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Sample records for impact exercise modalities

  1. Impact of various exercise modalities on hepatic mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Justin A; Meers, Grace M; Linden, Melissa A; Kearney, Monica L; Morris, E Matthew; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic mitochondrial adaptations to exercise are largely unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of various exercise modalities on measures of hepatic mitochondrial function and metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned (n = 8-10 per group) into sedentary (SED), voluntary wheel running (VWR), VWR with food pulled during the dark cycle (VMR-OF), treadmill endurance exercise (TM-END; 30 m·min, 12% gradient, 60 min·d, 5 d·wk), or treadmill interval sprint training (TM-IST; 50 m·min, 12% gradient, 6 × 2.5 min bouts, 5 d·wk) groups for a 4-wk intervention. Hepatic mitochondrial state 3 and maximal uncoupled respiration were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in all four exercise groups compared with SED animals. In addition, hepatic mitochondrial [1-C] pyruvate oxidation to CO2, an index of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, was significantly increased in VWR-OF, TM-END, and TM-IST rats (P < 0.05), whereas exercise-induced increases in [2-C] pyruvate oxidation and [1-C] palmitate oxidation to CO2 did not reach statistical significance. Hepatic mitochondrial sirtuin 3 protein content, which putatively increases activity of mitochondrial proteins, was elevated in the VWR, VWR-OF, and TM-END groups (P < 0.05). In addition, only VWR-OF animals experienced increases in hepatic cytochrome c protein content and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA, whereas PGC-1α mRNA expression and phospho-CREB protein content was increased in VWR-OF and TM-END groups. Four weeks of exercise training, regardless of exercise modality, significantly increased hepatic mitochondrial respiration and evoked other unique improvements in mitochondrial metabolism that do not appear to be dependent on increases in mitochondrial content.

  2. Multiplanar breast kinematics during different exercise modalities.

    PubMed

    Risius, Deborah; Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Multiplanar breast movement reduction is crucial to increasing physical activity participation amongst women. To date, research has focused on breast movement during running, but until breast movement is understood during different exercise modalities, the breast support requirements for specific activities are unknown. To understand breast support requirements during different exercise modalities, this study aimed to determine multiplanar breast kinematics during running, jumping and agility tasks. Sixteen 32D participants had markers attached to their right nipple and torso. Relative multiplanar breast displacement was calculated during bare-breasted treadmill running (10 kph), maximum countermovement jumping and an agility t-test. Exercise modality influenced the magnitude and direction of breast displacement, velocity and acceleration (p < .05). Jumping produced greater vertical breast displacement (.09 m) but less mediolateral breast displacement (.05 m) than running or the agility task, but agility tasks produced the highest multiplanar breast velocities and acceleration. Breast movement during jumping was predominantly in the vertical direction, whereas the agility task produced a greater percentage of mediolateral breast acceleration than running or jumping. Exercise modality impacted upon the magnitude and distribution of bare-breasted multiplanar breast kinematics in this homogenous 32D cohort. Therefore, to reduce breast movement in women of a 32D bra size, manufacturers may wish to design sport-specific products, with greater vertical support for exercise modalities incorporating jumping and greater mediolateral support for agility tasks.

  3. Eccentric exercise training: modalities, applications and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve; Dufour, Stéphane Pascal; Vautravers, Philippe; Geny, Bernard; Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Richard, Ruddy

    2013-06-01

    Eccentric (ECC) exercise is classically used to improve muscle strength and power in healthy subjects and athletes. Due to its specific physiological and mechanical properties, there is an increasing interest in employing ECC muscle work for rehabilitation and clinical purposes. Nowadays, ECC muscle actions can be generated using various exercise modalities that target small or large muscle masses with minimal or no muscle damage or pain. The most interesting feature of ECC muscle actions is to combine high muscle force with a low energy cost (typically 4- to 5-times lower than concentric muscle work) when measured during leg cycle ergometry at a similar mechanical power output. Therefore, if caution is taken to minimize the occurrence of muscle damage, ECC muscle exercise can be proposed not only to athletes and healthy subjects, but also to individuals with moderately to severely limited exercise capacity, with the ultimate goal being to improve their functional capacity and quality of life. The first part of this review article describes the available exercise modalities to generate ECC muscle work, including strength and conditioning exercises using the body's weight and/or additional external loads, classical isotonic or isokinetic exercises and, in addition, the oldest and newest specifically designed ECC ergometers. The second part highlights the physiological and mechanical properties of ECC muscle actions, such as the well-known higher muscle force-generating capacity and also the often overlooked specific cardiovascular and metabolic responses. This point is particularly emphasized by comparing ECC and concentric muscle work performed at similar mechanical (i.e., cycling mechanical power) or metabolic power (i.e., oxygen uptake, VO2). In particular, at a similar mechanical power, ECC muscle work induces lower metabolic and cardiovascular responses than concentric muscle work. However, when both exercise modes are performed at a similar level of VO2, a

  4. Multi-modal exercise programs for older adults.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael K; Atlantis, Evan; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2007-07-01

    Various modalities of exercise have been demonstrated to improve physical function and quality of life in older adults. Current guidelines stress the importance of multi-modal exercise for this cohort, including strengthening exercises, cardiovascular, flexibility and balance training. There is a lack of evidence, however, that simultaneously prescribed doses and intensities of strength, aerobic, and balance training in older adults are both feasible and capable of eliciting changes in physical function and quality of life. A comprehensive, systematic database search for manuscripts was performed. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for potential inclusion. Physical and functional performance outcomes were extracted. The relative effect sizes (ES) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Fifteen studies were included totalling 2,149 subjects; the mean cohort age ranging from 67 +/- 8 to 84 +/- 3 years. A low mean relative ES for strength was seen across the reviewed studies. Only six of the eleven studies that included balance measurements found a significant improvement in balance compared to controls. Aerobic fitness was seldom measured or reported. Five out of the six studies investigating fall rates showed a significant reduction. Functional and quality of life measures generally did not improve with exercise. Multi-modal exercise has a positive effect on falls prevention. The limited data available suggests that multi-modal exercise has a small effect on physical, functional and quality of life outcomes. Future research should include robustly designed trials that involve multi-modal exercise at individually prescribed intensities based on doses found to be effective in single-modality studies.

  5. Implicit Interaction: A Modality for Ambient Exercise Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; O'Grady, M. J.; O'Hare, G. M. P.

    Ambient Exercise refers to the implicit exercise that people undertake in the course of their everyday duties - a simple example being climbing stairs. Increasing awareness of the potential health benefits of such activities may well contribute to an increase in a person’s well-being. Initially, it is necessary to monitor and quantify such exercise so that personalized fitness plans may be constructed. In this paper, the implicit interaction modality is harnessed to enable the capturing of ambient exercise activity thereby facilitating its subsequent quantification and interpretation. The novelty of the solution proposed lies in its ubiquity and transparency.

  6. Exercise training modalities in chronic heart failure: does high intensity aerobic interval training make the difference?

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Smart, Neil Andrew; Cittadini, Antonio; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-10-14

    Exercise training (ET) is strongly recommended in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous ET is the best established training modality in CHF patients. In the last decade, however, high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation community. Basically, HIIT consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise alternated with recovery periods. In CHF patients, HIIT exerts larger improvements in exercise capacity compared to moderate-continuous ET. These results are intriguing, mostly considering that better functional capacity translates into an improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Notably, HIIT did not reveal major safety issues; although CHF patients should be clinically stable, have had recent exposure to at least regular moderate-intensity exercise, and appropriate supervision and monitoring during and after the exercise session are mandatory. The impact of HIIT on cardiac dimensions and function and on endothelial function remains uncertain. HIIT should not replace other training modalities in heart failure but should rather complement them. Combining and tailoring different ET modalities according to each patient's baseline clinical characteristics (i.e. exercise capacity, personal needs, preferences and goals) seem the most astute approach to exercise prescription.

  7. Impact of choice of imaging modality accompanying outpatient exercise stress testing on outcomes and resource use after revascularization for acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Federspiel, Jerome J; Shah, Bimal R; Shaw, Leslee J; Masoudi, Frederick A; Chang, Patricia P; Stearns, Sally C; Mudrick, Daniel W; Cowper, Patricia A; Green, Cynthia L; Douglas, Pamela S

    2013-10-01

    Exercise stress testing is commonly obtained after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We compared the relationships between exercise echocardiography and nuclear testing after ACS-related PCI on outcomes and resource use. Longitudinal observational study using fee-for-service Medicare claims to identify patients undergoing outpatient exercise stress testing with imaging within 15 months after PCI performed for ACS between 2003 and 2004. Of 63,100 patients undergoing stress testing 3 to 15 months post-PCI, 31,731 (50.3%) underwent an exercise stress test with imaging. Among 29,279 patients undergoing exercise stress testing with imaging, 15.5% received echocardiography. Echocardiography recipients had higher rates of repeat stress testing (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.60, CI 2.19-3.10) compared with those undergoing nuclear imaging in the 90 days after testing, but lower rates of revascularization (adjusted HR 0.87, CI 0.76-0.98) and coronary angiography (adjusted HR 0.88, CI 0.80-0.97). None of these differences persisted subsequent to 90 days after stress testing. Rates of death and readmission for myocardial infarction rates were similar. Total Medicare payments were lower initially after echocardiography (incremental difference $498, CI 488-507), an effect attributed primarily to lower reimbursement for the stress test itself, but not significantly different after 14 months after testing. In this study using administrative data, echocardiography recipients initially had fewer invasive procedures but higher rates of repeat testing than nuclear testing recipients. However, these differences between echo and nuclear testing did not persist over longer time frames. © 2013.

  8. Impact of choice of imaging modality accompanying outpatient exercise stress testing on outcomes and resource use after revascularization for acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Federspiel, Jerome J.; Shah, Bimal R.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Chang, Patricia P.; Stearns, Sally C.; Mudrick, Daniel W.; Cowper, Patricia A.; Green, Cynthia L.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise stress testing is commonly obtained after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We compared the relationships between exercise echocardiography and nuclear testing after ACS-related PCI on outcomes and resource use. Methods Longitudinal observational study using fee-for-service Medicare claims to identify patients undergoing outpatient exercise stress testing with imaging within 15 months after PCI performed for ACS between 2003 and 2004. Results Of 63,100 patients undergoing stress testing 3 to 15 months post-PCI, 31,731 (50.3%) underwent an exercise stress test with imaging. Among 29,279 patients undergoing exercise stress testing with imaging, 15.5% received echocardiography. Echocardiography recipients had higher rates of repeat stress testing (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.60, CI 2.19–3.10) compared with those undergoing nuclear imaging in the 90 days after testing, but lower rates of revascularization (adjusted HR 0.87, CI 0.76–0.98) and coronary angiography (adjusted HR 0.88, CI 0.80–0.97). None of these differences persisted subsequent to 90 days after stress testing. Rates of death and readmission for myocardial infarction rates were similar. Total Medicare payments were lower initially after echocardiography (incremental difference $498, CI 488–507), an effect attributed primarily to lower reimbursement for the stress test itself, but not significantly different after 14 months after testing. Conclusions In this study using administrative data, echocardiography recipients initially had fewer invasive procedures but higher rates of repeat testing than nuclear testing recipients. However, these differences between echo and nuclear testing did not persist over longer time frames. PMID:24093861

  9. Exercise modality modulates body temperature regulation during exercise in uncompensable heat stress.

    PubMed

    Schlader, Zachary J; Raman, Aaron; Morton, R Hugh; Stannard, Stephen R; Mündel, Toby

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated exercise modality [i.e. self-paced (SP) or fixed-intensity (FI) exercise] as a modulator of body temperature regulation under uncompensable heat stress. Eight well-trained male cyclists completed (work-matched) FI and SP cycling exercise bouts in a hot (40.6 ± 0.2°C) and dry (relative humidity 23 ± 3%) environment estimated to elicit 70% of [Formula: see text]O(2)max. Exercise intensity (i.e. power output) decreased over time in SP, which resulted in longer exercise duration (FI 20.3 ± 3.4 min, SP 23.2 ± 4.1 min). According to the heat strain index, the modification of exercise intensity in SP improved the compensability of the thermal environment which, relative to FI, was likely a result of the reductions in metabolic heat production (i.e. [Formula: see text]O(2)). Consequently, the rate of rise in core body temperature was higher in FI (0.108 ± 0.020°C/min) than in SP (0.082 ± 0.016°C/min). Interestingly, cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate during exercise were independent of exercise modality. However, core body temperature (FI 39.4 ± 0.3°C, SP 39.1 ± 0.4°C), blood lactate (FI 2.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, SP 2.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L), perceived exertion (FI 18 ± 2, SP 16 ± 2), and physiological strain (FI 9.1 ± 0.9, SP 8.3 ± 1.1) were all higher in FI compared to SP at exhaustion/completion. These findings indicate that, when exercise is SP, behavioral modification of metabolic heat production improves the compensability of the thermal environment and reduces thermoregulatory strain. Therefore, under uncompensable heat stress, exercise modality modulates body temperature regulation.

  10. Swimming exercise: impact of aquatic exercise on cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2009-01-01

    Swimming is an exercise modality that is highly suitable for health promotion and disease prevention, and is one of the most popular, most practiced and most recommended forms of physical activity. Yet little information is available concerning the influence of regular swimming on coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise recommendations involving swimming have been generated primarily from unjustified extrapolation of the data from other modes of exercise (e.g. walking and cycling). Available evidence indicates that, similarly to other physically active adults, the CHD risk profile is more favourable in swimmers than in sedentary counterparts and that swim training results in the lowering of some CHD risk factors. However, the beneficial impact of regular swimming may be smaller than land-based exercises. In some cases, regular swimming does not appear to confer beneficial effects on some CHD risk factors. Moreover, swimming has not been associated with the reduced risks of developing CHD. Thus, extrapolation of research findings using land-based exercises into swimming cannot be justified, based on the available research. Clearly, more research is required to properly assess the effects of regular swimming on CHD risks in humans.

  11. Biomechanical adaptations of mice cortical bone submitted to three different exercise modalities

    PubMed Central

    Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan; Falcai, Maurício José; Fernandes, Cleverson Rodrigues; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the adaptive effects of three non-weight bearing exercise on bone mechanical properties. Methods 24 male Balb/c mice (22-25g), were randomly divided into four groups (n=6): sedentary group (S); swimming group (N) which performed sessions five times per week for 60 min progressively; resistance group (R), which performed climbing exercise with progressive load, three times per week; and combined group (C), which performed the same protocols aforementioned being three times a week according to N protocol and two times a week the R protocol during eight weeks. Biomechanical tests, load until failure and stiffness evaluation of shinbone was performed after animals have been sacrificed. Results Stiffness values were statistically higher only in the isolated modalities groups (N and R, 41.68 ± 10.43 and 41.21 ± 11.38 N/mm, respectively) compared with the S group (28.48 ± 7.34 N/mm). However, taking into consideration the final body mass, relative values, there was no difference in the biomechanical tests among the groups. Conclusion Data from the present investigation demonstrated a favorable influence of muscle contraction in lower impact isolated exercise modalities on absolute stiffness values, i.e.groups N and R, whereas the combined group (C) did not present any statistical significant difference compared to sedentary group. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:24453691

  12. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode.

  13. Different Short-Term Mild Exercise Modalities Lead to Differential Effects on Body Composition in Healthy Prepubertal Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sontam, D. M.; Vickers, M. H.; O'Sullivan, J. M.; Watson, M.; Firth, E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON), bipedal stance (BPS), or wheel exercise (WEX) groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality. PMID:25695074

  14. Impact of Learning Modalities on Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenouillet, Fabien; Kaplan, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on the analysis of academic results of 692 undergraduate and graduate students in two disciplines in a French university who attended their courses using one out of four possible learning modalities. Within the two disciplines, Art History and Educational Sciences, students chose between face-to-face learning (on campus),…

  15. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality

    PubMed Central

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400–500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20–30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior

  16. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality.

    PubMed

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior cruciate

  17. Modality of physical exercise and cognitive function in Hong Kong older Chinese community.

    PubMed

    Lam, Linda C W; Tam, Cindy W C; Lui, Victor W C; Chan, W C; Chan, Sandra S M; Chiu, Helen F K; Wong, Ada; Tham, M K; Ho, K S; Chan, W M

    2009-01-01

    We reported the association between modality of Physical Exercise and cognitive function in 782 older Chinese adults assessed in the second phase of a population survey for dementia in Hong Kong. Profiles of physical exercise was measured by a questionnaire (no exercise, stretching, aerobic and mind-body exercise). Cognitive Assessments included the CMMSE, ADAS-Cog, and Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT). The aerobic and mind body exercise groups with longer exercise habits (>5 years) had higher scores in most cognitive tests (Kruskal Wallis tests, p < 0.01). Beneficial effects were more significant in the young old group from 65- 75 years. Possible age related specific effects of aerobic and mind body exercise on cognitive reserve are worthy of further exploration. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The value of electrical stimulation as an exercise training modality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currier, Dean P.; Ray, J. Michael; Nyland, John; Noteboom, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary exercise is the traditional way of improving performance of the human body in both the healthy and unhealthy states. Physiological responses to voluntary exercise are well documented. It benefits the functions of bone, joints, connective tissue, and muscle. In recent years, research has shown that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) simulates voluntary exercise in many ways. Generically, NMES can perform three major functions: suppression of pain, improve healing of soft tissues, and produce muscle contractions. Low frequency NMES may gate or disrupt the sensory input to the central nervous system which results in masking or control of pain. At the same time NMES may contribute to the activation of endorphins, serotonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptides, and ACTH which control pain and may even cause improved athletic performances. Soft tissue conditions such as wounds and inflammations have responded very favorably to NMES. NMES of various amplitudes can induce muscle contractions ranging from weak to intense levels. NMES seems to have made its greatest gains in rehabilitation where directed muscle contractions may improve joint ranges of motion correct joint contractures that result from shortening muscles; control abnormal movements through facilitating recruitment or excitation into the alpha motoneuron in orthopedically, neurologically, or healthy subjects with intense sensory, kinesthetic, and proprioceptive information; provide a conservative approach to management of spasticity in neurological patients; by stimulation of the antagonist muscle to a spastic muscle stimulation of the agonist muscle, and sensory habituation; serve as an orthotic substitute to conventional bracing used with stroke patients in lieu of dorsiflexor muscles in preventing step page gait and for shoulder muscles to maintain glenohumeral alignment to prevent subluxation; and of course NMES is used in maintaining or improving the performance or torque producing

  19. Training modalities: impact on endurance capacity.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Martin; Eilers, Wouter

    2010-03-01

    Endurance athletes demonstrate an exceptional resistance to fatigue when exercising at high intensity. Much research has been devoted to the contribution of aerobic capacity for the economy of endurance performance. Important aspects of the fine-tuning of metabolic processes and power output in the endurance athlete have been overlooked. This review addresses how training paradigms exploit bioenergetic pathways in recruited muscle groups to promote the endurance phenotype. A special focus is laid on the genome-mediated mechanisms that underlie the conditioning of fatigue resistance and aerobic performance by training macrocycles and complements. The available data on work-induced muscle plasticity implies that different biologic strategies are exploited in athletic and untrained populations to boost endurance capacity. Olympic champions are probably endowed with a unique constitution that renders the conditioning of endurance capacity for competition particularly efficient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-modal perceptual load: the impact of modality and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Rajwant; Dyson, Benjamin James

    2016-05-01

    Visual distractor processing tends to be more pronounced when the perceptual load (PL) of a task is low compared to when it is high [perpetual load theory (PLT); Lavie in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 21(3):451-468, 1995]. While PLT is well established in the visual domain, application to cross-modal processing has produced mixed results, and the current study was designed in an attempt to improve previous methodologies. First, we assessed PLT using response competition, a typical metric from the uni-modal domain. Second, we looked at the impact of auditory load on visual distractors, and of visual load on auditory distractors, within the same individual. Third, we compared individual uni- and cross-modal selective attention abilities, by correlating performance with the visual Attentional Network Test (ANT). Fourth, we obtained a measure of the relative processing efficiency between vision and audition, to investigate whether processing ease influences the extent of distractor processing. Although distractor processing was evident during both attend auditory and attend visual conditions, we found that PL did not modulate processing of either visual or auditory distractors. We also found support for a correlation between the uni-modal (visual) ANT and our cross-modal task but only when the distractors were visual. Finally, although auditory processing was more impacted by visual distractors, our measure of processing efficiency only accounted for this asymmetry in the auditory high-load condition. The results are discussed with respect to the continued debate regarding the shared or separate nature of processing resources across modalities.

  1. Modality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbe, Walter B.; Milone, Michael N., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This article explains to teachers how they can identify their personal modality strength (auditory, visual, or kinesthetic) and how this orientation affects their classroom style. Techniques are also suggested for providing reading help to auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners. (SJL)

  2. Vibration as an exercise modality: how it may work, and what its potential might be.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, Jörn

    2010-03-01

    Whilst exposure to vibration is traditionally regarded as perilous, recent research has focussed on potential benefits. Here, the physical principles of forced oscillations are discussed in relation to vibration as an exercise modality. Acute physiological responses to isolated tendon and muscle vibration and to whole body vibration exercise are reviewed, as well as the training effects upon the musculature, bone mineral density and posture. Possible applications in sports and medicine are discussed. Evidence suggests that acute vibration exercise seems to elicit a specific warm-up effect, and that vibration training seems to improve muscle power, although the potential benefits over traditional forms of resistive exercise are still unclear. Vibration training also seems to improve balance in sub-populations prone to fall, such as frail elderly people. Moreover, literature suggests that vibration is beneficial to reduce chronic lower back pain and other types of pain. Other future indications are perceivable.

  3. Comparing exercise training modalities in heart failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Justien; Beckers, Paul; Taeymans, Jan; Vrints, Christiaan; Vissers, Dirk

    2016-10-15

    Exercise training (ET) is suggested to improve exercise capacity, prognosis, quality of life (QOL) and functional modifications of the heart in patients with heart failure (HF). However, it is not clear which modality is best. In order to assess the effectiveness of different ET modalities on prognostic cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) parameters, QOL and left ventricular remodeling, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were selected in three databases. The primary outcome data were peak oxygen uptake, ventilation over carbon dioxide slope, oxygen uptake efficiency slope, exercise oscillatory ventilation, rest and peak pulmonary end-tidal CO2. Secondary variables were QOL, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD). Twenty RCTs (n=811) met the a priori stated inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized into four different groups: "interval training (IT1) versus combined interval and strength training (IT1S)" (n=156), "continuous training (CT1) versus combined continuous and strength training (CT1S)" (n=130), "interval training (IT2) versus continuous training (CT2)" (n=501) and "continuous training (CT3) versus strength training (S3)" (n=24). No significant random effects of exercise modality were revealed assessing the CPET parameters. There was a significant improvement in QOL applying CT1S (P<0.001). Comparing IT2 with CT2, LVEDD and LVEF were significantly improved favoring IT2 (P<0.001). There is some evidence to support that interval training is more effective to improve LVEF and LVEDD. The fact that patients with HF are actively involved in any kind of ET program seems sufficient to improve the prognosis, QOL and anatomic function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modal and Impact Dynamics Analysis of an Aluminum Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessard, Wendy B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents analyses for the modal characteristics and impact response of an all-aluminum cylinder. The analyses were performed in preparation for impact tests of the cylinder at The Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) at the NASA Langley Research Center. Mode shapes and frequencies were computed using NASTRAN and compared with existing experimental data to assess the overall accuracy of the mass and stiffness of the finite element model. A series of non-linear impact analyses were then performed using MSC Dytran in which the weight distribution on the floor and the impact velocity of the cylinder were varied. The effects of impact velocity and mass on the rebound and gross deformation of the cylinder were studied in this investigation.

  5. Effect of impact exercise on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vainionpää, A; Korpelainen, R; Väänänen, H K; Haapalahti, J; Jämsä, T; Leppäluoto, J

    2009-10-01

    Regular impact exercise in premenopausal women caused positive osteogenic effects associated to low basal serum parathormone (PTH) but had no effects on bone turnover markers PINP or TRACP5b. The low serum basal PTH levels during impact exercise may be a sign of increased incorporation of calcium to bone. This study aimed to determine the long-term effects of high-impact exercise on bone turnover and calciotropic hormones. We performed a 12-month population-based, randomized, controlled exercise trial in 120 women (age 35-40 years) randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG; n = 60) or a control group (CG; n = 60). The exercise regimen consisted of supervised high-impact exercises three times per week. Daily impact loading was assessed by using an accelerometer. Bone turnover markers and calciotropic hormones were analyzed at 0, 6, and 12 months. Twelve months of impact exercise did not reveal any treatment effects in bone turnover markers PINP or TRAPC5b, whereas serum basal PTH decreased significantly more in the EG than in the CG (-11.2 vs. -2.2 pg/mL; p = 0.03). The change in PTH was dose dependent and most clearly seen in subjects with 96 to 130 daily impacts at 2.5 to 5.3 g (e.g., running or jumping). Regular impact exercise does not cause persistent alterations in bone turnover emphasizing necessity of continuous training to achieve bone benefits. Impact exercise training lowers the serum basal PTH levels and possibly enables greater difference between the basal PTH and transient exercise-induced PTH peaks leading to osteogenic effects.

  6. Engaging cognitive circuits to promote motor recovery in degenerative disorders. exercise as a learning modality.

    PubMed

    Jakowec, Michael W; Wang, Zhou; Holschneider, Daniel; Beeler, Jeff; Petzinger, Giselle M

    2016-09-01

    Exercise and physical activity are fundamental components of a lifestyle essential in maintaining a healthy brain. This is primarily due to the fact that the adult brain maintains a high degree of plasticity and activity is essential for homeostasis throughout life. Plasticity is not lost even in the context of a neurodegenerative disorder, but could be maladaptive thus promoting disease onset and progression. A major breakthrough in treating brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease is to drive neuroplasticity in a direction to improve motor and cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this short review is to present the evidence from our laboratories that supports neuroplasticity as a potential therapeutic target in treating brain disorders. We consider that the enhancement of motor recovery in both animal models of dopamine depletion and in patients with Parkinson's disease is optimized when cognitive circuits are engaged; in other words, the brain is engaged in a learning modality. Therefore, we propose that to be effective in treating Parkinson's disease, physical therapy must employ both skill-based exercise (to drive specific circuits) and aerobic exercise (to drive the expression of molecules required to strengthen synaptic connections) components to select those neuronal circuits, such as the corticostriatal pathway, necessary to restore proper motor and cognitive behaviors. In the wide spectrum of different forms of exercise, learning as the fundamental modality likely links interventions used to treat patients with Parkinson's disease and may be necessary to drive beneficial neuroplasticity resulting in symptomatic improvement and possible disease modification.

  7. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Newton, Robert U; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Gardiner, Robert A; Levin, Gregory; Wall, Bradley; Joseph, David; Chambers, Suzanne K; Galvão, Daniel A

    2009-06-29

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in men receiving androgen deprivation for their prostate cancer. Specifically, we aim to investigate the effects of a 12-month exercise program designed to load the musculoskeletal system and reduce cardiovascular and diabetes disease progression on the following primary endpoints: 1) bone mineral density; 2) cardiorespiratory function and maximal oxygen capacity; 3) body composition (lean mass and fat mass); 4) blood pressure and cardiovascular function; 5) lipids and glycemic control; and 6) quality of life and psychological distress. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm) undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1) resistance/impact loading exercise, (2) resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3) usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention). The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of exercise in this patient population specifically

  8. Engaging cognitive circuits to promote motor recovery in degenerative disorders. exercise as a learning modality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhou; Holschneider, Daniel; Beeler, Jeff; Petzinger, Giselle M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Exercise and physical activity are fundamental components of a lifestyle essential in maintaining a healthy brain. This is primarily due to the fact that the adult brain maintains a high degree of plasticity and activity is essential for homeostasis throughout life. Plasticity is not lost even in the context of a neurodegenerative disorder, but could be maladaptive thus promoting disease onset and progression. A major breakthrough in treating brain disorders such as Parkinson’s disease is to drive neuroplasticity in a direction to improve motor and cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this short review is to present the evidence from our laboratories that supports neuroplasticity as a potential therapeutic target in treating brain disorders. We consider that the enhancement of motor recovery in both animal models of dopamine depletion and in patients with Parkinson’s disease is optimized when cognitive circuits are engaged; in other words, the brain is engaged in a learning modality. Therefore, we propose that to be effective in treating Parkinson’s disease, physical therapy must employ both skill-based exercise (to drive specific circuits) and aerobic exercise (to drive the expression of molecules required to strengthen synaptic connections) components to select those neuronal circuits, such as the corticostriatal pathway, necessary to restore proper motor and cognitive behaviors. In the wide spectrum of different forms of exercise, learning as the fundamental modality likely links interventions used to treat patients with Parkinson’s disease and may be necessary to drive beneficial neuroplasticity resulting in symptomatic improvement and possible disease modification. PMID:28149392

  9. Cross-modal impacts of anthropogenic noise on information use.

    PubMed

    Morris-Drake, Amy; Kern, Julie M; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-10-24

    Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant, and there is rapidly accumulating evidence of impacts on a range of animal taxa [1,2]. While many studies have considered how additional noise may affect information provision and use, they have focused on the masking and consequent alteration of acoustic signals and cues; so-called unimodal effects [3]. Using field-based experimental trials on habituated wild dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula) [4], we combine sound playbacks and faecal presentations to demonstrate that anthropogenic noise can disrupt responses to information from different sensory modalities. The adaptive, stronger response exhibited towards predator faeces compared with control faeces in ambient-noise conditions was detrimentally affected by road-noise playback. Specifically, having taken longer to detect the faeces, the mongooses interacted less with the predator cue, did not show increased vigilance following its detection, and spent less time in the safe vicinity of a burrow refuge, thus suffering a potentially increased predation risk. Our results are the first to show that anthropogenic noise could alter responses to olfactory cues, strongly indicating the possibility of cross-modal impacts of noise pollution on information use [3]. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of exercise modality on the incidence of plateau at VO2max.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dan; Mehter, Mashihullah; Gernigon, Marie; Caddy, Oliver; Keiller, Don; Barnes, Richard

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise modality on the incidence of plateau at VO2max. Twelve recreationally active men (age, 21·7 ± 2·3 year; mass, 74·8 ± 6·5 kg; height, 177·6 ± 5·6 cm) completed four incremental tests to volitional exhaustion, of which two were completed on a treadmill (TRE) and two were completed using a cycle ergometer (CYC). The work rate employed for CYC was 1 W·2 s(-1) from an initial loading of 100 W with cadence being maintained at 60 rpm. For TRE, the workload (gradient) increased at a rate of 0·5% · 30 s(-1) while maintaining a constant running speed of 10 kph. Throughout all the trials, VO2 was determined on a breath-by-breath basis using a precalibrated metabolic cart. The criteria adopted for determination of a plateau was a Δ VO2 over the final two consecutive 30-s sampling periods of ≤50 ml · min(-1). Averaging across the two trials per each exercise modality showed a significant difference for plateau incidence between CYC (8%) and TRE (58%) (P = 0·017). This was aligned with a significant difference in the slope of the regression line during the final 60 s of the VO2max test, CYC (99·9 ± 49·7 ml · min(-1)) and TRE (49·6 ± 42·6 ml · min(-1)) (P = 0·017). Repeat measures ANOVA of these data suggests that plateau incidence rates at VO2max differ between treadmill- and cycle ergometry-based exercises. Future studies need to address whether these response rates are replicated in well-trained athletes.

  11. Multiple-modality exercise and mind-motor training to improve cardiovascular health and fitness in older adults at risk for cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boa Sorte Silva, Narlon C; Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Petrella, Robert J

    The effects of multiple-modality exercise on arterial stiffening and cardiovascular fitness has not been fully explored. To explore the influence of a 24-week multiple-modality exercise program associated with a mind-motor training in cardiovascular health and fitness in community-dwelling older adults, compared to multiple-modality exercise (M2) alone. Participants (n=127, aged 67.5 [7.3] years, 71% females) were randomized to either M4 or M2 groups. Both groups received multiple-modality exercise intervention (60min/day, 3days/week for 24-weeks); however, the M4 group underwent additional 15min of mind-motor training, whereas the M2 group received 15min of balance training. Participants were assessed at 24-weeks and after a 28-week non-contact follow-up (52-weeks). at 52-weeks, the M4 group demonstrated a greater VO2max (ml/kg/min) compared to the M2 group (mean difference: 2.39, 95% CI: 0. 61 to 4.16, p=0.009). Within-group analysis indicated that the M4 group demonstrated a positive change in VO2max at 24-weeks (mean change: 1.93, 95% CI: 0.82 to 3.05, p=0.001) and 52-weeks (4.02, 95% CI: 2.71 to 5.32, p=0.001). Similarly, the M2 group increased VO2max at 24-weeks (2.28, 95% CI: 1.23 to 3.32, p<0.001) and 52-weeks (1.63, 95% CI: 0.43 to 2.83, p=0.008). Additionally, the M2 group decreased 24h SBP (mmHg) at 24-weeks (-2.31, 95% CI: -4.61 to -0.01, p=0.049); whereas the M4 group improved 24h DBP (-1.6, 95% CI: -3.03 to -0.17, p=0.028) at 52-weeks. Mind-motor training associated with multiple-modality exercise can positively impact cardiovascular fitness to the same extent as multiple-modality exercise alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Massage and ultrasound as therapeutic modalities in exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Tiidus, P M

    1999-06-01

    Although both massage and ultrasound treatment are used in clinical settings to enhance muscle functional recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage, there is a paucity of experimental evidence for their efficacy. Theoretically both massage and ultrasound could affect some physiological factors associated with enhancement of postexercise muscle recovery. However, the actual physiological mechanisms by which massage or ultrasound could influence postexercise muscle damage and repair are unknown. Most experimental evidence suggests that massage has little influence on muscle blood flow, clearance of "noxious" substances, recovery of postexercise muscle strength, or delayed soreness sensation. However, more data is needed before conclusions can be drawn as to the ability of massage to influence postexercise inflammatory response or various other physiological changes that characterize exercise-induced muscle damage and repair. There is even less information on the ability of ultrasound to influence physiological or functional factors associated with postexercise muscle damage. The few experiments that have been done tend to be contradictory and have yet to consider the range of ultrasound treatment parameters for therapeutic effectiveness in treating postexercise damage and influencing repair processes. Much more research is needed to determine whether either treatment modality can have any therapeutic effect on exercise-induced muscle damage and recovery of postexercise muscle function.

  13. One bout of open skill exercise improves cross-modal perception and immediate memory in healthy older adults who habitually exercise.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jessica; Ottoboni, Giovanni; Tessari, Alessia; Setti, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    One single bout of exercise can be associated with positive effects on cognition, due to physiological changes associated with muscular activity, increased arousal, and training of cognitive skills during exercise. While the positive effects of life-long physical activity on cognitive ageing are well demonstrated, it is not well established whether one bout of exercise is sufficient to register such benefits in older adults. The aim of this study was to test the effect of one bout of exercise on two cognitive processes essential to daily life and known to decline with ageing: audio-visual perception and immediate memory. Fifty-eight older adults took part in a quasi-experimental design study and were divided into three groups based on their habitual activity (open skill exercise (mean age = 69.65, SD = 5.64), closed skill exercise, N = 18, 94% female; sedentary activity-control group, N = 21, 62% female). They were then tested before and after their activity (duration between 60 and 80 minutes). Results showed improvement in sensitivity in audio-visual perception in the open skill group and improvements in one of the measures of immediate memory in both exercise groups, after controlling for baseline differences including global cognition and health. These findings indicate that immediate benefits for cross-modal perception and memory can be obtained after open skill exercise. However, improvements after closed skill exercise may be limited to memory benefits. Perceptual benefits are likely to be associated with arousal, while memory benefits may be due to the training effects provided by task requirements during exercise. The respective role of qualitative and quantitative differences between these activities in terms of immediate cognitive benefits should be further investigated. Importantly, the present results present the first evidence for a modulation of cross-modal perception by exercise, providing a plausible avenue for rehabilitation of cross-modal

  14. Influence of exercise modality on agreement between gas exchange and heart rate variability thresholds.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F A; Montenegro, R A; Midgley, A W; Vasconcellos, F; Soares, P P; Farinatti, P

    2014-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between the gas exchange threshold (GET) and heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) using three different exercise modalities. A further aim was to establish whether there was a 1:1 relationship between the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) and percentage oxygen uptake reserve (%VO2 R) at intensities corresponding to GET and HRVT. Sixteen apparently healthy men 17 to 28 years of age performed three maximal CPETs (cycling, walking, and running). Mean heart rate and VO2 at GET and HRVT were 16 bpm (P<0.001) and 5.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) (P=0.001) higher in running than cycling, but no significant differences were observed between running and walking, or cycling and walking (P>0.05). There was a strong relationship between GET and HRVT, with R2 ranging from 0.69 to 0.90. A 1:1 relationship between %HRR and % VO2 R was not observed at GET and HRVT. The %HRR was higher during cycling (GET mean difference=7%; HRVT mean difference=11%; both P<0.001), walking (GET mean difference=13%; HRVT mean difference=13%; both P<0.001), or running (GET mean difference=11%; HRVT mean difference=10%; both P<0.001). Therefore, using HRVT to prescribe aerobic exercise intensity appears to be valid. However, to assume a 1:1 relationship between %HRR and % VO2 R at HRVT would probably result in overestimation of the energy expenditure during the bout of exercise.

  15. Influence of exercise modality on agreement between gas exchange and heart rate variability thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, F.A.; Montenegro, R.A.; Midgley, A.W.; Vasconcellos, F.; Soares, P.P.; Farinatti, P.

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between the gas exchange threshold (GET) and heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) using three different exercise modalities. A further aim was to establish whether there was a 1:1 relationship between the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) and percentage oxygen uptake reserve (%V˙O2 R) at intensities corresponding to GET and HRVT. Sixteen apparently healthy men 17 to 28 years of age performed three maximal CPETs (cycling, walking, and running). Mean heart rate and V˙O2 at GET and HRVT were 16 bpm (P<0.001) and 5.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 (P=0.001) higher in running than cycling, but no significant differences were observed between running and walking, or cycling and walking (P>0.05). There was a strong relationship between GET and HRVT, with R2 ranging from 0.69 to 0.90. A 1:1 relationship between %HRR and %V˙O2 R was not observed at GET and HRVT. The %HRR was higher during cycling (GET mean difference=7%; HRVT mean difference=11%; both P<0.001), walking (GET mean difference=13%; HRVT mean difference=13%; both P<0.001), or running (GET mean difference=11%; HRVT mean difference=10%; both P<0.001). Therefore, using HRVT to prescribe aerobic exercise intensity appears to be valid. However, to assume a 1:1 relationship between %HRR and %V˙O2 R at HRVT would probably result in overestimation of the energy expenditure during the bout of exercise. PMID:25003546

  16. A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James; Sales, Adele; Carlson, Luke; Steele, James

    2017-09-01

    Understanding resistance exercise motives and participation is essential in increasing exercise adherence and reducing comorbidities. CrossFit is a fitness movement that has seen an explosive growth in popularity worldwide; however, little research has investigated the motivational factors within this "niche" resistance exercise environment. The aim of this study was to explore the motivational factors of CrossFit participants in comparison to other resistance exercise participants. Using an independent-group design, quantitative data was collected using exercise motivations inventory-2 (EMI-2) questionnaire, for a total of 314 male and female participants (CrossFit: N.=68, group resistance exercise: N.=55, alone: N.=125, personal trainer: N.=66). The present study suggest that CrossFit participants were more likely to report higher levels of intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment, challenge and affiliation, whereas personal training clients reported higher values for health related motives such as positive health, ill-health avoidance and weight management. The findings suggest that the motivations for engaging in CrossFit may be similar to those seen in sport participation, and therefore may have an influence on facilitating long-term adherence in comparison with other resistance exercise modalities. This article also discusses health related motives as being extrinsic in nature but reflecting intrinsic characteristics, potentially also facilitating long term adherence. The present research helps develop further understanding of motivational variables within differing resistance exercise modalities.

  17. Impact of commonly prescribed exercise interventions on platelet activation in physically inactive and overweight men.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Andrew; Linden, Matthew D; Robey, Elisa; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, Hugh; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    The exercise paradox infers that, despite the well-established cardioprotective effects of repeated episodic exercise (training), the risk of acute atherothrombotic events may be transiently increased during and soon after an exercise bout. However, the acute impact of different exercise modalities on platelet function has not previously been addressed. We hypothesized that distinct modalities of exercise would have differing effects on in vivo platelet activation and reactivity to agonists which induce monocyte-platelet aggregate (MPA) formation. Eight middle-aged (53.5 ± 1.6 years) male participants took part in four 30 min experimental interventions (aerobic AE, resistance RE, combined aerobic/resistance exercise CARE, or no-exercise NE), in random order. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after each intervention, and incubated with one of three agonists of physiologically/clinically relevant pathways of platelet activation (thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 TRAP, arachidonic acid AA, and cross-linked collagen-related peptide xCRP). In the presence of AA, TRAP, and xCRP, both RE and CARE evoked increases in MPAs immediately post-exercise (P < 0.01), whereas only AA significantly increased MPAs immediately after AE (P < 0.01). These increases in platelet activation post-exercise were transient, as responses approached pre-exercise levels by 1 h. These are the first data to suggest that exercise involving a resistance component in humans may transiently increase platelet-mediated thrombotic risk more than aerobic modalities.

  18. Vibration exercise as a warm-up modality for deadlift power output.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Coley, Karl W; Pritchard, Hayden J; Barnes, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Vibration exercise (VbX) has gained popularity as a warm-up modality to enhance performance in golf, baseball, and sprint cycling, but little is known about the efficacy of using VbX as a warm-up before resistance exercise, such as deadlifting. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a deadlift (DL)-specific warm-up, VbX warm-up, and Control on DL power output (PO). The DL warm-up (DL-WU) included 10, 8, and 5 repetitions performed at 30, 40, and 50% 1-repetition maximum (1RM), respectively, where the number of repetitions was matched by body-weight squats performed with vibration and without vibration (Control). The warm-up conditions were randomized and performed at least 2 days apart. Peak power (PP), mean power, rate of force development (RFD), and electromyography (EMG) were measured during the concentric phase of 2 consecutive DLs (75% 1RM) at 30 seconds and 2:30 minutes after the warm-up conditions. There was no significant (p > 0.05) main effect or interaction effect between the DL-WU, VbX warm-up, and Control for PP, mean power, RFD, and EMG. Vibration exercise warm-up did not exhibit an ergogenic effect to potentiate muscle activity more than the specific DL-WU and Control. Therefore, DL PO is affected to a similar extent, irrespective of the type of stimuli, when the warm-up is not focused on raising muscle temperature.

  19. Mediators of Monocyte Migration in Response to Recovery Modalities following Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jajtner, Adam R.; Fragala, Maren S.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Wells, Adam J.; Fukuda, David H.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Hoffman, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Mediators of monocyte migration, complement receptor-3 (CR3), and chemokine ligand-4 (CCL4) were measured in response to recovery modalities following resistance exercise. Thirty resistance-trained men (23.1 ± 2.9 y; 175.2 ± 7.1 cm; 82.1 ± 8.4 kg) were given neuromuscular electric stimulation (NMES), cold water immersion (CWI), or control (CON) treatments immediately following resistance exercise. Blood samples were obtained preexercise (PRE), immediately (IP), 30 minutes (30 P), 24 hours (24 H), and 48 hours (48 H) after exercise for measurement of circulating CCL4 and CR3 expression on CD14+ monocytes, by assay and flow cytometry. Circulating CCL4 showed no consistent changes. Inferential analysis indicated that CR3 expression was likely greater in CON at 30 P than NMES (90.0%) or CWI (86.8%). NMES was likely lower than CON at 24 H (92.9%) and very likely lower at 48 H (98.7%). Expression of CR3 following CWI was very likely greater than CON (96.5%) at 24 H. The proportion of CR3+ monocytes was likely greater following CWI than NMES (85.8%) or CON (85.2%) at 24 H. The change in proportion of CR3+ monocytes was likely (86.4%) greater following NMES than CON from IP to 30 P. The increased expression of CR3 and increased proportion of CR3+ monocytes following CWI at 24 H indicate a potentially improved ability for monocyte adhesion to the endothelium, possibly improving phagocytosis of damaged tissues. PMID:24987193

  20. FEMA Asteroid Impact Tabletop Exercise Simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Boslough, Mark; Jennings, Barbara; Carvey, Brad; ...

    2015-05-19

    We describe the computational simulations and damage assessments that we provided in support of a tabletop exercise (TTX) at the request of NASA's Near-Earth Objects Program Office. The overall purpose of the exercise was to assess leadership reactions, information requirements, and emergency management responses to a hypothetical asteroid impact with Earth. The scripted exercise consisted of discovery, tracking, and characterization of a hypothetical asteroid; inclusive of mission planning, mitigation, response, impact to population, infrastructure and GDP, and explicit quantification of uncertainty. Participants at the meeting included representatives of NASA, Department of Defense, Department of State, Department of Homeland Security/Federal Emergencymore » Management Agency (FEMA), and the White House. The exercise took place at FEMA headquarters. Sandia's role was to assist the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in developing the impact scenario, to predict the physical effects of the impact, and to forecast the infrastructure and economic losses. We ran simulations using Sandia's CTH hydrocode to estimate physical effects on the ground, and to produce contour maps indicating damage assessments that could be used as input for the infrastructure and economic models. We used the FASTMap tool to provide estimates of infrastructure damage over the affected area, and the REAcct tool to estimate the potential economic severity expressed as changes to GDP (by nation, region, or sector) due to damage and short-term business interruptions.« less

  1. FEMA Asteroid Impact Tabletop Exercise Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark; Jennings, Barbara; Carvey, Brad; Fogleman, William

    2015-05-19

    We describe the computational simulations and damage assessments that we provided in support of a tabletop exercise (TTX) at the request of NASA's Near-Earth Objects Program Office. The overall purpose of the exercise was to assess leadership reactions, information requirements, and emergency management responses to a hypothetical asteroid impact with Earth. The scripted exercise consisted of discovery, tracking, and characterization of a hypothetical asteroid; inclusive of mission planning, mitigation, response, impact to population, infrastructure and GDP, and explicit quantification of uncertainty. Participants at the meeting included representatives of NASA, Department of Defense, Department of State, Department of Homeland Security/Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the White House. The exercise took place at FEMA headquarters. Sandia's role was to assist the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in developing the impact scenario, to predict the physical effects of the impact, and to forecast the infrastructure and economic losses. We ran simulations using Sandia's CTH hydrocode to estimate physical effects on the ground, and to produce contour maps indicating damage assessments that could be used as input for the infrastructure and economic models. We used the FASTMap tool to provide estimates of infrastructure damage over the affected area, and the REAcct tool to estimate the potential economic severity expressed as changes to GDP (by nation, region, or sector) due to damage and short-term business interruptions.

  2. Modal noise impact in radio over fiber multimode fiber links.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, I; Capmany, J

    2008-01-07

    A novel analysis is given on the statistics of modal noise for a graded-index multimode fiber (MMF) link excited by an analog intensity modulated laser diode. We present the speckle contrast as a function of the power spectrum of the modulated source and the transfer function of the MMF which behaves as an imperfect transversal microwave photonic filter. The theoretical results confirm that the modal noise is directly connected with the coherence properties of the optical source and show that the performance of high-frequency Radio Over Fiber (ROF) transmission through MMF links for short and middle reach distances is not substantially degraded by modal noise.

  3. Influence of Exercise Modality on Cerebral-Ocular Hemodynamics and Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J.; Martin, D.; Crowell, B.; Goetchius, E.; Seponski, C.; Gonzales, R.; Matz, T.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Stenger, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate and high intensity aerobic or resistance exercise has clearly identified benefits for cardiac, muscle, and bone health. However, the impact of such exercise - either as a mitigating or an exacerbating factor - on the development of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is unknown. Accordingly, our aim was to characterize the effect of an acute bout of resistance (RE), moderate-intensity continuous (CE), and high-intensity interval exercise (IE) during a cephalad fluid shift on cerebral-ocular hemodynamics and pressures. Methods: 10 male subjects (36 plus or minus 9 years) completed 4 testing days in a 15 degree head-down tilt (HDT): (1) assessment of maximum volume of O (sub 2), (2) RE session (4 sets of 12 repetition maximum leg press exercise), (3) CE session (30 minutes of cycling at 60 percent maximum volume of O (sub 2)), and (4) IE session (4 by 4-minute intervals of exercise at 85 percent maximum volume of O (sub 2) with 3-minute active rest periods). During each session, blood flow (Vivid-e, GE Healthcare) in extracranial arteries (common carotid artery, CCA; internal carotid artery, ICA; external carotid artery, ECA and vertebral artery, VA), and mean blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA), internal jugular pressure (IJP; VeinPress), and intraocular pressure (IOP; Icare PRO) were measured at rest, at the end of each resistance or interval set, and every 5 minutes during continuous exercise. Translaminar pressure gradient (TLPG) was estimated by subtracting IJP from IOP. Results: There were no differences across days in pre-exercise resting blood flows or pressures. IOP decreased slightly from HDT rest (20.2 plus or minus 2.3 millimeters of mercury) to exercise (RE: 19.2 plus or minus 2.8 millimeters of mercury; CE: 18.9 plus or minus 3.2 millimeters of mercury; IE: 20.1 plus or minus 2.8 millimeters of mercury), while IJP decreased during CE (31.6 plus or minus 9.5 millimeters of mercury) and RE

  4. Metformin and exercise in type 2 diabetes: examining treatment modality interactions.

    PubMed

    Boulé, Normand G; Robert, Cheri; Bell, Gordon J; Johnson, Steven T; Bell, Rhonda C; Lewanczuk, Richard Z; Gabr, Raniah Q; Brocks, Dion R

    2011-07-01

    To determine the effect of metformin on the acute metabolic response to submaximal exercise, the effect of exercise on plasma metformin concentrations, and the interaction between metformin and exercise on the subsequent response to a standardized meal. Ten participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited for this randomized crossover study. Metformin or placebo was given for 28 days, followed by the alternate condition for 28 days. On the last 2 days of each condition, participants were assessed during a nonexercise and a subsequent exercise day. Exercise took place in the morning and involved a total of 35 min performed at three different submaximal intensities. Metformin increased heart rate and plasma lactate during exercise (both P≤0.01) but lowered respiratory exchange ratio (P=0.03) without affecting total energy expenditure, which suggests increased fat oxidation. Metformin plasma concentrations were greater at several, but not all, time points on the exercise day compared with the nonexercise day. The glycemic response to a standardized meal was reduced by metformin, but the reduction was attenuated when exercise was added (metformin×exercise interaction, P=0.05). Glucagon levels were highest in the combined exercise and metformin condition. This study reveals several ways by which metformin and exercise therapies can affect each other. By increasing heart rate, metformin could lead to the prescription of lower exercise workloads. Furthermore, under the tested conditions, exercise interfered with the glucose-lowering effect of metformin.

  5. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Pournot, Hervé; Tindel, Jérémy; Testa, Rodolphe; Mathevon, Laure; Lapole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV) as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude). Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE), immediately after exercise (POST-EX) and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC). Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001) and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025) when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210). LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations. Key points Bouts of barbell curl exercise induce an immediate increased passive stiffness of the biceps brachii muscle, as evidenced by greater shear elastic modulus measured by supersonic shear imaging. The administration of a vibratory massage did not reduce this acute exercise-induced increased stiffness. PMID:26957937

  6. Different modalities of exercise to reduce visceral fat mass and cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome: the RESOLVE randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Walther, Guillaume; Vinet, Agnès; Sapin, Vincent; Verney, Julien; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Duclos, Martine; Obert, Philippe; Courteix, Daniel

    2013-10-09

    Opinions differ over the exercise modalities that best limit cardiovascular risk (CVR) resulting from visceral obesity in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). As little is known about the combined effects of resistance and endurance training at high volumes under sound nutritional conditions, we aimed to analyze the impact of various intensities of physical activity on visceral fat and CVR in individuals with MetS. 100 participants, aged 50-70 years, underwent a diet restriction (protein intake 1.2g/kg/day) with a high exercise volume (15-20 h/week). They were randomized to three training groups: moderate-resistance-moderate-endurance (re), high-resistance-moderate-endurance (Re), or moderate-resistance-high-endurance (rE). A one-year at-home follow-up (M12) commenced with a three-week residential program (Day 0 to Day 21). We measured the change in visceral fat and body composition by DXA, MetS parameters, fitness, the Framingham score and carotid-intima-media-thickness. 78 participants completed the program. At D21, visceral fat loss was highest in Re (-18%, p<.0001) and higher in rE than re (-12% vs. -7%, p<.0001). Similarly, from M3, visceral fat decreased more in high-intensity-groups to reach a visceral fat loss of -21.5% (Re) and -21.1% (rE)>-13.0% (re) at M12 (p<.001). CVR, MetS parameters and fitness improved in all groups. Visceral fat loss correlated with changes in MetS parameters. Increased intensity in high volume training is efficient in improving visceral fat loss and carotid-intima-media-thickness, and is realistic in community dwelling, moderately obese individuals. High-intensity-resistance training induced a faster visceral fat loss, and thus the potential of resistance training should not be undervalued (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00917917). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy and feasibility of a novel tri-modal robust exercise prescription in a retirement community: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael K; Kennedy, David J; Bohle, Philip L; Campbell, Deena S; Knapman, Leona; Grady, Jodie; Wiltshire, James; McNamara, Maria; Evans, William J; Atlantis, Evan; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    To test the feasibility and efficacy of current guidelines for multimodal exercise programs in older adults. Randomized, controlled trial. Retirement village. Thirty-eight subjects (14 men and 24 women) aged 76.6 +/- 6.1. A wait list control or 10 weeks of supervised exercise consisting of high-intensity (80% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)) progressive resistance training (PRT) 3 days per week, moderate-intensity (rating of perceived exertion 11 to 14/20) aerobic training 2 days per week, and progressive balance training 1 day per week. Blinded assessments of dynamic muscle strength (1RM), balance, 6-minute walk, gait velocity, chair stand, stair climb, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and habitual physical activity level. Higher baseline strength and psychological well-being were associated with better functional performance. Strength gains over 10 weeks averaged 39+/-31% in exercise, versus 21+/-24% in controls (P=.10), with greater improvements in hip flexion (P=.01), hip abduction (P=.02), and chest press (P=.04) in the exercise group. Strength adaptations were greatest in exercises in which the intended continuous progressive overload was achieved. Stair climb power (12.3+/-15%, P=.002) and chair stand time (-7.1+/-15%, P=.006) improved significantly and similarly in both groups. Reduction in depressive symptoms was significantly related to compliance (attendance rate r=-0.568, P=.009, PRT progression in loading r=-0.587, P=.02, and total volume of aerobic training r=-0.541, P=.01), as well as improvements in muscle strength (r=-0.498, P=.002). Robust physical and psychological adaptations to exercise are linked, although volumes and intensities of multiple exercise modalities sufficient to cause significant adaptation appear difficult to prescribe and adhere to simultaneously in older adults.

  8. Pulmonary thallium-201 uptake following dipyridamole-exercise combination compared with single modality stress testing.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, G A; O'Donoghue, J P; Powe, J E; Gravelle, D R; MacDonald, A C; Finnie, K J

    1992-02-01

    Angiographic and clinical determinants of pulmonary uptake of thallium-201 were assessed in a laboratory setting where supine bicycle exercise is used for stress testing in the absence of limiting pharmacologic or physical factors, and where symptom-limited exercise is added to intravenous dipyridamole infusion in other cases. Angiographic correlation was available in 400 patients, including 130 tested with exercise, 94 in whom only handgrip or abbreviated bicycle exercise could be used after dipyridamole, and 176 in whom intravenous dipyridamole was combined with a significant level of exercise. For each test mode, lung/myocardial ratios on the immediate image were highly correlated (p less than or equal to 0.001) with a score based on the number of critical coronary artery stenoses, with grading by contrast ventriculography, and with the number of stenosed (greater than or equal to 50%) arteries; relationships (p less than 0.05) to history of myocardial infarction and to gender were also present. Multiple regression analysis showed the critical stenosis score and ventricular dysfunction to be the only significant determinants. When dipyridamole based tests were compared with exercise, curves of receiver-operating characteristics showed a tendency to better diagnostic performance. When dipyridamole is incorporated in stress testing, the value of increased lung uptake as an ancillary diagnostic sign is similar to that established for exercise.

  9. Group-based exercise and cognitive-physical training in older adults with self-reported cognitive complaints: The Multiple-Modality, Mind-Motor (M4) study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Shellington, Erin M; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Zou, Guangyong; Shoemaker, Kevin; Owen, Adrian M; Hachinski, Vladimir; Stuckey, Melanie; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-01-16

    Dementia is associated with cognitive and functional deficits, and poses a significant personal, societal, and economic burden. Directing interventions towards older adults with self-reported cognitive complaints may provide the greatest impact on dementia incidence and prevalence. Risk factors for cognitive and functional deficits are multifactorial in nature; many are cardiovascular disease risk factors and are lifestyle-mediated. Evidence suggests that multiple-modality exercise programs can provide cognitive and functional benefits that extend beyond what can be achieved from cognitive, aerobic, or resistance training alone, and preliminary evidence suggests that novel mind-motor interventions (i.e., Square Stepping Exercise; SSE) can benefit cognition and functional fitness. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether multiple-modality exercise combined with mind-motor interventions can benefit diverse cognitive and functional outcomes in older adults with cognitive complaints. The Multiple-Modality, Mind-Motor (M4) study is a randomized controlled trial investigating the cognitive and functional impact of combined physical and cognitive training among community-dwelling adults with self-reported cognitive complaints who are 55 years of age or older. Participants are randomized to a Multiple-Modality and Mind-Motor (M4) intervention group or a Multiple-Modality (M2) comparison group. Participants exercise for 60 minutes/day, 3-days/week for 24 weeks and are assessed at baseline, 24 weeks and 52 weeks. The primary outcome is global cognitive function at 24 weeks, derived from the Cambridge Brain Sciences computerized cognitive battery. Secondary outcomes are: i) global cognitive function at 52 weeks; ii) domain-specific cognitive function at 24 and 52 weeks; iii) mobility (gait characteristics under single and dual-task conditions and balance); and 3) vascular health (blood pressure and carotid arterial measurements). We will analyze data based on an intent

  10. Efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R; Cormie, Prue; Spry, Nigel; Chambers, Suzanne K; Peddle-McIntyre, Carolyn; Baker, Michael; Denham, James; Joseph, David; Groom, Geoff; Newton, Robert U

    2011-12-13

    The presence of bone metastases has excluded participation of prostate cancer patients in exercise intervention studies to date and is also a relative contraindication to supervised exercise in the community setting because of concerns of fragility fracture. However, this group of patients often have developed significant muscle atrophy and functional impairments from prior and continuing androgen deprivation that is exacerbated by subsequent and more intensive interventions such as chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Multi-site randomized controlled trial in Western Australia and New South Wales to examine the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal physical exercise program in 90 prostate cancer survivors with bone metastases. Participants will be randomized to (1) modular multi-modal exercise intervention group or (2) usual medical care group. The modular multi-modal exercise group will receive a 3-month supervised exercise program based on bone lesion location/extent. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 3 months (end of the intervention) and 6 months follow-up. Delaying or preventing skeletal complication and improving physical function for men with bone metastases would provide clinically meaningful benefits to patients. However, exercise programs must be designed and executed with careful consideration of the skeletal complications associated with bone metastatic disease and cumulative toxicities from androgen deprivation such as osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures. The results from this study will form the basis for the development of a specific exercise prescription in this patient group in order to alleviate disease burden, counteract the adverse treatment related side-effects and enhance quality of life. ACTRN: ACTRN12611001158954.

  11. Dual-cycle ergometry as an exercise modality during prebreathe with 100 percent oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, Cristine L.; Fischer, Michele D.; Webb, James T.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to reduce prebreathe time requirements prior to extravehicular activities and high-altitude flights, a combined arm and leg exercise task proposes to enhance denitrogenation by incorporation of both upper and lower body musculature at a moderately high work intensity during prebreathe with 100% oxygen. Preliminary findings indicated peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) levels attained on the dual-cycle ergometer do not differ significantly from those levels attained on the treadmill. Eight male subjects were exercised to VO2peak using leg-only cycle ergometry and dual-cycle ergometry on separate days. Preliminary data during dual-cycle ergometry showed arm work equaling 30% of the leg workrate at each stage of the incremental test resulted in arm fatigue in several subjects and a reduced VO2peak compared to dual-cycle ergometry with arm work at 20%. Thus, the 20% workrate was used during the dual-cycle VO2peak trial. On a third experimental day, subjects performed a 10 minute exercise test at a workrate required to elicit 75% of VO2peak for each subject on the dual-cycle ergometer. Blood lactate response to the exercise was monitored as an objective measure of fatigue. Peak VO2 levels attained on the leg-only and the dual-cycle ergometry tasks were not significantly different. Blood lactate levels were significantly elevated following the dual-cycle ergometry at 75% VO2peak. However, lactate levels show the expected rate of decline during recovery and, as demonstrated in the literature, should return to baseline levels within 30 minutes following exercise cessation. Thus, dual-cycle ergometry at 75% VO2peak appears to be a valid exercise for use during prebreathe and should not contribute to fatigue during subsequent EVA's.

  12. Dual-cycle ergometry as an exercise modality during prebreathe with 100 percent oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, Cristine L.; Fischer, Michele D.; Webb, James T.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to reduce prebreathe time requirements prior to extravehicular activities and high-altitude flights, a combined arm and leg exercise task proposes to enhance denitrogenation by incorporation of both upper and lower body musculature at a moderately high work intensity during prebreathe with 100% oxygen. Preliminary findings indicated peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) levels attained on the dual-cycle ergometer do not differ significantly from those levels attained on the treadmill. Eight male subjects were exercised to VO2peak using leg-only cycle ergometry and dual-cycle ergometry on separate days. Preliminary data during dual-cycle ergometry showed arm work equaling 30% of the leg workrate at each stage of the incremental test resulted in arm fatigue in several subjects and a reduced VO2peak compared to dual-cycle ergometry with arm work at 20%. Thus, the 20% workrate was used during the dual-cycle VO2peak trial. On a third experimental day, subjects performed a 10 minute exercise test at a workrate required to elicit 75% of VO2peak for each subject on the dual-cycle ergometer. Blood lactate response to the exercise was monitored as an objective measure of fatigue. Peak VO2 levels attained on the leg-only and the dual-cycle ergometry tasks were not significantly different. Blood lactate levels were significantly elevated following the dual-cycle ergometry at 75% VO2peak. However, lactate levels show the expected rate of decline during recovery and, as demonstrated in the literature, should return to baseline levels within 30 minutes following exercise cessation. Thus, dual-cycle ergometry at 75% VO2peak appears to be a valid exercise for use during prebreathe and should not contribute to fatigue during subsequent EVA's.

  13. Modality interfacing: the impact of a relay station.

    PubMed

    Carrino, J A; Khorasani, R; Hanlon, W B; Seltzer, S E

    2000-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of a deploying a relay station on demographic discrepancies, image segmentation for routing, quality control (QC), and technologist workflow in a distributed architecture type picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment. A currently existing PACS environment for computed tomography (CT) was evaluated before and after the implementation of a relay station for demographic error-rate and correct study routing to the workstations. Assessment of the technologists' perceptions with respect to numerous workflow factors was performed with a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using a chi-square test. The demographic error rate for CT examinations was nearly abolished with relay station deployment (14.0% pre-Relay v 0.55% post-Relay, P < .001, chi2). The technologists' perception was favorable, with a substantial majority indicating that a positive impact is made on correcting demographic errors (90%), facilitating QC (67%), and ensuring proper routing (77%). A majority also felt the user interface was intuitive (93.3%) and preferred relay (90%) over film handling but that training should be provided both by didactic sessions and "hands on" time with a trainer. The times to perform tasks were favorable for the relay station (1 to 5 minutes) versus film production and handling (2 to 15 minutes). In conclusion, the relay station prospectively eliminates demographic errors, effectively segments images from the same study routing them to different workstations, and can be seamlessly integrated into the technologists' current workflow. This can be scalable and a lower cost solution as opposed to deploying dedicated PACS QC workstations.

  14. Multi-modal characterization of rapid anterior hippocampal volume increase associated with aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Adam G.; Dennis, Andrea; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Matthews, Lucy; Morris, Martyn; Kolind, Shannon H.; Foxley, Sean; Jenkinson, Mark; Nichols, Thomas E.; Dawes, Helen; Bandettini, Peter A.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus has been shown to demonstrate a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of tasks and experiences. For example, the size of the human hippocampus has been shown to increase in response to aerobic exercise. However, it is currently unknown what underlies these changes. Here we scanned sedentary, young to middle-aged human adults before and after a six-week exercise intervention using nine different neuroimaging measures of brain structure, vasculature, and diffusion. We then tested two different hypotheses regarding the nature of the underlying changes in the tissue. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of a vascular change as has been previously reported. Rather, the pattern of changes is better explained by an increase in myelination. Finally, we show hippocampal volume increase is temporary, returning to baseline after an additional six weeks without aerobic exercise. This is the first demonstration of a change in hippocampal volume in early to middle adulthood suggesting that hippocampal volume is modulated by aerobic exercise throughout the lifespan rather than only in the presence of age related atrophy. It is also the first demonstration of hippocampal volume change over a period of only six weeks, suggesting gross morphometric hippocampal plasticity occurs faster than previously thought. PMID:26654786

  15. A multi-modal intervention in management of left ventricular assist device outpatients: dietary counselling, controlled exercise and psychosocial support.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Christiane; Malehsa, Doris; Schrader, Eva; Tegtbur, Uwe; Guetzlaff, Elke; Haverich, Axel; Strueber, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Newer generation left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are established for long-term support. The aim of this multi-modal intervention was to improve the body weight, exercise tolerance and psychosocial status in outpatients on long-term LVAD support. Seventy patients participated in this non-randomized intervention study [intervention group (IGr) n = 34; control group (CGr) n = 36] over 18 months (T1-T4); the baseline sample characteristics showed no differences between groups. Dietary counselling and weight management intervention was performed by a dietician based on a specific algorithm. Physical reconditioning followed a home ergometry protocol and was supplemented by psychosocial counselling. The outcomes were measured based on the body mass index (BMI), cardiopulmonary exercise testing and self-report [hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), SF-36]. The intervention showed a strong positive effect on nutrition and weight management [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.71-0.69; effect size (ES): 0.907; P = 0.02)], resulting in the normal BMI (kg/m(2)) values in the IGr (T1: 24.0 ± 0.6; T4: 24.5 ± 1.1; P = 0.35) compared with a significant BMI increase in the CGr (T1: 23.8 ± 0.6; T4: 29.7 ± 0.8; P = 0.05). Significant differences appeared regarding exercise tolerance (VO(2)max/% predicted) in favour of IGr patients (IGr: 69 ± 2.9; CGr 62 ± 3.7; P = 0.04). This increase was reflected by patients' self-reporting based on the SF-36 physical component score (IGr: P = 0.04; CGr: P = 0.54). SF-36 psychosocial component scores showed no changes for both groups. However, CGr showed a tendency for increased anxiety scores relative to their counterparts (IGr: 4.95 ± 0.4; CGr: 6.6 ± 0.9; P = 0.03). IGr patients showed a strong benefit from a multi-modal intervention, including dietary counselling, controlled exercise and psychosocial support. Dietary counselling holds potential to prevent obesity in this patient population.

  16. Impact of medical therapy on atheroma volume measured by different cardiovascular imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Sinno, Mohamad C N; Al-Mallah, Mouaz

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that affects most vascular beds. The gold standard of atherosclerosis imaging has been invasive intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Newer noninvasive imaging modalities like B-mode ultrasound, cardiac computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to assess these vascular territories with high accuracy and reproducibility. These imaging modalities have lately been used for the assessment of the atherosclerotic plaque and the response of its volume to several medical therapies used in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. To study the impact of these medications on atheroma volume progression or regression, imaging modalities have been used on a serial basis providing a unique opportunity to monitor the effect these antiatherosclerotic strategies exert on plaque burden. As a result, studies incorporating serial IVUS imaging, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), B-mode ultrasound, electron beam computed tomography (EBCT), and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging have all been used to evaluate the impact of therapeutic strategies that modify cholesterol and blood pressure on the progression/regression of atherosclerotic plaque. In this review, we intend to summarize the impact of different therapies aimed at halting the progression or even result in regression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease evaluated by different imaging modalities.

  17. The impact of cross-modal correspondences on working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Riccardo; Indraccolo, Allegra; Mastroberardino, Serena; Spence, Charles; Santangelo, Valerio

    2017-04-01

    Cross-modal correspondences influence perceptual performance in adults, infants, and even nonhuman primates across a variety of different sensory modalities, including tasks involving speeded detection and categorization. However, to date, it is still unclear whether and how correspondences could modulate post-perceptual processes, such as working memory (WM). We investigated this issue using an audiovisual two-back task. In Experiment 1, 3 kinds of correspondences were used: audio/visual numerosity, pitch/shape, and pitch/elevation, each presented congruently (e.g., for numerosity: 3 tones along with 3 shapes) or incongruently (3 tones/2 shapes). Participants attended to the visual or auditory modalities, or both, simultaneously. The results revealed faster target-detection latencies following congruent as compared to incongruent stimulation, especially for numerosity congruence. In Experiment 2, we focused on numerosity, varying the correspondence of the unattended modality, thus having correspondences at both sample (e.g., 3 tones/3 shapes) and target (e.g., 3 tones/3 shapes), only at sample (sample: 3 tones/3 shapes; target: 3 tones/2 shapes), only at target (sample: 3 tones/2 shapes; target: 3 tones/3 shapes), or never. To investigate the information format we included "symbolic" quantities (i.e., visually/auditorily presented digits). The results confirmed the congruence effects, specifically when the correspondence operates at the target display, thus affecting response selection. The experiment revealed modal effects, showing how task-irrelevant digits affect performance only in the auditory modality, while task-irrelevant quantities affect it only when presented visually. Overall, these findings highlight the impact of cross-modal correspondences on WM, adding new light on the link between perceptual and post-perceptual stages of human information processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Thermoneutral immersion exercise accelerates heart rate recovery: A potential novel training modality.

    PubMed

    Garzon, Mauricio; Dupuy, Olivier; Bosquet, Laurent; Nigam, Anil; Comtois, Alain Steve; Juneau, Martin; Gayda, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    This study compared heart rate recovery (HRR) after incremental maximal exercise performed at the same external power output (Pext) on dry land ergocycle (DE) vs. immersible ergocycle (IE). Fifteen young healthy participants (30 ± 7 years, 13 men and 2 women) performed incremental maximal exercise tests on DE and on IE. The initial Pext on DE was 25 W and was increased by 25 W/min at a pedalling cadence between 60 and 80 rpm, while during IE immersion at chest level in thermoneutral water (30°C), the initial Pext deployment was at a cadence of 40 rpm which was increased by 10 rpm until 70 rpm and thereafter by 5 rpm until exhaustion. Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during exercise and recovery for 5 min. Maximal HR (DE: 176 ± 15 vs. IE 169 ± 12 bpm) reached by the subjects in the two conditions did not differ (P > .05). Parasympathetic reactivation parameters (ΔHR from 10 to 300 s) were compared during the DE and IE HR recovery recordings. During the IE recovery, parasympathetic reactivation in the early phase was more predominant (HRR at Δ10-Δ60 s, P < .05), but similar in the late phase (HRR at Δ120-Δ300 s, P > .05) when compared to the DE condition. In conclusion, incremental maximal IE exercise at chest level immersion in thermoneutral water accelerates the early phase parasympathetic reactivation compared to DE in healthy young participants.

  19. Physiological responses during downhill walking: A new exercise modality for subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Burtin, Chris; Hornikx, Miek; Demeyer, Heleen; De Bent, Kristien; van Remoortel, Hans; Osadnik, Christian R; Janssens, Wim; Troosters, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle quadriceps low-frequency fatigue (LFF) during exercise promotes improvements in exercise capacity with exercise training. In healthy subjects, eccentric muscle work induced by downhill walking (DW) generates higher muscular stress, whilst metabolic cost is lower compared to level walking (LW). We investigated quadriceps LFF and metabolic cost of DW in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ten participants (67 ± 7 years, FEV1 51 ± 15% predicted) performed DW, DW carrying a load (DWL) of 10% body weight via vest and LW, in random order. Quadriceps potentiated twitch force (TWqpot) was assessed before and after each walk, and muscle damage was assessed before and 24 hours after each walk via serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. Ventilation (VE) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured via breath-by-breath analysis during each walk. DW and DWL resulted in a greater decrease in TWqpot (-30 ± 14 N in DW, p < 0.05; and -22 ± 16 N in DWL, p < 0.05) compared to LW (-3 ± 21 N, p > 0.05). CK levels only increased 24 hours following DW and DWL (p < 0.05). DW and DWL showed lower VE and VO2 than LW (p < 0.05). DW is associated with enhanced quadriceps LFF and lower cardiorespiratory costs than LW. The addition of a chest load to DW does not seem to enhance these effects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Impact of an exercise program on adherence and fitness indicators.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Roger; Gilleland, Diana

    2016-05-01

    Adherence to exercise is one of the most problematic health behaviors. This pilot study describes the impact of an exercise program on adherence to exercise and fitness indicators for overweight and obese adults enrolled in an insurance reimbursed exercise plan. Chart reviews were conducted retrospectively in a convenience sample of 77 subjects from a human performance lab (HPL) at a large southern university. Charts from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed for health history, fitness indicators (fitness level, weight, BMI, hip/waist ratio, % body fat, BP, HR, cholesterol), and adherence (number of exercise sessions/month). Exercise supervision was operationalized in two phases over 12 months: Phase I (3 months supervised exercise) and Phase II (9 months unsupervised exercise). Fifty-eight participants completed Phase I, and 8 completed Phase II. Six-nine percent of those completing Phase I visited the gym at least 8 times/month with significant (α=.05) improvement in all fitness indicators. Those visiting <8 times/month had improvement in fitness level, weight, BMI, and % body fat. Twenty-four subjects continued into Phase II, with only eight completing Phase II. Of those eight, only one subject visited the HPL at least 8 times/month. Health history data including co-morbidities, symptoms, habits, perceived tension, job stress, and fitness level were not associated with adherence. Symptoms of swollen, stiff, painful joints, and swollen ankles and legs were associated with decreased adherence to exercise. Supervised exercise was positively related to adherence and improved fitness indicators. Adults with joint symptoms may require more support. Based on these pilot data, designing a study with a larger sample and the inclusion of barriers and facilitators for adherence to self-directed exercise would allow additional analysis. Innovative interventions are needed that mimic the supervised environment, shifting responsibility for the exercise plan from the supervisor to

  1. Modality-Dependent Impact of Hallucinations on Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hare, Stephanie M; Ford, Judith M; Ahmadi, Aral; Damaraju, Eswar; Belger, Aysenil; Bustillo, Juan; Lee, Hyo Jong; Mathalon, Daniel H; Mueller, Bryon A; Preda, Adrian; van Erp, Theo G M; Potkin, Steven G; Calhoun, Vince D; Turner, Jessica A

    2017-03-01

    Prior resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses have identified patterns of functional connectivity associated with hallucinations in schizophrenia (Sz). In this study, we performed an analysis of the mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) to compare resting state spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in patients with Sz who report experiencing hallucinations impacting different sensory modalities. By exploring dynamics across 2 low-frequency passbands (slow-4 and slow-5), we assessed the impact of hallucination modality and frequency range on spatial ALFF variation. Drawing from a sample of Sz and healthy controls studied as part of the Functional Imaging Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN), we replicated prior findings showing that patients with Sz have decreased ALFF in the posterior brain in comparison to controls. Remarkably, we found that patients that endorsed visual hallucinations did not show this pattern of reduced ALFF in the back of the brain. These patients also had elevated ALFF in the left hippocampus in comparison to patients that endorsed auditory (but not visual) hallucinations. Moreover, left hippocampal ALFF across all the cases was related to reported hallucination severity in both the auditory and visual domains, and not overall positive symptoms. This supports the hypothesis that dynamic changes in the ALFF in the hippocampus underlie severity of hallucinations that impact different sensory modalities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2016.

  2. Exercise Mimetics: Impact on Health and Performance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weiwei; Evans, Ronald M

    2017-02-07

    The global epidemic of obesity and its associated chronic diseases is largely attributed to an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure. While physical exercise remains the best solution, the development of muscle-targeted "exercise mimetics" may soon provide a pharmaceutical alternative to battle an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. At the same time, these advances are fueling a raging debate on their escalating use as performance-enhancing drugs in high-profile competitions such as the Olympics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Appetite control and energy balance: impact of exercise.

    PubMed

    Blundell, J E; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Hopkins, M

    2015-02-01

    Exercise is widely regarded as one of the most valuable components of behaviour that can influence body weight and therefore help in the prevention and management of obesity. Indeed, long-term controlled trials show a clear dose-related effect of exercise on body weight. However, there is a suspicion, particularly fuelled by media reports, that exercise serves to increase hunger and drive up food intake thereby nullifying the energy expended through activity. Not everyone performing regular exercise will lose weight and several investigations have demonstrated a huge individual variability in the response to exercise regimes. What accounts for this heterogeneous response? First, exercise (or physical activity) through the expenditure of energy will influence the energy balance equation with the potential to generate an energy deficit. However, energy expenditure also influences the control of appetite (i.e. the physiological and psychological regulatory processes underpinning feeding) and energy intake. This dynamic interaction means that the prediction of a resultant shift in energy balance, and therefore weight change, will be complicated. In changing energy intake, exercise will impact on the biological mechanisms controlling appetite. It is becoming recognized that the major influences on the expression of appetite arise from fat-free mass and fat mass, resting metabolic rate, gastric adjustment to ingested food, changes in episodic peptides including insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and tyrosine-tyrosine, as well as tonic peptides such as leptin. Moreover, there is evidence that exercise will influence all of these components that, in turn, will influence the drive to eat through the modulation of hunger (a conscious sensation reflecting a mental urge to eat) and adjustments in postprandial satiety via an interaction with food composition. The specific actions of exercise on each physiological component will vary in strength from

  4. Impact of aerobic exercise on neurobehavioral outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrick J.; Potter, Guy G.; McLaren, Molly E.; Blumenthal, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the relationship between physical activity and cognitive function, demonstrating that greater physical activity is associated with lower incidence of cognitive impairment in later life. Due to an increasingly large number of older adults at risk for cognitive impairment, the relationship between physical activity and cognition has garnered increasing public health relevance and multiple randomized trials have demonstrated that exercise interventions among sedentary adults improve cognitive performance in multiple domains of function. This article will examine the relationship between physical activity and cognitive function by reviewing several different areas of literature, including the prevalence of cognitive impairment, assessment methods, observational studies examining physical activity and cognition, and intervention studies. The present review is intended to provide a historical tutorial of existing literature linking physical activity, exercise, and cognitive function among both healthy and clinical populations. PMID:25674157

  5. Impact of obesity and exercise on chemotherapy-related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Herath, Kanchana; Peswani, Namrata; Chitambar, Christopher R

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy often develop fatigue from their treatment that may persist for months. While the positive effects of physical activity in cancer patients are increasingly recognized, the impact of obesity on chemotherapy-induced fatigue has not been well studied. Female age 35-75 years with stage I-III breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in an IRB-approved study. Patient fatigue was self-reported using a 14-question fatigue symptom inventory. Patients were queried about fatigue and their level of exercise before, during, and after completion of chemotherapy. BMI was measured prior to their first cycle of chemotherapy. Of the 47 evaluable patients, 37 reported performing exercise on a regular basis. Following chemotherapy, 53 % of the exercise group and 80 % of the non-exercise group displayed a worsening of their FS. In patients with a BMI < 25, the fatigue score (FS) after chemotherapy was 27.6 in the exercise group versus 40.5 in the non-exercise group. In patients with a BMI > 25, the FS after chemotherapy was 25.96 in the exercise group versus 32.6 in the non-exercise group. Our study indicates a trend towards fatigue reduction with exercise even in patients who are overweight. Thus, an elevated BMI at diagnosis does not preclude a breast cancer patient from experiencing the same positive effects from exercise on chemotherapy-related fatigue as patients with normal BMIs. This indicates an important role of physicians in the primary care setting to encourage patients to initiate physical activity when offering cancer-screening services.

  6. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

  7. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  8. Impact of exercise on heart rate recovery.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Michael A; Brennan, Danielle M; Cho, Leslie

    2011-10-04

    Abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) has been shown to predict mortality. Although small studies have found that HRR can be improved with cardiac rehabilitation, it is unknown whether an improvement would affect mortality. The aim of this study was to determine whether HRR could be improved with cardiac rehabilitation and whether it would be predictive of mortality. We evaluated 1070 consecutive patients who underwent exercise stress testing before and after completion of a phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation program. Heart rate recovery, defined as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and exactly 1 minute into the recovery period, and mortality were followed up as the primary end points. Of 544 patients with abnormal baseline HRR, 225 (41%) had normal HRR after rehabilitation. Of the entire cohort, 197 patients (18%) died. Among patients with an abnormal HRR at baseline, failure to normalize after rehabilitation predicted a higher mortality (P<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the presence of an abnormal HRR at exit was predictive of death in all patients (hazard ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval 1.43-3.25). Patients with abnormal HRR at baseline who normalized afterward had survival rates similar to those of the group with normal HRR at baseline and after cardiac rehabilitation (P=0.143). Heart rate recovery improved after phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation in the overall cohort. There was a strong association of abnormal HRR at exit with all-cause mortality. Patients with abnormal HRR at baseline who normalized HRR with exercise had a mortality similar to that of individuals with baseline normal HRR.

  9. The differential anti-inflammatory effects of exercise modalities and their association with early carotid atherosclerosis progression in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kadoglou, N P E; Fotiadis, G; Kapelouzou, A; Kostakis, A; Liapis, C D; Vrabas, I S

    2013-02-01

    Adipokines, visfatin, apelin, vaspin and ghrelin have emerged as novel cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the effects of different exercise modalities on the aforementioned novel adipokines and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred patients with Type 2 diabetes were equivalently (n = 25) randomized into four groups: (1) a control group with patients encouraged to perform self-controlled exercise; (2) a supervised aerobic exercise group (exercise four times/week, 60 min/session, 60-75% of maximum heart rate); (3) a resistance training group (60-80% baseline maximum load achieved in one repetition); and (4) a combined aerobic exercise plus resistance training group, as in groups 2 and 3. All participants had HbA(1c) levels ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5%), without overt diabetic vascular complications. Blood samples, clinical characteristics, peak oxygen uptake and carotid intima-media thickness measurements were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study, after 6 months. At baseline, there were non-significant differences between groups. All active groups significantly ameliorated glycaemic profile, insulin sensitivity and triglycerides levels compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Aerobic training further improved lipids, systolic blood pressure and exercise capacity compared with the resistance training and the control groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and visfatin decreased, while vaspin and apelin circulating levels increased within the aerobic exercise group and the aerobic exercise plus resistance training group, and compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Within- and between-group comparisons showed negligible alterations in ghrelin serum levels and body weight after all exercise modalities. Finally, aerobic training attenuated the carotid intima-media thickness progression (0.017 ± 0.006 mm) compared with the control subjects (0.129

  10. The Clinical Significance of Patient Specimen Transport Modality: Pneumatic Tube System Impact on Blood Gas Analytes.

    PubMed

    Carabini, Louanne M; Nouriel, Jacob; Milian, Ricardo Diaz; Glogovsky, Erin R; McCarthy, Robert J; Handler, Thomas G; Ault, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    A pneumatic tube system (PTS) is a cost-effective, rapid transport modality that utilizes induced pressure changes. We evaluated the clinical importance of 2 transport modalities, human courier and PTS, for blood gas specimens. Following open heart surgery, 35 simultaneous pairs of arterial and venous blood gas specimens were analyzed from 20 subjects. Of each pair, one specimen was transported to the blood gas laboratory via a human courier and the other via a SwissLog PTS. Transport modalities were compared using the Bland-Altman limits of agreement method. Compared with the walked specimen, the bias for PaO2 was -8.0 mm Hg (95% CI, -40.0 to 24.5 mm Hg); PaCO2 , -0.94 mm Hg (95% CI, -3.76 to 1.86 mm Hg); PvO2 , -0.60 mm Hg (95% CI, -6.90 to 5.70 mm Hg); PvCO2 , -0.58 mm Hg (95% CI, -3.12 to 1.92 mm Hg) for the PTS specimen. The difference in the PO2 and PCO2 of paired (walked vs tubed) arterial and venous blood gas specimens demonstrated a slight bias. PaO2 values demonstrated the greatest bias, however not clinically important. Thus, PTS transport does not impact clinical interpretations of blood gas values. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Speech-based interaction in multitask conditions: impact of prompt modality.

    PubMed

    Parush, Avi

    2005-01-01

    Speech-based interaction is often recognized as appropriate for hands-busy, eyes-busy multitask situations. The objective of this study was to explore prompt-guided speech-based interaction and the impact of prompt modality on overall performance in such situations. A dual-task paradigm was employed, with tracking as a primary task and speech-based data input as a secondary task. There were three tracking conditions: no tracking, basic, and difficult tracking. Two prompt modalities were used for the speech interaction: a dialogue with spoken prompts and a dialogue with visual prompts. Data entry duration was longer with the speech prompts than with the visual prompts, regardless of whether or not there was tracking or its level of difficulty. However, when tracking was difficult, data entry duration was similar for both spoken and visual prompts. Tracking performance was also affected by the prompt modality, with poorer performance obtained when the prompts were visual. The findings are discussed in terms of multiple resource theory and the possible implications for speech-based interactions in multitask situations. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of speech-based dialogues for multitask situations such as driving and other hands-busy, eyes-busy situations.

  12. Multi-modal sensor based weight drop spinal cord impact system for large animals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongbeom; Kim, Jong-Wan; Hyun, Jung-Keun; Park, Ilyong

    2017-08-23

    A conventional weight drop spinal cord (SC) impact system for large animals is composed of a high-speed video camera, a vision system, and other things. However, a camera with high speed at over 5,000 frames per second (FPS) is very expensive. In addition, the utilization of the vision system involves complex pattern recognition algorithms and accurate arrangement of the camera and the target. The purpose of this study was to develop a large animal spinal cord injury modeling system using a multi-modal sensor instead of a high-speed video camera and vision system. Another objective of this study was to demonstrate the possibility of the developed system to measure the impact parameters in the experiments using different stiffness materials and an in-vivo porcine SC. A multi-modal sensor based spinal cord injury impact system was developed for large animals. The experiments to measure SC impact parameters were then performed using three different stiffness materials and a Yucatan miniature pig to verify the performance of system developed. A comparative experiment was performed using three different stiffness materials such as high density (HD) sponge, rubber, and clay to demonstrate the system and perform measurement for impact parameters such as impact velocity, impulsive force, and maximally compressed displacement reflecting physical properties of materials. In the animal experiment, a female Yucatan miniature pig of 60 kg weight was used. Impact conditions for all experiments were fixed at freefalling object mass of 50 g and height of 20 cm. In the impact test, measured impact velocities were almost the same for the three different stiffness materials at 1.84 ± 0.0153 m/s. Impulsive forces for the three materials of rubber, HD sponge, and clay were 50.88 N, 32.35 N, and 6.68 N, respectively. Maximally compressed displacements for rubber, HD sponge, and clay were 1.93 mm, 3.35 mm, and 15.01 mm, respectively. In the pig experiment, impact velocity, impulsive

  13. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors: recommendations from the EACPR. Part II.

    PubMed

    Vanhees, L; Geladas, N; Hansen, D; Kouidi, E; Niebauer, J; Reiner, Z; Cornelissen, V; Adamopoulos, S; Prescott, E; Börjesson, M; Bjarnason-Wehrens, B; Björnstad, H H; Cohen-Solal, A; Conraads, V; Corrado, D; De Sutter, J; Doherty, P; Doyle, F; Dugmore, D; Ellingsen, Ø; Fagard, R; Giada, F; Gielen, S; Hager, A; Halle, M; Heidbüchel, H; Jegier, A; Mazic, S; McGee, H; Mellwig, K P; Mendes, M; Mezzani, A; Pattyn, N; Pelliccia, A; Piepoli, M; Rauch, B; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Takken, T; van Buuren, F; Vanuzzo, D

    2012-10-01

    In a previous paper, as the first of a series of three on the importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity (PA) and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health within the general population, we concluded that, in the population at large, PA and aerobic exercise capacity clearly are inversely associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and that a dose–response curve on cardiovascular outcome has been demonstrated in most studies. More and more evidence is accumulated that engaging in regular PA and exercise interventions are essential components for reducing the severity of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity and abdominal fat, high BP, metabolic risk factors, and systemic inflammation. However, it is less clear whether and which type of PA and exercise intervention (aerobic exercise, dynamic resistive exercise, or both) or characteristic of exercise (frequency, intensity, time or duration, and volume) would yield more benefit for each separate risk factor. The present paper, therefore, will review and make recommendations for PA and exercise training in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. The guidance offered in this series of papers is aimed at medical doctors, health practitioners, kinesiologists, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists, politicians, public health policy makers, and individual members of the public. Based on previous and the current literature overviews, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding type, volume, and intensity of PA and regarding appropriate risk evaluation during exercise in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. The impact of physical exercise on convergent and divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    S Colzato, Lorenza; Szapora, Ayca; Pannekoek, Justine N; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal literature suggests that creative people sometimes use bodily movement to help overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration. Several studies have shown that physical exercise may sometimes enhance creative thinking, but the evidence is still inconclusive. In this study we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is affected by acute moderate and intense physical exercise in athletes (n = 48) and non-athletes (n = 48). Exercise interfered with divergent thinking in both groups. The impact on convergent thinking, the task that presumably required more cognitive control, depended on the training level: while in non-athletes performance was significantly impaired by exercise, athletes showed a benefit that approached significance. The findings suggest that acute exercise may affect both, divergent and convergent thinking. In particular, it seems to affect control-hungry tasks through exercise-induced "ego-depletion," which however is less pronounced in individuals with higher levels of physical fitness, presumably because of the automatization of movement control, fitness-related neuroenergetic benefits, or both.

  15. The impact of physical exercise on convergent and divergent thinking

    PubMed Central

    S. Colzato, Lorenza; Szapora, Ayca; Pannekoek, Justine N.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal literature suggests that creative people sometimes use bodily movement to help overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration. Several studies have shown that physical exercise may sometimes enhance creative thinking, but the evidence is still inconclusive. In this study we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is affected by acute moderate and intense physical exercise in athletes (n = 48) and non-athletes (n = 48). Exercise interfered with divergent thinking in both groups. The impact on convergent thinking, the task that presumably required more cognitive control, depended on the training level: while in non-athletes performance was significantly impaired by exercise, athletes showed a benefit that approached significance. The findings suggest that acute exercise may affect both, divergent and convergent thinking. In particular, it seems to affect control-hungry tasks through exercise-induced “ego-depletion,” which however is less pronounced in individuals with higher levels of physical fitness, presumably because of the automatization of movement control, fitness-related neuroenergetic benefits, or both. PMID:24348370

  16. The effect of three different exercise training modalities on cognitive and physical function in a healthy older population.

    PubMed

    Coetsee, Carla; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are encouraged to participate in regular physical activity to counter the age-related declines in physical and cognitive health. Literature on the effect of different exercise training modalities (aerobic vs resistance) on these health-related outcomes is not only sparse, but results are inconsistent. In general, it is believed that exercise has a positive effect on executive cognitive function, possibly because of the physiological adaptations through increases in fitness. Indications are that high-intensity interval training is a potent stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness, even in older adults; however, its effect on cognitive function has not been studied before. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training, high-intensity aerobic interval training and moderate continuous aerobic training on the cognitive and physical functioning of healthy older adults. Sixty-seven inactive individuals (55 to 75 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance training (RT) group (n = 22), high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) group (n = 13), moderate continuous aerobic training (MCT) group (n = 13) and a control (CON) group (n = 19) for a period of 16 weeks. Cognitive function was assessed with a Stroop task and physical function with the Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and submaximal Bruce treadmill tests. No significant GROUP x TIME interaction was found for Stroop reaction time (P > .05). The HIIT group showed the greatest practical significant improvement in reaction time on the information processing task, i.e. Stroop Neutral (ES = 1.11). MCT group participants had very large practical significant improvements in reaction time on the executive cognitive tasks, i.e. Stroop Incongruent and Interference (ES = 1.28 and 1.31, respectively). The HIIT group showed the largest practically significant increase in measures of physical function, i.e. walking endurance (ES = 0.91) and functional mobility

  17. The effects of exercise modality and intensity on energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory response in adults with obesity and treated obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rachael A; Dolmage, Thomas E; Robles, Priscila G; Brooks, Dina; Goldstein, Roger S

    2016-04-13

    To inform recommendations for the exercise component of a healthy lifestyle intervention for adults with obesity and treated obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), we investigated the total energy expenditure (EE) and cardiorespiratory response to weight-supported (cycling) and unsupported (walking) exercise. Individuals with treated OSA and a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2)performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill to determine the peak oxygen uptake[Formula: see text] Participants subsequently completed two endurance tests on each modality, matched at 80% and 60% of the highest[Formula: see text]determined by the incremental tests, to intolerance. The cardiorespiratory response was measured and total EE was estimated from the[Formula: see text] Sixteen participants completed all six tests: mean [SD] age 57 [13] years and median [IQ range] BMI 33.3 [30.8-35.3] kg/m(2) Total EE during treadmill walking was greater than cycling at both high (158 [101] vs. 29 [15] kcal;p< 0.001) and moderate (178 [100] vs. 85 [59] kcal;p= 0.002) intensities, respectively, with similar cardiorespiratory responses and pattern of EE during rest, exercise and recovery. Contrary to current guidelines, walking might be the preferred training modality to achieve the combination of weight loss and increased cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with obesity and treated OSA.

  18. Listening to music during sprint interval exercise: The impact on exercise attitudes and intentions.

    PubMed

    Stork, Matthew J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of listening to music during exercise on perceived enjoyment, attitudes and intentions towards sprint interval training (SIT). Twenty men (24.8 ± 4.5 years) and women (20.1 ± 2.6 years) unfamiliar with SIT exercise completed two acute sessions of SIT, one with and one without music. Perceived enjoyment, attitudes and intentions towards SIT were measured post-exercise for each condition. Attitudes and intentions to engage in SIT were also measured at baseline and follow-up. Post-exercise attitudes mediated the effects of enjoyment on intentions in the music condition (95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.01, 0.07], κ(2) = 0.36) and in the no music condition (95% CI: [0.01, 0.08], κ(2) = 0.37). Attitudes towards SIT were significantly more positive following the music than no music condition (P = 0.004), while intentions towards SIT were not (P = 0.29). Further, attitudes and intentions towards SIT did not change from baseline to follow-up (Ps > 0.05). These findings revealed that participants had relatively positive attitudes and intentions towards SIT, which did not become more negative despite experiencing intense SIT protocols. This study highlights the importance of acute affective responses to SIT exercise for influencing one's attitudes and intentions towards participating in SIT exercise. Such factors could ultimately play a key role in determining whether an individual engages in SIT exercise in the long term.

  19. Impact of initial dialysis modality on mortality: a propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Waldum-Grevbo, Bård; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Reisæter, Anna V; Os, Ingrid

    2015-10-30

    Whether the choice of dialysis modality in patients with end stage renal disease may impact mortality is undecided. No randomized controlled trial has properly addressed this issue. Propensity-matched observational studies could give important insight into the independent effect of peritoneal (PD) opposed to haemodialysis (HD) on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. To correct for case-mix differences between patients treated with PD and HD, propensity-matched analyses were utilized in all patients who initiated dialysis as first renal replacement therapy in Norway in the period 2005-2012. PD patients were matched in a 1:1 fashion with HD patients, creating 692 pairs of patients with comparable baseline variables. As-treated and intention-to treat analyses were undertaken to assess cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Interaction analyses were used to assess differences in the relationship between initial dialysis modality and mortality, between strata of age, gender and prevalent diabetes mellitus. In the as-treated analyses, initial dialysis modality did not impact 2-year (PD vs. HD: HR 0.87, 95 % CI 0.67-1.12) or 5-year all-cause mortality (HR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.77-1.17). In patients younger than 65 years, PD was superior compared to HD with regard to both 2-year (HR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.19-0.81), and 5-year all-cause mortality (HR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.27-0.89). Cardiovascular mortality was also lower in the younger patients treated with PD (5-year HR 0.38, 95 % CI 0.15-0.96). PD was not associated with impaired prognosis in any of the prespecified subgroups compared to HD. The results were similar in the as-treated and intention-to-treat analyses. Survival in PD was not inferior to HD in any subgroup of patients even after five years of follow-up. In patients below 65 years, PD yielded superior survival rates compared to HD. Increased use of PD as initial dialysis modality in ESRD patients could be encouraged.

  20. Impact of 6-month aerobic exercise on Alzheimer's symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Thomas, William; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Bronas, Ulf G; Dysken, Maurice; Wyman, Jean F

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Disability in AD (DAD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Caregiver (NPI-Q) scales at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using mixed linear models. The ADAS-Cog, DAD, and NPI-Q severity scores remained unchanged over the 6-month period, while caregiver distress decreased 40% (p < .05). We conclude that aerobic exercise may reduce AD symptoms and appears effective in decreasing caregiver distress. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of aerobic exercise in AD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Pre-exercise stretching does not impact upon running economy.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Philip R; Walker, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Pre-exercise stretching has been widely reported to reduce performance in tasks requiring maximal or near-maximal force or torque. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different pre-exercise stretching routines on running economy. Seven competitive male middle and long-distance runners (mean +/- SD) age: 32.5 +/- 7.7 years; height: 175.0 +/- 8.8 cm; mass: 67.8 +/- 8.6 kg; V(.-)O2max: 66.8 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this study. Each participant completed 4 different pre-exercise conditions: (a) a control condition, (b) static stretching, (c) progressive static stretching, and (d) dynamic stretching. Each stretching routine consisted of 2 x 30-second stretches for each of 5 exercises. Dependent variables measured were sit and reach test before and after each pre-exercise routine, running economy (ml x kg(-1) x km(-1)), and steady-state oxygen uptake (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), which were measured during the final 3 minutes of a 10-minute run below lactate threshold. All 3 stretching routines resulted in an increase in the range of movement (p = 0.008). There was no change in either running economy (p = 0.915) or steady-state V(.-)O2 (p = 0.943). The lack of change in running economy was most likely because it was assessed after a period of submaximal running, which may have masked any effects from the stretching protocols. Previously reported reductions in performance have been attributed to reduced motor unit activation, presumably IIX. In this study, these motor units were likely not to have been recruited; this may explain the unimpaired performance. This study suggests that pre-exercise stretching has no impact upon running economy or submaximal exercise oxygen cost.

  2. The impact of modality and working memory capacity on achievement in a multimedia environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromfors, Charlotte M.

    This study explored the impact of working memory capacity and student learning in a dual modality, multimedia environment titled Visualizing Topography. This computer-based instructional program focused on the basic skills in reading and interpreting topographic maps. Two versions of the program presented the same instructional content but varied the modality of verbal information: the audio-visual condition coordinated topographic maps and narration; the visual-visual condition provided the same topographic maps with readable text. An analysis of covariance procedure was conducted to evaluate the effects due to the two conditions in relation to working memory capacity, controlling for individual differences in spatial visualization and prior knowledge. The scores on the Figural Intersection Test were used to separate subjects into three levels in terms of their measured working memory capacity: low, medium, and high. Subjects accessed Visualizing Topography by way of the Internet and proceeded independently through the program. The program architecture was linear in format. Subjects had a minimum amount of flexibility within each of five segments, but not between segments. One hundred and fifty-one subjects were randomly assigned to either the audio-visual or the visual-visual condition. The average time spent in the program was thirty-one minutes. The results of the ANCOVA revealed a small to moderate modality effect favoring an audio-visual condition. The results also showed that subjects with low and medium working capacity benefited more from the audio-visual condition than the visual-visual condition, while subjects with a high working memory capacity did not benefit from either condition. Although splitting the data reduced group sizes, ANCOVA results by gender suggested that the audio-visual condition favored females with low working memory capacities. The results have implications for designers of educational software, the teachers who select software, and

  3. Crack detection in a wheel end spindle using wave propagation via modal impacts and piezo actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackers, Spencer; Evans, Ronald; Johnson, Timothy; Kess, Harold; White, Jonathan; Adams, Douglas E.; Brown, Pam

    2006-03-01

    This research demonstrates two methodologies for detecting cracks in a metal spindle housed deep within a vehicle wheel end assembly. First, modal impacts are imposed on the hub of the wheel in the longitudinal direction to produce broadband elastic wave excitation spectra out to 7000 Hz. The response data on the flange is collected using 3000 Hz bandwidth accelerometers. It is shown using frequency response analysis that the crack produces a filter, which amplifies the elastic response of the surrounding components of the wheel assembly. Experiments on wheel assemblies mounted on the vehicle with the vehicle lifted off the ground are performed to demonstrate that the modal impact method can be used to nondestructively evaluate cracks of varying depths despite sources of variability such as the half shaft angular position relative to the non-rotating spindle. Second, an automatic piezo-stack actuator is utilized to excite the wheel hub with a swept sine signal extending from 20 kHz. Accelerometers are then utilized to measure the response on the flange. It is demonstrated using frequency response analysis that the crack filters waves traveling from the hub to the flange. A simple finite element model is used to interpret the experimental results. Challenges discussed include variability from assembly to assembly, the variability in each assembly, and the high amount of damping present in each assembly due to the transmission gearing, lubricant, and other components in the wheel end. A two-channel measurement system with a graphical user interface for detecting cracks was also developed and a procedure was created to ensure that operators properly perform the test.

  4. Osteo-cise: Strong Bones for Life: Protocol for a community-based randomised controlled trial of a multi-modal exercise and osteoporosis education program for older adults at risk of falls and fractures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis affects over 220 million people worldwide, and currently there is no ‘cure’ for the disease. Thus, there is a need to develop evidence-based, safe and acceptable prevention strategies at the population level that target multiple risk factors for fragility fractures to reduce the health and economic burden of the condition. Methods/design The Osteo-cise: Strong Bones for Life study will investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a multi-component targeted exercise, osteoporosis education/awareness and behavioural change program for improving bone health and muscle function and reducing falls risk in community-dwelling older adults at an increased risk of fracture. Men and women aged ≥60 years will participate in an 18-month randomised controlled trial comprising a 12-month structured and supervised community-based program and a 6-month ‘research to practise’ translational phase. Participants will be randomly assigned to either the Osteo-cise intervention or a self-management control group. The intervention will comprise a multi-modal exercise program incorporating high velocity progressive resistance training, moderate impact weight-bearing exercise and high challenging balance exercises performed three times weekly at local community-based fitness centres. A behavioural change program will be used to enhance exercise adoption and adherence to the program. Community-based osteoporosis education seminars will be conducted to improve participant knowledge and understanding of the risk factors and preventative measures for osteoporosis, falls and fractures. The primary outcomes measures, to be collected at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months, will include DXA-derived hip and spine bone mineral density measurements and functional muscle power (timed stair-climb test). Secondary outcomes measures include: MRI-assessed distal femur and proximal tibia trabecular bone micro-architecture, lower limb and back maximal muscle strength

  5. Osteo-cise: strong bones for life: protocol for a community-based randomised controlled trial of a multi-modal exercise and osteoporosis education program for older adults at risk of falls and fractures.

    PubMed

    Gianoudis, Jenny; Bailey, Christine A; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nowson, Caryl A; Hill, Keith; Ebeling, Peter R; Daly, Robin M

    2012-05-28

    Osteoporosis affects over 220 million people worldwide, and currently there is no 'cure' for the disease. Thus, there is a need to develop evidence-based, safe and acceptable prevention strategies at the population level that target multiple risk factors for fragility fractures to reduce the health and economic burden of the condition. The Osteo-cise: Strong Bones for Life study will investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a multi-component targeted exercise, osteoporosis education/awareness and behavioural change program for improving bone health and muscle function and reducing falls risk in community-dwelling older adults at an increased risk of fracture. Men and women aged ≥60 years will participate in an 18-month randomised controlled trial comprising a 12-month structured and supervised community-based program and a 6-month 'research to practise' translational phase. Participants will be randomly assigned to either the Osteo-cise intervention or a self-management control group. The intervention will comprise a multi-modal exercise program incorporating high velocity progressive resistance training, moderate impact weight-bearing exercise and high challenging balance exercises performed three times weekly at local community-based fitness centres. A behavioural change program will be used to enhance exercise adoption and adherence to the program. Community-based osteoporosis education seminars will be conducted to improve participant knowledge and understanding of the risk factors and preventative measures for osteoporosis, falls and fractures. The primary outcomes measures, to be collected at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months, will include DXA-derived hip and spine bone mineral density measurements and functional muscle power (timed stair-climb test). Secondary outcomes measures include: MRI-assessed distal femur and proximal tibia trabecular bone micro-architecture, lower limb and back maximal muscle strength, balance and function (four square step

  6. Exercise training as vascular medicine: direct impacts on the vasculature in humans.

    PubMed

    Green, Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Exercise training decreases cardiovascular risk, but effects on traditional risk factors do not fully account for this benefit. Exercise directly impacts upon arterial shear stress, a stimulus to antiatherogenic adaptation in vascular function and remodeling. This review considers the impact of exercise training on vascular adaptation in large and small arteries in humans.

  7. Immediate effects and short-term retention of multi-modal instruction compared to written only on muscle activity during the prone horizontal abduction exercise in individuals with shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Amee L; Kocher, Jordan H; Uhl, Timothy L

    2014-10-01

    In rehabilitation, exercise instructions are multi-modal and can include a focus of increasing mean activity of a target muscle and inhibiting aberrant synergistic muscle activity, particularly during shoulder exercises, such as the prone horizontal abduction (PHA). The objective was to compare the immediate effects and short-term retention of multi-modal exercise instruction by a physical therapist written only instruction on normalized mean upper and lower trapezius muscle activity during three phases (concentric/isometric/eccentric) versus of an isotonic PHA exercise between participants with and without shoulder pain. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from fourteen healthy participants and twelve participants with shoulder pain during the PHA exercise under two conditions: (1) written only instructions and (2) multi-modal instruction. Retention of multi-modal instruction on muscle activity was assessed one week later. Results demonstrate 12.8-16.0% increase in lower trapezius muscle activity during the concentric and isometric phases with multi-modal instructions in both groups. Inhibition of the upper trapezius did not occur in either group. Facilitation effects were maintained in short-term follow-up. Findings suggest that regardless of shoulder pain, multi-modal instruction by a physical therapist facilitates greater neuromuscular activity of a targeted muscle compared to written instructions alone and these effects are retained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of training modality on strength and physical function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Misic, Mark M; Valentine, Rudy J; Rosengren, Karl S; Woods, Jeffrey A; Evans, Ellen M

    2009-01-01

    The importance of maintaining strength in older adults is well documented and various training modalities have been recommended; however, the effectiveness of various interventions with high translation to public health practice has not been completely characterized. Additionally, the interrelations among mode, strength, and lower extremity physical function (LEPF) changes in older adults warrant further investigation. The primary aims were to examine the effectiveness of cardiovascular endurance training (CVE) compared with balance and flexibility training (FLEX) and to explore the relationship of muscle strength to LEPF. Fifty-five adults (69.1 +/- 5.6 years, 35 female) were randomly assigned to 10 months of CVE or FLEX. Knee extension and flexion at 60 and 120 degrees s(-1) were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. LEPF was measured using a battery of tasks. The CVE group exercised using treadmills, cycles, and elliptical trainers. The FLEX group participated in a group exercise class that incorporated flexibility and balance activities. The CVE training group significantly improved peak oxygen consumption by 6% (p = 0.03), while the FLEX training group showed no change (p = 0.47). Participants significantly improved peak torque at both speeds and muscle actions by 21-65% (p 0.05). Both groups also significantly improved performance on all LEPF tasks included in this study (4-7%, p

  9. Modalities and Hidden Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefee, Susan D.

    1985-01-01

    A teacher of learning handicapped students describes her modality perspective, noting characteristics of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners and considering the impact of deficiencies in more than one modality. (CL)

  10. Different exercise modalities have distinct effects on the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and Ca2+ signaling pathways in the male rat bone

    PubMed Central

    Sontam, Dharani M; Firth, Elwyn C; Tsai, Peter; Vickers, Mark H; O’Sullivan, Justin M

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical loading is essential to maintain optimal skeletal health. Despite the fact that early-life exercise has positive, long-lasting effects on the musculo-skeletal system, the response of the musculo-skeletal system to spontaneous low-impact exercise has been poorly studied. Previously, we identified subtle morphological changes in the femoral diaphysis of exercised animals compared to nonexercised controls. We hypothesized that significant changes in gene expression of cells should precede significant measurable phenotypic changes in the tissues of which they are part. Here, we employed RNA-Seq to analyse the transcriptome of the cortical bone from the femoral mid-diaphysis of prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats that were assigned to control (CON); bipedal stance (BPS); or wheel exercise (WEX) groups for 15 days. We identified 808 and 324 differentially expressed transcripts in the BPS and WEX animals respectively. While a number of transcripts change their levels in an exercise-specific manner, we identified 191 transcripts that were differentially expressed in both BPS and WEX. Importantly, we observed that the exercise mode had diametrically opposite effects on transcripts for multiple genes within the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and Ca2+ signaling pathways such that they were up-regulated in BPS and down-regulated in WEX. The findings are important for our understanding of possible ways in which different exercise regimens might affect bone when normal activities apply mechanical stimuli during postnatal growth and development. PMID:26471755

  11. Impact of obesity on exercise performance and pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Dreher, Michael; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2012-08-01

    While the impact of obesity on respiratory function has been extensively studied, and several definitive conclusions have emerged, its impact on exercise performance is complex, with the available data sometimes providing contradictory or inconclusive information. Based on the literature discussed, it appears that resting alterations in lung volumes and gas exchange become attenuated during exercise in the obese, while oxygen cost of breathing and dyspnoea are increased. Respiratory muscle function also seems to be impaired, such that inspiratory muscle strength is reduced and respiratory drive is increased. Furthermore, while there is no reduction in the absolute values of maximal oxygen uptake compared with normal-weight subjects, oxygen uptake at a given workload is increased and maximal workload is reduced in the obese, caused by increases in body mass and/or basal metabolic rate. To date, obesity has not been listed as an indication for pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), hence the reason why conclusive data on the impact of obesity per se on PR are lacking. The majority of evidence discussed is based on comparative data from obese versus normal-weight patients, with respiratory disorders currently established as indications for PR. The best evidence currently available regarding the impact of obesity on PR is for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); here, it appears that obesity per se has no negative impact on PR. Otherwise, there are no conclusive data on the impact of obesity on PR in respiratory disorders other than COPD, and this remains to be investigated in the future. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. Long-Term Maintenance of Executive-Related Oculomotor Improvements in Older Adults with Self-Reported Cognitive Complaints Following a 24-Week Multiple Modality Exercise Program.

    PubMed

    Shellington, Erin M; Heath, Matthew; Gill, Dawn P; Petrella, Robert J

    2017-04-10

    Adults (≥55 years) with self-reported cognitive complaints (sCC) were randomized to: multiple-modality exercise (M2), or multiple-modality plus mind-motor exercise (M4), for 24-weeks. Participants (n = 58) were assessed on antisaccade reaction time (RT) to examine executive-related oculomotor control and self-reported physical activity (PA) at pre-intervention (V0), post-intervention (V1), and 52-weeks follow-up (V2). We previously reported significant improvements in antisaccade RT of 23 ms at V1, in both groups. We now report maintenance of antisaccade RT improvement from V1 to V2, t(57) = 0.8, p = 0.45, and improved PA from V1 to V2, t(56) = -2.4, p = 0.02. Improvements in executive-related oculomotor control attained at V1 were maintained at V2.

  13. Select modalities.

    PubMed

    Canapp, Debra A

    2007-11-01

    Physical rehabilitation modalities such as therapeutic ultrasound (TU), transcutaneous electrical neuromuscular stimulation (TENS), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), cold or low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and pulsed magnetic field therapy (PMF) can all, when used properly, assist in treating orthopedic injuries, neurological conditions, and chronic conditions brought about by normal aging in our small animal companions. TU uses sound waves to produce both thermal and nonthermal effects that aid in tissue healing, repair, and function. TENS uses different frequencies of electrical current to decrease pain and inflammation. NMES also uses an electrical current to stimulate muscle contraction to assist in normal neuromuscular function in postorthopedic and neurological injuries. LLLT uses light energy to reduce pain, decrease inflammation, and stimulate healing at a cellular level. PMF uses magnetic field to stimulate normal cellular ion exchange and oxygen utilization and promote generalized healing of tissues. These modalities are discussed in detail covering mechanism of action, parameters, settings, and indications/contraindications of use in our small animals. Although these modalities are important in the physical rehabilitation of small animals, they need to be incorporated with a proper diagnosis, manual therapy, and home exercise program into a specific and individualized patient treatment protocol.

  14. Analyzing Exercise Training Effect and Its Impact on Cardiorespiratory and Cardiovascular Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laumakis, Paul J.; McCormack, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a statistical investigation of the impact of heart rate levels on training effect for a specific exercise regimen, including an analysis of post-exercise heart rate recovery. Results indicate optimum target values for both average and maximum heart rate during exercise in order to improve both cardiorespiratory and…

  15. Analyzing Exercise Training Effect and Its Impact on Cardiorespiratory and Cardiovascular Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laumakis, Paul J.; McCormack, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a statistical investigation of the impact of heart rate levels on training effect for a specific exercise regimen, including an analysis of post-exercise heart rate recovery. Results indicate optimum target values for both average and maximum heart rate during exercise in order to improve both cardiorespiratory and…

  16. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  17. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (COPD) COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  18. Greater impact of acute high-intensity interval exercise on post-exercise executive function compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Takeuchi, Tatsuya; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Isaka, Tadao; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    Aerobic moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MCE) can improve executive function (EF) acutely, potentially through the activation of both physiological and psychological factors. Recently, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) has been reported to be more beneficial for physical adaptation than MCE. Factors for EF improvement can potentially be more enhanced by HIIE than by MCE; but the effects of HIIE on EF remain unknown. Therefore, we aimed to examine to what extent HIIE impacts post-exercise EF immediately after exercise and during post-exercise recovery, compared with traditional MCE. Twelve healthy male subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise based on either HIIE or MCE protocols in a randomized and counterbalanced order. The HIIE protocol consisted of four 4-min bouts at 90% of peak VO2 with 3-min active recovery at 60% of peak VO2. A volume-matched MCE protocol was applied at 60% of peak VO2. To evaluate EF, a color-words Stroop task was performed pre- and post-exercise. Improvement in EF immediately after exercise was the same for the HIIE and MCE protocols. However, the improvement of EF by HIIE was sustained during 30 min of post-exercise recovery, during which MCE returned to the pre-exercise level. The EF response in the post-exercise recovery was associated with changes in physiological and psychological responses. The present findings showed that HIIE and MCE were capable of improving EF. Moreover, HIIE could prolong improvement in EF during post-exercise recovery. For the first time, we suggest that HIIE may be more effective strategy than MCE for improving EF.

  19. Impact of acute exercise on brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in young healthy people

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although chronic effects of exercise on endothelial function are established, the impact of acute exercise on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of brachial artery has not been elucidated yet. Methods Eighty-six young healthy volunteers were prospectively enrolled from January 2011 to December 2011. The subjects completed FMD tests at rest and immediately after treadmill exercise test. Primary outcome was the impact of acute exercise on FMD, measured by the difference of FMD before and after exercise. Secondary outcomes were the relationship of gender and exercise habit with FMD. Results Seventy-four subjects who met the eligibility criteria were included for analysis. Thirty-five (47.3%) were male, and the mean age was 22.7±2.7 years. FMD was reduced after exercise (8.98±4.69 to 7.51±4.03%; P=0.017) and the reduction was found in female group (10.36±5.26 to 7.62±3.71%; P=0.002) but not in male group. Post-exercise FMD was significantly impaired in subjects who did not exercise regularly (6.92±3.13% versus 8.95±5.33%; P=0.003). The decrease of FMD after exercise was greater in female group (−2.75±5.28% versus 0.27±3.24%; P=0.003) and was associated with exercise habit (β=2.532; P=0.027). Conclusions In healthy young subjects, FMD was reduced after a bout of acute exercise. The impact of acute exercise showed significant differences according to gender and exercise habit. FMD impairment after acute exercise was observed in females and subjects without regular exercise. PMID:23031621

  20. The effects of exercise modality during additional 'high-intensity interval training' upon aerobic fitness and strength in powerlifting and strongman athletes.

    PubMed

    Androulakis-Korakakis, Patroklos; Langdown, Louis; Lewis, Adam; Fisher, James; Gentil, Paulo; Paoli, Antonio; Steele, James

    2017-04-21

    Powerlifters and strongman athletes have a necessity for optimal levels of muscular strength whilst maintaining sufficient aerobic capacity to perform and recover between events. HIIT has been popularized for its efficacy in improving both aerobic fitness and strength but never assessed within the aforementioned population group. The present study looked to compare the effect of exercise modality, e.g. a traditional aerobic mode (AM), and strength mode, (SM), during HIIT upon aerobic fitness and strength. Sixteen well resistance trained male participants, currently competing in powerlifting and strongman events, completed 8 weeks of approximately effort- and volume-matched HIIT in 2 groups: AM (cycling, n=8) and SM (resistance training, n=8). Aerobic fitness was measured as predicted V O_2Max using the YMCA 3 minute step test and strength as predicted 1RM from a 4-6RM test using a leg extension. Both groups showed significant improvements in both strength and aerobic fitness. There was a significant between-group difference for aerobic fitness improvements favoring the AM group (p<0.05). There was no between-group difference for change in strength. Magnitude of change using within group effect size (ES) for aerobic fitness and strength were considered large for each group (aerobic fitness, AM = 2.6, SM = 2.0; strength, AM = 1.9, SM = 1.8). In conclusion, our results support enhanced strength and aerobic fitness irrespective of exercise modality (e.g. traditional aerobic and resistance training). However, powerlifters and strongman athletes wishing to enhance their aerobic fitness should consider HIIT using an aerobic HIIT mode.

  1. [Exercise-induced shear stress: Physiological basis and clinical impact].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Romero, Fernando; Saavedra, María Javiera

    2016-01-01

    The physiological regulation of vascular function is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, where an imbalance between synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is one of its main mechanisms. In this context, the shear stress is one of the most important mechanical stimuli to improve vascular function, due to endothelial mechanotransduction, triggered by stimulation of various endothelial mechanosensors, induce signaling pathways culminating in increased bioavailability of vasodilators molecules such as nitric oxide, that finally trigger the angiogenic mechanisms. These mechanisms allow providing the physiological basis for the effects of exercise on vascular health. In this review it is discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in the vascular response induced by shear stress and its impact in reversing vascular injury associated with the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in our population.

  2. Modal approach for nonlinear vibrations of damped impacted plates: Application to sound synthesis of gongs and cymbals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducceschi, M.; Touzé, C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a modal, time-domain scheme for the nonlinear vibrations of perfect and imperfect plates. The scheme can take into account a large number of degrees-of-freedom and is energy-conserving. The targeted application is the sound synthesis of cymbals and gong-like musical instruments, which are known for displaying a strongly nonlinear vibrating behaviour. This behaviour is typical of a wave turbulence regime, in which the wide-band spectrum of excited modes is observable in the form of an energy cascade. The modal method is selected for its versatility in handling complex damping laws that can be implemented easily by selecting appropriate damping values in each one of the modal equations. In the first part of the paper, the modal method is explained in its generality, and it will be seen that the method is valid for plates with arbitrary geometry and boundary conditions as long as the eigenmodes are known. Secondly, a time-integration, energy-conserving scheme for perfect and imperfect plates is presented, and implementation comments are given in order to treat efficiently the high-dimensionality of the resulting dynamical system. The scheme is run with appropriate parameters in order to produce sound samples. A simple impact law is considered for the excitation, whereas the flexibility of the method is highlighted by showing simulations for free-edge circular plates and simply-supported rectangular plates, together with various damping laws.

  3. Iron regulation in athletes: exploring the menstrual cycle and effects of different exercise modalities on hepcidin production.

    PubMed

    Sim, Marc; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant; Trinder, Debbie; Peeling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The trace element iron plays a number of crucial physiological roles within the body. Despite its importance, iron deficiency remains a common problem among athletes. As an individual's iron stores become depleted, it can affect their well-being and athletic capacity. Recently, altered iron metabolism in athletes has been attributed to postexercise increases in the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, which has been reported to be upregulated by exercise-induced increases in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. As such, when hepcidin levels are elevated, iron absorption and recycling may be compromised. To date, however, most studies have explored the acute postexercise hepcidin response, with limited research seeking to minimize/attenuate these increases. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the postexercise hepcidin response under a variety of exercise scenarios and highlights potential areas for future research-such as: a) the use of hormones though the female oral contraceptive pill to manipulate the postexercise hepcidin response, b) comparing the use of different exercise modes (e.g., cycling vs. running) on hepcidin regulation.

  4. Translating the impact of exercise on cognition: methodological issues in animal research.

    PubMed

    Hatchard, Taylor; Ting, Jaimee J; Messier, Claude

    2014-10-15

    Physical exercise and fitness have been proposed as potential factors that promote healthy cognitive aging. Some of the support for this hypothesis has come from animal research. Animal studies are also used to propose the physiological mechanisms underlying the cognitive performance improvement associated with exercise. In the present review and meta-analysis, we discuss several methodological problems that limit the contribution of animal studies to the understanding of the putative effects of exercise on cognitive aging. We suggest that the most likely measure to equate exercise intensity in rodent and humans may be oxygen consumption (VO2) because observed values are surprisingly similar in young and older rodents and humans. For practical reasons, several animal studies use young rodents kept in social isolation. We show that social isolation is associated with an enhanced impact of exercise on cognitive performance but not on some physiological measures thought to mediate the effect of exercise. Surprisingly, two months or more of exercise intervention appeared to be ineffective to promote cognitive performance compared to shorter durations. We argue that impact of exercise in socially isolated animals is explained by an alleviation of environmental impoverishment as much as an effect of physical exercise. It is possible that the introduction of exercise in rodents is partly mediated by environmental changes. It may explain why larger effects are observed for the shorter durations of exercise while much smaller effects are found after longer periods of exercise.

  5. Feasibility and perception of the impact from aerobic exercise in older adults with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Swartwood, Ruth M

    2012-09-01

    The subjective experience of participating in aerobic exercise is unknown in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study was to understand the subjective perceptions of the feasibility and impact of a 6-month, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention by older adults with AD and their family caregivers. Ten older adults with AD who completed the intervention and their family caregivers participated in four focus group interviews. Four converging themes were identified: "There was no perceived positive change in cognitive symptoms," "The 6-month exercise program was socially rewarding," "The 6-month exercise program increased physical strength," and "Participation in aerobic exercise was a positive experience." Family caregivers further identified two additional themes: "The exercise program led to improved attitude in older adults with AD" and "The exercise program reduced caregiver stress." Aerobic exercise is a feasible and well-perceived intervention for older adults with AD and their family caregivers.

  6. Impact of different orthodontic treatment modalities on Airway: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Qahtani, Nasser D Al

    2016-01-01

    This review focused on airway dysfunctions and orthodontic treatment modalities. A systematic search of the dental literature was performed using PubMed and Web of Science library database. Different combinations of search terms related to airway and orthodontic treatment were used. Any Non-English articles were excluded. Among titles found, abstract and full articles were reviewed. References from all the relevant articles were hand-searched to include more articles. Forty articles which were found relevant were included in the review. Surgical, orthopedic and fixed appliance therapy has been advocated by clinicians to treat patients with airway dysfunctions. These treatment modalities differ from patient to patient and have to be considered based on lot of criterion. The reviewed studies were not convincing in providing information about the orthodontic treatment modalities; further research regarding the same could be encouraging.

  7. Impact of different orthodontic treatment modalities on Airway: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Qahtani, Nasser D. Al

    2016-01-01

    This review focused on airway dysfunctions and orthodontic treatment modalities. A systematic search of the dental literature was performed using PubMed and Web of Science library database. Different combinations of search terms related to airway and orthodontic treatment were used. Any Non-English articles were excluded. Among titles found, abstract and full articles were reviewed. References from all the relevant articles were hand-searched to include more articles. Forty articles which were found relevant were included in the review. Surgical, orthopedic and fixed appliance therapy has been advocated by clinicians to treat patients with airway dysfunctions. These treatment modalities differ from patient to patient and have to be considered based on lot of criterion. The reviewed studies were not convincing in providing information about the orthodontic treatment modalities; further research regarding the same could be encouraging. PMID:27022385

  8. The impact of post-exercise hydration with deep-ocean mineral water on rehydration and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Keen, Douglas A; Constantopoulos, Eleni; Konhilas, John P

    2016-01-01

    Dehydration caused by prolonged exercise impairs thermoregulation, endurance and exercise performance. Evidence from animal and human studies validates the potential of desalinated deep-ocean mineral water to positively impact physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we hypothesize that deep-ocean mineral water drawn from a depth of 915 m off the Kona, HI coast enhances recovery of hydration and exercise performance following a dehydrating exercise protocol compared to mountain spring water and a carbohydrate-based sports drink. Subjects (n = 8) were exposed to an exercise-dehydration protocol (stationary biking) under warm conditions (30 °C) to achieve a body mass loss of 3 % (93.4 ± 21.7 total exercise time). During the post-exercise recovery period, subjects received deep-ocean mineral water (Kona), mountain spring water (Spring) or a carbohydrate-based sports drink (Sports) at a volume (in L) equivalent to body mass loss (in Kg). Salivary samples were collected at regular intervals during exercise and post-exercise rehydration. Additionally, each participant performed peak torque knee extension as a measure of lower body muscle performance. Subjects who received Kona during the rehydrating period showed a significantly more rapid return to pre-exercise (baseline) hydration state, measured as the rate of decline in peak to baseline salivary osmolality, compared to Sports and Spring groups. In addition, subjects demonstrated significantly improved recovery of lower body muscle performance following rehydration with Kona versus Sports or Spring groups. Deep-ocean mineral water shows promise as an optimal rehydrating source over spring water and/or sports drink.

  9. Analysis of economic impact between the modality of renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Denise Sbrissia E Silva; Bignelli, Alexandre Tortoza; Hokazono, Silvia Regina; Danucalov, Itamara; Siemens, Tobias August; Meyer, Fernando; Santos, Luiz Sergio; Martins, Ziliane Caetano Lopes; Mierzwa, Tiago César; Furquim, Raquel

    2017-04-27

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem, determining the reduction in life expectancy and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. An observational, cohort, retrospective, based on patient's medical records data with CKD under hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation in the city of Curitiba, in the period from January to June 2014, evacuativo the financial impact on the Unified Health System (SUS) and the supplementary health. The lowest cost of a kidney transplant in the first year was R$ 40,743.03 when cyclosporine was used and the highest was R$ 48,388.17 with the use of tacrolimus. In the second year post-transplant, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have a higher cost compared to kidney transplant. Transplantation with deceased donor, treated with tacrolimus: R$ 67,023.39; Hemodialysis R$ 71,717.51 and automated peritoneal dialysis automatic R$ 69,527.03. After the first two years of renal replacement therapy, transplantation demonstrates lower costs to the system when compared to other modalities evaluated. Based on that, this therapy justifies improvements in government policies in this sector. A doença renal crônica (DRC) é um grande problema de saúde, determina redução na expectativa de vida e aumento dos riscos de doenças cardiovasculares. Estudo observacional, de coorte, retrospectivo, baseado em dados de prontuários de pacientes com DRC em hemodiálise, diálise peritoneal e transplante renal na cidade de Curitiba, no período de janeiro a junho de 2014, avaliando o impacto financeiro no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e na saúde suplementar. O menor custo de um transplante renal no primeiro ano foi de R$ 40.743,03, quando utilizada a ciclosporina, e o maior de R$ 48.388,17, com a utilização do tacrolimo. Já no segundo ano pós-transplante, a hemodiálise e a diálise peritoneal têm valor superior ao transplante renal. Transplante com doador falecido, com tacrolimo: R$ 67.023,39; hemodiálise R$ 71

  10. Different image integration modalities to guide AF ablation: impact on procedural and fluoroscopy times.

    PubMed

    Pratola, Claudio; Baldo, Elisa; Artale, Paolo; Marcantoni, Lina; Toselli, Tiziano; Percoco, Gianfranco; Sassone, Biagio; Ferrari, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    Different image integration modalities are available for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, but their impact on procedural and fluoroscopy times has not been evaluated yet. Sixty patients (mean age 52.2 ± 12.0 years, 48.3% men, 75% paroxysmal AF) undergoing pulmonary vein (PV) encircling with PV disconnection for symptomatic drug-refractory AF were randomized to ablation with CARTO electroanatomical mapping (Biosense Webster, Diamond Bar, CA, USA) integrated with: (1) preprocedural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; Group 1); (2) intracardiac echocardiography (ICE; Group 2); (3) preprocedural MRI and ICE (Group 3). PV disconnection was achieved in all patients. Total procedural time (Group 1: 124.7 ± 47.0; Group 2: 112.5 ± 30.4; Group 3: 108.6 ± 34.7 minutes) and total ablation time were similar between groups (P = ns). MRI integration alone required a higher fluoroscopy time (23.8 ± 6.9 in Group 1 vs 11.0 ± 2.3 and 13.9 ± 4.2 minutes in Groups 2 and 3, respectively; P < 0.005) and a longer time spent in the left atrium (109.0 ± 43.5 in Group 1 vs 78.2 ± 29.7 and 74.8 ± 34.3 minutes in Groups 2 and 3, respectively; P = 0.03) in comparison to ICE integration. Addition of MRI to ICE integration showed a tendency for a higher fluoroscopy time in comparison to ICE integration alone (P = 0.06). At a mean follow-up of 9.1 ± 2.2 months, there were no significant differences in AF recurrences among the groups (P = ns). ICE image integration significantly reduces the fluoroscopy time and the time spent in the left atrium in comparison to MRI integration alone. Addition of MRI to ICE integration does not reduce total procedural time and seems to lead to higher fluoroscopy time in comparison to ICE integration alone. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nonsmooth modal analysis of a N-degree-of-freedom system undergoing a purely elastic impact law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Mathias; Junca, Stéphane; Heng, Sokly

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of a N-degree-of-freedom autonomous oscillator undergoing an energy-preserving impact law on one of its masses is investigated in the light of nonlinear modal analysis. The impacted rigid foundation provides a natural Poincaré section of the investigated system from which is formulated a smooth First Return Map well-defined away from the grazing trajectory. In order to focus on the impact-induced nonlinearity, the oscillator is assumed linear. Continuous one-parameter families of T-periodic orbits featuring one impact per period and lying on two-dimensional invariant manifolds in the state-space are shown to exist. The geometry of these piecewise-smooth manifolds is such that a linear "flat" portion (on which contact is not activated) is continuously attached to a purely nonlinear portion (on which contact is activated once per period) exhibiting a velocity discontinuity through a grazing orbit. These features explain the newly introduced terminology "Nonsmooth modal analysis". The stability of the periodic orbits lying on the invariant manifolds is also explored by calculating the eigenvalues of the linearized First Return Map. Internal resonances and multiple impacts per period are not addressed in this work. However, the pre-stressed case is succinctly described and extensions to multiple oscillators as well as self-contact are discussed.

  12. Feasible modalities and long-term effects of elastic band exercises in nursing home older adults in wheelchairs: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Li, Chun-Huw; Huang, Hsin-Ting; Cheng, Yin-Yin

    2016-03-01

    Physical activity holds promise for mobility-impaired older adults to prevent further disabilities and improve their health. However, staffing constraints have made it challenging to promote physical activity in long-term care facilities. To test the feasibility and effects of 12 months Wheelchair-bound Senior Elastic Band (WSEB) group-exercises that were led by volunteers for the first six months followed by the DVD-guided for another six months on functional fitness, activities of daily living (ADL), and sleep quality of nursing home older adults in wheelchairs. Cluster randomized controlled trial with two groups, pre-test and post-tests. Ten nursing homes, Taiwan. 127 participants participated voluntarily; 107 of them completed the study. (1) aged 65 years and over, (2) using wheelchairs for mobility, (3) living in facility for at least three months, (4) cognitively intact, and (5) heavy or moderate dependency in ADL. Majority of participants were middle-old older adults (75-84 years old, 53.2%), female (51.4%), and had chronic illnesses (98.1%). Participants were randomly assigned by facility to either the experimental (five nursing homes, n=56) or control group (five nursing homes, n=51). The WSEB program was conducted three times per week and 40 min per session in two stages: volunteer-led for the first six months (stage I) followed by the DVD-guided modality for another six months (stage II). The primary outcomes (functional fitness: lung capacity, body flexibility, range of joint motion, and muscle strength and endurance) and the secondary outcomes (ADL measured by the Barthel Index; sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) of the participants were measured at three time points: pre-test, at the six-month interval, and at the end of 12 months of the study. No blinding was applied. All of the functional fitness indicators of the experimental group participants improved significantly (p<.05), and were all better than the control group at

  13. Does Project L.I.V.E. Case Modality Impact Critical Thinking in PBL Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Carol; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Deterding, Robin

    Problem-based learning (PBL) with simulated cases is one method of delivering standardized pediatric curricular objectives, but the fact that students are dispersed and participating in community-based practices makes group meetings difficult. To address these issues, researchers developed and tested a new modality for presenting PBL cases, a…

  14. Surveying New Testament Survey: The Impact of Demographics and Modality on an Introductory New Testament Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruehler, Bart B.

    2014-01-01

    Both adult and traditional students at Indiana Wesleyan University take an introductory New Testament course in conventional, compressed, and accelerated formats and through online and onsite settings. This wide variety of demographics and modalities raises the issues of if and how the various incarnations of this course facilitate the achievement…

  15. Modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel and the consequent energy impacts. [Intercity travel under 500 miles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the impacts of strategies to effect modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel (defined herein as intercity travel under 500 miles) from energy-intensive modes to those modes that are less energy-intensive. A series of individual strategies, ranging from incentives to the less energy-intensive modes (bus, rail) to penalties to the more energy-intensive modes (auto, air) was examined to determine energy saved and policy implications relative to strategy implementation. The most effective of the individual strategies were then combined in all permutations, and the analysis was repeated. As part of the analytical process, effects of factors other than energy (user cost and time, emissions, government subsidy, and travel fatailities) were examined in a benefit/cost analysis. Finally, energy savings, benefit/cost impacts, implementation considerations, and policy implications were evaluated to arrive at conclusions as to the effectiveness of the more-influential strategies and to the overall effectiveness of induced modal shifts. The principal conclusion of the study is that the maximum 1980 energy saving that might be realized by modal shifts, discounting the concurrent effects of demand suppression and improvement of mode efficiency, is approximately 83 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (46,500 bbl gasoline per day), 3.8% of the total projected 1980 energy consumption in the short-haul transportation sector and 0.23% of the total US petroleum use. It was also concluded that strategies to achieve these small savings by modal shifts would result in significant economic, social, and business disruptions.

  16. Evaluation of a supervised multi-modal physical exercise program for prostate cancer survivors in the rehabilitation phase: Rationale and study protocol of the ProCaLife study.

    PubMed

    Schega, Lutz; Törpel, Alexander; Hein, Nico; Napiontek, André; Wenzel, Constanze; Becker, Tim

    2015-11-01

    After treatment for localized prostate cancer, many survivors experience severe physical and psychological/psychosocial impairments, such as urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, fatigue, depressive symptoms and decreased physical functioning. Physical activity and exercise can positively influence such side effects and improve quality of life. However, the majority of prostate cancer survivors are not physically active. Thus, supportive interventions, such as supervised exercise programs, are necessary. But particularly in the post-treatment phase, infrastructure and resources are limited and specific exercise recommendations for prostate cancer survivors do not yet exist. The ProCaLife study is a quasi-randomized controlled intervention trial evaluating a specific 26-week physical exercise program for prostate cancer survivors in the rehabilitation phase following medical treatment. Participants are assigned to one of two intervention groups (supervised multi-modal physical exercise including or not including further behavior-oriented techniques) or a control group (not receiving any supervised intervention). Exercise sessions are performed twice weekly and contain specific aerobic, strengthening, flexibility, balance, relaxation and pelvic floor/sphincter exercises as well as mixed games. Behavior-oriented techniques include physical activity-related knowledge transfer and barriers management. The primary endpoint quality of life and secondary psychological/psychosocial, urological, physical fitness and physical activity outcomes are assessed at pre-intervention, post-intervention and follow-up time points. By evaluating a specific supervised multi-modal physical exercise program, the ProCaLife study contributes to identify effective forms of physical exercise for prostate cancer survivors in the rehabilitation phase. This is of great importance for establishing specific exercise recommendations which are missing so far.

  17. The impacts of coordinative exercise on executive function in kindergarten children: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Yu-Jung; Chen, Tai-Ting; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the behavioral and neuroelectrical impacts of a coordinative exercise intervention with different exercise intensities on executive function in kindergarten children. Participants underwent the Eriksen flanker test before and after an exercise program that involved 35-min sessions twice per week for 8 weeks, with either low or moderate intensity. Our findings revealed that exercise intervention, regardless of intensity, resulted in shorter reaction times and higher response accuracy in both congruent and incongruent trials, with incongruent trials receiving a larger benefit from exercise compared with congruent trials. Additionally, neuroelectrical activation demonstrated greater P3 amplitude and shorter P3 latency following exercise in both trials. These results suggest that coordinative exercise may specifically benefit prefrontal-dependent tasks in the immature brain state of kindergarten children by increasing the allocation of attentional resources and enhancing the efficiency of neurocognitive processing.

  18. The impact of patient preference on dialysis modality and hemodialysis vascular access.

    PubMed

    Keating, Patrick T; Walsh, Michael; Ribic, Christine M; Brimble, Kenneth Scott

    2014-02-22

    Home-based dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HHD), is associated with improved health related quality of life and reduced health resource costs. It is uncertain to what extent initial preferences for dialysis modality influence the first dialysis therapy actually utilized. We examined the relationship between initial dialysis modality choice and first dialysis therapy used. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from a single centre who started dialysis after receiving modality education were included in this study. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess the independent association of patient characteristics and initial dialysis modality choice with actual dialysis therapy used and starting hemodialysis (HD) with a central venous catheter (CVC). Of 299 eligible patients, 175 (58.5%) initially chose a home-based therapy and 102 (58.3%) of these patients' first actual dialysis was a home-based therapy. Of the 89 patients that initially chose facility-based HD, 84 (94.4%) first actual dialysis was facility-based HD. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for first actual dialysis as a home-based therapy was 29.0 for patients intending to perform PD (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7-78.8; p < 0.001) and 12.4 for patients intending to perform HHD (95% CI 3.29-46.6; p < 0.001). Amongst patients whose first actual dialysis was HD, an initial choice of PD or not choosing a modality was associated with an increased risk of starting dialysis with a CVC (adjusted OR 3.73, 95% CI 1.51-9.21; p = 0.004 and 4.58, 95% CI 1.53-13.7; p = 0.007, respectively). Although initially choosing a home-based therapy substantially increases the probability of the first actual dialysis being home-based, many patients who initially prefer a home-based therapy start with facility-based HD. Programs that continually re-evaluate patient preferences and reinforce the values of home based therapies that led to the initial preference may

  19. Impact of Treatment Modalities on Survival of Patients With Locoregional Esophageal Squamous-Cell Carcinoma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Shan; Hung, Wei-Heng; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Hsu, Po-Kuei; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2016-03-01

    The optimal treatment modality for locoregional esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still undetermined. This study investigated the treatment modalities affecting survival of patients with ESCC in Taiwan.Data on 6202 patients who underwent treatment for locoregional esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma during 2008 to 2012 in Taiwan were collected from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Patients were stratified by clinical stage. The major treatment approaches included definitive chemoradiotherapy, preoperative chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy, esophagectomy followed by adjuvant therapy, and esophagectomy alone. The impact of different treatment modalities on overall survival was analyzed.The majority of patients had stage III disease (n = 4091; 65.96%), followed by stage II (n = 1582, 25.51%) and stage I cancer (n = 529, 8.53%). The 3-year overall survival rates were 60.65% for patients with stage I disease, 36.21% for those with stage II cancer, and 21.39% for patients with stage III carcinoma. Surgery alone was associated with significantly better overall survival than the other treatment modalities for patients with stage I disease (P = 0.029) and was associated with significantly worse overall survival for patients with stage III cancer (P < 0.001). There was no survival risk difference among the different treatment methods for patients with clinical stage II disease.Multimodality treatment is recommended for patients with stage II-III esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. Patients with clinical stage I disease can be treated with esophagectomy without preoperative therapy.

  20. Modality determines VO2max achieved in self-paced exercise tests: validation with the Bruce protocol.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Nicholas J; Scheadler, Cory M; Lee, Taylor L; Neuenfeldt, Noah C; Michael, Timothy J; Miller, Michael G

    2016-07-01

    The Bruce protocol is traditionally used to assess maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), but may have limitations, such as an unknown duration and large work rate increases. The use of self-paced VO2max tests (SPVs) may be beneficial if they are able to elicit similar maximal values in a set period of time. In addition, differences in modality between SPVs have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to compare SPVs, utilizing two different modes, with the Bruce (treadmill) protocol. Thirteen healthy, recreationally active individuals (eight men, five women) volunteered and participated in three different laboratory visits with each utilizing a different VO2max testing protocol. The first visit consisted of the Bruce protocol test, and the remaining visits entailed a maximal SPV on a treadmill (TM SPV) and a cycle ergometer (CE SPV). There were no differences in VO2max values between the TM SPV and the Bruce protocol tests (55.6 ± 4.9 vs. 56.2 ± 6.8, respectively; p = .510). As expected, the CE SPV (48.3 ± 7.6) was significantly lower than the other two tests (p < .001). The TM SPV was as effective in eliciting an accurate VO2max as the Bruce protocol and did so with less incline and in less time suggesting that there are no changes in the limits of VO2max even when the test is self-paced and perceptually regulated.

  1. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  2. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  3. Impact of Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy on Offspring Chronic Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Blaize, A. Nicole; Pearson, Kevin J.; Newcomer, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Maternal behaviors during pregnancy have been reported to impact offspring health in adulthood. In this review we explore the novel hypothesis that exercise during pregnancy can protect against chronic disease susceptibility in offspring. To date research has demonstrated that improvements in metabolic outcomes, cardiovascular risk, and cancer can occur in response to maternal exercise during pregnancy. PMID:26196867

  4. Impact exercise and bone density in premenopausal women with below average bone density for age.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Kathleen G; Walkley, Jeff W; Rich, Peter A

    2015-11-01

    To study the effects of two home-based impact exercise programs on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in adult premenopausal women with below average aBMD for age (negative Z-scores; 40.8 years; n = 107). Two unilateral impact exercise programs were employed, one targeting the total hip and lumbar spine (n = 42 pairs), the other the distal radius (n = 24 pairs) with some individuals performing both. Force plate data were used to establish exercise loading characteristics (peak loads, time to peak), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provided bone data. Calcium intake, health and extraneous physical activity (PA) were determined by survey. Exercise for both hip and spine consisted of unilateral landings from adjustable steps (maximum height 63.5 cm) while impacts were delivered to the forearm by arresting falls against a wall. An exercise log was used to provide the exercise prescription, record each exercise bout and any injuries. Participants were randomly assigned to exercise or control groups and pair-matched (age, BMI, Z-score, aBMD). Compliance was calculated as the number of sessions completed divided by the total prescribed number (mean ~50 %). The programs delivered significant gains pre to post at each site compared with significant losses in controls (forearm: 3.9 vs -3.9 %; total hip: 2.0 vs -2.6 %; lumbar spine: 2.8 vs -2.9 % exercise and controls, respectively, all p < 0.001). No exerciser lost bone at the target site regardless of compliance which was strongly correlated with bone gains (R (2) = 0.53-0.68, all p < 0.001). Impact exercise provides an effective means of improving below average aBMD without supervision in this at risk population.

  5. Impact of dialysis modality on technique survival in end-stage renal disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hak; Park, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Young-Jae; Kim, Sang Un; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Seung Chan; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Owen; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study analyzed the risk factors for technique survival in dialysis patients and compared technique survival rates between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in a prospective cohort of Korean patients. Methods: A total of 1,042 patients undergoing dialysis from September 2008 to June 2011 were analyzed. The dialysis modality was defined as that used 90 days after commencing dialysis. Technique survival was compared between the two dialysis modalities, and the predictive risk factors were evaluated. Results: The dialysis modality was an independent risk factor predictive of technique survival. PD had a higher risk for technique failure than HD (hazard ratio [HR], 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 62.0; p = 0.008) during a median follow-up of 11.0 months. In the PD group, a high body mass index (BMI) was an independent risk factor for technique failure (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8; p = 0.036). Peritonitis was the most common cause of PD technique failure. The difference in technique survival between PD and HD was more prominent in diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and in non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status. Conclusions: In a prospective cohort of Korean patients with end-stage renal disease, PD was associated with a higher risk of technique failure than HD. Diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status, as well as patients with a higher BMI, had an inferior technique survival rate with PD compared to HD. PMID:26767864

  6. Impact of dialysis modality on technique survival in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hak; Park, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Young-Jae; Kim, Sang Un; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Seung Chan; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Owen; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the risk factors for technique survival in dialysis patients and compared technique survival rates between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in a prospective cohort of Korean patients. A total of 1,042 patients undergoing dialysis from September 2008 to June 2011 were analyzed. The dialysis modality was defined as that used 90 days after commencing dialysis. Technique survival was compared between the two dialysis modalities, and the predictive risk factors were evaluated. The dialysis modality was an independent risk factor predictive of technique survival. PD had a higher risk for technique failure than HD (hazard ratio [HR], 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 62.0; p = 0.008) during a median follow-up of 11.0 months. In the PD group, a high body mass index (BMI) was an independent risk factor for technique failure (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8; p = 0.036). Peritonitis was the most common cause of PD technique failure. The difference in technique survival between PD and HD was more prominent in diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and in non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status. In a prospective cohort of Korean patients with end-stage renal disease, PD was associated with a higher risk of technique failure than HD. Diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status, as well as patients with a higher BMI, had an inferior technique survival rate with PD compared to HD.

  7. Reallocation in modal aerosol models: impacts on predicting aerosol radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhola, T.; Kokkola, H.; Korhonen, H.; Partanen, A.-I.; Laaksonen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Romakkaniemi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric models often represent the aerosol particle size distribution with a modal approach, in which particles are described with log-normal modes within predetermined size ranges. This approach reallocates particles numerically from one mode to another for example during particle growth, potentially leading to artificial changes in the aerosol size distribution. In this study we analysed how the modal reallocation affects climate-relevant variables: cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), aerosol-cloud interaction parameter (ACI) and light extinction coefficient (qext). The ACI parameter gives the response of CDNC to a change in total aerosol number concentration. We compared these variables between a modal model (with and without reallocation routines) and a high resolution sectional model, which was considered a reference model. We analysed the relative differences in the chosen variables in four experiments designed to assess the influence of atmospheric aerosol processes. We find that limiting the allowed size ranges of the modes, and subsequent remapping of the distribution, leads almost always to an underestimation of cloud droplet number concentrations (by up to 100%) and an overestimation of light extinction (by up to 20%). On the other hand, the aerosol-cloud interaction parameter can be either over- or underestimated by the reallocating model, depending on the conditions. For example, in the case of atmospheric new particle formation events followed by rapid particle growth, the reallocation can cause on average a 10% overestimation of the ACI parameter. Thus it is shown that the reallocation affects the ability of a model to estimate aerosol climate effects accurately, and this should be taken into account when using and developing aerosol models.

  8. The impact of time on predicate forms in the manual modality: Signers, homesigners, and silent gesturers*

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to create spoken forms that can be understood on the spot. But the manual modality, in large part because of its iconic potential, allows us to construct forms that are immediately understood, thus requiring essentially no time to develop. This paper contrasts manual forms for actions produced over 3 time spans—by silent gesturers who are asked to invent gestures on the spot; by homesigners who have created gesture systems over their lifespans; and by signers who have learned a conventional sign language from other signers—and finds that properties of the predicate differ across these time spans. Silent gesturers use location to establish co-reference in the way established sign languages do, but show little evidence of the segmentation sign languages display in motion forms for manner and path, and little evidence of the finger complexity sign languages display in handshapes in predicates representing events. Homesigners, in contrast, not only use location to establish co-reference, but also display segmentation in their motion forms for manner and path and finger complexity in their object handshapes, although they have not yet decreased finger complexity to the levels found in sign languages in their handling handshapes. The manual modality thus allows us to watch language as it grows, offering insight into factors that may have shaped and may continue to shape human language. PMID:25329421

  9. The impact of time on predicate forms in the manual modality: signers, homesigners, and silent gesturers.

    PubMed

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to create spoken forms that can be understood on the spot. But the manual modality, in large part because of its iconic potential, allows us to construct forms that are immediately understood, thus requiring essentially no time to develop. This paper contrasts manual forms for actions produced over three time spans-by silent gesturers who are asked to invent gestures on the spot; by homesigners who have created gesture systems over their life spans; and by signers who have learned a conventional sign language from other signers-and finds that properties of the predicate differ across these time spans. Silent gesturers use location to establish co-reference in the way established sign languages do, but they show little evidence of the segmentation sign languages display in motion forms for manner and path, and little evidence of the finger complexity sign languages display in handshapes in predicates representing events. Homesigners, in contrast, not only use location to establish co-reference but also display segmentation in their motion forms for manner and path and finger complexity in their object handshapes, although they have not yet decreased finger complexity to the levels found in sign languages in their handling handshapes. The manual modality thus allows us to watch language as it grows, offering insight into factors that may have shaped and may continue to shape human language. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. The Impact of Different Surgical Modalities for Hysterectomy on Satisfaction and Patient Reported Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate regarding the cost-benefit of different surgical modalities for hysterectomy. Studies have relied primarily on evaluation of clinical outcomes and medical expenses. Thus, a paucity of information on patient-reported outcomes including satisfaction, recovery, and recommendations exists. Objective The objective of this study was to identify differences in patient satisfaction and recommendations by approach to a hysterectomy. Methods We recruited a large, geographically diverse group of women who were members of an online hysterectomy support community. US women who had undergone a benign hysterectomy formed this retrospective study cohort. Self-reported characteristics and experiences were compared by surgical modality using chi-square tests. Outcomes over time were assessed with the Jonkheere-Terpstra trend test. Logistic regression identified independent predictors of patient satisfaction and recommendations. Results There were 6262 women who met the study criteria; 41.74% (2614/6262) underwent an abdominal hysterectomy, 10.64% (666/6262) were vaginal, 27.42% (1717/6262) laparoscopic, 18.94% (1186/6262) robotic, and 1.26% (79/6262) single-incision laparoscopic. Most women were at least college educated (56.37%, 3530/6262), and identified as white, non-Hispanic (83.17%, 5208/6262). Abdominal hysterectomy rates decreased from 68.2% (152/223) to 24.4% (75/307), and minimally invasive surgeries increased from 31.8% (71/223) to 75.6% (232/307) between 2001 or prior years and 2013 (P<.001 all trends). Trends in overall patient satisfaction and recommendations showed significant improvement over time (P<.001).There were differences across the surgical modalities in all patient-reported experiences (ie, satisfaction, time to walking, driving and working, and whether patients would recommend or use the same technique again; P<.001). Significantly better outcomes were evident among women who had vaginal, laparoscopic, and robotic

  11. Impact of Oxidative Stress on Exercising Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Steinbacher, Peter; Eckl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that muscle contractions during exercise lead to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle. These highly reactive molecules have many deleterious effects, such as a reduction of force generation and increased muscle atrophy. Since the discovery of exercise-induced oxidative stress several decades ago, evidence has accumulated that ROS produced during exercise also have positive effects by influencing cellular processes that lead to increased expression of antioxidants. These molecules are particularly elevated in regularly exercising muscle to prevent the negative effects of ROS by neutralizing the free radicals. In addition, ROS also seem to be involved in the exercise-induced adaptation of the muscle phenotype. This review provides an overview of the evidences to date on the effects of ROS in exercising muscle. These aspects include the sources of ROS, their positive and negative cellular effects, the role of antioxidants, and the present evidence on ROS-dependent adaptations of muscle cells in response to physical exercise. PMID:25866921

  12. Detection of internal cracks in rubber composite structures using an impact acoustic modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Q.; Kurfess, T. R.; Omar, M.; Gramling, F.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the use of impact acoustic signals to non-intrusively inspect rubber composite structures for the presence of internal cracks, such as those found in an automobile tyre. Theoretical contact dynamic models for both integral and defective rubber structures are developed based on Hertz's impact model, further modified for rubber composite materials. The model generates the prediction of major impact dynamic quantities, namely the maximum impact force, impact duration and contact deformation; such parameters are also theoretically proven to be correlated with the presence of internal cracks. The tyre structures are simplified into cubic rubber blocks, to mitigate complexity for analytical modelling. Both impact force and impact sound signals are measured experimentally, and extraction of useful features from both signals for defect identification is achieved. The impact force produces two direct measurements of theoretical impact dynamic quantities. A good correlation between these experimental discriminators and the theoretical dynamic quantities provide validation for the contact dynamics models. Defect discriminators extracted from the impact sound are dependent on both time- and frequency-domain analyses. All the discriminators are closely connected with the theoretical dynamic quantities and experimentally verified as good indicators of internal cracks in rubber composite structures.

  13. Reallocation in modal aerosol models: impacts on predicting aerosol radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhola, T.; Kokkola, H.; Korhonen, H.; Partanen, A.-I.; Laaksonen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Romakkaniemi, S.

    2013-08-01

    In atmospheric modelling applications the aerosol particle size distribution is commonly represented by modal approach, in which particles in different size ranges are described with log-normal modes within predetermined size ranges. Such method includes numerical reallocation of particles from a mode to another for example during particle growth, leading to potentially artificial changes in the aerosol size distribution. In this study we analysed how this reallocation affects climatologically relevant parameters: cloud droplet number concentration, aerosol-cloud interaction coefficient and light extinction coefficient. We compared these parameters between a modal model with and without reallocation routines, and a high resolution sectional model that was considered as a reference model. We analysed the relative differences of the parameters in different experiments that were designed to cover a wide range of dynamic aerosol processes occurring in the atmosphere. According to our results, limiting the allowed size ranges of the modes and the following numerical remapping of the distribution by reallocation, leads on average to underestimation of cloud droplet number concentration (up to 100%) and overestimation of light extinction (up to 20%). The analysis of aerosol first indirect effect is more complicated as the ACI parameter can be either over- or underestimated by the reallocating model, depending on the conditions. However, for example in the case of atmospheric new particle formation events followed by rapid particle growth, the reallocation can cause around average 10% overestimation of the ACI parameter. Thus it is shown that the reallocation affects the ability of a model to estimate aerosol climate effects accurately, and this should be taken into account when using and developing aerosol models.

  14. Impact of Age, Gender and Anesthesia Modality on Post-Operative Pain in Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pope, David; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M.; Manning, Blaine T.; Sepula, Mykel; Markwell, Stephen J.; Saleh, Khaled J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Optimizing pain control following total knee arthroplasty is of utmost importance to the immediate post-operative course. Various anesthesia modalities are available, but studies comparing multiple anesthesia modalities, patient age, and sex are limited. Questions/Purpose The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of patient age, gender, and perioperative anesthesia modality on postoperative pain following primary total knee arthroplasty. Methods 443 patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty by 14 surgeons with some combination of general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, femoral nerve block, and intrathecal morphine were identified. Anesthesia route and type, length of surgery, post-operative patient-reported pain measures using the Visual Analog Scale, opioid consumption, and length of hospital stay were recorded for each patient and used to compare differences among study groups. Results No significant differences were noted between anesthesia groups with regards to postoperative pain or length of hospital stay. Patients receiving spinal anesthesia and femoral nerve block without intrathecal morphine were significantly older than other groups. Patients receiving general anesthesia required significantly more daily intravenous morphine equivalents than patients receiving spinal anesthesia. Patients receiving spinal anesthesia with femoral nerve block and intrathecal morphine consumed the least amount of morphine equivalents. When comparing males and females among all groups, females had significantly higher pain ratings between 24-36 and 24-48 hours postoperatively. Conclusion Although no significant differences were noted on pain scores, patients who received spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine and femoral nerve block used less narcotic pain medication than any other group. Females reported significantly higher pain between 24-48 hours post-op compared with males but not significantly greater anesthetic usage. Level of

  15. Physical Activity and Exercise Interventions in the Workplace Impacting Work Outcomes: A Stakeholder-Centered Best Evidence Synthesis of Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    White, M I; Dionne, C E; Wärje, O; Koehoorn, M; Wagner, S L; Schultz, I Z; Koehn, C; Williams-Whitt, K; Harder, H G; Pasca, R; Hsu, V; McGuire, L; Schulz, W; Kube, D; Wright, M D

    2016-04-01

    The prevention of work disability is beneficial to employees and employers, and mitigates unnecessary societal costs associated with social welfare. Many service providers and employers have initiated workplace interventions designed to reduce unnecessary work disability. To conduct a best-evidence synthesis of systematic reviews on workplace interventions that address physical activities or exercise and their impact on workplace absence, work productivity or financial outcomes. Using a participatory research approach, academics and stakeholders identified inclusion and exclusion criteria, built an abstraction table, evaluated systematic review quality and relevance, and interpreted the combined findings. A minimum of two scientists participated in a methodological review of the literature followed by a consensus process. Stakeholders and researchers participated as a collaborative team. 3363 unique records were identified, 115 full text articles and 46 systematic reviews were included, 18 assessed the impact of physical fitness or exercise interventions. 11 focused on general workers rather than workers who were absent from work at baseline; 16 of the reviews assessed work absence, 4 assessed productivity and 6 assessed financial impacts. The strongest evidence supports the use of short, simple exercise or fitness programs for both workers at work and those absent from work at baseline. For workers at work, simple exercise programs (1-2 modal components) appear to provide similar benefits to those using more complex multimodal interventions. For workers off-work with subacute low back pain, there is evidence that some complex exercise programs may be more effective than simple exercise interventions, especially if they involve workplace stakeholder engagement, communication and coordination with employers and other stakeholders. The development and utilization of standardized definitions, methods and measures and blinded evaluation would improve research quality

  16. Location and Modality Effects in Online Dating: Rich Modality Profile and Location-Based Information Cues Increase Social Presence, While Moderating the Impact of Uncertainty Reduction Strategy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soyoung; Roh, Soojin; Yang, Hyun; Biocca, Frank

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates how different interface modality features of online dating sites, such as location awareness cues and modality of profiles, affect the sense of social presence of a prospective date. We also examined how various user behaviors aimed at reducing uncertainty about online interactions affect social presence perceptions and are affected by the user interface features. Male users felt a greater sense of social presence when exposed to both location and accessibility cues (geographical proximity) and a richer medium (video profiles). Viewing a richer medium significantly increased the sense of social presence among female participants whereas location-based information sharing features did not directly affect their social presence perception. Augmented social presence, as a mediator, contributed to users' greater intention to meet potential dating partners in a face-to-face setting and to buy paid memberships on online dating sites.

  17. The impact of obesity on physiological responses during prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Eijsvogels, T M H; Veltmeijer, M T W; Schreuder, T H A; Poelkens, F; Thijssen, D H J; Hopman, M T E

    2011-11-01

    Prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise training is routinely prescribed to subjects with obesity. In the general population, this type of exercise can lead to fluid and sodium imbalance. However, little is known whether obesity alters the risk of fluid and sodium imbalances. This study examined physiological responses, such as core body temperature, fluid and sodium balance, in lean (BMI<25), overweight (2530) subjects during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise. A total of 93 volunteers (24-80 years), stratified for BMI, participated in the Nijmegen Marches and walked 30-50 km at a self-selected pace. Heart rate and core body temperature were recorded every 5 km. Subjects reported fluid intake, while urine output was measured and sweat rate was calculated. Baseline and post-exercise plasma sodium levels were determined, and urinary specific gravity levels were assessed before and after exercise. BMI groups did not differ in training status preceding the experiment. Exercise duration (8 h 41 ± 1 h 36 min) and intensity (72 ± 9% HR(max)) were comparable across groups, whereas obese subjects tended to have a higher maximum core body temperature than lean controls (P=0.06). Obese subjects demonstrated a significantly higher fluid intake (P<0.001) and sweat rate (P<0.001), but lower urine output (P<0.05) compared with lean subjects. In addition, higher urine specific gravity levels were observed in obese versus lean subjects after exercise (P<0.05). Furthermore, plasma-sodium concentration did not change in lean subjects after exercise, whereas plasma-sodium levels increased significantly (P<0.001) in overweight and obese subjects. Also, overweight and obese subjects demonstrated a significantly larger decrease in body mass after exercise than lean controls (P<0.05). Obese subjects demonstrate a larger deviation in markers of fluid and sodium balance than their lean counterparts during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise. These findings

  18. Neurobiological Alterations Induced by Exercise and Their Impact on Depressive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Helmich, Ingo; Latini, Alexandra; Sigwalt, Andre; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Budde, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background: The impact of physical activity on brain metabolic functions has been investigated in different studies and there is growing evidence that exercise can be used as a preventive and rehabilitative intervention in the treatment of depressive disorders. However, the exact neuronal mechanisms underlying the latter phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. The present article summarises key results derived from studies that focussed on the neurobiological impact of exercise on brain metabolic functions associated with depressive disorders. Since major depressive disorder (MDD) is a life threatening disease it is of great significance to find reliable strategies to prevent or to cure this illness. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review (1) the physiological relationship between physical activity and depressive disorders and (2) the potential neurobiological alterations induced by exercise that might lead to the relief of mental disorders like depression. Methods: We searched electronic databases for literature concerning the relationship between exercise and depression from 1963 until 2009. Results: The data suggests an association between physical inactivity and higher levels of depressive symptoms. Properly designed studies could show that exercise training can be as effective as antidepressive medications. Conclusion: The exact mechanisms how exercise affects the brain are not fully understood and the literature lacks of well designed studies concerning the effects of exercise training on depressive disorders. But the observed antidepressant actions of exercise are strong enough that it already can be used as an alternative to current medications in the treatment of depressive disorders. PMID:21283646

  19. A comparison of low- and high-impact forced exercise: effects of training paradigm on learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Kennard, John A; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S

    2012-06-25

    In this study we compared two types of forced exercise-a low impact paradigm to minimize stress, which included speeds up to 10 m/min and a stressful high impact paradigm, with speeds up to 21 m/min. 150 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to the low impact, high impact, or sedentary control conditions and were tested on the rotorod and Morris water maze (MWM) as indices of motor learning and spatial memory. We found that 5 weeks of stressful high speed forced exercise led to significant improvement in rotorod performance, as high impact runners outperformed both low impact runners and controls at 15 and 25 rpm speeds. These differences were the result of improved physical fitness due to exercise and likely do not reflect enhanced learning in these mice. In the MWM, 5 weeks of stressful high impact exercise led to significant impairment in spatial memory acquisition compared to low impact runners and controls. Low impact exercise for 10 weeks significantly improved retention of spatial memory compared to high impact exercise. Results suggested that these two paradigms produced different effects of forced exercise on learning and memory. The low impact paradigm led to some improvements, whereas the stressful high impact program caused significant impairment. Comparison of these two paradigms begins to address the window between the beneficial and detrimental effects of forced exercise, and have suggested a boundary of exercise intensity that leads to impairment in learning.

  20. Impact of exercise selection on hamstring muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Matthew N; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A; Al Najjar, Aiman; Kerr, Graham K; Shield, Anthony J

    2017-07-01

    To determine which strength training exercises selectively activate the biceps femoris long head (BFLongHead) muscle. We recruited 24 recreationally active men for this two-part observational study. Part 1: We explored the amplitudes and the ratios of lateral (BF) to medial hamstring (MH) normalised electromyography (nEMG) during the concentric and eccentric phases of 10 common strength training exercises. Part 2: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during two exercises which (1) most selectively and (2) least selectively activated the BF in part 1. Eccentrically, the largest BF/MH nEMG ratio occurred in the 45° hip-extension exercise; the lowest was in the Nordic hamstring (Nordic) and bent-knee bridge exercises. Concentrically, the highest BF/MH nEMG ratio occurred during the lunge and 45° hip extension; the lowest was during the leg curl and bent-knee bridge. fMRI revealed a greater BF(LongHead) to semitendinosus activation ratio in the 45° hip extension than the Nordic (p<0.001). The T2 increase after hip extension for BFLongHead, semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles was greater than that for BFShortHead (p<0.001). During the Nordic, the T2 increase was greater for the semitendinosus than for the other hamstring muscles (p≤0.002). We highlight the heterogeneity of hamstring activation patterns in different tasks. Hip-extension exercise selectively activates the long hamstrings, and the Nordic exercise preferentially recruits the semitendinosus. These findings have implications for strategies to prevent hamstring injury as well as potentially for clinicians targeting specific hamstring components for treatment (mechanotherapy). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Impact of clothing on exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon-Kyle; Bishop, Phillip A

    2013-08-01

    Clothing targeting the exercise enthusiast has been advertised to keep individuals drier, cooler, and more comfortable during exercise in the heat. The marketing of such clothing has increased dramatically within the last decade. In hot environments, clothing acts as a barrier to thermal balance by inhibiting evaporative and convective cooling. Clothing construction, fit, and fabric are all critical influences on the amount of sweat absorbed from the skin and transported throughout the clothing. The majority of the research analyzing advertised synthetic fabrics has shown no difference in thermoregulation or clothing comfort while exercising in those fabrics in the heat compared to natural fabrics. The influence of clothing construction on thermal balance has received minimal research in regards to exercise. Further research is needed in this area, since it is poorly understood from ecologically valid human testing. Future research should also consider examining the effects of clothing characteristics on comfort during exercise and recovery. The incorporation of protocols that more closely mirror sporting and recreational activity lasting >60 min as well as simulated work-related protocols lasting >120 min is warranted.

  2. Paradoxical dissociation between heart rate and heart rate variability following different modalities of exercise in individuals with metabolic syndrome: The RESOLVE study.

    PubMed

    Boudet, Gil; Walther, Guillaume; Courteix, Daniel; Obert, Philippe; Lesourd, Bruno; Pereira, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Vinet, Agnès; Chamoux, Alain; Naughton, Geraldine; Poirier, Paul; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Aims To analyse the effects of different modalities of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods and results Eighty MetS participants (aged 50-70 years) were housed and managed in an inpatient medical centre for 21 days, including weekends. Physical activity and food intake/diet were intensively monitored. Participants were randomly assigned into three training groups, differing only by intensity of exercise: moderate-endurance-moderate-resistance ( re), high-resistance-moderate-endurance ( Re), and moderate-resistance-high-endurance ( rE). HRV was recorded before and after the intervention by 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram. Although mean 24-hour heart rate decreased more in Re than re (-11.6 ± 1.6 vs. -4.8 ± 2.1%; P = 0.010), low frequency/high frequency decreased more in re than Re (-20.4 ± 5.5% vs. + 20.4 ± 9.1%; P = 0.002) and rE (-20.4 ± 5.5% vs. -0.3 ± 11.1%; P = 0.003). Very low frequency increased more in Re than re (+121.2 ± 35.7 vs. 42.9 ± 11.3%; P = 0.004). For all HRV parameters, rE ranged between re and Re values. Low frequency/high frequency changes were linked with visceral fat loss only in re (coefficient 5.9, 95% CI 1.9-10.0; P = 0.004). By day 21, HRV parameters of MetS groups (heart rate -8.6 ± 1.0%, standard deviation of R-R intervals + 34.0 ± 6.6%, total power + 63.3 ± 11.1%; P < 0.001) became closer to values of 50 aged-matched healthy controls. Conclusions A 3-week residential programme with intensive volumes of physical activity (15-20 hours per week) enhanced HRV in individuals with MetS. Participants with moderate intensity of training had greater improvements in sympathovagal balance, whereas those with high intensity in resistance training had greater decreases in heart rate and greater increases in very low frequency. Modality-specific relationships were observed between enhanced HRV

  3. Procedural Variations in the Stroop and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test: impact on patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Abbey J; Denney, Douglas R; Owens, Emily M; Lynch, Sharon G

    2013-08-01

    Decreased information processing speed is often cited as the primary cognitive deficit occurring in conjunction with multiple sclerosis (MS). Two common tools for assessing this deficit are the Stroop Test and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). However, there are procedural variations in these rapid serial processing (RSP) tests pertaining to the response format (e.g., verbal or manual) and the administration format (e.g., paper-based or computerized). The present study was designed to assess whether such variations impact MS patients' and healthy individuals' performance on these tests. In Experiment 1, we showed that response formats in which either the experimenter or the participant was responsible for advancing the items on computerized versions of the Stroop Test and the SDMT were basically equivalent in terms of distinguishing between patients and controls. In Experiment 2, we found differences between administration formats that appear to interact with some of the disease-related features of MS. Understanding how procedural variations differentially impact patients and controls can be useful for interpreting what RSP tests reveal about the cognitive impact of MS.

  4. A comparison of low- and high-impact forced exercise: Effects of training paradigm on learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, John A.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we compared two types of forced exercise—a low impact paradigm to minimize stress, which included speeds up to 10 m/min and a stressful high impact paradigm, with speeds up to 21 m/min. 150 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to the low impact, high impact, or sedentary control conditions and were tested on the rotorod and Morris water maze (MWM) as indices of motor learning and spatial memory. We found that five weeks of stressful high speed forced exercise led to significant improvement in rotorod performance, as high impact runners outperformed both low impact runners and controls at 15 and 25 RPM speeds. These differences were the result of improved physical fitness due to exercise and likely do not reflect enhanced learning in these mice. In the MWM, five weeks of stressful high impact exercise led to significant impairment in spatial memory acquisition compared to low impact runners and controls. Low impact exercise for 10 weeks significantly improved retention of spatial memory compared to high impact exercise. Results suggested that these two paradigms produced different effects of forced exercise on learning and memory. The low impact paradigm led to some improvements, whereas the stressful high impact program caused significant impairment. Comparison of these two paradigms begins to address the window between the beneficial and detrimental effects of forced exercise, and have suggested a boundary of exercise intensity that leads to impairment in learning. PMID:22402029

  5. Impact of Small Monetary Incentives on Exercise in University Students.

    PubMed

    Strohacker, Kelley; Galárraga, Omar; Emerson, Jessica; Fricchione, Samuel R; Lohse, Mariah; Williams, David M

    2015-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that health outcomes are significantly improved with the application of financial incentives. However, relatively larger incentives are not typically sustainable and removal of incentives tends to result in attrition of behavior. The feasibility of using relatively smaller incentives to improve physical activity is unclear. The aim of the present study is to determine whether small financial incentives (maximum $5.00 per week) can improve exercise-related energy expenditure of inactive individuals. Twenty-two university students (20 ±1.6 years old) were randomized into incentive or non-incentive conditions. Exercise-related caloric expenditure was tracked over 10 weeks. The sample size yielded 62% power. The repeated measures ANCOVA, controlling for body mass index, indicated a main effect of condition (F = 5.50, p =.03) with no significant interaction (F = 2.25, p = .06). This pilot study demonstrates initial feasibility in implementing small financial incentives to promote exercise behavior in previously inactive young adults. Due to the small sample size, results should be interpreted with caution and further research is warranted to improve and maintain exercise behavior in response to relatively smaller incentives.

  6. Health impact of sport and exercise in emerging adult men: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Henchoz, Yves; Baggio, Stéphanie; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    Health benefits of sport and exercise are well documented in children, adolescents and adults, but little is known about emerging adulthood-a period of life characterized by significant demographic and developmental changes. The present study aimed to assess the health impact of changes in sport and exercise levels during that specific period of life. The analysis used baseline and 15-month follow-up data (N = 4,846) from the cohort study on substance use risk factors. Associations between baseline exercise levels or changes in exercise levels and health indicators (i.e., health-related quality of life, depression, body mass index, alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and cannabis use disorder) were measured using chi-squared tests and ANOVA. Direction of effects was tested using cross-lagged analysis. At baseline, all health indicator scores were observed to be better for regular exercisers than for other exercise levels. At follow-up, participants who had maintained regular exercise over time had better scores than those who had remained irregular exercisers or had discontinued, but their scores for health-related quality of life and depression were close to those of participants who had adopted regular exercise after the baseline questionnaire. Cross-lagged analysis indicated that regular exercise at baseline was a significant predictor of health-related quality of life and substance use dependence at follow-up, but was itself predicted only by health-related quality of life. From a health promotion perspective, this study emphasizes how important it is for emerging adult men to maintain, or adopt, regular sport and exercise.

  7. Development of an Automated Impact Hammer for Modal Analysis of Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    and load cell integration and Anthony Rizk for assistance with the experimental validation. 12 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED DSTO–TN–1062 References 1...Norman, and Anthony Rizk , NSWCCD-65-TR-2011/20, “Development of the iSIDER Inspection Method Using Bragg Gratings to Identify Impact Damage in

  8. [Impacts of physical exercise on remodeling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Takayuki; Nikawa, Takeshi

    The skeletal muscle has high sensitivity for the mechanical stress. Because it is enlarged by training, whereas it is easily withered by lack of exercise. When we exercise, skeletal muscle cells per se sense mechanical loading, and muscular remodeling and the muscular hypertrophy occur. It has been revealed that the intracellular signaling through PGC-1α participates in the remodeling of the skeletal muscle, while PGC-1α4, an isoform of PGC-1α, and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex play important roles in muscular hypertrophy. This review describes the impact of physical exercise gives on the remodeling and hypertrophy of muscle through the signaling.

  9. Impact of Engagement in Exercise on Sleep Quality Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Jeane; Weaver, Terri L; Neylan, Thomas C; Herbst, Ellen; McCaslin, Shannon E

    2017-09-01

    Exercise has beneficial effects for physical health outcomes and has also been shown to reduce the severity of psychological health symptoms. Recent studies have shown a potentially positive impact of exercise on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prominent among those with PTSD, sleep disturbance and nightmares are among the top three PTSD symptoms commonly reported by treatment-seeking Veterans. Regular physical exercise has been consistently associated with better sleep. This study utilized a longitudinal design to explore the relationship between exercise and sleep among Veterans with PTSD symptoms at baseline and one-year follow-up. Veterans (n = 76) who served in support of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn were recruited for this study. Correlations were assessed between PTSD symptoms, sleep, and engagement in exercise at each time point (baseline, one-year follow-up). Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between engagement in exercise at baseline and PTSD symptoms at one-year follow-up, as well as sleep quality at one-year follow-up. Regression models controlled for demographic variables (age and gender), alcohol use, baseline PTSD symptoms, and baseline sleep quality. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that engagement in exercise at baseline was significantly associated with better sleep quality at one-year follow-up while controlling for age, gender, alcohol use, baseline PTSD symptoms, and baseline sleep quality (β = -0.128, p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses examining the relationship between engagement in exercise at baseline and PTSD symptoms at one-year follow-up (controlling for age, gender, alcohol use, baseline PTSD symptoms, and baseline sleep quality) did not yield statistically significant results (β = 0.053, p = 0.57). Results from the present study found that engagement in exercise at baseline was associated with better sleep quality at one-year follow-up. These

  10. Acceleration slope of exercise-induced impacts is a determinant of changes in bone density.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Riikka; Vihriälä, Erkki; Vainionpää, Aki; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2007-01-01

    High acceleration levels (>4g) seen during impact exercises have been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women. The aim of this study was to examine how the other acceleration signal characteristics, i.e. the slope, area and energy of the signal are related to changes in bone density, using long-term quantification of physical activity. Daily physical activity was continuously assessed with a waist-worn accelerometer-based body movement monitor in 64 premenopausal women participating in a 12-month population-based exercise trial. The daily number of exercise-induced impacts at different slope, area and energy levels of the acceleration signal was analyzed. Physical activity inducing slopes 1000 m/s(3), acceleration peak areas 2m/s or signal energies 75 m(2)/s(3) was associated with BMD change in the hip (p<0.05). Impacts with the smallest slopes (<1000 m/s(3)) were positively associated with changes in calcaneal speed of ultrasound, while impacts with slopes 1500 m/s(3) or areas 4m/s were positively correlated with broadband ultrasound attenuation changes (p<0.05). We conclude that the acceleration slope of exercise-induced impacts is an important determinant of bone density. The slope threshold for improving BMD at the hip is 1000 m/s(3), which can be achieved during normal exercise including fast movements such as running and jumping.

  11. Impact of Exercise and Education in Adults of Lubbock, Texas: Implications for Better Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Annette N.; Khan, Hafiz; Lenzmeier, Taylor A.; Molinar-Lopez, Veronica A.; Ament, James C.; TeBrink, Kate L.; Stonum, Kathleen; Gonzales, Ruben M.; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the exercise and educational intervention in the city of Lubbock via GET FiT Lubbock (GFL) program. The GFL program was designed to increase exercise and educational opportunities, which positively impact health risk factors in Lubbock residents. The GFL program design included the recruitment of subjects to participate on a team that consisted of four individuals, each subject tracked their exercise minutes, and their educational session attendance. The tracking of exercise and educational sessions was done on the GFL website. Biometric testing was conducted pre- and post- intervention. The program was located within the Lubbock community in places that were close to their place of residence. The intervention included walking and educational sessions, including goal setting lectures, nutrition information, and exercise demonstrations. Study participants, included male and female adults who tracked their exercise time and educational sessions. Exercise minutes and educational session attendance were self-reported. Our data analysis revealed that significant difference was found between pre- and post- intervention measures, including weight, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Significant difference was found for weight, BMI, and HDL in females. Based on these findings, we conclude that the intervention showed positive effects on exercise and lifestyle. PMID:27242507

  12. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with MS about their perspectives on aquatics exercise. Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print Discover More Here are a few related topics that may interest you Accessible Nature Trails Learn More Finding Another Sport To Love Learn More Accessible Bicycling Learn More ...

  13. National Cancer Data Base Analysis of Radiation Therapy Consolidation Modality for Cervical Cancer: The Impact of New Technological Advancements

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Beant S.; Lin, Jeff F.; Krivak, Thomas C.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Laskey, Robin A.; Ross, Malcolm S.; Lesnock, Jamie L.; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To utilize the National Cancer Data Base to evaluate trends in brachytherapy and alternative radiation therapy utilization in the treatment of cervical cancer, to identify associations with outcomes between the various radiation therapy modalities. Methods and Materials: Patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer in the National Cancer Data Base who received treatment from January 2004 to December 2011 were analyzed. Overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors associated with type of boost radiation modality used and its impact on survival. Results: A total of 7654 patients had information regarding boost modality. A predominant proportion of patients were Caucasian (76.2%), had stage IIIB (48.9%) disease with squamous (82.0%) histology, were treated at academic/research centers (47.7%) in the South (34.8%), and lived 0 to 5 miles (27.9%) from the treating facility. A majority received brachytherapy (90.3%). From 2004 to 2011, brachytherapy use decreased from 96.7% to 86.1%, whereas intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) use increased from 3.3% to 13.9% in the same period (P<.01). Factors associated with decreased brachytherapy utilization included older age, stage IVA disease, smaller tumor size, later year of diagnosis, lower-volume treatment centers, and facility type. After controlling for significant factors from survival analyses, IMRT or SBRT boost resulted in inferior overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.55; P<.01) as compared with brachytherapy. In fact, the survival detriment associated with IMRT or SBRT boost was stronger than that associated with excluding chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 1.61′ 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.04′ P<.01). Conclusions: Consolidation brachytherapy is a critical treatment component for

  14. Results from EuCliD (European Clinical Dialysis Database): impact of shifting treatment modality.

    PubMed

    Merello Godino, J I; Rentero, R; Orlandini, G; Marcelli, D; Ronco, C

    2002-11-01

    (3.93 +/- 0.43 vs. 3.94 +/- 0.43 g/dL) between the two modalities of treatment. The level of beta2-microglobulin significantly decreased during high-flux dialysis (33.5 +/- 14.4 vs. 26.3 +/- 8.6 mg/dL, p < 0.001). All above mentioned results may have as a common denominator an improved blood purification from uremic toxins and a reduced level of chronic sub-clinical inflammation. All together, these results seem to confirm the superiority of high-flux dialysis in terms of clinical and physiological outcomes.

  15. Survival in glioblastoma: a review on the impact of treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, P D; Corrales-García, E M

    2016-11-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal tumor of the central nervous system. The natural history of treated GBM remains very poor with 5-year survival rates of 5 %. Survival has not significantly improved over the last decades. Currently, the best that can be offered is a modest 14-month overall median survival in patients undergoing maximum safe resection plus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Prognostic factors involved in survival include age, performance status, grade, specific markers (MGMT methylation, mutation of IDH1, IDH2 or TERT, 1p19q codeletion, overexpression of EGFR, etc.) and, likely, the extent of resection. Certain adjuncts to surgery, especially cortical mapping and 5-ALA fluorescence, favor higher rates of gross total resection with apparent positive impact on survival. Recurrent tumors can be offered re-intervention, participation in clinical trials, anti-angiogenic agent or local electric field therapy, without an evident impact on survival. Molecular-targeted therapies, immunotherapy and gene therapy are promising tools currently under research.

  16. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in defining the benefits to cardiovascular health within the general population: recommendations from the EACPR (Part I).

    PubMed

    Vanhees, L; De Sutter, J; GeladaS, N; Doyle, F; Prescott, E; Cornelissen, V; Kouidi, E; Dugmore, D; Vanuzzo, D; Börjesson, M; Doherty, P

    2012-08-01

    Over the last decades, more and more evidence is accumulated that physical activity (PA) and exercise interventions are essential components in primary and secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. However, it is less clear whether and which type of PA and exercise intervention (aerobic exercise, dynamic resistive exercise, or both) or characteristic of exercise (frequency, intensity, time or duration, and volume) would yield more benefit in achieving cardiovascular health. The present paper, as the first of a series of three, will make specific recommendations on the importance of these characteristics for cardiovascular health in the population at large. The guidance offered in this series of papers is aimed at medical doctors, health practitioners, kinesiologists, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists, politicians, public health policy makers, and the individual member of the public. Based on previous and the current literature, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding type, volume, and intensity of PA and exercise.

  17. The impact of obesity on pentraxin 3 and inflammatory milieu to acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Slusher, Aaron L; Mock, J Thomas; Whitehurst, Michael; Maharaj, Arun; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2015-02-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) has recently been linked to obesity-associated inflammation, serving as a cardioprotective modulator against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aerobic exercise has been shown to enhance plasma PTX3 levels; however, the impact of obesity on PTX3 response to exercise remains unknown. Therefore, this study sought to examine whether obese subjects would have an attenuated plasma PTX3 response compared to normal-weight subjects following acute aerobic exercise. The relationship of plasma PTX3 with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) was also examined. Twenty healthy subjects (10 obese [4 males and 6 females] and 10 normal-weight [4 males, 6 females]) performed 30min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise. At baseline, obese subjects exhibited approximately 40% lower plasma PTX3 and a 7-fold greater IL-6 concentration compared to normal-weight subjects. In response to exercise, no difference was observed in PTX3 or IL-6 as indicated by area-under-the-curve "with respect to increase" (AUCi) analyses. Furthermore, PTX3 AUCi was positively correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels (VO(2max)) (r=0.594, p=0.006), even after controlling for body mass index. These findings suggest that in addition to obesity-associated complications, low cardiorespiratory fitness levels could impact exercise-induced PTX3 elevations, thereby potentially diminishing PTX3's effects of anti-inflammation and/or cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of exercise on bone health and contraindication of oral contraceptive use in young women.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Teegarden, D; Lyle, R M; McCabe, G P; McCabe, L D; Proulx, W; Kern, M; Sedlock, D; Anderson, D D; Hillberry, B M; Peacock, M; Johnston, C C

    2001-06-01

    The effect of quantified resistance and high impact exercise training on bone mass as modified by age and oral contraceptive (OCont) use in young women was studied. Women were categorized by age (18-23 vs 24-31 yr) and OCont use, and were then randomized into either three sessions of resistance exercise plus 60 min.wk-1 of jumping rope or a control group for 24 months. Total body, spine, femoral neck, greater trochanter, Ward's area, and radial bone mineral density (BMD) and/or content (BMC), biochemical markers of bone turnover, dietary intake of calcium, lean body mass, maximal oxygen uptake, and strength were determined at baseline and every 6 months. Total body (TB) BMC percent change from baseline was higher in exercisers compared with nonexercisers at 6 and 24 months. OCont users had lower bone turnover at baseline and a decrease in TBBMC from baseline compared with non-OCont users at 24 months. Spine BMC and BMD decreased in the exercise and OCont group at 6 months and remained significantly below nonexercisers who used oral contraceptives at 2 yr. Femoral neck BMD also decreased in the exercise and oral contraceptive group at 6 months. Exercise prevented a decline in TBBMC seen in the nonexercisers. On the other hand, exercise in oral contraceptive users prevented the increase observed in the spine of the nonexercise plus OCont group.

  19. Impact of a supervised worksite exercise program on back and core muscular endurance in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John M; Quillen, William S; Verna, Joe L; Chen, Ren; Lunseth, Paul; Dagenais, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a leading cause of disability in firefighters and is related to poor muscular endurance. This study examined the impact of supervised worksite exercise on back and core muscular endurance in firefighters. A cluster randomized controlled trial was used for this study. The study occurred in fire stations of a municipal fire department (Tampa, Florida). Subjects were 96 full-duty career firefighters who were randomly assigned by fire station to exercise (n = 54) or control (n = 42) groups. Exercise group participants completed a supervised exercise targeting the back and core muscles while on duty, two times per week for 24 weeks, in addition to their usual fitness regimen. Control group participants continued their usual fitness regimen. Back and core muscular endurance was assessed with the Biering-Sorensen test and plank test, respectively. Changes in back and core muscular endurance from baseline to 24 weeks were compared between groups using analysis of covariance and linear mixed effects models. After 24 weeks, the exercise group had 12% greater (p = .021) back muscular endurance and 21% greater (p = .0006) core muscular endurance than did the control group. The exercise intervention did not disrupt operations or job performance. A supervised worksite exercise program was safe and effective in improving back and core muscular endurance in firefighters, which could protect against future low back pain.

  20. Media images of the "ideal" female body: can acute exercise moderate their psychological impact?

    PubMed

    Fallon, Elizabeth A; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to the media's "ideal" physique increases mood and body image disturbance, especially for at-risk women. Because exercise decreases mood and body image disturbance, we examined the ability of acute aerobic exercise to moderate the negative psychological impact of exposure to media pictures of the "ideal" female body. Women reporting high drive for thinness and media internalization viewed pictures of either nonphysique or "ideal" physique pictures after engaging in 30min of either aerobic exercise or quiet rest. Compared to the nonphysique pictures, viewing the physique pictures resulted in increased depression and body dissatisfaction. Acute aerobic exercise, however, did not moderate the negative mood states elicited by the media images. Implications of our results and future directions for research are discussed.

  1. Impact of exercise programs among helicopter pilots with transient LBP.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter

    2017-06-20

    Flight related low back pain (LBP) among helicopter pilots is frequent and may influence flight performance. Prolonged confined sitting during flights seems to weaken lumbar trunk (LT) muscles with associated secondary transient pain. Aim of the study was to investigate if structured training could improve muscular function and thus improve LBP related to flying. 39 helicopter pilots (35 men and 4 women), who reported flying related LBP on at least 1 of 3 missions last month, were allocated to two training programs over a 3-month period. Program A consisted of 10 exercises recommended for general LBP. Program B consisted of 4 exercises designed specifically to improve LT muscular endurance. The pilots were examined before and after the training using questionnaires for pain, function, quality of health and tests of LT muscular endurance as well as ultrasound measurements of the contractility of the lumbar multifidus muscle (LMM). Approximately half of the participants performed the training per-protocol. Participants in this subset group had comparable baseline characteristics as the total study sample. Pre and post analysis of all pilots included, showed participants had marked improvement in endurance and contractility of the LMM following training. Similarly, participants had improvement in function and quality of health. Participants in program B had significant improvement in pain, function and quality of health. This study indicates that participants who performed a three months exercise program had improved muscle endurance at the end of the program. The helicopter pilots also experienced improved function and quality of health. Identifier: NCT01788111 Registration date; February 5th, 2013, verified April 2016.

  2. The impact of different modalities for activating patients in a community health center setting.

    PubMed

    Deen, Darwin; Lu, Wei Hsin; Weintraub, Miranda Ritterman; Maranda, Michael J; Elshafey, Suzanne; Gold, Marthe R

    2012-10-01

    Decision aids are designed to assist patients in understanding their health care choices but lower SES populations are less activated and may not be prepared to benefit. Activating interventions may help prepare patients for using decision aids. We evaluated the impact of a decision aid video (DA) and the Patient Activation Intervention (PAI) on patient's level of activation measured by the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) and their decision-making confidence measured by the decision self-efficacy (DSE) scale. Patients were randomized into control, PAI alone, DA alone, and DA+PAI groups. PAM and DSE scores increased significantly in all groups with repeated measures. Restricting analyses to those with pre-intervention PAM scores at stages 1 or 2, the change in PAM scores was significant only for the intervention groups. The change in DSE scores was significantly only in the DA group. These findings provide support for the utility of the DA, the PAI, and the DA+PAI in activating lower SES individuals. The DA alone changed DSE scores in the least activated patients while the PAI and DA both changed PAM scores. Interventions directed at increasing patient engagement in their care may be useful particularly for less activated patients from lower SES populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The psychological impact of injury: effects of prior sport and exercise involvement

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L.; Carroll, D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To test the assumption that the psychological impact of injury varies with involvement in sport and exercise, and that those who are more involved in sport and exercise before injury would experience greater negative affect and retarded recovery. Method—Patients attending for physiotherapy completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of mood and perceived recovery, at the beginning, middle, and end of formal rehabilitation. Complete data were available for 93 patients. Results—Those who were more involved in sport and exercise before injury registered higher levels of confusion and perceived their recovery to be less, possibly reflecting greater information needs and a greater mismatch between current status and that before injury in the athletic sample. Reported negative affect did not vary with sport and exercise involvement. Conclusions—Incapacitation for those not involved in sport and exercise before injury may have much the same affective impact as it does for those with considerable involvement. However, those with considerable involvement did report higher levels of confusion and perceived their recovery to be less towards the end of rehabilitation. This suggests that it may be important to assess affective reactions and perceived recovery during the re-entry phase. Key Words: injury; psychological impact; physiotherapy; rehabilitation; recovery PMID:11131231

  4. Emergency care of esophageal foreign body impactions: timing, treatment modalities, and resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Crockett, S D; Sperry, S L W; Miller, C Brock; Shaheen, N J; Dellon, E S

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal foreign body impaction (EFBI) often requires urgent evaluation and treatment, but characteristics of emergency department (ED) care such as timing of presentation and therapeutic procedures and costs of care are unknown. We aimed to study health-care utilization for patients with EFBI presenting to the ED. Cases of EFBI from 2002 to 2009 were identified by querying three different databases from the University of North Carolina Hospitals for all records with ICD-9 CM code 935.1: 'foreign body in the esophagus.' Charts were reviewed to confirm EFBI and extract pertinent data related to the ED visit, including time of presentation, length of ED stay, medications administered, type of procedure performed, characteristics of procedures, and time to therapeutic procedure. Hospital charges for EFBI encounters and consult fees were determined from the Physicians' Fee Reference 2010, and were compiled to estimate costs. Of the 548 cases of EFBI identified, 351 subjects (64%) presented to the ED. A total of 118 (34%) patients received a medication to treat EFBI, which was only effective in 8% of those patients. Two hundred ninety (83%) subjects underwent a procedure including esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (n=206) or ear, nose, and throat surgery (ENT)-performed laryngoscopy/esophagoscopy (n=138). Admission to the hospital occurred in 162 (46%) of cases. There was no relationship between ED arrival time and time-to-procedure or total time in ED. There was also no significant relationship between delivery of ED medications and likelihood of undergoing a procedure, or between ED arrival time and delivery of medications. The charges associated with a typical EFBI episode ranged from $2284-$6218. In conclusion, the majority of patients with EFBI at our institution presented to the ED. Medical management was largely ineffective. A therapeutic procedure was required to clear the EFBI in most patients. Time of ED arrival made no difference in time

  5. Late-onset exercise in female rat offspring ameliorates the detrimental metabolic impact of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Hasnah; Caruso, Vanni; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-10-01

    Rising rates of maternal obesity/overweight bring the need for effective interventions in offspring. We observed beneficial effects of postweaning exercise, but the question of whether late-onset exercise might benefit offspring exposed to maternal obesity is unanswered. Thus we examined effects of voluntary exercise implemented in adulthood on adiposity, hormone profiles, and genes involved in regulating appetite and metabolism in female offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed either normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 5 weeks before mating and throughout gestation/lactation. At weaning, female littermates received either chow or HFD and, after 7 weeks, half were exercised (running wheels) for 5 weeks. Tissues were collected at 15 weeks. Maternal obesity was associated with increased hypothalamic inflammatory markers, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression in the arcuate nucleus. In the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), Y1 receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor, and TNF-α mRNA were elevated. In the hippocampus, maternal obesity was associated with up-regulated fat mass and obesity-associated gene and TNF-α mRNA. We observed significant hypophagia across all exercise groups. In female offspring of lean dams, the reduction in food intake by exercise could be related to altered signaling at the PVN melanocortin 4 receptor whereas in offspring of obese dams, this may be related to up-regulated TNF-α. Late-onset exercise ameliorated the effects of maternal obesity and postweaning HFD in reducing body weight, adiposity, plasma leptin, insulin, triglycerides, and glucose intolerance, with greater beneficial effects in offspring of obese dams. Overall, hypothalamic inflammation was increased by maternal obesity or current HFD, and the effect of exercise was dependent on maternal diet. In conclusion, even after a significant sedentary period, many of the negative impacts of maternal obesity could be improved by

  6. The impact of forced joint exercise on lubricin biosynthesis from articular cartilage following ACL transection and intra-articular lubricin's effect in exercised joints following ACL transection.

    PubMed

    Elsaid, K A; Zhang, L; Waller, K; Tofte, J; Teeple, E; Fleming, B C; Jay, G D

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of forced joint exercise following acute knee injury on lubricin metabolism and its relationship to cartilage degeneration and to assess chondroprotection of a single-dose purified human lubricin injection in exercised injured joints. Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) was performed in rats with six experimental groups; 3-week post-ACLT, 3-week post-ACLT + exercise, 5-week post-ACLT, 5-week post-ACLT + exercise, and 5-week post-ACLT + exercise treated with intra-articular phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or lubricin. Joint exercise was achieved using a rotating cylinder at a speed of 6 rpm for 30 min daily, 5 days a week starting 1 week following surgery. Cartilage lubricin expression in injured joints was determined. Histological analyses included Safranin O/Fast Green, activated caspase-3, and lubricin mRNA in-situ hybridization. Assessment of cartilage damage was performed by osteoarthritis research society international (OARSI) modified Mankin scoring and urinary CTXII (uCTXII) levels. At 3 weeks, lubricin expression in exercised ACLT joints was significantly (P < 0.001) lower compared to ACLT joints. The OARSI scores were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the ACLT + exercise animals compared to ACLT animals at 5 weeks. Compared to 3-week ACLT, 3-week ACLT + exercise cartilage showed increased caspase-3 staining. Compared to ACLT + exercise and PBS-treated ACLT + exercise, lubricin intra-articular treatment resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.001) in cartilage lubricin gene expression and a reduction (P < 0.05) in uCTXII levels. Joint exercise resulted in decreased lubricin cartilage expression, increased cartilage degeneration and reduced superficial zone chondrocyte viability in the ACLT joint. Intra-articular lubricin administration ameliorated cartilage damage due to exercise and preserved superficial zone chondrocytes' viability. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier

  7. Impact of Baseline Assessment Modality on Enrollment and Retention in a Facebook Smoking Cessation Study.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea C; Jacobs, Megan A; Zawistowski, Grace; Brookover, Jody; Stanton, Cassandra A; Graham, Amanda L

    2015-07-16

    Few studies have addressed enrollment and retention methods in online smoking cessation interventions. Fully automated Web-based trials can yield large numbers of participants rapidly but suffer from high rates of attrition. Personal contact with participants can increase recruitment of smokers into cessation trials and improve participant retention. To compare the impact of Web-based (WEB) and phone (PH) baseline assessments on enrollment and retention metrics in the context of a Facebook smoking cessation study. Participants were recruited via Facebook and Google ads which were randomly displayed to adult smokers in the United States over 27 days from August to September 2013. On each platform, two identical ads were randomly displayed to users who fit the advertising parameters. Clicking on one of the ads resulted in randomization to WEB, and clicking on the other ad resulted in randomization to PH. Following online eligibility screening and informed consent, participants in the WEB arm completed the baseline survey online whereas PH participants completed the baseline survey by phone with a research assistant. All participants were contacted at 30 days to complete a follow-up survey that assessed use of the cessation intervention and smoking outcomes. Participants were paid $15 for follow-up survey completion. A total of 4445 people clicked on the WEB ad and 4001 clicked on the PH ad: 12.04% (n=535) of WEB participants and 8.30% (n=332) of PH participants accepted the online study invitation (P<.001). Among the 726 participants who completed online eligibility screening, an equivalent proportion in both arms was eligible and an equivalent proportion of the eligible participants in both arms provided informed consent. There was significant drop-off between consent and completion of the baseline survey in the PH arm, resulting in enrollment rates of 32.7% (35/107) for the PH arm and 67.9% (114/168) for the WEB arm (P<.001). The overall enrollment rate among

  8. Impact of Cross-Tie Properties on the Modal Behavior of Cable Networks on Cable-Stayed Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Javaid; Ghrib, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic behaviour of cable networks is highly dependent on the installation location, stiffness, and damping of cross-ties. Thus, these are the important design parameters for a cable network. While the effects of the former two on the network response have been investigated to some extent in the past, the impact of cross-tie damping has rarely been addressed. To comprehend our knowledge of mechanics associated with cable networks, in the current study, an analytical model of a cable network will be proposed by taking into account both cross-tie stiffness and damping. In addition, the damping property of main cables in the network will also be considered in the formulation. This would allow exploring not only the effectiveness of a cross-tie design on enhancing the in-plane stiffness of a constituted cable network, but also its energy dissipation capacity. The proposed analytical model will be applied to networks with different configurations. The influence of cross-tie stiffness and damping on the modal response of various types of networks will be investigated by using the corresponding undamped rigid cross-tie network as a reference base. Results will provide valuable information on the selection of cross-tie properties to achieve more effective cable vibration control. PMID:26167539

  9. Impact of Cross-Tie Properties on the Modal Behavior of Cable Networks on Cable-Stayed Bridges.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Javaid; Cheng, Shaohong; Ghrib, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic behaviour of cable networks is highly dependent on the installation location, stiffness, and damping of cross-ties. Thus, these are the important design parameters for a cable network. While the effects of the former two on the network response have been investigated to some extent in the past, the impact of cross-tie damping has rarely been addressed. To comprehend our knowledge of mechanics associated with cable networks, in the current study, an analytical model of a cable network will be proposed by taking into account both cross-tie stiffness and damping. In addition, the damping property of main cables in the network will also be considered in the formulation. This would allow exploring not only the effectiveness of a cross-tie design on enhancing the in-plane stiffness of a constituted cable network, but also its energy dissipation capacity. The proposed analytical model will be applied to networks with different configurations. The influence of cross-tie stiffness and damping on the modal response of various types of networks will be investigated by using the corresponding undamped rigid cross-tie network as a reference base. Results will provide valuable information on the selection of cross-tie properties to achieve more effective cable vibration control.

  10. Impact of Overt and Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Exercise Tolerance: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankhaar, Jeannette A. C.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Jansen, Jaap A. C. G.; Zelissen, Pierre M. J.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review describes the state of the art of the impact of hypothyroidism on exercise tolerance and physical performance capacity in untreated and treated patients with hypothyroidism. Method: A systematic computer-aided search was conducted using biomedical databases. Relevant studies in English, German, and Dutch, published…

  11. The United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercise: Impact on Institutions, Departments, Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercises (RAE) affect institutional grants for university-based research projects. Explains the RAE system, discussing its advantages and disadvantages, outlines a framework within which it can be analyzed, and examines some of the available evidence about the impact of the RAE. (SWM)

  12. The United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercise: Impact on Institutions, Departments, Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercises (RAE) affect institutional grants for university-based research projects. Explains the RAE system, discussing its advantages and disadvantages, outlines a framework within which it can be analyzed, and examines some of the available evidence about the impact of the RAE. (SWM)

  13. Impact of Overt and Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Exercise Tolerance: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankhaar, Jeannette A. C.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Jansen, Jaap A. C. G.; Zelissen, Pierre M. J.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review describes the state of the art of the impact of hypothyroidism on exercise tolerance and physical performance capacity in untreated and treated patients with hypothyroidism. Method: A systematic computer-aided search was conducted using biomedical databases. Relevant studies in English, German, and Dutch, published…

  14. The impact of rosacea on quality of life: effects of demographic and clinical characteristics and various treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, B; Altaykan-Hapa, A; Egemen, D; Karagöz, F; Atakan, N

    2010-10-01

    Rosacea has a major psychosocial impact on a patient's life. To determine the impact of rosacea on patient quality of life, the relationship of quality of life scores to clinical and demographic variables, and the change in quality of life following various treatments. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded at their initial examination and their response to treatment and side-effects were recorded additionally at their follow-up examination. Rosacea severity was scored for each of four signs from 0 to 3. Patients were requested to complete Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires. A total of 308 patients took part in this study. Mean ± SD DLQI total score at the initial visit was 6·93 ± 5·18 and was related to patients' age, sex, age at disease onset, subjective symptoms, triggering factors, previous treatments, rosacea severity scores and patients' self-assessment of ease of living with rosacea. Of these 308 patients, 164 completed the DLQI following treatment. Mean ± SD post-treatment DLQI score was 4·36 ± 4·82. Post-treatment scores were also related to sex, type of treatment modality, development of side-effects, improvement of rosacea, rosacea severity scores and patients' self-reported ease of living with rosacea. Topical metronidazole, oral tetracycline and oral isotretinoin were observed to reduce signs and symptoms of rosacea and DLQI scores significantly at this repeat examination. Rosacea affects patients' lives to a moderate extent, and this can be assessed by using DLQI. DLQI is also sensitive to quality of life changes brought about by treatment of rosacea. As a preliminary result we can say that topical metronidazole, oral tetracycline and oral isotretinoin seem to improve quality of life of patients by improving lesions of rosacea more efficiently than other therapeutic agents. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Impact of nutrition and exercise on cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Melinda L; Mayne, Susan T

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of men and women are being diagnosed with cancer and many cancer survivors are seeking lifestyle-based approaches to improve survival. The American Cancer Society issued nutrition and physical activity recommendations for cancer survivors in 2006. This article discusses these guidelines, including more recent publications regarding obesity, exercise, diet, and nutrient supplement use in relation to cancer outcomes including survival. Observational data strongly indicate that obesity, weight gain, and physical inactivity are adverse prognostic factors, although data on diet or supplement use in relation to cancer survival are more limited and inconsistent. Randomized trials of lifestyle interventions in survivors are also very limited at present. Although there are major research gaps in the literature on nutrition and physical activity for cancer survivors, the available evidence to date suggests that physicians should be familiar with current guidelines and discuss them with their patients as an important strategy to improve long-term survival.

  16. Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged high-intensity intermittent exercise: impact on affect and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, S H; Ali, A; Biddle, S J H; Williams, C

    2007-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) solution on affective states and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise. Seventeen male soccer players completed a prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise protocol for 90 min on two occasions, separated by at least 7 days. Participants consumed either a 6.4% CHO (0.6 g/kg body mass (BM)/h) or an artificially sweetened placebo (PLA) solution immediately before (8 mL/kg BM) and every 15 min (3 mL/kg BM) during exercise in a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Pleasure-displeasure, perceived activation, RPE and plasma glucose concentration was assessed. The results showed that compared with the CHO trial, perceived activation were lower in the placebo trial during the last 30 min of exercise and this was accompanied by lowered plasma glucose concentrations. In the CHO trial, RPE was maintained in the last 30 min of exercise but carried on increasing in the PLA trial. Therefore, CHO ingestion during prolonged high-intensity exercise appears to elicit an enhanced perceived activation profile that may impact upon task persistence and performance. This finding is in addition to the physiological and metabolic benefits of the exogenous energy supply.

  17. Impact of oral ubiquinol on blood oxidative stress and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Canale, Robert E; McCarthy, Cameron G; Farney, Tyler M

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays an important role in bioenergetic processes and has antioxidant activity. Fifteen exercise-trained individuals (10 men and 5 women; 30-65 years) received reduced CoQ10 (Kaneka QH ubiquinol; 300 mg per day) or a placebo for four weeks in a random order, double blind, cross-over design (3 week washout). After each four-week period, a graded exercise treadmill test and a repeated cycle sprint test were performed (separated by 48 hours). Blood samples were collected before and immediately following both exercise tests and analyzed for lactate, malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide. Resting blood samples were analyzed for CoQ10 (ubiquinone and ubiquinol) profile before and after each treatment period. Treatment with CoQ10 resulted in a significant increase in total blood CoQ10 (138%; P = 0.02) and reduced blood CoQ10 (168%; P = 0.02), but did not improve exercise performance (with the exception of selected individuals) or impact oxidative stress. The relationship between the percentage change in total blood CoQ10 and the cycle sprint total work (R(2) = 0.6009) was noted to be moderate to strong. We conclude that treatment with CoQ10 in healthy, exercise-trained subjects increases total and reduced blood CoQ10, but this increase does not translate into improved exercise performance or decreased oxidative stress.

  18. Impact of Oral Ubiquinol on Blood Oxidative Stress and Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Canale, Robert E.; McCarthy, Cameron G.; Farney, Tyler M.

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays an important role in bioenergetic processes and has antioxidant activity. Fifteen exercise-trained individuals (10 men and 5 women; 30–65 years) received reduced CoQ10 (Kaneka QH ubiquinol; 300 mg per day) or a placebo for four weeks in a random order, double blind, cross-over design (3 week washout). After each four-week period, a graded exercise treadmill test and a repeated cycle sprint test were performed (separated by 48 hours). Blood samples were collected before and immediately following both exercise tests and analyzed for lactate, malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide. Resting blood samples were analyzed for CoQ10 (ubiquinone and ubiquinol) profile before and after each treatment period. Treatment with CoQ10 resulted in a significant increase in total blood CoQ10 (138%; P = 0.02) and reduced blood CoQ10 (168%; P = 0.02), but did not improve exercise performance (with the exception of selected individuals) or impact oxidative stress. The relationship between the percentage change in total blood CoQ10 and the cycle sprint total work (R2 = 0.6009) was noted to be moderate to strong. We conclude that treatment with CoQ10 in healthy, exercise-trained subjects increases total and reduced blood CoQ10, but this increase does not translate into improved exercise performance or decreased oxidative stress. PMID:22966414

  19. Eye exercises of acupoints: their impact on refractive error and visual symptoms in Chinese urban children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhong; Vasudevan, Balamurali; Jhanji, Vishal; Gao, Tie Ying; Wang, Ning Li; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Liang, Yuan Bo

    2013-11-07

    Traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints involve acupoint self-massage. These have been advocated as a compulsory measure to reduce ocular fatigue, as well as to retard the development of myopia, among Chinese school children. This study evaluated the impact of these eye exercises among Chinese urban children. 409 children (195 males, 47.7%), aged 11.1 ± 3.2 (range 6-17) years, from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were recruited. All had completed the eye exercise questionnaire, the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS), and a cycloplegic autorefraction. Among these, 395 (96.6%) performed the eye exercises of acupoints. Multiple logistic regressions for myopia and multiple linear regressions for the CISS score (after adjusting for age, gender, average parental refractive error, and time spent doing near work and outdoor activity) for the different items of the eye exercises questionnaire were performed. Only the univariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for "seriousness of attitude" towards performing the eye exercises of acupoints (0.51, 0.33-0.78) showed a protective effect towards myopia. However, none of the odds ratios were significant after adjusting for the confounding factors. The univariate and multiple β coefficients for the CISS score were -2.47 (p = 0.002) and -1.65 (p = 0.039), -3.57 (p = 0.002) and -2.35 (p = 0.042), and -2.40 (p = 0.003) and -2.29 (p = 0.004), for attitude, speed of exercise, and acquaintance with acupoints, respectively, which were all significant. The traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints appeared to have a modest effect on relieving near vision symptoms among Chinese urban children aged 6 to 17 years. However, no remarkable effect on reducing myopia was observed.

  20. Exercise impacts brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasticity by engaging mechanisms of epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pinilla, F; Zhuang, Y; Feng, J; Ying, Z; Fan, G

    2011-02-01

    We have evaluated the possibility that the action of voluntary exercise on the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecule important for rat hippocampal learning, could involve mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. We focused the studies on the Bdnf promoter IV, as this region is highly responsive to neuronal activity. We have found that exercise stimulates DNA demethylation in Bdnf promoter IV, and elevates levels of activated methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, as well as BDNF mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that exercise increases acetylation of histone H3, and protein assessment showed that exercise elevates the ratio of acetylated :total for histone H3 but had no effects on histone H4 levels. Exercise also reduces levels of the histone deacetylase 5 mRNA and protein implicated in the regulation of the Bdnf gene [N.M. Tsankova et al. (2006)Nat. Neurosci., 9, 519-525], but did not affect histone deacetylase 9. Exercise elevated the phosphorylated forms of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cAMP response element binding protein, implicated in the pathways by which neural activity influences the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription, i.e. Bdnf. These results showing the influence of exercise on the remodeling of chromatin containing the Bdnf gene emphasize the importance of exercise on the control of gene transcription in the context of brain function and plasticity. Reported information about the impact of a behavior, inherently involved in the daily human routine, on the epigenome opens exciting new directions and therapeutic opportunities in the war against neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  1. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular disease (Part III).

    PubMed

    Vanhees, L; Rauch, B; Piepoli, M; van Buuren, F; Takken, T; Börjesson, M; Bjarnason-Wehrens, B; Doherty, P; Dugmore, D; Halle, M

    2012-12-01

    The beneficial effect of exercise training and exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on symptom-free exercise capacity,cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function, quality of life, general healthy lifestyle, and reduction of depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress is nowadays well recognized. However, it remains largely obscure, which characteristics of physical activity (PA) and exercise training--frequency, intensity, time (duration), type (mode), and volume (dose: intensity x duration) of exercise--are the most effective. The present paper, therefore, will deal with these exercise characteristics in the management of individuals with cardiovascular disease, i.e. coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure patients, but also in patients with congenital or valvular heart disease. Based on the current literature, and if sufficient evidence is available, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding frequency, intensity, time and type of PA, and safety aspects during exercise inpatients with cardiovascular disease. This paper is the third in a series of three papers, all devoted to the same theme: the importance of the exercise characteristics in the management of cardiovascular health. Part I is directed to the general population and Part II to individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. In general, PA recommendations and exercise training programmes for patients with coronary artery disease or chronic heart failure need to be tailored to the individual's exercise capacity and risk profile, with the aim to reach and maintain the individually highest fitness level possible and to perform endurance exercise training 30–60 min daily (3–5 days per week) in combination with resistance training 2–3 times a week. Because of the frequently reported dose–response relationship between training effect and exercise intensity, one should seek sufficiently high training intensities

  2. MRI evaluation of topical heat and static stretching as therapeutic modalities for the treatment of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, R C; Reid, R W; Foley, J M; Prior, B M; Dudley, G A; Weingand, K W; Meyer, R A

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effects of topical heat and/or static stretch treatments on the recovery of muscle damage by eccentric exercise. For this purpose, 32 untrained male subjects performed intense eccentric knee extension exercise, followed by 2 weeks of treatment (heat, stretch, heat plus stretch) or no treatment (control, n=8/group). Isometric strength testing, pain ratings, and multi-echo magnetic resonance imaging of the thigh were performed before and at 2, 3, 4, 8, and 15 days following the exercise. Increased T2 relaxation time, muscle swelling, pain ratings, and strength loss confirmed significant muscle damage during the post-exercise period. Pain ratings and muscle volume recovered to baseline by 15 days, although muscle strength remained lower [77 (4) vs. 95 (3) kg pre-exercise, mean (SE)] and T2 values higher [32.2 (0.8) vs. 28.6 (0.2) ms pre-exercise]. Our results indicate that heat and/or static stretching does not consistently reduce soreness, swelling or muscle damage. The practical implication of our findings is that clinicians should be aware that prescribing heat and/or static stretching following intense eccentric or unaccustomed exercise will not enhance the recovery of damaged muscles.

  3. The Impact of Incentives on Exercise Behavior: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Strohacker, Kelley; Galarraga, Omar; Williams, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of reinforcing exercise behavior with material incentives is unclear. Purpose Conduct a systematic review of existing research on material incentives for exercise, organized by incentive strategy. Methods Ten studies conducted between January 1965 and June 2013 assessed the impact of incentivizing exercise compared to a non-incentivized control. Results There was significant heterogeneity between studies regarding reinforcement procedures and outcomes. Incentives tended to improve behavior during the intervention while findings were mixed regarding sustained behavior after incentives were removed. Conclusions The most effective incentive procedure is unclear given the limitations of existing research. The effectiveness of various incentive procedures in promoting initial behavior change and habit formation, as well as the use of sustainable incentive procedures should be explored in future research. PMID:24307474

  4. Impact of exercise training on neuroplasticity-related growth factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Galeano, H; Brioche, T; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Montal, A; Jovaní, C; Martínez-Costa, C; Gomez-Cabrera, M C; Viña, J

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of exercise training on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as well as cAMP response element-binding (CREB) activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in adolescents. Nine trained and seven sedentary male adolescents, matched in age (14.0±2.2 years), were recruited for the study. Trained boys performed higher physical activity levels (expressed both as total energy expenditure and as physical activity energy expenditure) and showed significant bradycardia when compared with sedentary ones. We found that BDNF and IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in trained adolescents than in sedentary ones. However, no effect of training was found in the activation of CREB in PBMCs. We demonstrated the increase of neuroplasticity-related proteins due to exercise training in adolescents. Our results emphasize the significance and impact of exercise in this developmental period.

  5. The impact of rope jumping exercise on physical fitness of visually impaired students.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values ranging from 11 to 15), while the control group did not participate in the exercise. A dependent samples t-test indicated significant differences in both groups between pre- and post-training. Through ANCOVA analysis, there was a significant difference (p<.05) in the flexibility and aerobic capacity for the experimental group and a significant improvement on their physical fitness (p<.05). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of obesity on cardiac troponin levels after prolonged exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; George, Keith; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2012-05-01

    Elevated cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a marker for cardiac damage, has been reported after high-intensity exercise in healthy subjects. Currently, little is known about the impact of prolonged moderate-intensity exercise on cTnI release, but also the impact of obesity on this response. 97 volunteers (55 men and 42 women), stratified for BMI, performed a single bout of walking exercise (30-50 km). We examined cTnI-levels before and immediately after the exercise bout in lean (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), n = 30, 57 ± 19 years), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m(2), n = 29, 56 ± 11 years), and obese subjects (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), n = 28, 53 ± 9 years). Walking was performed at a self-selected pace. cTnI was assessed using a high-sensitive cTnI-assay (Centaur; clinical cut-off value ≥ 0.04 μg/L). We recorded subject characteristics (body weight, blood pressure, presence of cardiovascular risk) and examined exercise intensity by recording heart rate. Mean cTnI-levels increased significantly from 0.010 ± 0.006 to 0.024 ± 0.046 μg/L (P < 0.001). The exercise-induced increase in cTnI was not different between lean, overweight and obese subjects (two-way ANOVA interaction; P = 0.27). In 11 participants, cTnI was elevated above the clinical cut-off value for myocardial infarction. Logistic regression analysis identified exercise intensity (P < 0.001), but not BMI, body fat percentage or waist circumference to significantly relate to positive troponin tests. In conclusion, prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise results in a comparable increase in cTnI-levels in lean, overweight and obese subjects. Therefore, measures of obesity unlikely relate to the magnitude of the post-exercise elevation in cTnI.

  7. License to run: exercise impacts functional plasticity in the intact and injured central nervous system by using neurotrophins.

    PubMed

    Vaynman, Shoshanna; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    Exercise has been found to impact molecular systems important for maintaining neural function and plasticity. A characteristic finding for the effects of exercise in the brain and spinal cord has been the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This review focuses on the ability of exercise to impact brain circuitry by promoting neuronal repair and enhance learning and memory by increasing neurotrophic support. A paragon for the role of activity-dependent neurotrophins in the CNS is the capacity of BDNF to facilitate synaptic function and neuronal excitability. The authors discuss the effects of exercise in the intact and injured brain and spinal cord injury and the implementation of exercise preinjury and postinjury. As the CNS displays a capacity for plasticity throughout one's lifespan, exercise may be a powerful lifestyle implementation that could be used to augment synaptic plasticity, promote behavioral rehabilitation, and counteract the deleterious effects of aging.

  8. The impact of exercise on ventricular arrhythmias in adults with tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Pablo; Marcotte, François; Dore, Annie; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Shohoudi, Azadeh; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Mondésert, Blandine; Proietti, Anna; Ibrahim, Reda; Asgar, Anita; Poirier, Nancy; Khairy, Paul

    2016-09-15

    Sudden death of presumed arrhythmic etiology is the leading cause of mortality in adults with tetralogy of Fallot. To assess the impact of exercise on ventricular arrhythmias in adults with tetralogy of Fallot. Adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to an open-label trial of standard care versus 12weeks of supervised combined aerobic/resistance training with continuous Holter monitoring. Proportion of premature ventricular complexes (PVC) and runs of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) were assessed by mixed and Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations for repeated measures. A total of 152 Holters were performed in 17 patients, median age 35 (interquartile range [IQR] 28, 42) years, 65% male, 13 of whom were randomized to exercise training. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Exercise training resulted in significant increases in peak oxygen uptake (11±19%, p=0.028), metabolic equivalents (11±18%, p=0.027), and exercise duration (8±10%, p=0.009) compared to no changes in controls. Frequent (≥30 per hour) PVCs were present in 46% of patients, couplets in 62%, and 3 to 7 beat runs of NSVT in 31%. The median proportion of PVCs was 1.93‰ (IQR 0.41, 5.89) at baseline and 1.45‰ (IQR 0.08, 2.76) during the initial exercise session (p=0.722), and remained stable over time (ß coefficient=-0.031, p=0.408). Runs of NSVT decreased significantly over time (ß coefficient=-0.032, p=0.018). In adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, exercise training is safe, improves exercise capacity, and appears to confer a beneficial effect on ventricular arrhythmias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of diabetes and diastolic dysfunction on exercise capacity in normotensive patients without coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gürdal, Ahmet; Kasikcioglu, Erdem; Yakal, Sertac; Bugra, Zehra

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of diabetes and diastolic dysfunction on exercise capacity in asymptomatic, normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes without coronary artery disease. A total of 43 type 2 diabetes patients (age: 50 ± 5 years) and 20 healthy controls (age: 48 ± 4 years) were enrolled. Diastolic function was investigated by conventional pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Exercise capacity was evaluated with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). In patients with type 2 diabetes, increase in resting heart rate (HR-rest) (p = 0.013), decrease in maximum heart rate during exercise (HR-max) (p < 0.001) and exercise time (p < 0.001) compared with controls were significant. Patients had significantly increased minute ventilation volume (VE)/maximum carbon dioxide discharge (VCO2) ratio (p < 0.001), decreased maximum oxygen consumption (VO2-max) (p < 0.001), oxygen consumption at anaerobic threshold (VO2-an) (p < 0.001) and maximum carbon dioxide discharge (VCO2) (p < 0.001) compared to controls indicating significantly reduced exercise capacity. HbA1c was inversely correlated with VO2-max (r = -0.456, p < 0.01) independent of the absence or presence of mild diastolic dysfunction. Exercise capacity was found to be significantly decreased in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes without coronary artery disease, and this decrease was independent of diastolic dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The impact of voluntary exercise on relative telomere length in a rat model of developmental stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to early adverse events can result in the development of later psychopathology, and is often associated with cognitive impairment. This may be due to accelerated cell aging, which can be catalogued by attritioned telomeres. Exercise enhances neurogenesis and has been proposed to buffer the effect of psychological stress on telomere length. This study aimed to investigate the impact of early developmental stress and voluntary exercise on telomere length in the ventral hippocampus (VH) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rat. Forty-five male Sprague–Dawley rats were categorised into four groups: maternally separated runners (MSR), maternally separated non-runners (MSnR), non-maternally separated runners (nMSR) and non-maternally separated non-runners (nMSnR). Behavioural analyses were conducted to assess anxiety-like behaviour and memory performance in the rats, after which relative telomere length was measured using qPCR. Results Maternally separated (MS) rats exhibited no significant differences in either anxiety levels or memory performance on the elevated-plus maze and the open field compared to non-maternally separated rats at 49 days of age. Exercised rats displayed increased levels of anxiety on the day that they were removed from the cages with attached running wheels, as well as improved spatial learning and temporal recognition memory compared to non-exercised rats. Exploratory post-hoc analyses revealed that maternally separated non-exercised rats exhibited significantly longer telomere length in the VH compared to those who were not maternally separated; however, exercise appeared to cancel this effect since there was no difference in VH telomere length between maternally separated and non-maternally separated runners. Conclusions The increased telomere length in the VH of maternally separated non-exercised rats may be indicative of reduced cellular proliferation, which could, in turn, indicate hippocampal dysfunction. This effect on

  11. The impact of voluntary exercise on relative telomere length in a rat model of developmental stress.

    PubMed

    Botha, Martmari; Grace, Laurian; Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A; Kidd, Martin; Seedat, Soraya; Hemmings, Sian M J

    2012-12-27

    Exposure to early adverse events can result in the development of later psychopathology, and is often associated with cognitive impairment. This may be due to accelerated cell aging, which can be catalogued by attritioned telomeres. Exercise enhances neurogenesis and has been proposed to buffer the effect of psychological stress on telomere length. This study aimed to investigate the impact of early developmental stress and voluntary exercise on telomere length in the ventral hippocampus (VH) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rat. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were categorised into four groups: maternally separated runners (MSR), maternally separated non-runners (MSnR), non-maternally separated runners (nMSR) and non-maternally separated non-runners (nMSnR). Behavioural analyses were conducted to assess anxiety-like behaviour and memory performance in the rats, after which relative telomere length was measured using qPCR. Maternally separated (MS) rats exhibited no significant differences in either anxiety levels or memory performance on the elevated-plus maze and the open field compared to non-maternally separated rats at 49 days of age. Exercised rats displayed increased levels of anxiety on the day that they were removed from the cages with attached running wheels, as well as improved spatial learning and temporal recognition memory compared to non-exercised rats. Exploratory post-hoc analyses revealed that maternally separated non-exercised rats exhibited significantly longer telomere length in the VH compared to those who were not maternally separated; however, exercise appeared to cancel this effect since there was no difference in VH telomere length between maternally separated and non-maternally separated runners. The increased telomere length in the VH of maternally separated non-exercised rats may be indicative of reduced cellular proliferation, which could, in turn, indicate hippocampal dysfunction. This effect on telomere length was not observed

  12. The impact of voluntary exercise on mental health in rodents: a neuroplasticity perspective.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Susanna; Sun, Yan; Li, Ruixi; Brana, Corinne; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2008-09-01

    There is growing interest in the effects of voluntary wheel running activity on brain and behaviour in laboratory rodents and their implications to humans. Here, the major findings to date on the impact of exercise on mental health and diseases as well as the possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms are summarised. Several critical modulating factors on the neurobehavioural effects of wheel running exercise are emphasized and discussed--including the amount of wheel running, sex and strain/species differences. We also reported the outcome of an empirical investigation of the impact of wheel running exercise on the expression of both cognitive and non-cognitive phenotypes in a triple (3 x Tg-AD) transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clear sex- and paradigm-specific effects of exercise on the genetically determined phenotypes are illustrated, including the efficacy of wheel running activity in attenuating the sex-specific cognitive deficits. It is concluded that the wheel running paradigm represents a unique environmental manipulation for the investigation of neurobehavioural plasticity in terms of gene-environment interactions relevant to the pathogenesis and therapies of certain neuropsychiatric conditions.

  13. The impact of long-term confinement and exercise on central and peripheral stress markers.

    PubMed

    Jacubowski, A; Abeln, V; Vogt, T; Yi, B; Choukèr, A; Fomina, E; Strüder, H K; Schneider, S

    2015-12-01

    Long-term isolation has been reported to have impact on psycho-physiological performance in humans. As part of the 520 days isolation study (MARS500, n=6) from June 3rd 2010 to November 4th 2011, this study aimed to show that stress caused by isolation and confinement is mirrored in cortical activity and cortisol levels and that exercise is a valid countermeasure. Cortical activity was measured by electroencephalography (EEG) pre- and post-moderate exercise every two weeks, salivary cortisol was taken every 60 days. Data show a decrease of global cortical activity, in both alpha- and beta-activity (p<.05-p<.001), and an increase of salivary cortisol (p<.05-p<.001), during the isolation, indicating that isolation acts as a chronic stressor with impact on cortical activity and cortisol levels. Moderate exercise leads to an increase (p<.01) in cortical activity. Therefore, during long-term space missions the factor isolation must be kept in mind as the reduction of cortical activity and the heightened stress level could impair performance. However moderate exercise might be able to counteract this impairment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Exercise on Suicide Risk: Examining Pathways through Depression, PTSD, and Sleep in an Inpatient Sample of Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Collin L.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Souter, Tasha; Vannoy, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Suicide has a large public health impact. Although effective interventions exist, the many people at risk for suicide cannot access these interventions. Exercise interventions hold promise in terms of reducing suicide because of their ease of implementation. While exercise reduces depression, and reductions in depressive symptoms are linked to…

  15. The Impact of Exercise on Suicide Risk: Examining Pathways through Depression, PTSD, and Sleep in an Inpatient Sample of Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Collin L.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Souter, Tasha; Vannoy, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Suicide has a large public health impact. Although effective interventions exist, the many people at risk for suicide cannot access these interventions. Exercise interventions hold promise in terms of reducing suicide because of their ease of implementation. While exercise reduces depression, and reductions in depressive symptoms are linked to…

  16. The impact of an exercise intervention on C - reactive protein during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Marquis; Braun, Barry; Marcus, Bess H; Stanek, Edward; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-24

    C-reactive protein (CRP) during pregnancy has been associated with adverse maternal outcomes such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. Randomized trials suggest that exercise programs may be associated with reductions in CRP in non-pregnant populations; however, such studies have not been conducted among pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an individually-tailored motivationally-matched exercise intervention on CRP in pregnant women. The Behaviors Affecting Baby and You study was a randomized controlled trial of prenatal physical activity to prevent the development of gestational diabetes mellitus in women at increased risk. Women were randomized to either a 12-week exercise intervention (n = 84) or a comparison health and wellness intervention (n = 87). High sensitivity CRP (mg/dL) was measured using a commercial immunoassay kit. Physical activity was measured using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mixed model analyses were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention on change in CRP using an intent-to-treat approach. CRP decreased (-0.09 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.25, 0.07) from pre- to post-intervention in the exercise arm (p = 0.14) and increased (0.08 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.07, 0.24) (p = 0.64) in the health and wellness arm; however the between group difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.14). Findings did not differ according to ethnic group or pre-pregnancy body mass index. In a secondary analysis based on self-reported physical activity, women who decreased their time spent in sports/exercise experienced a mean increase in CRP (0.09 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.14, 0.33), whereas women who maintained or increased their sports/ exercise experienced a mean decrease in CRP (-0.08 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.23, 0.08) (p = 0.046). Findings from this randomized trial in an ethnically and socio-economically diverse population of pregnant women were consistent with a positive impact

  17. The Impact of Hand Grip Strength Exercises on the Target Shooting Accuracy Score for Archers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezer, Süreyya Yonca

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of hand grip strength exercises on the target shooting accuracy score for male archers. Thirty male archers (n1 = 15, 19.85 ± 1.35, n2 = 15 19.71 ± 1.31) ranging 18-20 years old were included in our study from the archery team of the city of Elazig, department of youth sports. The…

  18. Impact Forces of Plyometric Exercises Performed on Land and in Water

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, Orna A.; Shimojo, Hirofumi; Takagi, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aquatic plyometric programs are becoming increasingly popular because they provide a less stressful alternative to land-based programs. Buoyancy reduces the impact forces experienced in water. Purpose: To quantify the landing kinetics during a range of typical lower limb plyometric exercises performed on land and in water. Study Design: Crossover design. Methods: Eighteen male participants performed ankle hops, tuck jumps, a countermovement jump, a single-leg vertical jump, and a drop jump from 30 cm in a biomechanics laboratory and in a swimming pool. Land and underwater force plates (Kistler) were used to obtain peak impact force, impulse, rate of force development, and time to reach peak force for the landing phase of each jump. Results: Significant reductions were observed in peak impact forces (33%-54%), impulse (19%-54%), and rate of force development (33%-62%) in water compared with land for the majority of exercises in this study (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The level of force reduction varies with landing technique, water depth, and participant height and body composition. Clinical Relevance: This information can be used to reintroduce athletes to the demands of plyometric exercises after injury. PMID:23016022

  19. Oral contraception and energy intake in women: impact on substrate oxidation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Isacco, Laurie; Thivel, David; Pelle, Anne Meddahi; Zouhal, Hassane; Duclos, Martine; Duche, Pascale; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2012-08-01

    Oral contraception (OC) and energy intake may play a role in fuel selection during exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of OCs (OC+ vs. OC-) in fed and fasting conditions on substrate oxidation and metabolic and hormonal responses in women during exercise. Substrate oxidation (respiratory exchange ratio and lipid and carbohydrates oxidation rates), metabolic (glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), and glucose), and hormonal (insulin, adrenaline, and noradrenaline) responses were determined in 21 women: 10 regularly menstruating women (OC-) and 11 women using OCs (OC+: low-dose monophasic pill; ethinyl estradiol ≤ 30 µg) during 45 min at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption in fasting and postprandial states. At rest, OC+ presented higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride plasma concentrations as compared with OC-. OC status had no influence on substrate oxidation and metabolic and hormonal responses during exercise. In the fasting state, whatever the OC status, women exhibited greater reliance on fat than in postprandial condition. This occurred in the presence of lower plasma insulin concentrations and higher plasma FFA and glycerol levels. The results indicated that the use of low-dose monophasic combined with OCs did not modify fuel selection and metabolic and hormonal responses during exercise in women. The fasting condition, compared with the fed condition, decreased carbohydrate oxidation during exercise, leading to a greater lipid mobilization and utilization whatever the OC status. Thus, in women, the realization of an exercise in either the fed or fasting conditions had a greater impact on substrate oxidation than OC status.

  20. Chronotropic Incompetence During Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes: Aetiology, Assessment Methodology, Prognostic Impact and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Keytsman, Charly; Dendale, Paul; Hansen, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    During incremental exercise tests, chronotropic incompetence (CI), which is the inability of the heart rate (HR) to rise in proportion to an increase in metabolic demand, is often observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the fact that CI is associated with exercise intolerance and elevated risks of development of cardiovascular disease and premature death, this clinical anomaly is often ignored or overlooked by clinicians and physiologists. CI is, however, a significant clinical abnormality that deserves further attention, examination and treatment. The aetiology of CI in T2DM remains poorly understood and is complex. Certain T2DM-related co-morbidities or physiological anomalies may contribute to development of CI, such as altered blood catecholamine and/or potassium levels during exercise, structural myocardial abnormalities, ventricular and/or arterial stiffness, impaired baroreflex sensitivity and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Clinicians should thus be aware of the potential presence of yet undetected anomalies or diseases in T2DM patients who experience CI during exercise testing. However, an effective treatment for CI in T2DM is yet to be developed. Exercise training programmes seem to be the only potentially effective and feasible interventions for partial restoration of the chronotropic response in T2DM, but it remains poorly understood how these interventions lead to restoration of the chronotropic response. Studies are thus warranted to elucidate the aetiology of CI and develop an effective treatment for CI in T2DM. In particular, the impact of (different) exercise interventions on CI in T2DM deserves greater attention in future studies.

  1. Impact of exercise on retinal microvascular regulation measured by dynamic vessel analysis in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Rueddel, Torben; Kneser, Matthias; Tost, Frank

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the acute impact of physical exercise on the retinal vessel diameter and the regulation of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation owing to flicker that has never been examined before. Forty young (mean age 24 years) healthy subjects (26 women and 14 men) had retinal examinations with dynamic vessel analysis prior and after (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 h) intense exercise of 20 min. The measurements were always taken on continuous same eye, each with a 350-s permanent dynamic vascular analysis including three cycles of 20 s with 12.5-Hz flicker provocation of the retinal vessel analyser system (RVA) device. Blood pressure values were measured before and after the dynamic vessel analysis with a portable, automatic blood pressure monitor. Dynamic vessel analysis revealed that exercise had a substantial quickly and long-lasting effect on arterial and venous diameter (F = 30.38 and 35.85, P < 0.001) and arterial dilatation owing to flicker (F = 10.67, P < 0.005). The effect of flicker on arterial constriction was not significant for all time periods (F = 0.26). Friedman test revealed that arterial constriction to flicker was significantly increased at 30 and 90 min (χ(2) = 43.3 and 49.2, P < 0.001). Exercise had a significant effect on venous constriction and dilatation owing to flicker (F = 11.14, P < 0.001, F = 3.77, P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that the expected impact of exercise can be accurately assessed with the RVA. We therefore suggest that the RVA is a valid instrument to assess early structural and functional alterations in the retinal vascular system.

  2. The impact of time cost of physical exercise on health outcomes by older adults: the DR's EXTRA Study.

    PubMed

    Kuvaja-Köllner, Virpi; Valtonen, Hannu; Komulainen, Pirjo; Hassinen, Maija; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    When the motivation for exercise is high and people are retired, the cost of time used for physical exercise may be lower and individuals may exercise more compared to individuals with a low motivational level and in working life. The aim was to study the effect of time cost of physical exercise on the amount of physical exercise and on health-related quality of life. We used 2-year data (n = 1,292) from a 4-year randomised controlled trial in a population-based sample of Eastern Finnish men and women, 57-78 years of age at baseline, in 2005-2006. In the statistical analysis, physical exercise and health outcomes were assumed to be endogenous variables explained with a set of exogenous variables. The statistical modelling was done by panel data instrumental variable regressions. Health-related quality of life was evaluated by the RAND 36-item survey and motives for exercise with a questionnaire. Joy as the motivation for physical exercise and retirement increased the amount of physical exercise per week (p < 0.001). A higher amount of exercise was associated with physical (p < 0.001) and mental (p < 0.001) components of quality of life. Moreover, a higher amount of physical exercise decreased the metabolic risk factor score (p < 0.001). The motivation and extra time, i.e. retirement, have a significant impact on the time spent on physical exercise (p < 0.001). Our data agree with the theory that high motivation and retirement lower the time cost of physical exercise. The results emphasise that motivation and the labour market position are important in determining the cost of physical exercise.

  3. What is the Impact of Students' Ability to Choose across and within Course Modality (OL or FTF) on Course Completions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosta, James

    2013-01-01

    The participants were college students who attended an accredited private college offering associate, baccalaureate, and graduate degrees in the western United States. The research variables included student choice of modality (either OL or FTF), the covariate was students' GPA. Data were collected from institutional records and analyzed through…

  4. What is the Impact of Students' Ability to Choose across and within Course Modality (OL or FTF) on Course Completions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosta, James

    2013-01-01

    The participants were college students who attended an accredited private college offering associate, baccalaureate, and graduate degrees in the western United States. The research variables included student choice of modality (either OL or FTF), the covariate was students' GPA. Data were collected from institutional records and analyzed through…

  5. Integrating Argument-Based Science Inquiry with Modal Representations: Impact on Science Achievement, Argumentation, and Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbag, Mehmet; Gunel, Murat

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of integrating the Argument-Based Science Inquiry (ABSI) approach with multi-modal representations on students' achievement, and their argumentation and writing skills. The study was conducted with 62 female and 57 male college students at the Central Anatolian Turkish University. All participants were in…

  6. Diagnostic modalities.

    PubMed

    Elstob, Alison; Gonsalves, Michael; Patel, Uday

    2016-12-01

    The incidental detection of small renal masses on imaging undertaken to evaluate unrelated symptoms or conditions is an increasingly common occurrence. Accurate imaging characterisation is fundamental to determining optimum patient management. The goals of imaging small renal masses include determining whether a lesion is solid or cystic, if there are signs of biological aggressiveness and whether the lesion is likely benign or malignant. The current imaging practices and the evidence supporting the use of different imaging modalities for the characterisation of small renal masses are discussed. CT remains the primary imaging modality and is able to classify most masses into surgical or non-surgical lesions. MRI and contrast enhanced ultrasound are most often employed to problem solve in lesions deemed indeterminate on contrast enhanced CT or for patients in which CECT is contraindicated. Percutaneous biopsy should be considered in lesions that remain indeterminate after initial imaging investigations. Given the central role of imaging in the management of small renal masses, all multidisciplinary team members involved in renal cancer care should have an understanding of the performance of the different imaging modalities.

  7. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  8. Temporal Changes in Left Ventricular Mechanics: Impact of Bed Rest and Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. M.; Downs, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of more sensitive and specific echocardiographic techniques such as speckle tracking imaging may address the current limitations of conventional cardiac imaging techniques to provide insight into the extent and time course of cardiac deconditioning following spaceflight or headdown tilt bed rest (HDTBR). METHODS Speckle tracking assessment of longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain and twist was used to evaluate the impact of 70 days of HDTBR (n=7) and HDTBR + exercise (n=11) on temporal changes in LV mechanics. Echocardiograms were performed pre (BR-2), during (BR31, 70), and following (BR+4hr) HDTBR. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of HDTBR on cardiac variables in control and exercise subjects. RESULTS After sedentary HDTBR, longitudinal (-19.0 +/- 1.8% vs. -14.9 +/- 2.4%) and radial (15.0 +/- 1.9% vs. 11.3 +/- 2.2%) strain and twist (18.0 +/- 4.0deg vs. 17.0 +/- 3.6deg) were significantly impaired. In contrast, exercise preserved LV mechanics, and there were non-significant improvements from BR-2 to BR70 in longitudinal strain (-18.7 +/- 1.5% vs. -20.4 +/- 2.7%), radial strain (13.2 +/- 2.4% vs. 14.2 +/- 1.6%), and twist (16.3 +/- 3.6deg vs. 18.6 +/- 5.9deg). CONCLUSIONS Using speckle tracking echocardiography provides important new insights into temporal changes in LV mechanics during disuse and exercise training.

  9. Kinematics of stair descent in young and older adults and the impact of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Mian, Omar S; Thom, Jeanette M; Narici, Marco V; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios

    2007-01-01

    Stair descent is a challenging task in old age. This study firstly investigated lower extremity kinematics during stair descent in young (YOU) and healthy, community dwelling older adults (OLD). Secondly, the impact of an exercise training intervention on age-related differences in stair descent was assessed. At baseline, a motion analysis system was used to determine spatio-temporal gait variables and lower extremity kinematics as YOU (n=23, age=27+/-3 years) and OLD (n=34, age=73+/-4 years) descended a three step staircase. The older adults were then divided into training (TRA) and control (CON) groups. For 12 months, TRA performed resistance, aerobic, balance, and flexibility exercises under supervision in a class environment (twice per week) and unsupervised at home (once per week). CON carried on with normal daily activities. Following the intervention, baseline measurements were repeated in TRA and CON. At baseline, total descent, stride cycle, and single support times were longer in OLD than in YOU. In addition, sagittal plane knee motion was lower in OLD whilst frontal and transverse plane pelvis and hip motion were higher in OLD. Exercise training did not reduce the age-related differences observed. In conclusion healthy older adults perform stair descent at a slower speed and with greater motion outside the plane of progression than young adults. We found no evidence that these differences are reduced by generic exercise training, at least in non-frail older adults.

  10. Effect of body cooling on subsequent aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ranalli, Gregory F; Demartini, Julianne K; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-12-01

    Body cooling has become common in athletics, with numerous studies looking at different cooling modalities and different types of exercise. A search of the literature revealed 14 studies that measured performance following cooling intervention and had acceptable protocols for exercise and performance measures. These studies were objectively analyzed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale, and 13 of the studies were included in this review. These studies revealed that body cooling by various modalities had consistent and greater impact on aerobic exercise performance (mean increase in performance = 4.25%) compared to anaerobic (mean increase in performance = 0.66%). Different cooling modalities, and cooling during different points during an exercise protocol, had extremely varied results. In conclusion, body cooling seems to have a positive effect on aerobic performance, although the impact on anaerobic performance may vary and often does not provide the same positive effect.

  11. The time-frame of acute resistance exercise effects on football skill performance: the impact of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Carlos Barbero, Jose; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Apostolos Spyridon; Margonis, Konstantinos; Michailidis, Yannis; Avloniti, Alexandra; Theodorou, Anastasios; Kambas, Antonis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recovery rate of football skill performance following resistance exercise of moderate or high intensity. Ten elite football players participated in three different trials: control, low-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 8-10 repetitions/set, 65-70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and high-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 4-6 repetitions/set, 85-90% 1RM) in a counterbalanced manner. In each experimental condition, participants were evaluated pre, post, and at 24, 48, 72 h post exercise time points. Football skill performance was assessed through the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test, long passing, dribbling, shooting and heading. Delayed onset muscle soreness, knee joint range of motion, and muscle strength (1RM) in squat were considered as muscle damage markers. Blood samples analysed for creatine kinase activity, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count. Passing and shooting performance declined (P < 0.05) post-exercise following resistance exercise. Strength declined post-exercise following high-intensity resistance exercise. Both trials induced only a mild muscle damage and inflammatory response in an intensity-dependent manner. These results indicate that football skill performance is minimally affected by acute resistance exercise independent of intensity suggesting that elite players may be able to participate in a football practice or match after only 24 h following a strength training session.

  12. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P.; Frighetto, P.D.; Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension. PMID:26840705

  13. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  14. Does exercise impact on sleep for people who have rheumatoid arthritis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Sean; Donnelly, Alan; Fraser, Alexander; Comber, Laura; Kennedy, Norelee

    2017-06-01

    To systematically search for the availability of evidence for exercise impacting on sleep for people who have rheumatoid arthritis. Two reviewers independently searched seven electronic databases, identified and extracted relevant studies by applying eligibility criteria. Sources of bias were assessed independently by two reviewers using the Cochrane bias assessment tool for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for non-RCTs. Data were synthesized using a level of evidence approach. Meta-analyses were deemed to be inappropriate due to the heterogeneity of study designs, measurement tools and interventions. Five studies were included: one RCT; two pilot RCTs and two samples of convenience. A total of 262 people with RA were included. Interventions used were difficult to assess due to the heterogeneity of study designs and the inclusion of two using different types of yoga as an intervention. Different sleep outcome measures were used thus, it was not feasible to pool results. Studies had a high risk of bias. This review could find no consistent or conclusive evidence on whether exercise impacts on sleep in people who have rheumatoid arthritis, therefore no firm conclusions can be made. However, there is some indication that exercise may have positive benefits on sleep in people who have rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies with improved study designs, using subjective and objective measures, are needed.

  15. The impact of endurance exercise on global and AMPK gene-specific DNA methylation

    SciTech Connect

    King-Himmelreich, Tanya S.; Schramm, Stefanie; Wolters, Miriam C.; Schmetzer, Julia; Möser, Christine V.; Knothe, Claudia; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2016-05-27

    Alterations in gene expression as a consequence of physical exercise are frequently described. The mechanism of these regulations might depend on epigenetic changes in global or gene-specific DNA methylation levels. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in maintenance of energy homeostasis and is activated by increases in the AMP/ATP ratio as occurring in skeletal muscles after sporting activity. To analyze whether exercise has an impact on the methylation status of the AMPK promoter, we determined the AMPK methylation status in human blood samples from patients before and after sporting activity in the context of rehabilitation as well as in skeletal muscles of trained and untrained mice. Further, we examined long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) as indicator of global DNA methylation changes. Our results revealed that light sporting activity in mice and humans does not alter global DNA methylation but has an effect on methylation of specific CpG sites in the AMPKα2 gene. These regulations were associated with a reduced AMPKα2 mRNA and protein expression in muscle tissue, pointing at a contribution of the methylation status to AMPK expression. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise influences AMPKα2 gene methylation in human blood and eminently in the skeletal muscle of mice and therefore might repress AMPKα2 gene expression. -- Highlights: •AMPK gene methylation increases after moderate endurance exercise in humans and mice. •AMPKα mRNA and protein decrease after moderate endurance exercise in mice. •Global DNA methylation is not affected under the same conditions.

  16. Impact of Aging and Exercise on Mitochondrial Quality Control in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yuho; Triolo, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are characterized by its pivotal roles in managing energy production, reactive oxygen species, and calcium, whose aging-related structural and functional deteriorations are observed in aging muscle. Although it is still unclear how aging alters mitochondrial quality and quantity in skeletal muscle, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamic controls has been suggested as key players for that. In this paper, we summarize current understandings on how aging regulates muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, while focusing on transcriptional regulations including PGC-1α, AMPK, p53, mtDNA, and Tfam. Further, we review current findings on the muscle mitochondrial dynamic systems in aging muscle: fusion/fission, autophagy/mitophagy, and protein import. Next, we also discuss how endurance and resistance exercises impact on the mitochondrial quality controls in aging muscle, suggesting possible effective exercise strategies to improve/maintain mitochondrial health. PMID:28656072

  17. Impact of psychosocial factors on functional improvement in Latino older adults after Tai Chi exercise.

    PubMed

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Rajaram, Shireen S; Padilla, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence underscores the health benefits of Tai Chi (TC), although there is limited evidence of benefits among racial and ethnic minorities. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial status on balance among 23 Latino seniors after a twice-a-week, 12-week TC exercise program. Functional status was measured at baseline, immediately after, and three months following the TC exercise program, using the Timed Up and Go Test and Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale. Psychosocial status was measured at baseline by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. Both measures of functional status improved and were sustained after three months of TC. Greater improvement was significantly related to a higher level of baseline social support. More depressed seniors reported less fear of falling after TC. Depression and social support are important moderators of functional improvement after TC among Latino seniors.

  18. Equivalence in Dose Fall-Off for Isocentric and Nonisocentric Intracranial Treatment Modalities and Its Impact on Dose Fractionation Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Descovich, Martina; Cho, Y.-B.; Chuang, Cynthia; Huang, Kim; Laperriere, Normand J.; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Larson, David A.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether dose fall-off characteristics would be significantly different among intracranial radiosurgery modalities and the influence of these characteristics on fractionation schemes in terms of normal tissue sparing. Methods and Materials: An analytic model was developed to measure dose fall-off characteristics near the target independent of treatment modalities. Variations in the peripheral dose fall-off characteristics were then examined and compared for intracranial tumors treated with Gamma Knife, Cyberknife, or Novalis LINAC-based system. Equivalent uniform biologic effective dose (EUBED) for the normal brain tissue was calculated. Functional dependence of the normal brain EUBED on varying numbers of fractions (1 to 30) was studied for the three modalities. Results: The derived model fitted remarkably well for all the cases (R{sup 2} > 0.99). No statistically significant differences in the dose fall-off relationships were found between the three modalities. Based on the extent of variations in the dose fall-off curves, normal brain EUBED was found to decrease with increasing number of fractions for the targets, with alpha/beta ranging from 10 to 20. This decrease was most pronounced for hypofractionated treatments with fewer than 10 fractions. Additionally, EUBED was found to increase slightly with increasing number of fractions for targets with alpha/beta ranging from 2 to 5. Conclusion: Nearly identical dose fall-off characteristics were found for the Gamma Knife, Cyberknife, and Novalis systems. Based on EUBED calculations, normal brain sparing was found to favor hypofractionated treatments for fast-growing tumors with alpha/beta ranging from 10 to 20 and single fraction treatment for abnormal tissues with low alpha/beta values such as alpha/beta = 2.

  19. Respiratory and skeletal muscle strength in COPD: Impact on exercise capacity and lower extremity function

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Jonathan; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.; Sanchez, Gabriela; Iribarren, Carlos; Eisner, Mark D.; Blanc, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE We sought to quantify the impact of respiratory muscle and lower extremity strength on exercise capacity and lower extremity function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS In 828 persons with COPD, we assessed the impact of reduced respiratory (maximum inspiratory pressure, MIP) and lower extremity muscle strength (quadriceps, QS) on exercise capacity (6 Minute Walk Distance, 6MWT) and lower extremity function (LEF, Short Physical Performance Battery). Multiple regression analyses taking into account key covariates, including lung function and smoking, tested the associations between muscle strength and exercise and functional capacity. RESULTS For each ½ standard deviation (0.5 SD) decrement in QS, men walked 18.3 meters less during 6MWT (95% CI −24.1 to −12.4); women 25.1 meters less (95% CI −31.1 to −12.4). For each 0.5 SD decrement in MIP, men walked 9.4 meters less during 6MWT (95% CI – 15.2 to −3.6); women 8.7 meters less (95% CI −14.1 to −3.4). For each 0.5 SD decrease in QS, men had a 1.32 higher odds (95% CI: 1.11 to 1.15) of poor LEF; women, 1.87 higher odds (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.27). Lower MIP (per 0.5 SD) was associated with increased odds of poor LEF in women (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39), but not in men (OR 1.10, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.31). CONCLUSION In COPD, reduced respiratory and lower extremity muscle strength are associated with decreased exercise and functional capacity. Muscle weakness is likely an important component of impairment and disability in patients with COPD. PMID:21240003

  20. Favorable impact of a vegan diet with exercise on hemorheology: implications for control of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2002-06-01

    A little-noticed clinical report indicates that a low-fat, whole-food vegan diet, coupled with daily walking exercise, leads to rapid remission of neuropathic pain in the majority of type 2 diabetics expressing this complication. Concurrent marked improvements in glycemic control presumably contribute to this benefit, but are unlikely to be solely responsible. Consideration should be given to the possibility that improved blood rheology - decreased blood viscosity and increased blood filterability - plays a prominent role in mediating this effect. There is considerable evidence that neural hypoxia, secondary to impaired endoneurial microcirculatory perfusion, is a crucial etiologic factor in diabetic neuropathy; the unfavorable impact of diabetes on hemorheology would be expected to exacerbate endoneurial ischemia. Conversely, measures which improve blood fluidity would likely have a beneficial impact on diabetic neuropathy. There is indeed evidence that vegan diets, as well as exercise training, tend to decrease the viscosity of both whole blood and plasma; reductions in hematocrit and in fibrinogen may contribute to this effect. The fact that vegan diets decrease the white cell count is suggestive of an improvement in blood filterability as well; filterability improves with exercise training owing to an increase in erythrocyte deformability. Whether these measures influence the activation of leukocytes in diabetics - an important determinant of blood filterability - remains to be determined. There are various reasons for suspecting that a vegan diet can reduce risk for other major complications of diabetes - retinopathy, nephropathy, and macrovascular disease - independent of its tendency to improve glycemic control in type 2 patients. The vegan diet/exercise strategy represents a safe, 'low-tech' approach to managing diabetes that deserves far greater attention from medical researchers and practitioners.

  1. Impact of Modality Choice on Rates of Hospitalization in Patients Eligible for Both Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Robert R.; Ravani, Pietro; Zhang, Xin; Garg, Amit X.; Blake, Peter G.; Austin, Peter C.; Zacharias, James M.; Johnson, John F.; Pandeya, Sanjay; Verrelli, Mauro; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: Hospitalization rates are a relevant consideration when choosing or recommending a dialysis modality. Previous comparisons of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) have not been restricted to individuals who were eligible for both therapies. ♦ Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study of people 18 years of age and older who were eligible for both PD and HD, and who started outpatient dialysis between 2007 and 2010 in four Canadian dialysis programs. Zero-inflated negative binomial models, adjusted for baseline patient characteristics, were used to examine the association between modality choice and rates of hospitalization. ♦ Results: The study enrolled 314 patients. A trend in the HD group toward higher rates of hospitalization, observed in the primary analysis, became significant when modality was treated as a time-varying exposure or when the population was restricted to elective outpatient starts in patients with at least 4 months of pre-dialysis care. Cardiovascular disease, infectious complications, and elective surgery were the most common reasons for hospital admission; only 23% of hospital stays were directly related to complications of dialysis or kidney disease. ♦ Conclusions: Efforts to promote PD utilization are unlikely to result in increased rates of hospitalization, and efforts to reduce hospital admissions should focus on potentially avoidable causes of cardiovascular disease and infectious complications. PMID:24525596

  2. Exercise order in resistance training.

    PubMed

    Simão, Roberto; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Figueiredo, Tiago; Dias, Ingrid; Willardson, Jeffrey M

    2012-03-01

    Resistance training (RT) is now an integral component of a well rounded exercise programme. For a correct training prescription, it is of the utmost importance to understand the interaction among training variables, such as the load, volume, rest interval between sets and exercises, frequency of sessions, exercise modality, repetition velocity and, finally, exercise order. Sports medicine research has indicated that exercise order is an important variable that affects both acute responses and chronic adaptations to RT programmes. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to analyse and discuss exercise order with relevance to acute responses (e.g. repetition performance) and also the expression of chronic adaptable characteristics (e.g. maximal strength and hypertrophy). To accomplish this purpose, the Scielo, Science Citation Index, National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus™ and CINAHL® databases were accessed to locate previously conducted original scientific investigations. The studies reviewed examined both acute responses and chronic adaptations with exercise order as the experimental variable. Generally, with relevance to acute responses, a key finding was that exercise order affects repetition performance over multiple sets, indicating that the total repetitions, and thus the volume, is greater when an exercise is placed at the beginning of an RT session, regardless of the relative amount of muscle mass involved. The pre-exhaustion method might not be an effective technique to increase the extent of neuromuscular recruitment for larger muscle groups (e.g. pectoralis major for the bench press) when preceded by a single-joint movement (e.g. pec-deck fly). With relevance to localized muscular endurance performance, oxygen consumption and ratings of perceived exertion, the limited amount of research conducted thus far indicates that exercise order does not appear to impact the acute expression of these variables. In terms of chronic

  3. The total cavopulmonary connection resistance: a significant impact on single ventricle hemodynamics at rest and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sundareswaran, Kartik S.; Pekkan, Kerem; Dasi, Lakshmi P.; Whitehead, Kevin; Sharma, Shiva; Kanter, Kirk R.; Fogel, Mark A.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) on resting and exercise hemodynamics in a single ventricle (SV) circulation. The aim of this study was to elucidate this mechanism using a lumped parameter model of the SV circulation. Pulmonary vascular resistance (1.96 ± 0.80 WU) and systemic vascular resistances (18.4 ± 7.2 WU) were obtained from catheterization data on 40 patients with a TCPC. TCPC resistances (0.39 ± 0.26 WU) were established using computational fluid dynamic simulations conducted on anatomically accurate three-dimensional models reconstructed from MRI (n = 16). These parameters were used in a lumped parameter model of the SV circulation to investigate the impact of TCPC resistance on SV hemodynamics under resting and exercise conditions. A biventricular model was used for comparison. For a biventricular circulation, the cardiac output (CO) dependence on TCPC resistance was negligible (sensitivity = −0.064 l·min−1·WU−1) but not for the SV circulation (sensitivity = −0.88 l·min−1·WU−1). The capacity to increase CO with heart rate was also severely reduced for the SV. At a simulated heart rate of 150 beats/min, the SV patient with the highest resistance (1.08 WU) had a significantly lower increase in CO (20.5%) compared with the SV patient with the lowest resistance (50%) and normal circulation (119%). This was due to the increased afterload (+35%) and decreased preload (−12%) associated with the SV circulation. In conclusion, TCPC resistance has a significant impact on resting hemodynamics and the exercise capacity of patients with a SV physiology. PMID:18931028

  4. The impact of exercise on suicide risk: examining pathways through depression, PTSD, and sleep in an inpatient sample of veterans.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Collin L; Babson, Kimberly A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Souter, Tasha; Vannoy, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Suicide has a large public health impact. Although effective interventions exist, the many people at risk for suicide cannot access these interventions. Exercise interventions hold promise in terms of reducing suicide because of their ease of implementation. While exercise reduces depression, and reductions in depressive symptoms are linked to reduced suicidal ideation, no studies have directly linked exercise and suicide risk. The current study examined this association, including potential mediators (i.e., sleep disturbance, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and depression), in a sample of Veterans. SEM analyses revealed that exercise was directly and indirectly associated with suicide risk. Additionally, exercise was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better sleep patterns, each of which was, in turn, related to lower suicide risk.

  5. The impact of exercise training on basal BDNF in athletic adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of exercise training on basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in athletic adolescents. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two male adolescents participated in this study. The subjects were divided into a control group (n=9) and trained group (n=13). The trained group comprised table tennis athletes with more than 3 years of training who regularly exercised 18 hours per week. [Results] The results of this study show the trained group had significantly lower basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels than the control group. Further, platelet levels were significantly higher in the trained group than in the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between the groups in serum nerve growth factor level or physical characteristics (body weight, body mass index, fasting blood glucose). [Conclusion] This study showed that the basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor level of well-trained athletic adolescents was lower than that of the control group. Further research with a larger sample size is required to confirm the finding that lower basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are associated with long-term habitual exercise in athletic adolescents. PMID:27942121

  6. The impact of a submaximal level of exercise on balance performance in older persons.

    PubMed

    Alias, Hani Asilah; Justine, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a submaximal level of exercise on balance performance under a variety of conditions. Thirteen community-dwelling older persons with intact foot sensation (age = 66.69 ± 8.17 years, BMI = 24.65 ± 4.08 kg/m(2), female, n = 6) volunteered to participate. Subjects' balance performances were measured using the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration of Balance (mCTSIB) at baseline and after test, under four conditions of stance: (1) eyes-opened firm-surface (EOF), (2) eyes-closed firm-surface (ECF), (3) eyes-opened soft-surface (EOS), and (4) eyes-closed soft-surface (ECS). The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) protocol was used to induce the submaximal level of exercise. Data was analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. Balance changes during EOF (z = 0.00, P = 1.00) and ECF (z = -1.342, P = 0.180) were not significant. However, balance changes during EOS (z = -2.314, P = 0.021) and ECS (z = -3.089, P = 0.02) were significantly dropped after the 6MWT. A submaximal level of exercise may influence sensory integration that in turn affects balance performance, particularly on an unstable surface. Rehabilitation should focus on designing intervention that may improve sensory integration among older individuals with balance deterioration in order to encourage functional activities.

  7. Impact of Exercise on Innate Immunity in Multiple Sclerosis Progression and Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Alison; Cronin, Owen; Ryan, Aisling M.; Sweeney, Brian; Yap, Siew M.; O'Toole, Orna; Allen, Andrew P.; Clarke, Gerard; O'Halloran, Ken D.; Downer, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic progressive immune-mediated neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammatory demyelination and consequent axonal deterioration. It accounts for functional deterioration and lasting disability among young adults. A body of literature demonstrates that physical activity counteracts fatigue and depression and may improve overall quality of life in MS patients. Furthermore, much data indicates that exercise ameliorates chronic neuroinflammation and its related pathologies by tipping cytokine profiles toward an anti-inflammatory signature. Recent data has focused on the direct impact of exercise training on the innate immune system by targeting toll-like receptors (TLRs), signaling pattern recognition receptors that govern the innate immune response, shedding light on the physiological role of TLRs in health and disease. Indeed, TLRs continue to emerge as players in the neuroinflammatory processes underpinning MS. This review will highlight evidence that physical activity and exercise are potential immunomodulatory therapies, targeting innate signaling mechanism(s) to modulate MS symptom development and progression. PMID:27313534

  8. The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Anson, J Greg; Palmer, Craig D; Hellemans, Ien J; Cotter, James D

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of 96-125 h of competitive exercise on cognitive and physical performance. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop test (n = 9) before, during, and after the 2003 Southern Traverse adventure race. Strength (MVC) and strength endurance (time to failure at 70% current MVC) of the knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles were assessed before and after racing. Changes in vertical jump (n = 24) and 30-s Wingate performance (n = 27) were assessed in a different group of athletes. Complex response times were affected by the race (16% slower), although not significantly so (P = 0.18), and were dependent on exercise intensity (less so at 50% peak power output after racing). Reduction of strength (P < 0.05) of the legs (17%) and arms (11%) was equivalent (P = 0.17). Reductions in strength endurance were inconsistent (legs 18%, P = 0.09; arms 13%, P = 0.40), but were equivalent between limbs (P = 0.80). Similar reductions were observed in jump height (-8 +/- 9%, P < 0.01) and Wingate peak power (-7 +/- 15%, P = 0.04), mean power (-7 +/- 11%, P < 0.01), and end power (-10 +/- 11%, P < 0.01). We concluded that: moderate-intensity exercise may help complex decision making during sustained stress; functional performance was modestly impacted, and the upper and lower limbs were affected similarly despite being used disproportionately.

  9. The Impact of Examinee Performance Information on Judges' Cut Scores in Modified Angoff Standard-Setting Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Melissa J.; Clauser, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluated the impact of a common modification to Angoff standard-setting exercises: the provision of examinee performance data. Data from 18 independent standard-setting panels across three different medical licensing examinations were examined to investigate whether and how the provision of performance information impacted judgments…

  10. The impact of metabolic syndrome and endothelial dysfunction on exercise-induced cardiovascular changes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Amanda M; Davies, Elaine; Lavoie, Kim L; Arsenault, André; Gordon, Jennifer L; Meloche, Bernard; Bacon, Simon L

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information regarding the synergistic or additive effects of metabolic syndrome (MS) and endothelial dysfunction (ED) on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Altered cardiovascular responses to exercise have been shown to predict future cardiovascular events as well as assess autonomic function. The present study evaluated the impact of MS and brachial artery reactivity (a proxy of ED) on peak exercise-induced cardiovascular changes. Individuals (n = 303) undergoing a standard nuclear medicine exercise stress test were assessed for MS. Participants underwent a Forearm Hyperaemic Reactivity test and were considered to have dysfunctional reactivity if their rate of uptake ratio (RUR) was <3.55. Resting and peak blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured. Reactivity was calculated as the difference between peak and resting measures. Analyses, adjusting for age, sex, resting HR, total metabolic equivalents (METs), and a history of major CVD, revealed a main effect of MS (F = 5.51, η(2) = 0.02, P = 0.02) and RUR (F = 6.69, η(2) = 0.02, P = 0.01) on HR reactivity, such that patients with MS and/or poor RUR had reduced HR reactivity. There were no interactive effects of RUR and MS. There were no effects of RUR or MS on systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) reactivity or rate pressure product (RPP) reactivity. The presence of decreased HR reactivity among participants with MS or poor brachial artery reactivity, combined with the lack of difference in other exercise-induced cardiovascular changes, indicates that these patients may have some degree of parasympathetic dysregulation. Further longitudinal studies are needed to understand the long-term implications of MS and endothelial abnormalities in this context. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  11. The impact of handgrip exercise duty cycle on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation.

    PubMed

    King, Trevor J; Slattery, David J; Pyke, Kyra E

    2013-07-01

    Endothelial function is essential for vasoprotection and regulation of vascular tone. Using handgrip exercise (HGEX) to increase blood flow-associated shear stress is an increasingly popular method for assessing brachial artery endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD). However, different exercise duty cycles [ratio of handgrip relaxation: contraction (seconds)] produce different patterns of brachial artery shear stress with distinct antegrade/retrograde magnitudes. To determine the impact of HGEX duty cycle on brachial artery %FMD, three distinct duty cycles were employed while maintaining a uniform mean shear stress. Brachial artery diameter and mean blood velocity were assessed via echo and Doppler ultrasound in 16 healthy male subjects. Shear stress was estimated as shear rate (SR = blood velocity/brachial artery diameter) and the target mean SR during HGEX was 75 s(-1). Subjects performed three 6-min HGEX trials on each of 2 days (like trials averaged). In each trial, subjects performed one of the three randomly ordered HGEX duty cycles (1:1, 3:1, 5:1). %FMD was calculated from baseline to the end of HGEX and (subset N = 10) during each minute of HGEX. Data are mean ± SD. As intended, mean SR was uniform across duty cycles (6 min HGEX average: 72.9 ± 4.9s(-1), 72.6 ± 3.6s(-1), 72.8 ± 3.5 s(-1), p = 0.835), despite differences in antegrade/retrograde SR (p < 0.001). End-exercise %FMD (4.0 ± 1.3 %, 4.1 ± 2.2 %, 4.2 ± 1.4 %, p = 0.860) and %FMD during exercise (p = 0.939) were not different between duty cycles. These data indicate that the endothelium responds to the mean shear stress and is not specifically sensitive to the contraction/relaxation or retrograde shear stress created by a range of HGEX protocols.

  12. Impact of age on exercise-induced ATP supply during supramaximal plantar flexion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Trinity, Joel D.; Hart, Corey R.; Kim, Seong-Eun; Groot, H. Jonathan; Fur, Yann Le; Sorensen, Jacob R.; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the physiological factors responsible for exercise intolerance and bioenergetic alterations with age are poorly understood due, at least in art, to the confounding effect of reduced physical activity in the elderly. Thus, in 40 healthy young (22 ± 2 yr) and old (74 ± 8 yr) activity-matched subjects, we assessed the impact of age on: 1) the relative contribution of the three major pathways of ATP synthesis (oxidative ATP synthesis, glycolysis, and the creatine kinase reaction) and 2) the ATP cost of contraction during high-intensity exercise. Specifically, during supramaximal plantar flexion (120% of maximal aerobic power), to stress the functional limits of the skeletal muscle energy systems, we used 31P-labeled magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess metabolism. Although glycolytic activation was delayed in the old, ATP synthesis from the main energy pathways was not significantly different between groups. Similarly, the inferred peak rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis was not significantly different between the young (25 ± 8 mM/min) and old (24 ± 6 mM/min). In contrast, the ATP cost of contraction was significantly elevated in the old compared with the young (5.1 ± 2.0 and 3.7 ± 1.7 mM·min−1·W−1, respectively; P < 0.05). Overall, these findings suggest that, when young and old subjects are activity matched, there is no evidence of age-related mitochondrial and glycolytic dysfunction. However, this study does confirm an abnormal elevation in exercise-induced skeletal muscle metabolic demand in the old that may contribute to the decline in exercise capacity with advancing age. PMID:26041112

  13. Impact of a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise on Regional Brain Perfusion and Activation Responses in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    MacIntosh, Bradley J.; Crane, David E.; Sage, Michael D.; Rajab, A. Saeed; Donahue, Manus J.; McIlroy, William E.; Middleton, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite the generally accepted view that aerobic exercise can have positive effects on brain health, few studies have measured brain responses to exercise over a short time span. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact within one hour of a single bout of exercise on brain perfusion and neuronal activation. Methods Healthy adults (n = 16; age range: 20–35 yrs) were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) before and after 20 minutes of exercise at 70% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) was used to measure absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) prior to exercise (pre) and at 10 min (post-10) and 40 min (post-40) post-exercise. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) was performed pre and post-exercise to characterize activation differences related to a go/no-go reaction time task. Results Compared to pre-exercise levels, grey matter CBF was 11% (±9%) lower at post-10 (P<0.0004) and not different at post-40 (P = 0.12), while global WM CBF was increased at both time points post-exercise (P<0.0006). Regionally, the hippocampus and insula showed a decrease in perfusion in ROI-analysis at post-10 (P<0.005, FDR corrected), whereas voxel-wise analysis identified elevated perfusion in the left medial postcentral gyrus at post-40 compared to pre (pcorrected = 0.05). BOLD activations were consistent between sessions, however, the left parietal operculum showed reduced BOLD activation after exercise. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of regionalized brain effects associated with a single bout of aerobic exercise. The observed acute cerebrovascular responses may provide some insight into the brain’s ability to change in relation to chronic interventions. PMID:24416356

  14. The sports performance application of vibration exercise for warm-up, flexibility and sprint speed.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Darryl

    2013-01-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a resurgence of vibration technology to enhance sport science especially for power and force development. However, vibration exercise has been trialled in other areas that are central to athlete performance such as warm-up, flexibility and sprint speed. Therefore, the aim of this review was to attempt to gain a better understanding of how acute and short-term vibration exercise may impact on warm-up, flexibility and sprint speed. The importance of warming up for sporting performance has been well documented and vibration exercise has the capability to be included or used as a standalone warm-up modality to increase intramuscular temperature at a faster rate compared to other conventional warm-up modalities. However, vibration exercise does not provide any additional neurogenic benefits compared to conventional dynamic and passive warm-up interventions. Vibration exercise appears to be a safe modality that does not produce any adverse affects causing injury or harm and could be used during interval and substitution breaks, as it would incur a low metabolic cost and be time-efficient compared to conventional warm-up modalities. Acute or short-term vibration exercise can enhance flexibility and range of motion without having a detrimental effect on muscle power, however it is less clear which mechanisms may be responsible for this enhancement. It appears that vibration exercise is not capable of improving sprint speed performance; this could be due to the complex and dynamic nature of sprinting where the purported increase in muscle power from vibration exercise is probably lost on repeated actions of high force generation. Vibration exercise is a safe modality that produces no adverse side effects for injury or harm. It has the time-efficient capability of providing coaches, trainers, and exercise specialists with an alternative modality that can be implemented for warm-up and flexibility either in isolation or in

  15. The effect of different intensities of treadmill exercise on cognitive function deficit following a severe controlled cortical impact in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiafeng; Li, Aiping; Zhang, Yuling; Dong, Xiaomin; Shan, Tian; Wu, Yi; Jia, Jie; Hu, Yongshan

    2013-10-31

    Exercise has been proposed for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the proper intensity of exercise in the early phase following a severe TBI is largely unknown. To compare two different treadmill exercise intensities on the cognitive function following a severe TBI in its early phase, rats experienced a controlled cortical impact (CCI) and were forced to treadmill exercise for 14 days. The results revealed that the rats in the low intensity exercise group had a shorter latency to locate a platform and a significantly better improvement in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The high intensity exercise group showed a longer latency and a mild improvement in spatial memory compared to the control group rats in the MWM; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and p-CREB protein levels in the contralateral hippocampus were increased significantly in the low intensity exercise group. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of low intensity of treadmill exercise is beneficial for improving cognitive function and increasing hippocampal BDNF expression after a severe TBI in its early phase.

  16. Impact of acetaminophen consumption and resistance exercise on extracellular matrix gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shivam H; D'Lugos, Andrew C; Eldon, Erica R; Curtis, Donald; Dickinson, Jared M; Carroll, Chad C

    2017-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) given during chronic exercise reduces skeletal muscle collagen and cross-linking in rats. We propose that the effect of APAP on muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) may, in part, be mediated by dysregulation of the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of APAP consumption during acute resistance exercise (RE) on several regulators of the ECM in human skeletal muscle. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover design, recreationally active men (n = 8, 25 ± 2 yr) performed two trials of knee extension. Placebo (PLA) or APAP (1,000 mg/6 h) was given for 24 h before and immediately following RE. Vastus lateralis biopsies were taken at baseline and 1 and 3 h post-RE. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine differences in mRNA expression. MMP-2, type I collagen, and type III collagen mRNA expression was not altered by exercise or APAP (P > 0.05). When compared with PLA, TIMP-1 expression was lower at 1 h post-RE during APAP conditions but greater than PLA at 3 h post-RE (P < 0.05). MMP-9 expression and protein levels were elevated at 3 h post-RE independent of treatment (P < 0.05). Lysyl oxidase expression was greater at 3 h post-RE during APAP consumption (P < 0.05) compared with PLA. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 protein was not altered by RE or APAP (P > 0.05). Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38-MAPK increased (P < 0.05) with RE but was not influenced by APAP. Our findings do not support our hypothesis and suggest that short-term APAP consumption before RE has a small impact on the measured ECM molecules in human skeletal muscle following acute RE. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Multi-modal exercise training and protein-pacing enhances physical performance adaptations independent of growth hormone and BDNF but may be dependent on IGF-1 in exercise-trained men.

    PubMed

    Ives, Stephen J; Norton, Chelsea; Miller, Vincent; Minicucci, Olivia; Robinson, Jake; O'Brien, Gabe; Escudero, Daniela; Paul, Maia; Sheridan, Caitlin; Curran, Kathryn; Rose, Kayla; Robinson, Nathaniel; He, Feng; Arciero, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    Protein-pacing (P; 5-6meals/day @ 2.0g/kgBW/day) and multi-mode exercise (RISE; resistance, interval, stretching, endurance) training (PRISE) improves muscular endurance, strength, power and arterial health in exercise-trained women. The current study extends these findings by examining PRISE on fitness, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) response, cardiometabolic health, and body composition in exercise-trained men. Twenty active males (>4daysexercise/week) completed either: PRISE (n=11) or RISE (5-6meals/day @ 1.0g/kgBW/day; n=9) for 12weeks. Muscular strength (1-repetition maximum bench and leg press, 1-RM BP, and 1-RM LP), endurance (sit-ups, SU; push-ups, PU), power (squat jump, SJ, and bench throw, BT), flexibility (sit-and-reach, SR), aerobic performance (5km cycling time-trial, TT), GH, IGF-1, BDNF, augmentation index, (AIx), and body composition, were assessed at weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups except for GH (RISE, 230±13 vs. PRISE, 382±59pg/ml, p<0.05). The exercise intervention improved 1-RM, SJ, BT, PU, SU, SR, 5km-TT, GH, AIx, BP, and body composition in both groups (time, p<0.05). However, PRISE elicited greater improvements in 1-RM BP (21 vs. 10∆lbs), SJ (171 vs. 13∆W), 5km-TT (-37 vs. -11∆s), and sit-and-reach (5.3 vs. 1.2∆cm) over RISE alone (p<0.05) including increased IGF-1 (12%, p<0.05). Exercise-trained men consuming a P diet combined with multi-component exercise training (PRISE) enhance muscular power, strength, aerobic performance, and flexibility which are not likely related to GH or BDNF but possibly to IGF-1 response. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and impact on quality of life of the pain modalities assessed by the King's Parkinson's disease pain scale.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Manuel Rojo-Abuin, Jose; Rizos, Alexandra; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Perkins, Lauren; Sauerbier, Anna; Odin, Per; Antonini, Angelo; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray

    2017-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, pain is a prevalent and complex symptom of diverse origin. King's Parkinson's disease pain scale, assesses different pain syndromes, thus allowing exploration of its differential prevalence and influence on the health-related quality of life of patients. Post hoc study 178 patients and 83 matched controls participating in the King's Parkinson's disease pain scale validation study were used. For determining the respective distribution, King's Parkinson's disease pain scale items and domains scores = 0 meant absence and ≥1 presence of the symptom. The regular scores were used for the other analyses. Health-related quality of lifewas evaluated with EQ-5D-3L and PDQ-8 questionnaires. Parkinson's disease patients experienced more pain modalities than controls. In patients, Pain around joints (King's Parkinson's disease pain scale item 1) and Pain while turning in bed (item 8) were the most prevalent types of pain, whereas Burning mouth syndrome (item 11) and Pain due to grinding teeth (item 10) showed the lowest frequency. The total number of experienced pain modalities closely correlated with the PDQ-8 index, but not with other variables. For all pain types except Pain around joints (item 1) and pain related to Periodic leg movements/RLS (item 7), patients with pain had significantly worse health-related quality of life. The influence of pain, as a whole, on the health-related quality of life was not remarkable after adjustment by other variables. When the particular types of pain were considered, adjusted by sex, age, and Parkinson's disease duration, pain determinants were different for EQ-5D-3L and PDQ-8. King's Parkinson's disease pain scale allows exploring the distribution of the diverse syndromic pain occurring in Parkinson's disease and its association with health-related quality of life.

  19. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters.

  20. Acute Hematological and Inflammatory Responses to High-intensity Exercise Tests: Impact of Duration and Mode of Exercise.

    PubMed

    Minuzzi, Luciele G; Carvalho, Humberto M; Brunelli, Diego T; Rosado, Fatima; Cavaglieri, Cláudia R; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Gaspar, Joana M; Rama, Luís M; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hematological and inflammatory responses to 4 maximal high-intensity protocols, considering energy expenditure in each test. 9 healthy volunteers performed 4 high-intensity exercise tests of short [Wingate (WANT); Repeated-sprints (RSA)] and long durations [Continuous VO2 test (VCONT); intermittent VO2 test (VINT)] in a cycle-ergometer, until exhaustion. Hematological parameters and IL-6, IL-10 and creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined before (PRE), POST, 30 min, 1, 2, 12 and 24 h after the end of the protocols. Additionally, energy expenditure was determined. Leucocytes, erythrocytes and lymphocytes increased at POST and returned to PRE values at 30 min for all protocols. Lymphocytes had a second decreased at 2 h and granulocytes increased at 2 h when compared to PRE. Both variables returned to PRE values between 12-24 h into recovery. The magnitude of response for IL-6 was greater in VINT and for IL-10 in VCONT. There was no association of energy expenditure within each exercise protocol with the pattern of IL-6, IL-10 and CK responses to the exercise protocols. The present finding support that similar responses after continuous or intermittent acute protocols are observed when exercises are performed to volitional failure, regardless of the duration and mode of exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters. PMID:26696715

  2. Impact of quadriceps strengthening on response to fatiguing exercise following ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kuenze, Christopher; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Kelly, Adam; Kim, Chang-Young

    2017-01-01

    Patients commonly experience altered response to fatiguing exercise after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of quadriceps strengthening on response to exercise after ACLR. Clinical trial. Ten participants with a history of primary, unilateral ACLR (sex=9F/1M, age=21.0±2.8 years, BMI=23.7±2.7kg/m(2)) and 10 healthy participants (sex=9F/1M, age=22.2±3.2 years, BMI=23.8±3.9kg/m(2)) participated. ACLR participants completed a 2-week quadriceps strengthening intervention including 14 progressive strengthening exercise sessions. Normalized knee extension maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque (Nm/kg) and quadriceps central activation ratio (%, CAR) were measured before and after a 30-minute fatiguing exercise protocol. ACLR participants completed testing before and after the 2-week intervention while control participants completed a single testing session. The intervention significantly improved normalized knee extension MVIC torque (pre-intervention=1.85±0.67Nm/kg, post-intervention=2.09±0.81Nm/kg, p=0.04) and quadriceps CAR in the ACLR involved limb (pre-intervention=86.51±5.03%, post-intervention=92.94±5.99%, p=0.02). Quadriceps CAR (pre-intervention=1.13±9.04%, post-intervention=-3.97±4.59%, p=0.16) and normalized knee extension MVIC torque (pre-intervention=0.26±20.90%, post-intervention=-8.02±12.82%, p=0.30) response to exercise did not significantly change from pre-intervention to post-intervention conditions. Two weeks of quadriceps strengthening reduced this between group difference in the involved limb which may indicate restoration of more optimal quadriceps neuromuscular function and increased demand on the quadriceps during physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of different training modalities on glycaemic control and blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Missbach, Benjamin; Dias, Sofia; König, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Georg

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to systematically review randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET), resistance training (RT) and combined training (CT) on glycaemic control and blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Searches were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: type 2 diabetes mellitus, adult, supervised training and a minimum intervention period of 8 weeks. Pooled effects were calculated by fixed/random effect pairwise and Bayesian fixed/random effects network meta-analyses. A total of 14 trials enrolling 915 participants were included. AET was more effective than RT in improving HbA1c levels (mean difference [MD] -0.20% [-2.2 mmol/mol]; 95% CI -0.32, -0.08; p = 0.0007, 10 trials/515 participants) and fasting glucose (MD -0.9 mmol/l; 95% CI -1.71, -0.09; p = 0.03, 8 trials/245 participants). Compared with AET, CT resulted in a significantly more pronounced reduction in HbA1c (MD -0.17% [-1.87 mmol/mol]; 95% CI -0.31, -0.03; p = 0.02, 9 trials/493 participants). Compared with RT, the MD of the change in HbA1c (MD -0.62%, [-6.82 mmol/mol]; 95% CI -0.95, -0.30; p = 0.0002, 5 trials/362 participants], fasting glucose (MD -1.99 mmol/l; 95% CI -3.07, -0.90; p = 0.0003, 3 trials/99 participants) and triacylglycerols (MD -0.28 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.46, -0.10; p = 0.003, 4 trials/213 participants) were all in favour of CT. The exclusion of trials with a high risk of bias yielded only non-significant results. The present data suggest that CT might be the most efficacious exercise modality to improve glycaemic control and blood lipids. Interpretation with respect to clinical relevance is limited by the low quality of the studies included and the limited information on the clinically important outcomes or adverse effects of exercise.

  4. 'I'd rather you didn't come': The impact of stigma on exercising with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Collard, Sarah S; Ellis-Hill, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is a common but hidden disorder, leading to stigma in everyday life. Despite stigma being widely researched, little is known about the impact of stigma for people with epilepsy within a sports and exercise setting. Using constructionist grounded theory, we explored the barriers and adaptations to exercise for people with epilepsy. Three focus groups (2-3 participants per group) and three semi-structured interviews were conducted (11 participants in total). Stigma negatively impacted joining team sports, running groups, and disclosure to others. The effect of stigma was reduced by educating others about epilepsy, thus creating more awareness and understanding.

  5. Baseline regional perfusion impacts exercise response to endobronchial valve therapy in advanced pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Argula, Rahul G; Strange, Charlie; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Goldin, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Advanced heterogeneous emphysema with hyperinflation impacts exercise tolerance in COPD. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using Zephyr endobronchial valves (EBVs) has been shown to improve lung function in patients with heterogeneous emphysema. It is unclear whether the target lobe perfusion of patients receiving EBV therapy impacts exercise tolerance as measured by the 6-min walk test distance (6MWTD). We performed a retrospective analysis on the treatment group of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT) to evaluate the impact of perfusion, measured by 99mTc-MAA-perfusion scintigraphy, on the 6-month improvement in 6MWTD. A mixed-model analysis was performed for the treatment outcome, adjusting for other variables such as age, target lobe position, fissure integrity, BMI, sex, destruction score, and lobar exclusion. Dichotomized at the median, of the 169 patients who received EBV therapy, 88 had a low target lobe regional perfusion and 81 had high target lobe regional perfusion at baseline. Patients with a low target lobe regional perfusion had a significant improvement in 6MWTD when compared with those with a high baseline target lobe regional perfusion (30.24 m vs 3.72 m, P = .03). Shifts in perfusion after EBV therapy occurred only in patients with high baseline perfusion and did not correlate with improved 6MWTD. Patients having heterogeneous emphysema with a low baseline target lobe regional perfusion benefit from EBV therapy, independent of the degree of target lobe destruction. This effect is attenuated if the EBV therapy is not occlusive. Characterization of baseline perfusion may enhance clinical results of patients with emphysema undergoing EBV therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00000606; URL: www.clincialtrials.gov.

  6. Impact of Exercise and Aging on Rat Urine and Blood Metabolome. An LC-MS Based Metabolomics Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Deda, Olga; Gika, Helen G.; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Raikos, Νikolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable condition leading to health deterioration and death. Regular physical exercise can moderate the metabolic phenotype changes of aging. However, only a small number of metabolomics-based studies provide data on the effect of exercise along with aging. Here, urine and whole blood samples from Wistar rats were analyzed in a longitudinal study to explore metabolic alterations due to exercise and aging. The study comprised three different programs of exercises, including a life-long protocol which started at the age of 5 months and ended at the age of 21 months. An acute exercise session was also evaluated. Urine and whole blood samples were collected at different time points and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography–tandem Mass Spectrometry). Based on their metabolic profiles, samples from trained and sedentary rats were differentiated. The impact on the metabolome was found to depend on the length of exercise period with acute exercise also showing significant changes. Metabolic alterations due to aging were equally pronounced in sedentary and trained rats in both urine and blood analyzed samples. PMID:28241477

  7. Impact of metformin treatment and swimming exercise on visfatin levels in high-fat-induced obesity rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya; Wang, Changjiang; Pan, Tianrong; Luo, Li

    2014-02-01

    Visfatin is a recently discovered adipocytokine that contributes to glucose and obesity-related conditions. Until now, its responses to the insulin-sensitizing agent metformin and to exercise are largely unknown. We aim to investigate the impact of metformin treatment and/or swimming exercise on serum visfatin and visfatin levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), peri-renal adipose tissue (PAT) and skeletal muscle (SM) of high-fat-induced obesity rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks to develop obesity model. The high-fat-induced obesity model rats were then randomized to metformin (MET), swimming exercise (SWI), or adjunctive therapy of metformin and swimming exercise (MAS), besides high-fat obesity control group and a normal control group, all with 10 rats per group. Zoometric and glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and serum visfatin levels were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of therapy. Visfatin levels in SAT, PAT and SM were determined by Western Blot. Metformin and swimming exercise improved lipid profile, and increased insulin sensitivity and body weight reduction were observed. Both metformin and swimming exercise down-regulated visfatin levels in SAT and PAT, while the adjunctive therapy conferred greater benefits, but no changes of visfatin levels were observed in SM. Our results indicate that visfatin down-regulation in SAT and PAT may be one of the mechanisms by which metformin and swimming exercise inhibit obesity.

  8. Impact of exercise with TheraBite device on trismus and health-related quality of life: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, Charlotte; Finizia, Caterina; Pauli, Nina; Fagerberg-Mohlin, Bodil; Andréll, Paulin

    2017-01-01

    Trismus is a common symptom in patients with head and neck cancer that affects many aspects of daily life negatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of structured exercise with the jaw-mobilizing device TheraBite on trismus, trismus-related symptomatology, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with head and neck cancer. Fifteen patients with trismus (maximum interincisal opening [MIO] ≤35 mm) after oncologic treatment for head and neck cancer, underwent a 10-week exercise program with the TheraBite device and were followed regularly. Time between oncologic treatment and start of TheraBite exercise ranged from 0.7 to 14.8 years (average 6.2 years). MIO, trismus-related symptoms, and HRQL was assessed before and after exercise and after 6 months. A significant improvement in MIO was observed post-exercise (3.5 mm, 15.3%, p = 0.0002) and after 6-month of follow-up (4.7 mm, 22.1%, p = 0.0029). A statistically significant correlation was found between increased MIO and fewer trismus-related symptoms. In conclusion, exercise with TheraBite improved MIO and trismus-related symptoms in patients with trismus secondary to head and neck cancer. Structured exercise with the jaw-mobilizing device seems to be beneficial for patients with trismus independent of time since oncologic treatment.

  9. The positive impact of regular exercise program on stem cell mobilization prior to autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Keser, Ilke; Suyani, Elif; Aki, Sahika Zeynep; Sucak, Ayhan Gulsan Turkoz

    2013-10-01

    The present study was planned to determine the effects of regular exercise program on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization prior to autologous stem cell transplantation. Twenty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. A regular 20 min exercise program was administered to the patients. The hematopoietic stem cell mobilization outcome, number of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) and aphaeresis application days were compared with 20 case-matched controls who did not receive exercise program during HSC mobilization. The median number of CD34(+) stem cells collected in the exercise and control groups were 8.15 × 10(6)/kg (range: 2.85-33.06 × 10(6)/kg) and 7.3 × 10(6)/kg (range: 1.78-25.9 × 10(6)/kg), respectively (p=0.696). G-CSF was administered for a median of 8 days (range, 5-10) in the exercise group and 8 days (range, 5-12) in the control group (p=0.848). The median apheresis duration was 1 day (range, 1-3) in both exercise and control groups (p=0.226). Exercise seems to have a positive impact on stem cell mobilization though without statistical significance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of the reference imaging modality, registration method and intraoperative flat-panel computed tomography on the accuracy of the ROSA® stereotactic robot.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Michel; Capel, Cyril; Pruvot, Anne Sophie; Fichten, Anthony; Desenclos, Christine; Toussaint, Patrick; Le Gars, Daniel; Peltier, Johan

    2014-01-01

    To establish the impact of the imaging modality, registration method and use of intraoperative computed tomography (CT) scan on the accuracy of the ROSA® stereotactic robot. Using a dedicated phantom device, we measured the accuracy of the stereotactic robot for 20 targets as a function of the registration method (frameless, FL, or frame-based, FB) and the reference imaging modality (3T magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, CT scanner or flat-panel CT, fpCT). We performed a retrospective study of the accuracy of the first 26 FB and 31 FL robotized stereotactic surgeries performed in our department. In a phantom study, the mean target accuracy was 1.59 mm for 3T MRI-guided FL surgery, 0.3 mm for fpCT-guided FL surgery and 0.3 mm for CT-guided FB surgery. In our retrospective series, the mean accuracy was 0.81 mm for FB stereotactic surgery, 1.22 mm for our 24 stereotactic surgery procedures with FL (surface recognition) registration and 0.7 mm for our 7 stereotactic surgery procedures with FL fiducial marker registration. Intraoperative fpCT fully corrected all the registration errors. The ROSA stereotactic robot is highly accurate. Robotized FB stereotactic surgery is more accurate than robotized FL stereotactic surgery. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Impact of Prior Tonsillitis and Treatment Modality on the Recurrence of Peritonsillar Abscess: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Piao; Wang, Mao-Che; Lin, Hung-Ching; Chou, Pesus

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest an increased risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) recurrence in patients with prior tonsillitis. However, this association is inconsistent and could be confounded by different treatment modalities. This study aimed to assess the risk of recurrence among PTA patients with different degrees of prior tonsillitis and treatment modalities, and the role of tonsillectomy in current practice. Methods All in-patients with peritonsillar abscess between January 2001 and December 2009 were identified in a nationwide, retrospective cohort study. Recurrence was defined as the first occurrence of PTA ≧30 days from the initial PTA. Factors independently associated with recurrence were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for demographic and clinical data. Results There were 28,837 patients, with a 5.15% recurrence rate and 4.74 years of follow-up. The recurrence rates were significantly higher among subjects with more than five prior tonsillitis or 1–4 prior tonsillitis compared to those without prior tonsillitis (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.82 [95% confidence interval, 2.39–3.33] and 1.59 [95% CI: 1.38–1.82]). The adjusted HR in patients treated with needle aspiration was 1.08 compared to those treated with incision & drainage (95% CI: 0.85–1.38). After age stratification, the adjusted HRs of more than five prior tonsillitis increased to 2.92 and 3.50 in patients aged ≦18 and 19–29 years respectively. The adjusted HR ofneedle aspiration only increased in patients ≦18 years old (aHR: 1.98 [95% CI: 0.99–3.97]). The overall tonsillectomy rate was 1.48% during our study period. Conclusions The risk of PTA recurrence increases with higher degrees of prior tonsillitis in all age groups and management by needle aspiration only in the pediatric population. Patients younger than 30 years old with PTA and more than five prior tonsillitis have the greatest risk of recurrence. PMID:25291179

  12. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations and seizures: differential impact on the time to seizure-free state according to the treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kong, Doo-Sik; Lee, Jung-Il; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hong, Seung-Chyul

    2012-06-01

    To determine the prognostic factors for the incidence and the outcome of seizure in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and to identify the time to seizure-free state according to the treatment modalities. Between 1995 and 2008, the multidisciplinary team at our institution treated 399 patients with cerebral AVMs. Treatment consisted of surgical resection, radiosurgery, and embolization, either alone or in combination. The median follow-up period was 6.0 years (range, 3.0-16.2 years). Eighty-six patients (21.5 %) experienced seizures before treatment. We investigated the variables associated with seizure incidence and seizure outcome and analyzed the outcomes of seizure among each treatment modality. After treatment, 60 (70 %) patients were seizure-free. Compared with 313 patients who did not experience seizures, we found that younger age (≤ 35 years), size ≥ 3 cm, and location of temporal lobe were associated with seizures (p < 0.05). Short seizure history, accompanying intracerebral hemorrhage, generalized tonic-clonic type seizure, deep-seated or infratentorial AVM, complete obliteration of AVM, and a favorable neurological outcome at 12 months were closely associated with Engel Class I outcomes (p < 0.05). Seizure-free outcomes after microsurgery, radiosurgery, or embolization were 78 %, 66 %, and 50 %, respectively. The overall annual bleeding rate was 1.0 % and 2.2 % in microsurgery-treated and radiosurgery-treated AVMs, respectively. In the surgery group, the median time to seizure-free status was 1.1 months (95 % CI, 0.7-1.2 months), whereas the radiosurgery group and embolization-alone group showed 20.5 months (95 % CI, 18.3-23.8 months), and 8.1 months (95 % CI, 6.0-13.5 months), respectively. A multidisciplinary team approach for cerebral AVMs achieved satisfactory seizure control results. Microsurgery led to the highest percentage of seizure-free outcomes and had the lowest annual bleeding rate, whereas radiosurgery had a higher

  13. Impact of physical exercise/activity on vascular structure and inflammation in pediatric populations: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; de Moura Mello Antunes, Barbara; Lira, Fabio Santos; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-07-01

    To describe the effects of physical exercise/activity on the vascular architecture of children and adolescents, as well as to identify the effects of inflammation and sedentary behaviors on this relationship. Potentially relevant articles were identified in the databases MEDLINE and PubMed covering the period from 2000 to 2015. No language restrictions were applied. Thirteen articles were found that included obese boys and girls in their samples (aged 9-19). Six interventional studies assessed inflammation and in five of these, physical exercise decreased inflammation. In 10 studies, vascular architecture was affected by physical exercise/activity. The impact of physical exercise on vascular architecture and inflammation seems relevant, but has been mainly investigated in obese groups. Health professionals should act together in organized interventions in schools, targeting the promotion of higher physical activity levels in children and adolescents. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Impact of a Submaximal Level of Exercise on Balance Performance in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a submaximal level of exercise on balance performance under a variety of conditions. Material and Method. Thirteen community-dwelling older persons with intact foot sensation (age = 66.69 ± 8.17 years, BMI = 24.65 ± 4.08 kg/m2, female, n = 6) volunteered to participate. Subjects' balance performances were measured using the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration of Balance (mCTSIB) at baseline and after test, under four conditions of stance: (1) eyes-opened firm-surface (EOF), (2) eyes-closed firm-surface (ECF), (3) eyes-opened soft-surface (EOS), and (4) eyes-closed soft-surface (ECS). The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) protocol was used to induce the submaximal level of exercise. Data was analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. Results. Balance changes during EOF (z = 0.00, P = 1.00) and ECF (z = −1.342, P = 0.180) were not significant. However, balance changes during EOS (z = −2.314, P = 0.021) and ECS (z = −3.089, P = 0.02) were significantly dropped after the 6MWT. Conclusion. A submaximal level of exercise may influence sensory integration that in turn affects balance performance, particularly on an unstable surface. Rehabilitation should focus on designing intervention that may improve sensory integration among older individuals with balance deterioration in order to encourage functional activities. PMID:25383386

  15. The Impact of Exercise on the Vulnerability of Dopamine Neurons to Cell Death in Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0479 TITLE: The Impact of Exercise on the...To) 16 Jun 2006 – 15 Jun 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Impact of Exercise on the Vulnerability of Dopamine Neurons to...Parkinson’s disease results in part from the loss of dopamine neurons. We hypothesize that exercise reduces the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to

  16. Experimental Guidelines for Studies Designed to Investigate the Impact of Antioxidant Supplementation on Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott K.; Smuder, Ashley J.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Hudson, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    Research interest in the effects of antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress and human performance continues to grow as new scientists enter this field. Consequently, there is a need to establish an acceptable set of criteria for monitoring antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage in tissues. Numerous reports have described a wide range of assays to detect both antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage to biomolecules, but many techniques are not appropriate in all experimental conditions. Here, the authors present guidelines for selecting and interpreting methods that can be used by scientists to investigate the impact of antioxidants on both exercise performance and the redox status of tissues. Moreover, these guidelines will be useful for reviewers who are assigned the task of evaluating studies on this topic. The set of guidelines contained in this report is not designed to be a strict set of rules, because often the appropriate procedures depend on the question being addressed and the experimental model. Furthermore, because no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate in every experimental situation, the authors strongly recommend using multiple assays to verify a change in biomarkers of oxidative stress or redox balance. PMID:20190346

  17. Impact of a personalized versus moderate-intensity exercise prescription: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Margaret; Schmalbach, Priel; Godkin, Sophia

    2017-04-01

    Effective approaches to promote adolescent physical activity are needed. Moreover, a one-size-fits-all approach has been minimally successful to date. This randomized controlled trial evaluates a theory-based personalized exercise prescription to enhance motivation for being active and physical activity participation among adolescent reluctant exercisers. Adolescents were characterized by affective style as reluctant (predisposed to negative affect during exercise) or latent (predisposed to positive affect during exercise) exercisers based on their affective response to an acute exercise task, and then randomly assigned to an exercise prescription of either a personalized or a moderate intensity. Assignment was double-blind. Assessments were pre- and post- the 8-week intervention. Participants were an ethnically diverse group of adolescents (19 % non-Latino White) in a public middle-school. The exercise intensity manipulation and assessments took place at the school site during regular Physical Education. Participants were assigned to either a moderate-intensity exercise prescription [target heart rate (HR) range 60-80 % of HR max] or a personalized exercise prescription corresponding to an intensity that "feels good" to the individual for 8 weeks during daily Physical Education. Outcome measures included exercise-related intrinsic motivation (via questionnaire), and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; via accelerometer). The exercise intensity manipulation did not yield actual differences in exercise intensity during PE, and had no effect on either Intrinsic Motivation or MVPA. There was no significant interaction between affective style and group assignment in predicting Intrinsic Motivation or MVPA. This study did not find support for a link between affective experiences during exercise and physical activity participation. Providing adolescents with a personalized exercise intensity prescription and asking them to follow the prescription

  18. Impact of a Simulation Exercise on Pharmacy Student Attitude toward Poverty.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Cheryl; Sedlacek, Renee K; Watson, Susan B

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of a simulation on pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty using the Attitude toward Poverty (ATP) Short Form scale. Methods. Second-year pharmacy students participated in the 3-hour Missouri Association for Community Action Poverty Simulation. Students completed a survey of the ATP Short Form scale prior to and following participation in the simulation. Results. Significant improvements in attitude were noted in 15 of 21 ATP Short Form items. Improvements in the stigma and structural domains were significant while improvement in the personal deficiency domain was not significant. Conclusions. This poverty simulation exercise positively altered pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty. When combined with didactic and experiential curriculum, this simulation may enhance student achievement of the 2013 Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcome subdomain of cultural sensitivity.

  19. Impact of a Simulation Exercise on Pharmacy Student Attitude toward Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Sedlacek, Renee K.; Watson, Susan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of a simulation on pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty using the Attitude toward Poverty (ATP) Short Form scale. Methods. Second-year pharmacy students participated in the 3-hour Missouri Association for Community Action Poverty Simulation. Students completed a survey of the ATP Short Form scale prior to and following participation in the simulation. Results. Significant improvements in attitude were noted in 15 of 21 ATP Short Form items. Improvements in the stigma and structural domains were significant while improvement in the personal deficiency domain was not significant. Conclusions. This poverty simulation exercise positively altered pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty. When combined with didactic and experiential curriculum, this simulation may enhance student achievement of the 2013 Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcome subdomain of cultural sensitivity. PMID:27073274

  20. [Modalities of mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Subirana, M; Bazan, P

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation improves the symptoms and reduces complications of acute respiratory failure. Recent advances in microprocessor technology have increased the sophistication of mechanical ventilators, thus leading to new ventilation modalities. This article describes the ventilation modalities available, grouping them as conventional, alternative and new modalities. Conventional ventilation includes the most widely used modalities, alternative ventilation includes less frequently used modalities, and new ventilation modalities include recently introduced options that are available on the latest-generation mechanical ventilators.

  1. The Impact of Vocal Cool-down Exercises: A Subjective Study of Singers' and Listeners' Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Kari

    2016-11-01

    Using subjective measures, this study investigated singers' and listeners' perceptions of changes in voice condition after vocal cool-down exercises. A single-subject crossover was designed to evaluate whether there were discernible differences in either singer or listener perceptions from pre (no vocal cool downs) to post (with cool downs) test. Subjective questionnaires were completed throughout the study. Twenty classically trained female singers documented self-ratings and perceptual judgments through the Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily survey, the Singing Voice Handicap Index, and Self-Perceptual Questionnaires after a 60-minute voice load. Recordings were made and assessed by four expert listeners. The assessed data from the Singing Voice Handicap Index, the Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily, and Daily Perceptual Questionnaires show 68%, 67%, and 74% of singers reported improvement, respectively. However, because of significant variability in the underlying scores, the amount of improvement was not deemed to be statistically significant. Expert listeners correctly identified the cool-down week 46% of the time. Singers strongly perceived positive impact from the cool-down exercises on both their speaking and singing voices. Even though the objective data were statistically insignificant, the singers' subjective data clearly indicates a perceived sense of vocal well-being after utilizing the vocal cool-down protocol. The variability in the daily life of a singer (eg, stress, menses, reflux, vocal load, and vocal hygiene) makes it difficult to objectively quantify the impact of vocal cool downs. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Authentic Learning Exercises on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy to Perform Bullying Prevention Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teachers and preservice teachers may neglect intervening into and/or leading efforts to prevent bullying because they the lack confidence to do so. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of authentic learning exercises on health education preservice teachers' self-efficacy to perform bullying prevention…

  3. Impact of Authentic Learning Exercises on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy to Perform Bullying Prevention Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teachers and preservice teachers may neglect intervening into and/or leading efforts to prevent bullying because they the lack confidence to do so. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of authentic learning exercises on health education preservice teachers' self-efficacy to perform bullying prevention…

  4. Impact of the modal aerosol scheme GLOMAP-mode on aerosol forcing in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellouin, N.; Mann, G. W.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Johnson, C.; Carslaw, K. S.; Dalvi, M.

    2013-03-01

    The Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM) includes two aerosol schemes: the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies in Climate (CLASSIC), and the new Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP-mode). GLOMAP-mode is a modal aerosol microphysics scheme that simulates not only aerosol mass but also aerosol number, represents internally-mixed particles, and includes aerosol microphysical processes such as nucleation. In this study, both schemes provide hindcast simulations of natural and anthropogenic aerosol species for the period 2000-2006. HadGEM simulations of the aerosol optical depth using GLOMAP-mode compare better than CLASSIC against a data-assimilated aerosol re-analysis and aerosol ground-based observations. Because of differences in wet deposition rates, GLOMAP-mode sulphate aerosol residence time is two days longer than CLASSIC sulphate aerosols, whereas black carbon residence time is much shorter. As a result, CLASSIC underestimates aerosol optical depths in continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere and likely overestimates absorption in remote regions. Aerosol direct and first indirect radiative forcings are computed from simulations of aerosols with emissions for the year 1850 and 2000. In 1850, GLOMAP-mode predicts lower aerosol optical depths and higher cloud droplet number concentrations than CLASSIC. Consequently, simulated clouds are much less susceptible to natural and anthropogenic aerosol changes when the microphysical scheme is used. In particular, the response of cloud condensation nuclei to an increase in dimethyl sulphide emissions becomes a factor of four smaller. The combined effect of different 1850 baselines, residence times, and abilities to affect cloud droplet number, leads to substantial differences in the aerosol forcings simulated by the two schemes. GLOMAP-mode finds a present-day direct aerosol forcing of -0.49 W m-2 on a global average, 72% stronger than the corresponding forcing from CLASSIC. This

  5. Impact of the modal aerosol scheme GLOMAP-mode on aerosol forcing in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellouin, N.; Mann, G. W.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Johnson, C.; Carslaw, K. S.; Dalvi, M.

    2012-08-01

    The Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM) includes two aerosol schemes: the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies in Climate (CLASSIC), and the new Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP-mode). GLOMAP-mode is a modal aerosol microphysics scheme that simulates not only aerosol mass but also aerosol number, represents internally-mixed particles, and includes aerosol microphysical processes such as nucleation. In this study, both schemes provide hindcast simulations of natural and anthropogenic aerosol species for the period 2000-2006. HadGEM simulations using GLOMAP-mode compare better than CLASSIC against a data-assimilated aerosol re-analysis and aerosol ground-based observations. GLOMAP-mode sulphate aerosol residence time is two days longer than CLASSIC sulphate aerosols, whereas black carbon residence time is much shorter. As a result, CLASSIC underestimates aerosol optical depths in continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere and likely overestimates absorption in remote regions. Aerosol direct and first indirect radiative forcings are computed from simulations of aerosols with emissions for the year 1850 and 2000. In 1850, GLOMAP-mode predicts lower aerosol optical depths and higher cloud droplet number concentrations than CLASSIC. Consequently, simulated clouds are much less susceptible to natural and anthropogenic aerosol changes when the microphysical scheme is used. In particular, the response of cloud condensation nuclei to an increase in dimethyl sulphide emissions becomes a factor of four smaller. The combined effect of different 1850 baselines, residence times, and cloud susceptibilities, leads to substantial differences in the aerosol forcings simulated by the two schemes. GLOMAP-mode finds a present-day direct aerosol forcing of -0.49 W m-2 on a global average, 72% stronger than the corresponding forcing from CLASSIC. This difference is compensated by changes in first indirect aerosol forcing: the forcing of -1.17 W m-2

  6. [Impact of strength training exercise on secondary prevention of childhood obesity; an intervention within the school system].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Fabián; Díaz, Erik; Lera, Lydia; Meza, Jorge; Salas, Isabel; Rojas, Pamela; Atalah, Eduardo; Burrows, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    The physical exercise is an important therapeutic tool to prevent and treat obesity, as well as reducing metabolic alterations and the risk of non-communicable diseases. To evaluate the impact of a strength training exercise intervention within the school system, this includes muscular strength exercise, dietary education and psychological support in obese children. We worked with 120 obese schoolchildren, between 8 and 13 years, recruited from 3 schools. Group 1 (n = 60) participated in the intervention, which included physical exercise, dietary education, and psychological support, for 3 months. Group 2 (n = 60) received only the educational intervention and psychological support for the first 3 months, and then received the exercise intervention from months 3 to 6. Participants were evaluated for BMI, waist circumference, body fat, presence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. At 3 months, there were significant differences between the groups for change in BMI z-score, waist circumference, and body fat as well as prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and fasting hyperglycemia. In group 1, these parameters decreased and increased, in group 2. From months 3 to 6, Group 2 showed a significant decrease in abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, and hypertriglyceridemia, while Group 1 showed a significant increase in high blood pressure and no change in other cardiovascular risk factors. This study demonstrates the positive impact of a strength training physical exercise program on reduction of body fat, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. This study supports the use of exercise as a treatment for obesity and its comorbidities in schoolchildren. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Timing of moderate-to-vigorous exercise and its impact on subsequent energy intake in young males.

    PubMed

    Albert, Marie-Helene; Drapeau, Vicky; Mathieu, Marie-Eve

    2015-11-01

    Exercise can suppress appetite and energy intake but the impact of the timing of exercise remains unknown. Knowing that orexigenic hormone levels decrease during exercise but rapidly increase afterward, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether energy intake is increasingly reduced when exercise immediately precedes a meal compared to when a delay occurs between the exercise and the meal. Non-obese boys (15-20 years old; N=12) were individually evaluated while performing two randomly assigned experimental visits: 1) a 30-min exercise session of moderate-to-vigorous intensity followed immediately by an ad libitum buffet at 12 PM and 2), an identical session followed by a 135-min waiting period and an ad libitum buffet-type meal at 12 PM. In both conditions, a snack in the afternoon and a second ad libitum buffet-type meal at 5 PM were served. Findings showed that hunger ratings were similar under both conditions. The exercise session immediately prior to the meal compared with the condition with a >2h delay led to reduction of 11% and 23% in overall and lipid energy intakes at lunch, respectively (P-values>0.05). No significant differences were found in the energy intakes from the afternoon snack and dinner. Apart from lipids at lunch, the proportions of energy from the various macronutrients at each meal were similar. This study reveals that being physically active before a meal plays a role in acute energy intake reduction when a shorter delay is present between exercise and a meal. In addition, the absence of compensation over several hours is noteworthy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of a short walking exercise on gait kinematics in children with cerebral palsy who walk in a crouch gait.

    PubMed

    Parent, Audrey; Raison, Maxime; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Marois, Pierre; Maltais, Désirée B; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    Crouch gait results in an increase of the joint stress due to an excessive knee flexion. Daily walking exercises, even when performed at a self-selected speed, may result in a decrease of the extensor muscle strength which could lead to a more severe crouch gait pattern. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a short walking exercise on gait kinematics in children with cerebral palsy who walk with a crouch gait. Seven children with cerebral palsy who walk with a crouch gait were asked to walk for 6min at a self-selected speed. The spatio-temporal and kinematic measures, as well as the center of mass position were compared before and after the exercise. There was no significant difference between walking speed before and after the walking exercise. Knee flexion and the maximal ankle dorsiflexion increased after the walking exercise. The vertical position of the center of mass decreased. No significant difference was found at the hip. Children with cerebral palsy who walk with a crouch gait were more crouched after a 6-min walking exercise performed at their self-selected speed. These gait modifications could be due to fatigue of the extensor muscle groups. This study highlighted that a short walking exercise, corresponding to daily mobility, results in gait pattern modifications. Since therapies in children with cerebral palsy aim to improve motor function in everyday life situations, it could be relevant to evaluate gait adaptation after a few minutes of walking exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An introduction to physical therapy modalities.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brenda L; Liebert, Rainer B; Lininger, Monica R; Groth, Jessica J

    2007-05-01

    Timely and appropriate rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries is the most effective way of restoring full function and decreasing the likelihood of recurrence of the same injury. Application of specific physical therapy modalities and therapeutic exercises is based on the stages of healing. A typical physical therapy protocol progresses sequentially through the following phases: pain control, restoring range of motion, restoring strength, neuromuscular retraining, and return to full activity. The commonly used modalities reviewed here include heat, cold, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, and electrical stimulation. In this article we provide a basic review of physical therapy modalities.

  10. Exercise and Prebiotics Produce Stress Resistance: Converging Impacts on Stress-Protective and Butyrate-Producing Gut Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mika, A; Rumian, N; Loughridge, A B; Fleshner, M

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbial ecosystem can mediate the negative health impacts of stress on the host. Stressor-induced disruptions in microbial ecology (dysbiosis) can lead to maladaptive health effects, while certain probiotic organisms and their metabolites can protect against these negative impacts. Prebiotic diets and exercise are feasible and cost-effective strategies that can increase stress-protective bacteria and produce resistance against the detrimental behavioral and neurobiological impacts of stress. The goal of this review is to describe research demonstrating that both prebiotic diets and exercise produce adaptations in gut ecology and the brain that arm the organism against inescapable stress-induced learned helplessness. The results of this research support the novel hypothesis that some of the stress-protective effects of prebiotics and exercise are due to increases in stress-protective gut microbial species and their metabolites. In addition, new evidence also suggests that prebiotic diet or exercise interventions are most effective if given early in life (juvenile-adolescence) when both the gut microbial ecosystem and the brain are plastic. Based on our new understanding of the mechanistic convergence of these interventions, it is feasible to propose that in adults, both interventions delivered in combination may elevate their efficacy to promote a stress-resistant phenotype. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Impact of physical activity and exercise on bone health in the life course : a review].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, D; Hebestreit, A; Ahrens, W

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise are important determinants for metabolic and cardiovascular health. They also play an important role for bone health in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. This review summarizes results from observational and intervention studies which evaluated the association between physical activity/exercise and bone health in different life course stages. In childhood and adolescence, physical activity and exercise induce improved bone accrual. In adulthood, mainly in postmenopausal women, long-term exercise programs reduce age-related bone loss. Especially weight-bearing activities seem to have an important osteogenic effect. Children and adolescent show a higher bone accrual until 5 years after cessation of an exercise program compared to their peers, who do not participate in an exercise program. In contrast, adults who quit exercising have a higher decrease in bone stiffness compared to adults who never exercised. This effect was particularly seen in postmenopausal women. Continuous physical activity and exercise over the life course and the implementation of exercise programs in schools and community-based intervention programs can help prevent or even reduce osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures. Due to the lack of prospective longitudinal studies, the supposed long-term sustainable protective effect of physical activity and exercise in childhood and adolescent on bone health in later adulthood is not well established.

  12. The impact of automatically activated motivation on exercise-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Banting, Lauren K; Dimmock, James A; Grove, J Robert

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of motivational primes on participants (N = 171) during a cycling task. Relative to participants primed with a controlled motivational orientation, it was hypothesized that participants primed for autonomous motivation would report greater feelings of enjoyment, effort, and choice in relation to the cycling activity and report greater exercise intentions. Members of the autonomous prime group were expected to exercise for longer, at a greater percentage of their heart rate maximum, and report lower levels of perceived exertion than those in the controlled prime condition. It was found that, relative to participants in the controlled prime group, those who received the autonomous prime enjoyed the exercise more, exercised at a greater percentage of heart rate maximum, and reported a lower rating of perceived exertion. Furthermore, participants experiencing the controlled prime exercised for less time and had lower intentions to exercise than did other participants. Results highlight the importance of automatic processes in activating motivation for exercise.

  13. Impact of CPAP on physical exercise tolerance and sympathetic-vagal balance in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Hugo V.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Catai, Aparecida M.; Reis, Michel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) leads to exercise intolerance. However, non-invasive ventilation is able to improve functional capacity of patients with CHF. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on physical exercise tolerance and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with CHF. Method : Seven men with CHF (62±8 years) and left ventricle ejection fraction of 41±8% were submitted to an incremental symptom-limited exercise test (IT) on the cicloergometer. On separate days, patients were randomized to perform four constant work rate exercise tests to maximal tolerance with and without CPAP (5 cmH2O) in the following conditions: i) at 50% of peak work rate of IT; and ii) at 75% of peak work rate of IT. At rest and during these conditions, instantaneous heart rate (HR) was recorded using a cardiofrequencimeter and HRV was analyzed in time domain (SDNN and RMSSD indexes). For statistical procedures, Wilcoxon test or Kruskall-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc were used accordingly. In addition, categorical variables were analysed through Fischer's test (p<0.05). Results: There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance at 75% of peak work rate of IT with CPAP (405±52 vs. 438±58 s). RMSSD indexes were lower during exercise tests compared to CPAP at rest and with 50% of peak work rate of IT. Conclusion: These data suggest that CPAP appears to be a useful strategy to improve functional capacity in patients with CHF. However, the positive impact of CPAP did not generate significant changes in the HRV during physical exercises. PMID:25003274

  14. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  15. Impact of aerobic exercise training on heart rate variability and functional capacity in obese women after gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Castello, Viviane; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Bassi, Daniela; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern on a global scale. Bariatric surgery is among the treatment options, resulting in significant and sustainable weight loss as well as amelioration of comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a 12-week aerobic exercise program positively impacts heart rate variability (HRV) and functional capacity after gastric bypass surgery (GBS) in a female cohort. Of the 52 patients initially recruited, 21 were randomized to a training group (TG) or control group and successfully completed the study. Patients were tested on two occasions: 1 week before GBS and 4 months after GBS. Anthropometric variables, body composition, record of heart rate and R-R intervals, and 6-min walk test (6MWT) were assessed at both time points. The TG underwent an aerobic exercise training program on a treadmill (1-h session, totaling 36 sessions over 12 weeks). The main findings from this study were: (1) only the TG demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05) in all indexes of heart rate variability (HRV) after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training and (2) only the TG demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05) in 6MWT distance and decrease in diastolic blood pressure after aerobic exercise training. We conclude that 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training improves cardiac autonomic modulation and functional capacity 4 months after GBS.

  16. The Impact of Exercise On Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Among Abstinent Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals in A Residential Treatment Setting.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Richard A; Chudzynski, Joy; Gonzales, Rachel; Mooney, Larissa; Dickerson, Daniel; Ang, Alfonso; Dolezal, Brett; Cooper, Christopher B

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports data from a study designed to determine the impact of an 8-week exercise program on depression and anxiety symptoms among newly abstinent methamphetamine (MA)-dependent individuals in residential treatment. One hundred thirty-five MA-dependent individuals, newly enrolled in residential treatment, were randomly assigned to receive either a 3-times-per-week, 60-minute structured exercise program for 8 weeks (24 sessions) or an equivalent number of health education sessions. Using mixed-modeling repeated-measures regression, we examined changes in weekly total depression and anxiety scores as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory over the 8-week study period. Mean age of participants was 31.7 (SD = 6.9); 70.4% were male and 48% Latino. Analyses indicate a significant effect of exercise on reducing depression (β = -0.63, P = 0.001) and anxiety (β = -0.95, P=0.001) symptoms (total scores) over the 8-week period compared to a health education control group. A significant dose interaction effect between session attendance and exercise was found as well on reducing depression (β = -0.61, P < 0.001) and anxiety symptoms (β = -0.22, P=0.009) over time compared to the control group. Results support the role of a structured exercise program as an effective intervention for improving symptoms of depression and anxiety associated with MA abstinence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise Training, Lymphocyte Subsets and Their Cytokines Production: Experience of an Italian Professional Football Team and Their Impact on Allergy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. In recent years, numerous articles have attempted to shed light on our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced immunologic changes and their impact on allergy and asthma. It is known that lymphocyte subclasses, cytokines, and chemokines show modifications after exercise, but outcomes can be affected by the type of exercise as well as by its intensity and duration. Interesting data have been presented in many recent studies on mouse models, but few studies on humans have been performed to check the long-term effects of exercise over a whole championship season. Methods. This study evaluated lymphocyte subsets and their intracellular IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production in professional football (soccer) players, at three stages of the season, to evaluate if alterations occur, particularly in relation to their allergic status. Results and Conclusion. Despite significant mid-season alterations, no significant lymphocyte subclasses count modifications, except for NKs that were significantly higher, were observed at the end. IL-2 and IL-4 producing cells showed a significant decrease (P = 0.018 and P = 0.001, but in a steady fashion for IL-4), confirming the murine data about the potential beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for allergic asthma. PMID:25050349

  18. Exercise training, lymphocyte subsets and their cytokines production: experience of an Italian professional football team and their impact on allergy.

    PubMed

    Del Giacco, Stefano R; Scorcu, Marco; Argiolas, Federico; Firinu, Davide; Del Giacco, G Sergio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, numerous articles have attempted to shed light on our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced immunologic changes and their impact on allergy and asthma. It is known that lymphocyte subclasses, cytokines, and chemokines show modifications after exercise, but outcomes can be affected by the type of exercise as well as by its intensity and duration. Interesting data have been presented in many recent studies on mouse models, but few studies on humans have been performed to check the long-term effects of exercise over a whole championship season. This study evaluated lymphocyte subsets and their intracellular IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production in professional football (soccer) players, at three stages of the season, to evaluate if alterations occur, particularly in relation to their allergic status. Despite significant mid-season alterations, no significant lymphocyte subclasses count modifications, except for NKs that were significantly higher, were observed at the end. IL-2 and IL-4 producing cells showed a significant decrease (P = 0.018 and P = 0.001, but in a steady fashion for IL-4), confirming the murine data about the potential beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for allergic asthma.

  19. Temporal Changes in Left Ventricular Mechanics: Impact of Bed Rest and Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Martin, David S.; Downs, Meghan; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current techniques used to assess cardiac function following spaceflight or head-down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) involve invasive and time consuming procedures such as Swan-Ganz catheterization or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. An alternative approach, echocardiography, can monitor cardiac morphology and function via sequential measurements of left ventricular (LV) mass and ejection fraction (EF). However, LV mass and EF are insensitive measures of early (subclinical) cardiac deconditioning, and a decrease in LV mass and EF become evident only once significant deconditioning has already occurred. The use of more sensitive and specific echocardiographic techniques such as speckle tracking imaging may address the current limitations of conventional cardiac imaging techniques to provide insight into the magnitude and time course of cardiac deconditioning. METHODS Speckle tracking assessment of longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain and twist was used to evaluate the impact of 70 days of HDTBR (n=7) and HDTBR + exercise (n=11) on temporal changes in LV mechanics. Echocardiograms were performed pre (BR-2), during (BR31, 70), and following (BR+4hr) HDTBR. Multi-level modeling was used to evaluate the effect of HDTBR condition (Control, Exercise) on cardiac variables. RESULTS Compared to BR-2, longitudinal (BR-2: - 19.0 +/- 1.8%; BR31: -15.9 +/- 2.4%; BR70: -14.9 +/- 2.4%; BR+4hr: -16.0 +/- 2.1%) and radial (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 1.9%; BR31: 12.3 +/- 2.4%; BR70: 11.3 +/- 2.2%; BR+4hr: 13.5 +/- 2.5% ) strains were significantly impaired during and following bed rest (p<0.05), while twist (BR-2: 18.0 +/- 4.0deg; BR31: 18.1 +/- 3.8deg; BR70: 17.0 +/- 3.6deg; BR+4hr:18.1 +/- 4.3deg) was significantly decreased at BR70 (p<0.05). In contrast, exercise preserved LV mechanics for longitudinal strain (BR-2: -19.1 +/- 1.5%; BR 31: -19.0 +/- 2.4%; BR70: -19.1 +/- 2.7%; BR+4hr: -17.8 +/- 2.1%), radial strain (BR-2: 13.8 +/- 2.4; BR31: 14.7 +/- 2.4; BR70: 14.4 +/- 1

  20. Effect of low-impact aerobic exercise combined with music therapy on patients with fibromyalgia. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Espí-López, Gemma V; Inglés, Marta; Ruescas-Nicolau, María-Arántzazu; Moreno-Segura, Noemí

    2016-10-01

    Fibromyalgia is a pathological entity characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain and the presence of "tender points". It constitutes a significant health problem because of its prevalence and economic impact. The aim of the present study was to determine the therapeutic benefits of low impact aerobic exercise alone or in combination with music therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. A single-blind randomized controlled pilot trial was performed. Thirty-five individuals with fibromyalgia were divided into three groups: (G1) therapeutic aerobic exercise with music therapy (n=13); (G2) therapeutic aerobic exercise at any rhythm (n=13) and (CG) control (n=9). The intervention period lasted eight weeks. Depression, quality of life, general discomfort and balance were assessed before and after intervention. At post-intervention, group G1 improved in all variables (depression (p=0.002), quality of life (p=0.017), general discomfort (p=0.001), and balance (p=0.000)), while group G2 improved in general discomfort (p=0.002). The change observed in balance was statistically different between groups (p=0.01). Therapeutic aerobic exercise is effective in improving depression and general discomfort in individuals with fibromyalgia. However, effectiveness is higher when combined with music therapy, which brings about further improvements in quality of life and balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plantar fasciitis: current diagnostic modalities and treatments.

    PubMed

    Healey, Kevin; Chen, Katherine

    2010-07-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. The diagnosis is made clinically and validated with different diagnostic modalities ranging from ultrasound to magnetic resonance imaging. Treatments vary from stretching exercises to different surgical options. No single treatment is guaranteed to alleviate the heel pain.

  2. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise.

  3. Impact of Diet and/or Exercise Intervention on Infrapatellar Fat Pad Morphology: Secondary Analysis from the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) Trial.

    PubMed

    Pogacnik Murillo, Aarón Leonardo; Eckstein, Felix; Wirth, Wolfgang; Beavers, Daniel; Loeser, Richard F; Nicklas, Barbara J; Mihalko, Shannon L; Miller, Gary D; Hunter, David J; Messier, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) represents intra-articular adipose tissue that may contribute to intra-articular inflammation and pain by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we examined the impact of weight loss by diet and/or exercise interventions on the IPFP volume. Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) was a single-blinded, single-center, 18-month, prospective, randomized controlled trial that enrolled 454 overweight and obese older adults with knee pain and radiographic osteoarthritis. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: exercise-only control (E), diet-induced weight loss (D), and diet-induced weight loss + exercise (D+E). In a subsample (n = 106; E: n = 36, D: n = 35, and D+E: n = 35), magnetic resonance images were acquired at baseline and at the 18-month follow-up, from which we analyzed IPFP volume, surface areas, and thickness in this secondary analysis. The average weight loss amounted to 1.0% in the E group, 10.5% in the D group, and 13.0% in the D+E group. A significant (p < 0.01) reduction in IPFP volume was observed in the E (2.1%), D (4.0%), and D+E (5.2%) groups. The IPFP volume loss in the D+E group was significantly greater than that in the E group (p < 0.05) when not adjusting for parallel comparisons. Across intervention groups, there were significant correlations between IPFP volume change, individual weight loss (r = 0.40), and change in total body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; r = 0.44, n = 88) and in subcutaneous thigh fat area (computed tomography; r = 0.32, n = 82). As a potential link between obesity and knee osteoarthritis, the IPFP was sensitive to intervention by diet and/or exercise, and its reduction was correlated with changes in weight and body fat. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The Impact of Continuous and Interval Cycle Exercise on Affect and Enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Greeley, Samuel J; Collins, Larry H

    2015-01-01

    Rates of physical activity remain low despite public health efforts. One form of physical activity that provides significant physiological benefit but has not been evaluated in terms of affective and enjoyment responses is interval exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare affect and enjoyment assessed before, during, and after interval and continuous exercise sessions. Twenty-four participants (12 men, 12 women; body mass index = 24 ± 4, maximal oxygen consumption = 41 ± 5 mL/kg/min) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test used to prescribe experimental trials: (a) moderate continuous, (b) heavy continuous, (c) heavy interval, and (d) severe interval. All trials were 20 min in length, and all intervals utilized 60-s segments and a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. Affective and enjoyment responses were significantly less positive for the heavy continuous trials in comparison with all other trials during exercise (p < .05; ES = .2-.8). Additionally, both severe and heavy interval exercise were more enjoyable than heavy continuous exercise (p > .05). Findings suggest that interval protocols produce affective and enjoyment responses that are equal to moderate continuous exercise and more positive than heavy continuous exercise. These results indicate that interval-based exercise may be a viable alternative to continuous exercise in the promotion of health and fitness.

  5. The impact of exercise on body composition and nutritional intake in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Oka, Roberta K; Sanders, Mark G

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of heart failure patients and the potential synergistic effects between nutritional intake and exercise. This small, randomized trial examined the effects of a 3-month exercise program on body composition and nutritional intake in 31 men (17 exercisers; 14 controls), aged 30-76 years (mean, 56 years) with stable class II-III heart failure. Baseline and 3-month evaluations included body mass index, body fat mass by triceps skinfold thickness, dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire, and the 6-minute walk test. Exercise consisted of walking 3 d/wk and resistance exercises 2 d/wk for 40-60 minutes. Dietary recommendations were consistent with the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology heart failure guidelines. Exercisers decreased body weight (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.0001), and triceps skinfold thickness (p=0.03) and improved 6-minute walk test (p=0.01) compared with controls. Exercisers also demonstrated trends toward decreased total caloric and cholesterol intake and a three-fold higher carbohydrate, fiber, and beta carotene intake vs. controls. In this study population, protein, fiber, and magnesium intake were below recommended daily allowance. After exercise, body mass index was reduced, accompanied by dietary modifications including greater intake of foods with higher moisture content. Further study is needed to investigate the interaction among diet, exercise, and weight.

  6. Impact of diet and exercise on lipid management in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Barry A; Durstine, J Larry; Roberts, Christian K; Barnard, R James

    2014-06-01

    Unfortunately, many patients as well as the medical community, continue to rely on coronary revascularization procedures and cardioprotective medications as a first-line strategy to stabilize or favorably modify established risk factors and the course of coronary artery disease. However, these therapies do not address the root of the problem, that is, the most proximal risk factors for heart disease, including unhealthy dietary practices, physical inactivity, and cigarette smoking. We argue that more emphasis must be placed on novel approaches to embrace current primary and secondary prevention guidelines, which requires attacking conventional risk factors and their underlying environmental causes. The impact of lifestyle on the risk of cardiovascular disease has been well established in clinical trials, but these results are often overlooked and underemphasized. Considerable data also strongly support the role of lifestyle intervention to improve glucose and insulin homeostasis, as well as physical inactivity and/or low aerobic fitness. Accordingly, intensive diet and exercise interventions can be highly effective in facilitating coronary risk reduction, complementing and enhancing medications, and in some instances, even outperforming drug therapy.

  7. The impact of an interprofessional standardized patient exercise on attitudes toward working in interprofessional teams.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Maria; Staves, Jennifer; Kroon, Lisa; Topp, Kimberly; Hossaini, Mehran; Newlin, Barbara; Lindsay, Caroline; O'Brien, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Effective interprofessional education engages participants in authentic tasks, settings and roles. Using these guiding principles, an interprofessional standardized patient exercise (ISPE) was developed and implemented for 101 dental, medical, nurse practitioner, pharmacy and physical therapy students. This study describes the ISPE and evaluates its impact on students' attitudes toward working in interprofessional teams. The attitudes toward health care teams (ATHCT) survey was administered pre- and post-ISPE and to a sample of non-participating students. Faculty and students were surveyed post-ISPE about outcomes and satisfaction. Focus groups were conducted with students from each profession. Students' attitudes toward team-based care improved significantly on the team value and team efficiency subscales of the ATHCT. There were significant differences in attitudes toward team-based care by profession. Faculty and student satisfaction with the ISPE was high. These findings contribute to the growing body of literature on efforts to generate positive attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration early in training, which may influence students' ability to be effective members of healthcare teams.

  8. The Impact of Exercising During Haemodialysis on Blood Pressure, Markers of Cardiac Injury and Systemic Inflammation--Preliminary Results of a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Dungey, Maurice; Bishop, Nicolette C; Young, Hannah M L; Burton, James O; Smith, Alice C

    2015-01-01

    Patients requiring haemodialysis have cardiovascular and immune dysfunction. Little is known about the acute effects of exercise during haemodialysis. Exercise has numerous health benefits but in other populations has a profound impact upon blood pressure, inflammation and immune function; therefore having the potential to exacerbate cardiovascular and immune dysfunction in this vulnerable population. Fifteen patients took part in a randomised-crossover study investigating the effect of a 30-min bout of exercise during haemodialysis compared to resting haemodialysis. We assessed blood pressure, plasma markers of cardiac injury and systemic inflammation and neutrophil degranulation. Exercise increased blood pressure immediately post-exercise; however, 1 hour after exercise blood pressure was lower than resting levels (106±22 vs. 117±25 mm Hg). No differences in h-FABP, cTnI, myoglobin or CKMB were observed between trial arms. Exercise did not alter circulating concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α or IL-1ra nor clearly suppress neutrophil function. This study demonstrates fluctuations in blood pressure during haemodialysis in response to exercise. However, since the fall in blood pressure occurred without evidence of cardiac injury, we regard it as a normal response to exercise superimposed onto the haemodynamic response to haemodialysis. Importantly, exercise did not exacerbate systemic inflammation or immune dysfunction; intradialytic exercise was well tolerated. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Impact of a protective vest and spacer garment on exercise-heat strain.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2008-03-01

    Protective vests worn by global security personnel, and weighted vests worn by athletes, may increase physiological strain due to added load, increased clothing insulation and vapor resistance. The impact of protective vest clothing properties on physiological strain, and the potential of a spacer garment to reduce physiological strain, was examined. Eleven men performed 3 trials of intermittent treadmill walking over 4 h in a hot, dry environment (35 degrees C, 30% rh). Volunteers wore the US Army battledress uniform (trial B), B + protective vest (trial P), and B + P + spacer garment (trial S). Biophysical clothing properties were determined and found similar to many law enforcement, industry, and sports ensembles. Physiological measurements included core (T (c)), mean skin (T (sk)) and chest (T (chest)) temperatures, heart rate (HR), and sweating rate (SR). The independent impact of clothing was determined by equating metabolic rate in all trials. In trial P, HR was +7 b/min higher after 1 h of exercise and +19 b/min by the fourth hour compared to B (P < 0.05). T (c) (+0.30 degrees C), T (sk) (+1.0 degrees C) and Physiological Strain Index were all higher in P than B (P < 0.05). S did not abate these effects except to reduce T (sk) (P > S) via a lower T (chest) (-0.40 degrees C) (P < 0.05). SR was higher (P < 0.05) in P and S versus B, but the magnitude of differences was small. A protective vest increases physiological strain independent of added load, while a spacer garment does not alter this outcome.

  10. Exercise and bone mass in adults.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Fuentes, Teresa; Guerra, Borja; Calbet, Jose A L

    2009-01-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that exercise prior to the pubertal growth spurt stimulates bone growth and skeletal muscle hypertrophy to a greater degree than observed during growth in non-physically active children. Bone mass can be increased by some exercise programmes in adults and the elderly, and attenuate the losses in bone mass associated with aging. This review provides an overview of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies performed to date involving training and bone measurements. Cross-sectional studies show in general that exercise modalities requiring high forces and/or generating high impacts have the greatest osteogenic potential. Several training methods have been used to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and content in prospective studies. Not all exercise modalities have shown positive effects on bone mass. For example, unloaded exercise such as swimming has no impact on bone mass, while walking or running has limited positive effects. It is not clear which training method is superior for bone stimulation in adults, although scientific evidence points to a combination of high-impact (i.e. jumping) and weight-lifting exercises. Exercise involving high impacts, even a relatively small amount, appears to be the most efficient for enhancing bone mass, except in postmenopausal women. Several types of resistance exercise have been tested also with positive results, especially when the intensity of the exercise is high and the speed of movement elevated. A handful of other studies have reported little or no effect on bone density. However, these results may be partially attributable to the study design, intensity and duration of the exercise protocol, and the bone density measurement techniques used. Studies performed in older adults show only mild increases, maintenance or just attenuation of BMD losses in postmenopausal women, but net changes in BMD relative to control subjects who are losing bone mass are beneficial in

  11. The Impact of Resistance Exercise Training on the Mental Health of Older Puerto Rican Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Alisa K.; Shepherd, Amy; Johnson, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of a 16 week high-intensity progressive resistance exercise training (PRT) program on the mental health of older Puerto Rican adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Fifty-eight Puerto Rican adults were randomly assigned to supervised PRT (n = 29) or a control group (n = 29). A secondary analyses were conducted, and 2 mental health outcomes, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the SF-36 mental component summary score, were used to assess the impact of PRT on mental health status. At baseline, no differences were found on measures of self-reported mental health status. Results. PRT participants had significantly improved mental health status at follow-up (16 weeks). Discussion. The incorporation of exercise into treatment planning for older adults may have important benefits on their mental health status. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which this occurred as well as the applicability of these findings to sustainable community programs. PMID:21571703

  12. Eye exercises of acupoints: their impact on myopia and visual symptoms in Chinese rural children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhong; Vasudevan, Balamurali; Fang, Su Jie; Jhanji, Vishal; Mao, Guang Yun; Han, Wei; Gao, Tie Ying; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Liang, Yuan Bo

    2016-09-06

    Chinese traditional "eye exercises of acupoints" have been advocated as a compulsory measure to reduce visual symptoms, as well as to retard the development of refractive error, among Chinese students for decades. The exercises are comprised of a 5-min, bilateral eye acupoint self-massage. This study evaluated the possible effect of these eye exercises among Chinese rural students. Eight hundred thirty-six students (437 males, 52.3 %), aged 10.6 ± 2.5 (range 6-17) years from the Handan Offspring Myopia Study (HOMS) who completed the eye exercises and vision questionnaire, the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS) questionnaire, and had a cycloplegic refraction were included in this study. 121 (14.5 %) students (64 males, 52.9 %) performed the eye exercises of acupoints in school. The multiple odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for those having a "serious attitude" towards performing the eye exercises (0.12, 0.03-0.49) demonstrated a protective effect for myopia, after adjusting for the children's age, gender, average parental refractive error, and the time spent on near work and outdoor activity. The more frequently, and the more seriously, the students performed the eye exercises each week, the less likely was their chance of being myopic (OR, 95 % CI: 0.17, 0.03-0.99), after adjusting for the same confounders. However, neither the "seriousness of attitude" of performing the eye exercises (multiple β coefficients: -1.58, p = 0.23), nor other related aspects of these eye exercises, were found to be associated with the CISS score in this sample. The traditional eye exercises of acupoints appeared to have a modest protective effect on myopia among these Chinese rural students aged 6-17 years. However, no association between the eye exercises and near vision symptoms was found.

  13. Impact of Exercise on the Relationship Between CAC Scores and All-Cause Mortality.

    PubMed

    Arnson, Yoav; Rozanski, Alan; Gransar, Heidi; Hayes, Sean W; Friedman, John D; Thomson, Louise E J; Berman, Daniel S

    2017-05-11

    This study aims to assess the correlations among coronary artery calcium (CAC), self-reported exercise, and mortality in asymptomatic patients. The interaction between reported exercise habits and CAC scores for predicting clinical risk is not yet well known. We followed 10,690 asymptomatic patients who underwent CAC scanning. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on a single-item self-reported exercise. Mean follow-up was 8.9 ± 3.5 years for the occurrence of all-cause mortality (ACM). Annualized ACM progressively increased with increasing CAC score (p < 0.001) and decreasing exercise (p < 0.001). Among patients with CAC scores of 0, ACM was low regardless of the amount of exercise. Among patients with CAC scores from 1 to 399, there was a stepwise increase in ACM for each reported decrement in exercise, and this difference was markedly more pronounced among patients with CAC scores ≥400. Compared with highly active patients with a CAC score of 0, highly sedentary patients with CAC scores ≥400 had a 3.1-fold increase (95% confidence interval: 1.35 to 7.11) in adjusted ACM risk. Our single-item physical activity questionnaire was also predictive of risk factors and clinical and lipid profile measurements. In asymptomatic patients, self-reported exercise is a significant predictor of long-term outcomes. Prognostic value of the reported exercise is additive to the increasing degree of underlying atherosclerosis. Among patients with high CAC scores, exercise may play a protective role, whereas reported minimal or no exercise substantially increases clinical risk. Our results suggest there is clinical utility for the use of a simple single-item exercise questionnaire for such assessments. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute Aerobic Exercise Impacts Selective Attention: An Exceptional Boost in Lower-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…

  15. Circulating extracellular vesicles in the aging process: impact of aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Karine; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Schallenberger, Bruna; Corssac, Giana Blume; Davies, Samuel; Guerreiro, Irene Clemes Külkamp; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Araujo, Alex Sander R; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2017-08-17

    Our aim was to investigate transitory and delayed exercise effects on serum extracellular vesicles (EVs) in aging process. Male Wistar rats of 3-, 21-, and 26-month old were allocated into exercised and sedentary groups. The exercise protocol consisted in a daily moderate treadmill exercise (20 min daily during 2 weeks). Trunk blood was collected 1 and 18 h after the last exercise session, and circulating EVs were obtained. CD63 levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were used as markers of exosome, a subtype of EVs. In addition, the quantification of amyloid-β (Aβ) levels and the oxidative status parameters, specifically reactive species content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and SOD1 content were evaluated. Aged rats showed reduced CD63 levels and increased AChE activity in circulating exosomes compared to young ones. Moreover, higher reactive species levels were found in circulating EVs of aged rats. Delayed exercise effects were observed on peripheral EVs, since CD63, reactive species content, and AChE activity were altered 18 h after the last exercise session. Our results suggest that the healthy aging process can modify circulating EVs profile, and exercise-induced beneficial effects may be related to its modulation on EVs.

  16. Impact of age on pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Arun; Villarraga, Hector R; Ammash, Naser M; Oh, Jae K; McGoon, Michael D; Pellikka, Patricia A; McCully, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Aim It is not well known if advancing age influences normal rest or exercise pulmonary artery pressures. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of increasing age with measurements of pulmonary artery systolic pressure at rest and with exercise. Subjects and methods A total of 467 adults without cardiopulmonary disease and normal exercise capacity (age range: 18–85 years) underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing with Doppler measurement of rest and exercise pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Results There was a progressive increase in rest and exercise pulmonary artery pressures with increasing age. Pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise were 25±5mmHg and 33±9mmHg, respectively, in those <40 years, and 30±5mmHg and 41±12mmHg, respectively, in those ≥70 years. While elevated left-sided cardiac filling pressures were excluded by protocol design, markers of arterial stiffness associated with the age-dependent effects on pulmonary pressures. Conclusion These data demonstrate that in echocardiographically normal adults, pulmonary artery systolic pressure increases with advancing age. This increase is seen at rest and with exercise. These increases in pulmonary pressure occur in association with decreasing transpulmonary flow and increases in systemic pulse pressure, suggesting that age-associated blood vessel stiffening may contribute to these differences in pulmonary artery systolic pressure. PMID:27343212

  17. Acute Aerobic Exercise Impacts Selective Attention: An Exceptional Boost in Lower-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…

  18. A comparison of the impacts of continuous and interval cycle exercise on perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Greeley, Samuel J; Ferron, John M

    2016-01-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were developed to assess exertion during exercise testing. However, assessments of RPE prior to and after exercise have become common and potentially important in understanding exercise behaviour. The purpose of this project was to compare RPE taken before, during and after interval and continuous exercise sessions. Twenty-four participants (12 men, 12 women, body mass index = 24, VO2peak = 41 mL · kg · min(-1)) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test used to prescribe experimental trials: (1) moderate continuous (MC), (2) vigorous continuous (VC), (3) vigorous interval and (4) severe interval. All trials were 20 minutes in length and all intervals utilised 60-second segments and a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. Predicted exertion was highest in the continuous vigorous trial (p < .05). Exertion increased from beginning to end in all trials (p < .05). Session RPE values were highest for the continuous vigorous trial (p < .05). Findings suggest that interval protocols produce perceptions of effort that are lower than VC exercise but similar to MC exercise. These results help describe the perceptions of effort associated with continuous and interval exercise and suggest that interval exercise can be performed with lower perceived work, which may encourage increased participation.

  19. High versus Moderate Intensity Running Exercise to Impact Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Randomized Controlled RUSH-Study

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Scharf, Michael; Lell, Michael; Petrasek, Carina; von Stengel, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise positively impacts cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases; however, the most effective exercise training strategies have yet to be identified. To determine the effect of high intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) versus moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) training on cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness we conducted a 16-week crossover RCT with partial blinding. Eighty-one healthy untrained middle-aged males were randomly assigned to two study arms: (1) a HI(I)T-group and (2) a sedentary control/MICE-group that started their MICE protocol after their control status. HI(I)T focused on interval training (90 sec to 12 min >85–97.5% HRmax) intermitted by active recovery (1–3 min at 65–70% HRmax), while MICE consisted of continuous running at 65–75% HRmax. Both exercise groups progressively performed 2–4 running sessions/week of 35 to 90 min/session; however, protocols were adjusted to attain similar total work (i.e., isocaloric conditions). With respect to cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness both exercise groups demonstrated similar significant positive effects on MetS-Z-Score (HI(I)T: −2.06 ± 1.31, P = .001 versus MICE: −1.60 ± 1.77, P = .001) and (relative) VO2max (HI(I)T: 15.6 ± 9.3%, P = .001 versus MICE: 10.6 ± 9.6%, P = .001) compared with the sedentary control group. In conclusion, both exercise programs were comparably effective for improving cardiometabolic indices and cardiorespiratory fitness in untrained middle-aged males. PMID:24738073

  20. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being.

  1. Frame modal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guyan, R. J.; Heckenlaible, R. N.

    1971-01-01

    Computer model calculates natural frequencies and modal displacements of three-dimensional frame structures, and generates stiffness and mass matrices. Structures may be divided into several substructures prior to calculation of modal characteristics.

  2. Impact of Leucine Supplementation on Exercise Training Induced Anti-Cardiac Remodeling Effect in Heart Failure Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Melara, Thaís Plasti; de Souza, Pamella Ramona Moraes; de Salvi Guimarães, Fabiana; Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Leucine supplementation potentiates the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on skeletal muscle; however, its potential effects associated with AET on cardiac muscle have not been clarified yet. We tested whether leucine supplementation would potentiate the anti-cardiac remodeling effect of AET in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice (α2A/α2CARKO). Mice were assigned to five groups: wild type mice treated with placebo and sedentary (WT, n = 11), α2A/α2CARKO treated with placebo and sedentary (KO, n = 9), α2A/α2CARKO treated with leucine and sedentary (KOL, n = 11), α2A/α2CARKO treated with placebo and AET (KOT, n = 12) or α2A/α2CARKO treated with leucine and AET (KOLT, n = 12). AET consisted of four weeks on a treadmill with 60 min sessions (six days/week, 60% of maximal speed) and administration by gavage of leucine (1.35 g/kg/day) or placebo (distilled water). The AET significantly improved exercise capacity, fractional shortening and re-established cardiomyocytes’ diameter and collagen fraction in KOT. Additionally, AET significantly prevented the proteasome hyperactivity, increased misfolded proteins and HSP27 expression. Isolated leucine supplementation displayed no effect on cardiac function and structure (KOL), however, when associated with AET (KOLT), it increased exercise tolerance to a higher degree than isolated AET (KOT) despite no additional effects on AET induced anti-cardiac remodeling. Our results provide evidence for the modest impact of leucine supplementation on cardiac structure and function in exercised heart failure mice. Leucine supplementation potentiated AET effects on exercise tolerance, which might be related to its recognized impact on skeletal muscle. PMID:25988767

  3. Impact of leucine supplementation on exercise training induced anti-cardiac remodeling effect in heart failure mice.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Melara, Thaís Plasti; de Souza, Pamella Ramona Moraes; Guimarães, Fabiana de Salvi; Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-05-15

    Leucine supplementation potentiates the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on skeletal muscle; however, its potential effects associated with AET on cardiac muscle have not been clarified yet. We tested whether leucine supplementation would potentiate the anti-cardiac remodeling effect of AET in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice (α2A/α2CARKO). Mice were assigned to five groups: wild type mice treated with placebo and sedentary (WT, n = 11), α2A/α2CARKO treated with placebo and sedentary (KO, n = 9), α2A/α2CARKO treated with leucine and sedentary (KOL, n = 11), α2A/α2CARKO treated with placebo and AET (KOT, n = 12) or α2A/α2CARKO treated with leucine and AET (KOLT, n = 12). AET consisted of four weeks on a treadmill with 60 min sessions (six days/week, 60% of maximal speed) and administration by gavage of leucine (1.35 g/kg/day) or placebo (distilled water). The AET significantly improved exercise capacity, fractional shortening and re-established cardiomyocytes' diameter and collagen fraction in KOT. Additionally, AET significantly prevented the proteasome hyperactivity, increased misfolded proteins and HSP27 expression. Isolated leucine supplementation displayed no effect on cardiac function and structure (KOL), however, when associated with AET (KOLT), it increased exercise tolerance to a higher degree than isolated AET (KOT) despite no additional effects on AET induced anti-cardiac remodeling. Our results provide evidence for the modest impact of leucine supplementation on cardiac structure and function in exercised heart failure mice. Leucine supplementation potentiated AET effects on exercise tolerance, which might be related to its recognized impact on skeletal muscle.

  4. The impact of age on cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Braz, Igor D; Fisher, James P

    2016-08-15

    Age is one of the most important risk factors for dementia and stroke. Examination of the cerebral circulatory responses to acute exercise in the elderly may help to pinpoint the mechanisms by which exercise training can reduce the risk of brain diseases, inform the optimization of exercise training programmes and assist with the identification of age-related alterations in cerebral vascular function. During low-to-moderate intensity dynamic exercise, enhanced neuronal activity is accompanied by cerebral perfusion increases of ∼10-30%. Beyond ∼60-70% maximal oxygen uptake, cerebral metabolism remains elevated but perfusion in the anterior portion of the circulation returns towards baseline, substantively because of a hyperventilation-mediated reduction in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (P aC O2) and cerebral vasoconstriction. Cerebral perfusion is lower in older individuals, both at rest and during incremental dynamic exercise. Nevertheless, the increase in the estimated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen and the arterial-internal jugular venous differences for glucose and lactate are similar in young and older individuals exercising at the same relative exercise intensities. Correction for the age-related reduction in P aC O2 during exercise by the provision of supplementary CO2 is suggested to remove ∼50% of the difference in cerebral perfusion between young and older individuals. A multitude of candidates could account for the remaining difference, including cerebral atrophy, and enhanced vasoconstrictor and blunted vasodilatory pathways. In summary, age-related reductions in cerebral perfusion during exercise are partly associated with a lower P aC O2 in exercising older individuals; nevertheless the cerebral extraction of glucose, lactate and oxygen appear to be preserved. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  5. Impact of Endurance Exercise in Hypoxia on Muscle Damage, Inflammatory and Performance Responses.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Daichi; Kojima, Chihiro; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-03-25

    This study evaluated muscle damage and inflammatory and performance responses following high-intensity endurance exercise in moderate hypoxia among endurance athletes. Nine trained endurance athletes completed two different trials on different days: exercise under moderate hypoxia (H trial, FiO2 = 14.5%) and normoxia (N trial, FiO2 = 20.9%). They performed interval exercises (10 × 3-min running at 95% of VO2max with 60-s of active rest at 60% of VO2max) followed by 30-min of continuous running at 85% of VO2max under either hypoxic or normoxic conditions. Venous blood samples were collected four times: before exercise, 0, 60, and 120-min after exercise. The time to exhaustion during running at 90% of VO2max was also determined to evaluate endurance capacity 120-min after the training session. The H trial induced a significantly greater exercise-induced elevation in the blood lactate concentration than did the N trial (p = 0.02), whereas the elevation in the exercise-induced myoglobin concentration (muscle damage marker) was significantly greater in the N trial than in the H trial (p = 0.005). There was no significant difference in plasma interleukin-6 (inflammatory marker) concentration between the H and N trials. The time to exhaustion was shorter in the N trial (613 ± 65 s) than in the H trial (783 ± 107 s, p = 0.02). In conclusion, among endurance athletes, endurance exercise under moderate hypoxic conditions did not facilitate an exercise-induced muscle damage response or cause a further reduction in the endurance capacity compared with equivalent exercise under normoxic conditions.

  6. Impact of physical exercise on catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in depressive patients: A preliminary communication.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Lara S F; Fonseca, António Manuel; Serrão, Paula; Mota, Maria Paula; Vasconcelos-Raposo, José; Vieira-Coelho, Maria Augusta

    2016-03-15

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a catabolic enzyme involved in the degradation of bioactive molecules including the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Higher COMT activity in depressive patients in comparison to non-depressed individuals has been reported. The effect of aerobic exercise on depressive patients has been studied and a number of researchers and clinicians believe it to be effective in the treatment of depression and to be involved in several molecular underlying mechanisms. However, the effect of physical exercise on this enzyme activity is unknown, and it remains to be elucidated if chronic exercise changes COMT activity. This randomized control trial evaluates the effects of chronic exercise on peripheral COMT (S-COMT) activity in women with depressive disorder. Fourteen women (aged: 51.4±10.5 years) diagnosed with depression (according to International Classification of Diseases-10) were randomized to one of two groups: pharmacotherapy plus physical exercise (n=7) or only pharmacotherapy (n=7). The aerobic exercise program was supervised, lasting between 45-50min/session, three times/week for 16 weeks. Erythrocyte soluble COMT were assessed prior to and after the exercise program. Exercise group when compared to a control group presented a significant decrease (p=0.02, r=-0.535) in S-COMT activity between baseline and post-intervention. These data are preliminary outcomes from a small sample and should be replicated. Chronic exercise therapy combined with pharmacotherapy leads to significant decrease in S-COMT activity. Our results provide evidence that exercise interferes with S-COMT activity, a molecular mechanism involved in depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  8. Treadmill training combined with water and land-based exercise programs: Effects on Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ayan, Carlos; Varela, Silvia; Vila, M Helena; Seijo-Martinez, Manuel; Cancela, José M

    2016-06-30

    There is a need for studies about the effects of treadmill training (TT) on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients when combined with other exercise training modalities. To identify the effects of a multicomponent rehabilitation program on the illness impact, quality of life and fitness level in Parkinson's disease. Participants were assigned to two exercise groups: water and land-based exercise (WL) or water and land-based exercise plus treadmill training (TWL). The water and land-based exercise group performed one water-based exercise and one land-based exercise session per week for 15 weeks. Participants in the water and land-based exercise plus treadmill training added two sessions of treadmill training to this schedule. The Senior Fitness Test (SFT) was used to assess the sample's fitness level. Participants in the water and land-based exercise Group experienced significant benefits in the disease impact (UPDRS t = 3.083; p = 0.029) and quality of life (PDQ-39 t = 2.942; p = 0.036). The addition of treadmill training did not have any significant effect on these variables. Both programs showed similar effects on the fitness components evaluated. Adding treadmill training to a combination of water and land-based exercise programs may have limited effects on quality of life and the impact on the disease.

  9. Impact of home-based aerobic exercise on the physical capacity of overweight patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Aoike, Danilo Takashi; Baria, Flavia; Kamimura, Maria Ayako; Ammirati, Adriano; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Cuppari, Lilian

    2015-02-01

    Home-based exercise has been shown to provide benefits in terms of physical capacity in the general population, but has been scarcely investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To evaluate the impact of a home-based aerobic training on the cardiopulmonary and functional capacities of overweight non-dialysis-dependent patients with CKD (NDD-CKD). Twenty-nine sedentary patients (55.1 ± 11.6 years, BMI = 31.2 ± 6.1 kg/m(2), eGFR = 26.9 ± 17.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were randomly assigned to a home-based exercise group (n = 14) or to a control group (n = 15) that remained without performing exercise. Aerobic training was performed three times per week for 12 weeks. A cardiopulmonary exercise test, functional capacity and clinical parameters were evaluated. A significant increase, ranging from 8.3 to 17 %, was observed in the cardiopulmonary capacity parameters, such as maximal ventilation (p = 0.005), VO2peak (p = 0.049), ventilatory threshold (p = 0.040) and respiratory compensation point (p < 0.001), of the exercise group. A simultaneous improvement in the functional capacity tests [6-min walk test (p < 0.001), time up and go test (p < 0.001), arm curl test (p < 0.001), sit and stand test (p < 0.001), 2-min step test (p < 0.001) and back scratch test (p = 0.042)] was also found in patients who were submitted to the exercise. Exercised patients experienced a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, average 10.6 % (p < 0.001) and 9.2 % (p = 0.007), respectively, and a trend toward improved renal function (p = 0.1). No change in any parameter was found in the control group during the follow-up. The home-based aerobic exercise program was feasible, safe and effective for the improvement in the cardiopulmonary and functional capacities of overweight NDD-CKD patients.

  10. The Impact of Walking Exercises and Resistance Training upon the Walking Distance in Patients with Chronic Lower Limb Ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Maria; Oszkinis, Grzegorz; Majchrzycki, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this paper is to compare the impact of supervised walking and resistance training upon the walking distance in PAD patients. Materials and Methods. The examination involved 50 PAD patients at the 2nd stage of the disease according to Fontaine's scale. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: one exercising on the treadmill (n = 24) and one performing resistance exercises of lower limbs (n = 26). Results. The 12-week program of supervised rehabilitation led to a significant increase in the intermittent claudication distance measured both on the treadmill and during the 6-minute walking test. The group training on the treadmill showed a statistically significant increase of the initial claudication distance (ICD) and the absolute claudication distance (ACD) measured on the treadmill, as well as of ICD and the total walking distance (TWD) measured during the 6-minute walking test. Within the group performing resistance exercises, a statistically significant improvement was observed in the case of parameters measured on the treadmill: ICD and ACD. Conclusions. The supervised rehabilitation program, in the form of both walking and resistance exercises, contributes to the increase in the intermittent claudication distance. The results obtained in both groups were similar.

  11. The Impact of Walking Exercises and Resistance Training upon the Walking Distance in Patients with Chronic Lower Limb Ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Oszkinis, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this paper is to compare the impact of supervised walking and resistance training upon the walking distance in PAD patients. Materials and Methods. The examination involved 50 PAD patients at the 2nd stage of the disease according to Fontaine's scale. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: one exercising on the treadmill (n = 24) and one performing resistance exercises of lower limbs (n = 26). Results. The 12-week program of supervised rehabilitation led to a significant increase in the intermittent claudication distance measured both on the treadmill and during the 6-minute walking test. The group training on the treadmill showed a statistically significant increase of the initial claudication distance (ICD) and the absolute claudication distance (ACD) measured on the treadmill, as well as of ICD and the total walking distance (TWD) measured during the 6-minute walking test. Within the group performing resistance exercises, a statistically significant improvement was observed in the case of parameters measured on the treadmill: ICD and ACD. Conclusions. The supervised rehabilitation program, in the form of both walking and resistance exercises, contributes to the increase in the intermittent claudication distance. The results obtained in both groups were similar. PMID:27833919

  12. Size, Shape and Stamina: The Impact of Left Ventricular Geometry on Exercise Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Carolyn S.P.; Grewal, Jasmine; Borlaug, Barry A.; Ommen, Steve R.; Kane, Garvan C.; McCully, Robert B.; Pellikka, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    While several studies have examined the cardiac functional determinants of exercise capacity, few have investigated the effects of structural remodeling. The current study evaluated the association between cardiac geometry and exercise capacity. Subjects with ejection fraction ≥ 50% and no valvular disease, myocardial ischemia or arrhythmias were identified from a large prospective exercise echocardiography database. Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were used to classify geometry into normal, concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy and concentric hypertrophy. All subjects underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise according to standard Bruce protocol. Maximal exercise tolerance was measured in metabolic equivalents. Of 366 (60±14 years; 57% male) subjects, 166(45%) had normal geometry, 106(29%) had concentric remodeling, 40(11%) had eccentric hypertrophy and 54(15%) had concentric hypertrophy. Geometry was related to exercise capacity: in descending order, the maximum achieved metabolic equivalents was 9.9±2.8 in normal, 8.9±2.6 in concentric remodeling, 8.6±3.1 in eccentric hypertrophy and 8.0±2.7 in concentric hypertrophy (all p<0.02 vs normal). Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were negatively correlated with exercise tolerance in metabolic equivalents (r= -0.14; p=0.009 and r= -0.21; p<0.001, respectively). Augmentation of heart rate and ejection fraction with exercise were blunted in concentric hypertrophy compared to normal, even after adjusting for medications. In conclusion, the pattern of ventricular remodeling is related to exercise capacity among low-risk adults. Subjects with concentric hypertrophy display the greatest limitation and this is related to reduced systolic and chronotropic reserve. Reverse remodeling strategies may prevent or treat functional decline in patients with structural heart disease. PMID:20215563

  13. Impact of extreme exercise at high altitude on oxidative stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, Charles; Slivka, Dustin; Ruby, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Exercise and oxidative stress research continues to grow as a physiological subdiscipline. The influence of high altitude on exercise and oxidative stress is among the recent topics of intense study in this area. Early findings indicate that exercise at high altitude has an independent influence on free radical generation and the resultant oxidative stress. This review provides a detailed summary of oxidative stress biochemistry as gleaned mainly from studies of humans exercising at high altitude. Understanding of the human response to exercise at altitude is largely derived from field‐based research at altitudes above 3000 m in addition to laboratory studies which employ normobaric hypoxia. The implications of oxidative stress incurred during high altitude exercise appear to be a transient increase in oxidative damage followed by redox‐sensitive adaptations in multiple tissues. These outcomes are consistent for lowland natives, high altitude acclimated sojourners and highland natives, although the latter group exhibits a more robust adaptive response. To date there is no evidence that altitude‐induced oxidative stress is deleterious to normal training or recovery scenarios. Limited evidence suggests that deleterious outcomes related to oxidative stress are limited to instances where individuals are exposed to extreme elevations for extended durations. However, confirmation of this tentative conclusion requires further investigation. More applicably, altitude‐induced hypoxia may have an independent influence on redox‐sensitive adaptive responses to exercise and exercise recovery. If correct, these findings may hold important implications for athletes, mountaineers, and soldiers working at high altitude. These points are raised within the confines of published research on the topic of oxidative stress during exercise at altitude. PMID:26453842

  14. Impact of extreme exercise at high altitude on oxidative stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Quindry, John; Dumke, Charles; Slivka, Dustin; Ruby, Brent

    2016-09-15

    Exercise and oxidative stress research continues to grow as a physiological subdiscipline. The influence of high altitude on exercise and oxidative stress is among the recent topics of intense study in this area. Early findings indicate that exercise at high altitude has an independent influence on free radical generation and the resultant oxidative stress. This review provides a detailed summary of oxidative stress biochemistry as gleaned mainly from studies of humans exercising at high altitude. Understanding of the human response to exercise at altitude is largely derived from field-based research at altitudes above 3000 m in addition to laboratory studies which employ normobaric hypoxia. The implications of oxidative stress incurred during high altitude exercise appear to be a transient increase in oxidative damage followed by redox-sensitive adaptations in multiple tissues. These outcomes are consistent for lowland natives, high altitude acclimated sojourners and highland natives, although the latter group exhibits a more robust adaptive response. To date there is no evidence that altitude-induced oxidative stress is deleterious to normal training or recovery scenarios. Limited evidence suggests that deleterious outcomes related to oxidative stress are limited to instances where individuals are exposed to extreme elevations for extended durations. However, confirmation of this tentative conclusion requires further investigation. More applicably, altitude-induced hypoxia may have an independent influence on redox-sensitive adaptive responses to exercise and exercise recovery. If correct, these findings may hold important implications for athletes, mountaineers, and soldiers working at high altitude. These points are raised within the confines of published research on the topic of oxidative stress during exercise at altitude. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  15. The Impact of Exercise on Statin-Associated Skeletal Muscle Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hae R.; Vakil, Mayand; Munroe, Michael; Parikh, Alay; Meador, Benjamin M.; Wu, Pei T.; Jeong, Jin H.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Boppart, Marni D.

    2016-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are the most effective pharmacological means of reducing cardiovascular disease risk. The most common side effect of statin use is skeletal muscle myopathy, which may be exacerbated by exercise. Hypercholesterolemia and training status are factors that are rarely considered in the progression of myopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which acute and chronic exercise can influence statin-induced myopathy in hypercholesterolemic (ApoE-/-) mice. Mice either received daily injections of saline or simvastatin (20 mg/kg) while: 1) remaining sedentary (Sed), 2) engaging in daily exercise for two weeks (novel, Nov), or 3) engaging in daily exercise for two weeks after a brief period of training (accustomed, Acct) (2x3 design, n = 60). Cholesterol, activity, strength, and indices of myofiber damage and atrophy were assessed. Running wheel activity declined in both exercise groups receiving statins (statin x time interaction, p<0.05). Cholesterol, grip strength, and maximal isometric force were significantly lower in all groups following statin treatment (statin main effect, p<0.05). Mitochondrial content and myofiber size were increased and 4-HNE was decreased by exercise (statin x exercise interaction, p<0.05), and these beneficial effects were abrogated by statin treatment. Exercise (Acct and Nov) increased atrogin-1 mRNA in combination with statin treatment, yet enhanced fiber damage or atrophy was not observed. The results from this study suggest that exercise (Nov, Acct) does not exacerbate statin-induced myopathy in ApoE-/- mice, yet statin treatment reduces activity in a manner that prevents muscle from mounting a beneficial adaptive response to training. PMID:27936249

  16. Size, shape, and stamina: the impact of left ventricular geometry on exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Lam, Carolyn S P; Grewal, Jasmine; Borlaug, Barry A; Ommen, Steve R; Kane, Garvan C; McCully, Robert B; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2010-05-01

    Although several studies have examined the cardiac functional determinants of exercise capacity, few have investigated the effects of structural remodeling. The current study evaluated the association between cardiac geometry and exercise capacity. Subjects with ejection fraction > or = 50% and no valvular disease, myocardial ischemia, or arrhythmias were identified from a large prospective exercise echocardiography database. Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were used to classify geometry into normal, concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. All of the subjects underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise according to standard Bruce protocol. Maximal exercise tolerance was measured in metabolic equivalents. Of 366 (60+/-14 years; 57% male) subjects, 166 (45%) had normal geometry, 106 (29%) had concentric remodeling, 40 (11%) had eccentric hypertrophy, and 54 (15%) had concentric hypertrophy. Geometry was related to exercise capacity: in descending order, the maximum achieved metabolic equivalents were 9.9+/-2.8 in normal, 8.9+/-2.6 in concentric remodeling, 8.6+/-3.1 in eccentric hypertrophy, and 8.0+/-2.7 in concentric hypertrophy (all P<0.02 versus normal). Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were negatively correlated with exercise tolerance in metabolic equivalents (r=-0.14; P=0.009 and r=-0.21; P<0.001, respectively). Augmentation of heart rate and ejection fraction with exercise were blunted in concentric hypertrophy compared with normal, even after adjusting for medications. In conclusion, the pattern of ventricular remodeling is related to exercise capacity among low-risk adults. Subjects with concentric hypertrophy display the greatest limitation, and this is related to reduced systolic and chronotropic reserve. Reverse remodeling strategies may prevent or treat functional decline in patients with structural heart disease.

  17. The impact of diet and exercise on brain plasticity and disease.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Fernando Gomez

    2006-01-01

    Lifestyle involves our preference to engage in behaviors that can remarkably influence the fitness level of our body and brain. Dietary factors are a powerful means to influence brain function on a daily basis. We have shown that the consumption of a diet rich in saturated fat decreases learning and memory and increases metabolic distress. Conversely, diets supplemented either with omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E or the curry spice curcumin benefit cognitive function. Equally impressive is the action of exercise on cognitive function as documented by studies showing that exercise enhances learning and memory. The beneficial action of exercise on the brain can be used therapeutically to overcome the effects of consuming a poor diet. We suggest that the managed use of diet and exercise can help the brain to cope with several types of insults and ultimately benefit brain function.

  18. Diastolic function in healthy humans: non-invasive assessment and the impact of acute and chronic exercise.

    PubMed

    George, Keith P; Naylor, Louise H; Whyte, Greg P; Shave, Rob E; Oxborough, David; Green, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic function is important because the enhanced systolic function that underpins high levels of cardio-respiratory fitness has to be matched by changes in LV filling, and LV diastolic dysfunction plays a key early role in the development and progression of a myriad of cardiovascular diseases. This review serves to detail knowledge in relation to: (1) the definition of diastole and the mechanical processes that occur during the diastolic period, (2) the quantitative assessment of diastolic function, predominantly focusing on non-invasive echocardiographic imaging modes such as tissue Doppler imaging and deformation analysis, (3) the impact of acute aerobic exercise on diastolic function, from the augmentation of function necessary to meet the demand for an increased cardiac output at exercise onset, to current concerns related to the impact of prolonged or ultra-endurance activity on diastolic function during recovery, (4) the adaptation in diastolic function observed with chronic aerobic exercise training in athletes and sedentary individuals who undergo training programmes, and (5) directions for future research.

  19. Low impact aerobic dance as a useful exercise mode for reducing body mass in mildly obese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, H; Adachi, Y; Takahashi, M; Tanaka, K

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a low impact aerobic dance is a useful exercise mode for weight loss in obese middle-aged women. Sixty Japanese women, aged 50.9 +/- 6.7 years (initial %fat = 35.2 +/- 5.3%), participated in our 3-month weight-loss program consisting of diet and exercise prescription. To compare the effectiveness of exercise modes, the subjects were divided into the following two groups: aerobic dance group and jogging and/or cycling group. As a result, body mass (-3.1 and -3.3 kg respectively) and %fat (-6.1 and -5.3% respectively) significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in both groups, while fat-free mass remained essentially unchanged. Aerobic power such as maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen uptake corresponding to lactate threshold significantly increased (P < 0.05) in both groups. Significant difference in the alterations in these variables between groups could not be seen. The data of this study indicates that our weight-loss program with a low impact aerobic dance is as useful as jogging or cycling in improving body composition and aerobic power for mildly obese middle-aged women.

  20. Impact of Exercise on Clinical Symptom Report and Neurocognition after Concussion in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Manikas, Vicky; Babl, Franz E; Hearps, Stephen; Dooley, Julian; Anderson, Vicki

    2017-03-21

    Recovery from concussion in childhood is poorly understood, despite its importance in decisions regarding return to normal activity. Resolution of post-concussive symptoms (PCS) is widely employed as a marker of recovery in clinical practice; however, it is unclear whether subtle impairments persist only to re-emerge in the context of increased physical or cognitive demands. This study aimed to examine the effect of strenuous exercise on clinical symptom report and neurocognition in children and adolescents after PCS resolution after concussion. We recruited children and adolescents with concussion (n = 30) on presentation to an Emergency Department (ED). At Day 2 and Day 10 post-self-reported symptom resolution, participants completed a strenuous exercise protocol, and pre- and post-exercise assessment of PCS and neurocognition. Results demonstrated an overall reduction in PCS from Day 2 to Day 10 post-symptom resolution, with no evidence of symptom increase after strenuous exercise at either time point. Neurocognitive performance was linked to task complexity: on less cognitively demanding tasks, processing speed was slower post-exercise and, unexpectedly, slower on Day 10 than Day 2, while for more demanding tasks (new learning), Day 2 exercise resulted in faster responses, but Day 10 processing speed post-exercise was slower. In summary, we found the expected recovery pattern for PCS, regardless of exercise, while for neurocognition, recovery was dependent on the degree of cognitive demand, and there was an unexpected reduction in performance from Day 2 to Day 10. Findings provide some suggestion that premature return to normal activities (e.g., school) may slow neurocognitive recovery.

  1. Impact of Physical Exercise on Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongshi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yingying; Li, Rena; Zhou, Chenglin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine whether long-term physical exercise could be a potential effective treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Methods The PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, CNKI and China Info were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies in regards to the effects of physical exercise on SUD between the years 1990 and 2013. Four main outcome measures including abstinence rate, withdrawal symptoms, anxiety, and depression were evaluated. Results Twenty-two studies were integrated in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that physical exercise can effectively increase the abstinence rate (OR = 1.69 (95% CI: 1.44, 1.99), z = 6.33, p<0.001), ease withdrawal symptoms (SMD = −1.24 (95% CI: −2.46, −0.02), z = −2, p<0.05), and reduce anxiety (SMD = −0.31 (95% CI: −0.45, −0.16), z  =  −4.12, p<0.001) and depression (SMD  =  −0.47 (95% CI: −0.80, −0.14), z = −2.76, p<0.01). The physical exercise can more ease the depression symptoms on alcohol and illicit drug abusers than nicotine abusers, and more improve the abstinence rate on illicit drug abusers than the others. Similar treatment effects were found in three categories: exercise intensity, types of exercise, and follow-up periods. Conclusions The moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercises, designed according to the Guidelines of American College of Sports Medicine, and the mind-body exercises can be an effective and persistent treatment for those with SUD. PMID:25330437

  2. Impact of endotoxin exposure after exhausting exercise on the immune system in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Königsrainer, Ingmar; Löffler, Markus; Bühler, Sarah; Walter, Michael; Schafbuch, Luana; Beckert, Stefan; Glatzle, Jörg; Horvath, Philipp; Northoff, Hinnak; Nadalin, Silvio; Königsrainer, Alfred; Zieker, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Subsequent to prolonged exhausting exercise a transient immunosuppression is often observed in athletes. This so-called "open window" results in a reduced resistance of the athletes to viral and bacterial infections after an exhaustive exercise bout. Concerning the effect of bacterial endotoxin contact after exhausting exercise in transplant recipients, who are innately immunosuppressed by their medication, no data exists at present. After performing 81 km cycling, including ascending more than 1800 m in altitude, peripheral blood from 10 male kidney transplant recipients and from 10 healthy controls matched for age and gender was obtained. Simulating contact of the athletes with a pathogen post-exercise, the blood samples were incubated with Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Thereafter microarray analysis was performed. Microarray analysis revealed a markedly oppositional pattern of gene expression in transplant recipients compared with their controls after LPS incubation. Especially immune response genes were significantly over-represented in controls immediately after the exhaustive exercise bout with LPS stimulation, whereas numerous apoptotic genes were over-represented in transplant recipients. Merging our previous data with these recent findings it should be discussed if transplant recipients need to reduce their immunosuppressive medication before performing exhaustive exercise.

  3. [Impact of physical exercise in cystic fibrosis patients: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Le Gal, C; Vandervelde, L; Poncin, W; Reychler, G

    2016-09-01

    Beneficial effects of physical exercise have been previously demonstrated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence supporting physical exercise to improve on lung function, exercise capacity and quality of life in cystic fibrosis patients. Medline database was used to search clinical studies from 2000 to 2015. We also analyzed the bibliographic section of the included studies, in order to identify additional references. A total of 17 studies were identified. A great disparity was found in the results of the different studies. No systematic benefit was found on lung function, exercise capacity or quality of life. No relationship between the type of program and the benefits achieved was observed. Evidence that physical exercise benefits lung function, exercise capacity and quality of life in cystic fibrosis patient is inconsistent and evidence does not support a particular standardized program for all patients. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Impact of exercise on the body composition and aerobic capacity of elderly with obesity through three models of intervention].

    PubMed

    Prieto, Jose Antonio; Del Valle, Miguel; Nistal, Paloma; Méndez, David; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2014-12-17

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of aerobic exercise on body composition and aerobic capacity of a sample of older, sedentary adults with obesity rates by three different models of intervention (recommendation, prescription at home and monitoring). A total of 76 older adults with a mean age 67.1+/-1.2 years, sedentary, with a BMI> 30 kg/ m2 were randomized in to four groups: Control (CON) recommendation (REC), prescription home (PRES) and monitoring in a sports center (MON). The same program of aerobic exercise for groups of home and sports center for 24 weeks, 3 days a week was developed. It was determined before and after the intervention BMI, Waist- Hip-index (ICC), the% fat ( Σ folds) and aerobic capacity (T6M) throughout the sample. MON and PRES groups showed significant improvements in the ICC, Σ folds and T 6M variables, not the case in BMI. However the MON group presented significant differences from group PRES between-group analysis (p <0.001). The recommendation did not get positive effects. Monitoring is the most effective exercise programs in adults with obesity methodology. However the exercise prescription at home since early intervention is an important approach for people with physical and/ or psychological reasons such as obesity cannot access the sports centers to participate in activities led by a monitor. Unknowns of aerobic exercise are cleared in the home that are of great impact for social policies regarding the health of the elderly population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Impact of a Web-based Gratitude Exercise among Individuals in Outpatient Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Mannella, Kristin A.; Hassett, Afton L.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Cranford, James A.; Brower, Kirk J.; Higgins, Margaret M.; Meyer, Piper S.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a web-based gratitude exercise (the ‘Three Good Things’ exercise (TGT)) among 23 adults in outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants were randomized to TGT or a placebo condition. The intervention was feasible with high rates of completion. Participants found TGT acceptable and welcomed the structure of daily emails; however, they found it difficult at times and discontinued TGT when the study ended. Participants associated TGT with gratitude, although there were no observed changes in grateful disposition over time. TGT had a significant effect on decreasing negative affect and increasing unactivated (e.g., feeling calm, at ease) positive affect, although there were no differences between groups at the 8 week follow up. Qualitative results converged on quantitative findings that TGT was convenient, feasible, and acceptable, and additionally suggested that TGT was beneficial for engendering positive cognitions and reinforcing recovery. PMID:27076837

  6. Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Mandy L.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle’s ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise. PMID:24307968

  7. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Tim H A; van Lotringen, Jaap H; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-09-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact of endothelin receptor blockade (bosentan) on exercise-induced blood flow in the brachial artery and on pre- and postexercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients (n = 9, 60 ± 7 years old) and control subjects (n = 10, 60 ± 5 years old). Subjects reported twice to the laboratory to perform hand-grip exercise in the presence of endothelin receptor blockade or placebo. We examined brachial artery endothelial function (via flow-mediated dilatation) before and after exercise, as well as blood flow during exercise. Endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.046), but not in control subjects (P = 0.309). Exercise increased shear rate across the exercise protocol, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Exercise did not alter brachial artery diameter in either group, but endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger brachial artery diameter in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.033). Exercise significantly increased brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in both groups, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Endothelin receptor blockade increased exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow in type 2 diabetes patients, but not in control subjects. Despite this effect of endothelin receptor blockade on blood flow, we found no impact on baseline or post-exercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients or control subjects, possibly related to normalization of the shear stimulus during exercise. The successful increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients through endothelin receptor blockade may have beneficial effects in

  8. Zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status in elite athletes of different modalities.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; de Olilveria, Astrogildo V; Portella, Emílson S; de Olilveria, Cyntia F; Lopes, Gustavo C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status and their relationship in elite athletes of different modalities: aerobic with high-impact (triathletes, n = 10 and long-distance runners, n = 12), anaerobic with high-impact (short-distance runners, n = 9), and anaerobic with low-impact (short-distance swimmers, n = 13). The influence of recent dietary intake and body composition was also evaluated. A venous blood sample was drawn 16-20 hr after competition for the following measurements: packed-cell volume and hemoglobin in blood; copper and zinc in plasma and erythrocytes; ceruloplasmin in plasma; superoxide dismutase activity and metal-lothionein in erythrocytes; and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Zinc and copper intakes were not different in the athlete groups and did not affect the biochemical indices measured. Athletes of the long-distance high-impact aerobic modalities had higher indices of antioxidant protection (erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein) than those of the short-distance low-impact modalities, suggesting that there is adaptation of the antioxidant capacity to the specific training. Significant correlations were observed in all athletes between erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein consistent with the importance of an adequate zinc status in the response of antioxidant mechanisms to intense exercise.

  9. Impact of cocoa flavanol consumption on blood pressure responsiveness to exercise.

    PubMed

    Berry, Narelle M; Davison, Kade; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

    2010-05-01

    Impaired endothelial vasodilatation may contribute to the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) responses to exercise in individuals who are overweight/obese. The present study investigated whether consumption of cocoa flavanols, which improve endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), can modify BP responsiveness to exercise. Twenty-one volunteers (eight females and thirteen males, 54.9 (se 2.2) years, BMI 31.6 (se 0.8) kg/m2, systolic BP 134 (se 2) mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) 87 (se 2) mmHg) were randomised to consume single servings of either a high-flavanol (HF, 701 mg) or a low-flavanol (LF, 22 mg) cocoa beverage in a double-blind, cross-over design with 3-7-d washout between treatments. Two hours after cocoa consumption, FMD was measured, followed by continuous beat-to-beat assessment (Finapres) of BP before and during 10 min of cycling at 75 % of age-predicted maximum heart rate. Averaged data from two assessments on each type of beverage were compared by analysis of covariance using pre-exercise BP as the covariate. Pre-exercise BP was similar after taking LF and HF (153 (se 3)/88 (se 3) v. 153 (se 4)/87 (se 2) mmHg, respectively, P>0.05). However, the BP response to exercise (area under BP curve) was attenuated by HF compared with LF. BP increases were 68 % lower for DBP (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower for mean BP (P = 0.05). FMD measurements were higher after taking HF than after taking LF (6.1 (se 0.6) % v. 3.4 (se 0.5) %, P < 0.001). By facilitating vasodilation and attenuating exercise-induced increases in BP, cocoa flavanols may decrease cardiovascular risk and enhance the cardiovascular benefits of moderate intensity exercise in at-risk individuals.

  10. Impact of exercise training on oxidative stress in individuals with a spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    van Duijnhoven, Noortje; Hesse, Evelyne; Janssen, Thomas; Wodzig, Will; Scheffer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have an increased cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that (anti)oxidative imbalance is associated with the increased cardiovascular risk in SCI, while exercise can reverse this status. The aim of the study is to compare baseline levels of oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity between individuals with SCI and able-bodied (AB) subjects, and to assess acute and long-term effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity in SCI. Venous blood was taken from subjects with an SCI (n = 9) and age- and gender-matched AB subjects (n = 9) to examine oxidative stress through malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme levels represented anti-oxidative capacity. Subsequently, subjects with an SCI performed an 8-week FES exercise training period. Blood was taken before and after the first exercise bout and after the last FES session to examine the acute and chronic effect of FES exercise, respectively. Baseline levels of MDA, SOD and GPx were not different between individuals with SCI and AB subjects. SCI demonstrated a correlation between initial fitness level and MDA (R = −0.83, P = 0.05). MDA, SOD and GPx levels were neither altered by a single FES exercise bout nor by 8 weeks FES training. In conclusion, although individuals with an SCI demonstrate a preserved (anti)oxidative status, the correlation between fitness level and (anti)oxidative balance suggests that higher fitness levels are related to improved (anti)oxidative status in SCI. Nonetheless, the FES exercise stimulus was insufficient to acutely or chronically change (anti)oxidative status in individuals with an SCI. PMID:20364349

  11. Enjoyment of exercise moderates the impact of a school-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise and physical activity participation at baseline, mid-way through the intervention, and at the end of the 9-month intervention period. At all three time points, participants also underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) and body composition (percent body fat). Repeated measures analysis of variance examined the relationship of baseline enjoyment to change in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, body composition and enjoyment of exercise. Results A significant three-way interaction between time, baseline enjoyment, and group assignment (p < .01) showed that baseline enjoyment moderated the effect of the intervention on vigorous activity. Within the intervention group, girls with low enjoyment of exercise at baseline increased vigorous activity from pre-to post-intervention, and girls with high baseline enjoyment of exercise showed no pre-post change in vigorous activity. No differences emerged in the comparison group between low-and high-enjoyment girls. Conclusion Adolescent girls responded differently to a physical activity promotion intervention depending on their baseline levels of exercise enjoyment. Girls with low enjoyment of exercise may benefit most from a physical-education based intervention to increase physical activity that targets identified barriers to physical activity among low-active adolescent girls. PMID:21689396

  12. Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Nathan A.

    2013-10-01

    Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.

  13. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  14. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise. PMID:25713678

  15. Diagnostic impact of thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy when the exercise ECG is strongly positive

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitman, B.R.; Brevers, G.; Dupras, G.; Lesperance, J.; Bourassa, M.G.

    1984-08-01

    We studied 83 men, who had a chest pain syndrome, no prior history of myocardial infarction, and exercise-induced horizontal or downsloping ST segment depression greater than or equal to 0.2 mV. The 38 patients unable to complete Bruce stage II had a significant increased risk of coronary (0.97 vs 0.71) and multivessel (0.88 vs 0.61) disease (p less than 0.01) compared to the pretest risk; data obtained from exercise-reperfusion thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy did not alter the risk of coronary or multivessel disease. The 45 patients who had ST depression greater than or equal to 0.2 mV and a peak work capacity greater than or equal to Bruce stage III did not have a significant increased risk of coronary (0.76) or multivessel disease (0.44). When both exercise-reperfusion thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy were abnormal in this latter patient subgroup, the post-test risk of multivessel disease was increased from 0.44 to 0.82 (p less than 0.03); when both tests were normal, none of the patients had multivessel disease (p less than 0.03) and only 0.18 had coronary artery disease. Thus, cardiac fluoroscopy and exercise thallium scintigraphy increase the diagnostic content of the strongly positive exercise ECG, particularly in men who have a peak work capacity greater than or equal to Bruce stage III.

  16. Modal testing the EOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.; Benjannet, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the modal test of the 110-m-tall EOLE wind turbine. Modal testing an immense and flexible wind turbine poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of this type of structure are quite low /emdash/ some below 1.0 Hz. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure.

  17. Multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures for improving the modal modeling of structures using test data and to determine appropriate analytical models based on substructure experimental data were explored. Two related research topics were considered in modal modeling: using several independently acquired columns of frequency response data, and modal modeling using simultaneous multi-point excitation. In component mode synthesis modeling, the emphasis is on determining the best way to employ complex modes and residuals.

  18. Electrotherapy modalities for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder).

    PubMed

    Page, Matthew J; Green, Sally; Kramer, Sharon; Johnston, Renea V; McBain, Brodwen; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-10-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (also termed frozen shoulder) is a common condition characterised by spontaneous onset of pain, progressive restriction of movement of the shoulder and disability that restricts activities of daily living, work and leisure. Electrotherapy modalities, which aim to reduce pain and improve function via an increase in energy (electrical, sound, light, thermal) into the body, are often delivered as components of a physical therapy intervention. This review is one in a series of reviews which form an update of the Cochrane review 'Physiotherapy interventions for shoulder pain'. To synthesise the available evidence regarding the benefits and harms of electrotherapy modalities, delivered alone or in combination with other interventions, for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus and the ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) clinical trials registries up to May 2014, unrestricted by language, and reviewed the reference lists of review articles and retrieved trials to identify any other potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials using a quasi-randomised method of allocation that included adults with adhesive capsulitis and compared any electrotherapy modality to placebo, no treatment, a different electrotherapy modality, or any other intervention. The two main questions of the review focused on whether electrotherapy modalities are effective compared to placebo or no treatment, or if they are an effective adjunct to manual therapy or exercise (or both). The main outcomes of interest were participant-reported pain relief of 30% or greater, overall pain, function, global assessment of treatment success, active shoulder abduction, quality of life, and the number of participants experiencing any adverse event. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion

  19. Modal testing the EOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Modal testing an immense and flexible wind turbine poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of this type of structure are quite low. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. In this paper, the results of the modal test of the 110 m tall EOLE wind turbine are presented which had a number of modal frequencies below 1.0 Hz. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Impact of an exercise intervention on methamphetamine use outcomes post-residential treatment care

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Richard A.; Chudzynski, Joy; Mooney, Larissa; Gonzales, Rachel; Ang, Alfonso; Dickerson, Daniel; Penate, Jose; Salem, Bilal A.; Dolezal, Brett; Cooper, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the efficacy of an 8-week exercise intervention on posttreatment methamphetamine (MA) use among MA-dependent individuals following residential treatment. Methods 135 individuals newly enrolled in treatment were randomly assigned to a structured 8-week exercise intervention or health education control group. Approximately 1 week after completion of the intervention, participants were discharged to the community. Interview data and urine samples were collected at 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-residential care. Of the sample, 54.8% were classified as higher severity users (using MA more than 18 days in the month before admission) and 45.2% as lower severity users (using MA for up to 18 days in the month before admission). Group differences in MA use outcomes were examined over the 3 timepoints using mixed-multivariate modeling. Results While fewer exercise participants returned to MA use compared to education participants at 1-, 3- and 6-months post-discharge, differences were not statistically significant. A significant interaction for self-reported MA use and MA urine drug test results by condition and MA severity was found: lower severity users in the exercise group reported using MA significantly fewer days at the three post-discharge timepoints than lower severity users in the education group. Lower severity users in the exercise group also had a lower percentage of positive urine results at the three timepoints than lower severity users in the education group. These relationships were not present in the comparison of the higher severity conditions. Conclusion Results support the value of exercise as a treatment component for individuals using MA 18 or fewer days/month. PMID:26371404

  1. Limitations to exercise in female centenarians: evidence that muscular efficiency tempers the impact of failing lungs.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Massimo; Schena, Federico; Scarsini, Renato; Muti, Ettore; Richardson, Russell S

    2013-06-01

    Centenarians are an outstanding model of successful aging, with genetics and healthy lifestyle certainly being key factors responsible for their longevity. Exercise capacity has been identified to play an important role in healthy aging, but a comprehensive assessment of the limitations to maximal exercise in this population is lacking. Following, health histories, lung function, and anthropometric measures, eight female centenarians (98-102 years old) and eight young females (18-22 years old) performed a series of graded maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer that facilitated absolute and relative work rate comparisons. Centenarians revealed a dramatically attenuated lung function, as measured by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), 55 ± 10%) compared to the young (FEV1/FVC, 77 ± 5%). During exercise, although the centenarians relied heavily on respiratory rate which yielded ~50% higher dead space/tidal volume, minute ventilation was similar to that of the young at all but maximal exercise, and alveolar PO2 was maintained in both groups. In contrast, peak WR and VO2 were significantly reduced in the centenarians (33 ± 4 vs 179 ± 24 W; 7.5 ± 1.2 vs 39.6 ± 3.5 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Arterial PO2 of the centenarians fell steadily from the normal range of both groups to yield a large A-a gradient (57 ± 6 mmHg). Metabolic cost of a given absolute work rate was consistently lower, ~46% less than the young at maximal effort. Centenarians have significant limitations to gas exchange across the lungs during exercise, but this limited oxygen transport is tempered by improved skeletal muscle mechanical efficiency that may play a vital role in maintaining physical function and therefore longevity in this population.

  2. The impact of early aerobic exercise on brain microvascular alterations induced by cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Leardini-Tristão, Marina; Borges, Juliana Pereira; Freitas, Felipe; Rangel, Raquel; Daliry, Anissa; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Estato, Vanessa

    2017-02-15

    The therapeutic potential of early exercise training following cerebral hypoperfusion was investigated on brain perfusion and inflammation in rats with permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO). Wistar rats were subjected to 2VO or sham surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into sedentary or exercise groups. Early exercise training was initiated after three days of 2VO or sham surgery and consisted of seven days of treadmill training (30min/day at ∼60% of maximal exercise test), composing four groups: 1) Sham sedentary (Sham-Sed), 2) Sham exercised (Sham-Ex), 3) 2VO sedentary (2VO-Sed) and 4) 2VO exercised (2VO-Ex). Microvascular cerebral blood flow (MCBF) and NADPH oxidase and eNOS gene expression were evaluated by laser speckle contrast imaging and RT-PCR, respectively, and brain functional capillary density and endothelial-leukocyte interactions were evaluated by fluorescence intravital video-microscopy. The 2VO-Sed group presented a decrease in MCBF (Sham-Sed: 230.9±12.2 vs. 2VO-Sed: 183.6±10.6 arbitrary perfusion units, P<0.05) and in functional capillary density (Sham-Sed: 336.4±25.3 vs. 2VO-Sed: 225.5±28.1capillaries/mm(2), P<0.05). Early intervention with physical exercise was able to prevent the cerebral microvascular inflammation by decreasing endothelial-leukocyte interactions (2VO-Ex: 0.9±0.3 vs. 2VO-Sed: 5±0.6cells/min/100μm, P<0.0001) and reducing brain NADPH oxidase gene expression (2VO-Ex: 1.7±0.1 arbitrary units, P<0.05). Cerebral microcirculatory and inflammatory alterations appear to be triggered during the first days after 2VO surgery, and early intervention with physical exercise may represent a means of preventing the microvascular alterations induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

  3. The impact of protein quality on the promotion of resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Stuart M

    2016-01-01

    Protein supplementation during resistance exercise training augments hypertrophic gains. Protein ingestion and the resultant hyperaminoacidemia provides the building blocks (indispensable amino acids - IAA) for, and also triggers an increase in, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), suppression of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), and net positive protein balance (i.e., MPS > MPB). The key amino acid triggering the rise in MPS is leucine, which stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1, a key signalling protein, and triggers a rise in MPS. As such, ingested proteins with a high leucine content would be advantageous in triggering a rise in MPS. Thus, protein quality (reflected in IAA content and protein digestibility) has an impact on changes in MPS and could ultimately affect skeletal muscle mass. Protein quality has been measured by the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS); however, the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) has been recommended as a better method for protein quality scoring. Under DIAAS there is the recognition that amino acids are individual nutrients and that protein quality is contingent on IAA content and ileal (as opposed to fecal) digestibility. Differences in protein quality may have important ramifications for exercise-induced changes in muscle mass gains made with resistance exercise as well as muscle remodelling. Thus, the purpose of this review is a critical appraisal of studies examining the effects of protein quality in supplementation on changes in muscle mass and strength as well as body composition during resistance training.

  4. Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) Modal Test Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Corliss, James M.; Mark, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Modal testing of the Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) was performed to obtain data to determine the accuracy of the BTA LS- DYNA model in determining the structural response. The BTA is a full-scale steel and aluminum test article that is representative of the Orion Crew Module (CM), with similar outer-mold-line geometry, mass properties, and some similar structural features, including an internal pressure vessel connected to a backshell and heatshield via longerons, Retention and Release (R&R) brackets, and an aft ring. The structural design of the Orion CM is being developed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. To obtain data to evaluate the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact landing simulations, a series of BTA water impacts was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Discrepancies between test and simulation data are attributed to three causes:(1) Test data variability and uncertainty, (2) LS-DYNA water model and fluid-structure coupling approximations; and (3) LS-DYNA structural modeling approximations. Two activities have been undertaken to assess the accuracy of the BTA LS-DYNA structural model separately from the fluid-structure coupling portion of the water landing simulations: 1) modal testing, and 2) static load testing. The results from the static load tests are documented in a separate report. For the modal test series, the following tests were performed: (1) BTA Fully-Assembled Model Test, (2) BTA Backshell Removed Modal Test, (3) Standalone Heatshield Modal Test, (4) Standalone Windward Backshell Panel Modal Test; and (5) Standalone Leeward Backshell Panel Modal Test. This report documents findings from correlation of modal test data with LS-DYNA modal analysis results. The following figures illustrate the correlation of the modal frequencies. Where multiple closely spaced modes have been identified, the points representing the upper and lower frequencies are shown connected by a dotted line.

  5. Pigment epithelium-derived factor, insulin sensitivity, and adiposity in polycystic ovary syndrome: impact of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Joham, Anju E; Teede, Helena J; Hutchison, Samantha K; Stepto, Nigel K; Harrison, Cheryce L; Strauss, Boyd J; Paul, Eldho; Watt, Matthew J

    2012-12-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is upregulated in obese rodents and is involved in the development of insulin resistance (IR). We aim to explore the relationships between PEDF, adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular risk factors in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and weight-matched controls and to examine the impact of endurance exercise training on PEDF. This prospective cohort intervention study was based at a tertiary medical center. Twenty obese PCOS women and 14 non-PCOS weight-matched women were studied at baseline. PEDF, cardiometabolic markers, detailed body composition, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps were performed and measures were repeated in 10 PCOS and 8 non-PCOS women following 12 weeks of intensified aerobic exercise. Mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) was 31.7% lower (P = 0.02) in PCOS compared to controls (175.6 ± 96.3 and 257.2 ± 64.3 mg.m(-2).min(-1)) at baseline, yet both PEDF and BMI were similar between groups. PEDF negatively correlated to GIR (r = -0.41, P = 0.03) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = -0.46, P = 0.01), and positively to cardiovascular risk factors, systolic (r = 0.41, P = 0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.47, P = 0.01) and triglycerides (r = 0.49, P = 0.004). The correlation with GIR was not significant after adjusting for fat mass (P = 0.07). Exercise training maintained BMI and increased GIR in both groups; however, plasma PEDF was unchanged. In summary, PEDF is not elevated in PCOS, is not associated with IR when adjusted for fat mass, and is not reduced by endurance exercise training despite improved insulin sensitivity. PEDF was associated with cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting PEDF may be a marker of cardiovascular risk status.

  6. 76 FR 59664 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement For Divert Activities and Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commomwealth of The Northern Mariana Islands AGENCY: Headquarters Pacific... Divert Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The proposed divert activities and exercises would involve airfield improvements designed to provide additional...

  7. Working Out the Woes: An Analysis of the Impact of Exercise on Depression.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Steven Tate; Dorris, Maggie; Littles, Matrice; Rodriguez, Tanya; Spear, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine existing research to determine whether exercise has a significant effect on improving emotional well-being and symptoms of depression. At any given time, it is estimated that greater than 15% of Americans are plagued by a depressive mood disorder. Plastic surgical nurses will encounter individuals with symptoms of depression who seek elective plastic surgical and cosmetic procedures. With a broad spectrum of symptoms and presentations, both practitioners and those suffering may have difficulty identifying depression. Even after being identified, it can be quite challenging to effectively treat depressive mood disorders. The integration of exercise into the plan of care not only helps tackle one's mental health condition but also benefits any physical health concerns. The plastic surgical nurse can advocate for evidence-based practices and educate the plastic surgical patient on the benefits of physical exercise. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective amount and types of exercise to be used in clinical settings.

  8. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress: Cellular Mechanisms and Impact on Muscle Force Production

    PubMed Central

    POWERS, SCOTT K.; JACKSON, MALCOLM J.

    2010-01-01

    The first suggestion that physical exercise results in free radical-mediated damage to tissues appeared in 1978, and the past three decades have resulted in a large growth of knowledge regarding exercise and oxidative stress. Although the sources of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, it is now well established that both resting and contracting skeletal muscles produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Importantly, intense and prolonged exercise can result in oxidative damage to both proteins and lipids in the contracting myocytes. Furthermore, oxidants can modulate a number of cell signaling pathways and regulate the expression of multiple genes in eukaryotic cells. This oxidant-mediated change in gene expression involves changes at transcriptional, mRNA stability, and signal transduction levels. Furthermore, numerous products associated with oxidant-modulated genes have been identified and include antioxidant enzymes, stress proteins, DNA repair proteins, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species promote contractile dysfunction resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to probe the mechanisms by which oxidants influence skeletal muscle contractile properties and to explore interventions capable of protecting muscle from oxidant-mediated dysfunction. PMID:18923182

  9. Active Learning within a Lecture: Assessing the Impact of Short, In-Class Writing Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam; Phillmann, Kayah-Bah; Smart, Lona

    2001-01-01

    Describes an exercise named CARDS that was used in two sections of an introduction to psychology course. After a concept was presented in lecture, students were asked to respond to a question written on an index card and discuss their answers in groups. Presents the results of the assessment of student learning. (CMK)

  10. Impact of Exercise Timing on Appetite Regulation in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Kanaley, Jill A

    2016-02-01

    Exercise improves appetite regulation, but it is not known if premeal or postmeal exercise more effectively improves appetite regulation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. For the first time, this study compared how premeal and postmeal exercise alters appetite regulation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Twelve obese individuals with type 2 diabetes performed 3 different trials, all in a random order, in which they consumed a dinner meal with the following: no resistance exercise (RE), premeal RE, or postmeal RE beginning 45 min after dinner. A visual analog scale was used to assess perceived hunger and fullness, and frequent blood samples were drawn for determination of acylated ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations. Premeal RE increased premeal perceived fullness, reduced perceived hunger, and reduced acylated ghrelin concentrations compared with the no RE and postmeal RE trial (P < 0.05). In the postprandial period, both premeal and postmeal RE reduced perceived hunger compared with no RE, whereas only postmeal RE reduced postprandial perceived fullness (P < 0.05) compared with no RE. Premeal or postmeal RE did not alter PYY concentrations. In both the premeal and postprandial period, RE reduced PP concentrations compared with no RE (P < 0.05), but upon cessation of RE, PP concentrations rebounded to concentrations that were similar to no RE. Both premeal and postmeal RE reduced perceived hunger and increased perceived fullness, effects that may help control food intake and aid in weight management efforts in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  11. An Evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and Impact on Moderate Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…

  12. The Impact of Continuous and Interval Cycle Exercise on Affect and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Greeley, Samuel J.; Collins, Larry H.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of physical activity remain low despite public health efforts. One form of physical activity that provides significant physiological benefit but has not been evaluated in terms of affective and enjoyment responses is interval exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare affect and enjoyment assessed before, during, and after…

  13. An Evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and Impact on Moderate Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…

  14. The Impact of Continuous and Interval Cycle Exercise on Affect and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Greeley, Samuel J.; Collins, Larry H.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of physical activity remain low despite public health efforts. One form of physical activity that provides significant physiological benefit but has not been evaluated in terms of affective and enjoyment responses is interval exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare affect and enjoyment assessed before, during, and after…

  15. Impact of family hypertension history on exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baggish, Aaron L; Weiner, Rory B; Yared, Kibar; Wang, Francis; Kupperman, Eli; Hutter, Adolph M; Picard, Michael H; Wood, Malissa J

    2009-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a well-established, but highly variable, finding among exercise-trained persons. The causes for the variability in LV remodeling in response to exercise training remain incompletely understood. The present study sought to determine whether a family history of hypertension is a determinant of the cardiac response to exercise training. The cardiac parameters in 60 collegiate rowers (30 men/30 women; age 19.8 +/- 1.1 years) with (family history positive [FH+], n = 22) and without (family history negative [FH-], n = 38) a FH of hypertension were studied with echocardiography before and after 90 days of rowing training. The LV mass increased significantly in both groups. However, the LV mass increased significantly more in FH- persons (Delta 17 +/- 5 g/m(2)) than in FH+ persons (Delta 9 +/- 6 g/m(2), p <0.001) with distinctly differently patterns of LV hypertrophy between the 2 groups. FH- athletes experienced eccentric LV hypertrophy (relative wall thickness index 0.39 +/- 0.4) characterized by LV dilation. In contrast, FH+ athletes developed concentric LV hypertrophy (relative wall thickness index 0.44 +/- 0.3; p <0.001) characterized by LV wall thickening. Furthermore, the eccentric LV remodeling in FH- athletes was associated with a more robust enhancement of LV diastolic function than the concentric LV remodeling that occurred in FH+ athletes. In conclusion, these findings suggest that patterns of exercise-induced LV remodeling are strongly associated with FH history status.

  16. Long-term voluntary exercise and the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis: impact of concurrent treatment with the antidepressant drug tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Droste, S K; Schweizer, M C; Ulbricht, S; Reul, J M H M

    2006-12-01

    exercise impacts substantially on HPA axis regulation. Concurrent tianeptine treatment results in synergistic actions, mainly at the adrenal level, affecting both its structure and function.

  17. Sex impacts the flow-mediated dilation response to acute aerobic exercise in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Pinto, Michelle M; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Lim, Jisok; Handberg, Eileen M; Christou, Demetra D

    2017-05-01

    There is growing evidence of sex differences in the chronic effect of aerobic exercise on endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation; FMD) in older adults, but whether there are sex differences also in the acute effect of aerobic exercise on FMD in older adults is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sex modulates the FMD response to acute aerobic exercise in older adults. Thirteen older men and fifteen postmenopausal women (67±1 vs. 65±2years, means±SE, P=0.6), non-smokers, free of major clinical disease, participated in this randomized crossover study. Brachial artery FMD was measured: 1) prior to exercise; 2) 20min after a single bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 40min; 4×4 intervals 90% peak heart rate (HRpeak)), moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 47min 70% HRpeak) and low-intensity continuous training (LICT; 47min 50% HRpeak) on treadmill; and 3) following 60-min recovery from exercise. In older men, FMD was attenuated by 45% following HIIT (5.95±0.85 vs. 3.27±0.52%, P=0.003) and by 37% following MICT (5.97±0.87 vs. 3.73±0.47%, P=0.03; P=0.9 for FMD response to HIIT vs. MICT) and was normalized following 60-min recovery (P=0.99). In postmenopausal women, FMD did not significantly change in response to HIIT (4.93±0.55 vs. 6.31±0.57%, P=0.14) and MICT (5.32±0.62 vs. 5.60±0.68%, P=0.99). In response to LICT, FMD did not change in postmenopausal women nor older men (5.21±0.64 vs. 6.02±0.73%, P=0.7 and 5.70±0.80 vs. 5.55±0.67%, P=0.99). In conclusion, sex and exercise intensity influence the FMD response to acute aerobic exercise in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Delivery Modality, Student GPA, and Time-Lapse since High School on Successful Completion of College-Level Math after Taking Developmental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Diane; North, Teresa Lynn; Avella, John

    2016-01-01

    This study considered whether delivery modality, student GPA, or time since high school affected whether 290 students who had completed a developmental math series as a community college were able to successfully complete college-level math. The data used in the study was comprised of a 4-year period historical student data from Odessa College…

  19. Impact of Delivery Modality, Student GPA, and Time-Lapse since High School on Successful Completion of College-Level Math after Taking Developmental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Diane; North, Teresa Lynn; Avella, John

    2016-01-01

    This study considered whether delivery modality, student GPA, or time since high school affected whether 290 students who had completed a developmental math series as a community college were able to successfully complete college-level math. The data used in the study was comprised of a 4-year period historical student data from Odessa College…

  20. A daily diary investigation of the impact of work stress on exercise intention realisation: can planning overcome the disruptive influence of work?

    PubMed

    Payne, Nicola; Jones, Fiona; Harris, Peter R

    2010-01-01

    Using the theoretical context of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study examined whether work has a disruptive influence on people's ability to carry out their daily intentions to exercise, and whether daily planning helps overcome this. A daily questionnaire was completed by 42 employees for 14 days. A brief daily planning intervention was administered to half of the employees. Multilevel modelling was used to analyse the data. The moderating effects of daily perceived behavioural control (PBC), job demands and work-related anxiety and depression on the relationship between intention to exercise and subsequent behaviour were investigated, as well as the impact of the intervention. Intention and PBC predicted exercise. Job demands appeared to disrupt people's ability to carry out their daily exercise intentions. Contrary to expectation, people in the no intervention group were more likely to exercise. Furthermore, on low-demand days they were most successful in realising their exercise intentions (when they intended to exercise for longer), whereas people in the intervention group, on high-demand days were least successful in realising their exercise intentions. The intervention may have operated contrary to expectation by drawing attention to potential failure.

  1. Roots of Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Aynat

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the interplay of grammar and context in the interpretation of modal words like "ought," "necessary," and "need." The empirical foci of the discussion are patterns in the use of strong and weak necessity modals in conversation, and the interpretation of syntactically and semantically…

  2. Video: Modalities and Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we set out to explore what we describe as the use of video in various modalities. For us, modality is a synthesizing construct that draws together and differentiates between the notion of "video" both as a method and as a methodology. It encompasses the use of the term video as both product and process, and as a data…

  3. Modals of Strong Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews-Bresky, R. J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses regularities and peculiarities in the use of the modal verbs of obligation "must,""need" and "should," also of the non-modals "have (got) to" and "need to." Agreements and differences in the use of the verbs are shown, with examples. Use of the various tense-forms is discussed. (IFS/WGA)

  4. The impact of exercise-induced core body temperature elevations on coagulation responses.

    PubMed

    Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Barteling, Wideke; Verbeek-Knobbe, Kitty; van Heerde, Waander L; Hopman, Maria T E

    2017-02-01

    Exercise induces changes in haemostatic parameters and core body temperature (CBT). We aimed to assess whether exercise-induced elevations in CBT induce pro-thrombotic changes in a dose-dependent manner. Observational study. CBT and haemostatic responses were measured in 62 participants of a 15-km road race at baseline and immediately after finishing. As haemostasis assays are routinely performed at 37°C, we corrected the assay temperature for the individual's actual CBT at baseline and finish in a subgroup of n=25. All subjects (44±11 years, 69% male) completed the race at a speed of 12.1±1.8km/h. CBT increased significantly from 37.6±0.4°C to 39.4±0.8°C (p<0.001). Post-exercise, haemostatic activity was increased, as expressed by accelerated thrombin generation and an attenuated plasmin response. Synchronizing assay temperature to the subjects' actual CBT resulted in additional differences and stronger acceleration of thrombin generation parameters. This study demonstrates that exercise induces a prothrombotic state, which might be partially dependent on the magnitude of the exercise-induced CBT rise. Synchronizing the assay temperature to approximate the subject's CBT is essential to obtain more accurate insight in the haemostatic balance during thermoregulatory challenging situations. Finally, this study shows that short-lasting exposure to a CBT of 41.2°C does not result in clinical symptoms of severe coagulation. We therefore hypothesize that prolonged exposure to a high CBT or an individual-specific CBT threshold needs to be exceeded before derailment of the haemostatic balance occurs. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heart rate recovery in elite athletes: the impact of age and exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Suzic Lazic, Jelena; Dekleva, Milica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Leischik, Roman; Suzic, Slavica; Radovanovic, Dragan; Djuric, Biljana; Nesic, Dejan; Lazic, Milivoje; Mazic, Sanja

    2017-03-01

    There is compelling evidence that postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is a valid indicator of sympaticovagal balance. It is also used in prescription and monitoring of athletic training. The purpose of our study was to determine HRR after maximal exercise among elite athletes with respect to age. A total of 274 elite male Caucasian athletes were randomly selected from the larger sample and divided into two groups: adolescent (group Y) and adult athletes (≥18 years; group A). They performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery was calculated as the rate of decline of HR from peak exercise to rates 1, 2 and 3 min after cessation of exercise (HRR1, HRR2 and HRR3). A significantly higher HRR1 was found in group A (29·5 ± 15·6 versus 22·4 ± 10·8, P<0·001), but HRR3 was higher in group Y (82·7 ± 10·2 versus 79·9 ± 12·25; P = 0·04). Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis showed that, among all subjects, the HRR1 alone was independently associated with age (P<0·001). The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) was in a negative relationship with HRR1 and in a positive one with HRR3 (P<0·05) with respect to all athletes. The HRR during 3 min postexercise should be reported for the purpose of better assessing functional adaptation to exercise among elite athletes as well as the age-associated differences in recovery. Higher values of HRR1 should be expected in older athletes, and HRR3 could be used as an index of aerobic capacity, irrespective of age. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The impact of accelerometer use in exercise-associated hypoglycemia prevention in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stenerson, Matthew; Cameron, Fraser; Payne, Shelby R; Payne, Sydney L; Ly, Trang T; Wilson, Darrell M; Buckingham, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-associated hypoglycemia is a common adverse event in people with type 1 diabetes. Previous in silico testing by our group demonstrated superior exercise-associated hypoglycemia mitigation when a predictive low glucose suspend (PLGS) algorithm was augmented to incorporate activity data. The current study investigates the effectiveness of an accelerometer-augmented PLGS algorithm in an outpatient exercise protocol. Subjects with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy participated in two structured soccer sessions, one utilizing the algorithm and the other using the subject's regular basal insulin rate. Each subject wore their own insulin pump and a Dexcom G4™ Platinum continuous glucose monitor (CGM); subjects on-algorithm also wore a Zephyr BioHarness™ 3 accelerometer. The algorithm utilized a Kalman filter with a 30-minute prediction horizon. Activity and CGM readings were manually entered into a spreadsheet and at five-minute intervals, the algorithm indicated whether the basal insulin infusion should be on or suspended; any changes were then implemented by study staff. The rate of hypoglycemia during and after exercise (until the following morning) was compared between groups. Eighteen subjects (mean age 13.4 ± 3.7 years) participated in two separate sessions 7-22 days apart. The difference in meter blood glucose levels between groups at each rest period did not achieve statistical significance at any time point. Hypoglycemia during the session was recorded in three on-algorithm subjects, compared to six off-algorithm subjects. In the postexercise monitoring period, hypoglycemia occurred in two subjects who were on-algorithm during the session and four subjects who were off-algorithm. The accelerometer-augmented algorithm failed to prevent exercise-associated hypoglycemia compared to subjects on their usual basal rates. A larger sample size may have achieved statistical significance. Further research involving an automated system, a larger sample

  7. Gender impacts the post-exercise substrate and endocrine response in trained runners

    PubMed Central

    Vislocky, Lisa M; Gaine, P Courtney; Pikosky, Matthew A; Martin, William F; Rodriguez, Nancy R

    2008-01-01

    Background Although several studies have investigated gender differences in the substrate and endocrine responses during and following endurance exercise, few have studied sex differences during a more prolonged recovery period post endurance exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare and characterize the endocrine and substrate profiles of trained male and female adult runners during the three-and-a-half hour recovery period from an endurance run. Methods After consuming a euenergetic diet (1.8 g·kg-1·d-1 protein, 26% fat, 58% carbohydrates, 42.8 ± 1.2 kcal/kg body weight) for 8 days, blood was collected from trained male (n = 6, 21 yrs, 70 kg, 180 cm, 9% body fat, VO2peak 78.0 ± 3.4 mL·kg FFM-1·min-1) and female (n = 6, 23 y, 66 kg, 170 cm, 29% body fat, VO2peak 71.6 ± 4.5 mL·kg FFM-1·min-1) endurance runners at rest and during recovery from a 75 min run at 70% VO2peak. Circulating levels of glucose, lactate, free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), and free insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were measured. Results During the recovery period, females experienced increases in glucose, lactate and insulin while no changes were noted in men (P < 0.05). Males experienced increases in GH and decreases in IGF-I levels respectively (P < 0.05) while no changes were observed in females. FFA levels increased during recovery from endurance exercise, but changes were not different between genders. Conclusion These data further document gender differences in substrate and endocrine changes during a prolonged recovery period following endurance exercise. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effect of differing diets and nutritional supplements on these gender-specific post-exercise substrate and endocrine differences. PMID:18302755

  8. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    PubMed

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of bronchodilator responsiveness on quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco; Márquez-Martín, Eduardo; Valencia, Borja; Cejudo, Pilar; Rodriguez, Ana; López-Campos, Jose Luis; Barrot, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial variability in COPD patients may be a phenotypic feature associated with clinical characteristics and differential treatment response. We analyzed whether symptoms, quality of life, and exercise capacity varied in COPD patients as a function of bronchodilator test results, and compared responses to an exercise program. A positive bronchodilator test result was defined as FVC and/or FEV1 improvement of > 12% plus > 200 mL after 400 μg of salbutamol. We studied 198 COPD subjects: 94 with positive reversibility, and 104 with negative reversibility. Training sessions were carried out on 3 non-consecutive days each week, for 12 weeks, and consisted of a combination of resistance and strength training. Subjects were evaluated on 2 consecutive days at baseline, and at the end of the 12-week training program. Those with positive reversibility had shorter time to exhaustion in the endurance test (19.1 ± 12.6 min vs 24.5 ± 14.5 min, P = .03), shorter shuttle walk test distance (380.6 ± 158.2 m vs 438.5 ± 149.1 m, P = .02), and lower Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire scores (18.7 ± 4.6 vs 19.8 ± 4.3, P = .01). There were no significant differences in peak exercise, peripheral muscle strength, dyspnea, or improvement after exercise training. Compared to COPD subjects with negative reversibility, those with positive reversibility walked for shorter distances, and had shorter endurance times and worse quality of life, but the improvements after exercise training were similar.

  10. Lung function and gas exchange in Eisenmenger syndrome and their impact on exercise capacity and survival.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Craig S; Van Woerkom, Ryan C; Swallow, Elizabeth; Dimopoulos, Kostas; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Allada, Gopal; Gatzoulis, Michael A

    2014-01-15

    Eisenmenger physiology may contribute to abnormal pulmonary mechanics and gas exchange and thus impaired functional capacity. We explored the relationship between lung function and gas exchange parameters with exercise capacity and survival. Stable adult patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (N=32) were prospectively studied using spirometry, lung volumes, diffusion capacity, and blood gas analysis, as well as same day measurement of 6-minute walk distance and cardiopulmonary maximal treadmill exercise. Patients were followed prospectively to determine survival (7.4 ± 0.5 years). Abnormalities were identified and appropriate comparisons were made between affected and unaffected individuals between respiratory mechanics, exercise function, and survival. Obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70) was found in 13 patients (41%), who were older but not otherwise different. Restriction was uncommon. Diffusion transfer coefficient, which was <80% in half the patients, correlated with exercise duration (r=0.542, P=0.005), and was worse in non-survivors (N=6). Nearly all patients had a compensated respiratory alkalosis (PaCO2 32 ± 4.4 mm Hg). PaCO2 was less reduced in older patients (r=0.438, P=0.022), and correlated independently with exercise duration (R=-0.463, P=0.03), yet PaO2, not PaCO2, was associated with survival. Eisenmenger patients show evidence of obstructive lung disease, diffusion abnormalities, and hypocapnia; likely from hyperventilation. Understanding expected lung mechanics and gas exchange may facilitate more appropriate clinical management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of skin temperature and hydration on plasma volume responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Sollanek, Kurt J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-08-15

    Heat stress and hydration may both alter plasma volume (PV) responses during acute exercise; potential interactions have not been fully studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded elevations in skin temperature (Tsk) on PV changes during steady-state exercise under conditions of euhydration (EU) and hypohydration (HYPO, -4% of body mass). Thirty-two men (22 ± 4 yr) were divided into four cohorts (n = 8 each) and completed EU and HYPO trials in one environment [ambient temperature (Ta) 10, 20, 30, and 40°C]. Thirty minutes of cycle ergometry (50% V̇o2peak) was performed. Core (Tre) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured; changes in PV, total circulating protein (TCP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated; and skin blood flow (SkBF) was estimated. Hypohydration decreased (P < 0.05) PV by 200 ml (-5.7%) but did not alter TCP. Plasma loss was not different between EU and HYPO during exercise at any Ta. Plasma losses were greater (P < 0.05) with elevated Ta with an average -130, -174, -294, and -445 ml losses during the 10, 20, 30, and 40°C trials, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations (r = 0.50 to 0.84) were found between ΔTCP and ΔPV during exercise when Tsk was cool/warm (<33°C; Ta 10, 20, and 30°C), but not at 40°C (high Tsk). We conclude that 1) graded skin warming proportionally accentuated plasma loss; 2) plasma loss was associated with plasma protein efflux at lower Tsk and SkBF; 3) at high Tsk, additional plasma loss likely results from increased net filtration at the capillaries; and 4) HYPO did not alter vascular fluid loss during exercise in any environment.

  12. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Paulseth, John E.; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P.; Hicks, Audrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0–8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS. PMID:27803637

  13. Impact of dietary nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice on exercising muscle vascular control in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott K; Hirai, Daniel M; Copp, Steven W; Holdsworth, Clark T; Allen, Jason D; Jones, Andrew M; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2013-01-15

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation, via its reduction to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and subsequent conversion to nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen intermediates, reduces blood pressure and the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise in humans. Despite these observations, the effects of dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation on skeletal muscle vascular control during locomotory exercise remain unknown. We tested the hypotheses that dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR) would reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increase hindlimb muscle blood flow in the exercising rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3-6 months) were administered either NO(3)(-) (via beetroot juice; 1 mmol kg(-1) day(-1), BR n = 8) or untreated (control, n = 11) tap water for 5 days. MAP and hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance (radiolabelled microsphere infusions) were measured during submaximal treadmill running (20 m min(-1), 5% grade). BR resulted in significantly lower exercising MAP (control: 137 ± 3, BR: 127 ± 4 mmHg, P < 0.05) and blood [lactate] (control: 2.6 ± 0.3, BR: 1.9 ± 0.2 mm, P < 0.05) compared to control. Total exercising hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow (control: 108 ± 8, BR: 150 ± 11 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1), P < 0.05) and vascular conductance (control: 0.78 ± 0.05, BR: 1.16 ± 0.10 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1) mmHg(-1), P < 0.05) were greater in rats that received BR compared to control. The relative differences in blood flow and vascular conductance for the 28 individual hindlimb muscles and muscle parts correlated positively with their percentage type IIb + d/x muscle fibres (blood flow: r = 0.74, vascular conductance: r = 0.71, P < 0.01 for both). These data support the hypothesis that NO(3)(-) supplementation improves vascular control and elevates skeletal muscle O(2) delivery during exercise predominantly in fast-twitch type II muscles, and provide a potential mechanism by which NO(3)(-) supplementation improves metabolic control.

  14. Combined impact of exercise and temperature in learning and memory performance of fluoride toxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Sujitha, N S

    2012-12-01

    In previous studies, we investigated a link between high fluoride exposure and functional IQ deficits in rats. This study is an extension conducted to explore the combined influence of physical exercise and temperature stress on the learning ability and memory in rats and to assess whether any positive modulation could be attenuated due to exercise regimen subjected to F-toxicated animals at different temperatures. Accumulation of ingested fluoride resulted significant inhibition in acetylcholinesterase activity (P < 0.05), plasma cortisol levels (P < 0.05), and impaired the acquisition, performance, latency time, and retention in fluoride-exposed animals. Fluoride-toxicated rats took more number of sessions during the learning phase [F (5, 35) = 19.065; P < 0.05] and post hoc analysis on the number of correct choices revealed that there was a significant effect of treatments [F (5, 30) = 15.763; P < 0.05]; sessions [F (8, 240) = 58.698; P < 0.05]; and also significant difference in the interactions [F (40, 240) = 1.583; P < 0.05]. The latency data also revealed a significant difference between groups [F (5, 30) = 28.085; P < 0.05]; time = [F (8, 240) = 136.314; P < 0.05]; and there was a significant difference in the interactions [F (40, 240) = 2.090; P < 0.05]. In order to ascertain if interdependence between fluoride concentrations and the foregoing free radical parameters, respective correlation coefficients were calculated and results clearly emphasize the positive role of exercise in the promotion of cognitive functions by decreasing fluoride levels in rat hippocampus. A significant recovery in cognitive function was noticed in all the exercised animals due to reduced burden of brain oxidative stress. In comparison to exercise regimens performed at different temperatures, high (35 °C) and low temperatures (20 °C) led to a slower acquisition and poor retention of the task when compared to

  15. Discrepancy between actual and ideal body images; Impact on eating and exercise behaviors.

    PubMed

    Anton, S D; Perri, M G; Riley, J R

    2000-12-01

    This study examined how discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are related to eating and exercise patterns. A total of 115 college-age women completed the Body Discrepancy Scale (BDS, a measure of the discrepancy between one's "actual" vs. "ideal" weight and size), a leisure-time physical activity survey, and questionnaires assessing the intake of fat and fiber (i.e., fruits and vegetables), as well as measures of maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Partial correlations (controlling for Body Mass Index, BMI) showed that scores on the BDS were significantly (P's<.05) associated with low levels of physical activity (r=-.28), with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption (r=-.19), and with high levels of body image dissatisfaction (r=.32) and binge eating (r=.32). Collectively, these findings suggest that discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are associated with maladaptive eating and exercise patterns.

  16. Impact of resistance exercise during bed rest on skeletal muscle sarcopenia and myosin isoform distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamman, M. M.; Clarke, M. S.; Feeback, D. L.; Talmadge, R. J.; Stevens, B. R.; Lieberman, S. A.; Greenisen, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Because resistance exercise (REx) and bed-rest unloading (BRU) are associated with opposing adaptations, our purpose was to test the efficacy of REx against the effects of 14 days of BRU on the knee-extensor muscle group. Sixteen healthy men were randomly assigned to no exercise (NoEx; n = 8) or REx (n = 8). REx performed five sets of leg press exercise with 80-85% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) every other day during BRU. Muscle samples were removed from the vastus lateralis muscle by percutaneous needle biopsy. Myofiber distribution was determined immunohistochemically with three monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (I, IIa, IIx). MHC distribution was further assessed by quantitative gel electrophoresis. Dynamic 1-RM leg press and unilateral maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) were determined. Maximal neural activation (root mean squared electromyogram) and rate of torque development (RTD) were measured during MVC. Reductions (P < 0.05) in type I (15%) and type II (17%) myofiber cross-sectional areas were found in NoEx but not in REx. Electrophoresis revealed no changes in MHC isoform distribution. The percentage of type IIx myofibers decreased (P < 0.05) in REx from 9 to 2% and did not change in NoEx. 1 RM was reduced (P < 0.05) by 9% in NoEx but was unchanged in REx. MVC fell by 15 and 13% in NoEx and REx, respectively. The agonist-to-antagonist root mean squared electromyogram ratio decreased (P < 0.05) 19% in REx. RTD slowed (P < 0.05) by 54% in NoEx only. Results indicate that REx prevented BRU-induced myofiber atrophy and also maintained training-specific strength. Unlike spaceflight, BRU did not induce shifts in myosin phenotype. The reported benefits of REx may prove useful in prescribing exercise for astronauts in microgravity.

  17. Developing Standard Exercises and Statistics to Measure the Impact of Cyber Defenses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    serve the objectives of the exercise. This team operates with omniscience and full awareness of the actions of both blue and red teams . If the data...capability (Air Force Association, 2013) (DARPA, 2014). e. Red vs. Blue In this model, one red team is tasked with attacking one blue team network...The goal is often the access to or exfiltration of sensitive data. Points are often awarded to the Red team for certain “flags,” or tasks they have

  18. Endocrine responses during overnight recovery from exercise: impact of nutrition and relationships with muscle protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Betts, James A; Beelen, Milou; Stokes, Keith A; Saris W, H M; van Loon L, J C

    2011-10-01

    Nocturnal endocrine responses to exercise performed in the evening and the potential role of nutrition are poorly understood. To gain novel insight, 10 healthy men ingested carbohydrate with (C+P) and without (C) protein in a randomized order and double-blind manner during 2 hr of interval cycling followed by resistance-type exercise and into early postexercise recovery. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout 9 hr of postexercise overnight recovery for analysis of key hormones. Muscle samples were taken from the vastus lateralis before and after exercise and then again the next morning (7 a.m.) to calculate mixed-muscle protein fractional synthetic rate (FSR). Overnight plasma hormone concentrations were converted into overall responses (expressed as area under the concentration curve) and did not differ between treatments for either growth hormone (1,464 ± 257 vs. 1,432 ± 164 pg/ml · 540 min) or total testosterone (18.3 ± 1.2 vs. 17.9 ± 1.2 nmol/L · 540 min, C and C+P, respectively). In contrast, the overnight cortisol response was higher with C+P (102 ± 11 nmol/L · 540 min) than with C (81 ± 8 nmol/L · 540 min; p = .02). Mixed-muscle FSR did not differ between C and C+P during overnight recovery (0.062% ± 0.006% and 0.062% ± 0.009%/hr, respectively) and correlated significantly with the plasma total testosterone response (r = .7, p < .01). No correlations with FSR were apparent for the response of growth hormone (r = -.2, p = .4), cortisol (r = .1, p = .6), or the ratio of testosterone to cortisol (r = .2, p = .5). In conclusion, protein ingestion during and shortly after exercise does not modulate the endocrine response or muscle protein synthesis during overnight recovery.

  19. Endurance, interval sprint, and resistance exercise training: impact on microvascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Laughlin, M Harold

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters capillary hemodynamics, causes capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle, and alters endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, resulting in impaired vasodilatory responses. These changes contribute to altered blood flow responses to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and insulin secretion. T2D-induced microvascular dysfunction impairs glucose and insulin delivery to skeletal muscle (and other tissues such as skin and nervous), thereby reducing glucose uptake and perpetuating hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In patients with T2D, exercise training (EX) improves microvascular vasodilator and insulin signaling and attenuates capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle. EX-induced changes subsequently augment glucose and insulin delivery as well as glucose uptake. If these adaptions occur in a sufficient amount of tissue, and skeletal muscle in particular, chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and the risk of microvascular complications in all vascular beds will decrease. We postulate that EX programs that engage as much skeletal muscle mass as possible and recruit as many muscle fibers within each muscle as possible will generate the greatest improvements in microvascular function, providing that the duration of the stimulus is sufficient. Primary improvements in microvascular function occur in tissues (skeletal muscle primarily) engaged during exercise, and secondary improvements in microvascular function throughout the body may result from improved blood glucose control. We propose that the added benefit of combined resistance and aerobic EX programs and of vigorous intensity EX programs is not simply "more is better." Rather, we believe the additional benefit is the result of EX-induced adaptations in and around more muscle fibers, resulting in more muscle mass and the associated microvasculature being changed. Thus, to acquire primary and secondary improvements in microvascular function and improved

  20. Impact of resistance exercise during bed rest on skeletal muscle sarcopenia and myosin isoform distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamman, M. M.; Clarke, M. S.; Feeback, D. L.; Talmadge, R. J.; Stevens, B. R.; Lieberman, S. A.; Greenisen, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Because resistance exercise (REx) and bed-rest unloading (BRU) are associated with opposing adaptations, our purpose was to test the efficacy of REx against the effects of 14 days of BRU on the knee-extensor muscle group. Sixteen healthy men were randomly assigned to no exercise (NoEx; n = 8) or REx (n = 8). REx performed five sets of leg press exercise with 80-85% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) every other day during BRU. Muscle samples were removed from the vastus lateralis muscle by percutaneous needle biopsy. Myofiber distribution was determined immunohistochemically with three monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (I, IIa, IIx). MHC distribution was further assessed by quantitative gel electrophoresis. Dynamic 1-RM leg press and unilateral maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) were determined. Maximal neural activation (root mean squared electromyogram) and rate of torque development (RTD) were measured during MVC. Reductions (P < 0.05) in type I (15%) and type II (17%) myofiber cross-sectional areas were found in NoEx but not in REx. Electrophoresis revealed no changes in MHC isoform distribution. The percentage of type IIx myofibers decreased (P < 0.05) in REx from 9 to 2% and did not change in NoEx. 1 RM was reduced (P < 0.05) by 9% in NoEx but was unchanged in REx. MVC fell by 15 and 13% in NoEx and REx, respectively. The agonist-to-antagonist root mean squared electromyogram ratio decreased (P < 0.05) 19% in REx. RTD slowed (P < 0.05) by 54% in NoEx only. Results indicate that REx prevented BRU-induced myofiber atrophy and also maintained training-specific strength. Unlike spaceflight, BRU did not induce shifts in myosin phenotype. The reported benefits of REx may prove useful in prescribing exercise for astronauts in microgravity.

  1. Impact of Exercise Timing on Appetite Regulation in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Heden, Timothy D.; Liu, Ying; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Exercise improves appetite regulation, but it is not known if pre or postmeal exercise more effectively improves appetite regulation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. For the first time, this study compared how pre and postmeal exercise alters appetite regulation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods Twelve obese individuals with type 2 diabetes performed three different trials, all in a random order, in which they consumed a dinner meal with 1) no resistance exercise (RE), 2) premeal RE, or 3) postmeal RE beginning 45-min after dinner. A visual analog scale was used to assess perceived hunger and fullness and frequent blood samples were drawn for determination of acylated ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations. Results Premeal RE increased premeal perceived fullness, reduced perceived hunger, and reduced acylated ghrelin concentrations compared to the no RE and postmeal RE trial (P<0.05). In the postprandial period, both pre and postmeal RE reduced perceived hunger compared to no RE, while only postmeal RE reduced postprandial perceived fullness (P<0.05) compared to no RE. Pre or postmeal RE did not alter PYY concentrations. In both the premeal and postprandial period, RE reduced PP concentrations compared to no RE (P<0.05), but upon cessation of RE, PP concentrations rebounded to concentrations that were similar to no RE. Conclusion Both pre and postmeal RE reduced perceived hunger and increased perceived fullness, effects that may help control food intake and aid in weight management efforts in individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26285022

  2. Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury.

    PubMed

    Bourne, M N; Opar, D A; Williams, M D; Al Najjar, A; Shield, A J

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine: (a) the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE); (b) whether previously injured hamstrings display activation deficits during the NHE; and (c) whether previously injured hamstrings exhibit altered cross-sectional area (CSA). Ten healthy, recreationally active men with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging of their thighs before and after six sets of 10 repetitions of the NHE. Transverse (T2) relaxation times of all hamstring muscles [biceps femoris long head (BFlh); biceps femoris short head (BFsh); semitendinosus (ST); semimembranosus (SM)] were measured at rest and immediately after the NHE and CSA was measured at rest. For the uninjured limb, the ST's percentage increase in T2 with exercise was 16.8%, 15.8%, and 20.2% greater than the increases exhibited by the BFlh, BFsh, and SM, respectively (P < 0.002 for all). Previously injured hamstring muscles (n = 10) displayed significantly smaller increases in T2 post-exercise than the homonymous muscles in the uninjured contralateral limb (mean difference -7.2%, P = 0.001). No muscles displayed significant between-limb differences in CSA. During the NHE, the ST is preferentially activated and previously injured hamstring muscles display chronic activation deficits compared with uninjured contralateral muscles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impact of vigorous exercise on serum levels of L-carnitine in prisoners in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Pabón, Ángel F; Manrique-Abril, Fred G; Ospina-Díaz, Juan M

    2015-10-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a program of vigorous physical exercises on the serum concentration of free and total L-carnitine, in male inmates at a prison in Boyacá, Colombia. Methods Pre-post intervention population-based study. 44 male prisoners with overweight and/or obesity, from a jail in Boyacá, Colombia were randomly assigned into two groups: an intervention group and a control group. The intervention consisted in participating in a vigorous exercise program over twelve weeks. Anthropometric measures and levels of free and total L-carnitine were every four weeks. Results There were significant increases in serum levels of free and total L-carnitine in the intervention group compared to the control group. Concurrently, in this group there was a reduction in body mass index (BMI), while in the control group there were no changes. Conclusion In overweight and/or obese patients, the routine practice of vigorous exercise plus caloric restriction offers significant benefits in reducing body fat volumes through the mechanisms of energetic consumption of long chain fatty acids.

  4. Exercise Tiger: assessing the BCM impact of the 2012 Olympics on Canary Wharf.

    PubMed

    Evett, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, collective corporate resilience is studied to see how a culture of sharing information and planning may assist other business communities to prepare for future events. The London 2012 Summer Olympic Games will see huge opportunity for businesses in London, and across Europe, but not without cost. Canary Wharf lies in the heart of London's Docklands and less than three miles from the Olympic Park at Stratford. Purpose-built as a business district, it accommodates a working population of 95,000 people, is home to some of the world's leading brands and has a vibrant retail complex of over 200 shops, bars and restaurants. This business community is preparing for every aspect of the Olympics and, in particular, the disruption the Games will bring. As a private estate, the community resilience approach fostered here is both better defined and finite in terms of those it includes as a result. Preparing together with joint exercises, forums and open communications in a network of trusted partners is yielding collective benefits and lending a stronger voice in the call for more information from official agencies. This paper outlines the benefits of collective planning and reports on the success of Canary Wharf's annual estate-wide business continuity exercise - the first major collective Olympics planning exercise in London.

  5. Impact of Muscle Glycogen Availability on the Capacity for Repeated Exercise in Man.

    PubMed

    Alghannam, Abdullah F; Jedrzejewski, Dawid; Tweddle, Mark G; Gribble, Hannah; Bilzon, James; Thompson, Dylan; Tsintzas, Kostas; Betts, James A

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine whether muscle glycogen availability is associated with fatigue in a repeated exercise bout following short-term recovery. Ten endurance-trained individuals underwent two trials in a repeated-measures experimental design, each involving an initial run to exhaustion at 70% of VO2max (Run 1) followed by a 4-h recovery and a subsequent run to exhaustion at 70% of VO2max (Run 2). A low-carbohydrate (L-CHO; 0.3 g · kg body mass(-1) · h(-1)) or high-carbohydrate (H-CHO; 1.2 g · kg body mass(-1) · h(-1)) beverage was ingested at 30-min intervals during recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken upon cessation of Run 1, after recovery, and at exhaustion during Run 2 in L-CHO (F2). In H-CHO, muscle biopsies were obtained after recovery, at the time point coincident with fatigue in L-CHO (F2), and at the point of fatigue during the subsequent exercise bout (F3). Run 2 was more prolonged for participants on H-CHO (80 ± 16 min) than for participants on L-CHO (48 ± 11 min; P < 0.001). Muscle glycogen concentrations were higher at the end of recovery for participants on H-CHO (269 ± 84 mmol · kg dry mass(-1)) than for participants on L-CHO (157 ± 37 mmol · kg dry mass(-1); P = 0.001). The rate of muscle glycogen degradation during Run 2 was higher with H-CHO (3.1 ± 1.5 mmol · kg dry mass(-1) · min(-1)) than with L-CHO (1.6 ± 1.3 mmol · kg dry mass(-1) · min(-1); P = 0.05). The concentration of muscle glycogen was higher with H-CHO than with L-CHO at F2 (123 ± 28 mmol · kg dry mass(-1); P < 0.01), but no differences were observed between treatments at the respective points of exhaustion (78 ± 22 mmol · kg dry mass(-1) · min(-1 )for H-CHO vs 72 ± 21 mmol · kg dry mass(-1) · min(-1) for L-CHO). Increasing carbohydrate intake during short-term recovery accelerates glycogen repletion in previously exercised muscles and thus improves the capacity for repeated exercise. The availability of skeletal muscle glycogen is therefore an important

  6. Impact of Exercise Training in Aerobic Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Children and Adolescents After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; da Silva e Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, (from the earliest date available to January 2015) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity) in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated,, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Eight trials (n = 292) met the study criteria. The results suggested that exercise training compared with control had a positive impact on peak VO2. Exercise training resulted in improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (3.68 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 95 % CI 1.58-5.78). The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity after exercise training was not significant. Exercise training may improve peak VO2 in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery and should be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation. Further larger randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to investigate different types of exercise and its effects on the quality of life.

  7. Impact of intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from exercise training on substrate metabolism during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Takashi; Arai, Natsuko; Nagasaka, Tomoaki; Asano, Masaya; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Not only increasing body carbohydrate (CHO) stores before exercise but also suppressing CHO oxidation during exercise is important for improving endurance performance. We tested the hypothesis that intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from exercise training (ET) for 2 d would suppress CHO oxidation during exercise by increasing whole body lipolysis and/or fat oxidation. In a randomized crossover design, on days 1 and 2, six male subjects performed cycle ET at 50% peak oxygen consumption (VO(2 peak)) for 60-90 min, and consumed a control diet (CON: 1,224 kcal, 55% carbohydrate, 30% fat) or the same diet supplemented with high fat (HF: 1,974 kcal, 34% carbohydrate, 56% fat) 1 h after ET, with the diet other than post-ET similar in both trials. On day 3, subjects performed cycle exercise at 65% VO(2 peak) until exhaustion. Exercise time to exhaustion was longer in the HF trial than in the CON trial (CON: 48.9 ± 6.7 vs. HF: 55.8 ± 7.7 min, p<0.05). In the HF trial, total fat oxidation until exhaustion was higher, accompanied by higher post-exercise plasma glycerol concentration, than in the CON trial (CON: 213 ± 54 vs. HF: 286 ± 63 kcal, p<0.05), whereas total carbohydrate oxidation until exhaustion was not different between trials. These results suggest that intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from ET for a few days until the day before exercise was an effective means of eliciting a CHO-sparing effect during exercise by enhancing fat metabolism.

  8. Running to well-being: A comparative study on the impact of exercise on the physical and mental health of law and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L

    Research indicates that, in comparison to other university students, law students are at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting a general negative association between exercise and stress, anxiety and depression. However, we are not aware of any studies exploring the impact of exercise on the mental health of law students specifically. This article reports evidence of a negative association between exercise and psychological distress in 206 law and psychology students. Compared to psychology students, the law students not only reported greater psychological distress, but, in addition, there was a stronger association between their levels of distress and their levels of exercise. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a simple yet effective way law schools might support the mental health of their students.

  9. Impact of prematurity on exercise capacity and agility of children and youth aged 8 to 18.

    PubMed

    Robič Pikel, Tatjana; Starc, Gregor; Strel, Janko; Kovač, Marjeta; Babnik, Janez; Golja, Petra

    2017-07-01

    Preterm (PT) birth and low birth mass (LBW) can impair growth and development of children and may therefore affect their physical performance up to adulthood. Our aim was to evaluate long-term consequences of prematurity, especially (an)aerobic exercise capacity and agility up to adulthood, by comparing premature and full-term (FT) individuals. From 474 subjects born in 1987, who were enrolled into a longitudinal study, 396 (178 PT and 218 FT (with 127 of them LBW)) were followed-up into their early adulthood. Their mass, respiratory status at birth, and results of SLOfit monitoring system (i.e. results of exercise capacity and agility) were monitored on a yearly basis from their age of 8 to 18years. Data were compared statistically with Student t-test or ANOVA. PT (or LBW) individuals performed aerobic (time of 600-meter run of females) and the majority of anaerobic tests (sit-ups, standing broad jump, and time of 60-meter run, but not bent arm hang) worse (p<0.05) than FT individuals. Before puberty, however, the agility and fine motor tests (arm plate tapping, polygon backwards, and standing reach touch) were performed better (p<0.05) by PT (or LBW) females, as compared to their FT peers, with no similar results in males. Our results clearly demonstrate that prematurity (especially extreme prematurity) diminishes exercise capacity and agility on the long-term scale, therefore, PT children should be encouraged towards more regular participation in physical activities from early childhood onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of collaborative groups versus individuals in undergraduate inquiry-based astronomy laboratory learning exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra J.

    One of the long-standing general undergraduate education requirements common to many colleges and universities is a science course with a laboratory experience component. One of the objectives frequently included in the description of most of these courses is that a student will understand the nature and processes of scientific inquiry. However, recent research has shown that learners in traditional undergraduate science laboratory environments are not developing a sufficiently meaningful understanding of scientific inquiry. Recently, astronomy laboratory activities have been developed that intentionally scaffold a student from guided activities to open inquiry ones and preliminary results show that these laboratories are successful for supporting students to understand the nature of scientific inquiry (Slater, S., Slater, T. F., & Shaner, 2008). This mixed-method quasi-experimental study was designed to determine how students in an undergraduate astronomy laboratory increase their understanding of inquiry working in relative isolation compared to working in small collaborative learning groups. The introductory astronomy laboratory students in the study generally increased their understanding of scientific inquiry over the course of the semester and this held true similarly for students working in groups and students working individually in the laboratories. This was determined by the examining the change in responses from the pretest to the posttest administration of the Views of Scientific Inquiry (VOSI) survey, the increase in scores on laboratory exercises, and observations from the instructor. Because the study was successful in determining that individuals in the astronomy laboratory do as well at understanding inquiry as those who complete their exercises in small groups, it would be appropriate to offer these inquiry-based exercises in an online format.

  11. Impact of the human circadian system, exercise, and their interaction on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Frank A J L; Hu, Kun; Evoniuk, Heather; Kelly, Erin E; Malhotra, Atul; Hilton, Michael F; Shea, Steven A

    2010-11-23

    The risk of adverse cardiovascular events peaks in the morning (≈9:00 AM) with a secondary peak in the evening (≈8:00 PM) and a trough at night. This pattern is generally believed to be caused by the day/night distribution of behavioral triggers, but it is unknown whether the endogenous circadian system contributes to these daily fluctuations. Thus, we tested the hypotheses that the circadian system modulates autonomic, hemodynamic, and hemostatic risk markers at rest, and that behavioral stressors have different effects when they occur at different internal circadian phases. Twelve healthy adults were each studied in a 240-h forced desynchrony protocol in dim light while standardized rest and exercise periods were uniformly distributed across the circadian cycle. At rest, there were large circadian variations in plasma cortisol (peak-to-trough ≈85% of mean, peaking at a circadian phase corresponding to ≈9:00 AM) and in circulating catecholamines (epinephrine, ≈70%; norepinephrine, ≈35%, peaking during the biological day). At ≈8:00 PM, there was a circadian peak in blood pressure and a trough in cardiac vagal modulation. Sympathetic variables were consistently lowest and vagal markers highest during the biological night. We detected no simple circadian effect on hemostasis, although platelet aggregability had two peaks: at ≈noon and ≈11:00 PM. There was circadian modulation of the cardiovascular reactivity to exercise, with greatest vagal withdrawal at ≈9:00 AM and peaks in catecholamine reactivity at ≈9:00 AM and ≈9:00 PM. Thus, the circadian system modulates numerous cardiovascular risk markers at rest as well as their reactivity to exercise, with resultant profiles that could potentially contribute to the day/night pattern of adverse cardiovascular events.

  12. A prospective examination of the impact of high levels of exercise training on sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Ann M; Miller, Nora E; Cho, Young Ik; Welch, Whitney A; Strath, Scott J

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine changes in sedentary behaviour in response to extensive aerobic exercise training. Participants included adults who self-selected to run a marathon. Sedentary behaviour, total activity counts and physical activity (PA) intensity were assessed (Actigraph GT3X) for seven consecutive days during seven assessment periods (-3, -2, and -1 month prior to the marathon, within 2 weeks of the marathon, and +1, +2, and +3 months after the marathon). Models were fitted with multiple imputation data using the STATA mi module. Random intercept generalized least squares (GLS) regression models were used to determine change in sedentary behaviour with seven waves of repeated measures.

  13. Endurance, interval sprint, and resistance exercise training: impact on microvascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, M. Harold

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters capillary hemodynamics, causes capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle, and alters endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, resulting in impaired vasodilatory responses. These changes contribute to altered blood flow responses to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and insulin secretion. T2D-induced microvascular dysfunction impairs glucose and insulin delivery to skeletal muscle (and other tissues such as skin and nervous), thereby reducing glucose uptake and perpetuating hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In patients with T2D, exercise training (EX) improves microvascular vasodilator and insulin signaling and attenuates capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle. EX-induced changes subsequently augment glucose and insulin delivery as well as glucose uptake. If these adaptions occur in a sufficient amount of tissue, and skeletal muscle in particular, chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and the risk of microvascular complications in all vascular beds will decrease. We postulate that EX programs that engage as much skeletal muscle mass as possible and recruit as many muscle fibers within each muscle as possible will generate the greatest improvements in microvascular function, providing that the duration of the stimulus is sufficient. Primary improvements in microvascular function occur in tissues (skeletal muscle primarily) engaged during exercise, and secondary improvements in microvascular function throughout the body may result from improved blood glucose control. We propose that the added benefit of combined resistance and aerobic EX programs and of vigorous intensity EX programs is not simply “more is better.” Rather, we believe the additional benefit is the result of EX-induced adaptations in and around more muscle fibers, resulting in more muscle mass and the associated microvasculature being changed. Thus, to acquire primary and secondary improvements in microvascular function and

  14. Impact of neuromuscular fatigue on match exercise intensity and performance in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Mitchell G; Cormack, Stuart; Oʼbrien, Brendan J; Morgan, William M; McGuigan, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the influence of neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) via flight time to contraction time ratio (FT:CT) obtained from a countermovement jump (CMJ) on the relationships between yo-yo intermittent recovery (level 2) test (yo-yo IR2), match exercise intensity (high-intensity running [HIR] m·min(-1) and Load·min(-1)) and Australian football (AF) performance. Thirty-seven data sets were collected from 17 different players across 22 elite AF matches. Each data set comprised an athlete's yo-yo IR2 score before the start of the season, match exercise intensity via global positioning system and on-field performance rated by coaches' votes and number of ball disposals. Each data set was categorized as normal (>92% baseline FT:CT, n = 20) or fatigued (<92% baseline FT:CT, n = 17) from a single CMJ performed 96 hours after the previous match. Moderation-mediation analysis was completed with yo-yo IR2 (independent variable), match exercise intensity (mediator), and AF performance (dependent variable) with NMF status as the conditional variable. Isolated interactions between variables were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and effect size statistics. The Yo-yo IR2 score showed an indirect influence on the number of ball disposals via HIR m·min(-1) regardless of NMF status (normal FT:CT indirect effect = 0.019, p < 0.1, reduced FT:CT indirect effect = 0.022, p < 0.1). However, the yo-yo IR2 score only influenced coaches' votes via Load·min(-1) in the nonfatigued state (normal: FT:CT indirect effect = 0.007, p <0.1, reduced: FT:CT indirect effect = -0.001, p > 0.1). In isolation, NMF status also reduces relationships between yo-yo IR2 and load·min(-1), yo-yo IR2 and coaches votes, Load·min(-1) and coaches' votes (Δr > 0.1). Routinely testing yo-yo IR2 capacity, NMF via FT:CT and monitoring Load·min(-1) in conjunction with HIR m·min(-1) as exercise intensity measures in elite AF is recommended.

  15. Impact of chronic exercise training on the blood pressure response to orthostatic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Jun; Komine, Hidehiko; Miyazawa, Taiki; Imai, Tomoko; Fisher, James P; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2012-06-01

    Exercise training elicits morphological adaptations in the left ventricle (LV) and large-conduit arteries that are specific to the type of training performed (i.e., endurance vs. resistance exercise). We investigated whether the mode of chronic exercise training, and the associated cardiovascular adaptations, influence the blood pressure responses to orthostatic stimulation in 30 young healthy men (10 sedentary, 10 endurance trained, and 10 resistance trained). The endurance-trained group had a significantly larger LV end-diastolic volume normalized by body surface area (vs. sedentary and resistance-trained groups), whereas the resistance-trained group had a significantly higher LV wall thickness and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) compared with the endurance-trained group. In response to 60° head-up tilt (HUT), mean arterial pressure (MAP) rose in the resistance-trained group (+6.5 ± 1.6 mmHg, P < 0.05) but did not change significantly in sedentary and the endurance-trained groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased in endurance-trained group (-8.3 ± 2.4 mmHg, P < 0.05) but did not significantly change in sedentary and resistance-trained groups. A forward stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that LV wall thickness and aortic PWV were significantly and independently associated with the MAP response to HUT, explaining ∼41% of its variability (R(2) =0.414, P < 0.001). Likewise, aortic PWV and the corresponding HUT-mediated change in stroke volume were significantly and independently associated with the SBP response to HUT, explaining ∼52% of its variability (R(2) = 0.519, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the change in stroke volume significantly correlated with LV wall thickness (r = 0.39, P < 0.01). These results indicate that chronic resistance and endurance exercise training differentially affect the BP response to HUT, and that this appears to be associated with training-induced morphological adaptations of the LV and large-conduit arteries.

  16. The Impact of a Vestibular-Stimulating Exercise Regime on Postural Stability in People with Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wiszomirska, Ida; Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Błażkiewicz, Michalina; Wit, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a vestibular-stimulating exercise regime on postural stability in individuals with visual impairment. The study group consisted of 70 people, including 28 persons (15 female and 13 male) with visual impairment and 42 (21 female and 21 male) without visual impairment. Each individual in the group with visual impairment was medically qualified for a 3-month training program. The research methodology included medical examination, anthropometric tests, and stabilometry tests on a Biodex Balance System SD (BBS). The tests were conducted twice: once before the start of training and again after 3 months of rehabilitation. The group with visual impairment showed significantly worse postural stability results than the control group for most of the stability parameters evaluated (OSI, APSI, and MLSI). Differences were noted between the groups with and without visual impairment for dynamic tests in women and for static tests in men. After training, the two groups showed roughly similar results for the stabilometry test with eyes closed. We conclude that exercises stimulating the vestibular system with head and body movements should be recommended for individuals with visual impairments to achieve better balance retention. PMID:26583086

  17. Laboratory and field evaluation of the impact of exercise on the performance of regular and polymer-based deet repellents.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Steven; Tepper, Martin; Gadawski, Randy

    2007-11-01

    Studies were done in Manitoba, Canada, to evaluate the impact of exercise on repellent performance against mosquitoes. Two products containing the active ingredient N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) were tested; one product was a polymer-based cream (3M Ultrathon Insect Repellent) and the other product was an alcohol-based pump spray formulation (Muskol Insect Repellent). Assessments were done in the laboratory using Aedes aegypti (L.) and in the field with naturally occurring populations of mosquitoes. Repellent was applied to the forearms (laboratory) or a lower leg (field) of test subjects at 1.5 g of test product per 600 cm2 surface area (0.75 or 0.83 mg deet/cm2). For a given test day, subjects exercised or did not. Exposure to mosquito attack was for 1 min at 30-min intervals in laboratory procedures, and it was continuous in field tests. Performance was measured as complete protection time (CPT). Moderate levels of physical activity resulted in a >40% decline in mean CPT, from 468 to 267 min in the laboratory experiments and from 359 to 203 min in field tests. Repellent product did not affect the magnitude of the decline. Mean biting pressure during field trials was 21.3 bites per min, and mosquito collections were made up primarily of Ochlerotatus sticticus (Meigen) and Aedes vexans (Meigen).

  18. The Impact of a Vestibular-Stimulating Exercise Regime on Postural Stability in People with Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Wiszomirska, Ida; Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Błażkiewicz, Michalina; Wit, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a vestibular-stimulating exercise regime on postural stability in individuals with visual impairment. The study group consisted of 70 people, including 28 persons (15 female and 13 male) with visual impairment and 42 (21 female and 21 male) without visual impairment. Each individual in the group with visual impairment was medically qualified for a 3-month training program. The research methodology included medical examination, anthropometric tests, and stabilometry tests on a Biodex Balance System SD (BBS). The tests were conducted twice: once before the start of training and again after 3 months of rehabilitation. The group with visual impairment showed significantly worse postural stability results than the control group for most of the stability parameters evaluated (OSI, APSI, and MLSI). Differences were noted between the groups with and without visual impairment for dynamic tests in women and for static tests in men. After training, the two groups showed roughly similar results for the stabilometry test with eyes closed. We conclude that exercises stimulating the vestibular system with head and body movements should be recommended for individuals with visual impairments to achieve better balance retention.

  19. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jassil, Friedrich C.; Manning, Sean; Lewis, Neville; Steinmo, Siri; Kingett, Helen; Lough, Fiona; Pucci, Andrea B. F.; Cheung, W. H.; Finer, Nicholas; Walker, Judith; Doyle, Jaqueline; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm−2) completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT), physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL) outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, p = 0.043), increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, p = 0.043), increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (p = 0.034), reduced consumption of ready meals (p = 0.034), and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (p = 0.039). The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (p = 0.027). Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted. PMID:26199740

  20. Sex-based differences in endurance exercise muscle metabolism: impact on exercise and nutritional strategies to optimize health and performance in women.

    PubMed

    Devries, Michaela C

    2016-02-01

    What is the topic of this review? The topic is how sex influences carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise and whether this influences adaptation to nutritional and exercise regimens aiming to improve health and performance. What advances does it highlight? Women respond differently to certain nutritional and training regimens aimed at improving health and performance. Few studies have included women in trials and thus we are unsure how women respond to nutritional and training strategies aimed at improving health and performance. Sex-based differences in substrate metabolism during moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) have been well established. Specifically, during END of the same relative intensity women have a lower respiratory exchange ratio than men, indicative of a lesser reliance on carbohydrate oxidation to support fuel requirements for exercise. In fact, compared with men, women show a lesser reliance on both liver and muscle glycogen during END. Sex-based differences in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) utilization during END are controversial. However, women have a larger depot of IMCL available to support END fuel needs and a greater percentage of IMCL in contact with mitochondria after a bout of END compared with men, suggestive of a greater capacity to use IMCL. These sex-based differences in metabolism during END are known to be mediated by oestrogen. Despite the well-recognized sexual dimorphisms in substrate metabolism during END, there is a paucity of research examining the effects of exercise and nutritional regimens aimed to enhance performance and/or health in women. Furthermore, the evidence that does exist is suggestive of discordance in the effectiveness of nutritional and exercise regimens between the sexes. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the well-established sex-based differences in metabolism during END and how they relate to the physiological responses to nutritional and exercise strategies intended to

  1. Social functioning and socioeconomic changes after introduction of regular dialysis treatment and impact of dialysis modality: a multi-centre survey of Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Ishida, Mari; Ogihara, Masahiko; Hanaoka, Kazushige; Tamura, Masahito; Kanai, Hidetoshi; Tonozuka, Yukio; Marshall, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    Patient socialization and preservation of socioeconomic status are important patient-centred outcomes for those who start dialysis, and retention of employment is a key enabler. This study examined the influence of dialysis inception and modality upon these outcomes in a contemporary Japanese cohort. We conducted a survey of prevalent chronic dialysis patients from 5 dialysis centres in Japan. All patients who had been on peritoneal dialysis (PD) since dialysis inception were recruited, and matched with a sample of those on in-centre haemodialysis (ICHD). We assessed patients' current social functioning (Short Form 36 Health Survey), and evaluated changes to patient employment status, annual income, and general health condition from the pre-dialysis period to the current time. A total of 179 patients were studied (102 PD and 77 ICHD). There were no differences in social functioning by modality. Among them, 113 were employed in the pre-dialysis period with no difference by modality. Of these, 22% became unemployed after dialysis inception, with a corresponding decline in average working hours and annual income. The odds of unemployment after dialysis inception were 5.02 fold higher in those on ICHD compared to those on PD, after adjustment for covariates. There were no changes for those who were already unemployed in the pre-dialysis period. Employment status is significantly hampered by dialysis inception, although PD was associated with superior retention of employment and greater income compared to ICHD. This supports a positive role for PD in preservation of socioeconomic status and potentially other patient-centred outcomes. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  2. Impact of anaemia on lung function and exercise capacity in patients with stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Zheng, Cong; Xiao, Qiang; Gong, Sugang; Zhao, Qinhua; Wang, Lan; He, Jing; Yang, Wenlan; Shi, Xue; Sun, Xingguo; Liu, Jinming

    2015-10-08

    This study intended to search for potential correlations between anaemia in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; GOLD stage III) and pulmonary function at rest, exercise capacity as well as ventilatory efficiency, using pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The study was undertaken at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, a tertiary-level centre affiliated to Tongji University. It caters to a large population base within Shanghai and referrals from centres in other cities as well. 157 Chinese patients with stable severe COPD were divided into 2 groups: the anaemia group (haemoglobin (Hb) <12.0 g/dL for males, and <11 g/dL for females (n=48)) and the non-anaemia group (n=109). Arterial blood gas, PFT and CPET were tested in all patients. (1) Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) corrected by Hb was significantly lower in the anaemia group ((15.3±1.9) mL/min/mm Hg) than in the non-anaemia group ((17.1±2.1) mL/min/mm Hg) (p<0.05). A significant difference did not exist in the level of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1%pred, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), inspiratory capacity (IC), residual volume (RV), total lung capacity (TLC) and RV/TLC (p>0.05). (2) Peak Load, Peak oxygen uptake (VO2), Peak VO2%pred, Peak VO2/kg, Peak O2 pulse and the ratio of VO2 increase to WR increase (ΔVO2/ΔWR) were significantly lower in the anaemia group (p<0.05); however, Peak minute ventilation (VE), Lowest VE/carbon dioxide output (VCO2) and Peak dead space/tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) were similar between the 2 groups (p>0.05). (3) A strong positive correlation was found between Hb concentration and Peak VO2 in patients with anaemia (r=0.702, p<0.01). Anaemia has a negative impact on gas exchange and exercise tolerance during exercise in patients with severe COPD. The decrease in amplitude of Hb levels is related to the quantity of oxygen uptake. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  3. Impact of anaemia on lung function and exercise capacity in patients with stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian; Zheng, Cong; Xiao, Qiang; Gong, Sugang; Zhao, Qinhua; Wang, Lan; He, Jing; Yang, Wenlan; Shi, Xue; Sun, Xingguo; Liu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study intended to search for potential correlations between anaemia in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; GOLD stage III) and pulmonary function at rest, exercise capacity as well as ventilatory efficiency, using pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Setting The study was undertaken at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, a tertiary-level centre affiliated to Tongji University. It caters to a large population base within Shanghai and referrals from centres in other cities as well. Participants 157 Chinese patients with stable severe COPD were divided into 2 groups: the anaemia group (haemoglobin (Hb) <12.0 g/dL for males, and <11 g/dL for females (n=48)) and the non-anaemia group (n=109). Primary and secondary outcome measures Arterial blood gas, PFT and CPET were tested in all patients. Results (1) Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) corrected by Hb was significantly lower in the anaemia group ((15.3±1.9) mL/min/mm Hg) than in the non-anaemia group ((17.1±2.1) mL/min/mm Hg) (p<0.05). A significant difference did not exist in the level of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1%pred, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), inspiratory capacity (IC), residual volume (RV), total lung capacity (TLC) and RV/TLC (p>0.05). (2) Peak Load, Peak oxygen uptake (), Peak %pred, Peak , Peak pulse and the ratio of increase to WR increase () were significantly lower in the anaemia group (p<0.05); however, Peak minute ventilation (VE), Lowest /carbon dioxide output () and Peak dead space/tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) were similar between the 2 groups (p>0.05). (3) A strong positive correlation was found between Hb concentration and Peak in patients with anaemia (r=0.702, p<0.01). Conclusions Anaemia has a negative impact on gas exchange and exercise tolerance during exercise in patients with severe COPD. The decrease in amplitude of Hb levels is related to the quantity of oxygen uptake

  4. Impact of aerobic exercise on sleep and motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorders – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Serge; Jossen, Stefanie; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased dramatically in the last two decades. In addition to the core symptoms such as impaired communication, difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and stereotypical patterns of behavior and interests, poor sleep and motor skill (MS) deficits have also been observed in children with ASD. On the other hand, there is evidence that aerobic exercise training (AET) has a positive impact on sleep, and that specific training improves MSs. Accordingly, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate to what extent a combination of AET and MS training (MST) would improve sleep and physical performance in a small sample of children with ASD. Methods Ten children with ASD (mean age: 10 years) took part in the study. After a thorough medical examination and psychiatric assessment, children participated in thrice-weekly 60-minute sessions of AET and MST lasting for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep was assessed both objectively (sleep-encephalography [sleep-EEG]) and subjectively (parents’ questionnaire). MSs were assessed via standardized test batteries. Parents completed sleep and mood logs, and ratings of mood. Results Mild-to-moderate insomnia was reported in 70% of children. Compared to nights without previous AET and MS, on nights following AET and MS, sleep efficiency increased (d=1.07), sleep onset latency shortened (d=0.38), and wake time after sleep onset decreased for 63% of the sample (d=1.09), as assessed via sleep-EEG. Mood in the morning, as rated by parents, improved after three weeks (d=0.90), as did MSs (ball playing, balance exercise: ds>0.6). Conclusion The pattern of results of this pilot study suggests that regular AET and MST impact positively on sleep, MSs, and mood among children with ASD. PMID:26346856

  5. Impact of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training on markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Earnest, Conrad P

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise training (ET) enhance overall cardiorespiratory fitness (ie, fitness), thus producing many benefits in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Substantial evidence also indicates that acute and chronic inflammation is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and major cardiovascular events. The most commonly utilized marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). In this review, we discuss the importance of inflammation, especially CRP, as a cardiovascular risk marker by reviewing an abundant cross-sectional and clinical intervention literature providing evidence that physical activity, enhanced fitness, and ET are inversely associated with CRP and that being overweight or obese is directly related with inflammation/CRP. Although we discuss the controversy regarding whether or not ET reduces CRP independent of weight loss, clearly physical activity, improved fitness, and ET are associated with reductions in inflammation and overall cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention.

  6. Skeletal muscle homeostasis and plasticity in youth and ageing: impact of nutrition and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brook, M S; Wilkinson, D J; Phillips, B E; Perez-Schindler, J; Philp, A; Smith, K; Atherton, P J

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise a substantial portion of whole body mass and are integral for locomotion and metabolic health. Increasing age is associated with declines in both muscle mass and function (e.g. strength-related performance, power) with declines in muscle function quantitatively outweighing those in muscle volume. The mechanisms behind these declines are multi-faceted involving both intrinsic age-related metabolic dysregulation and environmental influences such as nutritional and physical activity. Ageing is associated with a degree of 'anabolic resistance' to these key environmental inputs, which likely accelerates the intrinsic processes driving ageing. On this basis, strategies to sensitize and/or promote anabolic responses to nutrition and physical activity are likely to be imperative in alleviating the progression and trajectory of sarcopenia. Both resistance- and aerobic-type exercises are likely to confer functional and health benefits in older age, and a clutch of research suggests that enhancement of anabolic responsiveness to exercise and/or nutrition may be achieved by optimizing modifications of muscle-loading paradigms (workload, volume, blood flow restriction) or nutritional support (e.g. essential amino acid/leucine) patterns. Nonetheless, more work is needed in which a more holistic view in ageing studies is taken into account. This should include improved characterization of older study recruits, that is physical activity/nutritional behaviours, to limit confounding variables influencing whether findings are attributable to age, or other environmental influences. Nonetheless, on balance, ageing is associated with declines in muscle mass and function and a partially related decline in aerobic capacity. There is also good evidence that metabolic flexibility is impaired in older age.

  7. Effect of progressive high-impact exercise on femoral neck structural strength in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis: a 12-month RCT.

    PubMed

    Multanen, J; Rantalainen, T; Kautiainen, H; Ahola, R; Jämsä, T; Nieminen, M T; Lammentausta, E; Häkkinen, A; Kiviranta, I; Heinonen, A

    2017-04-01

    It is uncertain whether subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis, and who may be at risk of osteoporosis, can exercise safely with the aim of improving hip bone strength. This RCT showed that participating in a high-impact exercise program improved femoral neck strength without any detrimental effects on knee cartilage composition. No previous studies have examined whether high-impact exercise can improve bone strength and articular cartilage quality in subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis. In this 12-month RCT, we assessed the effects of progressive high-impact exercise on femoral neck structural strength and biochemical composition of knee cartilage in postmenopausal women. Eighty postmenopausal women with mild knee radiographic osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into the exercise (n = 40) or control (n = 40) group. Femoral neck structural strength was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The knee cartilage region exposed to exercise loading was measured by the quantitative MRI techniques of T2 mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC). Also, an accelerometer-based body movement monitor was used to evaluate the total physical activity loading on the changes of femoral neck strength in all participants. Training effects on the outcome variables were estimated by the bootstrap analysis of covariance. A significant between-group difference in femoral neck bending strength in favor of the trainees was observed after the 12-month intervention (4.4%, p < 0.01). The change in femoral neck bending strength remained significant after adjusting for baseline value, age, height, and body mass (4.0%, p = 0.020). In all participants, the change in bending strength was associated with the total physical activity loading (r = 0.29, p = 0.012). The exercise participation had no effect on knee cartilage composition. The high-impact training increased femoral neck strength without having any harmful effect on knee cartilage in

  8. Dominant modal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  9. Impact of sleep complaints and depression outcomes among participants in the standard medical intervention and long-term exercise study of exercise and pharmacotherapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Combs, Kory; Smith, Patrick J; Sherwood, Andrew; Hoffman, Benson; Carney, Robert M; Freedland, Kenneth; Craighead, W Edward; Blumenthal, James A

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise and sertraline on disordered sleep in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The Standard Medical Intervention and Long-term Exercise study randomized the patients with MDD (n = 202) to one of four arms: a) supervised exercise, b) home-based exercise, c) sertraline therapy, and d) placebo pill. Sleep disturbance was assessed with three sleep-related items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) before and after 4 months of treatment. The patients were followed for 12 months to assess the prognostic value of sleep disturbance on MDD relapse and recovery.Results Comparison of the active treatment and placebo groups showed no treatment differences in HAM-D sleep complaints after 4 months (p = 0.758). However, residual insomnia symptoms after treatment were strongly associated with elevated depressive symptoms assessed by the HAM-D after 4 months (β = 0.342, p < 0.0001) and MDD relapse (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.10; p = 0.004) assessed at 1-year follow-up (16 months after randomization). Neither exercise nor sertraline was associated with greater improvements in sleep disturbance compared with the placebo controls. However, residual symptoms of insomnia after successful treatment of MDD predicted relapse, highlighting the clinical importance of addressing insomnia in patients with MDD.

  10. Impact of a community-based exercise programme on physical fitness in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Themudo-Barata, José; Reis, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is related to all-cause mortality, quality of life and risk of falls in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to analyse the impact of a long-term community-based combined exercise program (aerobic+resistance+agility/balance+flexibility) developed with minimum and low-cost material resources on physical fitness in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a non-experimental pre-post evaluation study. Participants (N=43; 62.92±5.92 years old) were engaged in a community-based supervised exercise programme (consisting of combined aerobic, resistance, agility/balance and flexibility exercises; three sessions per week; 70min per session) of 9 months' duration. Aerobic fitness (6-Minute Walk Test), muscle strength (30-Second Chair Stand Test), agility/balance (Timed Up and Go Test) and flexibility (Chair Sit and Reach Test) were assessed before (baseline) and after the exercise intervention. Significant improvements in the performance of the 6-Minute Walk Test (Δ=8.20%, p<0.001), 30-Second Chair Stand Test (Δ=28.84%, p<0.001), Timed Up and Go Test (Δ=14.31%, p<0.001), and Chair Sit and Reach Test (Δ=102.90%, p<0.001) were identified between baseline and end-exercise intervention time points. A long-term community-based combined exercise programme, developed with low-cost exercise strategies, produced significant benefits in physical fitness in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. This supervised group exercise programme significantly improved aerobic fitness, muscle strength, agility/balance and flexibility, assessed with field tests in community settings. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. A Hydrologic Model Calibration Exercise for Regional Climate Change Impact Assessment of the Conterminous U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oubeidillah, A. A.; Kao, S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the hydrological impacts of climate change in the U.S. using projections from multiple general circulation models downscaled by means of regional climate models, statistical methods, and hydrologic models. Most of these studies focused on a small number of local watersheds without consideration to larger-scale regional climate change impacts, or utilized macro-scale hydrologic models with coarser spatial resolution that are insufficient to characterize the delicate surface hydrology. To improve the results of regional hydro-climate impact assessment, there is a need for better spatial coverage as well as resolution of hydrologic models. The main challenge has been the availability of a comprehensive set of higher resolution calibrated physical parameters. Focusing on the need of regional hydro-climate impact assessment, a data-intensive hydrologic model calibration exercise is performed for over 2000 USGS hydrologic Subbasins (HUC8) in the conterminous U.S. at the resolution of 1/24th degree (~4km). Both USGS WaterWatch monthly runoff and NWIS daily gage observation are used to calibrate the baseline variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. Several statistical matrices are used to evaluate the model performance at each HUC8, including the Pearson correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSEC), bias (B) and the percent bias (PB). The overall results show that the physical models simulate closely the observed values with about sixty four percent of the HUC8s having an average NSEC of 0.95 The model performance was vastly better in wet region basins than they were in arid region. The current baseline VIC model can hardly be improved in arid and desert regions (covering about twenty percent of the HUC8s) where the NSEC values are below zero. Overall, the new 4-km model implementation for the conterminous U.S. shows promising improvement over the ones

  12. A Modal Model to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Pacini, Benjamin Robert; Mayes, Randall L.; Roettgen, Daniel R

    2015-10-01

    Some initial investigations have been published which simulate nonlinear response with almost traditional modal models: instead of connecting the modal mass to ground through the traditional spring and damper, a nonlinear Iwan element was added. This assumes that the mode shapes do not change with amplitude and there are no interactions between modal degrees of freedom. This work expands on these previous studies. An impact experiment is performed on a structure which exhibits typical structural dynamic nonlinear response, i.e. weak frequency dependence and strong damping dependence on the amplitude of vibration. Use of low level modal test results in combination with high level impacts are processed using various combinations of modal filtering, the Hilbert Transform and band-pass filtering to develop response data that are then fit with various nonlinear elements to create a nonlinear pseudo-modal model. Simulations of forced response are compared with high level experimental data for various nonlinear element assumptions.

  13. Impact of diabetes, chronic heart failure, congenital heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on acute and chronic exercise responses

    PubMed Central

    Brassard, Patrice; Ferland, Annie; Marquis, Karine; Maltais, François; Jobin, Jean; Poirier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Several chronic diseases are known to negatively affect the ability of an individual to perform exercise. However, the altered exercise capacity observed in these patients is not solely associated with the heart and lungs dysfunction. Exercise has also been shown to play an important role in the management of several pathologies encountered in the fields of cardiology and pneumology. Studies conducted in our institution regarding the influence of diabetes, chronic heart failure, congenital heart disease and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease on the acute and chronic exercise responses, along with the beneficial effects of exercise training in these populations, are reviewed. PMID:17932595

  14. Modal testing in the design evaluation of wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Lauffer, J.P.; Carne, T.G.; Ashwill, T.D.

    1988-04-01

    This report reviews several techniques of low-frequency excitation used successfully to measure modal parameters for wind turbines, including impact, wind, step-relaxation, and human input. As one application of these techniques, a prototype turbine was tested and two modal frequencies were found to be close to integral multiples of the operating speed, which caused a resonant condition. The design was modified to shift these frequencies, and the turbine was retested to confirm expected changes in modal frequencies.

  15. Impact of combined exercise training on cardiovascular autonomic control and mortality in diabetic ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Iris C; Conti, Filipe F; Bernardes, Nathalia; Brito, Janaina de O; Galdini, Elia G; Cavaglieri, Cláudia R; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic, resistance, or combined exercise training on cardiovascular autonomic control and mortality in diabetic ovariectomized rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into one of five groups: euglycemic sedentary (ES), diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS), diabetic ovariectomized aerobic-trained (DOTA), diabetic ovariectomized resistance-trained (DOTR), or diabetic ovariectomized aerobic+resistance-trained (DOTC). Arterial pressure (AP) was directly recorded and baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated by heart rate responses to AP changes. Cardiovascular autonomic modulation was evaluated by spectral analyses. No differences were observed in body weight and glycemia between diabetic rats. Animals in the DOTC and DOTA groups exhibited an increase in running time, whereas animals in the DOTC and DOTR groups showed greater strength. Trained groups exhibited improvement in total power and the high-frequency band of pulse interval and reduced mortality (vs. DOS). Animals in the DOTC (bradycardic and tachycardic responses) and DOTA (tachycardic responses) groups exhibited attenuation in baroreflex dysfunction that was observed in DOS and DOTR animals, and an improvement in AP variance. In conclusion, all training protocols led to reduced mortality, which may be due to an increase in physical capacity and to cardiovascular and autonomic benefits following training, regardless of any improvement in glycemic control. In this model, the aerobic and combined trainings seem to promote additional cardiovascular autonomic benefits when compared with resistance training alone. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Impact of aerobic exercise capacity and procedure-related factors in lung cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Licker, M; Schnyder, J-M; Frey, J-G; Diaper, J; Cartier, V; Inan, C; Robert, J; Bridevaux, P-O; Tschopp, J-M

    2011-05-01

    Over the past decades, major progress in patient selection, surgical techniques and anaesthetic management have largely contributed to improved outcome in lung cancer surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of post-operative cardiopulmonary morbidity in patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s <80% predicted, who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). In this observational study, 210 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent CPET with completed data over a 9-yr period (2001-2009). Cardiopulmonary complications occurred in 46 (22%) patients, including four (1.9%) deaths. On logistic regression analysis, peak oxygen uptake (peak V'(O₂) and anaesthesia duration were independent risk factors of both cardiovascular and pulmonary complications; age and the extent of lung resection were additional predictors of cardiovascular complications, whereas tidal volume during one-lung ventilation was a predictor of pulmonary complications. Compared with patients with peak V'(O₂) >17 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, those with a peak V'(O₂) <10 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ had a four-fold higher incidence of cardiac and pulmonary morbidity. Our data support the use of pre-operative CPET and the application of an intra-operative protective ventilation strategy. Further studies should evaluate whether pre-operative physical training can improve post-operative outcome.

  17. The interaction between stress and exercise, and its impact on brain function.

    PubMed

    Russell, Vivienne A; Zigmond, Michael J; Dimatelis, Jacqueline J; Daniels, William M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2014-06-01

    In response to acute adversity, emotional signals shift the body into a state that permits rapid detection, identification, and appropriate response to a potential threat. The stress response involves the release of a variety of substances, including neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, hormones, and cytokines, that enable the body to deal with the challenges of daily life. The subsequent activation of various physiological systems can be both protective and damaging to the individual, depending on timing, intensity, and duration of the stressor. Successful recovery from stressful challenges during early life leads to strengthening of synaptic connections in health-promoting neural networks and reduced vulnerability to subsequent stressors that can be protective in later life. In contrast, chronic intense uncontrollable stress can be pathogenic and lead to disorders such as depression, anxiety, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and an increased toxic response to additional stressors such as traumatic brain injury and stroke. This review briefly explores the interaction between stress experienced at different stages of development and exercise later in life.

  18. Simulated disability exercises and their impact on attitudes toward persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Grayson, E; Marini, I

    1996-06-01

    Two separate graduate rehabilitation counselling groups from a mid-south university either did or did not take part in a wheelchair sensitivity training pilot study designed to enhance their understanding as to what life might be like for persons who use a wheelchair. Twenty students were individually accompanied on a designated route across campus by a non-disabled graduate researcher. Eighteen other graduate students formed a control group and did not participate. Both groups completed a contextually different 14-item Likert type questionnaire designed to assess their perceptions of persons with physical disabilities based on either the sensitivity exercise or their experience in the rehabilitation programme. Results from this quasi-experimental study suggested that regardless of whether they participated in the sensitivity training, both groups perceived they would become better counsellors. t-Tests revealed significant differences in the two groups' responses to questions pertaining to daily frustrations experienced by persons with physical disabilities and a pre-occupation with how accessible places are. Other differences noted were that persons with physical disabilities must feel different from being stared at and must have a harder time in society. Implications of the utility and misuses of these one-time experiences are explored.

  19. Impact of duration of mitral regurgitation on outcomes in asymptomatic patients with myxomatous mitral valve undergoing exercise stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Naji, Peyman; Asfahan, Fadi; Barr, Tyler; Rodriguez, L Leonardo; Grimm, Richard A; Agarwal, Shikhar; Thomas, James D; Gillinov, A Marc; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Griffin, Brian P; Desai, Milind Y

    2015-02-11

    Significant mitral regurgitation (MR) typically occurs as holosystolic (HS) or mid-late systolic (MLS), with differences in volumetric impact on the left ventricle (LV). We sought to assess outcomes of degenerative MR patients undergoing exercise echocardiography, separated based on MR duration (MLS versus HS). We included 609 consecutive patients with ≥III+myxomatous MR undergoing exercise echocardiography: HS (n=487) and MLS (n=122). MLS MR was defined as delayed appearance of MR signal during mid-late systole on continuous-wave Doppler while HS MR occurred throughout systole. Composite events of death and congestive heart failure were recorded. Compared to MLS MR, HS MR patients were older (60±14 versus 53±14 years), more were males (72% versus 53%), and had greater prevalence of atrial fibrillation (16% versus 7%; all P<0.01). HS MR patients had higher right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) at rest (33±11 versus 27±9 mm Hg), more flail leaflets (36% versus 6%), and a lower number of metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved (9.5±3 versus 10.5±3), compared to the MLS MR group (all P<0.05). There were 54 events during 7.1±3 years of follow-up. On step-wise multivariable analysis, HS versus MLS MR (HR 4.99 [1.21 to 20.14]), higher LV ejection fraction (hazard ratio [HR], 0.94 [0.89 to 0.98]), atrial fibrillation (HR, 2.59 [1.33 to 5.11]), higher RVSP (HR, 1.05 [1.03 to 1.09]), and higher percentage of age- and gender-predicted METs (HR, 0.98 [0.97 to 0.99]) were independently associated with adverse outcomes (all P<0.05). In patients with ≥III+myxomatous MR undergoing exercise echocardiography, holosystolic MR is associated with adverse outcomes, independent of other predictors. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  20. Impact of Duration of Mitral Regurgitation on Outcomes in Asymptomatic Patients With Myxomatous Mitral Valve Undergoing Exercise Stress Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Naji, Peyman; Asfahan, Fadi; Barr, Tyler; Rodriguez, L. Leonardo; Grimm, Richard A.; Agarwal, Shikhar; Thomas, James D.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Griffin, Brian P.; Desai, Milind Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Significant mitral regurgitation (MR) typically occurs as holosystolic (HS) or mid‐late systolic (MLS), with differences in volumetric impact on the left ventricle (LV). We sought to assess outcomes of degenerative MR patients undergoing exercise echocardiography, separated based on MR duration (MLS versus HS). Methods and Results We included 609 consecutive patients with ≥III+myxomatous MR undergoing exercise echocardiography: HS (n=487) and MLS (n=122). MLS MR was defined as delayed appearance of MR signal during mid‐late systole on continuous‐wave Doppler while HS MR occurred throughout systole. Composite events of death and congestive heart failure were recorded. Compared to MLS MR, HS MR patients were older (60±14 versus 53±14 years), more were males (72% versus 53%), and had greater prevalence of atrial fibrillation (16% versus 7%; all P<0.01). HS MR patients had higher right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) at rest (33±11 versus 27±9 mm Hg), more flail leaflets (36% versus 6%), and a lower number of metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved (9.5±3 versus 10.5±3), compared to the MLS MR group (all P<0.05). There were 54 events during 7.1±3 years of follow‐up. On step‐wise multivariable analysis, HS versus MLS MR (HR 4.99 [1.21 to 20.14]), higher LV ejection fraction (hazard ratio [HR], 0.94 [0.89 to 0.98]), atrial fibrillation (HR, 2.59 [1.33 to 5.11]), higher RVSP (HR, 1.05 [1.03 to 1.09]), and higher percentage of age‐ and gender‐predicted METs (HR, 0.98 [0.97 to 0.99]) were independently associated with adverse outcomes (all P<0.05). Conclusion In patients with ≥III+myxomatous MR undergoing exercise echocardiography, holosystolic MR is associated with adverse outcomes, independent of other predictors. PMID:25672368

  1. The impact of exercise-induced muscle damage on performance test outcomes in elite female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony; Sinclair, Wade; Schumann, Moritz; Damas, Felipe; Burt, Dean; Woods, Carl

    2017-09-11

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, to examine the impact exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on physical fitness qualities following a basketball-specific training session. Secondly, to determine the reproducibility of the sport-specific performance measures in elite female basketball players. Ten elite female basketball players (age 25.6 ± 4.5 years; height 1.8 ± 0.7m; body mass 76.7 ± 8.3kg) undertook a 90-minute training session involving repeated jumping, sprinting and game-simulated training. Indirect muscle damage markers (i.e., countermovement jump [CMJ], delayed-onset of muscle soreness [DOMS] and creatine kinase [CK]) and sport-specific performances (i.e., change of direction [COD] and suicide test [ST]) were measured prior to and 24 hours post training. These measures were also collected one week following training to determine the reproducibility of the basketball-specific performance measures. A significant reduction in lower-body power (-3.5±3.6%; P<0.05), whilst a significant increase in DOMS (46.7±26.3%; P<0.05) and CK (57.6±23.1%; P<0.05) was observed 24 hours post exercise. The ST was also significantly increased (2.1±1.8%; P<0.05), although no difference was observed for COD (0.1±2.0%; P>0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation for the COD and ST were 0.81 and 0.90, respectively, and 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively. In conclusion, appropriate recovery should be considered the day following basketball-specific training sessions in elite basketball players. Furthermore, this study showed the usability of performance measures to detect changes during periods of EIMD, with acceptable reproducibility and minimal measurement error.

  2. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  3. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  4. Investigating the Impact of Religious Diversity in Schools for Secondary Education: A Challenging but Necessary Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram-Troost, Gerdien D.

    2011-01-01

    Both in academic and public discussions, there is an ongoing debate about the pros and cons of religious diversity in education. Until recently, many arguments used in this debate have not had a strong theoretical basis and often lack empirical underpinning as well. In this paper I go further into the reasons why researching the impact of…

  5. National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Assessor Training: Impact of Bias Reduction Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szpara, Michelle Y.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This study is an in-depth investigation of the NBPTS bias reduction training from the perspective of assessors. The research examined how successful the bias training was in guiding assessors to recognize their biases and to identify actions to be used to reduce the impact of bias. The study focused on portfolio video entries to allow for a…

  6. Seeking Conceptual Clarity in the Action Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This article begins with the presumption that action learning has not made as deep an impact in promoting participatory social change as its supporters may have hoped for, but nor has its cousin action modalities, such as action research and action science. These action strategies have evolved separately along distinct traditions and, rather than…

  7. Modal Mineralogy of Lunar Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Martel, L.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S. T.; Blake, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    Modal mineralogy of the lunar regolith is fundamentally important. It varies with the composition of underlying bedrock, extent of addition of materials excavated by impact both local and distant, and small-scale reworking by micrometeorite bombardment, so it contains information about local geological history. Determining modal mineralogy of soils provides vital ground truth to remote sensing studies. Mineralogy can be determined by a variety of techniques that provide complementary information: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), optical point counting, element mapping by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or electron microprobe (EMP), and normative calculation from a bulk chemical analysis. SEM and EMP element mapping can be converted into mineral modal abundances in a variety of ways, including defining compositional windows for specific minerals and using image processing techniques. XRD provides direct determination of the phases present, but gives little information about the chemical composition of those phases. We have launched a project to determine the modal mineralogy of over 100 lunar soils from all Apollo sites. The goal is to use this quantitative mineralogy and laboratory and remote reflectance spectra of the same soils to improve our ability to extract quantitative mineralogy from remote sensing data. Samples (< 1mm bulk soils) were dry-sieved and the <150 micron fractions analyzed in a Terra XRD instrument (InXitu, Inc.) using sample sizes of ~35 mg. We reduced the data using Reitveld refinement as implemented by the Jade program (Materials Data, Inc.). Glass abundances were determined by choosing a linear background and fitting a broad Gaussian to the scattering hump above background. Quantitative XRD is well established, but usually requires some calibration, in spite of the sophisticated Reitveld refinement and whole-pattern fitting. We calibrated the instrument by using mixtures of terrestrial minerals and results from the Lunar Sample Characterization

  8. Impact of an exercise program on acylcarnitines in obesity: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acylcarnitine (AC) transport dysfunction into the mitochondrial matrix is one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The effect of an aerobic exercise (AE) program on this condition in obese subjects without DM is unclear. Methods A prospective, randomized, longitudinal, interventional study in a University Research Center involved a 10-week AE program in 32 women without DM and a body mass index (BMI) greater than 27 kg/m2. (Cases n = 17; Controls n = 15). The primary objective was to evaluate the influence of a controlled AE program on beta-oxidation according to modifications in short, medium, and long-chain ACs. Secondary objectives were to define the behavior of amino acids, and the correlation between these modifications with metabolic and anthropometric markers. Results The proportion of dropouts was 17% and 6% in controls and cases, respectively. In cases there was a significant reduction in total carnitine (30.40 [95% CI 28.2 to 35.6]) vs. (29.4 [CI 95% 25.1 to 31.7]) p = 0.0008 and long-chain AC C14 (0.06 [95% CI 0.05 to 0.08]) vs. (0.05 [95% CI 0.05 to 0.09]) p = 0.005 and in C18 (0.31 [95% CI 0.27 to 0.45]) vs. (0.28 [95% CI 0.22 to 0.32]) p = 0.03. Free fatty acid levels remained without change during the study in both groups. Conclusion In conclusion, a controlled 10-week AE program improved beta-oxidation by reducing long-chain ACs. This finding highlights the importance that AE might have in avoiding or reverting lipotoxicity, and in consequence, improving insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell functional reserve. PMID:22574901

  9. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Oliveira, Mônica Longo de; Lirani-Galvão, Ana Paula; Marin-Mio, Rosângela Villa; Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco dos; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, it is not clear yet which modality would be better to stimulate bone metabolism and enhance physical function of postmenopausal women. This review paper aims to summarize and update present knowledge on the effects of different kinds of aquatic and ground physical exercises on bone metabolism and physical function of postmenopausal women. Moderate to intense exercises, performed in a high speed during short intervals of time, in water or on the ground, can be part of a program to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mechanical vibration has proven to be beneficial for bone microarchitecture, improving bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function. Although impact exercises are recognized as beneficial for the stimulation of bone tissue, other variables such as muscle strength, type of muscle contraction, duration and intensity of exercises are also determinants to induce changes in bone metabolism of postmenopausal women. Not only osteoanabolic exercises should be recommended; activities aimed to develop muscle strength and body balance and improve the proprioception should be encouraged to prevent falls and fractures.

  10. Exercise Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ... exercise dilates blood vessels inside the skull. Secondary exercise headaches Secondary exercise headaches are caused by an ...

  11. The impact of acute bouts of exercise on circulating cardiac natriuretic peptide and left ventricular function in untrained healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hack L; Kim, You N; Lee, Seon K; Seo, Jae B; Chung, Woo Y; Shin, Sue; Kim, Sang H; Yoon, Jong H; Kim, Myung A; Zo, Joo H

    2016-12-01

    To examine the impact of a single bout of exercise on cardiac function and the blood level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in healthy subjects. Thirty untrained, healthy young (aged between 20 and 29 years) volunteers (15 men and 15 women) were prospectively recruited. The plasma N-terminal pro-B-type BNP (NT-proBNP) level was checked, cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography in baseline conditions, and the values were compared with those obtained after treadmill exercise according to the Bruce protocol. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction decreased after exercise in men, but not in women. Parameters of LV diastolic function were likely to change unfavorably in both sexes after exercise. NT-proBNP levels were significantly elevated by exercise in both sexes (from 22.1±18.3 to 24.7±20.2 pg/mL, P=0.006 in men; from 41.1±21.5 to 46.5±24.9 pg/mL, P<0.001 in women). Changes in NT-proBNP levels were significantly associated with those in E wave velocity, E wave deceleration time, E/e' and E/propagation velocity (Vp) in men (P<0.05 for each) even after controlling for the effects of blood pressure and heart rate. In women, there were no significant associations between changes in parameters of LV diastolic function and those in NT-proBNP levels. LV systolic and diastolic functions may deteriorate, and proBNP levels could be elevated even by a single bout of treadmill exercise in untrained young subjects. Dynamic change in LV diastolic function is a major stimulus to NT-proBNP release following exercise in men but not in women.

  12. Impact of time to therapy and reperfusion modality on the efficacy of adenosine in acute myocardial infarction: the AMISTAD-2 trial.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A; Forman, Mervyn B; Gibbons, Raymond J; Ross, Allan M; Alexander, R Wayne; Stone, Gregg W

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether the efficacy of adenosine vs. placebo was dependent on the timing of reperfusion therapy in the second Acute Myocardial Infarction Study of Adenosine (AMISTAD-II). Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation anterior AMI were randomized to receive placebo vs. adenosine (50 or 70 microg/kg/min) for 3 h starting within 15 min of reperfusion therapy. In the present post hoc hypothesis generating study, the results were stratified according to the timing of reperfusion, i.e. > or = or < the median 3.17 h, and by reperfusion modality. In patients receiving reperfusion < 3.17 h, adenosine compared with placebo significantly reduced 1-month mortality (5.2 vs. 9.2%, respectively, P = 0.014), 6-month mortality (7.3 vs. 11.2%, P = 0.033), and the occurrence of the primary 6-month composite clinical endpoint of death, in-hospital CHF, or rehospitalization for CHF at 6 months (12.0 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.022). Patients reperfused beyond 3 h did not benefit from adenosine. In this post hoc analysis, 3 h adenosine infusion administered as an adjunct to reperfusion therapy within the first 3.17 h onset of evolving anterior ST-segment elevation AMI enhanced early and late survival, and reduced the composite clinical endpoint of death or CHF at 6 months.

  13. Das modale Hilfsverb "will" (The Modal Auxiliary Verb "Will")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunsmann, Peter W.

    1975-01-01

    That "will" and "shall" are modal, not temporal, verbs is shown by their syntactic similarity to the modals and by the fact that they follow the same transformational rules as the modals. This example demonstrates the usefulness of transformational grammar in explaining grammatical relationships to students. (Text is in…

  14. The modal projector.

    PubMed

    Butler, John L; Butler, Alexander L; Butler, Stephen C

    2011-04-01

    The superposition of acoustical modes radiated from a transducer can provide directionality from a compact projector. This paper presents the foundation, as well as examples, of piezoelectric ceramic, piezoelectric single crystal, and magnetostrictive versions of this "modal projector." Measured and analytical, as well as finite element analysis modeled, results show good agreement and establish this transducer as a viable source of intensity with the advantages of an improved directivity index, reducing the power needed from a compact source.

  15. Energy-based modalities.

    PubMed

    Engebretson, Joan; Wardell, Diane Wind

    2007-06-01

    Research on touch therapies is still in the early stages of development. Studies of Therapeutic Touch, Healing Touch, and Reiki are quite promising; however, at this point, they can only suggest that these healing modalities have efficacy in reducing anxiety; improving muscle relaxation; aiding in stress reduction, relaxation, and sense of well-being; promoting wound healing; and reducing pain. The multidimensional aspects of healing inherent in patient care continue to be expanded and facilitated by our understanding and application of energy therapies.

  16. Digital multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, M.; Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A review of several modal testing techniques is made, along with brief discussions of their advantages and limitations. A new technique is presented which overcomes many of the previous limitations. Several simulated experiments are included to verify the validity and accuracy of the new method. Conclusions are drawn from the simulation studies and recommendations for further work are presented. The complete computer code configured for the simulation study is presented.

  17. Multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The major accomplishments of this research are: (1) the refinement and documentation of a multi-input, multi-output modal parameter estimation algorithm which is applicable to general linear, time-invariant dynamic systems; (2) the development and testing of an unsymmetric block-Lanzcos algorithm for reduced-order modeling of linear systems with arbitrary damping; and (3) the development of a control-structure-interaction (CSI) test facility.

  18. Effects of a knee ligament injury prevention exercise program on impact forces in women.

    PubMed

    Irmischer, Bobbie S; Harris, Chad; Pfeiffer, Ronald P; DeBeliso, Mark A; Adams, Kent J; Shea, Kevin G

    2004-11-01

    Previous research suggests high impact forces generated during landings contribute to noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. In women, neuromuscular differences appear to modify the ability to dissipate landing forces when compared to men. This study examined peak vertical impact forces (F(p)) and rate of force development (RFD) following a 9-week, low-intensity (simple jump-landing-jump tasks) and volume (number of foot contacts per workout) plyometric-based knee ligament injury prevention (KLIP) program. Female subjects were randomly assigned into control (n = 14) and treatment (n = 14) groups. Treatment subjects attended KLIP sessions twice a week for 9 weeks, and control subjects received no intervention. Ground reaction forces (F(p) and RFD) generated during a step-land protocol were assessed at study onset and termination. Significant reductions in F(p) (p = 0.0004) and RFD (p = 0.0205) were observed in the treatment group. Our results indicate that 9 weeks of KLIP training altered landing strategies in women to lower F(p) and RFD. These changes are considered conducive to a reduced risk of knee injury while landing.

  19. Impact of a brief exercise program on the physical and psychosocial health of prostate cancer survivors: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Tina L; Peeters, Gmme Geeske; Croci, Ilaria; Bell, Katherine R; Burton, Nicola W; Chambers, Suzanne K; Bolam, Kate A

    2016-09-01

    It is well established that exercise is beneficial for prostate cancer survivors. The challenge for health professionals is to create effective strategies to encourage survivors to exercise in the community. Many community exercise programs are brief in duration (e.g. <5 exercise sessions); whilst evidence for the efficacy of exercise within the literature are derived from exercise programs ≥8 weeks in duration, it is unknown if health benefits can be obtained from a shorter program. This study examined the effect of a four-session individualized and supervised exercise program on the physical and psychosocial health of prostate cancer survivors. Fifty-one prostate cancer survivors (mean age 69±7 years) were prescribed 1 h, individualized, supervised exercise sessions once weekly for 4 weeks. Participants were encouraged to increase their physical activity levels outside of the exercise sessions. Objective measures of muscular strength, exercise capacity, physical function and flexibility; and self-reported general, disease-specific and psychosocial health were assessed at baseline and following the intervention. Improvements were observed in muscle strength (leg press 17.6 percent; P < 0.001), exercise capacity (400-m walk 9.3 percent; P < 0.001), physical function (repeated chair stands 20.1 percent, usual gait speed 19.3 percent, timed up-and-go 15.0 percent; P < 0.001), flexibility (chair sit and reach +2.9 cm; P < 0.001) and positive well-being (P = 0.014) following the exercise program. A four-session exercise program significantly improved the muscular strength, exercise capacity, physical function and positive well-being of prostate cancer survivors. This short-duration exercise program is safe and feasible for prostate cancer survivors and a randomized controlled trial is now required to determine whether a similar individualized exercise regimen improves physical health and mental well-being over the short, medium and long term. © 2016 John

  20. Disease control and treatment modalities have impact on quality of life in acromegaly evaluated by Acromegaly Quality of Life (AcroQoL) Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Vandeva, Silvia; Yaneva, Maria; Natchev, Emil; Elenkova, Atanaska; Kalinov, Krasimir; Zacharieva, Sabina

    2015-08-01

    Various factors influence quality of life (QoL) in acromegaly. Whether disease control and treatment approach are related to QoL is still a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate QoL in patients with acromegaly using the disease-specific Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire in respect to disease activity, treatment modalities, and other factors. We studied 212 patients with acromegaly in a cross-sectional manner over a 6-year period in a single tertiary center. As a second step, seventy of the patients who were with active disease at baseline were followed up prospectively and 45 of them were in remission at re-evaluation. In regard to the cross-sectional group, active acromegaly independently predicted worse appearance scores. Prior radiotherapy and older age were independent negative predictors of all scales. Female gender negatively predicted all scales except the appearance domain. Longer duration of remission predicted worse personal relations scores in biochemically controlled patients. The use of somatostatin analog (SSA) was associated with worse personal relations scores, while higher IGF-1 index predicted worse appearance scores in patients with active acromegaly. In the prospective group, achievement of remission independently predicted improvement of the total scale. Lower corresponding baseline scores predicted improvement of the total, physical, and appearance scales, while the absence of hypopituitarism independently predicted improvement of the appearance scale. The use of SSA was associated with improvement of the total and appearance scores. In conclusion, QoL is a multifactorial issue that needs an individualized approach for detection and management.

  1. The Impact of Eating and Exercise Frequency on Weight Gain - A Cross-Sectional Study on Medical Undergraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Padavinangadi, Abhinitha; Xuan, Lee Zi; Chandrasekaran, Nishalini; Johari, Nursyahirah; Kumar, Naveen; Jetti, Raghu

    2017-02-01

    Diverse factors influence an individual's ability to successfully achieve and maintain energy balance consistent with a healthy body weight. Eating frequency is one among the varied feature that thought to have a direct impact on the body weight gain. The present cross-sectional study has been carried out with the intention of awareness of food habit that specifically emphasize the frequency of eating and its effect on weight gain of an individual. This cross-sectional study involved 265 medical undergraduate students. Faculty validated close ended questionnaire was distributed to the students and the responses given by them were then analysed. Statistical evaluation of data with Spearman correlation coefficient (r) was done. Among the total 265 participants, 177 (66.8%) were noted to have normal Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5-24.9). Out of them, 113 (64%) found to have eating frequency 3-4 meals/day, 44 (25%) with 1-2 meals/day, 18 (10%) with 5-6 meals/day and 2 (1%) with more than 6 meals/day. Low positive correlation (r=0.09) between mean frequency of eating and the number of subjects with normal BMI was observed. An increase in the eating frequency can also be correlated with an increased prevalence of normal BMI individuals provided adequate physical exercise.

  2. The Impact of Eating and Exercise Frequency on Weight Gain - A Cross-Sectional Study on Medical Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Padavinangadi, Abhinitha; Xuan, Lee Zi; Chandrasekaran, Nishalini; Johari, Nursyahirah; Jetti, Raghu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Diverse factors influence an individual’s ability to successfully achieve and maintain energy balance consistent with a healthy body weight. Eating frequency is one among the varied feature that thought to have a direct impact on the body weight gain. Aim The present cross-sectional study has been carried out with the intention of awareness of food habit that specifically emphasize the frequency of eating and its effect on weight gain of an individual. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study involved 265 medical undergraduate students. Faculty validated close ended questionnaire was distributed to the students and the responses given by them were then analysed. Statistical evaluation of data with Spearman correlation coefficient (r) was done. Results Among the total 265 participants, 177 (66.8%) were noted to have normal Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5-24.9). Out of them, 113 (64%) found to have eating frequency 3-4 meals/day, 44 (25%) with 1-2 meals/day, 18 (10%) with 5-6 meals/day and 2 (1%) with more than 6 meals/day. Low positive correlation (r=0.09) between mean frequency of eating and the number of subjects with normal BMI was observed. Conclusion An increase in the eating frequency can also be correlated with an increased prevalence of normal BMI individuals provided adequate physical exercise. PMID:28384887

  3. Evaluation of the impact of exercise of gait on a treadmill on balance of people who suffered from cerebral stroke.

    PubMed

    Drużbicki, Mariusz; Przysada, Grzegorz; Guzik, Agnieszka; Kwolek, Andrzej; Brzozowska-Magoń, Agnieszka; Sobolewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to define the impact of exercise on a treadmill on static balance and stability of posture in a group of patients after cerebral stroke rehabilitated in a late period, with an application of a treadmill with the function of visual biofeedback. The examination was carried out in a group of 46 people in a late period after ischemic cerebral stroke. The patients examined were randomly put to a group with intervention (n = 23), in which a rehabilitation programme with an application of a treadmill with the visual feedback function was realized and to a control group (n = 23). They evaluated balance in standing on both feet by means of a force plate, symmetry of load of lower limbs and dynamic balance in Up & Go test. A statistically significant change of stabilometric parameters was observed only in the area of postural sways of the centre of pressure (COP). A significant improvement of the symmetry of load of lower limbs in standing (p = 0.0266) was diagnosed in the examined group after the end of the programme. After the end of the programme no significant difference between the group with intervention and the control group as for a change of balance of the examined patients was found. In the examined group in the chronic period after cs no significant improvement of stabilometrically evaluated balance was obtained, but improvement of the symmetry of load of lower limbs as well as improvement of dynamic balance were observed.

  4. Impact of aerobic exercise training on cognitive functions and affect associated to the COMT polymorphism in young adults.

    PubMed

    Stroth, Sanna; Reinhardt, Ralf K; Thöne, Jan; Hille, Katrin; Schneider, Matthias; Härtel, Sascha; Weidemann, Wolfgang; Bös, Klaus; Spitzer, Manfred

    2010-10-01

    Physical fitness can serve as a means to enhance cognitive functioning by modulating particular aspects of brain functioning. However, mechanisms underlying this modulating effect remain widely unresolved. To examine the impact and to clarify the mechanisms of physical fitness training in a young and healthy population, it was investigated whether an increase in fitness would result in improvements in executive control processes and positive and negative affect. Moreover, genotype of the Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) as an index of relative central dopamine bioavailability was determined to elucidate dopamine tuning efficiency and its association with performance in the applied cognitive tasks. Seventy-five individuals participated and underwent an incremental fitness test to assess physical fitness. An exercising group subsequently engaged in a 17 weeks running training consisting of three running sessions at moderate to high, individually adjusted intensities. Associated with increased fitness improved cognitive flexibility and cognitive control were observed, whereas working memory remained unaffected. In runners, Val/Val participants improved cognitive performance to a greater extent compared to individuals carrying a Met allele. From the present results it is concluded that an increase in physical fitness provides a means to improve cognitive functioning via dopaminergic modulation.