modalities.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brenda L; Liebert, Rainer B; Lininger, Monica R; Groth, Jessica J

    2007-05-01

    Timely and appropriate rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries is the most effective way of restoring full function and decreasing the likelihood of recurrence of the same injury. Application of specific physical therapy modalities and therapeutic exercises is based on the stages of healing. A typical physical therapy protocol progresses sequentially through the following phases: pain control, restoring range of motion, restoring strength, neuromuscular retraining, and return to full activity. The commonly used modalities reviewed here include heat, cold, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, and electrical stimulation. In this article we provide a basic review of physical therapy modalities.

  7. Impact of Short and Moderate Rest Intervals on the Acute Immunometabolic Response to Exhaustive Strength Exercise: Part I.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Gerosa-Neto, Jose; Zanchi, Nelo E; Cholewa, Jason M; Lira, Fabio S

    2016-06-01

    Rossi, FE, Gerosa-Neto, J, Zanchi, NE, Cholewa, JM, and Lira, FS. Impact of short and moderate rest intervals on the acute immunometabolic response to exhaustive strength exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1563-1569, 2016-The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of the short and moderate intervals of recovery in response to an acute bout of exhaustive strength exercise on performance, inflammatory, and metabolic responses in healthy adults. Eight healthy subjects (age = 24.6 ± 4.1 years) performed 2 randomized sequences: short = 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) with 30 seconds of rest between sets; moderate = 70% of 1RM with 90 seconds of rest between sets. All sequences of exercises were performed over 4 sets until movement failure in the squat and bench press exercises, respectively. The total number of repetitions performed was recorded for each set of each exercise for all sequences. The percentages of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and nonester fatty acid were assessed, at baseline, immediately after exercise, after 15 and 30 minutes. When compared with the maximum number of repetitions and the total weight lifted, there was a statistically significant decrease after both intervals. The only statistically significant decreases over time occurred at the post-15 minutes assessment of the IL-6 and glucose when a moderate interval of recovery was performed. When comparing the alterations between the pools (the mean of the cluster of all periods in each variable), there was a statistically significant increase on the IL-6 and IL-10 when a moderate interval of recovery was performed again, however, not considering a statistical difference on the IL-10. Thus, we concluded that different interval of recovery in response to exhaustive strength exercise decreases performance but in only moderate intervals, it is associated with inflammatory and

  8. Impact of CPAP on physical exercise tolerance and sympathetic-vagal balance in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Hugo V.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Catai, Aparecida M.; Reis, Michel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) leads to exercise intolerance. However, non-invasive ventilation is able to improve functional capacity of patients with CHF. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on physical exercise tolerance and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with CHF. Method : Seven men with CHF (62±8 years) and left ventricle ejection fraction of 41±8% were submitted to an incremental symptom-limited exercise test (IT) on the cicloergometer. On separate days, patients were randomized to perform four constant work rate exercise tests to maximal tolerance with and without CPAP (5 cmH2O) in the following conditions: i) at 50% of peak work rate of IT; and ii) at 75% of peak work rate of IT. At rest and during these conditions, instantaneous heart rate (HR) was recorded using a cardiofrequencimeter and HRV was analyzed in time domain (SDNN and RMSSD indexes). For statistical procedures, Wilcoxon test or Kruskall-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc were used accordingly. In addition, categorical variables were analysed through Fischer's test (p<0.05). Results: There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance at 75% of peak work rate of IT with CPAP (405±52 vs. 438±58 s). RMSSD indexes were lower during exercise tests compared to CPAP at rest and with 50% of peak work rate of IT. Conclusion: These data suggest that CPAP appears to be a useful strategy to improve functional capacity in patients with CHF. However, the positive impact of CPAP did not generate significant changes in the HRV during physical exercises. PMID:25003274

  9. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  10. The impact of exercise on depression and anxiety symptoms among abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals in a residential treatment setting

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Richard A.; Chudzynski, Joy; Gonzales, Rachel; Mooney, Larissa; Dickerson, Daniel; Ang, Alfonso; Dolezal, Brett; Cooper, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper reports data from a study designed to determine the impact of an 8-week exercise program on depression and anxiety symptoms among newly abstinent methamphetamine (MA)-dependent individuals in residential treatment. Methods One hundred thirty-five MA-dependent individuals, newly enrolled in residential treatment, were randomly assigned to receive either a 3-times-per-week, 60-minute structured exercise program for 8 weeks (24 sessions) or an equivalent number of health education sessions. Using mixed-modeling repeated-measures regression, we examined changes in weekly total depression and anxiety scores as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory over the 8-week study period. Results Mean age of participants was 31.7 (SD = 6.9); 70.4% were male and 48% Latino. Analyses indicate a significant effect of exercise on reducing depression (β = −0.63, P = 0.001) and anxiety (β = −0.95, P = 0.001) symptoms (total scores) over the 8-week period compared to a health education control group. A significant dose interaction effect between session attendance and exercise was found as well on reducing depression (β = −0.61, P < 0.001) and anxiety symptoms (β = −0.22, P = 0.009) over time compared to the control group. Conclusions Results support the role of a structured exercise program as an effective intervention for improving symptoms of depression and anxiety associated with MA abstinence. PMID:25934458

  11. Exercise Training, Lymphocyte Subsets and Their Cytokines Production: Experience of an Italian Professional Football Team and Their Impact on Allergy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. In recent years, numerous articles have attempted to shed light on our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced immunologic changes and their impact on allergy and asthma. It is known that lymphocyte subclasses, cytokines, and chemokines show modifications after exercise, but outcomes can be affected by the type of exercise as well as by its intensity and duration. Interesting data have been presented in many recent studies on mouse models, but few studies on humans have been performed to check the long-term effects of exercise over a whole championship season. Methods. This study evaluated lymphocyte subsets and their intracellular IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production in professional football (soccer) players, at three stages of the season, to evaluate if alterations occur, particularly in relation to their allergic status. Results and Conclusion. Despite significant mid-season alterations, no significant lymphocyte subclasses count modifications, except for NKs that were significantly higher, were observed at the end. IL-2 and IL-4 producing cells showed a significant decrease (P = 0.018 and P = 0.001, but in a steady fashion for IL-4), confirming the murine data about the potential beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for allergic asthma. PMID:25050349

  12. Impact of Metformin on Exercise-Induced Metabolic Adaptations to Lower Type 2 Diabetes Risk.

    PubMed

    Malin, Steven K; Braun, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Combining metformin with exercise has been proposed to improve glucose homeostasis. However, we primarily discuss evidence suggesting that metformin and other pharmacological agents/dietary supplements (e.g., statins, resveratol, or antioxidants) may in fact oppose exercise-induced benefits on insulin sensitivity and cardiometabolic health. We explore the novel hypothesis that attenuation of oxidative stress from exercise by these exogenous compounds blunts metabolic adaptation. PMID:26583801

  13. Exercise and bone mass in adults.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Fuentes, Teresa; Guerra, Borja; Calbet, Jose A L

    2009-01-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that exercise prior to the pubertal growth spurt stimulates bone growth and skeletal muscle hypertrophy to a greater degree than observed during growth in non-physically active children. Bone mass can be increased by some exercise programmes in adults and the elderly, and attenuate the losses in bone mass associated with aging. This review provides an overview of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies performed to date involving training and bone measurements. Cross-sectional studies show in general that exercise modalities requiring high forces and/or generating high impacts have the greatest osteogenic potential. Several training methods have been used to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and content in prospective studies. Not all exercise modalities have shown positive effects on bone mass. For example, unloaded exercise such as swimming has no impact on bone mass, while walking or running has limited positive effects. It is not clear which training method is superior for bone stimulation in adults, although scientific evidence points to a combination of high-impact (i.e. jumping) and weight-lifting exercises. Exercise involving high impacts, even a relatively small amount, appears to be the most efficient for enhancing bone mass, except in postmenopausal women. Several types of resistance exercise have been tested also with positive results, especially when the intensity of the exercise is high and the speed of movement elevated. A handful of other studies have reported little or no effect on bone density. However, these results may be partially attributable to the study design, intensity and duration of the exercise protocol, and the bone density measurement techniques used. Studies performed in older adults show only mild increases, maintenance or just attenuation of BMD losses in postmenopausal women, but net changes in BMD relative to control subjects who are losing bone mass are beneficial in

  14. Exercise and bone mass in adults.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Fuentes, Teresa; Guerra, Borja; Calbet, Jose A L

    2009-01-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that exercise prior to the pubertal growth spurt stimulates bone growth and skeletal muscle hypertrophy to a greater degree than observed during growth in non-physically active children. Bone mass can be increased by some exercise programmes in adults and the elderly, and attenuate the losses in bone mass associated with aging. This review provides an overview of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies performed to date involving training and bone measurements. Cross-sectional studies show in general that exercise modalities requiring high forces and/or generating high impacts have the greatest osteogenic potential. Several training methods have been used to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and content in prospective studies. Not all exercise modalities have shown positive effects on bone mass. For example, unloaded exercise such as swimming has no impact on bone mass, while walking or running has limited positive effects. It is not clear which training method is superior for bone stimulation in adults, although scientific evidence points to a combination of high-impact (i.e. jumping) and weight-lifting exercises. Exercise involving high impacts, even a relatively small amount, appears to be the most efficient for enhancing bone mass, except in postmenopausal women. Several types of resistance exercise have been tested also with positive results, especially when the intensity of the exercise is high and the speed of movement elevated. A handful of other studies have reported little or no effect on bone density. However, these results may be partially attributable to the study design, intensity and duration of the exercise protocol, and the bone density measurement techniques used. Studies performed in older adults show only mild increases, maintenance or just attenuation of BMD losses in postmenopausal women, but net changes in BMD relative to control subjects who are losing bone mass are beneficial in

  15. The impact of exercise on body composition and nutritional intake in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Oka, Roberta K; Sanders, Mark G

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of heart failure patients and the potential synergistic effects between nutritional intake and exercise. This small, randomized trial examined the effects of a 3-month exercise program on body composition and nutritional intake in 31 men (17 exercisers; 14 controls), aged 30-76 years (mean, 56 years) with stable class II-III heart failure. Baseline and 3-month evaluations included body mass index, body fat mass by triceps skinfold thickness, dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire, and the 6-minute walk test. Exercise consisted of walking 3 d/wk and resistance exercises 2 d/wk for 40-60 minutes. Dietary recommendations were consistent with the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology heart failure guidelines. Exercisers decreased body weight (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.0001), and triceps skinfold thickness (p=0.03) and improved 6-minute walk test (p=0.01) compared with controls. Exercisers also demonstrated trends toward decreased total caloric and cholesterol intake and a three-fold higher carbohydrate, fiber, and beta carotene intake vs. controls. In this study population, protein, fiber, and magnesium intake were below recommended daily allowance. After exercise, body mass index was reduced, accompanied by dietary modifications including greater intake of foods with higher moisture content. Further study is needed to investigate the interaction among diet, exercise, and weight.

  16. Acute Aerobic Exercise Impacts Selective Attention: An Exceptional Boost in Lower-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…

  17. A comparison of the impacts of continuous and interval cycle exercise on perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Greeley, Samuel J; Ferron, John M

    2016-01-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were developed to assess exertion during exercise testing. However, assessments of RPE prior to and after exercise have become common and potentially important in understanding exercise behaviour. The purpose of this project was to compare RPE taken before, during and after interval and continuous exercise sessions. Twenty-four participants (12 men, 12 women, body mass index = 24, VO2peak = 41 mL · kg · min(-1)) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test used to prescribe experimental trials: (1) moderate continuous (MC), (2) vigorous continuous (VC), (3) vigorous interval and (4) severe interval. All trials were 20 minutes in length and all intervals utilised 60-second segments and a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. Predicted exertion was highest in the continuous vigorous trial (p < .05). Exertion increased from beginning to end in all trials (p < .05). Session RPE values were highest for the continuous vigorous trial (p < .05). Findings suggest that interval protocols produce perceptions of effort that are lower than VC exercise but similar to MC exercise. These results help describe the perceptions of effort associated with continuous and interval exercise and suggest that interval exercise can be performed with lower perceived work, which may encourage increased participation.

  18. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being.

  19. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. PMID:24944133

  20. Impact of glutamine supplementation on glucose homeostasis during and after exercise.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Soh; Williams, Phillip; Jabbour, Kareem; Ueda, Takeo; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Baier, Shawn; Flakoll, Paul J

    2005-11-01

    The interaction of glutamine availability and glucose homeostasis during and after exercise was investigated, measuring whole body glucose kinetics with [3-3H]glucose and net organ balances of glucose and amino acids (AA) during basal, exercise, and postexercise hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp periods in six multicatheterized dogs. Dogs were studied twice in random treatment order: once with glutamine (12 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1); Gln) and once with saline (Con) infused intravenously during and after exercise. Plasma glucose fell by 7 mg/dl with exercise in Con (P < 0.05), but it did not fall with Gln. Gln further stimulated whole body glucose production and utilization an additional 24% above a normal exercise response (P < 0.05). Net hepatic uptake of glutamine and alanine was greater with Gln than Con during exercise (P < 0.05). Net hepatic glucose output was increased sevenfold during exercise with Gln (P < 0.05) but not with Con. Net hindlimb glucose uptake was increased similarly during exercise in both groups (P < 0.05). During the postexercise hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic period, glucose production decreased to near zero with Con, but it did not decrease below basal levels with Gln. Gln increased glucose utilization by 16% compared with Con after exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, net hindlimb glucose uptake in the postexercise period was increased approximately twofold vs. basal with Gln (P < 0.05) but not with Con. Net hepatic uptake of glutamine during the postexercise period was threefold greater for Gln than Con (P < 0.05). In conclusion, glutamine availability modulates glucose homeostasis during and after exercise, which may have implications for postexercise recovery. PMID:16037406

  1. The impact of age on cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Braz, Igor D; Fisher, James P

    2016-08-15

    Age is one of the most important risk factors for dementia and stroke. Examination of the cerebral circulatory responses to acute exercise in the elderly may help to pinpoint the mechanisms by which exercise training can reduce the risk of brain diseases, inform the optimization of exercise training programmes and assist with the identification of age-related alterations in cerebral vascular function. During low-to-moderate intensity dynamic exercise, enhanced neuronal activity is accompanied by cerebral perfusion increases of ∼10-30%. Beyond ∼60-70% maximal oxygen uptake, cerebral metabolism remains elevated but perfusion in the anterior portion of the circulation returns towards baseline, substantively because of a hyperventilation-mediated reduction in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (P aC O2) and cerebral vasoconstriction. Cerebral perfusion is lower in older individuals, both at rest and during incremental dynamic exercise. Nevertheless, the increase in the estimated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen and the arterial-internal jugular venous differences for glucose and lactate are similar in young and older individuals exercising at the same relative exercise intensities. Correction for the age-related reduction in P aC O2 during exercise by the provision of supplementary CO2 is suggested to remove ∼50% of the difference in cerebral perfusion between young and older individuals. A multitude of candidates could account for the remaining difference, including cerebral atrophy, and enhanced vasoconstrictor and blunted vasodilatory pathways. In summary, age-related reductions in cerebral perfusion during exercise are partly associated with a lower P aC O2 in exercising older individuals; nevertheless the cerebral extraction of glucose, lactate and oxygen appear to be preserved. PMID:26435295

  2. Impact of Leucine Supplementation on Exercise Training Induced Anti-Cardiac Remodeling Effect in Heart Failure Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Melara, Thaís Plasti; de Souza, Pamella Ramona Moraes; de Salvi Guimarães, Fabiana; Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Leucine supplementation potentiates the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on skeletal muscle; however, its potential effects associated with AET on cardiac muscle have not been clarified yet. We tested whether leucine supplementation would potentiate the anti-cardiac remodeling effect of AET in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice (α2A/α2CARKO). Mice were assigned to five groups: wild type mice treated with placebo and sedentary (WT, n = 11), α2A/α2CARKO treated with placebo and sedentary (KO, n = 9), α2A/α2CARKO treated with leucine and sedentary (KOL, n = 11), α2A/α2CARKO treated with placebo and AET (KOT, n = 12) or α2A/α2CARKO treated with leucine and AET (KOLT, n = 12). AET consisted of four weeks on a treadmill with 60 min sessions (six days/week, 60% of maximal speed) and administration by gavage of leucine (1.35 g/kg/day) or placebo (distilled water). The AET significantly improved exercise capacity, fractional shortening and re-established cardiomyocytes’ diameter and collagen fraction in KOT. Additionally, AET significantly prevented the proteasome hyperactivity, increased misfolded proteins and HSP27 expression. Isolated leucine supplementation displayed no effect on cardiac function and structure (KOL), however, when associated with AET (KOLT), it increased exercise tolerance to a higher degree than isolated AET (KOT) despite no additional effects on AET induced anti-cardiac remodeling. Our results provide evidence for the modest impact of leucine supplementation on cardiac structure and function in exercised heart failure mice. Leucine supplementation potentiated AET effects on exercise tolerance, which might be related to its recognized impact on skeletal muscle. PMID:25988767

  3. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  4. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance. PMID:27162773

  5. Impact of extreme exercise at high altitude on oxidative stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Quindry, John; Dumke, Charles; Slivka, Dustin; Ruby, Brent

    2016-09-15

    Exercise and oxidative stress research continues to grow as a physiological subdiscipline. The influence of high altitude on exercise and oxidative stress is among the recent topics of intense study in this area. Early findings indicate that exercise at high altitude has an independent influence on free radical generation and the resultant oxidative stress. This review provides a detailed summary of oxidative stress biochemistry as gleaned mainly from studies of humans exercising at high altitude. Understanding of the human response to exercise at altitude is largely derived from field-based research at altitudes above 3000 m in addition to laboratory studies which employ normobaric hypoxia. The implications of oxidative stress incurred during high altitude exercise appear to be a transient increase in oxidative damage followed by redox-sensitive adaptations in multiple tissues. These outcomes are consistent for lowland natives, high altitude acclimated sojourners and highland natives, although the latter group exhibits a more robust adaptive response. To date there is no evidence that altitude-induced oxidative stress is deleterious to normal training or recovery scenarios. Limited evidence suggests that deleterious outcomes related to oxidative stress are limited to instances where individuals are exposed to extreme elevations for extended durations. However, confirmation of this tentative conclusion requires further investigation. More applicably, altitude-induced hypoxia may have an independent influence on redox-sensitive adaptive responses to exercise and exercise recovery. If correct, these findings may hold important implications for athletes, mountaineers, and soldiers working at high altitude. These points are raised within the confines of published research on the topic of oxidative stress during exercise at altitude.

  6. The impact of long-term exercise training on psychological function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hill, R D; Storandt, M; Malley, M

    1993-01-01

    The effect of long-term aerobic training on psychological function was examined in 87 sedentary older adults who engaged in a year-long endurance exercise training program compared with a nonexercising control group. In addition to improved cardiovascular fitness, a positive change in self-reported morale was found for the exercise condition. Of the cognitive functions measured, a significant effect was noted for the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) Logical Memory subtest; however, this effect was caused by a decline in performance from pre- to posttesting in the control group. Long-term exercise training had little, if any, effect on improving cognitive function in this older adult sample.

  7. Amino acid supplementation and impact on immune function in the context of exercise.

    PubMed

    Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Krause, Maurício; Newsholme, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Moderate and chronic bouts of exercise may lead to positive metabolic, molecular, and morphological adaptations, improving health. Although exercise training stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their overall intracellular concentration may not reach damaging levels due to enhancement of antioxidant responses. However, inadequate exercise training (i.e., single bout of high-intensity or excessive exercise) may result in oxidative stress, muscle fatigue and muscle injury. Moreover, during the recovery period, impaired immunity has been reported, for example; excessive-inflammation and compensatory immunosuppression. Nutritional supplements, sometimes referred to as immuno-nutrients, may be required to reduce immunosuppression and excessive inflammation. Herein, we discuss the action and the possible targets of key immuno-nutrients such as L-glutamine, L-arginine, branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and whey protein. PMID:25530736

  8. A Comparative Study Evaluating the Impact of Physical Exercise on Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Cyna, Ewelina; Xhima, Kristiana; Aubert, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Evidence suggests that physical exercise can serve as a preventive strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, much less is known about the impact of exercise when it is introduced after cognitive deficits are established. Using the TgCRND8 mouse model of amyloidosis, we compared the effects of exercise as an intervention strategy aimed at altering disease progression. Voluntary running for 1 month or 2 months was introduced in 3-month-old TgCRND8 mice, which exhibit amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque pathology and cognitive deficits at this age. Specifically, we examined Aβ plaque load, spatial memory, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. After 1 month of running, TgCRND8 mice spent more time in the novel arm of the Y-maze compared to the familiar arms, indicating improved memory. The levels of doublecortin (a marker of immature neurons) were increased in TgCRND8 mice running for 1 month, but with no significant difference in the number of new mature neurons or plaque burden. As the disease progressed, running prevented further deficits in the Y-maze performance and hippocampal neurogenesis and it reduced plaque load pathology in TgCRND8 mice running for 2 months, compared to non-running transgenics. Therefore, the impact of running on memory, neurogenesis, and amyloid pathology was of greater significance when sustained through later stages of the disease. PMID:27163797

  9. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Impact of a Web-based Gratitude Exercise among Individuals in Outpatient Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Mannella, Kristin A.; Hassett, Afton L.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Cranford, James A.; Brower, Kirk J.; Higgins, Margaret M.; Meyer, Piper S.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a web-based gratitude exercise (the ‘Three Good Things’ exercise (TGT)) among 23 adults in outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants were randomized to TGT or a placebo condition. The intervention was feasible with high rates of completion. Participants found TGT acceptable and welcomed the structure of daily emails; however, they found it difficult at times and discontinued TGT when the study ended. Participants associated TGT with gratitude, although there were no observed changes in grateful disposition over time. TGT had a significant effect on decreasing negative affect and increasing unactivated (e.g., feeling calm, at ease) positive affect, although there were no differences between groups at the 8 week follow up. Qualitative results converged on quantitative findings that TGT was convenient, feasible, and acceptable, and additionally suggested that TGT was beneficial for engendering positive cognitions and reinforcing recovery. PMID:27076837

  10. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  11. Impact of exercise training on oxidative stress in individuals with a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    van Duijnhoven, Noortje; Hesse, Evelyne; Janssen, Thomas; Wodzig, Will; Scheffer, Peter; Hopman, Maria

    2010-08-01

    Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have an increased cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that (anti)oxidative imbalance is associated with the increased cardiovascular risk in SCI, while exercise can reverse this status. The aim of the study is to compare baseline levels of oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity between individuals with SCI and able-bodied (AB) subjects, and to assess acute and long-term effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity in SCI. Venous blood was taken from subjects with an SCI (n = 9) and age- and gender-matched AB subjects (n = 9) to examine oxidative stress through malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme levels represented anti-oxidative capacity. Subsequently, subjects with an SCI performed an 8-week FES exercise training period. Blood was taken before and after the first exercise bout and after the last FES session to examine the acute and chronic effect of FES exercise, respectively. Baseline levels of MDA, SOD and GPx were not different between individuals with SCI and AB subjects. SCI demonstrated a correlation between initial fitness level and MDA (R = -0.83, P = 0.05). MDA, SOD and GPx levels were neither altered by a single FES exercise bout nor by 8 weeks FES training. In conclusion, although individuals with an SCI demonstrate a preserved (anti)oxidative status, the correlation between fitness level and (anti)oxidative balance suggests that higher fitness levels are related to improved (anti)oxidative status in SCI. Nonetheless, the FES exercise stimulus was insufficient to acutely or chronically change (anti)oxidative status in individuals with an SCI.

  12. Enjoyment of exercise moderates the impact of a school-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise and physical activity participation at baseline, mid-way through the intervention, and at the end of the 9-month intervention period. At all three time points, participants also underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) and body composition (percent body fat). Repeated measures analysis of variance examined the relationship of baseline enjoyment to change in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, body composition and enjoyment of exercise. Results A significant three-way interaction between time, baseline enjoyment, and group assignment (p < .01) showed that baseline enjoyment moderated the effect of the intervention on vigorous activity. Within the intervention group, girls with low enjoyment of exercise at baseline increased vigorous activity from pre-to post-intervention, and girls with high baseline enjoyment of exercise showed no pre-post change in vigorous activity. No differences emerged in the comparison group between low-and high-enjoyment girls. Conclusion Adolescent girls responded differently to a physical activity promotion intervention depending on their baseline levels of exercise enjoyment. Girls with low enjoyment of exercise may benefit most from a physical-education based intervention to increase physical activity that targets identified barriers to physical activity among low-active adolescent girls. PMID:21689396

  13. Impact of cocoa flavanol consumption on blood pressure responsiveness to exercise.

    PubMed

    Berry, Narelle M; Davison, Kade; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

    2010-05-01

    Impaired endothelial vasodilatation may contribute to the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) responses to exercise in individuals who are overweight/obese. The present study investigated whether consumption of cocoa flavanols, which improve endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), can modify BP responsiveness to exercise. Twenty-one volunteers (eight females and thirteen males, 54.9 (se 2.2) years, BMI 31.6 (se 0.8) kg/m2, systolic BP 134 (se 2) mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) 87 (se 2) mmHg) were randomised to consume single servings of either a high-flavanol (HF, 701 mg) or a low-flavanol (LF, 22 mg) cocoa beverage in a double-blind, cross-over design with 3-7-d washout between treatments. Two hours after cocoa consumption, FMD was measured, followed by continuous beat-to-beat assessment (Finapres) of BP before and during 10 min of cycling at 75 % of age-predicted maximum heart rate. Averaged data from two assessments on each type of beverage were compared by analysis of covariance using pre-exercise BP as the covariate. Pre-exercise BP was similar after taking LF and HF (153 (se 3)/88 (se 3) v. 153 (se 4)/87 (se 2) mmHg, respectively, P>0.05). However, the BP response to exercise (area under BP curve) was attenuated by HF compared with LF. BP increases were 68 % lower for DBP (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower for mean BP (P = 0.05). FMD measurements were higher after taking HF than after taking LF (6.1 (se 0.6) % v. 3.4 (se 0.5) %, P < 0.001). By facilitating vasodilation and attenuating exercise-induced increases in BP, cocoa flavanols may decrease cardiovascular risk and enhance the cardiovascular benefits of moderate intensity exercise in at-risk individuals.

  14. Impact of ischemic preconditioning on functional sympatholysis during handgrip exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2015-02-01

    Repeated bouts of ischemia followed by reperfusion, known as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), is found to improve exercise performance. As redistribution of blood from the inactive areas to active skeletal muscles during exercise (i.e., functional sympatholysis) is important for exercise performance, we examined the hypothesis that IPC improves functional sympatholysis in healthy, young humans. In a randomized study, 15 healthy young men performed a 10-min resting period, dynamic handgrip exercise at 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and 25% MVC. This protocol was preceded by IPC (IPC; 4 × 5-min 220-mmHg unilateral occlusion) or a sham intervention (CON; 4 × 5-min 20-mmHg unilateral occlusion). Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to assess changes in oxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin in skeletal muscle (HbO2 + MbO2) in response to sympathetic activation (via cold pressor test (CPT)) at baseline and during handgrip exercise (at 10% and 25%). In resting conditions, HbO2 + MbO2 significantly decreased during CPT (-11.0 ± 1.0%), which was significantly larger during the IPC-trial (-13.8 ± 1.2%, P = 0.006). During handgrip exercise at 10% MVC, changes in HbO2 + MbO2 in response to the CPT were blunted after IPC (-8.8 ± 1.5%) and CON (-8.3 ± 0.4%, P = 0.593). During handgrip exercise at 25% MVC, HbO2 + MbO2 in response to the CPT increased (2.0 ± 0.4%), whereas this response was significantly larger when preceded by IPC (4.2 ± 0.6%, P = 0.027). Collectively, these results indicate that IPC-induced different vascular changes at rest and during moderate exercise in response to sympathetic activation. This suggests that, in healthy volunteers, exposure to IPC may alter tissue oxygenation during sympathetic stimulation at rest and during exercise.

  15. Diagnostic impact of thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy when the exercise ECG is strongly positive

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitman, B.R.; Brevers, G.; Dupras, G.; Lesperance, J.; Bourassa, M.G.

    1984-08-01

    We studied 83 men, who had a chest pain syndrome, no prior history of myocardial infarction, and exercise-induced horizontal or downsloping ST segment depression greater than or equal to 0.2 mV. The 38 patients unable to complete Bruce stage II had a significant increased risk of coronary (0.97 vs 0.71) and multivessel (0.88 vs 0.61) disease (p less than 0.01) compared to the pretest risk; data obtained from exercise-reperfusion thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy did not alter the risk of coronary or multivessel disease. The 45 patients who had ST depression greater than or equal to 0.2 mV and a peak work capacity greater than or equal to Bruce stage III did not have a significant increased risk of coronary (0.76) or multivessel disease (0.44). When both exercise-reperfusion thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy were abnormal in this latter patient subgroup, the post-test risk of multivessel disease was increased from 0.44 to 0.82 (p less than 0.03); when both tests were normal, none of the patients had multivessel disease (p less than 0.03) and only 0.18 had coronary artery disease. Thus, cardiac fluoroscopy and exercise thallium scintigraphy increase the diagnostic content of the strongly positive exercise ECG, particularly in men who have a peak work capacity greater than or equal to Bruce stage III.

  16. Limitations to exercise in female centenarians: evidence that muscular efficiency tempers the impact of failing lungs.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Massimo; Schena, Federico; Scarsini, Renato; Muti, Ettore; Richardson, Russell S

    2013-06-01

    Centenarians are an outstanding model of successful aging, with genetics and healthy lifestyle certainly being key factors responsible for their longevity. Exercise capacity has been identified to play an important role in healthy aging, but a comprehensive assessment of the limitations to maximal exercise in this population is lacking. Following, health histories, lung function, and anthropometric measures, eight female centenarians (98-102 years old) and eight young females (18-22 years old) performed a series of graded maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer that facilitated absolute and relative work rate comparisons. Centenarians revealed a dramatically attenuated lung function, as measured by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), 55 ± 10%) compared to the young (FEV1/FVC, 77 ± 5%). During exercise, although the centenarians relied heavily on respiratory rate which yielded ~50% higher dead space/tidal volume, minute ventilation was similar to that of the young at all but maximal exercise, and alveolar PO2 was maintained in both groups. In contrast, peak WR and VO2 were significantly reduced in the centenarians (33 ± 4 vs 179 ± 24 W; 7.5 ± 1.2 vs 39.6 ± 3.5 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Arterial PO2 of the centenarians fell steadily from the normal range of both groups to yield a large A-a gradient (57 ± 6 mmHg). Metabolic cost of a given absolute work rate was consistently lower, ~46% less than the young at maximal effort. Centenarians have significant limitations to gas exchange across the lungs during exercise, but this limited oxygen transport is tempered by improved skeletal muscle mechanical efficiency that may play a vital role in maintaining physical function and therefore longevity in this population.

  17. Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Nathan A.

    2013-10-01

    Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.

  18. 76 FR 59664 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement For Divert Activities and Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commomwealth of The Northern Mariana Islands AGENCY: Headquarters Pacific... Divert Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The proposed divert activities and exercises would involve airfield improvements designed to provide additional...

  19. Impact of Short and Moderate Rest Intervals on the Acute Immunometabolic Response to Exhaustive Strength Exercise: Part II.

    PubMed

    Gerosa-Neto, Jose; Rossi, Fabrício E; Campos, Eduardo Z; Antunes, Barbara M M; Cholewa, Jason M; Lira, Fabio S

    2016-06-01

    Gerosa-Neto, J, Rossi, FE, Campos, EZ, Antunes, BMM, Cholewa, JM, and Lira, FS. Impact of short and moderate rest intervals on the acute immunometabolic response to exhaustive strength exercise: Part II. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1570-1576, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of short and moderate recovery intervals during heavy strength exercise on performance, inflammatory, and metabolic responses in recreational weightlifters. Eight healthy subjects (age = 24.6 ± 4.1 years) performed 2 randomized sequences with different rest intervals: short = 90% of 1RM and 30 seconds rest allowed between sets; moderate = 90% of 1RM and 90 seconds rest allowed between sets. All sequences of exercises were performed over 4 sets until movement failure in the squat and bench press exercises, respectively. Glucose, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-10/TNF-α ratio, and nonester fatty acid concentrations were assessed at the baseline, immediately postexercise, post-15 and post-30 minutes. We observed a statistically significant decrease after 30 seconds on maximum number of repetitions (p = 0.003) and total weight lifted (p = 0.006) after the bench press, and there was a marginal decrease in the squat (p = 0.055). The glucose concentrations showed a significant increase post-15 minutes in the 30-second condition (pre-exercise = 86.1 ± 9.1, immediately = 85.3 ± 8.2, post-15 = 97.0 ± 9.0, post-30 = 87.1 ± 5.3 mg/dl; p = 0.015); on the other hand, IL-10 increased post-30 minutes in the 90-second condition (pre-exercise = 18.2 ± 12.7, immediately = 16.4 ± 10.7, post-15 = 16.8 ± 12.2, post-30 = 35.0 ± 13.1 pg/ml; p < 0.001). In addition, the 90-second condition showed anti-inflammatory effects (as indicated by IL-10/TNF-α ratio: pre-exercise = 1.08 ± 1.32, immediately = 1.23 ± 1.20, post-15 = 1.15 ± 1.14, post-30 = 2.48 ± 2.07; p = 0.020) compared with the 30-second condition (pre-exercise = 1.30 ± 2.04, immediately = 0.99 ± 1.27, post-15 = 1.23 ± 1

  20. Long-term voluntary exercise and the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis: impact of concurrent treatment with the antidepressant drug tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Droste, S K; Schweizer, M C; Ulbricht, S; Reul, J M H M

    2006-12-01

    exercise impacts substantially on HPA axis regulation. Concurrent tianeptine treatment results in synergistic actions, mainly at the adrenal level, affecting both its structure and function.

  1. Active Learning within a Lecture: Assessing the Impact of Short, In-Class Writing Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam; Phillmann, Kayah-Bah; Smart, Lona

    2001-01-01

    Describes an exercise named CARDS that was used in two sections of an introduction to psychology course. After a concept was presented in lecture, students were asked to respond to a question written on an index card and discuss their answers in groups. Presents the results of the assessment of student learning. (CMK)

  2. An Evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and Impact on Moderate Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…

  3. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress: Cellular Mechanisms and Impact on Muscle Force Production

    PubMed Central

    POWERS, SCOTT K.; JACKSON, MALCOLM J.

    2010-01-01

    The first suggestion that physical exercise results in free radical-mediated damage to tissues appeared in 1978, and the past three decades have resulted in a large growth of knowledge regarding exercise and oxidative stress. Although the sources of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, it is now well established that both resting and contracting skeletal muscles produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Importantly, intense and prolonged exercise can result in oxidative damage to both proteins and lipids in the contracting myocytes. Furthermore, oxidants can modulate a number of cell signaling pathways and regulate the expression of multiple genes in eukaryotic cells. This oxidant-mediated change in gene expression involves changes at transcriptional, mRNA stability, and signal transduction levels. Furthermore, numerous products associated with oxidant-modulated genes have been identified and include antioxidant enzymes, stress proteins, DNA repair proteins, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species promote contractile dysfunction resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to probe the mechanisms by which oxidants influence skeletal muscle contractile properties and to explore interventions capable of protecting muscle from oxidant-mediated dysfunction. PMID:18923182

  4. The Impact of Continuous and Interval Cycle Exercise on Affect and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Greeley, Samuel J.; Collins, Larry H.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of physical activity remain low despite public health efforts. One form of physical activity that provides significant physiological benefit but has not been evaluated in terms of affective and enjoyment responses is interval exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare affect and enjoyment assessed before, during, and after…

  5. Working Out the Woes: An Analysis of the Impact of Exercise on Depression.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Steven Tate; Dorris, Maggie; Littles, Matrice; Rodriguez, Tanya; Spear, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine existing research to determine whether exercise has a significant effect on improving emotional well-being and symptoms of depression. At any given time, it is estimated that greater than 15% of Americans are plagued by a depressive mood disorder. Plastic surgical nurses will encounter individuals with symptoms of depression who seek elective plastic surgical and cosmetic procedures. With a broad spectrum of symptoms and presentations, both practitioners and those suffering may have difficulty identifying depression. Even after being identified, it can be quite challenging to effectively treat depressive mood disorders. The integration of exercise into the plan of care not only helps tackle one's mental health condition but also benefits any physical health concerns. The plastic surgical nurse can advocate for evidence-based practices and educate the plastic surgical patient on the benefits of physical exercise. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective amount and types of exercise to be used in clinical settings. PMID:26605819

  6. Metabolic responses and mechanisms during water immersion running and exercise.

    PubMed

    Frangolias, D D; Rhodes, E C

    1996-07-01

    The low impact nature of exercise in the water has increased interest in this form of exercise and specifically in water running as a cross-training modality. It is used as a possible preventative and therapeutic modality for rehabilitation. The high impact nature of land running predisposes the runner to stress of the lower limbs and overuse injuries. The need to reduce impact, as well as provide a low impact or non-weight-bearing condition for rehabilitation, has led runners and their coaches to the water. This increased interest by coaches and their athletes, attending sports medicine physicians and rehabilitative professionals has stimulated research into water immersion to the neck (WI) running. Exercise in the water has long been used by rehabilitative professionals with patients who have physically debilitating conditions (i.e. arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders) as it provides a medium for even those with limited mobility to exercise and relax their muscles. Numerous comparative studies into WI running from a metabolic as well as a training perspective have been published. WI has also long been used to simulate weightlessness for the comparative study of cardiorespiratory function and thermoregulation. WI and the associated cephalad shift in blood volume has implications on exercise responses during WI running exercise. In addition, the non-weight-bearing nature of WI running also raises issues of the cross-training benefits of WI running. WI running style and prior familiarity with the activity have been found to have a direct relationship with the comparability of WI to land running. This review presents current research into WI running, training specificity and comparative physiology.

  7. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Paulseth, John E.; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P.; Hicks, Audrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0–8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS. PMID:27803637

  8. Impact of skin temperature and hydration on plasma volume responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Sollanek, Kurt J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-08-15

    Heat stress and hydration may both alter plasma volume (PV) responses during acute exercise; potential interactions have not been fully studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded elevations in skin temperature (Tsk) on PV changes during steady-state exercise under conditions of euhydration (EU) and hypohydration (HYPO, -4% of body mass). Thirty-two men (22 ± 4 yr) were divided into four cohorts (n = 8 each) and completed EU and HYPO trials in one environment [ambient temperature (Ta) 10, 20, 30, and 40°C]. Thirty minutes of cycle ergometry (50% V̇o2peak) was performed. Core (Tre) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured; changes in PV, total circulating protein (TCP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated; and skin blood flow (SkBF) was estimated. Hypohydration decreased (P < 0.05) PV by 200 ml (-5.7%) but did not alter TCP. Plasma loss was not different between EU and HYPO during exercise at any Ta. Plasma losses were greater (P < 0.05) with elevated Ta with an average -130, -174, -294, and -445 ml losses during the 10, 20, 30, and 40°C trials, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations (r = 0.50 to 0.84) were found between ΔTCP and ΔPV during exercise when Tsk was cool/warm (<33°C; Ta 10, 20, and 30°C), but not at 40°C (high Tsk). We conclude that 1) graded skin warming proportionally accentuated plasma loss; 2) plasma loss was associated with plasma protein efflux at lower Tsk and SkBF; 3) at high Tsk, additional plasma loss likely results from increased net filtration at the capillaries; and 4) HYPO did not alter vascular fluid loss during exercise in any environment. PMID:24994888

  9. Impact of skin temperature and hydration on plasma volume responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Sollanek, Kurt J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-08-15

    Heat stress and hydration may both alter plasma volume (PV) responses during acute exercise; potential interactions have not been fully studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded elevations in skin temperature (Tsk) on PV changes during steady-state exercise under conditions of euhydration (EU) and hypohydration (HYPO, -4% of body mass). Thirty-two men (22 ± 4 yr) were divided into four cohorts (n = 8 each) and completed EU and HYPO trials in one environment [ambient temperature (Ta) 10, 20, 30, and 40°C]. Thirty minutes of cycle ergometry (50% V̇o2peak) was performed. Core (Tre) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured; changes in PV, total circulating protein (TCP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated; and skin blood flow (SkBF) was estimated. Hypohydration decreased (P < 0.05) PV by 200 ml (-5.7%) but did not alter TCP. Plasma loss was not different between EU and HYPO during exercise at any Ta. Plasma losses were greater (P < 0.05) with elevated Ta with an average -130, -174, -294, and -445 ml losses during the 10, 20, 30, and 40°C trials, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations (r = 0.50 to 0.84) were found between ΔTCP and ΔPV during exercise when Tsk was cool/warm (<33°C; Ta 10, 20, and 30°C), but not at 40°C (high Tsk). We conclude that 1) graded skin warming proportionally accentuated plasma loss; 2) plasma loss was associated with plasma protein efflux at lower Tsk and SkBF; 3) at high Tsk, additional plasma loss likely results from increased net filtration at the capillaries; and 4) HYPO did not alter vascular fluid loss during exercise in any environment.

  10. Multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures for improving the modal modeling of structures using test data and to determine appropriate analytical models based on substructure experimental data were explored. Two related research topics were considered in modal modeling: using several independently acquired columns of frequency response data, and modal modeling using simultaneous multi-point excitation. In component mode synthesis modeling, the emphasis is on determining the best way to employ complex modes and residuals.

  11. Modal testing the EOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.; Benjannet, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the modal test of the 110-m-tall EOLE wind turbine. Modal testing an immense and flexible wind turbine poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of this type of structure are quite low /emdash/ some below 1.0 Hz. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure.

  12. Modal testing the EOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Modal testing an immense and flexible wind turbine poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of this type of structure are quite low. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. In this paper, the results of the modal test of the 110 m tall EOLE wind turbine are presented which had a number of modal frequencies below 1.0 Hz. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Impact of dietary nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice on exercising muscle vascular control in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott K; Hirai, Daniel M; Copp, Steven W; Holdsworth, Clark T; Allen, Jason D; Jones, Andrew M; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2013-01-15

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation, via its reduction to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and subsequent conversion to nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen intermediates, reduces blood pressure and the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise in humans. Despite these observations, the effects of dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation on skeletal muscle vascular control during locomotory exercise remain unknown. We tested the hypotheses that dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR) would reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increase hindlimb muscle blood flow in the exercising rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3-6 months) were administered either NO(3)(-) (via beetroot juice; 1 mmol kg(-1) day(-1), BR n = 8) or untreated (control, n = 11) tap water for 5 days. MAP and hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance (radiolabelled microsphere infusions) were measured during submaximal treadmill running (20 m min(-1), 5% grade). BR resulted in significantly lower exercising MAP (control: 137 ± 3, BR: 127 ± 4 mmHg, P < 0.05) and blood [lactate] (control: 2.6 ± 0.3, BR: 1.9 ± 0.2 mm, P < 0.05) compared to control. Total exercising hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow (control: 108 ± 8, BR: 150 ± 11 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1), P < 0.05) and vascular conductance (control: 0.78 ± 0.05, BR: 1.16 ± 0.10 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1) mmHg(-1), P < 0.05) were greater in rats that received BR compared to control. The relative differences in blood flow and vascular conductance for the 28 individual hindlimb muscles and muscle parts correlated positively with their percentage type IIb + d/x muscle fibres (blood flow: r = 0.74, vascular conductance: r = 0.71, P < 0.01 for both). These data support the hypothesis that NO(3)(-) supplementation improves vascular control and elevates skeletal muscle O(2) delivery during exercise predominantly in fast-twitch type II muscles, and provide a potential mechanism by which NO(3)(-) supplementation improves metabolic control.

  14. Combined impact of exercise and temperature in learning and memory performance of fluoride toxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Sujitha, N S

    2012-12-01

    In previous studies, we investigated a link between high fluoride exposure and functional IQ deficits in rats. This study is an extension conducted to explore the combined influence of physical exercise and temperature stress on the learning ability and memory in rats and to assess whether any positive modulation could be attenuated due to exercise regimen subjected to F-toxicated animals at different temperatures. Accumulation of ingested fluoride resulted significant inhibition in acetylcholinesterase activity (P < 0.05), plasma cortisol levels (P < 0.05), and impaired the acquisition, performance, latency time, and retention in fluoride-exposed animals. Fluoride-toxicated rats took more number of sessions during the learning phase [F (5, 35) = 19.065; P < 0.05] and post hoc analysis on the number of correct choices revealed that there was a significant effect of treatments [F (5, 30) = 15.763; P < 0.05]; sessions [F (8, 240) = 58.698; P < 0.05]; and also significant difference in the interactions [F (40, 240) = 1.583; P < 0.05]. The latency data also revealed a significant difference between groups [F (5, 30) = 28.085; P < 0.05]; time = [F (8, 240) = 136.314; P < 0.05]; and there was a significant difference in the interactions [F (40, 240) = 2.090; P < 0.05]. In order to ascertain if interdependence between fluoride concentrations and the foregoing free radical parameters, respective correlation coefficients were calculated and results clearly emphasize the positive role of exercise in the promotion of cognitive functions by decreasing fluoride levels in rat hippocampus. A significant recovery in cognitive function was noticed in all the exercised animals due to reduced burden of brain oxidative stress. In comparison to exercise regimens performed at different temperatures, high (35 °C) and low temperatures (20 °C) led to a slower acquisition and poor retention of the task when compared to

  15. Endurance, interval sprint, and resistance exercise training: impact on microvascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Laughlin, M Harold

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters capillary hemodynamics, causes capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle, and alters endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, resulting in impaired vasodilatory responses. These changes contribute to altered blood flow responses to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and insulin secretion. T2D-induced microvascular dysfunction impairs glucose and insulin delivery to skeletal muscle (and other tissues such as skin and nervous), thereby reducing glucose uptake and perpetuating hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In patients with T2D, exercise training (EX) improves microvascular vasodilator and insulin signaling and attenuates capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle. EX-induced changes subsequently augment glucose and insulin delivery as well as glucose uptake. If these adaptions occur in a sufficient amount of tissue, and skeletal muscle in particular, chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and the risk of microvascular complications in all vascular beds will decrease. We postulate that EX programs that engage as much skeletal muscle mass as possible and recruit as many muscle fibers within each muscle as possible will generate the greatest improvements in microvascular function, providing that the duration of the stimulus is sufficient. Primary improvements in microvascular function occur in tissues (skeletal muscle primarily) engaged during exercise, and secondary improvements in microvascular function throughout the body may result from improved blood glucose control. We propose that the added benefit of combined resistance and aerobic EX programs and of vigorous intensity EX programs is not simply "more is better." Rather, we believe the additional benefit is the result of EX-induced adaptations in and around more muscle fibers, resulting in more muscle mass and the associated microvasculature being changed. Thus, to acquire primary and secondary improvements in microvascular function and improved

  16. Impact of resistance exercise during bed rest on skeletal muscle sarcopenia and myosin isoform distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamman, M. M.; Clarke, M. S.; Feeback, D. L.; Talmadge, R. J.; Stevens, B. R.; Lieberman, S. A.; Greenisen, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Because resistance exercise (REx) and bed-rest unloading (BRU) are associated with opposing adaptations, our purpose was to test the efficacy of REx against the effects of 14 days of BRU on the knee-extensor muscle group. Sixteen healthy men were randomly assigned to no exercise (NoEx; n = 8) or REx (n = 8). REx performed five sets of leg press exercise with 80-85% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) every other day during BRU. Muscle samples were removed from the vastus lateralis muscle by percutaneous needle biopsy. Myofiber distribution was determined immunohistochemically with three monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (I, IIa, IIx). MHC distribution was further assessed by quantitative gel electrophoresis. Dynamic 1-RM leg press and unilateral maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) were determined. Maximal neural activation (root mean squared electromyogram) and rate of torque development (RTD) were measured during MVC. Reductions (P < 0.05) in type I (15%) and type II (17%) myofiber cross-sectional areas were found in NoEx but not in REx. Electrophoresis revealed no changes in MHC isoform distribution. The percentage of type IIx myofibers decreased (P < 0.05) in REx from 9 to 2% and did not change in NoEx. 1 RM was reduced (P < 0.05) by 9% in NoEx but was unchanged in REx. MVC fell by 15 and 13% in NoEx and REx, respectively. The agonist-to-antagonist root mean squared electromyogram ratio decreased (P < 0.05) 19% in REx. RTD slowed (P < 0.05) by 54% in NoEx only. Results indicate that REx prevented BRU-induced myofiber atrophy and also maintained training-specific strength. Unlike spaceflight, BRU did not induce shifts in myosin phenotype. The reported benefits of REx may prove useful in prescribing exercise for astronauts in microgravity.

  17. Exercise Tiger: assessing the BCM impact of the 2012 Olympics on Canary Wharf.

    PubMed

    Evett, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, collective corporate resilience is studied to see how a culture of sharing information and planning may assist other business communities to prepare for future events. The London 2012 Summer Olympic Games will see huge opportunity for businesses in London, and across Europe, but not without cost. Canary Wharf lies in the heart of London's Docklands and less than three miles from the Olympic Park at Stratford. Purpose-built as a business district, it accommodates a working population of 95,000 people, is home to some of the world's leading brands and has a vibrant retail complex of over 200 shops, bars and restaurants. This business community is preparing for every aspect of the Olympics and, in particular, the disruption the Games will bring. As a private estate, the community resilience approach fostered here is both better defined and finite in terms of those it includes as a result. Preparing together with joint exercises, forums and open communications in a network of trusted partners is yielding collective benefits and lending a stronger voice in the call for more information from official agencies. This paper outlines the benefits of collective planning and reports on the success of Canary Wharf's annual estate-wide business continuity exercise - the first major collective Olympics planning exercise in London.

  18. Exercise Tiger: assessing the BCM impact of the 2012 Olympics on Canary Wharf.

    PubMed

    Evett, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, collective corporate resilience is studied to see how a culture of sharing information and planning may assist other business communities to prepare for future events. The London 2012 Summer Olympic Games will see huge opportunity for businesses in London, and across Europe, but not without cost. Canary Wharf lies in the heart of London's Docklands and less than three miles from the Olympic Park at Stratford. Purpose-built as a business district, it accommodates a working population of 95,000 people, is home to some of the world's leading brands and has a vibrant retail complex of over 200 shops, bars and restaurants. This business community is preparing for every aspect of the Olympics and, in particular, the disruption the Games will bring. As a private estate, the community resilience approach fostered here is both better defined and finite in terms of those it includes as a result. Preparing together with joint exercises, forums and open communications in a network of trusted partners is yielding collective benefits and lending a stronger voice in the call for more information from official agencies. This paper outlines the benefits of collective planning and reports on the success of Canary Wharf's annual estate-wide business continuity exercise - the first major collective Olympics planning exercise in London. PMID:21482513

  19. Roots of Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Aynat

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the interplay of grammar and context in the interpretation of modal words like "ought," "necessary," and "need." The empirical foci of the discussion are patterns in the use of strong and weak necessity modals in conversation, and the interpretation of syntactically and semantically…

  20. Video: Modalities and Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we set out to explore what we describe as the use of video in various modalities. For us, modality is a synthesizing construct that draws together and differentiates between the notion of "video" both as a method and as a methodology. It encompasses the use of the term video as both product and process, and as a data collection…

  1. Impact of Exercise Training in Aerobic Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Children and Adolescents After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; da Silva e Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, (from the earliest date available to January 2015) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity) in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated,, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Eight trials (n = 292) met the study criteria. The results suggested that exercise training compared with control had a positive impact on peak VO2. Exercise training resulted in improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (3.68 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 95 % CI 1.58-5.78). The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity after exercise training was not significant. Exercise training may improve peak VO2 in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery and should be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation. Further larger randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to investigate different types of exercise and its effects on the quality of life.

  2. What is the Impact of Students' Ability to Choose across and within Course Modality (OL or FTF) on Course Completions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosta, James

    2013-01-01

    The participants were college students who attended an accredited private college offering associate, baccalaureate, and graduate degrees in the western United States. The research variables included student choice of modality (either OL or FTF), the covariate was students' GPA. Data were collected from institutional records and analyzed…

  3. Impact of Delivery Modality, Student GPA, and Time-Lapse since High School on Successful Completion of College-Level Math after Taking Developmental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Diane; North, Teresa Lynn; Avella, John

    2016-01-01

    This study considered whether delivery modality, student GPA, or time since high school affected whether 290 students who had completed a developmental math series as a community college were able to successfully complete college-level math. The data used in the study was comprised of a 4-year period historical student data from Odessa College…

  4. Sex alters impact of repeated bouts of sprint exercise on neuromuscular activity in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Smith, Kurt

    2009-08-01

    This study characterized the effect of sex on neuromuscular activity during repeated bouts of sprint exercise. Thirty-three healthy male and female athletes performed twenty 5-s cycle sprints separated by 25 s of rest. Mechanical work and integrated electromyograhs (iEMG) of 4 muscles of the dominant lower limb were calculated in every sprint. The iEMG signals from individual muscles were summed to represent overall electrical activity of these muscles (sum-iEMG). Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of mechanical work and sum-iEMG for every sprint. Arterial oxygen saturation was estimated (SpO2) with pulse oximetry throughout the protocol. The sprint-induced work decrement (18.9% vs. 29.6%; p < 0.05) and sum-iEMG reduction (11.4% vs. 19.4%; p < 0.05) were less for the women than for the men. However, the sprints decreased NME (10.1%; p < 0.05) and SpO2 (3.4%; p < 0.05) without showing sex dimorphism. Changes in SpO2 and sum-iEMG were strongly correlated in both sexes (men, R2 = 0.87; women, R2 = 0.91; all p < 0.05), although the slope of this relationship differed (6.3 +/- 2.9 vs. 3.8 +/- 1.6, respectively; p < 0.05). It is suggested that the sex difference in fatigue during repeated bouts of sprint exercise is not likely to be explained by a difference in muscle contractility impairment in men and women, but may be due to a sex difference in muscle recruitment strategy. We speculate that women would be less sensitive to arterial O2 desaturation than men, which may trigger lower neuromuscular adjustments to exhaustive exercise.

  5. The Impact of a Vestibular-Stimulating Exercise Regime on Postural Stability in People with Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wiszomirska, Ida; Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Błażkiewicz, Michalina; Wit, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a vestibular-stimulating exercise regime on postural stability in individuals with visual impairment. The study group consisted of 70 people, including 28 persons (15 female and 13 male) with visual impairment and 42 (21 female and 21 male) without visual impairment. Each individual in the group with visual impairment was medically qualified for a 3-month training program. The research methodology included medical examination, anthropometric tests, and stabilometry tests on a Biodex Balance System SD (BBS). The tests were conducted twice: once before the start of training and again after 3 months of rehabilitation. The group with visual impairment showed significantly worse postural stability results than the control group for most of the stability parameters evaluated (OSI, APSI, and MLSI). Differences were noted between the groups with and without visual impairment for dynamic tests in women and for static tests in men. After training, the two groups showed roughly similar results for the stabilometry test with eyes closed. We conclude that exercises stimulating the vestibular system with head and body movements should be recommended for individuals with visual impairments to achieve better balance retention. PMID:26583086

  6. Cooling during exercise in temperate conditions: impact on performance and thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Eijsvogels, T M H; Bongers, C C W G; Veltmeijer, M T W; Moen, M H; Hopman, M

    2014-09-01

    Exercise-induced increase in core body temperature may lead to the development of hyperthermia (>40.0°C) and/or decreased performance levels. This study examined the effects of wearing a cooling vest during a 5-km time trial on thermoregulatory responses and performance. 10 male masters athletes (42±10 years) performed a 5-km time trial on a motorized treadmill in a climate chamber (25°C, 55% relative humidity) with and without a cooling vest. Split times, heart rate, core-, skin- and cooling vest temperature were measured every 500 m. Subjects also rated thermal comfort and level of perceived exertion. The cooling vest significantly decreased heart rate (p<0.05), decreased skin temperature (p<0.001) and improved thermal comfort (p<0.005) during the time trial. Time to finish the 5-km time trial and pacing strategy did not differ between the control (1 246±96 s) and cooling vest condition (1 254±98 s, p=0.85). Additionally, thermoregulatory responses, maximum core body temperature and level of perceived exertion were not different across conditions (p=0.85, p=0.49, p=0.11, respectively). In conclusion, we demonstrated that wearing a cooling vest during exercise improves thermal comfort but does not enhance performance or decrease core body temperature in male masters athletes under temperate ambient conditions. PMID:24771132

  7. Impact of anaemia on lung function and exercise capacity in patients with stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian; Zheng, Cong; Xiao, Qiang; Gong, Sugang; Zhao, Qinhua; Wang, Lan; He, Jing; Yang, Wenlan; Shi, Xue; Sun, Xingguo; Liu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study intended to search for potential correlations between anaemia in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; GOLD stage III) and pulmonary function at rest, exercise capacity as well as ventilatory efficiency, using pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Setting The study was undertaken at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, a tertiary-level centre affiliated to Tongji University. It caters to a large population base within Shanghai and referrals from centres in other cities as well. Participants 157 Chinese patients with stable severe COPD were divided into 2 groups: the anaemia group (haemoglobin (Hb) <12.0 g/dL for males, and <11 g/dL for females (n=48)) and the non-anaemia group (n=109). Primary and secondary outcome measures Arterial blood gas, PFT and CPET were tested in all patients. Results (1) Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) corrected by Hb was significantly lower in the anaemia group ((15.3±1.9) mL/min/mm Hg) than in the non-anaemia group ((17.1±2.1) mL/min/mm Hg) (p<0.05). A significant difference did not exist in the level of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1%pred, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), inspiratory capacity (IC), residual volume (RV), total lung capacity (TLC) and RV/TLC (p>0.05). (2) Peak Load, Peak oxygen uptake (), Peak %pred, Peak , Peak pulse and the ratio of increase to WR increase () were significantly lower in the anaemia group (p<0.05); however, Peak minute ventilation (VE), Lowest /carbon dioxide output () and Peak dead space/tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) were similar between the 2 groups (p>0.05). (3) A strong positive correlation was found between Hb concentration and Peak in patients with anaemia (r=0.702, p<0.01). Conclusions Anaemia has a negative impact on gas exchange and exercise tolerance during exercise in patients with severe COPD. The decrease in amplitude of Hb levels is related to the quantity of oxygen uptake

  8. Impact of aerobic exercise on sleep and motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorders – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Serge; Jossen, Stefanie; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased dramatically in the last two decades. In addition to the core symptoms such as impaired communication, difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and stereotypical patterns of behavior and interests, poor sleep and motor skill (MS) deficits have also been observed in children with ASD. On the other hand, there is evidence that aerobic exercise training (AET) has a positive impact on sleep, and that specific training improves MSs. Accordingly, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate to what extent a combination of AET and MS training (MST) would improve sleep and physical performance in a small sample of children with ASD. Methods Ten children with ASD (mean age: 10 years) took part in the study. After a thorough medical examination and psychiatric assessment, children participated in thrice-weekly 60-minute sessions of AET and MST lasting for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep was assessed both objectively (sleep-encephalography [sleep-EEG]) and subjectively (parents’ questionnaire). MSs were assessed via standardized test batteries. Parents completed sleep and mood logs, and ratings of mood. Results Mild-to-moderate insomnia was reported in 70% of children. Compared to nights without previous AET and MS, on nights following AET and MS, sleep efficiency increased (d=1.07), sleep onset latency shortened (d=0.38), and wake time after sleep onset decreased for 63% of the sample (d=1.09), as assessed via sleep-EEG. Mood in the morning, as rated by parents, improved after three weeks (d=0.90), as did MSs (ball playing, balance exercise: ds>0.6). Conclusion The pattern of results of this pilot study suggests that regular AET and MST impact positively on sleep, MSs, and mood among children with ASD. PMID:26346856

  9. Impact of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training on markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Earnest, Conrad P

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise training (ET) enhance overall cardiorespiratory fitness (ie, fitness), thus producing many benefits in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Substantial evidence also indicates that acute and chronic inflammation is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and major cardiovascular events. The most commonly utilized marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). In this review, we discuss the importance of inflammation, especially CRP, as a cardiovascular risk marker by reviewing an abundant cross-sectional and clinical intervention literature providing evidence that physical activity, enhanced fitness, and ET are inversely associated with CRP and that being overweight or obese is directly related with inflammation/CRP. Although we discuss the controversy regarding whether or not ET reduces CRP independent of weight loss, clearly physical activity, improved fitness, and ET are associated with reductions in inflammation and overall cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention.

  10. A Hydrologic Model Calibration Exercise for Regional Climate Change Impact Assessment of the Conterminous U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oubeidillah, A. A.; Kao, S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the hydrological impacts of climate change in the U.S. using projections from multiple general circulation models downscaled by means of regional climate models, statistical methods, and hydrologic models. Most of these studies focused on a small number of local watersheds without consideration to larger-scale regional climate change impacts, or utilized macro-scale hydrologic models with coarser spatial resolution that are insufficient to characterize the delicate surface hydrology. To improve the results of regional hydro-climate impact assessment, there is a need for better spatial coverage as well as resolution of hydrologic models. The main challenge has been the availability of a comprehensive set of higher resolution calibrated physical parameters. Focusing on the need of regional hydro-climate impact assessment, a data-intensive hydrologic model calibration exercise is performed for over 2000 USGS hydrologic Subbasins (HUC8) in the conterminous U.S. at the resolution of 1/24th degree (~4km). Both USGS WaterWatch monthly runoff and NWIS daily gage observation are used to calibrate the baseline variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. Several statistical matrices are used to evaluate the model performance at each HUC8, including the Pearson correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSEC), bias (B) and the percent bias (PB). The overall results show that the physical models simulate closely the observed values with about sixty four percent of the HUC8s having an average NSEC of 0.95 The model performance was vastly better in wet region basins than they were in arid region. The current baseline VIC model can hardly be improved in arid and desert regions (covering about twenty percent of the HUC8s) where the NSEC values are below zero. Overall, the new 4-km model implementation for the conterminous U.S. shows promising improvement over the ones

  11. [Exercise therapy in hip or knee osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Dekker, Joost; Peter, Wilfred; van der Leeden, Marike; Lems, Willem F

    2011-01-01

    "Exercise is medicine": exercise therapy reduces pain and activity limitations in osteoarthritis of the knee and is likely to have the same effects in osteoarthritis of the hip. Further research into exercise therapy is needed, since disease-modifying drugs are not available, pain medication can cause side effects, and surgical interventions are preferably applied in an advanced stage of disease. Classical exercise therapy is aimed at improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity, range of joint motion, and training of walking and activities of daily living. New modalities of targeted exercise therapy are currently being developed, aimed at the correction of low levels of activity and to correct instability of the knee. Weight loss, preferably combined with exercise therapy, reduces pain and activity limitations in osteoarthritis patients who are overweight. Modalities of exercise therapy adapted to comorbid conditions are currently being developed.

  12. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Oliveira, Mônica Longo de; Lirani-Galvão, Ana Paula; Marin-Mio, Rosângela Villa; Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco dos; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, it is not clear yet which modality would be better to stimulate bone metabolism and enhance physical function of postmenopausal women. This review paper aims to summarize and update present knowledge on the effects of different kinds of aquatic and ground physical exercises on bone metabolism and physical function of postmenopausal women. Moderate to intense exercises, performed in a high speed during short intervals of time, in water or on the ground, can be part of a program to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mechanical vibration has proven to be beneficial for bone microarchitecture, improving bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function. Although impact exercises are recognized as beneficial for the stimulation of bone tissue, other variables such as muscle strength, type of muscle contraction, duration and intensity of exercises are also determinants to induce changes in bone metabolism of postmenopausal women. Not only osteoanabolic exercises should be recommended; activities aimed to develop muscle strength and body balance and improve the proprioception should be encouraged to prevent falls and fractures.

  13. Investigating the Impact of Religious Diversity in Schools for Secondary Education: A Challenging but Necessary Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram-Troost, Gerdien D.

    2011-01-01

    Both in academic and public discussions, there is an ongoing debate about the pros and cons of religious diversity in education. Until recently, many arguments used in this debate have not had a strong theoretical basis and often lack empirical underpinning as well. In this paper I go further into the reasons why researching the impact of…

  14. Distribution of beta-endorphin and substance P in the shoulder joint of the dog before and after a low impact exercise programme.

    PubMed

    Karahan, S; Kincaid, S A; Baird, A N; Kammermann, J R

    2002-04-01

    Beta-endorphin and substance P were immunolocalized in the articular cartilage, synovial membrane and fibrous joint capsule of dogs. Twelve adult greyhounds were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, limited exercise, or regimented exercise. On day 0, biopsies of articular cartilage and joint capsule were obtained from the left shoulder joints of dogs receiving limited and regimented exercise. On day 72, biopsies of joint capsule from right and left shoulders and articular cartilage from the right shoulder joint were analysed for the presence of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and for immunolocalization of substance P and beta-endorphin. Regimented exercise increased the presence of GAGs and immunolocalization of substance P and beta-endorphin in articular cartilage and synovial membrane compared to day 0 biopsies and untreated controls. Localization of beta-endorphin became prominent in and around the chondrocytes. Substance P was increased in chondrocytes and extracellular matrix. Concomitant changes in localization of beta-endorphin and substance P may have a role in the modulation of the microphysiological environment, metabolism, or function of joint tissues in response to low-impact exercise. PMID:12047242

  15. Modal testing in the design evaluation of wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Lauffer, J.P.; Carne, T.G.; Ashwill, T.D.

    1988-04-01

    This report reviews several techniques of low-frequency excitation used successfully to measure modal parameters for wind turbines, including impact, wind, step-relaxation, and human input. As one application of these techniques, a prototype turbine was tested and two modal frequencies were found to be close to integral multiples of the operating speed, which caused a resonant condition. The design was modified to shift these frequencies, and the turbine was retested to confirm expected changes in modal frequencies.

  16. Learning Modalities and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Jason G.

    2010-01-01

    Designers, teachers and administrators intuitively know that different students learn differently, but they rarely intentionally create learning environments for specific learning modalities--especially within traditionally academic spaces. The REFP workshop presented in September of 2009 at the CEFPI Annual World Conference and Expo provided…

  17. Seeking Conceptual Clarity in the Action Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This article begins with the presumption that action learning has not made as deep an impact in promoting participatory social change as its supporters may have hoped for, but nor has its cousin action modalities, such as action research and action science. These action strategies have evolved separately along distinct traditions and, rather than…

  18. Modal Mineralogy of Lunar Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Martel, L.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S. T.; Blake, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    Modal mineralogy of the lunar regolith is fundamentally important. It varies with the composition of underlying bedrock, extent of addition of materials excavated by impact both local and distant, and small-scale reworking by micrometeorite bombardment, so it contains information about local geological history. Determining modal mineralogy of soils provides vital ground truth to remote sensing studies. Mineralogy can be determined by a variety of techniques that provide complementary information: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), optical point counting, element mapping by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or electron microprobe (EMP), and normative calculation from a bulk chemical analysis. SEM and EMP element mapping can be converted into mineral modal abundances in a variety of ways, including defining compositional windows for specific minerals and using image processing techniques. XRD provides direct determination of the phases present, but gives little information about the chemical composition of those phases. We have launched a project to determine the modal mineralogy of over 100 lunar soils from all Apollo sites. The goal is to use this quantitative mineralogy and laboratory and remote reflectance spectra of the same soils to improve our ability to extract quantitative mineralogy from remote sensing data. Samples (< 1mm bulk soils) were dry-sieved and the <150 micron fractions analyzed in a Terra XRD instrument (InXitu, Inc.) using sample sizes of ~35 mg. We reduced the data using Reitveld refinement as implemented by the Jade program (Materials Data, Inc.). Glass abundances were determined by choosing a linear background and fitting a broad Gaussian to the scattering hump above background. Quantitative XRD is well established, but usually requires some calibration, in spite of the sophisticated Reitveld refinement and whole-pattern fitting. We calibrated the instrument by using mixtures of terrestrial minerals and results from the Lunar Sample Characterization

  19. Impact of aerobic exercise training on cognitive functions and affect associated to the COMT polymorphism in young adults.

    PubMed

    Stroth, Sanna; Reinhardt, Ralf K; Thöne, Jan; Hille, Katrin; Schneider, Matthias; Härtel, Sascha; Weidemann, Wolfgang; Bös, Klaus; Spitzer, Manfred

    2010-10-01

    Physical fitness can serve as a means to enhance cognitive functioning by modulating particular aspects of brain functioning. However, mechanisms underlying this modulating effect remain widely unresolved. To examine the impact and to clarify the mechanisms of physical fitness training in a young and healthy population, it was investigated whether an increase in fitness would result in improvements in executive control processes and positive and negative affect. Moreover, genotype of the Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) as an index of relative central dopamine bioavailability was determined to elucidate dopamine tuning efficiency and its association with performance in the applied cognitive tasks. Seventy-five individuals participated and underwent an incremental fitness test to assess physical fitness. An exercising group subsequently engaged in a 17 weeks running training consisting of three running sessions at moderate to high, individually adjusted intensities. Associated with increased fitness improved cognitive flexibility and cognitive control were observed, whereas working memory remained unaffected. In runners, Val/Val participants improved cognitive performance to a greater extent compared to individuals carrying a Met allele. From the present results it is concluded that an increase in physical fitness provides a means to improve cognitive functioning via dopaminergic modulation.

  20. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  1. Exercise increases insulin signaling in the hippocampus: physiological effects and pharmacological impact of intracerebroventricular insulin administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alexandre P; Gnoatto, Jussânia; Moreira, Julia D; Zimmer, Eduardo R; Haas, Clarissa B; Lulhier, Francisco; Perry, Marcos L S; Souza, Diogo O; Torres-Aleman, Ignácio; Portela, Luis V

    2011-10-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that physical exercise induces adaptations at the cellular, molecular, and systemic levels that positively affect the brain. Insulin plays important functional roles within the brain that are mediated by insulin-receptor (IR) signaling. In the hippocampus, insulin improves synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and learning via direct modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors. Separately, physical exercise and central insulin administration exert relevant roles in cognitive function. We here use CF1 mice to investigate (i) the effects of voluntary exercise on hippocampal insulin signaling and memory performance and (ii) whether central insulin administration alters the effects of exercise on hippocampal insulin signaling and memory performance. Adult mice performed 30 days of voluntary exercise on running wheel and afterward both, sedentary and exercised groups, received intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of saline or insulin (0.5-5 mU). Memory performance was assessed using the inhibitory avoidance and water maze tasks. Hippocampal tissue was measured for [U-(14)C] glucose oxidation and the immunocontent of insulin receptor/signaling (IR, pTyr, pAktser473). Additionally, the phosphorylation of the glutamate NMDA receptor NR2B subunit and the capacity of glutamate uptake were measured, and immunohistochemistry was used to determine glial reactivity. Exercise significantly increased insulin peripheral sensitivity, spatial learning, and hippocampal IR/pTyrIR/pAktser473 immunocontent. Glucose oxidation, glutamate uptake, and astrocyte number also increased relative to the sedentary group. In both memory tasks, 5 mU icv insulin produced amnesia but only in exercised animals. This amnesia was associated a rapid (15 min) and persistent (24 h) increase in hippocampal pNR2B immunocontent that paralleled the increase in glial reactivity. In conclusion, physical exercise thus increased hippocampal insulin signaling and improved

  2. Multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The major accomplishments of this research are: (1) the refinement and documentation of a multi-input, multi-output modal parameter estimation algorithm which is applicable to general linear, time-invariant dynamic systems; (2) the development and testing of an unsymmetric block-Lanzcos algorithm for reduced-order modeling of linear systems with arbitrary damping; and (3) the development of a control-structure-interaction (CSI) test facility.

  3. Digital multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, M.; Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A review of several modal testing techniques is made, along with brief discussions of their advantages and limitations. A new technique is presented which overcomes many of the previous limitations. Several simulated experiments are included to verify the validity and accuracy of the new method. Conclusions are drawn from the simulation studies and recommendations for further work are presented. The complete computer code configured for the simulation study is presented.

  4. Energy-based modalities.

    PubMed

    Engebretson, Joan; Wardell, Diane Wind

    2007-06-01

    Research on touch therapies is still in the early stages of development. Studies of Therapeutic Touch, Healing Touch, and Reiki are quite promising; however, at this point, they can only suggest that these healing modalities have efficacy in reducing anxiety; improving muscle relaxation; aiding in stress reduction, relaxation, and sense of well-being; promoting wound healing; and reducing pain. The multidimensional aspects of healing inherent in patient care continue to be expanded and facilitated by our understanding and application of energy therapies.

  5. Exercise and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chipkin, S R; Klugh, S A; Chasan-Taber, L

    2001-08-01

    As rates of diabetes mellitus and obesity continue to increase, physical activity continues to be a fundamental form of therapy. Exercise influences several aspects of diabetes, including blood glucose concentrations, insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors. Blood glucose concentrations reflect the balance between skeletal muscle uptake and ambient concentrations of both insulin and counterinsulin hormones. Difficulties in predicting the relative impact of these factors can result in either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Despite the variable impact of exercise on blood glucose, exercise consistently improves insulin action and several cardiovascular risk factors. Beyond the acute impact of physical activity, long-term exercise behaviors have been repeatedly associated with decreased rates of type 2 diabetes. While exercise produces many benefits, it is not without risks for patients with diabetes mellitus. In addition to hyperglycemia, from increased hepatic glucose production, insufficient insulin levels can foster ketogenesis from excess concentrations of fatty acids. At the opposite end of the glucose spectrum, hypoglycemia can result from excess glucose uptake due to either increased insulin concentrations, enhanced insulin action or impaired carbohydrate absorption. To decrease the risk for hypoglycemia, insulin doses should be reduced prior to exercise, although some insulin is typically still needed. Although precise risks of exercise on existing diabetic complications have not been well studied, it seems prudent to consider the potential to worsen nephropathy or retinopathy, or to precipitate musculoskeletal injuries. There is more substantive evidence that autonomic neuropathy may predispose patients to arrhythmias. Of clear concern, increased physical activity can precipitate a cardiac event in those with underlying CAD. Recognizing these risks can prompt actions to minimize their impact. Positive actions that are part of exercise programs for

  6. The Impacts of Swimming Exercise on Hippocampal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Rui-Li; Zhang, Li-Hong; Xue, Ying; Tang, Mi-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1) and peptides (VGF and NPY) in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY) and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS. PMID:25477997

  7. The impacts of swimming exercise on hippocampal expression of neurotrophic factors in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei; Dang, Rui-Li; Li, Huan-De; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhu, Wen-Ye; Xue, Ying; Tang, Mi-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1) and peptides (VGF and NPY) in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY) and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS. PMID:25477997

  8. Disease control and treatment modalities have impact on quality of life in acromegaly evaluated by Acromegaly Quality of Life (AcroQoL) Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Vandeva, Silvia; Yaneva, Maria; Natchev, Emil; Elenkova, Atanaska; Kalinov, Krasimir; Zacharieva, Sabina

    2015-08-01

    Various factors influence quality of life (QoL) in acromegaly. Whether disease control and treatment approach are related to QoL is still a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate QoL in patients with acromegaly using the disease-specific Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire in respect to disease activity, treatment modalities, and other factors. We studied 212 patients with acromegaly in a cross-sectional manner over a 6-year period in a single tertiary center. As a second step, seventy of the patients who were with active disease at baseline were followed up prospectively and 45 of them were in remission at re-evaluation. In regard to the cross-sectional group, active acromegaly independently predicted worse appearance scores. Prior radiotherapy and older age were independent negative predictors of all scales. Female gender negatively predicted all scales except the appearance domain. Longer duration of remission predicted worse personal relations scores in biochemically controlled patients. The use of somatostatin analog (SSA) was associated with worse personal relations scores, while higher IGF-1 index predicted worse appearance scores in patients with active acromegaly. In the prospective group, achievement of remission independently predicted improvement of the total scale. Lower corresponding baseline scores predicted improvement of the total, physical, and appearance scales, while the absence of hypopituitarism independently predicted improvement of the appearance scale. The use of SSA was associated with improvement of the total and appearance scores. In conclusion, QoL is a multifactorial issue that needs an individualized approach for detection and management.

  9. Potential benefits of resistance exercise training on nutritional status in renal failure.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, C; Grossi, L; Dwyer, J

    1998-01-01

    Resistance or strength exercise training may help reverse the malnutrition common among patients in chronic renal failure and delay the progression of renal disease. Resistance training is characterized by resisting, lifting, and lowering weights. It results in muscle mass accretion, improved physical function, and slowed progression of muscle wasting. Resistance exercise training for a period of 8 to 12 weeks results in significant increases in muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function in frail "healthy" elderly individuals as well as in specific patient populations. States of malnutrition leading to muscle wasting directly affect lean tissue mass and functional capacity. Even at dietary protein intake below the Recommended Dietary Allowances, resistance training appears to exert an anabolic effect by improving energy intake and protein use allowing nitrogen retention. The potential benefits of resistance exercise extend beyond this direct impact on protein metabolism. They include improvements in functional capacity such as gait, balance, mobility, strength, exercise tolerance, improved glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and self-efficacy and self-esteem. Currently, the effects of resistance exercise in renal patients are unknown, although they are well shown in the case of other diseases. The potential benefits that resistance exercise training may have on muscle mass and function, nutritional status, hyperglycemia, disease progression, and the overall mental well-being of renal patients deserve further investigation. As an adjunct to current treatment modalities for chronic renal failure, resistance exercise may serve as a cost-effective, interdisciplinary, noninvasive approach to counteract malnutrition and improve the quality of life. PMID:9724824

  10. Impact of High-intensity Intermittent and Moderate-intensity Continuous Exercise on Autonomic Modulation in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Santos, C; Giacon, T R; Campos, E Z; Gerosa-Neto, J; Rodrigues, B; Vanderlei, L C M; Lira, F S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) recovery after two iso-volume (5 km) exercises performed at different intensities. 14 subjects volunteered (25.17±5.08 years; 74.7±6.28 kg; 175±0.05 cm; 59.56±5.15 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and after determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2Peak) and the speed associated with VO2Peak (sVO2Peak), the subjects completed 2 random experimental trials: high-intensity exercise (HIE - 1:1 at 100% sVO2Peak), and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MIE - 70% sVO2Peak). HRV and RR intervals were monitored before, during and after the exercise sessions together with, the HRV analysis in the frequency domains (high-frequency - HF: 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and low-frequency - LF: 0.04 to 0.15 Hz components) and the ratio between them (LF/HF). Statistical analysis comparisons between moments and between HIE and MIE were performed using a mixed model. Both exercise sessions modified LFlog, HFlog, and LF/HF (F=16.54, F=19.32 and F=5.17, p<0.05, respectively). A group effect was also found for LFlog (F=23.91, p<0.05), and HFlog (F=57.55, p< 0.05). LF/HF returned to resting value 15 min after MIE exercise and 20 min after HIE exercise. This means that the heavy domain (aerobic and anaerobic threshold) induces dissimilar autonomic modification in physically active subjects. Both HIE and MIE modify HRV, and generally HIE delays parasympathetic autonomic modulation recovery after iso-volume exercise. PMID:26951480

  11. A low dose of alcohol does not impact skeletal muscle performance after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Moderate, acute alcohol consumption after eccentric exercise has been shown to magnify the muscular weakness that is typically associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). As it is not known whether this effect is dose-dependent, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a low dose of alcohol on EIMD-related losses in muscular performance. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed either a beverage containing 0.5 g of alcohol per kg bodyweight (as vodka and orange juice) or an isocaloric, isovolumetric non-alcoholic beverage. At least 2 weeks later, they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed the other beverage. Measurement of peak and average peak isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced by the quadriceps was made before and 36 and 60 h post-exercise. Significant decreases in all measures of muscular performance were observed over time under both conditions (all P < 0.05); however, no difference between treatments was evident at any of the measured time points (all P > 0.05). Therefore, consumption of a low dose of alcohol after damaging exercise appears to have no effect on the loss of force associated with strenuous eccentric exercise. PMID:20878178

  12. The Impact of Osteoporosis, Falls, Fear of Falling and Efficacy Expectations on Exercise Among Community Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Eun Shim; Zhu, Shijun; Brown, Clayton; An, Minjeong; Park, Bukyung; Brown, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test a model delineating the factors known to influence fear of falling and exercise behavior among older adults. Design and Methods This was a secondary data analysis using baseline data from the Bone Health study. A total of 866 individuals from two online communities participated in the study, 161 (18.6%) were from SeniorNet and 683 (78.9%) were from MyHealtheVet. More than half (63%) of the participants were male with a mean age of 62.8 (SD= 8.5). The majority was white (89%), married (53%) and had some college (87%). Results Knowledge about osteoporosis and awareness one has a diagnosis of osteoporosis directly influenced fear of falling, and knowledge of osteoporosis directly and indirectly influenced exercise behavior. A diagnosis of osteoporosis indirectly influenced exercise behavior. Taken together, the hypothesized model explained 13% of the variance in exercise behavior. Implications Improving knowledge of osteoporosis and awareness of having a diagnosis of osteoporosis, decreasing fear of falling and strengthening self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise may help improve exercise behavior among older adults. PMID:25233207

  13. A low dose of alcohol does not impact skeletal muscle performance after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Moderate, acute alcohol consumption after eccentric exercise has been shown to magnify the muscular weakness that is typically associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). As it is not known whether this effect is dose-dependent, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a low dose of alcohol on EIMD-related losses in muscular performance. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed either a beverage containing 0.5 g of alcohol per kg bodyweight (as vodka and orange juice) or an isocaloric, isovolumetric non-alcoholic beverage. At least 2 weeks later, they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed the other beverage. Measurement of peak and average peak isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced by the quadriceps was made before and 36 and 60 h post-exercise. Significant decreases in all measures of muscular performance were observed over time under both conditions (all P < 0.05); however, no difference between treatments was evident at any of the measured time points (all P > 0.05). Therefore, consumption of a low dose of alcohol after damaging exercise appears to have no effect on the loss of force associated with strenuous eccentric exercise.

  14. Impact of exercise and dietary fatty acid composition from a high-fat diet on markers of hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J A; Watras, A C; Paton, C M; Wegner, F H; Adams, A K; Schoeller, D A

    2011-02-01

    To compare the effects of both dietary fatty acid composition and exercise vs. sedentary conditions on circulating levels of hunger and satiety hormones. Eight healthy males were randomized in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The four treatments were 3 days of HF diets (50% of energy) containing high saturated fat (22% of energy) with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions, and high monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Cycling exercise was completed at 45% of VO(2)max for 2h daily. On the third HF day, 20 blood samples were drawn over a 24h period for each hormone (leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY)). A visual analog scale (VAS) was completed hourly between 0800 and 2200. Average 24h leptin and insulin levels were lower while 24h PYY was higher during exercise vs. sedentary conditions. FA composition did not differentially affect 24h hormone values. VAS scores for hunger and fullness did not differ between any treatment but did correlate with ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. High saturated or unsaturated fat diets did not differ with respect to markers of hunger or satiety. Exercise decreased 24h leptin and insulin while increasing PYY regardless of FA composition. PMID:21035513

  15. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  16. Modal mineralogy of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, Francois; Langevin, Yves; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald

    2014-11-01

    The surface composition of Vesta is constrained using spectral data gathered by the visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer VIR onboard NASA/Dawn. To derive new constraints on the surface composition of this asteroid, we applied a scattering model to VIR reflectance spectra. This model was first successfully tested by properly reproducing the characteristics of several HED meteorites spectra. Abundance estimates of end-members in HEDs are accurate to within 15-25% for the analyzed samples, while the estimated particle sizes are within the intervals of actual sizes. The modeling technique was then applied to the VIR data to retrieve the modal mineralogy of selected terrains of Vesta. Major expected minerals (Low-Calcium Pyroxene, High-Calcium Pyroxene, plagioclase and olivine) can provide satisfactory fits with overall residuals ≤1%. The modal mineralogy of terrains exhibiting the strongest LCP signatures is well representative of those of diogenites. Modeling results demonstrate that coarse-grained olivine (a few hundred µm in size) is likely to be present in all major units of Vesta, with inferred abundance ranging from 10% to 20%. A bimodal distribution in grain size with relatively coarse grain for olivine and fine grains (typically smaller than 100 µm) for the other components is derived. This is similar to the lithologic size distribution of HEDs, in particular howardites containing olivine-bearing melt. In addition, there is a good agreement between the modal mineralogy of this type of HED and Vesta. The relatively uniform derived modal mineralogy of different units confirms that major homogenization occurred with time, possibly explaining the lack of specific olivine enrichment in Rheasilvia. This study provides strong support for the vestan origin of HEDs by clarifying the relationship between HEDs and the different geological units on Vesta. Howardites containing olivine-bearing melt, although rare in the HED collections, are the closest

  17. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  18. Multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A component mode synthesis method for damped structures was developed and modal test methods were explored which could be employed to determine the relevant parameters required by the component mode synthesis method. Research was conducted on the following topics: (1) Development of a generalized time-domain component mode synthesis technique for damped systems; (2) Development of a frequency-domain component mode synthesis method for damped systems; and (3) Development of a system identification algorithm applicable to general damped systems. Abstracts are presented of the major publications which have been previously issued on these topics.

  19. RF Modal Quantity Gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleuven, K.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  20. Exercise echocardiography for structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Izumo, Masaki; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2016-03-01

    Since the introduction of transcatheter structural heart intervention, the term "structural heart disease" has been widely used in the field of cardiology. Structural heart disease refers to congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. In structural heart disease, valvular heart disease is frequently identified in the elderly. Of note, the number of patients who suffer from aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral regurgitation (MR) is increasing in developed countries because of the aging of the populations. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement and percutaneous mitral valve repair has been widely used for AS and MR, individually. Echocardiography is the gold standard modality for initial diagnosis and subsequent evaluation of AS and MR, although the difficulties in assessing patients with these diseases still remain. Here, we review the clinical usefulness and prognostic impact of exercise echocardiography on structural heart disease, particularly on AS and MR.

  1. Impact of the S.W.E.A.T.™ Water-Exercise Method on Activities of Daily Living for Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Mary E.; Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E.; Colado, Juan C.; Borreani, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Older women may have chronic or age-related conditions that increase the risk of falls or that limit their ability to remain active. It is unclear if a water-based exercise program provides a safe and effective alternative to land-based exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a water-based exercise program method on land-based functional activities of daily living (ADL) for women 60 years and older. This study used a quasi- experimental, nonequivalent control group design. Sixty-six women (60-89 yr of age) self- selected to a water exercise (WEX) group (n = 48) or control (C) group (n = 18). The training consisted of a 16-week (45 min·day-1, 3 d·wk-1) supervised WEX program that included 10 min of warm-up and warm down/stretching and 35 min training using the S.W.E.A.T.™ method in shallow water 1.0-1.2 m, with water temperature approximately 28-29°C. Participants were required to attendat least 94% of the sessions. Assessments for participants included ADL functional field tests. In comparison to the C group, WEX participantsimproved (p < 0.05) flexibility (8%), sit- to-stand (31%), walking speed (16%) and stride length (10%), agility (20%), stair climb (22%), arm curl (39%), and static (42-48%) balance, but not dynamic balance. Results indicate that the S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water exercise program provides a well-rounded, safe, and effective exercise program where older women can improve functional ADL and static balance. Key Points Older women with a variety of health conditions participated in 16 weeks of exercise (92% adherence) with no injuries. The S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water-based program was found to significantly improve several aspects of physical function, including postural balance. This shallow water program provided a well-rounded, safe and effective activity for women to improve functional ADL on land. PMID:24421730

  2. The Impact of Chocolate Goat's and Cow's Milk on Postresistance Exercise Endocrine Responses and Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull Performance.

    PubMed

    Bellar, David; LeBlanc, Nina R; Murphy, Kellie; Moody, Kaitlyn M; Buquet, Gina

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of chocolate cow's and goat's milk on endocrine responses and isometric mid-thigh pull performance post back squat exercise. Twelve college-aged males volunteered to participate and reported to the lab on four occasions. The first visit included anthropometric measurement, one-repetition back squat (1RM), and familiarization with the isometric mid-thigh pull assessment (IMTP). During the subsequent three visits, five sets of eight repetitions of the back squat exercise at 80% of 1RM were performed. For these trials, the participants performed an IMTP and gave a saliva sample prior to, immediately after, 1 hr and 2 hr post exercise. After exercise, a treatment of low-fat chocolate goat's milk (355 ml, 225 kcal), low-fat chocolate cow's milk (355 ml, 225 kcal), or control (water 355 ml, 0 kcal) was given in a counterbalanced order. Saliva samples were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Cortisol and DHEA hormone were unaffected by exercise; however, testosterone values did increase significantly post exercise. For IMTP, there was a significant main effect for time (F = 8.41, p = .007) but no treatment or interactions effects. N changes were noted post supplementation for cortisol or DHEA, but testosterone was found to be significantly reduced in both diary treatments compared to control (F = 4.27, p = .022). Based upon these data, it appears that a single treatment of chocolate goat's or cow's milk results in similar endocrine alterations but both fail to enhance postexercise isometric strength following resistance exercise. PMID:26900896

  3. The impact of acute dynamic exercise on intraocular pressure: role of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Güngör, K; Beydaği, H; Bekir, N; Arslan, C; Süer, C; Erbağci, I; Ergenoğlu, T; Aynacioğlu, A S

    2002-01-01

    Effects of mutations in the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) gene on intraocular pressure (IOP), in response to acute dynamic exercise, were investigated in 19 healthy males (age 22.6 +/- 2.8 years). Intraocular pressures were measured pre- and post-exercise. Weight, height, body mass index, and maximal oxygen (VO2max) uptake were recorded and subjects were genotyped for Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu and Thr164Ile mutations of the beta 2AR gene. Post-exercise, reductions in mean IOP values were found in 16 subjects with the Gly16Gly and Arg16Gly genotypes, but these values remained low in the eight patients with the Gly16Gly genotype 3 h post-exercise, whereas they returned to baseline within 1 h in the eight subjects with the Arg16Gly genotype. beta 2AR stimulation during exercise could be an important regulator of IOP response and determining beta 2AR polymorphisms may improve understanding of pathogenesis and treatment selection in ophthalmic diseases, e.g. glaucoma.

  4. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise ECG; ECG - exercise treadmill; EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill; CAD - treadmill; Coronary artery disease - treadmill; Chest pain - treadmill; Angina - treadmill; ...

  5. The impact of autophagy on cell death modalities in CRL-5876 lung adenocarcinoma cells after their exposure to γ-rays and/or erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Keta, Otilija; Bulat, Tanja; Golić, Igor; Incerti, Sebastien; Korać, Aleksandra; Petrović, Ivan; Ristić-Fira, Aleksandra

    2016-04-01

    In most patients with lung cancer radiation treatment is used either as single agent or in combination with radiosensitizing drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying combined therapy and its impact on different modes of cell death have not yet been fully elucidated. We aimed to examine effects of single and combined treatments with γ-rays and erlotinib on radioresistant CRL-5876 human lung adenocarcinoma cells with particular emphasis on cell death. CRL-5876 cells were treated with γ-rays and/or erlotinib and changes in cell cycle, DNA repair dynamics, ultrastructure, nuclear morphology and protein expression were monitored at different time points. To reveal the relationship between types of cell death that arise after these treatments, autophagy was blocked with chloroquine. We found that higher dose of γ-rays causes G2/M arrest while adding of erlotinib to this treatment decreases the number of cells in S phase. Impact of erlotinib on kinetics of disappearance of irradiation-induced DNA double strand breaks is reflected in the increase of residual γ-H2AX foci after 24 h. γ-rays provoke cytoprotective autophagy which precedes development of senescence. Erlotinib predominantly induces apoptosis and enlarges the number of apoptotic cells in the irradiated CRL-5876 cells. Chloroquine improved cytotoxicity induced by radiation and erlotinib, increased apoptosis and decreased senescence in the CRL-5876 cells. The results obtained on CRL-5876 cells indicate significant radiosensitizing effect of erlotinib and suggest that chloroquine in the combination with the above treatments may have an additional antitumor effect in lung adenocarcinoma.

  6. The impact of a diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and aerobic exercise on memory of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; Gai, Rafaela M; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-08-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for human health and has received attention for its role as a nutrient. The combination of exercise and nutrients has been proposed to promote health. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a diet supplemented with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and swimming exercise on memory of middle-aged rats. Male Wistar rats (12months) received standard diet chow supplemented with 1ppm of (PhSe)2 for 4weeks. Rats were submitted to swimming training (20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, memory was evaluated in the object recognition test (ORT) and in the object location test (OLT). The hippocampal levels of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) were determined. The results of the present study demonstrated that the association of (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and swimming exercise improved short-term memory, long-term memory and spatial learning, and this effect was not related to the increase in hippocampal p-CREB levels in middle-age rats. This study also revealed that middle-aged rats in the swimming exercise group had the best performance in short- and long-term memory. In conclusion, we demonstrated that swimming exercise, (PhSe)2-supplemented diet or the association of these factors improved learning and memory functioning. The hippocampal levels of CREB were not directly related to the benefits of swimming exercise and (PhSe)2-supplemented diet association in memory of middle-aged rats.

  7. Exercise therapy for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Heather R

    2015-05-01

    The benefit of exercise for pain control likely comes from the impact of exercise on the endogenous opioid system and on central pain modulatory systems. Patients with some chronic pain conditions seem to have a dysfunctional endogenous pain modulatory system, which should be considered when prescribing exercise. The prescription of exercise for chronic pain must address the biomechanical issues and the psychosocial factors that contribute to the patient's pain and disability. Patient education, coordination of care within the health care team, and selecting an exercise regimen that is meaningful to and achievable by the patient are all important components to promote a successful rehabilitation program. PMID:25952064

  8. Modal combination in response spectrum modal dynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, C.R.; Singhal, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    UCRL-15910 does not give explicit requirements for combining the values of the resonse of individual modes in a response spectrum modal dynamic analysis. Since UCRL-15910 references ASE 4-86, modal combination methods given in ASCE 4-86 are described in this paper. Efficient use of typical dynamic analysis computer programs while complying with ASCE 4-86 is also described.

  9. Un Corazón Saludable: factors influencing outcomes of an exercise program designed to impact cardiac and metabolic risks among urban Latinas.

    PubMed

    Harralson, Tina L; Emig, Julie Cousler; Polansky, Marcia; Walker, Renee E; Cruz, Joanna Otero; Garcia-Leeds, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    A high prevalence of physical inactivity, metabolic risk factors, and depression place Latinas in peril of developing cardiovascular disease. "Un Corazón Saludable: A Healthy Heart" was developed to engage urban Latinas in physical activity and increase awareness of cardiac and metabolic risk factors. Two hundred and twenty-five Latinas enrolled in the program that included salsa aerobics and culturally sensitive health education modules. Cardiac and metabolic risk factors measured in this study were body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, abdominal obesity, and blood pressure. Psychosocial risk factors measured included depressive symptoms and perceived social support. Fifty-two percent of the enrollees completed the program. Results indicated decreases in BMI, abdominal obesity, and symptoms of depression among Latinas who completed the program. Those who did not complete the program were younger, had greater depressive symptomatology, reported poorer social support, and they tended to be caregivers and U.S. born. Focus groups of program participants ascertained that caregiving and family obligations were major barriers to exercise while social support was a major facilitator of exercise. This research indicates that programs developed to recognize and address cultural barriers can impact physical and psychosocial risk factors among urban Latinas who are able to attend. Program retention may improve if future exercise programs conducted through community-base organizations offered support to Latinas regarding issues that interfere with self-care and health promotion. Future programs should consider including mental health and social service case management as part of comprehensive exercise/educational programs.

  10. Impact of decline-board squat exercises and knee joint angles on the muscle activity of the lower limbs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to investigate how squat exercises on a decline board and how the knee joint angles affect the muscle activity of the lower limbs. [Subjects] The subjects were 26 normal adults. [Methods] A Tumble Forms wedge device was used as the decline board, and the knee joint angles were measured with a goniometer. To examine the muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior of the lower limbs, a comparison analysis with electromyography was conducted. [Results] The muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior increased with increased knee joint angles, both for squat exercises on the decline board and on a flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 45°, 60°, and 90°, the muscle activity of the rectus femoris was significantly higher and that of the tibialis anterior was significantly lower during squat exercises on the decline board than on the flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 90°, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius lateralis was significantly lower. [Conclusion] Squat exercises on a decline board are an effective intervention to increase the muscle activity of the rectus femoris with increased knee joint angles. PMID:26357447

  11. Level of dietary protein does not impact whole body protein turnover during an exercise induced energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: This study examined the effect of a high protein diet on whole body protein turnover during an exercise-induced energy deficit. A sustained energy deficit induced by energy intake restriction increases protein catabolism which can cause lean-body mass loss. A high-protein diet has be...

  12. Impact of post-manipulation corrective core exercises on the spinal deformation and lumbar strength in golfers: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chul-ho; Kim, Minjeong; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined spinal shape in professional golfers with chronic back pain, and analyzed the effects of a 4-week regimen of semi-weekly manipulation and corrective core exercises on spinal shape. [Subjects] Two golfers with chronic back pain. [Methods] The pelvis and spinal vertebrae were corrected using the Thompson “drop” technique. Angle and force were adjusted to place the pelvis, lumbar spine, and thoracic vertebrae in neutral position. The technique was applied twice weekly after muscle massage in the back and pelvic areas. The golfers performed corrective, warmup stretching exercises, followed by squats on an unstable surface using the Togu ball. They then used a gym ball for repetitions of hip rotation, upper trunk extension, sit-ups, and pelvic anterior-posterior, pelvic left-right, and trunk flexion-extension exercises. The session ended with cycling as a cool-down exercise. Each session lasted 60 minutes. [Results] The difference in height was measured on the left and right sides of the pelvic bone. The pelvic tilt changed significantly in both participants after the 4-week program. [Conclusion] In golfers, core muscles are critical and are closely related to spinal deformation. Core strengthening and spinal correction play a pivotal role in the correction of spinal deformation. PMID:26504350

  13. Jumping into the deep-end: results from a pilot impact evaluation of a community-based aquatic exercise program.

    PubMed

    Barker, Anna L; Talevski, Jason; Morello, Renata T; Nolan, Genevieve A; De Silva, Renee D; Briggs, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    This multi-center quasi-experimental pilot study aimed to evaluate changes in pain, joint stiffness, physical function, and quality of life over 12 weeks in adults with musculoskeletal conditions attending 'Waves' aquatic exercise classes. A total of 109 adults (mean age, 65.2 years; range, 24-93 years) with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited across 18 Australian community aquatic centers. The intervention is a peer-led, 45 min, weekly aquatic exercise class including aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance exercises (n = 67). The study also included a control group of people not participating in Waves or other formal exercise (n = 42). Outcomes were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and EuroQoL five dimensions survey (EQ-5D) at baseline and 12 weeks. Satisfaction with Waves classes was also measured at 12 weeks. Eighty two participants (43 Waves and 39 control) completed the study protocol and were included in the analysis. High levels of satisfaction with classes were reported by Waves participants. Over 90 % of participants reported Waves classes were enjoyable and would recommend classes to others. Waves participants demonstrated improvements in WOMAC and EQ-5D scores however between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. Peer-led aquatic exercise classes appear to improve pain, joint stiffness, physical function and quality of life for people with musculoskeletal conditions. The diverse study sample is likely to have limited the power to detect significant changes in outcomes. Larger studies with an adequate follow-up period are needed to confirm effects.

  14. Transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of rat skeletal muscle feed arteries. II. Impact of exercise training in obesity.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Thorne, Pamela K; Martin, Jeffrey S; Rector, R Scott; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M Harold

    2014-04-15

    We employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to determine the extent to which exercise training alters global gene expression in skeletal muscle feed arteries and aortic endothelial cells of obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Transcriptional profiles of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle feed arteries (SFA and GFA, respectively) and aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples from rats that underwent an endurance exercise training program (EndEx; n = 12) or a interval sprint training program (IST; n = 12) or remained sedentary (Sed; n = 12) were examined. In response to EndEx, there were 39 upregulated (e.g., MANF) and 20 downregulated (e.g., ALOX15) genes in SFA and 1 upregulated (i.e., Wisp2) and 1 downregulated (i.e., Crem) gene in GFA [false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%]. In response to IST, there were 305 upregulated (e.g., MANF, HSPA12B) and 324 downregulated genes in SFA and 101 upregulated and 66 downregulated genes in GFA, with an overlap of 32 genes between arteries. Furthermore, in aortic endothelial cells, there were 183 upregulated (e.g., eNOS, SOD-3) and 141 downregulated (e.g., ATF3, Clec1b, npy, leptin) genes with EndEx and 71 upregulated and 69 downregulated genes with IST, with an overlap of 35 between exercise programs. Expression of only two genes (Tubb2b and Slc9a3r2) was altered (i.e., increased) by exercise in all three arteries. The finding that both EndEx and IST produced greater transcriptional changes in the SFA compared with the GFA is intriguing when considering the fact that treadmill bouts of exercise are associated with greater relative increases in blood flow to the gastrocnemius muscle compared with the soleus muscle.

  15. The impact of acute aerobic exercise on chitinase 3-like protein 1 and intelectin-1 expression in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Slusher, Aaron L; Whitehurst, Michael; Wells, Marie; Maharaj, Arun; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and intelectin 1 (ITLN-1) recognize microbial N-acetylglucosamine polymer and galactofuranosyl carbohydrates, respectively. Both lectins are highly abundant in plasma and seem to play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively, in obesity and inflammatory-related illnesses. The aim of this study was to examine whether plasma levels of these lectins in obese subjects are useful for monitoring inflammatory conditions immediately influenced by acute aerobic exercise. Plasma interleukin-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was also examined. Twenty-two (11 obese and 11 normal-weight) healthy subjects, ages 18–30 years, were recruited to perform a 30 min bout of acute aerobic exercise at 75% VO2max. We confirmed higher baseline levels of plasma CHI3L1, but lower ITLN-1, in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects. The baseline levels of CHI3L1 were negatively correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness (relative VO2max). However, when controlled for BMI, the relationship between baseline level of CHI3L1 and relative VO2max was no longer observed. While acute aerobic exercise elicited an elevation in these parameters, we found a lower ITLN-1 response in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects. Our study clearly indicates that acute aerobic exercise elicits a pro-inflammatory response (e.g. CHI3L1) with a lower anti-inflammatory effect (e.g. ITLN-1) in obese individuals. Furthermore, these lectins could be predictors of outcome of exercise interventions in obesity-associated inflammation. PMID:26316585

  16. The impact of acute aerobic exercise on chitinase 3-like protein 1 and intelectin-1 expression in obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Slusher, Aaron L; Whitehurst, Michael; Wells, Marie; Maharaj, Arun; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and intelectin 1 (ITLN-1) recognize microbial N-acetylglucosamine polymer and galactofuranosyl carbohydrates, respectively. Both lectins are highly abundant in plasma and seem to play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively, in obesity and inflammatory-related illnesses. The aim of this study was to examine whether plasma levels of these lectins in obese subjects are useful for monitoring inflammatory conditions immediately influenced by acute aerobic exercise. Plasma interleukin-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was also examined. Twenty-two (11 obese and 11 normal-weight) healthy subjects, ages 18-30 years, were recruited to perform a 30 min bout of acute aerobic exercise at 75% VO2max. We confirmed higher baseline levels of plasma CHI3L1, but lower ITLN-1, in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects. The baseline levels of CHI3L1 were negatively correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness (relative VO2max). However, when controlled for BMI, the relationship between baseline level of CHI3L1 and relative VO2max was no longer observed. While acute aerobic exercise elicited an elevation in these parameters, we found a lower ITLN-1 response in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects. Our study clearly indicates that acute aerobic exercise elicits a pro-inflammatory response (e.g. CHI3L1) with a lower anti-inflammatory effect (e.g. ITLN-1) in obese individuals. Furthermore, these lectins could be predictors of outcome of exercise interventions in obesity-associated inflammation.

  17. The impact of acute aerobic exercise on chitinase 3-like protein 1 and intelectin-1 expression in obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Slusher, Aaron L; Whitehurst, Michael; Wells, Marie; Maharaj, Arun; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and intelectin 1 (ITLN-1) recognize microbial N-acetylglucosamine polymer and galactofuranosyl carbohydrates, respectively. Both lectins are highly abundant in plasma and seem to play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively, in obesity and inflammatory-related illnesses. The aim of this study was to examine whether plasma levels of these lectins in obese subjects are useful for monitoring inflammatory conditions immediately influenced by acute aerobic exercise. Plasma interleukin-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was also examined. Twenty-two (11 obese and 11 normal-weight) healthy subjects, ages 18-30 years, were recruited to perform a 30 min bout of acute aerobic exercise at 75% VO2max. We confirmed higher baseline levels of plasma CHI3L1, but lower ITLN-1, in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects. The baseline levels of CHI3L1 were negatively correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness (relative VO2max). However, when controlled for BMI, the relationship between baseline level of CHI3L1 and relative VO2max was no longer observed. While acute aerobic exercise elicited an elevation in these parameters, we found a lower ITLN-1 response in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects. Our study clearly indicates that acute aerobic exercise elicits a pro-inflammatory response (e.g. CHI3L1) with a lower anti-inflammatory effect (e.g. ITLN-1) in obese individuals. Furthermore, these lectins could be predictors of outcome of exercise interventions in obesity-associated inflammation. PMID:26316585

  18. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... of power to help them cope with low self-esteem. Although compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany ... a downward spiral of negative thinking and low self-esteem. continue Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad ...

  19. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and high-impact physical exercise on skeletal muscle in post-menopausal women: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, S; Taaffe, D R; Cheng, S; Puolakka, J; Toivanen, J; Suominen, H

    2001-08-01

    An age-related decline in muscle performance is a known risk factor for falling, fracture and disability. In women, a clear deterioration is observed from early menopause. The effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in preserving muscle performance is, however, unclear. This trial examined the effects of a 12-month HRT and high-impact physical exercise regimen on skeletal muscle in women in early menopause. A total of 80 women aged 50-57 years were assigned randomly to one of four groups: exercise (Ex), HRT, exercise+HRT (ExHRT) and control (Co). The exercise groups participated in a high-impact training programme. The administration of HRT (oestradiol/noretisterone acetate) or placebo was carried out double-blind. Knee extension torque and vertical jumping height were evaluated. Lean tissue cross-sectional area (LCSA) and the relative proportion of fat within the muscle compartment were measured for the quadriceps and lower leg muscles. The ExHRT group showed significant increases in knee extension torque (8.3%) and vertical jumping height (17.2%) when compared with the Co group (-7.2%). Vertical jumping height also increased after HRT alone (6.8%). The LCSA of the quadriceps was increased significantly in the HRT (6.3%) and ExHRT (7.1%) groups when compared with the Ex (2.2%) and Co (0.7%) groups. Lower leg LCSA was also increased in the ExHRT group (9.1%) when compared with the Ex (3.0%) and Co (4.1%) groups. In addition, the increase in the relative proportion of fat in the quadriceps in the Co group (16.6%) was significant compared with those in the HRT (4.9%) and ExHRT (-0.6%) groups. Thus, in post-menopausal women, muscle performance, muscle mass and muscle composition are improved by HRT. The beneficial effects of HRT combined with high-impact physical training may exceed those of HRT alone.

  20. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…

  1. DICOM modality worklist: an essential component in a PACS environment.

    PubMed

    Gale, M E; Gale, D R

    2000-08-01

    The development and acceptance of the digital communication in medicine (DICOM) standard has become a basic requirement for the implementation of electronic imaging in radiology. DICOM is now evolving to provide a standard for electronic communication between radiology and other parts of the hospital enterprise. In a completely integrated filmless radiology department, there are 3 core computer systems, the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), the hospital or radiology information system (HIS, RIS), and the acquisition modality. Ideally, each would have bidirectional communication with the other 2 systems. At a minimum, a PACS must be able to receive and acknowledge receipt of image and demographic data from the modalities. Similarly, the modalities must be able to send images and demographic data to the PACS. Now that basic DICOM communication protocols for query or retrieval, storage, and print classes have become established through both conformance statements and intervendor testing, there has been an increase in interest in enhancing the functionality of communication between the 3 computers. Historically, demographic data passed to the PACS have been generated manually at the modality despite the existence of the same data on the HIS or RIS. In more current sophisticated implementations, acquisition modalities are able to receive patient and study-related data from the HIS or RIS. DICOM Modality Worklist is the missing electronic link that transfers this critical information between the acquisition modalities and the HIS or RIS. This report describes the concepts, issues, and impact of DICOM Modality Worklist implementation in a PACS environment. PMID:15359747

  2. Cognitive-Aware Modality Allocation in Intelligent Multimodal Information Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yujia; Theune, Mariët; Nijholt, Anton

    Intelligent multimodal presentation (IMMP) systems are able to generate multimodal presentations adaptively, based on the run-time requirements of user-computer interaction. Modality allocation in IMMP system needs to adapt the modality choice to changes in various relevant factors, such as the type of information to be conveyed, the presentation goal, the characteristics of the available modalities, the user profile, the condition of the environment, and the type of user task. In this study, we emphasize that modality allocation in IMMP systems should also take into account the cognitive impacts of modality on human information processing. We first describe several modality-related cognitive and neuropsychological findings. Then a user study is presented to demonstrate the effects of modality on performance, cognitive load and stress, using a high-load and time-critical user task. Finally, we show a possible way to integrate relevant cognitive theories into a computational model that can systematically predict the suitability of a modality choice for a given presentation task.

  3. Mini-modal testing of wind turbines using novel excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lauffer, J.P.; Carne, T.G.; Nord, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Modal testing of wind turbines can be fairly difficult because placing transducers on tall structures and providing low frequency excitation create problems. Moderate-size turbines are 100 to 200 feet tall, and their modal frequencies are very low, 0.1 to 5.0 Hz. In the mini-modal concept, only a limited number of response measurements are used in conjunction with a reasonably accurate finite element model to determine the modal parameters. Several techniques of low frequency excitation were explored, including impact, wind, step-relaxation, and human input. In tests using the mini-modal concept with human excitation, modal frequencies of large turbines have been determined in less than one day. As one application of these techniques, a prototype turbine was tested and two modal frequencies were found to be very close to integral multiples of the operating speed, which would cause a resonant condition. The design was modified to shift these frequencies, and the turbine was retested to confirm the expected changes in the modal frequencies.

  4. Mimicry for all modalities.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A

    2016-06-01

    Mimicry is a canonical example of adaptive signal design. In principle, what constitutes mimicry is independent of the taxonomic identity of the mimic, the ecological context in which it operates, and the sensory modality through which it is expressed. However, in practice the study of mimicry is inconsistent across research fields, with theoretical and empirical advances often failing to cross taxonomic and sensory divides. We propose a novel conceptual framework whereby mimicry evolves if a receiver perceives the similarity between a mimic and a model and as a result confers a selective benefit onto the mimic. Here, misidentification and/or deception are no longer formal requirements, and mimicry can evolve irrespective of the underlying proximate mechanisms. The centrality of receiver perception in this framework enables us to formally distinguish mimicry from perceptual exploitation and integrate mimicry and multicomponent signalling theory for the first time. In addition, it resolves inconsistencies in our understanding of the role of learning in mimicry evolution, and shows that imperfect mimicry is expected to be the norm. Mimicry remains a key model for understanding signal evolution and cognition, and we recommend the adoption of a unified approach to stimulate future interdisciplinary developments in this fascinating area of research. PMID:27117779

  5. Mimicry for all modalities.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A

    2016-06-01

    Mimicry is a canonical example of adaptive signal design. In principle, what constitutes mimicry is independent of the taxonomic identity of the mimic, the ecological context in which it operates, and the sensory modality through which it is expressed. However, in practice the study of mimicry is inconsistent across research fields, with theoretical and empirical advances often failing to cross taxonomic and sensory divides. We propose a novel conceptual framework whereby mimicry evolves if a receiver perceives the similarity between a mimic and a model and as a result confers a selective benefit onto the mimic. Here, misidentification and/or deception are no longer formal requirements, and mimicry can evolve irrespective of the underlying proximate mechanisms. The centrality of receiver perception in this framework enables us to formally distinguish mimicry from perceptual exploitation and integrate mimicry and multicomponent signalling theory for the first time. In addition, it resolves inconsistencies in our understanding of the role of learning in mimicry evolution, and shows that imperfect mimicry is expected to be the norm. Mimicry remains a key model for understanding signal evolution and cognition, and we recommend the adoption of a unified approach to stimulate future interdisciplinary developments in this fascinating area of research.

  6. Chronic Eccentric Exercise and the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Cronin, John

    2015-10-01

    Eccentric exercise has gained increasing attention as a suitable and promising intervention to delay or mitigate the known physical and physiological declines associated with aging. Determining the relative efficacy of eccentric exercise when compared with the more conventionally prescribed traditional resistance exercise will support evidence-based prescribing for the aging population. Thus, original research studies incorporating chronic eccentric exercise interventions in the older adult population were included in this review. The effects of a range of eccentric exercise modalities on muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition, muscle architecture, markers of muscle damage, the immune system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and rating of perceived exertion were all reviewed as outcomes of particular interest in the older adult. Muscular strength was found to increase most consistently compared with results from traditional resistance exercise. Functional capacity and body composition showed significant improvements with eccentric endurance protocols, especially in older, frail or sedentary cohorts. Muscle damage was avoided with the gradual progression of novel eccentric exercise, while muscle damage from intense acute bouts was significantly attenuated with repeated sessions. Eccentric exercise causes little cardiovascular stress; thus, it may not generate the overload required to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. An anabolic state may be achievable following eccentric exercise, while improvements to insulin sensitivity have not been found. Finally, rating of perceived exertion during eccentric exercise was often significantly lower than during traditional resistance exercise. Overall, evidence supports the prescription of eccentric exercise for the majority of outcomes of interest in the diverse cohorts of the older adult population.

  7. Dynamics of hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid pathways: The impact of the animal model of estrogen deficiency and exercise training.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-18

    Plasma cholesterol level is determined by a complex dynamics that involves transport lipoproteins which levels are tightly dependent on how the liver and the intestine regulate cholesterol and biliary acid metabolism. Regulation of cholesterol and biliary acids by the liver and the intestine is in turn coupled to a large array of enzymes and transporters that largely influence the inflow and the outflow of cholesterol and biliary acids through these organs. The activity of the key regulators of cholesterol and biliary acids may be influenced by several external factors such as pharmacological drugs and the nutritional status. In recent years, more information has been gathered about the impact of estrogens on regulation of cholesterol in the body. Exposure to high levels of estrogens has been reported to promote cholesterol gallstone formation and women are twice as likely as men to develop cholesterol gallstones. The impact of estrogen withdrawal, such as experienced by menopausal women, is therefore of importance and more information on how the absence of estrogens influence cholesterol regulation is started to come out, especially through the use of animal models. An interesting alternative to metabolic deterioration due to estrogen deficiency is exercise training. The present review is intended to summarize the present information that links key regulators of cholesterol and biliary acid pathways in liver and intestine to the absence of estrogens in an animal model and to discuss the potential role of exercise training as an alternative. PMID:27621762

  8. Dynamics of hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid pathways: The impact of the animal model of estrogen deficiency and exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol level is determined by a complex dynamics that involves transport lipoproteins which levels are tightly dependent on how the liver and the intestine regulate cholesterol and biliary acid metabolism. Regulation of cholesterol and biliary acids by the liver and the intestine is in turn coupled to a large array of enzymes and transporters that largely influence the inflow and the outflow of cholesterol and biliary acids through these organs. The activity of the key regulators of cholesterol and biliary acids may be influenced by several external factors such as pharmacological drugs and the nutritional status. In recent years, more information has been gathered about the impact of estrogens on regulation of cholesterol in the body. Exposure to high levels of estrogens has been reported to promote cholesterol gallstone formation and women are twice as likely as men to develop cholesterol gallstones. The impact of estrogen withdrawal, such as experienced by menopausal women, is therefore of importance and more information on how the absence of estrogens influence cholesterol regulation is started to come out, especially through the use of animal models. An interesting alternative to metabolic deterioration due to estrogen deficiency is exercise training. The present review is intended to summarize the present information that links key regulators of cholesterol and biliary acid pathways in liver and intestine to the absence of estrogens in an animal model and to discuss the potential role of exercise training as an alternative.

  9. Dynamics of hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid pathways: The impact of the animal model of estrogen deficiency and exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol level is determined by a complex dynamics that involves transport lipoproteins which levels are tightly dependent on how the liver and the intestine regulate cholesterol and biliary acid metabolism. Regulation of cholesterol and biliary acids by the liver and the intestine is in turn coupled to a large array of enzymes and transporters that largely influence the inflow and the outflow of cholesterol and biliary acids through these organs. The activity of the key regulators of cholesterol and biliary acids may be influenced by several external factors such as pharmacological drugs and the nutritional status. In recent years, more information has been gathered about the impact of estrogens on regulation of cholesterol in the body. Exposure to high levels of estrogens has been reported to promote cholesterol gallstone formation and women are twice as likely as men to develop cholesterol gallstones. The impact of estrogen withdrawal, such as experienced by menopausal women, is therefore of importance and more information on how the absence of estrogens influence cholesterol regulation is started to come out, especially through the use of animal models. An interesting alternative to metabolic deterioration due to estrogen deficiency is exercise training. The present review is intended to summarize the present information that links key regulators of cholesterol and biliary acid pathways in liver and intestine to the absence of estrogens in an animal model and to discuss the potential role of exercise training as an alternative. PMID:27621762

  10. Perceived urgency mapping across modalities within a driving context.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carryl L; Lewis, Bridget A

    2014-09-01

    Hazard mapping is essential to effective driver-vehicle interface (DVI) design. Determining which modality to use for situations of different criticality requires an understanding of the relative impact of signal parameters within each modality on perceptions of urgency and annoyance. Towards this goal we obtained psychometric functions for visual, auditory and tactile interpulse interval (IPI), visual color, signal word, and auditory fundamental frequency on perceptions of urgency, annoyance, and acceptability. Results indicate that manipulation of IPI in the tactile modality, relative to visual and auditory, has greater utility (greater impact on urgency than annoyance). Manipulations of color were generally rated as less annoying and more acceptable than auditory and tactile stimuli; but they were also rated as lower in urgency relative to other modality manipulations. Manipulation of auditory fundamental frequency resulted in high ratings of both urgency and annoyance. Results of the current investigation can be used to guide DVI design and evaluation.

  11. The Impact of Back Squat and Leg-Press Exercises on Maximal Strength and Speed-Strength Parameters.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph; Szilvas, Elena; Keiner, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Strength training-induced increases in speed strength seem indisputable. For trainers and athletes, the most efficient exercise selection in the phase of preparation is of interest. Therefore, this study determined how the selection of training exercise influences the development of speed strength and maximal strength during an 8-week training intervention. Seventy-eight students participated in this study (39 in the training group and 39 as controls). Both groups were divided into 2 subgroups. The first training group (squat training group [SQ]) completed an 8-week strength training protocol using the parallel squat. The second training group (leg-press training group [LP]) used the same training protocol using the leg press (45° leg press). The control group was divided in 2 subgroups as controls for the SQ or the LP. Two-factorial analyses of variance were performed using a repeated measures model for all group comparisons and comparisons between pretest and posttest results. The SQ exhibited a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in jump performance in squat jump (SJ, 12.4%) and countermovement jump (CMJ, 12.0%). Whereas, the changes in the LP did not reach statistical significance and amounted to improvements in SJ of 3.5% and CMJ 0.5%. The differences between groups were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). There are also indications that the squat exercise is more effective to increase drop jump performance. Therefore, the squat exercise increased the performance in SJ, CMJ, and reactive strength index more effectively compared with the leg-press in a short-term intervention. Consequently, if the strength training aims at improving jump performance, the squat should be preferred because of the better transfer effects. PMID:26439782

  12. Distinct impact of education and income on habitual exercise: a cross-sectional analysis in a rural city in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Hashimoto, Hideki; Lee, Jung Su; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi; Mori, Katsumi; Akabayashi, Akira

    2011-12-01

    Education and income are important socioeconomic indicators that reflect different aspects of social hierarchy. However, only a few studies have explicitly examined how different the relationship between education and health behaviour is from that between income and health behaviour. According to the human capital theory of health investment, education would reflect knowledge assets that allow an efficient investment in health, while income would relate to the value of healthy days and/or the time cost of health investment. Since time cost and the relative price of health would differ across age strata, we examined the significance of effect modification by age strata to distinguish the effects of education on habitual exercise from the effects of income. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire in a rural city in northern Japan in January 2007 (n = 3385). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of educational attainment and household income with habitual exercise. Interaction terms of these socioeconomic indicators with age strata (<60 years versus ≥60 years) were included to test the distinctive association across age, followed by a stratified analysis. As theoretically predicted, higher income was significantly associated with habitual exercise among those aged 25-59 years, while the association was null or negative among those aged 60 and above. Education was significantly associated with habitual exercise regardless of the age groups. These results suggest that the effects of socioeconomic factors on health behaviours vary according to which socioeconomic indicators are analysed, and which age group is selected. We conclude that studies on the socioeconomic disparity of health behaviours should carefully choose socioeconomic indicators to explain specific health behaviours to reveal underlying mechanisms and provide relevant policy implications, based on explicit behavioural models.

  13. The impact of electronic mail versus print delivery of an exercise program on muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J David

    2008-09-01

    Previous research indicates that the Internet, electronic mail (e-mail), and printed materials can be used to deliver interventions to improve physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes. However, no studies have been conducted investigating the effect of e-mail or print delivery of an exercise program on muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this clinical trial was to investigate the impact of e-mail vs. print delivery of an exercise program on muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes. Nineteen participants with type 2 diabetes were allocated to either a group that was delivered a prescribed exercise program using e-mail (e-mail group, n = 10) or a group that was delivered the same prescribed exercise program in print form (print group, n = 9). Chest press and leg press estimated one-repetition maximum (1-RM) scores as well as estimated peak oxygen uptake ([latin capital V with dot above]O2peak) were measured at baseline and follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis indicated significant improvements in chest press (mean = 7.00 kg, p = 0.001, effect size = 2.22) and leg press (mean = 19.32 kg, p = 0.002, effect size = 1.98) 1-RM scores and [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak (mean = 9.38 mL of oxygen uptake per kilogram of body mass per minute, p = 0.01, effect size = 1.45) within the e-mail group. Within the print group, significant improvements in chest press (mean = 9.13 kg, p = 0.01, effect size = 1.49) and leg press (mean = 16.68 kg, p = 0.01, effect size = 1.31) 1-RM scores and [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak (mean = 5.14 ml of oxygen uptake per kilogram of body mass per minute, p = 0.03, effect size = 1.14) were found. No significant between-group differences in improvements were found. Clinicians can deliver a prescribed exercise program, either by e-mail or in print form, to significantly improve muscular strength and aerobic capacity in people with type 2 diabetes

  14. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  15. The hazards of the changing hazard of dialysis modalities.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, Christos P; Unruh, Mark L

    2014-11-01

    The impact of the dialysis modality on patient survival has received considerable epidemiological attention, with most studies suggesting an early benefit favoring peritoneal dialysis over hemodialysis. Kumar et al. report the relative outcomes of the two modalities in incident patients followed by an accountable care organization. Using advanced statistical techniques for non-proportional hazards survival models, the authors corroborate the early benefit of peritoneal dialysis for the first 3 years and equivalent outcomes thereafter.

  16. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  17. Interpreting Metaphor of Modality in Advertising English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Based on a review of the historical and current studies on modality, this paper aims at interpreting metaphor of modality and its functions in advertising English according to theories of modality system and metaphor of modality in systemic-functional linguistics with a corpus we have collected. It is pointed out that metaphor of modality, a usual…

  18. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?

    PubMed

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-01-01

    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function. PMID:24617099

  19. Influence of a medium-impact exercise program on health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness in females with subclinical hypothyroidism: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.

  20. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:24490101

  1. Change in bone mass distribution induced by hormone replacement therapy and high-impact physical exercise in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S; Sipilä, S; Taaffe, D R; Puolakka, J; Suominen, H

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this intervention trial was to determine whether changes in bone mass distribution could be observed in postmenopausal women following hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and/or high-impact physical exercise. Eighty healthy women, aged 50-57 years, at <5 years after the onset of menopause and with no previous use of HRT, were randomly assigned to one of four groups: HRT; exercise (Ex); HRT + Ex (ExHRT); and control (Co). HRT administration was conducted in a double-blind manner for 1 year using estradiol plus noretisterone acetate (Kliogest). The exercise groups participated in a 1 year progressive training program consisting of jumping and bounding activities. Subjects participated in two supervised sessions per week and were asked to perform a series of exercises at home 4 days/week. Bone measurements using a quantitative computed tomography scanner (Somatom DR, Siemens) were obtained from the proximal femur, midfemur, proximal tibia, and tibial shaft. Data were analyzed with a software program (BONALYSE 1.3) calculating density (g/cm(3)), cross-sectional area (CSA; mm(2)), and moments of inertia (I(max), I(min), I(polar)). In addition, the bone mass spectrum was determined as a function of the angular distribution around the bone mass center (polar distribution) and the distance from the bone mass center through the diaphyseal wall (radial distribution). After the 1 year period, there was an overall interaction of group x time in bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal femur (p = 0.05) and tibial shaft (p = 0.035). Women in the ExHRT and HRT groups had increased proximal femur and tibial shaft BMD when compared with the change observed in the Co group (p = 0.024-0.011). The change was more pronounced in the cortical tibia, wherein the ExHRT group also differed from the Ex group (p = 0.038). No significant changes were found in bone CSA at any of the measured sites. The radial distribution indicated an increase of BMD in the endocortical part of

  2. A systematic review of the effects of different types of therapeutic exercise on physiologic and functional measurements in patients with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Oliveira Carvalho, Vitor; Brites, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported the benefits of exercise training for adults with HIV, although there is no consensus regarding the most efficient modalities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different types of exercise on physiologic and functional measurements in patients with HIV using a systematic strategy for searching randomized controlled trials. The sources used in this review were the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PEDro from 1950 to August 2012. We selected randomized controlled trials examining the effects of exercise on body composition, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and/or quality of life in adults with HIV. Two independent reviewers screened the abstracts using the Cochrane Collaboration's protocol. The PEDro score was used to evaluate methodological quality. In total, 29 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Individual studies suggested that exercise training contributed to improvement of physiologic and functional parameters, but that the gains were specific to the type of exercise performed. Resistance exercise training improved outcomes related to body composition and muscle strength, with little impact on quality of life. Aerobic exercise training improved body composition and aerobic capacity. Concurrent training produced significant gains in all outcomes evaluated, although moderate intensity and a long duration were necessary. We concluded that exercise training was shown to be a safe and beneficial intervention in the treatment of patients with HIV.

  3. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414). PMID:26867697

  4. The impact of cell phone use on the intensity and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Rebold, Michael J; Lepp, Andrew; Sanders, Gabriel J; Barkley, Jacob E

    2015-01-01

    This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone) functions (texting, talking, listening to music) on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years) each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale) were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour(-1)), heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min(-1)) and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm) in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014) greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour(-1)) was significantly (p = 0.04) greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour(-1) each). Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min(-1)) was significantly (p = 0.04) greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min(-1)) but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min(-1)). Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm) was greater (p = 0.05) than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm) but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm) conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate) and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking) can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity. PMID:25970553

  5. Impact of completeness of revascularization by coronary intervention on exercise capacity early after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of achieving complete revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) on exercise capacity remains unclear. Objective To compare exercise capacity early after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in patients receiving PCI with stenting, between those completely revascularized (CR) and those incompletely revascularized (IR). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 326 patients [single-vessel disease (SVD) group, 118 patients; multivessel disease (MVD) with CR group, 112 patients; MVD with IR group, 96 patients] who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing 7–30 days after STEMI to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold (VO2AT), and peak oxygen pulse. Demographic data, presence of concomitant diseases, STEMI characteristics, and echocardiography and angiography findings were evaluated. Results Most patients were male (89.0%) and mean age was 55.6 ± 11.2 years. Ischemic ST deviation occurred in 7.1%, with no significant difference between groups. VO2peak and VO2AT did not differ significantly between groups, despite a trend to be lower in the CR and IR groups compared with the SVD group. Peak oxygen pulse was significantly higher in the SVD group than in the IR group (p = 0.005). After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, cardiovascular risk factors, MI characteristics and echocardiography parameters, CR was not an independent predictor of VO2peak (OR = −0.123, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.986 to 0.232, p = 0.093), VO2AT (OR = 0.002, 95% CI 1.735 to 1.773, p = 0.983), or peak oxygen pulse (OR = −0.102, 95% CI −1.435 to 0.105, p = 0.090). Conclusion CR in patients with STEMI treated with PCI for multivessel disease might show no benefit on short-term exercise tolerance over IR. PMID:24641986

  6. The impact of cell phone use on the intensity and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Rebold, Michael J; Lepp, Andrew; Sanders, Gabriel J; Barkley, Jacob E

    2015-01-01

    This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone) functions (texting, talking, listening to music) on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years) each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale) were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour(-1)), heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min(-1)) and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm) in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014) greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour(-1)) was significantly (p = 0.04) greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour(-1) each). Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min(-1)) was significantly (p = 0.04) greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min(-1)) but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min(-1)). Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm) was greater (p = 0.05) than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm) but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm) conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate) and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking) can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity.

  7. The Impact of Cell Phone Use on the Intensity and Liking of a Bout of Treadmill Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rebold, Michael J.; Lepp, Andrew; Sanders, Gabriel J.; Barkley, Jacob E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone) functions (texting, talking, listening to music) on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years) each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale) were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour-1), heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min-1) and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm) in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014) greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour-1) was significantly (p = 0.04) greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour-1 each). Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min-1) was significantly (p = 0.04) greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min-1) but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min-1). Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm) was greater (p = 0.05) than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm) but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm) conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate) and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking) can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity. PMID:25970553

  8. Determinants of exercise and aerobic fitness in outpatients with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, G B; Kasal, S; Smith, K V; Hassanein, R; DeViney, S

    1994-01-01

    Factors that influenced exercise behaviors and aerobic fitness were identified in 100 outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Data included perceived health status, benefits of and barriers to exercise, and impact of arthritis on health; demographic and biologic characteristics; and past exercise behavior. Exercise measures included range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, 7-day activity recall, and the exercise subscale of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. An aerobic fitness level was obtained on each subject by bicycle ergometer testing. The theoretical model predicted 20% of the variance in composite exercise scores but none of the variance in aerobic fitness levels. Perceived benefits of exercise was a significant predictor of exercise participation. Subjects with less formal education, longer duration of arthritis, and higher impact of arthritis scores perceived fewer benefits of exercise, while subjects who reported exercising in their youth perceived more benefits of exercise.

  9. Impact of the NBC clothing ensemble on respiratory function and capacities during rest and exercise. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Muza, S.R.; Banderet, L.; Forte, V.A.

    1995-05-01

    This study examined the effects of wearing a modified MOPP (mMOPP) overgarment (Protective Clothing, PC), configured with body armor (BA), Load Bearing Equipment (LBE), and M40 CB mask on the pattern and mechanics of breathing and cognitive functioning in 15 male soldiers at rest and during sustained submaximal exercise (approx. 600 W). The M40 CB mask reduced breathing capacity 20%, and the PC+BA+LBE components of the mMOPP reduced it 5%. Total respiratory system compliance decreased by 16% in the mMOPP. Thus, wearing the PC+BA+LBE increased the stiffness of the soldier`s respiratory system. During exercise, the mMOPP decreased tidal volume and increased respiratory rate, a compensation for the decreased respiratory system compliance. Although the M40 CB mask imposes a significant impairment to breathing, the PC with BA and LBE presents a unique external constraint on breathing, which may be more aversive than that imposed by the CB mask. These impairments may be reduced by wearing BA and LBE that are properly fitted over the PC and incorporating, in future designs, enhancements that allow for outward expansion of the PC, BA or LBE with inhalation.

  10. Working the Continuum between Therapy and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Because of the relative weightlessness factor, water exercise is an excellent low-impact aerobic activity for people with physical difficulties. Participants should inform their physicians of intentions to begin aquatic exercise, and physicians should advise participants that water exercise is exertive. Program instructors must be prepared to…

  11. Psychological Changes in Exercising COPD Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Richard C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were divided into treatment subjects who participated in a 28-week exercise regime and control subjects who participated in a 14-week exercise program. Analyses showed the aerobic exercise to have little impact on state-trait anxiety or depression scores. (Author/JDD)

  12. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  13. Home-Based Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... do when I don't have access to physical therapy? While VEDA does not recommend doing vestibular exercises ... already existing ringing Fluid discharge from your ears Pain and ... try a general low-impact and balance-strengthening fitness program. The more ...

  14. Modal testing in the design evaluation of wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Lauffer, J.P.; Carne, T.G.; Ashwill, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews several techniques which have been used to successfully measure modal parameters for wind turbines. Due to problems in providing low frequency excitation (0.1 to 5.0 Hz), modal testing of moderate-size turbines can be difficult. Several techniques of low frequency excitation have been explored, including impact, wind, step-relaxation, and human input. As one application of these techniques, a prototype turbine was tested and two modal frequencies were found to be very close to integral multiples of the operating speed, which caused a resonant condition. The design was modified to shift these frequencies, and the turbine was retested to confirm the expected changes in the modal frequencies. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Exercise to enhance neurocognitive function after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, David; Zafonte, Ross

    2012-11-01

    Vigorous exercise has long been associated with improved health in many domains. Results of clinical observation have suggested that neurocognitive performance also is improved by vigorous exercise. Data derived from animal model-based research have been emerging that show molecular and neuroanatomic mechanisms that may explain how exercise improves cognition, particularly after traumatic brain injury. This article will summarize the current state of the basic science and clinical literature regarding exercise as an intervention, both independently and in conjunction with other modalities, for brain injury rehabilitation. A key principle is the factor of timing of the initiation of exercise after mild traumatic brain injury, balancing potentially favorable and detrimental effects on recovery.

  16. Environmental impact on crew of armoured vehicles: Effects of 24 h combat exercise in a hot desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Majumdar, D.; Bhatia, M. R.; Srivastava, K. K.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1995-06-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the effects of combined noise, vibration and heat stress on the physiological functions of the crew of armoured vehicles during prolonged combat exercise in a desert. The sound pressure level of noise was measured with a sound level meter and accelerations by vibration analyser. The thermal load on the crew was evaluated by calculating the wet bulb globe temperature index. The physiological responses of the subjects ( n=9), included significant increases in the heart rate, 24 h water intake and urinary catecholamine concentration. A significant decrease was recorded in body mass, peak expiratory flow rate and 24 h urinary output. The high heat load on the crew resulted in a hypohydration of 3% body mass and appeared to be the dominant factor in producing the physiological strain.

  17. A Comparison between Prescribed Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultgren, Philip B.; Burke, Edmund J., Jr.

    This paper compares the methods for prescribing exercise according to various contemporary authorities. The programs are compared as to their goals, the testing modalities and physiological parameters used for prescription of the initial training session, and the methods and the progression of training. Regarding goals, there is a general…

  18. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.

    2009-03-20

    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  19. Exercise training in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Paul; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Conraads, Viviane M.

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of heart failure (HF) is a growing epidemic that causes a significant socio-economic burden. Despite considerable progress in the management of patients with HF, mortality and morbidity remain a major healthcare concern and frequent hospital admissions jeopardize daily life and social activities. Exercise training is an important adjunct nonpharmacological treatment modality for patients with HF that has proven positive effects on mortality, morbidity, exercise capacity and quality of life. Different training modalities are available to target the problems with which HF patients are faced. It is essential to tailor the prescribed exercise regimen, so that both efficiency and safety are guaranteed. Electrical implanted devices and mechanical support should not exclude patients from exercise training; however, particular precautions and a specialized approach are advised. At least 50% of patients with HF, older than 65 years of age, present with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Although the study populations included in studies evaluating the effect of exercise training in this population are small, the results are promising and seem to support the idea that exercise training is beneficial for HFPEF patients. Both the short- and especially long-term adherence to exercise training remain a major challenge that can only be tackled by a multidisciplinary approach. Efforts should be directed towards closing the gap between recommendations and the actual implementation of training programmes. PMID:23634278

  20. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyan, B.; Sabale, V.; Mane, D.; Satav, V.; Mulay, A.; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (60 patients), retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using a semirigid ureteroscope; Group B (62 patients), transperitoneal LU (Lap-TPUL). Results: The overall stone-free rate was 71.6% and 93.5% for Group A and Group B respectively (P = 0.008). Auxiliary procedure rate was higher in Group A than in Group B (27.3% vs. 5.6%). The complication rate was 11.2% in Group B versus 25% in Group A. Mean procedure time was higher in laparoscopy group as compared to ureterorenoscopy (URS) groups (84.07 ± 16.80 vs. 62.82 ± 12.71 min). Hospital stay was 4.16 ± 0.67 days in laparoscopy group and 1.18 ± 0.38 days in URS group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery. PMID:27141190

  1. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    Age and exercise ... to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you have never exercised, ... things you enjoy and stay independent as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also ...

  2. Intradialytic Exercise is Medicine for Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    When a person's kidneys fail, hemodialysis (HD) is the most common treatment modality. With a growing number of patients requiring this life-sustaining treatment, and with evidence illustrating the significant physical dysfunction of this population, encouraging exercise is essential. The use of intradialytic exercise, as a novel and efficient use of time during HD, is well established in Australia and some European nations; however, it is slower to start in North America. While a large number of small studies have demonstrated numerous benefits and safe delivery of intradialytic exercise training for patients with end-stage kidney disease, intradialytic exercise is rarely delivered as standard of care. It is of utmost importance for health care staff to overcome barriers and bring theory into practice. Included in this report are current recommendations from governing bodies, expert opinion, as well as established policies and procedures from a successful intradialytic exercise program in Canada. PMID:27399824

  3. Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Bhavna; Jain, Amit; Azad, Rajvardhan

    2013-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management. PMID:24104705

  4. Impact of protein supplementation and exercise in preventing changes in gene expression profiling in woman muscles after long-term bedrest as revealed by microarray analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopard, Angele; Lecunff, Martine; Danger, Richard; Teusan, Raluca; Jasmin, Bernard J.; Marini, Jean-Francois; Leger, Jean

    Long duration space flights have a dramatic impact on human physiology and under such a condition, skeletal muscles are known to be one of the most affected systems. A thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to muscle impairment under microgravity, which causes significant loss of muscle mass as well as structural disorders, is necessary for the development of efficient space flight countermeasures. This study was conducted under the aegis of the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the USA (NASA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the French "Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales" (CNES). It gave us the opportunity to investigate for the first time the effects of prolonged disuse (long-term bedrest, LTBR) on the transcriptome of different muscle types in healthy women (control, n=8), as well as the potential beneficial impact of protein supplementation (nutrition, n=8) and a combined resistance and aerobic exercise training program (exercise, n=8). Pre- (LTBR -8) and post- (LTBR +59) biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles from each subject. Skeletal muscle gene expression profiles were obtained using a custom made microarray containing 6681 muscle-relevant genes. 555 differentiallyexpressed and statistically-significant genes were identified in control group following 60 days of LTBR, including 348 specific for SOL, 83 specific for VL, and 124 common for the two types of muscle (p<0.05). After LTBR, both muscle types exhibited a consistent decrease in pathways involved in fatty acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation (p<0.05). However, the postural SOL muscle exhibited a higher level of changes with mRNA encoding proteins involved in protein synthesis and activation of protein degradation (mainly ubiquitinproteasome components) (p<0.05). Major changes in muscle function, such as those involved in calcium signaling and muscle structure including

  5. Impact of Telephone Reinforcement and Negotiated Contracts on Behavioral Predictors of Exercise Maintenance in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Pankaja M.; Hughes, Susan L.; Peters, Karen E.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of telephone reinforcement (TR) on predictors of physical activity (PA) maintenance in older adults with osteoarthritis. Methods Mixed effects modeling was conducted of data from a randomized PA trial that used negotiated maintenance contracts, supplemented by TR, to test impact of TR on barriers, decisional balance, and stage of change at multiple points in time. Results Participants who were referred to a PA program and received TR improved the most in barriers and decisional balance. Participants who negotiated a tailored maintenance contract but did not receive TR improved the most in stage. Conclusions TR appears to positively affect perceptions around engagement, whereas negotiation positively impacts PA behavior. Further research should examine the effectiveness of specific PA maintenance strategies. PMID:25181766

  6. Are Modal Auxiliaries in Malaysian English Language Textbooks in Line with Their Usage in Real Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Kafipour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Based on the discrepancies found in many Malaysian English language textbooks, a detailed analysis on the way modal auxiliary verb forms and their semantic functions were introduced and presented in texts and exercises in five Malaysian textbooks was done. For that to be achieved, a qualitative page-by-page content analysis was applied. From the…

  7. Modal Filters for Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, Alexander; MacDonald, Daniel R.; Soibel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range have been implemented as planar dielectric waveguides in infrared interferometric applications such as searching for Earth-like planets. When looking for a small, dim object ("Earth") in close proximity to a large, bright object ("Sun"), the interferometric technique uses beams from two telescopes combined with a 180 phase shift in order to cancel the light from a brighter object. The interferometer baseline can be adjusted so that, at the same time, the light from the dimmer object arrives at the combiner in phase. This light can be detected and its infrared (IR) optical spectra can be studied. The cancellation of light from the "Sun" to approximately equal to 10(exp 6) is required; this is not possible without special devices-modal filters- that equalize the wavefronts arriving from the two telescopes. Currently, modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range are implemented as single- mode fibers. Using semiconductor technology, single-mode waveguides for use as modal filters were fabricated. Two designs were implemented: one using an InGaAs waveguide layer matched to an InP substrate, and one using InAlAs matched to an InP substrate. Photon Design software was used to design the waveguides, with the main feature all designs being single-mode operation in the 10.5- to 17-micrometer spectral range. Preliminary results show that the filter's rejection ratio is 26 dB.

  8. Imaging modalities in spinal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Kricun, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an approach to the various imaging modalities used to view the spine. It discusses the indications, limitations and practical use of each in the diagnosis, work-up and staging of various spinal disorders, and compares each of them in various clinical settings. Topics covered include low back pain syndrome, disk disease, spinal cord lesions, congenital abnormalities, and trauma.

  9. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. Many teens who play sports have higher self-esteem than their less active pals, and exercise can ... may have a distorted body image and low self-esteem. They may see themselves as overweight or out ...

  10. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs. Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, hiking, running, aerobic dance, biking, rowing, swimming, and cross-country ... Brisk walking can burn as many calories as running, but it is less likely to cause injuries ...

  11. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  12. Causality and cross-modal integration.

    PubMed

    Schutz, Michael; Kubovy, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Schutz and Lipscomb (2007) reported an audiovisual illusion in which the length of the gesture used to produce a sound altered the perception of that sound's duration. This contradicts the widely accepted claim that the auditory system generally dominates temporal tasks because of its superior temporal acuity. Here, in the first of 4 experiments, we show that impact gestures influence duration ratings of percussive but not sustained sounds. In the 2nd, we show that the illusion is present even if the percussive sound occurs up to 700 ms after the visible impact, but disappears if the percussive sound precedes the visible impact. In the 3rd experiment, we show that only the motion after the visible impact influences perceived tone duration. The 4th experiment (replacing the impact gestures with the written text long and short) suggests that the phenomenon is not due to response bias. Given that visual influence in this paradigm is dependent on the presence of an ecologically plausible audiovisual relationship, we conclude that cross-modal causality plays a key role in governing the integration of sensory information.

  13. Modal Analysis and Model Correlation of the Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyoung M.; Kaouk, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    This paper will discuss on-orbit dynamic tests, modal analysis, and model refinement studies performed as part of the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE). Mir is the Russian permanently manned Space Station whose construction first started in 1986. The MiSDE was sponsored by the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 Office and was part of the Shuttle-Mir Risk Mitigation Experiment (RME). One of the main objectives for MiSDE is to demonstrate the feasibility of performing on-orbit modal testing on large space structures to extract modal parameters that will be used to correlate mathematical models. The experiment was performed over a one-year span on the Mir-alone and Mir with a Shuttle docked. A total of 45 test sessions were performed including: Shuttle and Mir thruster firings, Shuttle-Mir and Progress-Mir dockings, crew exercise and pushoffs, and ambient noise during night-to-day and day-to-night orbital transitions. Test data were recorded with a variety of existing and new instrumentation systems that included: the MiSDE Mir Auxiliary Sensor Unit (MASU), the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Russian Mir Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS), the Mir and Shuttle Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), and the Shuttle payload bay video cameras. Modal analysis was performed on the collected test data to extract modal parameters, i.e. frequencies, damping factors, and mode shapes. A special time-domain modal identification procedure was used on free-decay structural responses. The results from this study show that modal testing and analysis of large space structures is feasible within operational constraints. Model refinements were performed on both the Mir alone and the Shuttle-Mir mated configurations. The design sensitivity approach was used for refinement, which adjusts structural properties in order to match analytical and test modal parameters. To verify the refinement results, the analytical responses calculated using

  14. Isolated and combined effects of aerobic and strength exercise on post-exercise blood pressure and cardiac vagal reactivation in normotensive men.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberto José; Simão, Roberto; Saccomani, Milene Granja; Casonatto, Juliano; Alexander, Jeffrey L; Rhea, Matthew; Polito, Marcos Doederlein

    2011-03-01

    similarly impacting post-exercise SBP regardless of desired exercise modality.

  15. An Exercise Protocol Designed to control Energy Expenditure and to have a Positive Impact on Maximal Oxygen Consumption for Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Seino, Satoshi; Shimojo, Nobutake; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption decreases during spaceflight, and astronauts also experience controversial weight loss. Future space missions require a more efficient exercise program to maintain work efficiency and to control increased energy expenditure (EE). We have been developing two types of original exercise training protocols which are better suited to astronauts’ daily routine exercise during long-term spaceflight: sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT). In this study, we compared the total EE, including excess post-exercise energy expenditure (EPEE), induced by our interval cycling protocols with the total EE of a traditional, continuous aerobic training (CAT). In the results, while the EPEEs after the SIT and HIAT were greater than after the CAT, the total EE for an entire exercise/rest session with the CAT was the greatest of our three exercise protocols. The SIT and HIAT would be potential protocols to control energy expenditure for long space missions.

  16. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  17. Higher rate of fat oxidation during rowing compared with cycling ergometer exercise across a range of exercise intensities.

    PubMed

    Egan, B; Ashley, D T; Kennedy, E; O'Connor, P L; O'Gorman, D J

    2016-06-01

    The relative contribution of carbohydrate and fat oxidation to energy expenditure during exercise is dependent on variables including exercise intensity, mode, and recruited muscle mass. This study investigated patterns of substrate utilization during two non-weightbearing exercise modalities, namely cycling and rowing. Thirteen young, moderately trained males performed a continuous incremental (3-min stages) exercise test to exhaustion on separate occasions on an electronically braked cycle (CYC) ergometer and an air-braked rowing (ROW) ergometer, respectively. On two further occasions, participants performed a 20-min steady-state exercise bout at ∼50%VO2peak on the respective modalities. Despite similar oxygen consumption, rates of fat oxidation (FATox ) were ∼45% higher during ROW compared with CYC (P < 0.05) across a range of power output increments. The crossover point for substrate utilization occurred at a higher relative exercise intensity for ROW than CYC (57.8 ± 2.1 vs 42.1 ± 3.6%VO2peak , P < 0.05). During steady-state submaximal exercise, the higher FATox during ROW compared with CYC was maintained (P < 0.05), but absolute FATox were 42% (CYC) and 28% (ROW) lower than during incremental exercise. FATox is higher during ROW compared with CYC exercise across a range of exercise intensities matched for energy expenditure, and is likely as a consequence of larger muscle mass recruited during ROW.

  18. Evidence for determining the exercise prescription in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gaught, Amber M; Carneiro, Kevin A

    2013-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease that affects more than one-third of older adults (age > 65 years), most often involving the hip and knee. Osteoarthritis causes pain and limits mobility, thereby reducing patient quality of life. Conservative, nonsurgical, nonpharmacologic treatment strategies include weight reduction, orthotics, physical therapy modalities, acupuncture, massage, and exercise. The breadth of the current literature on OA can make determining the appropriate exercise prescription challenging. Aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, Tai chi, and aquatic exercise can all alleviate pain and improve function in patients with OA. The choice of the specific type and mode of delivery of the exercise should be individualized and should consider the patient's preferences. Ongoing monitoring and supervision by a health care professional are essential for patients to participate in and benefit from exercise.

  19. Modal Analysis for Grid Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-03

    MANGO software is to provide a solution for improving small signal stability of power systems through adjusting operator-controllable variables using PMU measurement. System oscillation problems are one of the major threats to the grid stability and reliability in California and the Western Interconnection. These problems result in power fluctuations, lower grid operation efficiency, and may even lead to large-scale grid breakup and outages. This MANGO software aims to solve this problem by automatically generating recommended operation procedures termed Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) to improve damping of inter-area oscillation modes. The MANGO procedure includes three steps: recognizing small signal stability problems, implementing operating point adjustment using modal sensitivity, and evaluating the effectiveness of the adjustment. The MANGO software package is designed to help implement the MANGO procedure.

  20. Positive impact of Tai Chi Chuan participation on biopsychosocial quality of life compared to exercise and sedentary controls: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Alex; J P Francis, Andrew

    2013-05-24

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a traditional Chinese medicine practice and martial art with biopsychosocial aspects. This study aimed to examine the impact of participation in TCC on multiple domains of Quality of Life (QoL) and to assess the involvement of the psychological factors of self-efficacy, Locus of Control (LoC) and Hope in these effects. A total of 68 participants from the general community (13 males and 55 females) aged between 18 and 68 (M=43.55 years) and not currently suffering from a mental or physical illness took part in the study. It was found that TCC participants, as a group, scored significantly better than those in sedentary (book club) and active (gym exercise) control conditions on Psychological and Physical QoL, and that the Physical QoL benefits of TCC continue to accrue with years of practice. The three psychological factors were shown to variously mediate (self-efficacy) and moderate (internal LoC and Hope) this latter relationship. Whilst the results bear limitations (in particular small sample sizes), it is hoped that these findings will encourage further research into TCC, and consideration of TCC as part of the range of treatment options available in community-based mental and physical health management.

  1. Modality effects in sentence recall.

    PubMed

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Eaton, Mirrenda

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the intrusion of lures into sentence recall when manipulating the modality of distractor-word lists and sentences separately. Participants received a list of words followed by a sentence, and the list did or did not contain a lure related to a target in the sentence. Conceptual regeneration of the sentence during recall predicted higher lure intrusions than spontaneous intrusions in all conditions. However, if surface information is remembered, the modality of sentence and list should influence intrusions. The results from Experiment 1 showed that both factors are important, as intrusions were always higher when lures were contained in the distractor-word list and when visual, rather than auditory, sentences were recalled. The authors also found distractor modality to influence the results. In Experiment 2, when interference from the word probe was reduced by removing 40% of the word probes, the disruptive effect of the auditory distractors was attenuated on the trials without the word probe. Also, the authors found lure intrusions to be dependent on the presence of the word probe. PMID:19350835

  2. The Impact of Aerobic Exercise on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Neurocognition in Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Single-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Bartels, Matthew N; Armstrong, Hilary F; Ballon, Jacob S; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Ayanruoh, Lindsey; Lister, Amanda; Castrén, Eero; Smith, Edward E; Sloan, Richard P

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia display substantial neurocognitive deficits for which available treatments offer only limited benefits. Yet, findings from studies of animals, clinical and nonclinical populations have linked neurocognitive improvements to increases in aerobic fitness (AF) via aerobic exercise training (AE). Such improvements have been attributed to up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, the impact of AE on neurocognition, and the putative role of BDNF, have not been investigated in schizophrenia. Employing a proof-of-concept, single-blind, randomized clinical trial design, 33 individuals with schizophrenia were randomized to receive standard psychiatric treatment (n = 17; "treatment as usual"; TAU) or attend a 12-week AE program (n = 16) utilizing active-play video games (Xbox 360 Kinect) and traditional AE equipment. Participants completed assessments of AF (indexed by VO2 peak ml/kg/min), neurocognition (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), and serum-BDNF before and after and 12-week period. Twenty-six participants (79%) completed the study. At follow-up, the AE participants improved their AF by 18.0% vs a -0.5% decline in the TAU group (P = .002) and improved their neurocognition by 15.1% vs -2.0% decline in the TAU group (P = .031). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that enhancement in AF and increases in BDNF predicted 25.4% and 14.6% of the neurocognitive improvement variance, respectively. The results indicate AE is effective in enhancing neurocognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia and provide preliminary support for the impact of AE-related BDNF up-regulation on neurocognition in this population. Poor AF represents a modifiable risk factor for neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia for which AE training offer a safe, nonstigmatizing, and side-effect-free intervention. PMID:25805886

  3. The Impact of Aerobic Exercise on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Neurocognition in Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Single-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Bartels, Matthew N; Armstrong, Hilary F; Ballon, Jacob S; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Ayanruoh, Lindsey; Lister, Amanda; Castrén, Eero; Smith, Edward E; Sloan, Richard P

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia display substantial neurocognitive deficits for which available treatments offer only limited benefits. Yet, findings from studies of animals, clinical and nonclinical populations have linked neurocognitive improvements to increases in aerobic fitness (AF) via aerobic exercise training (AE). Such improvements have been attributed to up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, the impact of AE on neurocognition, and the putative role of BDNF, have not been investigated in schizophrenia. Employing a proof-of-concept, single-blind, randomized clinical trial design, 33 individuals with schizophrenia were randomized to receive standard psychiatric treatment (n = 17; "treatment as usual"; TAU) or attend a 12-week AE program (n = 16) utilizing active-play video games (Xbox 360 Kinect) and traditional AE equipment. Participants completed assessments of AF (indexed by VO2 peak ml/kg/min), neurocognition (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), and serum-BDNF before and after and 12-week period. Twenty-six participants (79%) completed the study. At follow-up, the AE participants improved their AF by 18.0% vs a -0.5% decline in the TAU group (P = .002) and improved their neurocognition by 15.1% vs -2.0% decline in the TAU group (P = .031). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that enhancement in AF and increases in BDNF predicted 25.4% and 14.6% of the neurocognitive improvement variance, respectively. The results indicate AE is effective in enhancing neurocognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia and provide preliminary support for the impact of AE-related BDNF up-regulation on neurocognition in this population. Poor AF represents a modifiable risk factor for neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia for which AE training offer a safe, nonstigmatizing, and side-effect-free intervention.

  4. Exercise and quality of life: strengthening the connections.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen

    2009-02-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed.

  5. Analysis of long term responses and their impact on outcomes in patients with chronic phase CML treated with four different TKI modalities – analysis of 5 prospective clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Preetesh; Kantarjian, Hagop; Alattar, Mona Lisa; Jabbour, Elias; Sasaki, Koji; Gonzalez, Graciela Nogueras; Dellasala, Sara; Pierce, Sherry; Verstovsek, Srdan; Wierda, William; Borthakur, Gautam; Ravandi, Farhad; O’Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are available for treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). We analyzed long term response and compared outcomes of patients treated with 4 TKI modalities used as frontline therapy for CML-CP. Methods This is a retrospective cohort analysis of 482 patients with chronic phase CML treated in prospective clinical trials with frontline TKI modalities at a single institution. Patients were treated with imatinib 400 mg daily (n=68), imatinib 800 mg daily (n=200), dasatinib 50 mg twice daily or 100 mg daily (n=106) or nilotinib 400 mg twice a day (n=108). Primary end point of the study was to determine whether achieving complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) or major molecular response (MMR) has comparable prognostic implications regardless of the type of frontline TKI modality. Intention to treat analyses were performed for each TKI modality for response assessment and survival endpoints were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences calculated by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression. Findings Overall, higher proportions of patients receiving imatinib 800 and 2nd generation TKI achieved complete cytogenetic response (CCyR), major molecular response (MMR) and ≥4.5 log reduction in BCR-ABL transcripts (MR4.5) at all time-points (3–60 months). Disease transformation occurred in 35/482 patients (7%), events occurred in 76/482 (16%) and 53/482 patients (11%) died. Overall, 5 year outcomes were event-free survival (EFS) 84%, failure-free survival (FFS) 70%, transformation-free survival (TFS) 92%, and overall survival (OS) 93%. Compared to other 3 treatment modalities, patients treated with imatinib 400 had significantly inferior EFS, FFS and TFS. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that therapy with imatinib 800, dasatinib or nilotinib predicted for EFS while FFS, TFS and OS were similar

  6. Aging and perceived event structure as a function of modality.

    PubMed

    Magliano, Joseph; Kopp, Kristopher; McNerney, M Windy; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    The majority of research on situation model processing in older adults has focused on narrative texts. Much of this research has shown that many important aspects of constructing a situation model for a text are preserved and may even improve with age. However, narratives need not be text-based, and little is known as to whether these findings generalize to visually-based narratives. The present study assessed the impact of story modality on event segmentation, which is a basic component of event comprehension. Older and younger adults viewed picture stories or read text versions of them and segmented them into events. There was comparable alignment between the segmentation judgments and a theoretically guided analysis of shifts in situational features across modalities for both populations. These results suggest that situation models provide older adults with a stable basis for event comprehension across different modalities of expereinces.

  7. Heart failure in chemotherapy-related cardiomyopathy: Can exercise make a difference?

    PubMed

    Nair, Nandini; Gongora, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Medical therapies in oncology have resulted in better survival resulting in a large population who are at risk of early and late cardiac complications of chemotherapy. Cardiotoxicity related to chemotherapy can manifest decades after treatment with a threefold higher mortality rate as compared to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The leading cause of death in cancer survivors seems to be cardiac. Early detection and intervention could prevent progression of heart failure to end stage disease requiring advanced therapies such as implantation of ventricular assist devices or cardiac transplantation. This review focuses on the role of exercise in cardioprotection in this population. The current practice of depending on ejection fraction for diagnosis of heart failure is suboptimal to detect subclinical disease. It is also important to diagnose and treat early diastolic dysfunction as this tends to lead to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Hence we suggest an algorithm here that is based on using strain rate and tissue Doppler imaging modalities to detect subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Further research is warranted in terms of defining exercise prescriptions in this population. Human studies with multicenter participation in randomized controlled trials should be done to elucidate the intricacies of aerobic exercise intervention in cardiotoxicity dependent heart failure. It is also necessary to assess the utility of exercise interventions in the different chemotherapeutic regimens as they impact the outcomes. PMID:27413695

  8. The energetic and cardiovascular response to treadmill walking and cycle ergometer exercise in obese women.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Agosti, Fiorenza; Galli, Raffaela; Busti, Carlo; Lazzer, Stefano; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2008-08-01

    Physical activity is essential in obesity management, but exercise capacity is compromised in obese individuals due to the excessive body mass, impacting on body movement's energetics, and to the dysfunctions of regulatory mechanisms, affecting cardiovascular responses. This study aims to compare the energetics and cardiovascular responses of walking and cycling in obese women, and to formulate recommendations regarding the most suitable type of exercise for obesity. Fifteen obese (OB) and six normal weight (NW) women exercised on treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE). During both exercise modalities, metabolic rate was higher in OB than in NW and correlated with measures of body mass. Leg movement metabolic rate during cycling depended upon individual adiposity, and when accounted for, mechanical efficiency was similar in the two groups. When accounting for extra mass, differences in metabolic rate among groups are abolished for CE, indicating no obesity impairment of muscle efficiency, but not for TM, suggesting that differences in biomechanics may explain the higher net cost of transport of OB. In both groups, HR was higher during CE than TM at the same oxygen uptake (VO(2)), but in OB the HR increment over VO(2) was greater for CE than for TM. Therefore, due to different cardiovascular responses to TM and CE in OB, walking is more convenient, enabling OB to attain target energy expenditure at lower HR or in a shorter time.

  9. Bimodal extinction without cross-modal extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Inhoff, A W; Rafal, R D; Posner, M J

    1992-01-01

    Three patients with unilateral neurological injury were clinically examined. All showed consistent unilateral extinction in the tactile and visual modalities on simultaneous intramodal stimulation. There was virtually no evidence for cross-modal extinction, however, so that contralateral stimulation of one modality would have extinguished perception of ipsilateral stimuli in the other modality. It is concluded that the attentional system controlling the encoding of tactile and visual stimuli is not unified across the two sensory domains. PMID:1548496

  10. Physical modalities for treating acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly

    2016-06-01

    Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea.

  11. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  12. Exercise and Posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Shop Exercise & Posture About Spondylitis / Exercise & Posture Overview For The ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ...

  13. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  14. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Divisions Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  15. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  16. Intensifying Modifiers for Chinese Modal Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaozhao

    While English modal verbs have been studied extensively, Chinese modal verbs have only been analyzed in a general way. A discussion of the six properties of Chinese modal verbs by Li and Thompson (1981, 1997) examined this area, though some of the properties that they proposed appear to be inaccurate or flawed. This paper concentrates on one of…

  17. On Modality in English and Other Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Thomas R.

    The descriptive contents (cognitive meanings) of the modals "can,""may,""could,""might,""must,""need,""ought,""should," compared with paraphrastic verbs and adjectives, motivate two cross-classifying dimensions: logical modality (possibility, impossibility, necessity) and linguistic modality (alethic, probability, authority, obligation,…

  18. Modal strain energies in COSMIC NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, B. D.; Venkayya, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    A computer program was developed to take a NASTRAN output file from a normal modes analysis and calculate the modal strain energies of selected elements. The FORTRAN program can determine the modal strain energies for CROD, CBAR, CELAS, CTRMEM, CQDMEM2, and CSHEAR elements. Modal strain energies are useful in estimating damping in structures.

  19. Global 2-D intercomparison of sectional and modal aerosol modules

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenstein, D K; Penner, J E; Herzog, M; Liu, Xiaohong

    2007-05-08

    We present an intercomparison of two aerosol modules, one sectional, one modal, in a global 2-D model in order to differentiate their behavior for tropospheric and stratospheric applications. We model only binary sulfuric acid-water aerosols in this study. Two versions of the sec-tional model and three versions of the modal model are used to test the sensitivity of background aerosol mass and size distribution to the number of bins or modes and to the pre-scribed width of the largest mode. We find modest sensitivity to the number of bins (40 vs 150) used in the sectional model. Aerosol mass is found to be reduced in a modal model if care is not taken in selecting the width of the largest lognormal mode, reflecting differences in sedimentation in the middle stratosphere. The size distributions calculated by the sec-tional model can be better matched by a modal model with four modes rather than three modes in most but not all sit-uations. A simulation of aerosol decay following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo shows that the representation of the size distribution can have a signflcant impact on model-calculated aerosol decay rates in the stratosphere. Between 1991 and 1995, aerosol mass and surface area density calcu-lated by two versions of the modal model adequately match results from the sectional model. Calculated effective radius for the same time period shows more intermodel variability.

  20. Budget Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clowes, Darrel A.

    Following a discussion of the factors to be considered in constructing feasible college budgets, an exercise in budget development is presented involving a hypothetical community college with 2,500 full-time equivalent (FTE) students, 500 in developmental education, 750 each in transfer and technical programs, and 500 undecided. Exercise…

  1. [Exercise addiction].

    PubMed

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  2. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  3. Modality and Task Switching Interactions using Bi-Modal and Bivalent Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Rajwant; Dyson, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of concurrent task and modality switching effects have to date been studied under conditions of uni-modal stimulus presentation. As such, it is difficult to directly compare resultant task and modality switching effects, as the stimuli afford both tasks on each trial, but only one modality. The current study investigated task and…

  4. Extraction of Modal Parameters from Spacecraft Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George H.; Cao, Timothy T.; Fogt, Vincent A.; Wilson, Robert L.; Bartkowicz, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    The modeled response of spacecraft systems must be validated using flight data as ground tests cannot adequately represent the flight. Tools from the field of operational modal analysis would typically be brought to bear on such structures. However, spacecraft systems have several complicated issues: 1. High amplitudes of loads; 2. Compressive loads on the vehicle in flight; 3. Lack of generous time-synchronized flight data; 4. Changing properties during the flight; and 5. Major vehicle changes due to staging. A particularly vexing parameter to extract is modal damping. Damping estimation has become a more critical issue as new mass-driven vehicle designs seek to use the highest damping value possible. The paper will focus on recent efforts to utilize spacecraft flight data to extract system parameters, with a special interest on modal damping. This work utilizes the analysis of correlation functions derived from a sliding window technique applied to the time record. Four different case studies are reported in the sequence that drove the authors understanding. The insights derived from these four exercises are preliminary conclusions for the general state-of-the-art, but may be of specific utility to similar problems approached with similar tools.

  5. Perceptual Modalities Guiding Bat Flight in a Native Habitat.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhaodan; Fuller, Nathan; Wang, Shuai; Özcimder, Kayhan; Gillam, Erin; Theriault, Diane; Betke, Margrit; Baillieul, John

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals accomplish high-speed navigation through fields of obstacles using a suite of sensory modalities that blend spatial memory with input from vision, tactile sensing, and, in the case of most bats and some other animals, echolocation. Although a good deal of previous research has been focused on the role of individual modes of sensing in animal locomotion, our understanding of sensory integration and the interplay among modalities is still meager. To understand how bats integrate sensory input from echolocation, vision, and spatial memory, we conducted an experiment in which bats flying in their natural habitat were challenged over the course of several evening emergences with a novel obstacle placed in their flight path. Our analysis of reconstructed flight data suggests that vision, echolocation, and spatial memory together with the possible exercise of an ability in using predictive navigation are mutually reinforcing aspects of a composite perceptual system that guides flight. Together with the recent development in robotics, our paper points to the possible interpretation that while each stream of sensory information plays an important role in bat navigation, it is the emergent effects of combining modalities that enable bats to fly through complex spaces. PMID:27264498

  6. Perceptual Modalities Guiding Bat Flight in a Native Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Zhaodan; Fuller, Nathan; Wang, Shuai; Özcimder, Kayhan; Gillam, Erin; Theriault, Diane; Betke, Margrit; Baillieul, John

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals accomplish high-speed navigation through fields of obstacles using a suite of sensory modalities that blend spatial memory with input from vision, tactile sensing, and, in the case of most bats and some other animals, echolocation. Although a good deal of previous research has been focused on the role of individual modes of sensing in animal locomotion, our understanding of sensory integration and the interplay among modalities is still meager. To understand how bats integrate sensory input from echolocation, vision, and spatial memory, we conducted an experiment in which bats flying in their natural habitat were challenged over the course of several evening emergences with a novel obstacle placed in their flight path. Our analysis of reconstructed flight data suggests that vision, echolocation, and spatial memory together with the possible exercise of an ability in using predictive navigation are mutually reinforcing aspects of a composite perceptual system that guides flight. Together with the recent development in robotics, our paper points to the possible interpretation that while each stream of sensory information plays an important role in bat navigation, it is the emergent effects of combining modalities that enable bats to fly through complex spaces. PMID:27264498

  7. Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X. X.; Li, C. L.; Xiong, C. B.

    2015-07-27

    Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields.

  8. Modal interference fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrat, Marcin; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Gorka, Andrzej; Palka, Norbert; Zyczkowski, Marek; Niznik, Sylwester

    2004-11-01

    Modal Interference Fiber Optic Sensor (MIFOS) for permanent monitoring of the network is presented. A mechanical disturbance of a fiber cable influences on intensity distribution at the end-face of a multimode fiber. Variations in interfering images are analysed by means of a digital processing unit that determines the alarm in case of unauthorized access along the whole length of the fiber. A contrast of an interference pattern and a procedure of fiber optic selection for the sensor are shown. A simple criterion that bases on changes of local maximums positions of the interference patterns is applied. A laboratory arrangement of the sensor and its experimental research are shown.

  9. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  10. Globalization and emerging governance modalities.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Deane Edward

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the possibilities for global governance effectively dealing with the international transmission of disease. First, zoonotic regulation and control pose a special case for public health agencies, and this paper proposes a propositional model for an effective public health stance. Second, globalization dynamics are briefly reviewed in terms of an emerging consensus on the need for global governance in public health. Third, a brief examination of global governance modalities suggests that a strong global governance case has distinct limitations (despite its possible justification); an exploration of contemporary directions in global governance follows. Finally, the paper examines the phenomenon of contemporary zoonotic control within the conditions of an effective regulatory regime.

  11. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, L.D.; Lim, A.F.; Felt, J.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Lara-Ruiz, J.M.; Mendoza, J.S.; Rokkum, J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill-being–psychological issues, behavior problems, attention problems and physical health–among children (aged 4–8), preteens (9–12), and teenagers (13–18) by having 1030 parents complete an online, anonymous survey about their own and their child's behaviors. Measures included daily technology use, daily food consumption, daily exercise, and health. Hypothesis 1, which posited that unhealthy eating would predict impaired ill-being, was partially supported, particularly for children and preteens. Hypothesis 2, which posited that reduced physical activity would predict diminished health levels, was partially supported for preteens and supported for teenagers. Hypothesis 3, that increased daily technology use would predict ill-being after factoring out eating habits and physical activity, was supported. For children and preteens, total media consumption predicted illbeing while for preteens specific technology uses, including video gaming and electronic communication, predicted ill-being. For teenagers, nearly every type of technological activity predicted poor health. Practical implications were discussed in terms of setting limits and boundaries on technology use and encouraging healthy eating and physical activity at home and at school. PMID:25717216

  12. Is there a need for protein ingestion during exercise?

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-05-01

    Dietary protein ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis rates, stimulates net muscle protein accretion, and facilitates the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Furthermore, recent studies show that protein ingestion before and during exercise also increases muscle protein synthesis rates during resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Therefore, protein ingestion before and during prolonged exercise may represent an effective dietary strategy to enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session by extending the window of opportunity during which the muscle protein synthetic response is facilitated. Protein ingestion during exercise has also been suggested to improve performance capacity acutely. However, recent studies investigating the impact of protein ingestion during exercise on time trial performance, as opposed to time to exhaustion, do not report ergogenic benefits of protein ingestion. Therefore, it is concluded that protein ingestion with carbohydrate during exercise does not further improve exercise performance when compared with the ingestion of ample amounts of carbohydrate only.

  13. Effects of acute exercise on long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Labban, Jeffrey D; Etnier, Jennifer L

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: exercise prior to exposure, exercise after exposure, or no-exercise. Exercise consisted of 30 min on a cycle ergometer including 20 min at moderate intensity. Only the exercise prior group recalled significantly more than the control group (p < .05). Differences among the exercise groups failed to reach significance (p = .09). Results indicated that acute exercise positively influenced recall and that exercise timing relative to memory task may have an impact on this effect.

  14. Differential Impact of Acute High-Intensity Exercise on Circulating Endothelial Microparticles and Insulin Resistance between Overweight/Obese Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Durrer, Cody; Robinson, Emily; Wan, Zhongxiao; Martinez, Nic; Hummel, Michelle L.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background An acute bout of exercise can improve endothelial function and insulin sensitivity when measured on the day following exercise. Our aim was to compare acute high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE) to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese men and women. Methods Inactive males (BMI = 30 ± 3, 25 ± 6 yr, n = 6) and females (BMI = 28 ± 2, 21 ± 3 yr, n = 7) participated in three experimental trials in a randomized counterbalanced crossover design: 1) No exercise control (Control); 2) HICE (20 min cycling @ just above ventilatory threshold); 3) HIIE (10 X 1-min @ ∼90% peak aerobic power). Exercise conditions were matched for external work and diet was controlled post-exercise. Fasting blood samples were obtained ∼18 hr after each condition. CD62E+ and CD31+/CD42b- EMPs were assessed by flow cytometry and insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results There was a significant sex X exercise interaction for CD62E+ EMPs, CD31+/CD42b- EMPs, and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05). In males, both HICE and HIIE reduced EMPs compared to Control (P≤0.05). In females, HICE increased CD62E+ EMPs (P<0.05 vs. Control) whereas CD31+/CD42b- EMPs were unaltered by either exercise type. There was a significant increase in HOMA-IR in males but a decrease in females following HIIE compared to Control (P<0.05). Conclusions Overweight/obese males and females appear to respond differently to acute bouts of high-intensity exercise. A single session of HICE and HIIE reduced circulating EMPs measured on the morning following exercise in males but in females CD62E+ EMPs were increased following HICE. Next day HOMA-IR paradoxically increased in males but was reduced in females following HIIE. Future research is needed to investigate mechanisms responsible for potential differential responses between males and females. PMID:25710559

  15. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  16. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  17. Systematic review of exercise for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Sman, Amy D; Hackett, Daniel; Fiatarone Singh, Maria; Fornusek, Ché; Menezes, Manoj P; Burns, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a slowly progressive hereditary degenerative disease and one of the most common neuromuscular disorders. Exercise may be beneficial to maintain strength and function for people with CMT, however, no comprehensive evaluation of the benefits and risks of exercise have been conducted. A systematic review was completed searching numerous electronic databases from earliest records to February 2015. Studies of any design including participants of any age with confirmed diagnosis of CMT that investigated the effects of exercise were eligible for inclusion. Of 13,301 articles identified following removal of duplicates, 11 articles including 9 unique studies met the criteria. Methodological quality of studies was moderate, sample sizes were small, and interventions and outcome measures used varied widely. Although the majority of the studies identified changes in one or more outcome measurements across exercise modalities, the majority were non-significant, possibly due to Type II errors. Significant effects described included improvements in strength, functional activities, and physiological adaptations following exercise. Despite many studies showing changes in strength and function following exercise, findings of this review should be met with caution due to the few studies available and moderate quality of evidence. Well-powered studies, harmonisation of outcome measures, and clearly described interventions across studies would improve the quality and comparability of the evidence base. The optimal exercise modality and intensity for people with CMT as well as the long-term safety of exercise remain unclear.

  18. On the impact of RN network coverage on event selection and data fusion during the 2009 National Data Centres Preparedness Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Andreas; Krysta, Monika; Auer, Matthias; Brachet, Nicolas; Ceranna, Lars; Gestermann, Nicolai; Nikkinen, Mika; Zähringer, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The so-called National Data Centres (NDCs) to the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Organization are in charge to provide for the final judgement on the CTBT relevance of explosion events encountered in the PTS International Monitoring System (IMS). The latter is a 321 stations network set-up by the PTS (to date completion level: 80%) in order to globally monitor for occurrence of CTBT relevant seismo-acoustic and radionuclide signals. In doing so, NDCs learn about any seismo-acoustic or radionuclide event by active retrieval or subscription to corresponding event lists and products provided by the International Data Centre (IDC) to the PTS. To prepare for their instrumental role in case of a CTBT relevant event, the NDCs jointly conduct annually so-called NDC Preparedness Exercises. In 2009, NDC Germany was in charge to lead the exercise and to choose a seismo-acoustic event out of the list of events provided by the PTS (Gestermann et al., EGU2010-13067). The novelty in this procedure was that also the infrasound readings and the monitoring coverage of existing (certified) radionuclide stations into the area of consideration were taken into account during the event selection process (Coyne et al., EGU2010-12660). Hence, the event finally chosen and examined took place near Kara-Zhyra mine in Eastern Kazakhstan on 28 November 2009 around 07:20:31 UTC (Event-ID 5727516). NDC Austria performed forward atmospheric transport modelling in order to predict RN measurements that should have occurred in the radionuclide IMS. In doing so the fictitious case that there would have been a release of radionuclides taking place at the same location (Wotawa and Schraik, 2010; EGU2010-4907) in a strength being typical for a non-contained nuclear explosion is examined. The stations indicated should then be analysed for their actual radionuclide readings in order to confirm the non nuclear character of

  19. Modality and children's scope understanding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chin-Ting Jimbo; Lee, Hsiu-Fen Hélène

    2014-10-01

    This study intends to shed light on the inconclusive argument pertaining to children's acquisition of logical form (LF) operation. Specifically, we examined children's interpretations of sentences with the ambiguous modal verb yinggai 'should,' like 'Xiaohua yinggai shangchuang shuijiao le', whose meanings depend on the landing sites of yinggai at LF (root interpretation: Xiaohua is obligated to go to bed now. epistemic interpretation: It is the case that Xiaohua has gone to bed.). The results of truth value judgment task from 15 children (range: 4;8-6;2, mean: 5;4) and 37 adults indicate that both groups tend to interpret the ambiguous yinggai as epistemic readings and that children's interpretation is adult-like. Thus, this study supports (Syrett and Lidz's in Lang Acquis 16:67-81, 2009) view that 5-year-olds have adult-like LF development and their difficulties in interpreting covert movements may be reduced to extra-grammatical factors.

  20. Orthostasis: exercise and exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.

  1. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  2. Home Dialysis Modalities: Educational Barriers to Utilization.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, an increasing number of individuals are being diagnosed with end stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy. Home dialysis modalities are an available option in lieu of in-center hemodialysis therapy for these individuals, but are vastly underutilized in the U.S. for multiple reasons. Both healthcare providers and individuals requiring renal replacement therapy are frequently unaware these modalities are an available alternative to in-center hemodialysis and of the potential benefits related to home modality use. Lack of healthcare provider and patient education regarding home modalities is a primary factor related to underutilization. PMID:27501632

  3. Physical modalities for treating acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly

    2016-06-01

    Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea. PMID:27416315

  4. Impact of adrenaline and metabolic stress on exercise-induced intracellular signaling and PGC-1α mRNA response in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hostrup, Morten; Tybirk, Jonas; Nybo, Lars; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma adrenaline or metabolic stress enhances exercise-induced PGC-1α mRNA and intracellular signaling in human muscle. Trained (VO2-max: 53.8 ± 1.8 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) male subjects completed four different exercise protocols (work load of the legs was matched): C - cycling at 171 ± 6 W for 60 min (control); A - cycling at 171 ± 6 W for 60 min, with addition of intermittent arm exercise (98 ± 4 W). DS - cycling at 171 ± 6 W interspersed by 30 sec sprints (513 ± 19 W) every 10 min (distributed sprints); and CS - cycling at 171 ± 6 W for 40 min followed by 20 min of six 30 sec sprints (clustered sprints). Sprints were followed by 3:24 min:sec at 111 ± 4 W. A biopsy was obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest and immediately, and 2 and 5 h after exercise. Muscle PGC-1α mRNA content was elevated (P < 0.05) three- to sixfold 2 h after exercise relative to rest in C, A, and DS, with no differences between protocols. AMPK and p38 phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) immediately after exercise than at rest in all protocols, and 1.3- to 2-fold higher (P < 0.05) in CS than in the other protocols. CREB phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) 2 and 5 h after exercise than at rest in all protocols, and higher (P < 0.05) in DS than CS 2 h after exercise. This suggests that neither plasma adrenaline nor muscle metabolic stress determines the magnitude of PGC-1α mRNA response in human muscle. Furthermore, higher exercise-induced changes in AMPK, p38, and CREB phosphorylation are not associated with differences in the PGC-1α mRNA response.

  5. Impact of adrenaline and metabolic stress on exercise-induced intracellular signaling and PGC-1α mRNA response in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hostrup, Morten; Tybirk, Jonas; Nybo, Lars; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma adrenaline or metabolic stress enhances exercise-induced PGC-1α mRNA and intracellular signaling in human muscle. Trained (VO2-max: 53.8 ± 1.8 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) male subjects completed four different exercise protocols (work load of the legs was matched): C - cycling at 171 ± 6 W for 60 min (control); A - cycling at 171 ± 6 W for 60 min, with addition of intermittent arm exercise (98 ± 4 W). DS - cycling at 171 ± 6 W interspersed by 30 sec sprints (513 ± 19 W) every 10 min (distributed sprints); and CS - cycling at 171 ± 6 W for 40 min followed by 20 min of six 30 sec sprints (clustered sprints). Sprints were followed by 3:24 min:sec at 111 ± 4 W. A biopsy was obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest and immediately, and 2 and 5 h after exercise. Muscle PGC-1α mRNA content was elevated (P < 0.05) three- to sixfold 2 h after exercise relative to rest in C, A, and DS, with no differences between protocols. AMPK and p38 phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) immediately after exercise than at rest in all protocols, and 1.3- to 2-fold higher (P < 0.05) in CS than in the other protocols. CREB phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) 2 and 5 h after exercise than at rest in all protocols, and higher (P < 0.05) in DS than CS 2 h after exercise. This suggests that neither plasma adrenaline nor muscle metabolic stress determines the magnitude of PGC-1α mRNA response in human muscle. Furthermore, higher exercise-induced changes in AMPK, p38, and CREB phosphorylation are not associated with differences in the PGC-1α mRNA response. PMID:27436584

  6. Australian Association for Exercise and Sport Science position stand: optimising cancer outcomes through exercise.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sandra C; Spence, Rosalind R; Galvão, Daniel A; Newton, Robert U

    2009-07-01

    Cancer represents a major public health concern in Australia. Causes of cancer are multifactorial with lack of physical activity being considered one of the known risk factors, particularly for breast and colorectal cancers. Participating in exercise has also been associated with benefits during and following treatment for cancer, including improvements in psychosocial and physical outcomes, as well as better compliance with treatment regimens, reduced impact of disease symptoms and treatment-related side-effects, and survival benefits for particular cancers. The general exercise prescription for people undertaking or having completed cancer treatment is of low to moderate intensity, regular frequency (3-5 times/week) for at least 20 min per session, involving aerobic, resistance or mixed exercise types. Future work needs to push the boundaries of this exercise prescription, so that we can better understand what constitutes optimal, desirable and necessary frequency, duration, intensity and type, and how specific characteristics of the individual (e.g., age, cancer type, treatment, presence of specific symptoms) influence this prescription. What follows is a summary of the cancer and exercise literature, in particular the purpose of exercise following diagnosis of cancer, the potential benefits derived by cancer patients and survivors from participating in exercise programs, and exercise prescription guidelines and contraindications or considerations for exercise prescription with this special population. This report represents the position stand of the Australian Association of Exercise and Sport Science on exercise and cancer recovery and has the purpose of guiding exercise practitioners in their work with cancer patients.

  7. Core Muscle Activity, Exercise Preference, and Perceived Exertion during Core Exercise with Elastic Resistance versus Machine.

    PubMed

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26-67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36-64] versus 32% [95% CI 18-46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64-90] versus 54% [95% CI 40-67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88-6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81-6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance.

  8. The impact of submaximal exercise during heat and/or hypoxia on the cardiovascular and monocyte HSP72 responses to subsequent (post 24 h) exercise in hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to describe the cellular stress response to prolonged endurance exercise in acute heat, hypoxia and the combination of heat and hypoxia and to determine whether prior acute exposure to these stressors improved cellular tolerance to a subsequent exercise bout in hypoxia 24 h later. Methods Twelve males (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.77 ± 0.05 m, mass 79 ± 12.9 kg, VO2 max 3.57 ± 0.7 L · min-1) completed four trials (30-min rest, 90-min cycling at 50% normoxic VO2 max) in normothermic normoxia (NORM; 18°C, FIO2 = 0.21), heat (HEAT; 40°C, 20% RH), hypoxia (HYP; FIO2 = 0.14) or a combination of heat and hypoxia (COM; 40°C, 20% RH, FIO2 = 0.14) separated by at least 7 days. Twenty-four hours after each trial, participants completed a hypoxic stress test (HST; 15-min rest, 60-min cycling at 50% normoxic VO2 max, FIO2 = 0.14). Monocyte heat shock protein 72 (mHSP72) was assessed immediately before and after each exercise bout. Results mHSP72 increased post exercise in NORM (107% ± 5.5%, p > 0.05), HYP (126% ± 16%, p < 0.01), HEAT (153% ± 14%, p < 0.01) and COM (161% ± 32%, p < 0.01). mHSP72 had returned to near-resting values 24 h after NORM (97% ± 8.6%) but was elevated after HEAT (130% ± 19%), HYP (118% ± 17%) and COM (131% ± 19%) (p < 0.05). mHSP72 increased from baseline after HSTNORM (118% ± 12%, p < 0.05), but did not increase further in HSTHEAT, HSTHYP and HSTCOM. Conclusions The prior induction of mHSP72 as a result of COM, HEAT and HYP attenuated further mHSP72 induction after HST and was indicative of conferred cellular tolerance. PMID:25343025

  9. Modal Analysis with the Mobile Modal Testing Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has tested rocket engines with high pulse frequencies. This has resulted in the use of some of WSTF's existing thrust stands, which were designed for static loading, in tests with large dynamic forces. In order to ensure that the thrust stands can withstand the dynamic loading of high pulse frequency engines while still accurately reporting the test data, their vibrational modes must be characterized. If it is found that they have vibrational modes with frequencies near the pulsing frequency of the test, then they must be modified to withstand the dynamic forces from the pulsing rocket engines. To make this determination the Mobile Modal Testing Unit (MMTU), a system capable of determining the resonant frequencies and mode shapes of a structure, was used on the test stands at WSTF. Once the resonant frequency has been determined for a test stand, it can be compared to the pulse frequency of a test engine to determine whether or not that stand can avoid resonance and reliably test that engine. After analysis of test stand 406 at White Sands Test Facility, it was determined that natural frequencies for the structure are located around 75, 125, and 240 Hz, and thus should be avoided during testing.

  10. Analysis of the WRF-Chem simulations contributing to the AQMEII-Phase II exercise with respect to aerosol impact on precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werhahn, Johannes; Balzarini, Allessandra; Baró, Roccio; Curci, Gabriele; Forkel, Renate; Hirtl, Marcus; Honzak, Luka; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Langer, Matthias; Lorenz, Christof; Pérez, Juan L.; Pirovano, Guido; San José, Roberto; Tuccella, Paolo; Žabkar, Rahela

    2014-05-01

    Simulated feedback effects between aerosol concentrations and meteorological variables and on pollutant distributions are expected to depend on model configuration and the meteorological situation. In order to quantity these effects the second phase of the AQMEII (Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative; http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/) model inter-comparison exercise focused on online coupled meteorology-chemistry models. Among others, seven of the participating groups contributed simulations with WRF-Chem (Grell et al., 2005) for Europe. According to the common simulation strategy for AQMEII phase 2, the entire year 2010 was simulated as a sequence of 2-day time slices. For better comparability, the seven groups using WRF-Chem applied the same grid spacing of 23 km and shared common processing of initial and boundary conditions as well as anthropogenic and fire emissions. The simulations differ by the chosen chemistry option, aerosol module, cloud microphysics, and by the degree of aerosol-meteorology feedback that was considered. Results from this small ensemble are analyzed with respect to the effect of the different degrees of aerosol-meteorology feedback, i.e. no aerosol feedback, direct aerosol effect, and direct plus indirect aerosol effect, on large scale precipitation. Simulated precipitation fields were compared against daily precipitation observations as given by E-OBS 25 km resolution gridded dataset from the EU-FP6 project ENSEMBLES (http://ensembles-eu.metoffice.com) and the data providers in the ECA&D project (http://www.ecad.eu). As expected, a first analysis confirms that the average impact of aerosol feedback is only very small on the considered spatial and temporal scale, i.e. due to the fact that initial meteorological conditions were taken every 3rd day from a one day non-feedback spin-up run. However, the analysis of the correlations between simulation and observations for the first and the second day indicates for some

  11. The impact of adding weight-bearing exercise versus nonweight bearing programs to the medical treatment of elderly patients with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Shanb, Alsayed A.; Youssef, Enas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem affecting the elderly population, particularly women. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of adding weight-bearing exercise as opposed to nonweight-bearing programs to the medical treatment of bone mineral density (BMD) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of elderly patients with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: Participating in the study were 40 elderly osteoporotic patients (27 females and 13 males), with ages ranging from 60 to 67 years, who were receiving medical treatment for osteoporosis. They were assigned randomly into two groups: Group-I: Twenty patients practiced weight-bearing exercises. Group-II: Twenty patients did nonweight-bearing exercises. All patients trained for 45-60 min/session, two sessions/week for 6 months. BMD of the lumbar spine, right neck of femur, and right distal radial head of all patients were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after both treatment programs. In addition, the QoL was measured by means of the HRQoL “ECOS-16” questionnaire. Results: T-tests proved that mean values of BMD of the lumbar spine, right neck of femur and right distal radial head were significantly increased in both groups with greater improvement in the weight-bearing group. The QoL was significantly improved in both groups, but the difference between them was not significant. Conclusion: Addition of weight-bearing exercise program to medical treatment increases BMD more than nonweight-bearing exercise in elderly subjects with osteoporosis. Furthermore, both weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing exercise programs significantly improved the QoL of patients with osteoporosis. PMID:25374469

  12. Impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on branched-chain amino acid turnover, glycine metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Erin L.; Piner, Lucy W.; Huffman, Kim M.; Slentz, Cris A.; Elliot-Penry, Lorraine; AbouAssi, Hiba; White, Phillip J.; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Stevens, Robert D.; Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.; Volpi, Elena; Brosnan, M. Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K.; Rolph, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypotheses Obesity is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BCAA metabolism and IS in overweight (OW) individuals during exercise intervention. Methods Whole-body leucine turnover, IS by hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp, and circulating and skeletal muscle amino acids, branched-chain α-keto acids and acylcarnitines were measured in ten healthy controls (Control) and nine OW, untrained, insulin-resistant individuals (OW-Untrained). OW-Untrained then underwent a 6 month aerobic and resistance exercise programme and repeated testing (OW-Trained). Results IS was higher in Control vs OW-Untrained and increased significantly following exercise. IS was lower in OW-Trained vs Control expressed relative to body mass, but was not different from Control when normalised to fat-free mass (FFM). Plasma BCAAs and leucine turnover (relative to FFM) were higher in OW-Untrained vs Control, but did not change on average with exercise. Despite this, within individuals, the decrease in molar sum of circulating BCAAs was the best metabolic predictor of improvement in IS. Circulating glycine levels were higher in Control and OW-Trained vs OW-Untrained, and urinary metabolic profiling suggests that exercise induces more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic amino acid (AA) metabolism via formation of urinary glycine adducts. Conclusions/interpretation A mechanism involving more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic AA metabolism via glycine conjugation in the liver, rather than increased BCAA disposal through oxidation and turnover, may mediate interactions between exercise, BCAA metabolism and IS. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01786941 PMID:26254576

  13. Learn to love exercise

    MedlinePlus

    Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...

  14. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  15. Diet and Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested in covering the latest ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

  16. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  17. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs

    PubMed Central

    Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W.; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch‐Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non‐exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non‐exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature‐ and metabolism‐sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (T B), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher T B and limb V˙O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to T B (r 2 = 0.91; P < 0.05), plasma ATP (r 2 = 0.94; P < 0.05) and limb V˙O2 (r 2 = 0.99; P < 0.05). During incremental leg exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in T B and limb V˙O2, whereas ABF, arm T B and V˙O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V˙O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral T B and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery T B and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central

  18. The effects of aquatic, isometric strength-stretching and aerobic exercise on physical and psychological parameters of female patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sevimli, Dilek; Kozanoglu, Erkan; Guzel, Rengin; Doganay, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] There are various treatment modalities for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), which is characterized by widespread pain and fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic, aerobic and isometric strength-stretching exercises on the physical and psychological parameters of patients with FMS. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy five female patients with FMS were randomly selected and divided into three groups. Patients (18–50 years) were treated for 3 months using one of three methods: a home-based isometric strength and stretching exercise program (ISSEP), a gym-based aerobic exercise program (AEP), and a pool-based aquatic aerobic exercise program (AAEP). Items evaluated were: the number of tender points, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), SF-36 physical and mental health scores, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). [Results] The results revealed that AAEP was the most effective treatment of the three. All of the groups showed significant improvements in all variables between pre-and post-test, except the mean values of VAS and BDI in ISSEP. [Conclusion] The results suggest that aquatic aerobic exercise program is more effective than AEP and ISSEP in the treatment of FMS. PMID:26180320

  19. Application of a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion and power system to military missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of arms technology and space access combined with current economic realities in the United States are creating ever greater demands for more capable space-based military assets. The paper illustrates that bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is a high-leverage tehcnology that can maximize utility while minimizing cost. Mission benefits offered by the bi-modal PBR, including enhanced maneuverability, lifetime, survivability, payload power, and operational flexibility, are discussed. The ability to deliver desired payloads on smaller boosters is also illustrated. System descriptions and parameters for 10 kWe and 100 kWe power output levels are summarized. It is demonstrated via design exercise that bi-modal PBR dramtically enhances performance of a military satellite in geosynchronous orbit, increasing payload mass, payload power, and maneuverability.

  20. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  1. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  2. Methodological Constraints for Detecting the Modality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoor, Cornelia; Bannert, Maria; Jahn, Verena

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our research was to investigate the modality effect in more detail by measuring it in a direct way. Two studies were conducted using the same subject and material. Method: Computer-based learning material was presented on several screens, each containing a short text and a picture. Modality was varied by presenting written…

  3. Teaching the Modals in an ESL Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, James W.

    Generalizations regarding languages should be presented to students to aid them in mastering the surface forms they encounter. Hoffmen's analysis of modals postulates a root meaning and an epistemic meaning for modals and predicts that the root interpretation is generally excluded by the progressive and perfect tenses. This system may form the…

  4. Exercise increases mitochondrial glutamate oxidation in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Eric A F; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of acute exercise on stimulating mitochondrial respiratory function in mouse cerebral cortex. Where pyruvate-stimulated respiration was not affected by acute exercise, glutamate respiration was enhanced following the exercise bout. Additional assessment revealed that this affect was dependent on the presence of malate and did not occur when substituting glutamine for glutamate. As such, our results suggest that glutamate oxidation is enhanced with acute exercise through activation of the malate-aspartate shuttle. PMID:27184881

  5. a Modal Logic of Indiscernibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Décio Arenhart, Jonas R. Becker; Merlussi, Pedro

    This paper is a continuation of the authors' attempts to deal with the notion of indistinguishability (or indiscernibility) from a logical point of view. Now we introduce a two-sorted first-order modal logic to enable us to deal with objects of two different species. The intended interpretation is that objects of one of the species obey the rules of standard S5, while the objects of the other species obey only the rules of a weaker notion of indiscernibility. Quantum mechanics motivates the development. The basic idea is that in the `actual' world things may be indiscernible but in another accessible world they may be distinguished in some way. That is, indistinguishability needs not be seen as a necessary relation. Contrariwise, things might be distinguished in the `actual' world, but they may be indiscernible in another world. So, while two quantum systems may be entangled in the actual world, in some accessible world, due to a measurement, they can be discerned, and on the other hand, two initially separated quantum systems may enter in a state of superposition, losing their individualities. Two semantics are sketched for our system. The first is constructed within a standard set theory (the ZFC system is assumed at the metamathematics). The second one is constructed within the theory of quasi-sets, which we believe suits better the purposes of our logic and the mathematical treatment of certain situations in quantum mechanics. Some further philosophically related topics are considered.

  6. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  7. Modal analysis of PATHFINDER unmanned air vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Woehrle, T.G.; Costerus, B.W.; Lee, C.L.

    1994-10-19

    An experimental modal analysis was performed on PATHFINDER, a 450-lb, 100-ft wing span, flying-wing-design aircraft powered by solar/electric motors. The aircraft was softly suspended and then excited using random input from a long-stroke shaker. Modal data was taken from 92 measurement locations on the aircraft using newly designed, lightweight, tri-axial accelerometers. A conventional PC-based data acquisition system provided data handling. Modal parameters were calculated, and animated mode shapes were produced using SMS STARStruct{trademark} Modal Analysis System software. The modal parameters will be used for validation of finite element models, optimum placement of onboard accelerometers during flight testing, and vibration isolation design of sensor platforms.

  8. Impact of aerobic exercise training during chemotherapy on cancer related cognitive impairments in patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome - Study protocol of a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, P; Oberste, M; Bloch, W; Schenk, A; Joisten, N; Hartig, P; Wolf, F; Baumann, F T; Garthe, A; Hallek, M; Elter, T

    2016-07-01

    Cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI) are frequently reported by patients prior to, during and after medical treatment. Although this cognitive decline severely affects patients' quality of life, little is known about effective treatments. Exercise programs represent a promising supportive strategy in this field. However, evidence is sparse and existing studies display methodological limitations. In the planned study, 83 men and women newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) will be randomized into one of three treatment groups. During 4weeks of induction chemotherapy with Anthracycline and Cytarabin patients allocated to exercise group will cycle 3×/week for 30min at moderate to vigorous intensity on an ergometer. Patients allocated to placebo group will receive a supervised myofascial release training (3×/week, approx. 30min) and patients at control group will get usual care. As primary endpoints a cognitive test battery will be conducted measuring performances depending on verbal/spatial memory and executive functioning. Secondary endpoints will be self-perceived cognitive functioning, as well as neurotrophic and inflammatory serum markers. All assessments will be conducted immediately after hospitalization and before chemotherapy is commenced, immediately before discharge of hospital after 4-5weeks as well as before continuing medical treatment 3-4weeks after discharge. This will be the first study investigating the impact of an aerobic exercise training on CRCI in AML/MDS patients. We hope that the study design and the state-of-the-art assessments will help to increase knowledge about CRCI in general and exercise as potential treatment option in this under investigated population. PMID:27261170

  9. Impact of aerobic exercise training during chemotherapy on cancer related cognitive impairments in patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome - Study protocol of a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, P; Oberste, M; Bloch, W; Schenk, A; Joisten, N; Hartig, P; Wolf, F; Baumann, F T; Garthe, A; Hallek, M; Elter, T

    2016-07-01

    Cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI) are frequently reported by patients prior to, during and after medical treatment. Although this cognitive decline severely affects patients' quality of life, little is known about effective treatments. Exercise programs represent a promising supportive strategy in this field. However, evidence is sparse and existing studies display methodological limitations. In the planned study, 83 men and women newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) will be randomized into one of three treatment groups. During 4weeks of induction chemotherapy with Anthracycline and Cytarabin patients allocated to exercise group will cycle 3×/week for 30min at moderate to vigorous intensity on an ergometer. Patients allocated to placebo group will receive a supervised myofascial release training (3×/week, approx. 30min) and patients at control group will get usual care. As primary endpoints a cognitive test battery will be conducted measuring performances depending on verbal/spatial memory and executive functioning. Secondary endpoints will be self-perceived cognitive functioning, as well as neurotrophic and inflammatory serum markers. All assessments will be conducted immediately after hospitalization and before chemotherapy is commenced, immediately before discharge of hospital after 4-5weeks as well as before continuing medical treatment 3-4weeks after discharge. This will be the first study investigating the impact of an aerobic exercise training on CRCI in AML/MDS patients. We hope that the study design and the state-of-the-art assessments will help to increase knowledge about CRCI in general and exercise as potential treatment option in this under investigated population.

  10. Effect of exercise training on endothelium-derived nitric oxide function in humans.

    PubMed

    Green, Daniel J; Maiorana, Andrew; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Taylor, Roger

    2004-11-15

    Vascular endothelial function is essential for maintenance of health of the vessel wall and for vasomotor control in both conduit and resistance vessels. These functions are due to the production of numerous autacoids, of which nitric oxide (NO) has been the most widely studied. Exercise training has been shown, in many animal and human studies, to augment endothelial, NO-dependent vasodilatation in both large and small vessels. The extent of the improvement in humans depends upon the muscle mass subjected to training; with forearm exercise, changes are restricted to the forearm vessels while lower body training can induce generalized benefit. Increased NO bioactivity with exercise training has been readily and consistently demonstrated in subjects with cardiovascular disease and risk factors, in whom antecedent endothelial dysfunction exists. These conditions may all be associated with increased oxygen free radicals which impact on NO synthase activity and with which NO reacts; repeated exercise and shear stress stimulation of NO bioactivity redresses this radical imbalance, hence leading to greater potential for autacoid bioavailability. Recent human studies also indicate that exercise training may improve endothelial function by up-regulating eNOS protein expression and phosphorylation. While improvement in NO vasodilator function has been less frequently found in healthy subjects, a higher level of training may lead to improvement. Regarding time course, studies indicate that short-term training increases NO bioactivity, which acts to homeostatically regulate the shear stress associated with exercise. Whilst the increase in NO bioactivity dissipates within weeks of training cessation, studies also indicate that if exercise is maintained, the short-term functional adaptation is succeeded by NO-dependent structural changes, leading to arterial remodelling and structural normalization of shear. Given the strong prognostic links between vascular structure, function

  11. Novel mouth-exercising device for oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Patil, Smita P

    2012-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in progressive juxtaepithelial fibrosis of the oral soft tissues and can cause increasing difficulty in mastication, swallowing, speaking, and mouth opening. The treatment of severe trismus requires a combination of surgical release and physiotherapy. Often physiotherapy alone can modify tissue remodeling in OSMF to increase oral opening. This article describes the fabrication and use of a new mouth-exercising device that helps the patient to squeeze/stretch the cheek mucosa to increase elasticity. The device can be used as a sole treatment modality or can be used in association with pharmacological and surgical treatment modalities for OSMF. Improvement in mouth opening was observed in four OSMF patients treated with a mouth-exercising device for 6 months as a sole treatment modality.

  12. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  13. Acute paraquat exposure determines dose-dependent oxidative injury of multiple organs and metabolic dysfunction in rats: impact on exercise tolerance.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Rômulo D; Gonçalves, Reggiani V; Cupertino, Marli C; Santos, Eliziária C; Bigonha, Solange M; Fernandes, Geraldo J M; Maldonado, Izabel R S C; Natali, Antônio J

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the pathological morphofunctional adaptations related to the imbalance of exercise tolerance triggered by paraquat (PQ) exposure in rats. The rats were randomized into four groups with eight animals each: (a) SAL (control): 0.5 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution; (b) PQ10: PQ 10 mg/kg; (c) PQ20: PQ 20 mg/kg; and (d) PQ30: PQ 30 mg/kg. Each group received a single injection of PQ. After 72 hours, the animals were subjected to an incremental aerobic running test until fatigue in order to determine exercise tolerance, blood glucose and lactate levels. After the next 24 h, lung, liver and skeletal muscle were collected for biometric, biochemical and morphological analyses. The animals exposed to PQ exhibited a significant anticipation of anaerobic metabolism during the incremental aerobic running test, a reduction in exercise tolerance and blood glucose levels as well as increased blood lactate levels during exercise compared to control animals. PQ exposure increased serum transaminase levels and reduced the glycogen contents in liver tissue and skeletal muscles. In the lung, the liver and the skeletal muscle, PQ exposure also increased the contents of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as a structural remodelling compared to the control group. All these changes were dose-dependent. Reduced exercise tolerance after PQ exposure was potentially influenced by pathological remodelling of multiple organs, in which glycogen depletion in the liver and skeletal muscle and the imbalance of glucose metabolism coexist with the induction of lipid, protein and DNA oxidation, a destructive process not counteracted by the upregulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27277193

  14. Comparing the impact of an acute exercise bout on plasma amino acid composition, intraerythrocytic Ca(2+) handling, and red cell function in athletes and untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Makhro, Asya; Haider, Thomas; Wang, Jue; Bogdanov, Nikolay; Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Gassmann, Max; Hecksteden, Anne; Kaestner, Lars; Bogdanova, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediating Ca(2+) uptake upon stimulation with glutamate and glycine were recently discovered in red blood cells (RBC) of healthy humans. Activation of these receptors with agonists triggered transient Ca(2+)-dependent decrease in hemoglobin oxygen affinity in RBC suspension. The aim of this study was to assess the potential physiological relevance of this phenomenon. Two groups formed by either healthy untrained volunteers or endurance athletes were subjected to a stepwise incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Plasma glutamate levels, activity of the NMDARs, and hemoglobin O2 affinity were measured in blood samples obtained before and after the exercise in both groups. Increase in plasma glutamate levels following exercise was observed in both groups. Transient Ca(2+) accumulation in response to the NMDAR stimulation with NMDA and glycine was followed by facilitated Ca(2+) extrusion from the RBC and compensatory decrease in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Short-term activation of the receptors triggered a transient decrease in O2 affinity of hemoglobin in both groups. These exercise-induced responses were more pronounced in athletes compared to the untrained subjects. Athletes were initially presented with lower basal intracellular Ca(2+) levels and hemoglobin oxygen affinity compared to non-trained controls. High basal plasma glutamate levels were associated with induction of hemolysis and formation of echinocytes upon stimulation with the receptor agonists. These findings suggest that glutamate release occurring during exhaustive exercise bouts may acutely facilitate O2 liberation from hemoglobin and improve oxygen delivery to the exercising muscle. PMID:27292137

  15. Comparing the impact of an acute exercise bout on plasma amino acid composition, intraerythrocytic Ca(2+) handling, and red cell function in athletes and untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Makhro, Asya; Haider, Thomas; Wang, Jue; Bogdanov, Nikolay; Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Gassmann, Max; Hecksteden, Anne; Kaestner, Lars; Bogdanova, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediating Ca(2+) uptake upon stimulation with glutamate and glycine were recently discovered in red blood cells (RBC) of healthy humans. Activation of these receptors with agonists triggered transient Ca(2+)-dependent decrease in hemoglobin oxygen affinity in RBC suspension. The aim of this study was to assess the potential physiological relevance of this phenomenon. Two groups formed by either healthy untrained volunteers or endurance athletes were subjected to a stepwise incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Plasma glutamate levels, activity of the NMDARs, and hemoglobin O2 affinity were measured in blood samples obtained before and after the exercise in both groups. Increase in plasma glutamate levels following exercise was observed in both groups. Transient Ca(2+) accumulation in response to the NMDAR stimulation with NMDA and glycine was followed by facilitated Ca(2+) extrusion from the RBC and compensatory decrease in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Short-term activation of the receptors triggered a transient decrease in O2 affinity of hemoglobin in both groups. These exercise-induced responses were more pronounced in athletes compared to the untrained subjects. Athletes were initially presented with lower basal intracellular Ca(2+) levels and hemoglobin oxygen affinity compared to non-trained controls. High basal plasma glutamate levels were associated with induction of hemolysis and formation of echinocytes upon stimulation with the receptor agonists. These findings suggest that glutamate release occurring during exhaustive exercise bouts may acutely facilitate O2 liberation from hemoglobin and improve oxygen delivery to the exercising muscle.

  16. Exercise countermeasures for spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a physiological basis for the use of exercise as a weightlessness countermeasure, outline special considerations for the development of exercise countermeasures, review and evaluate exercise used during space flight, and provide new approaches and concepts for the implementation of novel exercise countermeasures for future space flight. The discussion of the physiological basis for countermeasures examines maximal oxygen uptake, blood volume, metabolic responses to work, muscle function, bone loss, and orthostatic instability. The discussion of considerations for exercise prescriptions during space flight includes operational considerations, type of exercise, fitness considerations, age and gender, and psychological considerations. The discussion of exercise currently used in space flight examines cycle ergometry, the treadmill, strength training devices, electrical stimulation, and the Penguin suit worn by Russian crews. New approaches to exercise countermeasures include twin bicycles, dynamic resistance exercisers, maximal exercise effects, grasim (gravity simulators), and the relationship between exercise and LBNP. PMID:11541470

  17. Non invasive ventilation as an additional tool for exercise training.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Cigni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of non invasive ventilation (NIV) to increase exercise capacity. In individuals with COPD, NIV during exercise reduces dyspnoea and increases exercise tolerance. Different modalities of mechanical ventilation have been used non-invasively as a tool to increase exercise tolerance in COPD, heart failure and lung and thoracic restrictive diseases. Inspiratory support provides symptomatic benefit by unloading the ventilatory muscles, whereas Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) counterbalances the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure in COPD patients. Severe stable COPD patients undergoing home nocturnal NIV and daytime exercise training showed some benefits. Furthermore, it has been reported that in chronic hypercapnic COPD under long-term ventilatory support, NIV can also be administered during walking. Despite these results, the role of NIV as a routine component of pulmonary rehabilitation is still to be defined. PMID:25874110

  18. Computing the modal mass from the state space model in combined experimental-operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Modal parameters comprise natural frequencies, damping ratios, modal vectors and modal masses. In a theoretic framework, these parameters are the basis for the solution of vibration problems using the theory of modal superposition. In practice, they can be computed from input-output vibration data: the usual procedure is to estimate a mathematical model from the data and then to compute the modal parameters from the estimated model. The most popular models for input-output data are based on the frequency response function, but in recent years the state space model in the time domain has become popular among researchers and practitioners of modal analysis with experimental data. In this work, the equations to compute the modal parameters from the state space model when input and output data are available (like in combined experimental-operational modal analysis) are derived in detail using invariants of the state space model: the equations needed to compute natural frequencies, damping ratios and modal vectors are well known in the operational modal analysis framework, but the equation needed to compute the modal masses has not generated much interest in technical literature. These equations are applied to both a numerical simulation and an experimental study in the last part of the work.

  19. It does belong together: cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Lionel; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted two experiments. Using a speeded classification task, Experiment 1 established a cross-modal correspondence between visual lightness and the frequency of an auditory tone. Using a short-term priming procedure, Experiment 2 showed that manipulation of such cross-modal correspondences led to the creation of a crossmodal unit regardless of the nature of the correspondence (i.e., congruent, Experiment 2a or incongruent, Experiment 2b). However, a comparison of priming effects sizes suggested that cross-modal correspondences modulate cross-modal integration during learning, leading to new learned units that have different stability over time. We discuss the implications of our results for the relation between cross-modal correspondence and perceptual learning in the context of a Bayesian explanation of cross-modal correspondences. PMID:25914653

  20. Determination of rolling tyre modal parameters using Finite Element techniques and Operational Modal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanivelu, Sakthivel; Narasimha Rao, K. V.; Ramarathnam, Krishna Kumar

    2015-12-01

    In order to address various noise generation mechanisms and noise propagation phenomena of a tyre, it is necessary to study the tyre dynamic behaviour in terms of modal parameters. This paper enumerates a novel method of finding the modal parameters of a rolling tyre using an Explicit Finite Element Analysis and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA). ABAQUS Explicit, a commercial Finite Element (FE) software code has been used to simulate the experiment, a tyre rolling over a semi-circular straight and inclined cleat. The acceleration responses obtained from these simulations are used as input to the OMA. LMS test lab has been used for carrying out the Operational Modal Analysis. The modal results are compared with the published results of Kindt [22] and validated. Also, the modal results obtained from OMA are compared with FE modal results of stationary unloaded tyre, stationary loaded tyre and Steady State Transport rolling tyre.

  1. NIF Periscope Wall Modal Study Comparison of Results for 2 FEA Models with 2 Modal Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Eli, M W; Gerhard, M A; Lee, C L; Sommer, S C; Woehrle, T G

    2000-10-26

    This report summarizes experimentally and numerically determined modal properties for one of the reinforced concrete end walls of the NIF Periscope Support Structure in Laser Bay 1. Two methods were used to determine these modal properties: (1) Computational finite-element analyses (modal extraction process); and (2) Experimental modal analysis based on measured test data. This report also includes experimentally determined modal properties for a prototype LM3/Polarizer line-replaceable unit (LRU) and a prototype PEPC LRU. Two important parameters, used during the design phase, are validated through testing [ref 1]. These parameters are the natural frequencies and modal damping (of the system in question) for the first several global modes of vibration. Experimental modal testing provides these modal values, along with the corresponding mode shapes. Another important parameter, the input excitation (expected during normal operation of the NIF laser system) [ref 1], can be verified by performing a series of ambient vibration measurements in the vicinity of the particular system (or subsystem) of interest. The topic of ambient input excitation will be covered in a separate report. Due to the large mass of the Periscope Pedestal, it is difficult to excite the entire series of Periscope Pedestal Walls all at once. It was decided that the experimental modal tests would be performed on just one Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1. Experimental modal properties for the Periscope End Wall have been used to validate and update the FE analyses. Results from the analyses and modal tests support the conclusion that the Periscope Pedestal will not exceed the stability budget, which is described in reference 1. The results of the modal tests for the Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1 have provided examples of modal properties that can be derived from future modal tests of the entire Periscope Assembly (excluding the LRU's). This next series of larger modal tests can be performed

  2. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants' exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015

  3. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M.; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015

  4. Sex differences with aging in nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow: impact of exercise training, nitric oxide, and α-adrenergic-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    La Favor, Justin D; Kraus, Raymond M; Carrithers, Jonathan A; Roseno, Steven L; Gavin, Timothy P; Hickner, Robert C

    2014-08-15

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases progressively with age, but aging may affect men and women differently. Age-associated changes in vascular structure and function may manifest in impaired nutritive blood flow, although the regulation of nutritive blood flow in healthy aging is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if nitric oxide (NO)-mediated or α-adrenergic-mediated regulation of nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow is impaired with advanced age, and if exercise training improves age-related deficiencies. Nutritive blood flow was monitored in the vastus lateralis of healthy young and aged men and women via the microdialysis-ethanol technique prior to and following seven consecutive days of exercise training. NO-mediated and α-adrenergic-mediated regulation of nutritive blood flow was assessed by microdialysis perfusion of acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, norepinephrine, or phentolamine. Pretraining nutritive blood flow was attenuated in aged compared with young women (7.39 ± 1.5 vs. 15.5 ± 1.9 ml·100 g(−1)·min(−1), P = 0.018), but not aged men (aged 13.5 ± 3.7 vs. young 9.4 ± 1.3 ml·100 g(−1)·min(−1), P = 0.747). There were no age-associated differences in NO-mediated or α-adrenergic-mediated nutritive blood flow. Exercise training increased resting nutritive blood flow only in young men (9.4 ± 1.3 vs. 19.7 ml·100 g(−1)·min(−1), P = 0.005). The vasodilatory effect of phentolamine was significantly reduced following exercise training only in young men (12.3 ± 6.14 vs. −3.68 ± 3.26 ml·100 g(−1)·min(−1), P = 0.048). In conclusion, the age-associated attenuation of resting nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow was specific to women, while the exercise-induced alleviation of α-adrenergic mediated vasoconstriction that was specific to young men suggests an age-associated modulation of the sympathetic response to exercise training. PMID:24951753

  5. The impact of resistance respiratory muscle training with a SpiroTiger® device on lung function, exercise performance, and health-related quality of life in respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Barinow-Wojewódzki, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are studies demonstrating that respiratory muscles can be trained using proper stimulation. Positive effects have been achieved in patients with pulmonary diseases and in patients after thoracic surgery procedures using isocapnic hyperpnoea training with a SpiroTiger® device. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SpiroTiger® training has an impact on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), exercise performance, respiratory muscle fitness, and health-related quality of life. Material and methods Search phrases “spirotiger” and “spiro tiger” were entered into the search engines of the following databases: Academic Search Complete, Medline, Ebscohost, and PubMed. Results One article about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 4 articles about cystic fibrosis were found. Conclusions The positive effect of SpiroTiger® training on FEV1 cannot be unequivocally confirmed as it was found only in two of the five analysed studies. SpiroTiger® training has a positive impact on exercise performance measured with the six-minute walk test; it increases breathing muscle fitness in patients with COPD and in patients after thoracic surgery procedures, and it improves health-related quality of life. PMID:26855662

  6. Syntactic Priming Effects between Modalities: A Study of Indirect Questions/Requests among Persian English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biria, Reza; Ameri-Golestan, Ahmad; Antón-Méndez, Inés

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of syntactic priming on production of indirect questions/requests by Persian learners of English as a foreign language. Eighty learners participated in two experiments investigating the impact of syntactic priming on oral production and the possibility of transfer of the priming effects to a different modality.…

  7. Adaptability and Replicability of Web-Facilitated, Hybrid, and Online Learning in an Undergraduate Exercise Psychology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Huaibo; Kempland, Monica; Blankson, Faustina H.

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to examine the effectiveness of web-facilitated, hybrid, and online learning modalities among undergraduate students in a public institution so as to determine the adaptability and replicability of these three learning modalities. This is a quasi-experimental study. A total of 103 undergraduate exercise science majors participated…

  8. Exercise Is Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  9. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  10. Modal Filtering for Control of Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2013-01-01

    Modal regulators and deformation trackers are designed for an open-loop fluttering wing model. The regulators are designed with modal coordinate and accelerometer inputs respectively. The modal coordinates are estimated with simulated fiber optics. The robust stability of the closed-loop systems is compared in a structured singular-value vector analysis. Performance is evaluated and compared in a gust alleviation and flutter suppression simulation. For the same wing and flight condition two wing-shape-tracking control architectures are presented, which achieve deformation control at any point on the wing.

  11. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    results of the seven studies with a total of 230 participants in exercise training analysis did not demonstrate a significant impact on homocysteine levels in the blood (-0.56 μmol/L, 95% CI: -1.61 to 0.50, p = .23). Conclusions Current evidence demonstrates that acute exercise increases homocysteine levels in the blood independent of exercise duration and intensity. Resistance, but not aerobic training decreases plasma homocysteine levels. PMID:26986570

  12. [Diabetes mellitus and exercise].

    PubMed

    Yoh, Kousei

    2006-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important life-style related diseases. As for the type 2 diabetes mellitus in particular, lack of exercise has a large influence on the onset and disease progress. We can improve glucose tolerance by exercising. Exercise is the most important fundamental treatment in diabetes mellitus. Continuation and safety become important to let exercise therapy succeed. It is important with a diabetic that a lot of patients without exercise habit should start to gain exercise habit. When we expect an exercise effect, we should take consideration of intensity and volume in exercise for performing. We should consider each contraindication matter even if we put it to have many complications with a diabetic when we perform exercise therapy. A case-by-case exercise treatment in diabetic patient is required.

  13. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women.

    PubMed

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo; Nose, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0 °C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women.

  14. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women

    PubMed Central

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo

    2015-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0°C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women. PMID:26514619

  15. Modal sound transmission loss of a single leaf panel: Effects of inter-modal coupling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong

    2015-06-01

    Sound transmission through a single leaf panel has mostly been discussed and explained by using the approaching wave concept, from which the well-known mass law can be derived. In this paper, the modal behavior in sound transmission coefficients is explored, and it is shown that the mutual modal radiation impedances in modal sound transmission coefficients may not be ignored even for a panel immersed in a light fluid. By introducing the equivalent modal impedance which incorporates the inter-modal coupling effect, an analytical expression for the modal sound transmission coefficient is derived, and the overall sound transmission coefficient is simply a modal superposition of modal sound transmission coefficients. A good correlation is obtained between analytical calculation and boundary element method. In addition, it is found that inter-modal coupling has noticeable effects in modal sound transmission coefficients in the subsonic region but may be ignored as modes become supersonic. It is also shown that the well-known mass law performance is attributed to all the supersonic modes.

  16. Comparing location memory for 4 sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Smeets, Monique A M; Postma, Albert

    2010-02-01

    Stimuli from all sensory modalities can be linked to places and thus might serve as navigation cues. We compared performance for 4 sensory modalities in a location memory task: Black-and-white drawings of free forms (vision), 1-s manipulated environmental sounds (audition), surface textures of natural and artificial materials (touch), and unfamiliar smells (olfaction) were presented in 10 cubes. In the learning stage, participants walked to a cube, opened it, and perceived its content. Subsequently, in a relocation task, they placed each stimulus back in its original location. Although the proportion of correct locations selected just failed to yield significant differences between the modalities, the proportion of stimuli placed in the vicinity of the correct location or on the correct side of the room was significantly higher for vision than for touch, olfaction, and audition. These outcomes suggest that approximate location memory is superior for vision compared with other sensory modalities.

  17. Modal-Power-Based Haptic Motion Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Sato, Masataka; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Motion recognition based on sensory information is important for providing assistance to human using robots. Several studies have been carried out on motion recognition based on image information. However, in the motion of humans contact with an object can not be evaluated precisely by image-based recognition. This is because the considering force information is very important for describing contact motion. In this paper, a modal-power-based haptic motion recognition is proposed; modal power is considered to reveal information on both position and force. Modal power is considered to be one of the defining features of human motion. A motion recognition algorithm based on linear discriminant analysis is proposed to distinguish between similar motions. Haptic information is extracted using a bilateral master-slave system. Then, the observed motion is decomposed in terms of primitive functions in a modal space. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Modal test structure project status report

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, D.O.; Gregory, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop a simple test structure which could be used to compare modal systems and modal methods. A secondary objective would be to develop a structure which could be used to train newcomers to modal testing. We wanted a structure which would be easy to analyze, have well defined properties, be easy to fabricate, and have both widely spaced and closely coupled modes. The widely spaced modes could test the single degree of freedom methods and the closely coupled modes could test the multiple degree of freedom methods. Most test structures have very low damping, while most real structures have significant damping. Each range of damping presents its own problems for modal extraction. We wanted to find a mateial with a moderate amount of damping to more closely model the kinds of structures frequently tested.

  19. Diabetes and exercise in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pessanha, Fernanda Pinheiro Amador S; Marchesi, Juliana Cristina Lemos S

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent among the elderly. Age-associated changes in body composition, obesity and sedentary behavior are some of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of diabetes in this population. Elderly patients experience important and specific issues, including the association of comorbidities and geriatric syndromes, use of many medications, the presence of dependencies and frailty. Physical activity has been shown to be as effective for the treatment of diabetes in the elderly as in younger patients, so that its practice must be strongly encouraged. Resistive activities are preferable for the frail and vulnerable diabetic elderly. Aerobic activities should be prescribed whenever possible, and the association of both modalities is the best choice. Moderate- to high-intensity exercises are more effective for glycemic control and, unlike previously thought, are generally safe for the elderly population. The frequency of exercising should be at least 3 days/week for aerobic and 2 days/week for resistance activities. Balance exercises may be beneficial in special situations. In the elderly patient, special care must be taken for: the presence of contraindications for the practice of each exercise modality; the interactions and limitations imposed by medications, chronic comorbidities and geriatric syndromes; the higher possibility of developing hypoglycemia, especially if insulin is used for treatment, and the prevention of orthostatic hypotension that may be worsened by dehydration. The prescription of exercises tailored for each patient's preferences and limitations is highly effective not only for glycemic control, but also for improving independence, self-esteem and quality of life.

  20. Diabetes and exercise in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pessanha, Fernanda Pinheiro Amador S; Marchesi, Juliana Cristina Lemos S

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent among the elderly. Age-associated changes in body composition, obesity and sedentary behavior are some of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of diabetes in this population. Elderly patients experience important and specific issues, including the association of comorbidities and geriatric syndromes, use of many medications, the presence of dependencies and frailty. Physical activity has been shown to be as effective for the treatment of diabetes in the elderly as in younger patients, so that its practice must be strongly encouraged. Resistive activities are preferable for the frail and vulnerable diabetic elderly. Aerobic activities should be prescribed whenever possible, and the association of both modalities is the best choice. Moderate- to high-intensity exercises are more effective for glycemic control and, unlike previously thought, are generally safe for the elderly population. The frequency of exercising should be at least 3 days/week for aerobic and 2 days/week for resistance activities. Balance exercises may be beneficial in special situations. In the elderly patient, special care must be taken for: the presence of contraindications for the practice of each exercise modality; the interactions and limitations imposed by medications, chronic comorbidities and geriatric syndromes; the higher possibility of developing hypoglycemia, especially if insulin is used for treatment, and the prevention of orthostatic hypotension that may be worsened by dehydration. The prescription of exercises tailored for each patient's preferences and limitations is highly effective not only for glycemic control, but also for improving independence, self-esteem and quality of life. PMID:25226807

  1. Conceptual Structure within and between Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Dilkina, Katia; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multimodal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings, and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic, and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1) to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2) to compare structures between modalities; and (3) to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly. Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color, and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities raise the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multifaceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:23293593

  2. Modal control of an oblique wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A linear modal control algorithm is applied to the NASA Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The control law is evaluated using a detailed nonlinear flight simulation. It is shown that the modal control law attenuates the coupling and nonlinear aerodynamics of the oblique wing and remains stable during control saturation caused by large command inputs or large external disturbances. The technique controls each natural mode independently allowing single-input/single-output techniques to be applied to multiple-input/multiple-output systems.

  3. Modal survey of the Brazilian launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, S. H. S.; Teixeira, H. S., Jr.; Pirk, R.; Arruda, J. R. F.

    This paper describes the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle modal analysis program being currently performed. A full scale mock-up of the solid propellant four-stage launcher will be tested in five different configurations. To simulate free-free boundary conditions, a pneumatic suspension system was developed, and its influence in the mock-up dynamic behavior was investigated. The theoretical FEM models and preliminary results of the modal test are shown, along with theoretical/experimental correlation discussions.

  4. Comparison of two dissimilar modal identification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Schenk, Axel; Niedbal, Norbert; Klusowski, Erhard

    1992-01-01

    Recent laboratory results using a refined phase resonance method and the eigensystem realization algorithm on the same test structure are reported. These methods are dissimilar modal identification techniques suitable for future large spacecraft. The theory, application approach, and results obtained for each technique are summarized and compared. Although both methods worked well in this investigation, significant differences occurred in some identified mode shapes. Comparison of independently derived modal parameters provides the means for disclosing such discrepancies in flight projects.

  5. Exercise as a Polypill for Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Exercise may be described as a polypill to prevent and/or treat almost every chronic disease, with obvious benefits such as its low cost and practical lack of adverse effects. Implementing physical activity interventions in public health is therefore a goal at the medical, social, and economic levels. This chapter describes the importance of health promotion through physical activity and discusses the impacts of exercise on the most prevalent chronic diseases, namely metabolic syndrome-related disorders, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. For each of these chronic conditions, we discuss the epidemiological evidence supporting a beneficial role of exercise, provide guidelines for exercise prescription, and describe the biological mechanisms whereby exercise exerts its modulatory effects. PMID:26477928

  6. Exercise, natural immunity, and tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman-Goetz, L

    1994-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce the growth of primary tumors and to enhance certain aspects of host natural immunity. The question of whether these are independent phenomena or are casually related has not been systematically evaluated. This paper presents information concerning the methodological difficulties in studying proposed relationships between exercise and cancer, focusing specifically on tumor metastasis, the process by which malignant cells disseminate to distant organs and establish new colonies. This paper also focuses on how natural immune processes and tumor cells exert bidirectional influences on each other. It is suggested that the direction of the impact of exercise on the control of metastatic spread of neoplastic cells will reflect, in part, the sensitivity of the specific tumor to cytolysis by natural immune mechanisms, the route of dissemination, the timing of exercise relative to tumor exposure, and whether exercise acts as a distress or eustress state.

  7. Biomechanical characteristics of barefoot footstrike modalities.

    PubMed

    Nunns, Michael; House, Carol; Fallowfield, Joanne; Allsopp, Adrian; Dixon, Sharon

    2013-10-18

    Barefoot running has increased in popularity over recent years, with suggested injury risk and performance benefits. However, despite many anecdotal descriptions of barefoot running styles, there is insufficient evidence regarding the specific characteristics of barefoot running. The present study provided reference data for four footstrike modalities adopted across a large cohort of habitually shod male runners while running barefoot: heel strikers (HS), midfoot strikers (MS), forefoot strikers (FS) and a newly defined group, toe runners (TR - contact made only with the forefoot), compared with the three modalities previously reported. Plantar pressure analysis was used for the classification of footstrike modality, with clearly distinguishable pressure patterns for different modalities. In the present study, the distribution of footstrike types was similar to that previously observed in shod populations. The absence of differences in ground contact time and stride length suggest that potential performance benefits of a non-HS style are more likely to be a function of the act of running barefoot, rather than of footstrike type. Kinematic data for the knee and ankle indicate that FS and TR require a stiffer leg than HS or MS, while ankle moment and plantar pressure data suggest that a TR style may put greater strain on the plantar-flexors, Achilles tendon and metatarsal heads. TR style should therefore only be adopted with caution by recreational runners. These findings indicate the importance of considering footstrike modality in research investigating barefoot running, and support the use of four footstrike modalities to categorise running styles.

  8. Damage localization using experimental modal parameters and topology optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, Hanno; Morlier, Joseph; Shahdin, Amir; Gourinat, Yves

    2010-04-01

    This work focuses on the development of a damage detection and localization tool using the topology optimization feature of MSC.Nastran. This approach is based on the correlation of a local stiffness loss and the change in modal parameters due to damages in structures. The loss in stiffness is accounted by the topology optimization approach for updating undamaged numerical models towards similar models with embedded damages. Hereby, only a mass penalization and the changes in experimentally obtained modal parameters are used as objectives. The theoretical background for the implementation of this method is derived and programmed in a Nastran input file and the general feasibility of the approach is validated numerically, as well as experimentally by updating a model of an experimentally tested composite laminate specimen. The damages have been introduced to the specimen by controlled low energy impacts and high quality vibration tests have been conducted on the specimen for different levels of damage. These supervised experiments allow to test the numerical diagnosis tool by comparing the result with both NDT technics and results of previous works (concerning shifts in modal parameters due to damage). Good results have finally been achieved for the localization of the damages by the topology optimization.

  9. Modal analysis using a Fourier analyzer, curve-fitting, and modal tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.; Chung, Y. T.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed modal test program differs from single-input methods in that preliminary data may be acquired using multiple inputs, and modal tuning procedures may be employed to define closely spaced frquency modes more accurately or to make use of frequency response functions (FRF's) which are based on several input locations. In some respects the proposed modal test proram resembles earlier sine-sweep and sine-dwell testing in that broadband FRF's are acquired using several input locations, and tuning is employed to refine the modal parameter estimates. The major tasks performed in the proposed modal test program are outlined. Data acquisition and FFT processing, curve fitting, and modal tuning phases are described and examples are given to illustrate and evaluate them.

  10. Exercise-induced Myocardial Ischemia Detected by Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross; Wasserman, Karlman; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan; Chronos, Nicolas; Boden, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a well-accepted physiologic evaluation technique in patients diagnosed with heart failure and in individuals presenting with unexplained dyspnea on exertion. Several variables obtained during CPET, including oxygen consumption relative to heart rate (VO2/HR or O2-pulse) and work rate (VO2/Watt) provide consistent, quantitative patterns of abnormal physiologic responses to graded exercise when left ventricular dysfunction is caused by myocardial ischemia. This concept paper describes both the methodology and clinical application of CPET associated with myocardial ischemia. Initial evidence indicates left ventricular dysfunction induced by myocardial ischemia may be accurately detected by an abnormal CPET response. CPET testing may complement current non-invasive testing modalities that elicit inducible ischemia. It provides a physiologic quantification of the work rate, heart rate and O2 uptake at which myocardial ischemia develops. In conclusion, the potential value of adding CPET with gas exchange measurements is likely to be of great value in diagnosing and quantifying both overt and occult myocardial ischemia and its reversibility with treatment. PMID:19231322

  11. Muscle functional MRI analysis of trunk muscle recruitment during extension exercises in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, E M D; Van Oosterwijck, J O; Vleeming, A; Vanderstraeten, G G; Danneels, L A

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the activity levels of the thoracic and lumbar extensor muscles during different extension exercise modalities in healthy individuals. Therefore, 14 subjects performed four different types of extension exercises in prone position: dynamic trunk extension, dynamic-static trunk extension, dynamic leg extension, and dynamic-static leg extension. Pre- and post-exercise muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from the latissimus dorsi, the thoracic and lumbar parts of the longissimus, iliocostalis, and multifidus were performed. Differences in water relaxation values (T2-relaxation) before and after exercise were calculated (T2-shift) as a measure of muscle activity and compared between extension modalities. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed higher lumbar extensor activity during trunk extension compared with leg extension (T2-shift of 5.01 ms and 3.55 ms, respectively) and during the dynamic-static exercise performance compared with the dynamic exercise performance (T2-shift of 4.77 ms and 3.55 ms, respectively). No significant differences in the thoracic extensor activity between the exercises could be demonstrated. During all extension exercises, the latissimus dorsi was the least activated compared with the paraspinal muscles. While all extension exercises are equivalent effective to train the thoracic muscles, trunk extension exercises performed in a dynamic-static way are the most appropriate to enhance lumbar muscle strength.

  12. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    -support loading experienced during inflight treadmill exercise impacts postflight functional performance, the loading history for each subject during inflight treadmill (T2) exercise was correlated with postflight measures of performance. Crewmembers who walked on the treadmill with higher pull-down loads had less decrement in postflight postural stability and dynamic locomotor control than those subjects who exercised with lighter loads. These data point to the importance of providing significant body loading during inflight treadmill exercise. This and the addition of specific balance training may further mitigate decrements in critical mission tasks that require dynamic postural stability and mobility. Inflight treadmill exercise provides a multi-disciplinary platform to provide sensorimotor, aerobic and bone mechanical stimuli benefits. Forward work will focus on the development of an inflight training system that will integrate aerobic, resistive and balance training modalities into a single interdisciplinary countermeasure system for exploration class missions.

  13. Composite Bending Box Section Modal Vibration Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudy

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns with Composite construction in critical structures such as wings and stabilizers is that hidden faults and cracks can develop operationally. In the real world, catastrophic sudden failure can result from these undetected faults in composite structures. Vibration data incorporating a broad frequency modal approach, could detect significant changes prior to failure. The purpose of this report is to investigate the usefulness of frequency mode testing before and after bending and torsion loading on a composite bending Box Test section. This test article is representative of construction techniques being developed for the recent NASA Blended Wing Body Low Speed Vehicle Project. The Box section represents the construction technique on the proposed blended wing aircraft. Modal testing using an impact hammer provides an frequency fingerprint before and after bending and torsional loading. If a significant structural discontinuity develops, the vibration response is expected to change. The limitations of the data will be evaluated for future use as a non-destructive in-situ method of assessing hidden damage in similarly constructed composite wing assemblies. Modal vibration fault detection sensitivity to band-width, location and axis will be investigated. Do the sensor accelerometers need to be near the fault and or in the same axis? The response data used in this report was recorded at 17 locations using tri-axial accelerometers. The modal tests were conducted following 5 independent loading conditions before load to failure and 2 following load to failure over a period of 6 weeks. Redundant data was used to minimize effects from uncontrolled variables which could lead to incorrect interpretations. It will be shown that vibrational modes detected failure at many locations when skin de-bonding failures occurred near the center section. Important considerations are the axis selected and frequency range.

  14. Exercise training in asthma.

    PubMed

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  15. Beyond visual imagery: how modality-specific is enhanced mental imagery in synesthesia?

    PubMed

    Spiller, Mary Jane; Jonas, Clare N; Simner, Julia; Jansari, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia based in visual modalities has been associated with reports of vivid visual imagery. We extend this finding to consider whether other forms of synesthesia are also associated with enhanced imagery, and whether this enhancement reflects the modality of synesthesia. We used self-report imagery measures across multiple sensory modalities, comparing synesthetes' responses (with a variety of forms of synesthesia) to those of non-synesthete matched controls. Synesthetes reported higher levels of visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory and tactile imagery and a greater level of imagery use. Furthermore, their reported enhanced imagery is restricted to the modalities involved in the individual's synesthesia. There was also a relationship between the number of forms of synesthesia an individual has, and the reported vividness of their imagery, highlighting the need for future research to consider the impact of multiple forms of synesthesia. We also recommend the use of behavioral measures to validate these self-report findings.

  16. Beyond visual imagery: how modality-specific is enhanced mental imagery in synesthesia?

    PubMed

    Spiller, Mary Jane; Jonas, Clare N; Simner, Julia; Jansari, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia based in visual modalities has been associated with reports of vivid visual imagery. We extend this finding to consider whether other forms of synesthesia are also associated with enhanced imagery, and whether this enhancement reflects the modality of synesthesia. We used self-report imagery measures across multiple sensory modalities, comparing synesthetes' responses (with a variety of forms of synesthesia) to those of non-synesthete matched controls. Synesthetes reported higher levels of visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory and tactile imagery and a greater level of imagery use. Furthermore, their reported enhanced imagery is restricted to the modalities involved in the individual's synesthesia. There was also a relationship between the number of forms of synesthesia an individual has, and the reported vividness of their imagery, highlighting the need for future research to consider the impact of multiple forms of synesthesia. We also recommend the use of behavioral measures to validate these self-report findings. PMID:25460242

  17. The immune response to resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Simonson, S R

    2001-08-01

    The immune response to exercise has received increased attention in the last decade. Most of this attention has focused on aerobic exercise (AEX), whereas the effect of resistance exercise (REX) has received comparatively little notice. Resistance exercise and AEX have different physiologic impacts; perhaps this also applies to the immune system. The purpose of this review was to determine a consensus from the REX immune studies that have been completed. This is complicated by the multitude of immune parameters, the varying methods used to assess them, and the paucity of studies performed. Thus, it is difficult to make a blanket statement. There is a REX-induced leukocytosis. Resistance conditioning (RCO) does not alter this response or affect the resting immune system. From these data, it appears that neither REX nor RCO demonstrates a significant impact on peripheral immunosurveillance. PMID:11710669

  18. Reduced Tic Symptomatology in Tourette Syndrome After an Acute Bout of Exercise: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Elena; Glazebrook, Cris; Hollis, Chris; Jackson, Georgina M

    2014-03-01

    In light of descriptive accounts of attenuating effects of physical activity on tics, we used an experimental design to assess the impact of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on tic expression in young people (N = 18) with Tourette Syndrome (TS). We compared video-based tic frequency estimates obtained during an exercise session with tic rates obtained during pre-exercise (baseline) and post-exercise interview-based sessions. Results showed significantly reduced tic rates during the exercise session compared with baseline, suggesting that acute exercise has an attenuating effect on tics. Tic rates also remained reduced relative to baseline during the post-exercise session, likely reflecting a sustained effect of exercise on tic reduction. Parallel to the observed tic attenuation, exercise also had a beneficial impact on self-reported anxiety and mood levels. The present findings provide novel empirical evidence for the beneficial effect of exercise on TS symptomatology bearing important research and clinical implications.

  19. Impact of weight loss with or without exercise on abdominal fat and insulin resistance in obese individuals: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula; Lopes, André Luiz; Fernandes, Pablo Rober; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Friedman, Rogério

    2013-08-28

    Evidence supports an important contribution of abdominal obesity and inflammation to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and CVD. Weight loss in obese individuals can reduce inflammation and, consequently, IR, but the role of training remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body weight reduction with and without exercise over abdominal fat tissue (primary outcome) and IR. In this randomised clinical trial, forty-eight obese individuals (age 31·8 (SD 6·0) years, BMI 34·8 (SD 2·7) kg/m2) were randomised to either a diet-only group (DI) or a diet and exercise group (DI þ EXE). Treatment was maintained until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, the following parameters were analysed: biochemical parameters such as glycaemia and insulin for the determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and abdominal computed tomography for the determination of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. A total of thirteen individuals dropped out before completing the weight-loss intervention and did not repeat the tests. In both the DI (n 18) and DI þ EXE (n 17) groups, we observed significant and similar decreases of visceral adipose tissue (difference between means: 7·9 (95% CI 29·5, 25·2) cm2, P¼0·36), hs-CRP (difference between means: 20·06 (95% CI 20·19, 0·03) mg/l, P¼0·39) and HOMA (difference between means: 20·04 (95% CI 20·17, 0·08), P¼0·53). In the present study, 5% weight loss reduced abdominal fat and IR in obese individuals and exercise did not add to the effect of weight loss on the outcome variables.

  20. Long-Term Impact of Preterm Birth on Exercise Capacity in Healthy Young Men: A National Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Svedenkrans, Jenny; Henckel, Ewa; Kowalski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of survivors of preterm birth are growing into adulthood today. Long-term health-effects of prematurity are still poorly understood, but include increased risk for diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. To test if reduced physical fitness may be a link in the causal chain of preterm birth and diseases in later life, the association of preterm birth and adult exercise capacity was investigated. The hypothesis was that preterm birth contributes independently of other risk factors to lower physical fitness in adulthood. Methods and Findings Population-based national cohort study of all males conscripting for military service in 1993–2001 and born in Sweden 1973–1983, n = 218,820. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Conscript Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Population and Housing Census 1990. Primary outcome was the results from maximal exercise test (Wmax in Watt) performed at conscription. Association to perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors, other co-variates and confounders were analysed. General linear modelling showed that preterm birth predicted low Wmax in a dose-response related pattern, with 25 Watt reduction in Wmax for the lowest gestational ages, those born ≤27 weeks. Low birth weight for gestational age also independently predicted low Wmax compared to normal and high birth weight (32 Watt reduction for those with a birth weight Standard Deviation Score <2). Low parental education was significantly associated with reduced Wmax (range 17 Watt), as well as both low and high current BMI, with severe obesity resulting in a 16 Watt deficit compared to Wmax top performance. Conclusion Being born preterm as well as being born small for gestational age predicts low exercise capacity in otherwise healthy young men. The effect size of being born preterm equal or exceed that of other known risk factors for unfitness in adults, such as low parental education and overweight. PMID:24324639

  1. Impact of exercise and vitamin B1 intake on hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and spatial memory performance in a rat model of stress.

    PubMed

    E Dief, Abeer; M Samy, Doaa; I Dowedar, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses through modulation of neurotropic factors or neurotransmitters. Therefore, we investigated the role of exercise and thiamine supplementation on spatial memory and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and acetylcholine (Ach) content in the hippocampus of the stressed animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (8 rats/group): control group; stress group; swimming and stress group; and thiamine and stress group. All animals were assessed by a T maze for spatial memory or open field test for locomotion and anxiety. BDNF and Ach were estimated in the hippocampus. Chronic immobilization stress resulted in a significant decrease in BDNF and Ach levels in the hippocampus and impairment in spatial memory functions and decreased basal activity. However, either swimming training or thiamine intake for 30 d was proved to induce a significant increase both in BDNF and Ach in conjunction with improved performance in the T maze, marked anxiolytic effect and enhanced ambulation in the open field test, as compared to the stress group. Interestingly, swimming-exercised rats showed significantly higher levels of BDNF versus thiamine-receiving rats, while thiamine-receiving rats showed higher locomotor activity and less freezing behavior in the open field test compared to the swimming group. It was concluded that decreased BDNF and Ach after stress exposure could be a mechanism for the deleterious actions of stress on memory function; swimming exercise or vitamin B1 supplementation for 30 d was a protective tool to improve coping with chronic stress by modulating BDNF and Ach content along with enhancement of memory functions and motor activities.

  2. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. PMID:24095123

  3. Workplace Exercise for Control of Occupational Neck/Shoulder Disorders: A Review of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian D; Dick, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    A review was conducted of prospective studies (1997–2014) examining the efficacy of exercise as a workplace intervention to control neck/shoulder pain, symptoms, and disability. The review identified 38 relevant studies – 20 were classified with positive effects, 13 with null effects, and 5 as inconclusive. Of the positive studies, 12 were consistent with Level I evidence, 3 with Level II evidence, and 5 with Level IV evidence. Specific resistance training (SRT) exercise appeared to be associated with more positive studies (eight Level I studies) than other exercise modalities such as general resistance training, general physical exercise, stretching, and movement awareness exercises. Studies of longer trial duration tended toward more null findings and lower program compliance. Evidence for a primary preventive effect of workplace exercise is minimal. The findings of this review suggest that workplace exercise can be effective as tertiary prevention and therapeutic relief of neck/shoulder symptoms, at least over the shorter term. PMID:25780338

  4. Demeter's Resilience: an International Food Defense exercise.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, Morgan; Kennedy, Shaun; Busta, Frank

    2010-07-01

    The National Center for Food Protection and Defense (NCFPD), which is led by the University of Minnesota, hosted an international food defense exercise on 27 to 29 May 2008. Established in 2004, NCFPD is a Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence with the mission of defending the food system through research and education. Tabletop exercises are practice-based scenarios intended to mimic real life experiences. The objective of the exercise discussed in this article was to facilitate discussion to increase awareness among exercise participants of both the threat that would be posed by an intentional attack on the food supply and the international impact of such an attack. Through facilitated discussion, exercise participants agreed on the following themes: (i) recognition of a foodborne disease outbreak is driven by the characteristics of the illness rather than the actual number of ill individuals; (ii) during the course of a foodborne outbreak there are generally multiple levels of communication; (iii) a common case definition for a foodborne disease is difficult to develop on a global scale; and (iv) the safety and health of all individuals is the number one priority of all parties involved. Several challenges were faced during the development of the exercise, but these were overcome to produce a more robust exercise. The following discussion will provide an overview of the challenges and the strategies used to overcome them. The lessons learned provide insight into how to plan, prepare, and host an international food defense exercise. PMID:20615353

  5. Acute effect of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and classic exercises in adhesive capsulitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Yuruk, Zeliha Ozlem; Zeybek, Aslican; Gulsen, Mustafa; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to compare the initial effects of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and classic exercise interventions with physiotherapy modalities on pain, scapular dyskinesis, range of motion, and function in adhesive capsulitis. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-three subjects were allocated to 3 groups: scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercies and physiotherapy modalities, classic exercise and physiotherapy modalities, and only physiotherapy modalities. The intervention was applied in a single session. The Visual Analog Scale, Lateral Scapular Slide Test, range of motion and Simple Shoulder Test were evaluated before and just after the one-hour intervention in the same session (all in one session). [Results] All of the groups showed significant differences in shoulder flexion and abduction range of motion and Simple Shoulder Test scores. There were statistically significant differences in Visual Analog Scale scores in the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and control groups, and no treatment method had significant effect on the Lateral Scapular Slide Test results. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, classic exercise, and physiotherapy modalities had immediate effects on adhesive capsulitis in our study. However, there was no additional benefit of exercises in one session over physiotherapy modalities. Also, an effective treatment regimen for shoulder rehabilitation of adhesive capsulitis patients should include scapular exercises.

  6. Acute effect of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and classic exercises in adhesive capsulitis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Yuruk, Zeliha Ozlem; Zeybek, Aslican; Gulsen, Mustafa; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to compare the initial effects of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and classic exercise interventions with physiotherapy modalities on pain, scapular dyskinesis, range of motion, and function in adhesive capsulitis. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-three subjects were allocated to 3 groups: scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercies and physiotherapy modalities, classic exercise and physiotherapy modalities, and only physiotherapy modalities. The intervention was applied in a single session. The Visual Analog Scale, Lateral Scapular Slide Test, range of motion and Simple Shoulder Test were evaluated before and just after the one-hour intervention in the same session (all in one session). [Results] All of the groups showed significant differences in shoulder flexion and abduction range of motion and Simple Shoulder Test scores. There were statistically significant differences in Visual Analog Scale scores in the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and control groups, and no treatment method had significant effect on the Lateral Scapular Slide Test results. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, classic exercise, and physiotherapy modalities had immediate effects on adhesive capsulitis in our study. However, there was no additional benefit of exercises in one session over physiotherapy modalities. Also, an effective treatment regimen for shoulder rehabilitation of adhesive capsulitis patients should include scapular exercises. PMID:27190456

  7. Modality-specific attention in foraging bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Nityananda, Vivek; Chittka, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Attentional demands can prevent humans and other animals from performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Some studies, however, show that tasks presented in different sensory modalities (e.g. visual and auditory) can be processed simultaneously. This suggests that, at least in these cases, attention might be modality-specific and divided differently between tasks when present in the same modality compared with different modalities. We investigated this possibility in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) using a biologically relevant experimental set-up where they had to simultaneously choose more rewarding flowers and avoid simulated predatory attacks by robotic ‘spiders’. We found that when the tasks had to be performed using visual cues alone, bees failed to perform both tasks simultaneously. However, when highly rewarding flowers were indicated by olfactory cues and predators were indicated by visual cues, bees managed to perform both tasks successfully. Our results thus provide evidence for modality-specific attention in foraging bees and establish a novel framework for future studies of crossmodal attention in ecologically realistic settings. PMID:26587245

  8. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    MedlinePlus

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  9. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  10. Kids and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family How Can Families Be ... a Fit Kid Why Exercise Is Cool Cold-Weather Sports Strength Training Weight Management: Strength Training Exercises ( ...

  11. Exercise during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Exercise During Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Exercise During Pregnancy FAQ119, May 2016 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  12. Exercise After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Exercise After Pregnancy FAQ131, June 2015 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  13. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...

  14. Exercise and immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunity. Heavy, long-term exercise (such as marathon running and intense gym training) could actually cause harm. Studies have shown that people who follow a moderately energetic lifestyle, benefit most from starting (and sticking to) an exercise ...

  15. Isometric exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...

  16. Exercise for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main ... jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

  17. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  18. Exercise and Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

  19. Writing Exercises from "Exercise Exchange." Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Charles R., Ed.

    Reflecting current practices in the teaching of writing, the exercises in this compilation were drawn from the journal "Exercise Exchange." The articles are arranged into six sections: sources for writing; prewriting; modes for writing; writing and reading; language, mechanics, and style; and revising, responding, and evaluating. Among the topics…

  20. The Modality-Match Effect in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Osborn, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The modality-match effect in recognition refers to superior memory for words presented in the same modality at study and test. Prior research on this effect is ambiguous and inconsistent. The present study demonstrates that the modality-match effect is found when modality is rendered salient at either encoding or retrieval. Specifically, in…

  1. Modal confidence factor in vibration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The modal confidence factor (MCF) is a number calculated for every identified mode for a structure under test. The MCF varies from 0.00 for a distorted nonlinear, or noise mode to 100.0 for a pure structural mode. The theory of the MCF is based on the correlation that exists between the modal deflection at a certain station and the modal deflection at the same station delayed in time. The theory and application of the MCF are illustrated by two experiments. The first experiment deals with simulated responses from a two-degree-of-freedom system with 20%, 40%, and 100% noise added. The second experiment was run on a generalized payload model. The free decay response from the payload model contained 22% noise.

  2. Use of Modal Synthesis for Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Miloš; Chlebo, Ondrej

    2014-12-01

    A common occurrence in engineering practice is undesirable levels of vibration in the structures of machinery, which decrease their functionality, safety, reliability and service life. Current trends in the dynamic operation of machinery inherently generate such undesirable effects. That is to say, increasing the operational capacity of a machine (higher speeds, higher loads, more changes in operational regimes, etc...) is financially counterproductive to any desired savings in the material/technological realization of such structures. One possible approach to modify the dynamic properties of the structure is through modal synthesis. This approach combines the modal properties of the real structure obtained through measurements with the modal properties of additional components obtained computationally. This approach is particularly effective if the computational model of the built structure is incorrect.

  3. Modalities of psychotherapy with the elderly.

    PubMed

    Karpf, R J

    1980-08-01

    Emphasized is the view that geriatric psychotherapy can be effectively administered only with knowledge of the biology, psychology, and sociology of old age. The concepts of transference, countertransference, interpretation, conflict and defense mechanisms are crucial for understanding the various treatment modalities. Five intervention patterns are offered for the therapeutic approaches, i.e., interpretation, suggestion, reinforcement, confrontation, and clarification. The different modalities of geriatric psychotherapy may be viewed as variations of different clusters of these interventions, e.g., psychoanalysis makes most use of interpretation whereas group therapy makes most use of confrontation and clarification. For the psychologic treatment of disorders in late life, there are five basic modalities and one adjunct. The basic psychotherapies are classified as psychoanalytic, supportive, group, family, and behavioral; the adjunct is psychopharmacologic treatment, which is not a substitute for effective psychotherapy. Much semantic confusion has centered around this adjunctive treatment. Conceptual confusions about the meaning of the word "cure" are discussed.

  4. Adaptive Modal Identification for Flutter Suppression Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Drew, Michael; Swei, Sean S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will develop an adaptive modal identification method for identifying the frequencies and damping of a flutter mode based on model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) and least-squares methods. The least-squares parameter estimation will achieve parameter convergence in the presence of persistent excitation whereas the MRAC parameter estimation does not guarantee parameter convergence. Two adaptive flutter suppression control approaches are developed: one based on MRAC and the other based on the least-squares method. The MRAC flutter suppression control is designed as an integral part of the parameter estimation where the feedback signal is used to estimate the modal information. On the other hand, the separation principle of control and estimation is applied to the least-squares method. The least-squares modal identification is used to perform parameter estimation.

  5. Tumor Ablation: Common Modalities and General Practices

    PubMed Central

    Knavel, Erica M.; Brace, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor ablation is a minimally invasive technique that is commonly used in the treatment of tumors of the liver, kidney, bone, and lung. During tumor ablation, thermal energy is used to heat or cool tissue to cytotoxic levels (less than −40°C or more than 60°C). An additional technique is being developed that targets the permeability of the cell membrane and is ostensibly nonthermal. Within the classification of tumor ablation, there are several modalities used worldwide: radiofrequency, microwave, laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation. Each technique, although similar in purpose, has specific and optimal indications. This review serves to discuss general principles and technique, reviews each modality, and discusses modality selection. PMID:24238374

  6. Comparison of particle-radiation-therapy modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of dose distribution, beam alignment, and radiobiological advantages accorded to high LET radiation were reviewed and compared for various particle beam radiotherapeutic modalities (neutron, Auger electrons, p, ..pi../sup -/, He, C, Ne, and Ar ions). Merit factors were evaluated on the basis of effective dose to tumor relative to normal tissue, linear energy transfer (LET), and dose localization, at depths of 1, 4, and 10 cm. In general, it was found that neutron capture therapy using an epithermal neutron beam provided the best merit factors available for depths up to 8 cm. The position of fast neutron therapy on the Merit Factor Tables was consistently lower than that of other particle modalities, and above only /sup 60/Co. The largest body of clinical data exists for fast neutron therapy; results are considered by some to be encouraging. It then follows that if benefits with fast neutron therapy are real, additional gains are within reach with other modalities.

  7. Asymptotic modal analysis and statistical energy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, Earl H.

    1992-01-01

    Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA) is a method which is used to model linear dynamical systems with many participating modes. The AMA method was originally developed to show the relationship between statistical energy analysis (SEA) and classical modal analysis (CMA). In the limit of a large number of modes of a vibrating system, the classical modal analysis result can be shown to be equivalent to the statistical energy analysis result. As the CMA result evolves into the SEA result, a number of systematic assumptions are made. Most of these assumptions are based upon the supposition that the number of modes approaches infinity. It is for this reason that the term 'asymptotic' is used. AMA is the asymptotic result of taking the limit of CMA as the number of modes approaches infinity. AMA refers to any of the intermediate results between CMA and SEA, as well as the SEA result which is derived from CMA. The main advantage of the AMA method is that individual modal characteristics are not required in the model or computations. By contrast, CMA requires that each modal parameter be evaluated at each frequency. In the latter, contributions from each mode are computed and the final answer is obtained by summing over all the modes in the particular band of interest. AMA evaluates modal parameters only at their center frequency and does not sum the individual contributions from each mode in order to obtain a final result. The method is similar to SEA in this respect. However, SEA is only capable of obtaining spatial averages or means, as it is a statistical method. Since AMA is systematically derived from CMA, it can obtain local spatial information as well.

  8. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  9. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  10. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  11. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  12. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  13. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

  14. Exercise, Aging and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stanley P.; Cundiff, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether or not a lifelong program of exercise actually has a bearing on longevity is discussed. The effects of exercise on the aging process, and the longevity-exercise relationship are reviewed. The conflicting evidence on the subject is presented. (JL)

  15. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  16. A spatial modality effect in serial memory.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sébastien; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Guérard, Katherine; Nicholls, Alastair P; Jones, Dylan M

    2006-09-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors tested whether the classical modality effect-that is, the stronger recency effect for auditory items relative to visual items-can be extended to the spatial domain. An order reconstruction task was undertaken with four types of material: visual-spatial, auditory-spatial, visual-verbal, and auditory-verbal. Similar serial position curves were obtained regardless of the nature of the to-be-remembered sequences, with the exception that a modality effect was found with spatial as well as with verbal materials. The results are discussed with regard to a number of models of short-term memory.

  17. Nonoperative Modalities to Treat Symptomatic Cervical Spondylosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirpara, Kieran Michael; Butler, Joseph S.; Dolan, Roisin T.; O'Byrne, John M.; Poynton, Ashley R.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a common and disabling condition. It is generally felt that the initial management should be nonoperative, and these modalities include physiotherapy, analgesia and selective nerve root injections. Surgery should be reserved for moderate to severe myelopathy patients who have failed a period of conservative treatment and patients whose symptoms are not adequately controlled by nonoperative means. A review of the literature supporting various modalities of conservative management is presented, and it is concluded that although effective, nonoperative treatment is labour intensive, requiring regular review and careful selection of medications and physical therapy on a case by case basis. PMID:21991426

  18. Modal Waves Solved in Complex Wave Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.-J.; Jenot, F.; Ourak, M.

    2005-04-01

    A numerical algorithm is proposed for the resolution in complex domain of the ultrasonic modal waves from the characteristic equation of elastic structures. The method is applicable to any numerically available function given explicitly or implicitly. The complex root loci of the modal waves are constructed by varying other parameters. Different situations which can cause the roots searching and following failure are analysed and the corresponding solutions are proposed. The computation examples are given for a three layered adhesive joint and a composite plate.

  19. Optimal identification using inconsistent modal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Suzanne Weaver; Beattie, Christopher A.

    1991-01-01

    This work examines techniques under the general approach of optimal-update identification which produce optimally adjusted, or updated, property matrices (i.e., mass, stiffness and damping matrices) to more closely match the structure modal response. For practical applications, the techniques must perform when the modal response is inconsistent with other constraints on the desired model. An alternate view of the optimal-update problem is presented that leads to new techniques for addressing inconsistent data. Viewpoints used for previously published techniques are also examined to explore issues in optimal-update identification.

  20. Modal insensitivity with optimality. [in feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Raman, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a constant gain, feedback controller which results in selected modal insensitivity, and at the same time optimizes a quadratic performance index representative of desired system performance for nominal plant parameter values. Both full state and output feedback control are considered. A constraint is established for the feedback gain matrix that results in modal insensitivity, and necessary conditions for optimality subject to this constraint are given. This forms the basis for a numerical algorithm to compute the optimal feedback gain. To illustrate the procedure, a design is carried out using the lateral dynamics of an L-1011 aircraft.

  1. Modal identification of a deployable space truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Axel; Pappa, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    Work performed under a collaborative research effort between NASA and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) is summarized. The objective is to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for system identification of future large space structures. Recent experiences using the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) for modal identification of Mini-Mast are reported. Mini-Mast is a 20-meter-long deployable space truss used for structural dynamics and active-vibration control research at the NASA Langley Research Center. Due to nonlinearities and numerous local modes, modal identification of Mini-Mast proved to be surprisingly difficult. Methods available with ERA for obtaining detailed, high-confidence results are illustrated.

  2. Hormonal responses to concurrent strength and endurance training with different exercise orders.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; dos Santos, Mariah Gonçalves; Martins, Jocelito Bijoldo; Rodrigues Lhullier, Francisco L; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Silva, Rodrigo Ferrari; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the intrasession sequencing of concurrent strength and aerobic training on the acute testosterone (TT) and cortisol (COR) responses. Ten recreationally strength-trained young men (23.5 ± 0.9 years) performed 2 exercise interventions: aerobic-strength (AS) and strength-aerobic (SA), which consisted of 30 minutes of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer at 75% of maximal heart rate and 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 75% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in 4 strength exercises. Maximal heart rate was determined using a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Blood samples were collected before, between exercise modalities, and immediately after the concurrent training sessions to determine basal and acute total TT and COR concentrations. There were significant increases in TT after the first modality in both exercise orders (p < 0.05). However, the TT level remained significantly higher than the resting levels after the second exercise modality only in the AS (p < 0.05) which resulted in a significant higher relative total change after the complete concurrent training session compared with SA (p < 0.05). Regarding COR, there were significant increases after the first modality in both AS and SA orders (p < 0.05), but the COR returned to resting levels after the second modality in both AS and SA interventions. During AS and SA, the change observed after the first modality performance was greater than that after the second in both hormones. The present results suggest that the TT response is optimized after the AS order, whereas both AS and SA produced similar hormonal levels at all time points. However, it is important to state that the present results should be applied only when short duration and moderate intensity aerobic training is performed.

  3. Integrating stage and continuum models to explain processing of exercise messages and exercise initiation among sedentary college students.

    PubMed

    Rosen, C S

    2000-03-01

    Concepts from the transtheoretical model (J.O. Prochaska, C.C. DiClemente, & J.C. Norcross, 1992), theory of planned behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985), and the elaboration likelihood model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1986b) were used to examine how exercise readiness impacted processing of exercise messages and exercise initiation. Sedentary college students (n = 147) were assessed for exercise attitude, intent, behavior, and stage of change. Students also listed their thoughts after reading messages with either strong or weak arguments for exercise. Attitude predicted depth of message processing, but stage of change did not. Stage of change and intent at baseline predicted exercise adoption at 1- to 3-month follow-up (n = 134), with baseline activity moderating the effect of intent. Tailoring messages to recipients' depth of processing and interactive effects of intent and behavior on exercise adoption should be considered in future research. PMID:10762101

  4. Exercise and the microbiota

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Orla; Cronin, Owen; Clarke, Siobhan F; Murphy, Eileen F; Molloy, Micheal G; Shanahan, Fergus; Cotter, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is linked with poor health, most commonly obesity and associated disorders, the corollary being that exercise offers a preventive strategy. However, the scope of exercise biology extends well beyond energy expenditure and has emerged as a great ‘polypill’, which is safe, reliable and cost-effective not only in disease prevention but also treatment. Biological mechanisms by which exercise influences homeostasis are becoming clearer and involve multi-organ systemic adaptations. Most of the elements of a modern lifestyle influence the indigenous microbiota but few studies have explored the effect of increased physical activity. While dietary responses to exercise obscure the influence of exercise alone on gut microbiota, professional athletes operating at the extremes of performance provide informative data. We assessed the relationship between extreme levels of exercise, associated dietary habits and gut microbiota composition, and discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise may exert a direct or indirect influence on gut microbiota. PMID:25800089

  5. Inverting the modality effect in serial recall.

    PubMed

    Beaman, C Philip

    2002-04-01

    Differences in recall ability between immediate serial recall of auditorily and visually presented verbal material have traditionally been considered restricted to the end of to-be-recalled lists, the recency section of the serial position curve (e.g., Crowder & Morton, 1969). Later studies showed that--under certain circumstances--differences in recall between the two modalities can be observed across the whole of the list (Frankish, 1985). However in all these studies the advantage observed is for recall of material presented in the auditorily modality. Six separate conditions across four experiments demonstrate that a visual advantage can be obtained with serial recall if participants are required to recall the list in two distinct sections using serial recall. Judged on a list-wide basis, the visual advantage is of equivalent size to the auditory advantage of the classical modality effect. The results demonstrate that differences in representation of auditory and visual verbal material in short-term memory persist beyond lexical and phonological categorization and are problematic for current theories of the modality effect.

  6. A Spatial Modality Effect in Serial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Guerard, Katherine; Nicholls, Alastair P.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors tested whether the classical modality effect--that is, the stronger recency effect for auditory items relative to visual items--can be extended to the spatial domain. An order reconstruction task was undertaken with four types of material: visual-spatial, auditory-spatial, visual-verbal, and auditory-verbal.…

  7. Inside out: Focusing as a Therapeutic Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Katje

    2006-01-01

    The author explores Focusing (E. Gendlin, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1967, 1968, 1981, 1989, 1996, 2004) as a psychotherapeutic modality and presents background that led to the development of Focusing, its rationale and theoretical orientation, and supporting research. The author also provides a detailed and experiential illustration of the…

  8. Nanomaterials Toxicity and Cell Death Modalities

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Daniela; Carnuccio, Rosa; Maiuri, Maria Chiara

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the nanotechnology advancement has developed a plethora of novel and intriguing nanomaterial application in many sectors, including research and medicine. However, many risks have been highlighted in their use, particularly related to their unexpected toxicity in vitro and in vivo experimental models. This paper proposes an overview concerning the cell death modalities induced by the major nanomaterials. PMID:23304518

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Modality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginns, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews research on the modality effect, the educational practice of presenting to-be-learned graphical information visually, and related textual information through an auditory mode. Meta-analytic methods were applied to 43 independent effects (39 between-subjects designs, 4 within-subjects designs). Major hypotheses regarding the…

  10. Cross-Modal Binding in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Branigan, Holly P.; Parra, Mario A.; Logie, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to learn visual-phonological associations is a unique predictor of word reading, and individuals with developmental dyslexia show impaired ability in learning these associations. In this study, we compared developmentally dyslexic and nondyslexic adults on their ability to form cross-modal associations (or "bindings") based…

  11. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio) on (a) the learning of written and aural word forms, (b) overall vocabulary gains, (c) attention to input, and (d) vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian…

  12. Comparing the impacts of land-use management and climate change on soil erosion: a modeling exercise for humid and dry Mediterranean regions in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia

    2015-04-01

    Climate change could impact soil erosion rates in the Mediterranean, either directly via the concentration of rainfall in a smaller number of winter events, or indirectly through changes in vegetation cover. In particular, climate-induced changes in land-use management and associated agro-forestry practices could lead to much greater impacts than the ones expected from climate change alone. This work compares how future climate and land-use changes could impact soil erosion. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to two contrasting watersheds in Portugal. The Vez has a humid Mediterranean climate (1500 mm/yr average rainfall) and is presently covered by plantation forests and shrublands. The Xarrama has a dry Mediterranean climate (600 mm/yr annual rainfall) and is presently occupied mostly by an agroforestry system consisting of pasture and evergreen oaks. Both watersheds currently experience very low erosion rates due to the landcover type. In both cases, climate scenarios presuppose a small decrease in rainfall (-4% in the Vez, -9% in the Xarrama) but more concentrated in winter, where an increase is expected. Possible future land-use scenarios could lead to an intensification of agriculture, due to the expansion of vineyard areas in the humid region and the plantation of sunflowers for biofuel production in the dry region (up to c. 45% of the watershed in both cases). The results for both study sites were similar. The impacts of climate change itself were an increase in erosion, of 28% in the Vez and 18% in the Xarrama, which still resulted in low erosion rates. However, the impacts of land-use change were much higher: an erosion increase of 529% in the Vez and 120% in the Xarrama, leading to important erosion rates in the new agricultural areas. Despite the different changes, which could be to a large degree attributed to the higher erosion rates usually found in vineyards, the conclusions in both sites point to the much higher impact of

  13. Impact of resistance and aerobic exercise on sarcopenia and dynapenia in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adams, Scott C; Segal, Roanne J; McKenzie, Donald C; Vallerand, James R; Morielli, Andria R; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Reid, Robert D; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the START examining the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) and aerobic exercise training (AET) on sarcopenia, dynapenia, and associated quality of life (QoL) changes in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) (n = 70), AET (n = 64), or RET (n = 66) for the duration of chemotherapy. Measures of sarcopenia [skeletal muscle index (SMI)] and dynapenia [upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE) muscle dysfunction (MD)] were normalized relative to age-/sex-based clinical cut-points. QoL was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) scales. At baseline, 25.5 % of BC patients were sarcopenic and 54.5 % were dynapenic with both conditions associated with poorer QoL. ANCOVAs showed significant differences favoring RET over UC for SMI (0.32 kg/m(2); p = 0.017), UE-MD (0.12 kg/kg; p < 0.001), and LE-MD (0.27 kg/kg; p < 0.001). Chi-square analyses revealed significant effects of RET, compared to UC/AET combined, on reversing sarcopenia (p = 0.039) and dynapenia (p = 0.019). The reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically relevant improvements in the FACT-An (11.7 points [95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.2 to 27.6]), the Trial Outcome Index-Anemia (10.0 points [95 % CI -4.0 to 24.1]), and fatigue (5.3 points [95 % CI -1.5 to 12.1]). Early-stage BC patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy have higher than expected rates of sarcopenia and dynapenia which are associated with poorer QoL. RET during adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in the reversal of both sarcopenia and dynapenia; however, only the reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically meaningful improvements in QoL. PMID:27394134

  14. Impact of resistance and aerobic exercise on sarcopenia and dynapenia in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adams, Scott C; Segal, Roanne J; McKenzie, Donald C; Vallerand, James R; Morielli, Andria R; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Reid, Robert D; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the START examining the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) and aerobic exercise training (AET) on sarcopenia, dynapenia, and associated quality of life (QoL) changes in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) (n = 70), AET (n = 64), or RET (n = 66) for the duration of chemotherapy. Measures of sarcopenia [skeletal muscle index (SMI)] and dynapenia [upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE) muscle dysfunction (MD)] were normalized relative to age-/sex-based clinical cut-points. QoL was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) scales. At baseline, 25.5 % of BC patients were sarcopenic and 54.5 % were dynapenic with both conditions associated with poorer QoL. ANCOVAs showed significant differences favoring RET over UC for SMI (0.32 kg/m(2); p = 0.017), UE-MD (0.12 kg/kg; p < 0.001), and LE-MD (0.27 kg/kg; p < 0.001). Chi-square analyses revealed significant effects of RET, compared to UC/AET combined, on reversing sarcopenia (p = 0.039) and dynapenia (p = 0.019). The reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically relevant improvements in the FACT-An (11.7 points [95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.2 to 27.6]), the Trial Outcome Index-Anemia (10.0 points [95 % CI -4.0 to 24.1]), and fatigue (5.3 points [95 % CI -1.5 to 12.1]). Early-stage BC patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy have higher than expected rates of sarcopenia and dynapenia which are associated with poorer QoL. RET during adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in the reversal of both sarcopenia and dynapenia; however, only the reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically meaningful improvements in QoL.

  15. Investigating the Modality and Redundancy Effects for Learners with Persistent Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alexander; Ayres, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate how individuals with persistent pain would respond to instructional materials designed to promote the modality and redundancy effects. It was predicted that persistent pain would reduce the positive impact of narrated text due to reduced working memory capacity. One hundred thirty-seven full-time…

  16. The Effects of Communication Modality on Presence, Cognitive Load and Retention in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Stephany Filimon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports findings from a study (N = 60) of the impact of three communication modalities (voice only, text only, and voice and text simultaneously) on cognitive load, as measured by subjective reports of mental effort; on learning, as measured by tests of recall and retention; and on perceptions of presence as measured by a Presence…

  17. Are Criticisms of Exercise Well-Founded?

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    As with many decisions in public health, reasons for the advocacy of vigorous exercise can never be demonstrated by a large-scale, randomized controlled experiment. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that physicians should be more active in commending regular physical activity to their patients, not only for its impact on mood state and thus perceived health, but also for its value in preventing and treating such common organic conditions as coronary heart disease, hypertension, maturity onset diabetes, and osteoporosis. For these problems, exercise is more effective and has fewer side effects than many alternative forms of therapy. Although some risks from injudicious exercise remain, they have been greatly exaggerated by those opposed to exercise. The advantages of a well-planned regimen (which should be centred on the enhancement of normal daily activity) far outweigh the risks that a musculoskeletal problem may be provoked or worsened by the prescribed activity. PMID:21274252

  18. The effects of a single bout of aerobic or resistance exercise on food reward.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Jessica; Cadieux, Sébastien; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Éric

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether an acute bout of calorie-matched aerobic and resistance exercise alters food reward in a similar manner. Thus, we examined the effects of isocaloric resistance and aerobic exercise sessions on acute food reward. Sixteen men and women (age: 21.9 ± 2.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)) participated in three randomized crossover sessions: aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and sedentary control. The target exercise energy expenditure was matched at 4 kcal/kg of body weight, and performed at 70% of VO2peak or 12 repetition-maximum (equivalent to 70% of 1 repetition-maximum). A validated computer task assessed the wanting and liking for visual food cues following exercise, and following an ad libitum lunch. Decreases in the relative preference for high vs. low fat foods were noted following exercise compared to the control session, and this was independent of modality (aerobic: P = 0.04; resistance: P = 0.03). Furthermore, the explicit liking for high vs. low fat foods was lower following resistance exercise compared to the control session (P = 0.04). However, these changes in food reward were not correlated with changes in energy intake (EI) between sessions. Exercise, independent of modality, led to decreases in the relative preference for high fat relative to low fat foods. Additionally, decreases in the hedonic "liking" of high fat foods following resistance, but not aerobic, exercise may imply that modality does influence acute food hedonic responses. However, these decreases in food hedonics were not related to lower EI, thus suggesting that a dissociation may exist between food hedonics and actual EI.

  19. Exercise and food ad libitum reduce the impact of early in life nutritional inbalances on nitrergic activity of hippocampus and striatum.

    PubMed

    Viana, Lane Coelho; Torres, João Bento; Farias, José Augusto; Kawhage, Rafael; Lins, Nara; Passos, Aline; Quintairos, Amanda; Trévia, Nonata; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional imbalances were produced by varying litter size pups per dam: 3 (small), 6 (medium), and 12 (large). On the 21st day, 4 subjects of each litter, were sacrificed and the remaining were grouped, 2 per cage, with or without running wheels, with food and water ad libitum. Adult subjects were tested in water maze, their brains processed for NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and quantified by densitometry. No differences were detected in water maze. At 21st day, S and L compared with M presented reduced NADPH-d in the stratum molecular of dentate gyrus (DG), stratum lacunosum of CA1 and in all CA3 layers but not in the striatum. On the 58th day, actvity remained low in S and L in CA3 and striatum and L in CA1 and DG. Voluntary exercise increased NADPH-d in DG, CA1, CA3, and striatum in S, and in the stratum lacunosum of CA1 and CA3 in L.

  20. Impact of intermittent hypoxia and exercise on blood pressure and metabolic features from obese subjects suffering sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    González-Muniesa, P; Lopez-Pascual, A; de Andrés, J; Lasa, A; Portillo, M P; Arós, F; Durán, J; Egea, C J; Martinez, J A

    2015-09-01

    Strategies designed to reduce adiposity and cardiovascular-accompanying manifestations have been based on nutritional interventions conjointly with physical activity programs. The aim of this 13-week study was to investigate the putative benefits associated to hypoxia plus exercise on weight loss and relevant metabolic and cardiorespiratory variables, when prescribed to obese subjects with sleep apnea syndrome following dietary advice. The participants were randomly distributed in the following three groups: control, normoxia, and hypoxia. All the subjects received dietary advice while, additionally, normoxia group was trained under normal oxygen concentration and Hypoxia group under hypoxic conditions. There was a statistically significant decrease in fat-free mass (Kg) and water (%) on the control compared to normoxia group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference decreased in all the groups after the study. Moreover, leukocyte count was increased after the intervention in hypoxia compared to control group (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant variations within groups in other variables, although changes in appetite were found after the 13-week period. In addition, associations between the variations in the leukocyte count and fat mass have been found. The hypoxia group showed some specific benefits concerning appetite and cardiometabolic-related measurements as exertion time and diastolic blood pressure, with a therapeutical potential.

  1. Exercise beyond menopause: Dos and Don'ts.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V N; Devanshi

    2011-07-01

    With a significant number of women belonging to the status of menopause and beyond, it is imperative to plan a comprehensive health program for them, including lifestyle modifications. Exercise is an integral part of the strategy. The benefits are many, most important being maintenance of muscle mass and thereby the bone mass and strength. The exercise program for postmenopausal women should include the endurance exercise (aerobic), strength exercise and balance exercise; it should aim for two hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity each week. Every woman should be aware of her target heart rate range and should track the intensity of exercise employing the talk test. Other deep breathing, yoga and stretching exercises can help to manage the stress of life and menopause-related symptoms. Exercises for women with osteoporosis should not include high impact aerobics or activities in which a fall is likely. The women and the treating medical practitioner should also be aware of the warning symptoms and contraindications regarding exercise prescription in women beyond menopause. The role of exercise in hot flashes, however, remains inconclusive. Overall, exercising beyond menopause is the only noncontroversial and beneficial aspect of lifestyle modification and must be opted by all. PMID:22408332

  2. COPD and exercise: does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Burtin, Chris; De Boever, Patrick; Langer, Daniël; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Franssen, Frits M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physiological changes are observed following a structured exercise training programme in patients with COPD, without changes in resting lung function. Exercise training is the cornerstone of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation programme in patients with COPD. Most comorbidities in patients referred for pulmonary rehabilitation remain undiagnosed and untreated. After careful screening, it is safe for COPD patients with comorbidities to obtain significant and clinically relevant improvements in functional exercise capacity and health status after an exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme. Educational aims To inform readers of the positive effects of exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD, even with comorbid conditions. To inform readers of the importance of physical activity in patients with COPD. Exercise training is widely regarded as the cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Indeed, exercise training has been identified as the best available means of improving muscle function and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. So, exercise training truly makes a difference in the life of patients with COPD. In this review, an overview is provided on the history of exercise training (as standalone intervention or as part of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation programme), exercise training in comorbid patients with COPD, and the impact of physical activity counselling in a clean air environment. PMID:27408645

  3. Exercise beyond menopause: Dos and Don’ts

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V. N.; Devanshi

    2011-01-01

    With a significant number of women belonging to the status of menopause and beyond, it is imperative to plan a comprehensive health program for them, including lifestyle modifications. Exercise is an integral part of the strategy. The benefits are many, most important being maintenance of muscle mass and thereby the bone mass and strength. The exercise program for postmenopausal women should include the endurance exercise (aerobic), strength exercise and balance exercise; it should aim for two hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity each week. Every woman should be aware of her target heart rate range and should track the intensity of exercise employing the talk test. Other deep breathing, yoga and stretching exercises can help to manage the stress of life and menopause-related symptoms. Exercises for women with osteoporosis should not include high impact aerobics or activities in which a fall is likely. The women and the treating medical practitioner should also be aware of the warning symptoms and contraindications regarding exercise prescription in women beyond menopause. The role of exercise in hot flashes, however, remains inconclusive. Overall, exercising beyond menopause is the only noncontroversial and beneficial aspect of lifestyle modification and must be opted by all. PMID:22408332

  4. Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pagnotti, Gabriel M.; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pool that also gives rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes, among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here, we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions, and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism. The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption, and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. MAT is less well studied due to the lack of reproducible quantification techniques. In recent work, osmium-based 3D quantification shows a robust response of MAT to both dietary and exercise intervention in that MAT is elevated in response to high-fat diet and can be suppressed following daily exercise. Exercise-induced bone formation correlates with suppression of MAT, such that exercise effects might be due to either calorie expenditure from this depot or from mechanical biasing of MSC lineage away from fat and toward bone, or a combination thereof. Following treatment with the anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone – a PPARγ-agonist known to increase MAT and fracture risk – mice demonstrate a fivefold higher femur MAT volume compared to the controls. In addition to preventing MAT accumulation in control mice, exercise intervention significantly lowers MAT accumulation in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Importantly, exercise induction of trabecular bone volume is unhindered by rosiglitazone. Thus, despite rosiglitazone augmentation of MAT, exercise

  5. Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Pagnotti, Gabriel M; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pool that also gives rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes, among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here, we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions, and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism. The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption, and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. MAT is less well studied due to the lack of reproducible quantification techniques. In recent work, osmium-based 3D quantification shows a robust response of MAT to both dietary and exercise intervention in that MAT is elevated in response to high-fat diet and can be suppressed following daily exercise. Exercise-induced bone formation correlates with suppression of MAT, such that exercise effects might be due to either calorie expenditure from this depot or from mechanical biasing of MSC lineage away from fat and toward bone, or a combination thereof. Following treatment with the anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone - a PPARγ-agonist known to increase MAT and fracture risk - mice demonstrate a fivefold higher femur MAT volume compared to the controls. In addition to preventing MAT accumulation in control mice, exercise intervention significantly lowers MAT accumulation in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Importantly, exercise induction of trabecular bone volume is unhindered by rosiglitazone. Thus, despite rosiglitazone augmentation of MAT, exercise significantly

  6. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A.; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. Objective: To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. Design: A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT) Participants: Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts Methods: A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Results: TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365 PMID:26331103

  7. Modal density and modal distribution of bending wave vibration fields in ribbed plates.

    PubMed

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Brunskog, Jonas; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2013-10-01

    Plates reinforced by ribs or joists are common elements in lightweight building structures, as well as in other engineering structures such as vehicles, ships, and aircraft. These structures, however, are often not well suited for simple structural acoustic prediction models such as statistical energy analysis. One reason is that the modal density is not uniformly distributed due to the spatial periodicity introduced by the ribs. This phenomenon is investigated in the present paper, using a modal model of a ribbed plate. The modal model uses the Fourier sine modes, and the coupling between the plate and ribs is incorporated using Hamilton's principle. This model is then used to investigate the modal density of the considered spatially periodic structure, and a grouping of the modes in different dominating directions is proposed. Suggestions are also given regarding how to proceed towards a simplified prediction model for ribbed plates. PMID:24116410

  8. The Impact of Autophagy on Cell Death Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy represents a homeostatic cellular mechanism for the turnover of organelles and proteins, through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. During starvation, autophagy facilitates cell survival through the recycling of metabolic precursors. Additionally, autophagy can modulate other vital processes such as programmed cell death (e.g., apoptosis), inflammation, and adaptive immune mechanisms and thereby influence disease pathogenesis. Selective pathways can target distinct cargoes (e.g., mitochondria and proteins) for autophagic degradation. At present, the causal relationship between autophagy and various forms of regulated or nonregulated cell death remains unclear. Autophagy can occur in association with necrosis-like cell death triggered by caspase inhibition. Autophagy and apoptosis have been shown to be coincident or antagonistic, depending on experimental context, and share cross-talk between signal transduction elements. Autophagy may modulate the outcome of other regulated forms of cell death such as necroptosis. Recent advances suggest that autophagy can dampen inflammatory responses, including inflammasome-dependent caspase-1 activation and maturation of proinflammatory cytokines. Autophagy may also act as regulator of caspase-1 dependent cell death (pyroptosis). Strategies aimed at modulating autophagy may lead to therapeutic interventions for diseases in which apoptosis or other forms of regulated cell death may play a cardinal role. PMID:24639873

  9. Obesity in heart failure: impact on survival and treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Richard K; DePasquale, Eugene C; Deng, Mario C; Nsair, Ali; Horwich, Tamara B

    2013-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) and obesity are commonly seen in the USA. Although obesity is associated with traditional cardiovascular disease, its relationship with HF is complex. Obesity is an accepted risk factor for incident HF. However, in patients with established HF, there exists a paradoxical correlation, with escalating BMI incrementally protective against adverse outcomes. Despite this relationship, patients with HF may desire to lose weight to reduce comorbidities or to improve quality of life. Thus far, studies have shown that intentional weight loss in obese patients with HF does not increase risk, with strategies including dietary modification, physical activity, pharmacotherapy, and/or surgical intervention.

  10. Exercise training-induced regulation of mitochondrial quality.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen; Lira, Vitor A; Greene, Nicholas P

    2012-07-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles in skeletal muscle critical in physical performance and disease. The mitochondrial life cycle spans biogenesis, maintenance, and clearance. Exercise training may promote each of these processes, conferring positive impacts on skeletal muscle contractile and metabolic functions. This review focuses on the regulation of these processes by endurance exercise and discusses potential benefits in health and disease.

  11. Demonstrating the Interplay of Leaders and Followers: An Experiential Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sronce, Robin; Arendt, Lucy A.

    2009-01-01

    Classroom discussions of leadership often neglect the essential role of followers. These discussions do little to address the reality of our students' predominant roles as followers within organizations. We describe the Origami Frog exercise, an experiential exercise that enables students to discover how follower behaviors impact group process and…

  12. The Role of Resistance Exercise in Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the role of weight training in weight loss, noting how weight training contributes to the creation of a negative energy balance and explaining how resistance exercise can cause an increase in fat oxidation, both acutely and chronically. Resistance exercise has an indirect impact on weight and fat loss through increasing resting metabolic…

  13. Designing Writing Exercises to Emphasize Environmental Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2008-12-01

    In this presentation, the author stresses the importance of writing exercises to educate students in certain disciplines. The objective is to make the students become personally involved so that their educational experience is more geared towards a learning paradigm instead of a teaching paradigm. In addition to accumulating a wealth of knowledge the students also refine and expand their writing skills and abilities. One should be pragmatic in one's approach. In other words, the instructor should have a clear understanding of the skills the students need to develop. It is important to define the target and implementation mode while designing writing exercises. Effective learning can thus be combined with enthusiasm in classroom instructional development. It is extremely important that all undergraduate engineering students are provided with an adequate understanding and thorough background of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. At present, undergraduate students at Miami University of Ohio do not acquire any knowledge pertaining to this particular topic. The author proposes that a topic based on NEPA be introduced in the Fluid Mechanics Course at a Junior Level. The author believes that there is an absolute and urgent need for introducing the students to the fact that various documents such as EA (Environmental Assessment), EIS (Environmental Impact Statement), FONSI (Finding Of No Significant Impact), are an essential part of present-day workplace environment. In this presentation the author talks about introducing NEPA in the classroom. More than a decade ago Harvard University Professor Dr. Howard Gardner suggested the theory of Multiple Intelligences. Dr. Gardner proposed that eight different Intelligences accounted for the development of human potential (Gardner, 1983, 1993, 2000). Leading scholars in the area of Cognitive Science and Educational Methodologies also agree and have concluded that it is essential that students need to be taught

  14. International Space Station Modal Correction Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotz[atrocl. Lrostom; Grugoer. < ocjae; Laible, Michael; Sugavanam, Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit modal test and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the ISS Stage ULF4, DTF S4-1A, October 11,2010, GMT 284/06:13:00.00. The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate analytical models with the intent to verify the ISS critical interface dynamic loads and improve fatigue life prediction. For the ISS configurations under consideration, on-orbit dynamic responses were collected with Russian vehicles attached and without the Orbiter attached to the ISS. ISS instrumentation systems that were used to collect the dynamic responses during the DTF S4-1A included the Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS), Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS), Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and ISS External Cameras. Experimental modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping and mode shape information. Correlation and comparisons between test and analytical modal parameters were performed to assess the accuracy of models for the ISS configuration under consideration. Based on the frequency comparisons, the accuracy of the mathematical models is assessed and model refinement recommendations are given. Section 2.0 of this report presents the math model used in the analysis. This section also describes the ISS configuration under consideration and summarizes the associated primary modes of interest along with the fundamental appendage modes. Section 3.0 discusses the details of the ISS Stage ULF4 DTF S4-1A test. Section 4.0 discusses the on-orbit instrumentation systems that were used in the collection of the data analyzed in this paper. The modal analysis approach and results used in the analysis of the collected data are summarized in Section 5.0. The model correlation and validation effort is reported in Section 6.0. Conclusions and

  15. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities.

  16. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities. PMID:25251989

  17. New approach to quantitation of exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy before and after an intervention: application to define the impact of coronary angioplasty on regional myocardial perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Y.L.; Okada, R.D.; Chesler, D.A.; Block, P.C.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-10-01

    We have developed a new computer method designed to quantitate regional myocardial thallium-201 (TI-201) initial distribution, redistribution, and clearance rate. In addition, this computer method permits the generation of functional images to compare two thallium images in the same projection to one another. These functional images can be used to demonstrate the extent of redistribution and the extent of change in regional perfusion before and after an intervention. To validate and apply this new computer technique, exercise TI-201 myocardial images obtained before and 1 week after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) were analyzed in 20 patients with isolated left anterior descending coronary artery disease. Significant improvement in initial TI-201 activity, expressed as a percentage of maximal myocardial activity, was present in the anterior (71.9 +/- 12.0 to 84.1 +/- 11.5%, p less than 0.001) and septal (66.7 +/- 15.4 to 75.2 +/- 11.0%, p less than 0.05) regions of the left ventricle 1 week after PTCA. This increase in relative anterior wall TI-201 uptake was associated with a significant reduction in the amount of TI-201 redistribution between initial and delayed postexercise images (14.7 +/- 14.6 to 3.0 +/- 13.2%, p less than 0.05) as well as an increase in TI-201 clearance rate (t 1/2 from 8.8 +/- 4.4 to 4.3 +/- 2.5 hours, p less than 0.001). Quantitative analysis of TI-201 scans demonstrated improvement in 14 of 20 patients following PTCA. Computer-derived functional difference images depicted diminution in the extent of ischemia as manifested by redistribution of TI-201.

  18. Coupling between Theta Oscillations and Cognitive Control Network during Cross-Modal Visual and Auditory Attention: Supramodal vs Modality-Specific Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wuyi; Viswanathan, Shivakumar; Lee, Taraz; Grafton, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Cortical theta band oscillations (4–8 Hz) in EEG signals have been shown to be important for a variety of different cognitive control operations in visual attention paradigms. However the synchronization source of these signals as defined by fMRI BOLD activity and the extent to which theta oscillations play a role in multimodal attention remains unknown. Here we investigated the extent to which cross-modal visual and auditory attention impacts theta oscillations. Using a simultaneous EEG-fMRI paradigm, healthy human participants performed an attentional vigilance task with six cross-modal conditions using naturalistic stimuli. To assess supramodal mechanisms, modulation of theta oscillation amplitude for attention to either visual or auditory stimuli was correlated with BOLD activity by conjunction analysis. Negative correlation was localized to cortical regions associated with the default mode network and positively with ventral premotor areas. Modality-associated attention to visual stimuli was marked by a positive correlation of theta and BOLD activity in fronto-parietal area that was not observed in the auditory condition. A positive correlation of theta and BOLD activity was observed in auditory cortex, while a negative correlation of theta and BOLD activity was observed in visual cortex during auditory attention. The data support a supramodal interaction of theta activity with of DMN function, and modality-associated processes within fronto-parietal networks related to top-down theta related cognitive control in cross-modal visual attention. On the other hand, in sensory cortices there are opposing effects of theta activity during cross-modal auditory attention. PMID:27391013

  19. Water exercise in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Katz, V L

    1996-08-01

    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  20. Integrating Behavioral and Pharmacological Therapeutic Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Samuel F.

    1986-01-01

    Fear of dental procedures and associated anxiety are widely accepted as important deterents to optimal oral health. Such health care-related fears and anxieties are also common in many areas of medicine. For both medical and dental care a large body of psychologically derived therapeutic modalities have evolved. These methods have been shown to interact positively with pharmacological therapies also designed to help patients better tolerate medical and dental treatment. Despite these findings, behavioral interventions have not found widespread acceptance in medical and dental practice. A multidimensional model which emphasizes the simultaneous consideration of pharmacologic, psychologic, and clinical dental factors is suggested in order to arrive at therapeutic decisions. Further research could address more powerful behavioral modalities, safer pharmacologic methods, and behavioral and pharmacologic combinations which interact optimally for particular clinical conditions. PMID:3458386