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Sample records for impact factor eigenfactor

  1. Comparison between Impact factor, SCImago journal rank indicator and Eigenfactor score of nuclear medicine journals.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Sadeghi; Sarraf Shirazi, Alireza

    2012-08-27

    Despite its widespread acceptance in the scientific world, impact factor (IF) has been criticized recently on many accounts: including lack of quality assessment of the citations, influence of self citation, English language bias, etc. In the current study, we evaluated three indices of journal scientific impact: (IF), Eigenfactor Score (ES), and SCImago Journal rank indicator (SJR) of nuclear medicine journals. Overall 13 nuclear medicine journals are indexed in ISI and SCOPUS and 7 in SCOPUS only. Self citations, Citations to non-English articles, citations to non-citable items and citations to review articles contribute to IFs of some journals very prominently, which can be better detected by ES and SJR to some extent. Considering all three indices while judging quality of the nuclear medicine journals would be a better strategy due to several shortcomings of IF.

  2. The Eigenfactor Metrics™: A Network Approach to Assessing Scholarly Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jevin D.; Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2010-01-01

    Limited time and budgets have created a legitimate need for quantitative measures of scholarly work. The well-known journal impact factor is the leading measure of this sort; here we describe an alternative approach based on the full structure of the scholarly citation network. The Eigenfactor Metrics--Eigenfactor Score and Article Influence…

  3. AGU journals increase in importance according to 2010 Impact Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Bill

    2011-07-01

    AGU journals continue to rank highly in many categories in the 2010 Journal Citation Report (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 28 June. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2010 statistics, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. Four different AGU titles are ranked in the top three journals in six different cohorts. The Impact Factor of several AGU journals increased significantly over the previous year.

  4. Strong Showing for AGU Journals in 2009 Impact Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Bill

    2010-06-01

    AGU publishes great science, which is recognized in several ways. One of the most widely recognized is from Thomson Reuters, which provides the Journal Citation Report (JCR) each year as a component of the Web of Science®. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2009 statistics released last week, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. For the twelfth time, two different AGU titles hold the top rank in their categories, and AGU titles hold the second spot in two other categories and third in two more.

  5. Impact beyond the impact factor.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Günther K H

    2014-02-01

    The journal impact factor is an annually calculated number for each scientific journal, based on the average number of times its articles published in the two preceding years have been cited. It was originally devised as a tool for librarians and publishers to provide information about the citation performance of a journal as a whole, but over the last few decades it has increasingly been used to assess the quality of specific articles and the research performance of individual investigators, institutions, and countries. In addition to this clear abuse of the journal impact factor, several conceptual and technical issues limit its usability as a measure of journal reputation, especially when journals are compared across different fields. An author's decision regarding the suitability of a scholarly journal for publication should, therefore, be based on the impact that this journal makes in the field of research, rather than on the journal impact factor.

  6. Milestones and Impact Factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact. PMID:20615249

  7. The "impact factor" revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Peng; Loh, Marie; Mondry, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    The number of scientific journals has become so large that individuals, institutions and institutional libraries cannot completely store their physical content. In order to prioritize the choice of quality information sources, librarians and scientists are in need of reliable decision aids. The "impact factor" (IF) is the most commonly used assessment aid for deciding which journals should receive a scholarly submission or attention from research readership. It is also an often misunderstood tool. This narrative review explains how the IF is calculated, how bias is introduced into the calculation, which questions the IF can or cannot answer, and how different professional groups can benefit from IF use. PMID:16324222

  8. How is impact factor impacting our research?

    PubMed

    Rawat, Seema

    2014-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) of an journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to recent articles published in the journal. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. However it is not a perfect metric and has its own limitations. Journals are increasingly finding new ways to improve their impact factor by increasing self citation, publishing more review articles. This correspondence discuss the fallacies of the impact factor.

  9. Impact factors: uses and abuses.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, James; Counsell, Christopher

    2002-03-01

    Quantitative assessment of the scientific merit of journals and articles is being used increasingly to assess and compare researchers and institutions. The most commonly used measure is the 2 year Impact Factor, which broadly reflects the number of times each article in the journal has been cited over the previous 2 years. There are clear limitations to the use of such measures - not least, Impact Factors reflect the journal not the article, vary with time and correlate only poorly with perceived excellence. Simple comparison of impact factors in different specialties may be misleading. Review journals often have higher Impact Factors than those with original data. Both authors and editors can try to manipulate journal Impact Factors. However, despite valid concerns, Impact Factors are widely used and offer, at present, the best simple tool for comparison of output. Like all measures, the use of Impact Factors has to be tempered with knowledge of their limitations and common sense used in interpreting any data based on any analysis.

  10. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  11. Impact fact-or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Pulverer, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The Journal Impact Factor dominates research assessment in many disciplines and in many countries. While research assessment will always have to rely to some extent on quantitative, standardized metrics, the focus on this single measure has gone so far as to hamper and distort scientific research. The Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA), signed by influential journals, funders, academic institutions and individuals across the natural sciences, aims to raise awareness and to redress the use of non-objective research assessment practices. PMID:23685358

  12. The impact factor of Angewandte Chemie ….

    PubMed

    Gölitz, Peter

    2015-01-02

    What does the Impact Factor tell us? This question is addressed by Peter Glitz in his Editorial, particularly in light of the surprising drop in the 2013 Impact Factor of Angewandte Chemie. An explanation is sought and found. Most importantly the influence of the individual variables that determine the Impact Factor needs to be understood.

  13. [Impact factor and/or Hirsch index?].

    PubMed

    Gracza, Tünde; Somoskövi, Istvánné

    2007-05-06

    Is the best measure of a scientist's worth the total number of his or her published papers? For many years Institute for Scientific Information has been publishing the lists of impact factors providing quantitative tools for ranking scientists. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information for those journals which it indexes, and are published in Journal Citation Reports. These measures apply only to journals, not individual articles or individual scientists. For the impact factor of individual scientists, there exists the h-index or Hirsch number. The Hirsch-index (h-index) has recently been defined by Hirsch as a new method for measuring the scientific activity. If a scientist has published n articles which all have been cited at least n times, then he will have a h-index of n . The h-index seeks to describe the impact of individual researchers, rather than journals. The h-index is the result of the balance between the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. H-index: Impact of Individual Scientists. H-index or/and impact factor - it is the question of the future.

  14. Photon impact factor in the NLO

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian

    2013-04-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  15. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-05-01

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path.

  16. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path. PMID:24814674

  17. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact.

    PubMed

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-05-12

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path.

  18. [Obtaining the Impact Factor by Ginekologia Polska].

    PubMed

    Spaczyński, Marek; Januszek-Michalecka, Lucyna; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Kedzia, Witold; Spaczyński, Robert; Karowicz-Bilińska, Agata

    2011-08-01

    Scientific journals are ranked and evaluated to measure their relative importance and influence on science within a specific field. One of the tools most widely used to evaluate and compare journals is the Thomson Reuters Impact Factor In Poland a specific value of a scientist's Impact Factor is required for academic promotion. Ginekologia Polska was placed on the Master Journal List in 2008 in the result of changes introduced in 2007 by the new Chief Editor prof. Marek Spaczynski. In 2010, first time in its history the journal was listed in the Journal Citation Reports with the Impact Factor 0.367. The analysis of Ginekologia Polska contemporary value, as well as of prospects for its development was conducted on the basis of the Journal Citation Reports. In the light of the JCR data, Ginekologia Polska is a highly regarded title compared to other Polish journals. Its value and importance is gradually growing.

  19. A proposal for a novel impact factor as an alternative to the JCR impact factor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2013-12-03

    One disadvantage of the JCR impact factor, the most commonly used assessment tool for ranking and evaluating scientific journals, is its inability in distinguishing among different shapes of citation distribution curves, leading to unfair evaluation of journals in some cases. This paper aims to put forward an alternative impact factor (IF') that can properly reflect citation distributions. The two impact factors are linearly and positively correlated, and have roughly the same order of magnitude. Because of the ability of IF' in distinguishing among different shapes of citation distribution curves, IF' may properly reflect the academic performance of a scientific journal in a way that is different from the JCR impact factor with some unique features that reward journals with highly cited papers. Therefore, it is suggested that IF' could be used to complement the JCR impact factor.

  20. ResearchGate is no longer reliable: leniency towards ghost journals may decrease its impact on the scientific community.

    PubMed

    Memon, Aamir Raoof

    2016-12-01

    ResearchGate has been regarded as one of the most attractive academic social networking site for scientific community. It has been trying to improve user-centered interfaces to gain more attractiveness to scientists around the world. Display of journal related scietometric measures (such as impact factor, 5-year impact, cited half-life, eigenfactor) is an important feature in ResearchGate. Open access publishing has added more to increased visibility of research work and easy access to information related to research. Moreover, scientific community has been much interested in promoting their work and exhibiting its impact to others through reliable scientometric measures. However, with the growing market of publications and improvements in the field of research, this community has been victimized by the cybercrime in the form of ghost journals, fake publishers and magical impact measures. Particularly, ResearchGate more recently, has been lenient in its policies against this dark side of academic writing. Therefore, this communication aims to discuss concerns associated with leniency in ResearchGate policies and its impact of scientific community.

  1. Median Citation Index vs Journal Impact Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2015-03-01

    The Journal Impact Factor is an arithmetic mean: It is the average number of citations, in a year, to a journal's articles that were published the previous two years. But for the vast majority of scholarly journals, the distribution of these citations is skewed (non-symmetric). We argue that a more representative member of the skewed distribution of citations is its median, not the mean. We thus introduce the Median Citation Index (MCI) and compare it to the journal Impact Factor (JIF) as a potentially more suitable choice of the ``center'' of the distribution, or its typical value. Unlike the JIF, the MCI is far less sensitive to outlier (very highly cited) papers or to gaming, and does not lend itself to the hype of calculating it to three decimal digits.

  2. [The "impact factor" and the impact of medical journals].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H

    1998-02-01

    Original articles published in scientific journals are important parameters for committees when they evaluate academic promotions or research grant applications. The analysis usually tries to give each paper a qualitative/quantitative assessment. An article's citation by others is accepted as a fair estimate of the value assigned to its originality and importance. A main determinant of every citation index is the international relevance attained by the journal where the article appeared. The "impact factor" of journals enlisted in the mainstream literature, as defined by the Journal Citation Reports (ISI), is being used by many assessors worldwide. But this index appears to be an unfair unit of measurement for journals that, although included in the main international data bases, are published in non-English languages. Furthermore, some local journals that are not enlisted by the Institute for Scientific Information apply external peer review to select their publications. In contrast, those same journals may have great relevance for their contributing authors and a high impact in their readers. The Editor's proposal is to classify original articles published in biomedical sciences, clinical medicine and public health topics using a three steps scale: a low score to articles published in local journals that use the peer review system, even though they were not enlisted in international data bases; a higher score to articles published in journals included in the mainstream literature, without considering their "impact factors" as differential values; and the highest score to articles published in journals recognized as international leaders in biomedicine, general medicine or in the subspecialties. Therefore, mainstream journals published in non-English languages would not be discriminated from other journals having higher "impact factors" mainly due to their use of the English language.

  3. [The long pilgrimage of Spanish biomedical journals toward excellence. Who helps? Quality, impact and research merit].

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Biomedical journals must adhere to strict standards of editorial quality. In a globalized academic scenario, biomedical journals must compete firstly to publish the most relevant original research and secondly to obtain the broadest possible visibility and the widest dissemination of their scientific contents. The cornerstone of the scientific process is still the peer-review system but additional quality criteria should be met. Recently access to medical information has been revolutionized by electronic editions. Bibliometric databases such as MEDLINE, the ISI Web of Science and Scopus offer comprehensive online information on medical literature. Classically, the prestige of biomedical journals has been measured by their impact factor but, recently, other indicators such as SCImago SJR or the Eigenfactor are emerging as alternative indices of a journal's quality. Assessing the scholarly impact of research and the merits of individual scientists remains a major challenge. Allocation of authorship credit also remains controversial. Furthermore, in our Kafkaesque world, we prefer to count rather than read the articles we judge. Quantitative publication metrics (research output) and citations analyses (scientific influence) are key determinants of the scientific success of individual investigators. However, academia is embracing new objective indicators (such as the "h" index) to evaluate scholarly merit. The present review discusses some editorial issues affecting biomedical journals, currently available bibliometric databases, bibliometric indices of journal quality and, finally, indicators of research performance and scientific success.

  4. Causes for the Persistence of Impact Factor Mania

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous essays have addressed the misuse of the journal impact factor for judging the value of science, but the practice continues, primarily as a result of the actions of scientists themselves. This seemingly irrational behavior is referred to as “impact factor mania.” Although the literature on the impact factor is extensive, little has been written on the underlying causes of impact factor mania. In this perspective, we consider the reasons for the persistence of impact factor mania and its pernicious effects on science. We conclude that impact factor mania persists because it confers significant benefits to individual scientists and journals. Impact factor mania is a variation of the economic theory known as the “tragedy of the commons,” in which scientists act rationally in their own self-interests despite the detrimental consequences of their actions on the overall scientific enterprise. Various measures to reduce the influence of the impact factor are considered. PMID:24643863

  5. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  6. ISI's Impact Factor as Misnomer: A Proposed New Measure To Assess Journal Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.; Nisonger, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses "impact factor," a measure of journal impact defined by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) and available in Journal Citation Reports. Argues that "impact factor" is misnamed and misused, suggesting an alternative name and interpretation of the measure, and proposes two new measures to assess the impact of…

  7. Trends in impact factors of ophthalmology journals

    PubMed Central

    Vainer, Igor; Mimouni, Francis; Blumenthal, Eytan Z; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether there is an association between the growth in the number of ophthalmic journals in the past years and their mean and maximum impact factor (IF) as a common sign of scientific proliferation. Methods: Using data from the 2013 Journal Citation Report database a study of the major clinical medical fields was conducted to assess the correlation between the number of journals and maximum IF in a given field in the year 2013. In the field of ophthalmology, we examined the correlation between year, number of journals, mean IF and maximum IF in the field of ophthalmology throughout the years 2000–2013. Results: In the major medical fields, a positive correlation was found between the number of journals and the maximum IF (quadratic R2 = 0.71, P < 0.001). When studying the field of ophthalmology a positive correlation between the number of journals and mean IF (R2 = 0.84, P < 0.001) and between number of journals and maximum IF (R2 = 0.71, P < 0.001) was detected. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the variation in the IF can be explained by the number of journals in the field of ophthalmology. In the future, the formation of additional ophthalmology journals is likely to further increase the IFs of existing journals. PMID:27853016

  8. Publication trends and impact factors in the Medical Informatics literature.

    PubMed

    Lavallie, Donna L; Wolf, Fredric M

    2005-01-01

    We survey the "evolution" of the field of Medical Informatics by describing trends in volume(quantity) of Medical Informatics-indexed publications, identifying major journals of publication and their focus areas and presenting trends in impact factor scores during the 1994-2003 period. Changes in total impact-scores suggest an increasing trend of publication in journals of higher impact.

  9. Building a List of Journals with Constructed Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegmann, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    Describes the building of a list of constructed-impact factors (CIF) for biomedical journals not included in the 1996 editions of the "Journal Citation Reports." The online retrieval from the host DIMDI of the data needed for impact-factor calculation is described. The top 100 (of 338 titles, ranked according to their CIFs) are…

  10. Research on the Relationships between Chinese Journal Impact Factors and External Web Link Counts and Web Impact Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Lu; Qiu, Junping

    2004-01-01

    Journal impact factors (JIFs) as determined by the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information of China (ISTIC) of forty-two Chinese engineering journals were compared with external Web link counts, obtained from Lycos, and Web Impact Factors (WIFs) of corresponding journal Web sites to determine if any significant correlation existed…

  11. Examining the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M; Li, Jian; Rumrill, Phillip D; Merchant, William; Bishop, Malachy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) to assess its suitability for modeling the impact of MS on a nation-wide sample of individuals from the United States. Investigators completed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to examine the two-factor structure proposed by Hobart et al. [17]. Although the original MSIS-29 factor structure did not fit the data exactly, the hypothesized two-factor model was partially supported in the current data. Implications for future instrument development and rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  12. Impact of Life Factors upon Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Kevin J.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated impact of life factors on college students' (N=47) feelings about death. Most important life factors clustered into three categories: Death of Significant Other, Religious Upbringing, and Near-Death Experiences. Although factors had mixed effects across individuals, they were significant predictors of current feelings about death.…

  13. [The invalidity of the impact factor as indicator of the impact of Latin American scientific journals].

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2014-03-01

    Use of the Impact Factor is currently being discarded in industrialized countries where, to name one case, up to 40% of the articles published in Nature are never cited, despite the high Impact Factor of that journal. However, it is still used in Latin America to evaluate journals and authors, potentially influencing who are given positions and who receives funding. To find out how valid the Impact Factor is for Latin American research, 1 used the database BINABITROP to see how much of the relevant literature was used to measure impact. I found that the Science Citation Index (SCI) excluded 96% of the relevant literature when measuring the impact of biological articles about Costa Rica for the studied year (2011). Therefore, the impact of Latin American science is unknown and the Impact Factor should not be used to assess how often a journal, institution or author are cited.

  14. The Photon Impact Factor for DIS at NLO: analytic result

    SciTech Connect

    Chirilli, Giovanni A.

    2011-07-15

    Using the Operator Product Expansion for high-energy scattering processes, we compute the photon impact factor at next-to-leading order accuracy. We obtain an analytic expression as a linear combination of five independent conformal tensor structures.

  15. [Impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre Benavent, Rafael; Valderrama Zurián, Juan Carlos; Miguel-Dasit, Alberto; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio

    2004-12-01

    The impact factor is a bibliometric indicator published annually in the Journal Citation Reports, and widely regarded as a quality ranking of the journals included in this database. The problem with this indicator is that the impact factor of several journals not listed in the Science Citation Index database is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the 2001 national and international impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. The National impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología was obtained by adding the number of cites in 2001 from a total of 87 Spanish medical journals of greater scientific quality. Also, bibliographical references from Spanish journals indexed in the 2001 Journal Citation reports database have been included to determine the international impact factor of this analyzed journal. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología received a total of 62 cites from published articles in 1999 to 2001, coming from 20 different journals, being their self-citation index 10.1%. The journal with the highest number of cites to Revista Iberoamericana de Micología was Journal of Clinical Microbiology, with 12 cites (19.3%). According to this findings the national and international impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología was 0.266 and 0.606, respectively. The impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología, although not included in the Science Citation Index database, was higher than other Journal Citation Reports. Moreover, Revista Iberoamericana de Micología received most of its citations from high impact factor journals included in the Journal Citation Reports database. These data support the international recognition of the scientific level of the journal.

  16. [The impact factor and those who dislike it].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2015-06-28

    Since its introduction in 1976, the impact factor is permanently a subject of both criticism and glorification. This paper gives an overview on what actually the reservations and objections attack. A closer look often reveals that the criticisms are not against the specific substantial features of the impact factor. They may formulate much more general doubts or, on the other hand, superficial technical details, easily remediable flaws or inconsistensies resulting erroneous use.

  17. Causes for the persistence of impact factor mania.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-03-18

    ABSTRACT Numerous essays have addressed the misuse of the journal impact factor for judging the value of science, but the practice continues, primarily as a result of the actions of scientists themselves. This seemingly irrational behavior is referred to as "impact factor mania." Although the literature on the impact factor is extensive, little has been written on the underlying causes of impact factor mania. In this perspective, we consider the reasons for the persistence of impact factor mania and its pernicious effects on science. We conclude that impact factor mania persists because it confers significant benefits to individual scientists and journals. Impact factor mania is a variation of the economic theory known as the "tragedy of the commons," in which scientists act rationally in their own self-interests despite the detrimental consequences of their actions on the overall scientific enterprise. Various measures to reduce the influence of the impact factor are considered. IMPORTANCE Science and scientists are currently afflicted by an epidemic of mania manifested by associating the value of research with the journal where the work is published rather than the content of the work itself. The mania is causing profound distortions in the way science is done that are deleterious to the overall scientific enterprise. In this essay, we consider the forces responsible for the persistence of the mania and conclude that it is maintained because it disproportionately benefits elements of the scientific enterprise, including certain well-established scientists, journals, and administrative interests. Our essay suggests steps that can be taken to deal with this debilitating and destructive epidemic.

  18. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  19. Is the impact factor the only game in town?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    “Not everything that can be counted counts. Not everything that counts can be counted.” William Bruce Cameron Journal metrics mania started over 50 years ago with the impact factor that has since become so well entrenched in publishing. Ask anyone where they would like to publish their research and most will reply by saying in a journal with the highest impact factor. While this suggests quality and a degree of vetting by the scientific community, the impact factor has also been used to benchmark and compare journals. Impact factors are often used as a proxy of a journal 's quality and scientific prestige. However, is medicine dependent on a valuation system that may be grounded in falsity? Much about this measure is imperfect and destructive. Journals can manipulate the impact factor by refusing to publish articles like case reports that are unlikely to be cited or, conversely, by publishing a large proportion of review articles, which tend to attract more citations. Another tactic that may be used is to publish articles that could be highly cited early in the year, thereby leaving more time to collect citations. Many use the impact factor as an important determinant of grants, awards, promotions and career advancement, and also as a basis for an individual's reputation and professional standing. Nevertheless, you should remember that the impact factor is not a measure of an individual article, let alone an individual scientist. As long as an article has been cited, the citation will contribute to the journal's impact factor. This is regardless of whether the article's premise is true or false, or whether the cited paper was being credited or criticised. Perversely, a weak paper that is being refuted will augment the impact factor, as will a retracted article, because although the article may have been retracted, the citations of this article will still count. The impact factor has weathered many storms in the past but criticisms against it are increasing, as

  20. Norming of Student Evaluations of Instruction: Impact of Noninstructional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargundkar, Satish; Shrikhande, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEIs) from about 6,000 sections over 4 years representing over 100,000 students at the college of business at a large public university are analyzed, to study the impact of noninstructional factors on student ratings. Administrative factors like semester, time of day, location, and instructor attributes like…

  1. Weighing the impact (factor) of publishing in veterinary journals.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Mary M

    2015-06-01

    The journal in which you publish your research can have a major influence on the perceived value of your work and on your ability to reach certain audiences. The impact factor, a widely used metric of journal quality and prestige, has evolved into a benchmark of quality for institutions and graduate programs and, inappropriately, as a proxy for the quality of individual authors and articles, affecting tenure, promotion, and funding decisions. As a result, despite its many limitations, publishing decisions by authors often are based solely on a journal's impact factor. This can disadvantage journals in small disciplines, such as veterinary medicine, and limit the ability of authors to reach key audiences. In this article, factors that can influence the impact factor of a journal and its applicability, including precision, citation practices, article type, editorial policies, and size of the research community will be reviewed. The value and importance of veterinary journals such as the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology for reaching relevant audiences and for helping shape disciplinary specialties and influence clinical practice will also be discussed. Lastly, the efforts underway to develop alternative measures to assess the scientific quality of individual authors and articles, such as article-level metrics, as well as institutional measures of the economic and social impact of biomedical research will be considered. Judicious use of the impact factor and the implementation of new metrics for assessing the quality and societal relevance of veterinary research articles will benefit both authors and journals.

  2. Impact of environmental factors and poverty on pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weck, Rebekah L; Paulose, Tessie; Flaws, Jodi A

    2008-06-01

    Studies have indicated that various societal factors such as toxicant exposure, maternal habits, occupational hazards, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, racial disparity, chronic stress, and infection may impact pregnancy outcomes. These outcomes include spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, alterations in the development of the fetus, and long-term health of offspring. Although much is known about individual pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the associations between societal factors and pregnancy outcomes. This manuscript reviews some of the literature available on the effects of the above-mentioned societal factors on pregnancy outcomes and examines some potential remedies for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in the future.

  3. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score.

  5. Impact factor for exclusive diffractive dijet production with NLO accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A. V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2017-03-01

    Relying on the shockwave approach, we present the main steps of the computation of the impact factor for the exclusive diffractive photo- or electro- production of a forward dijet with NLO accuracy. We provide details of the cancellation mechanisms for all the divergences which appear in the intermediate results.

  6. AGU journals continue to rank highly in Impact Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Jon; Warner, Mary

    2012-07-01

    AGU journals continue to rank highly in the 2011 Journal Citation Reports (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 28 June. The impact factor of several AGU journals increased significantly, continuing their trend over the previous 5 years, while others remained consistent with the previous year's ranking. Paleoceanography is an outstanding performer in both the Paleontology and Oceanography categories. Since 1995, Paleoceanography has been the top-ranked journal in the Paleontology category (of 49 titles in 2011), with an Impact Factor of 3.357. In the Oceanography group (59 journals total), Paleoceanography ranks third in Impact Factor. Reviews of Geophysics, with an Impact Factor of 12.364 (an increase of 2.826 from the prior year's score of 9.538), ranks second in Geochemistry and Geophysics out of a total of 77 journals in this cohort. Water Resources Research comes in at second place in the Limnology group, with 19 titles, and third place in the Water Resources group, which has a cohort of 78 titles.

  7. Evaluating Academic Journals without Impact Factors for Collection Management Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Atkinson, Esther

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of evaluating academic journals for collection management decisions focuses on a methodological framework for evaluating journals not ranked by impact factors in Journal Citation Reports. Compares nonranked journals with ranked journals and then applies this framework to a case study in the field of medical science. (LRW)

  8. Factors Influencing Observed Tillage Impacts on Herbicide Transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use and potential human health effects of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate have generated interest in establishing how no-tillage impacts loading of these herbicides to runoff water in comparison to other tillage practices. In this study, potentially confounding factors such as ...

  9. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  10. The Impact of Categorization with Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the impact of categorization on confirmatory factor analysis parameter estimates, standard errors, and five ad hoc fit indexes through simulation studies. Results replicate some previous studies but also suggest that tests of parameter estimates will be underestimated and the amount of underestimation will increase as saturation…

  11. Photon impact factor and k{sub T} factorization in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2012-12-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  12. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP.

  13. [Acupuncture clinical trials published in high impact factor journals].

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Liu, Jian-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2014-12-01

    Acupuncture clinical trials are designed to provide reliable evidence of clinical efficacy, and SCI papers is one of the high-quality clinical efficacy of acupuncture research. To analyze these papers published in high impact factor journals on acupuncture clinical trials, we can study clinical trials from design to implementation, the efficacy of prevention and cure, combined with international standard practices to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture. That is the core of acupuncture clinical trials, as well as a prerequisite for outstanding academic output. A scientific and complete acupuncture clinical trial should be topically novel, designed innovative, logically clear, linguistically refining, and the most important point lies in a great discovery and solving the pragmatic problem. All of these are critical points of papers to be published in high impact factor journal, and directly affect international evaluation and promotion of acupuncture.

  14. Combined Impact of Lifestyle Factors on Cancer Mortality in Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chong-Do; Sui, EdD Xuemei; Hooker, Steven P.; Hébert, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The impact of lifestyle factors on cancer mortality in the U.S. population has not been thoroughly explored. We examined the combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, never smoking, and normal waist girth on total cancer mortality in men. METHODS We followed a total of 24,731 men ages 20–82 years who participated in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A low-risk profile was defined as never smoking, moderate or high fitness, and normal waist girth, and they were further categorized as having 0, 1, 2, or 3 combined low-risk factors. RESULTS During an average of 14.5 years of follow-up, there were a total of 384 cancer deaths. After adjustment for age, examination year, and multiple risk factors, men who were physically fit, never smoked, and had a normal waist girth had a 62% lower risk of total cancer mortality (95% confidence interval [CI], 45%-73%) compared with men with zero low-risk factors. Men with all 3 low-risk factors had a 12-year (95% CI: 8.6–14.6) longer life expectancy compared with men with 0 low-risk factors. Approximately 37% (95% CI, 17%-52%) of total cancer deaths might have been avoided if the men had maintained all three low-risk factors. CONCLUSIONS Being physically fit, never smoking, and maintaining a normal waist girth is associated with lower risk of total cancer mortality in men. PMID:21683616

  15. The impact of abiotic factors on cellulose synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; McFarlane, Heather E; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants require mechanisms to sense and respond to changes in their environment, including both biotic and abiotic factors. One of the most common plant adaptations to environmental changes is differential regulation of growth, which results in growth either away from adverse conditions or towards more favorable conditions. As cell walls shape plant growth, this differential growth response must be accompanied by alterations to the plant cell wall. Here, we review the impact of four abiotic factors (osmotic conditions, ionic stress, light, and temperature) on the synthesis of cellulose, an important component of the plant cell wall. Understanding how different abiotic factors influence cellulose production and addressing key questions that remain in this field can provide crucial information to cope with the need for increased crop production under the mounting pressures of a growing world population and global climate change.

  16. Factors that impact rehabilitation strategies after rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Devanna, Raymond R; Huang, Mu; Middleton, Emily F; Khazzam, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Multiple factors influence rehabilitation strategies after rotator cuff repair. These variables may also impact the overall success of the surgical intervention. Physicians and rehabilitation specialists should be aware of prognostic indicators that can provide therapeutic guidance and offer insights into eventual clinical outcomes. The success of surgical and rehabilitative interventions is often evaluated in terms of patient-reported outcome measures, return to activity, and pain. Although these factors are somewhat interdependent, each of them independently influences the final result. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the recent literature in this area to provide insight as to the short- and long-term outcomes that patients should expect based on their unique presentations. This article examines both intrinsic and extrinsic patient factors to help therapists develop customized rehabilitation programs that optimize surgical outcomes.

  17. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Andrea; Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders. PMID:24574956

  18. Factors impacting teachers' argumentation instruction in their science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Katsh-Singer, Rebecca; González-Howard, María; Loper, Suzanna

    2016-08-01

    Science education research, reform documents and standards include scientific argumentation as a key learning goal for students. The role of the teacher is essential for implementing argumentation in part because their beliefs about argumentation can impact whether and how this science practice is integrated into their classroom. In this study, we surveyed 42 middle school science teachers and conducted follow-up interviews with 25 to investigate the factors that teachers believe impact their argumentation instruction. Teachers responded that their own learning goals had the greatest impact on their argumentation instruction while influences related to context, policy and assessment had the least impact. The minor influence of policy and assessment was in part because teachers saw a lack of alignment between these areas and the goals of argumentation. In addition, although teachers indicated that argumentation was an important learning goal, regardless of students' backgrounds and abilities, the teachers discussed argumentation in different ways. Consequently, it may be more important to help teachers understand what counts as argumentation, rather than provide a rationale for including argumentation in instruction. Finally, the act of trying out argumentation in their own classrooms, supported through resources such as curriculum, can increase teachers' confidence in teaching argumentation.

  19. [Impact factor, its variants and its influence in academic promotion].

    PubMed

    Puche, Rodolfo C

    2011-01-01

    Bibliometrics is a set of methods used to study or measure texts and information. While bibliometric methods are most often used in the field of library and information science, bibliometrics variables have wide applications in other areas. One popular bibliometric variable is Garfield's Impact Factor (IF). IF is used to explore the impact of a given field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper. This variable is used to assess academic output and it is believed to affect adversely the traditional approach and assessment of scientific research. In our country, the members of the evaluation committees of intensive research institutions, e.g. the National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET) use IF to assess the quality of research. This article revises the exponential growth of bibliometrics and attempts to expose the overall dissatisfaction with the analytical quality of IF. Such dissatisfaction is expressed in the number of investigations attempting to obtain a better variable of improved analytical quality.

  20. Retraction policies of top scientific journals ranked by impact factor

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Wager, Elizabeth; Kissling, Grace E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study gathered information about the retraction policies of the top 200 scientific journals, ranked by impact factor. Methods Editors of the top 200 science journals for the year 2012 were contacted by email. Results One hundred forty-seven journals (74%) responded to a request for information. Of these, 95 (65%) had a retraction policy. Of journals with a retraction policy, 94% had a policy that allows the editors to retract articles without authors’ consent. Conclusions The majority of journals in this sample had a retraction policy, and almost all of them would retract an article without the authors’ permission. PMID:26213505

  1. Impacts of environmental factors on fine root lifespan

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, M. Luke; Guo, Dali

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of fast-cycling roots is a critical parameter determining a large flux of plant carbon into soil through root turnover and is a biological feature regulating the capacity of a plant to capture soil water and nutrients via root-age-related physiological processes. While the importance of root lifespan to whole-plant and ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, robust descriptions of this dynamic process and its response to changes in climatic and edaphic factors are lacking. Here we synthesize available information and propose testable hypotheses using conceptual models to describe how changes in temperature, water, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) availability impact fine root lifespan within a species. Each model is based on intrinsic responses including root physiological activity and alteration of carbohydrate allocation at the whole-plant level as well as extrinsic factors including mycorrhizal fungi and pressure from pathogens, herbivores, and other microbes. Simplifying interactions among these factors, we propose three general principles describing fine root responses to complex environmental gradients. First, increases in a factor that strongly constrains plant growth (temperature, water, N, or P) should result in increased fine root lifespan. Second, increases in a factor that exceeds plant demand or tolerance should result in decreased lifespan. Third, as multiple factors interact fine root responses should be determined by the most dominant factor controlling plant growth. Moving forward, field experiments should determine which types of species (e.g., coarse vs. fine rooted, obligate vs. facultative mycotrophs) will express greater plasticity in response to environmental gradients while ecosystem models may begin to incorporate more detailed descriptions of root lifespan and turnover. Together these efforts will improve quantitative understanding of root dynamics and help to identify areas where future research should be focused

  2. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications.

  3. Time trends in the impact factor of Public Health journals

    PubMed Central

    López-Abente, Gonzalo; Muñoz-Tinoco, Concha

    2005-01-01

    Background Journal impact factor (IF) is linked to the probability of a paper being cited and is progressively becoming incorporated into researchers' curricula vitae. Furthermore, the decision as to which journal a given study should be submitted, may well be based on the trend in the journal's overall quality. This study sought to assess time trends in journal IF in the field of public, environmental and occupational health. Methods We used the IFs of 80 public health journals that were registered by the Science Citation Index from 1992 through 2003 and had been listed for a minimum period of the previous 3 years. Impact factor time trends were assessed using a linear regression model, in which the dependent variable was IF and the independent variable, the year. The slope of the model and its statistical significance were taken as the indicator of annual change. Results The IF range for the journals covered went from 0.18 to 5.2 in 2003. Although there was no statistical association between annual change and mean IF, most of the fastest growing journals registered mean IFs in excess of 1.5, and some represented emerging areas of public health research. Graphs displaying IF trends are shown. Conclusion In view of the delay between the publication of IFs and that of any given paper, knowing the trend in IF is essential in order to make a correct choice of journal. PMID:15777471

  4. The Journal Impact Factor is under attack - use the CAPCI factor instead.

    PubMed

    Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2017-01-16

    The uses and misuses of the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) have been thoroughly discussed in the literature. A few years ago, I predicted that JIF would soon be replaced, while another colleague argued the opposite. Over the past few months, attacks on JIF have intensified, with some publishing organizations gradually removing the indicator from their journals' websites. Here, I argue that most, if not all of the misuses of JIF are related to its name. The word "impact" should be removed, since it implies an influential attribute, either for the journals, their published papers, or their authors. I propose instead the use of a new name, the "CAPCI factor", standing for Citation Average Per Citable Item, which accurately describes what is represented by this measure.

  5. Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: Risk factor updates and societal impact

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Paola; Renna, Maria Daniela; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Quarta, Eugenio; Muratore, Maurizio; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease without any evidence of disease until a fracture occurs. Approximately 200 million people in the world are affected by osteoporosis and 8.9 million fractures occur each year worldwide. Fractures of the hip are a major public health burden, by means of both social cost and health condition of the elderly because these fractures are one of the main causes of morbidity, impairment, decreased quality of life and mortality in women and men. The aim of this review is to analyze the most important factors related to the enormous impact of osteoporotic fractures on population. Among the most common risk factors, low body mass index; history of fragility fracture, environmental risk, early menopause, smoking, lack of vitamin D, endocrine disorders (for example insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), use of glucocorticoids, excessive alcohol intake, immobility and others represented the main clinical risk factors associated with augmented risk of fragility fracture. The increasing trend of osteoporosis is accompanied by an underutilization of the available preventive strategies and only a small number of patients at high fracture risk are recognized and successively referred for therapy. This report provides analytic evidences to assess the best practices in osteoporosis management and indications for the adoption of a correct healthcare strategy to significantly reduce the osteoporosis burden. Early diagnosis is the key to resize the impact of osteoporosis on healthcare system. In this context, attention must be focused on the identification of high fracture risk among osteoporotic patients. It is necessary to increase national awareness campaigns across countries in order to reduce the osteoporotic fractures incidence. PMID:27004165

  6. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Lankarani, Kamran B.; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. Results: The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Conclusions: Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental

  7. The story of fake impact factor companies and how we detected them

    PubMed Central

    Jalalian, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Beginning about three years ago, the world of academic publishing has become infected by fake impact factors and misleading metrics that are launched by bogus companies. The misleading metrics and fake impact factors have damaged the prestige and reliability of scientific research and scholarly journals. This article presents the in-depth story of some of the main bogus impact factors, how they approached the academic world, and how the author identified them. Some names that they use are Universal Impact Factor (UIF), Global Impact Factor (GIF), and Citefactor, and there even is a fake Thomson Reuters Company. PMID:26120416

  8. The story of fake impact factor companies and how we detected them.

    PubMed

    Jalalian, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Beginning about three years ago, the world of academic publishing has become infected by fake impact factors and misleading metrics that are launched by bogus companies. The misleading metrics and fake impact factors have damaged the prestige and reliability of scientific research and scholarly journals. This article presents the in-depth story of some of the main bogus impact factors, how they approached the academic world, and how the author identified them. Some names that they use are Universal Impact Factor (UIF), Global Impact Factor (GIF), and Citefactor, and there even is a fake Thomson Reuters Company.

  9. Impact of Multiple Factors on the Degree of Tinnitus Distress

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Petra; Szczepek, Agnieszka J.; Rose, Matthias; McKenna, Laurence; Olze, Heidi; Mazurek, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The primary cause of subjective tinnitus is a dysfunction of the auditory system; however, the degree of distress tinnitus causes depends largely on the psychological status of the patient. Our goal was to attempt to associate the grade of tinnitus-related distress with the psychological distress, physical, or psychological discomfort patients experienced, as well as potentially relevant social parameters, through a simultaneous analysis of these factors. Methods: We determined the level of tinnitus-related distress in 531 tinnitus patients using the German version of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). In addition, we used the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ); General Depression Scale Allgemeine Depression Skala (ADS), Berlin Mood Questionnaire (BSF); somatic symptoms inventory (BI), and SF-8 health survey as well as general information collected through a medical history. Results: The TQ score significantly correlated with a score obtained using PSQ, ADS, BSF, BI, and SF-8 alongside psychosocial factors such as age, gender, and marital status. The level of hearing loss and the auditory properties of the specific tinnitus combined with perceived stress and the degree of depressive mood and somatic discomfort of a patient were identified as medium-strong predictors of chronic tinnitus. Social factors such as gender, age, or marital status also had an impact on the degree of tinnitus distress. The results that were obtained were implemented in a specific cortical distress network model. Conclusions: Using a large representative sample of patients with chronic tinnitus permitted a simultaneous statistical measurement of psychometric and audiological parameters in predicting tinnitus distress. We demonstrate that single factors can be distinguished in a manner that explains their causative association and influence on the induction of tinnitus-related distress. PMID:27445776

  10. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  11. Factors impacting HPV vaccination: lessons for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Annika M; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2014-08-01

    HPV infection leads to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The HPV vaccine is currently licensed and recommended for adolescents and young adults in many countries. Nonetheless, coverage levels remain low, especially in settings using a clinic-based rather than school-based delivery model. Health care professionals (HCPs) have the potential to strongly impact HPV vaccine acceptability and uptake, yet often fail to discuss and/or strongly recommend HPV vaccination. This article reviews the myriad factors that influence HPV vaccination, focusing, in particular, on those relevant to HCP communication with patients and families. It also provides a historical framework and highlights recent evidence related to HPV vaccination that may be valuable for these conversations. Lastly, it discusses strategies targeting HCPs and their practices that may increase HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates globally.

  12. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  13. Understanding the Impact of Socio-Economic Factors on Navy Accessions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT ...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON NAVY ACCESSIONS 5. FUNDING...iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON NAVY ACCESSIONS Bradley

  14. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  15. Impact Factors and Prediction of Popular Topics in a Journal.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M B; Seitz, K

    2016-08-01

    The impact factor (IF) for 2015 was recently released and this could be the time to once again reflect on its use as a metric of a journal. Problems and concerns regarding the IF have been addressed extensively elsewhere 1 2. The principle of the IF for a given year is that it represents the average number of citations of articles published in the journal in the two previous years.While authors frequently cite the IF as a determining factor for submission, the IF does not predict how many times individual articles will be cited. In a study from a peer-reviewed cardiovascular journal, nearly half of all published articles were poorly cited, i. e., less than five citations in five years 3. A similar percentage seems to apply to our journal. In nearly all journals we estimate that the majority of citations relate to a minority of the articles. Some articles are never cited. 13 % of the articles published in our journal from 2010 to 2013 have never been cited. Even authors of poorly cited articles benefit from the IF since many institutions use the combined impact factors of their published papers to measure research activity and this may be reflected in their research budgets.The competition for the printed pages in the six annual issues of Ultraschall in der Medizin/European Journal of Ultrasound (UiM/EJU) has resulted in high rejection rates (between 80 % and 90 %). One negative review with recommendation of major revision may therefore result in rejection. Peer-review fraud where the submitting author listed recommended reviewers with fake email addresses supplying fabricated peer reviews has recently been described in the New England Journal of Medicine 4. Some of the editors of our journal believe they have experienced this as well. Fabricating reviews in order to get a high IF for an article is to be considered fraud and is inexcusable.One aspect of using impact factors as a measure of the quality of a journal is that the IF only goes back two years

  16. BLOATING IN GASTROPARESIS: SEVERITY, IMPACT, AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Bloating is commonly reported in gastroparesis, but its prevalence, impact, and associated factors have not been investigated. We aimed to quantify the prevalence of bloating in gastroparesis and relate its severity to clinical factors and quality of life. Methods Survey, examination, and scintigraphy data were compared in 335 gastroparesis patients from 6 centers of the NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium. Bloating severity was stratified using Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) bloating subscale scores. Results Bloating of at least mild severity (GCSI ≥2) was reported by 76% of patients. Bloating severity related to female gender (P<0.0001) and overweight status (P=0.04) on regression analysis and correlated with intensity of nausea, postprandial fullness, visible distention, abdominal pain, and altered bowel function (all P<0.05). Disease etiology, smoking status, and gastric emptying did not relate to bloating subset (all P>0.05). Disease-specific quality of life and general measures of well being were progressively impaired with increasing bloating severity (all P<0.001). Among medications, probiotic (P=0.03) and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant (P=0.045) use related to bloating severity; antiemetic use trended higher with worsening bloating (P=0.06). Conclusions Bloating is prevalent in gastroparesis and is severe in many individuals. Bloating severity relates to female gender, body weight, and intensity of other gastroparesis symptoms. The symptom impairs quality of life but is not influenced by gastric emptying rates. Antiemetics, probiotics, and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressants may affect reports of bloating. These findings provide insight into this underappreciated symptom of gastroparesis. PMID:21483459

  17. Perceived Factors Impacting School Music Programs: The Teacher's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abril, Carlos R.; Bannerman, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary music teachers' perceptions of factors impacting their music programs and teaching positions as well as the actions these teachers take in response to those factors. The following research questions guided the study: (1) What factors are perceived to impact music programs and teaching…

  18. Clarivate Analytics: Continued Omnia vanitas Impact Factor Culture.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Bernès, Sylvain

    2017-02-23

    This opinion paper takes aim at an error made recently by Clarivate Analytics in which it sent out an email that congratulated academics for becoming exclusive members of academia's most cited elite, the Highly Cited Researchers (HCRs). However, that email was sent out to an undisclosed number of non-HCRs, who were offered an apology shortly after, through a bulk mail, which tried to down-play the importance of the error, all the while praising the true HCRs. When Clarivate Analytics senior management was contacted, the company declined to offer an indication of the number of academics who had been contacted and erroneously awarded the HCR status. We believe that this regrettable blunder, together with the opacity offered by the company, fortify the corporate attitude about the value of the journal impact factor (JIF), and what it represents, namely a marketing tool that is falsely used to equate citations with quality, worth, or influence. The continued commercialization of metrics such as the JIF is at the heart of their use to assess the "quality" of a researcher, their work, or a journal, and contributes to a great extent to driving scientific activities towards a futile endeavor.

  19. Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

    2014-05-01

    Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV

  20. Brazilian impact factor of physics journals--the third side of the coin.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; da Fonseca, Norma E

    2015-01-01

    The lack of correlation between the Journal Impact Factors and the most cited Brazilian papers in physics is statistically demonstrated. The existence of an effective "Brazilian Impact Factor" is observed, being its values, in general, lower than the international Impact Factors. In some cases, discrepancies from the international values are huge, leading to doubts on whether it is appropriate to use this indicator to judge Brazilian scientists.

  1. Comparison of SCImago journal rank indicator with journal impact factor.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Kouranos, Vasilios D; Arencibia-Jorge, Ricardo; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E

    2008-08-01

    The application of currently available sophisticated algorithms of citation analysis allows for the incorporation of the "quality" of citations in the evaluation of scientific journals. We sought to compare the newly introduced SCImago journal rank (SJR) indicator with the journal impact factor (IF). We retrieved relevant information from the official Web sites hosting the above indices and their source databases. The SJR indicator is an open-access resource, while the journal IF requires paid subscription. The SJR indicator (based on Scopus data) lists considerably more journal titles published in a wider variety of countries and languages, than the journal IF (based on Web of Science data). Both indices divide citations to a journal by articles of the journal, during a specific time period. However, contrary to the journal IF, the SJR indicator attributes different weight to citations depending on the "prestige" of the citing journal without the influence of journal self-citations; prestige is estimated with the application of the PageRank algorithm in the network of journals. In addition, the SJR indicator includes the total number of documents of a journal in the denominator of the relevant calculation, whereas the journal IF includes only "citable" articles (mainly original articles and reviews). A 3-yr period is analyzed in both indices but with the use of different approaches. Regarding the top 100 journals in the 2006 journal IF ranking order, the median absolute change in their ranking position with the use of the SJR indicator is 32 (1st quartile: 12; 3rd quartile: 75). Although further validation is warranted, the novel SJR indicator poses as a serious alternative to the well-established journal IF, mainly due to its open-access nature, larger source database, and assessment of the quality of citations.

  2. Which factors are associated with difficult surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate factors associated with increased difficulty in the surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars and to improve identification of difficult cases. Materials and Methods A total of 680 patients who required 762 surgical extractions of impacted lower third molars from 2009 to 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic factors, clinical factors, radiographic factors, surgical extraction difficulty, and presumed causes of difficulty were collected. Data were statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23. Results Age, sex, depth of impaction, and blurred radiographic image influenced difficulty in surgical extraction. The position of the impacted tooth influenced surgical difficulty, especially when it was accompanied by other factors. Conclusion It is challenging to design a reliable and practical instrument to predict difficulty in surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars. To identify very difficult cases, root investigation using computed tomography is advised when impacted tooth position suggests difficult extraction. PMID:27847732

  3. Impact phenomena as factors in the evolution of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    It is estimated that 30 to 200 large impact basins could have been formed on the early Earth. These large impacts may have resulted in extensive volcanism and enhanced endogenic geologic activity over large areas. Initial modelling of the thermal and subsidence history of large terrestrial basins indicates that they created geologic and thermal anomalies which lasted for geologically significant times. The role of large-scale impact in the biological evolution of the Earth has been highlighted by the discovery of siderophile anomalies at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and associated with North American microtektites. Although in neither case has an associated crater been identified, the observations are consistent with the deposition of projectile-contaminated high-speed ejecta from major impact events. Consideration of impact processes reveals a number of mechanisms by which large-scale impact may induce extinctions.

  4. Impact of haze-fog days to radon progeny equilibrium factor and discussion of related factors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Changsong; Shang, Bing; Zhang, Qingzhao; Cui, Hongxing; Wu, Yunyun; Deng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its short-lived progenies is an important parameter to estimate radon exposure of humans. Therefore, indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its short-lived radon progeny were measured in Beijing area using a continuously measuring device, in an effort to obtain information on the F value. The results showed that the mean values of F were 0.58 ± 0.13 (0.25-0.95, n = 305) and 0.52 ± 0.12 (0.31-0.91, n = 64) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. The indoor F value during haze-fog days was higher than the typical value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and it was also higher than the values of 0.47 and 0.49 reported in the literature. A positive correlation was observed between indoor F values and PM2.5 concentrations (R (2) = 0.71). Since 2013, owing to frequent heavy haze-fog events in Beijing and surrounding areas, the number of the days with severe pollution remains at a high level. Future studies on the impact of the ambient fine particulate matter on indoor radon progeny equilibrium factor F could be important.

  5. Calculating impact factor: how bibliographical classification of journal items affects the impact factor of large and small journals.

    PubMed

    Golubic, Rajna; Rudes, Mihael; Kovacic, Natasa; Marusic, Matko; Marusic, Ana

    2008-03-01

    As bibliographical classification of published journal items affects the denominator in this equation, we investigated how the numerator and denominator of the impact factor (IF) equation were generated for representative journals in two categories of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). We performed a full text search of the 1st-ranked journal in 2004 JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal" (New England Journal of Medicine, NEJM, IF = 38.570) and 61st-ranked journal (Croatian Medical Journal, CMJ, IF = 0.690), 1st-ranked journal in category "Multidisciplinary Sciences" (Nature, IF = 32.182) and journal with a relative rank of CMJ (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, AABC, IF = 0.435). Large journals published more items categorized by Web of Science (WoS) as non-research items (editorial material, letters, news, book reviews, bibliographical items, or corrections): 63% out of total 5,193 items in Nature and 81% out of 3,540 items in NEJM, compared with 31% out of 283 items in CMJ and only 2 (2%) out of 126 items in AABC. Some items classified by WoS as non-original contained original research data (9.5% in Nature, 7.2% in NEJM, 13.7% in CMJ and none in AABC). These items received a significant number of citations: 6.9% of total citations in Nature, 14.7% in NEJM and 18.5% in CMJ. IF decreased for all journals when only items presenting original research and citations to them were used for IF calculation. Regardless of the journal's size or discipline, publication of non-original research and its classification by the bibliographical database have an effect on both numerator and denominator of the IF equation.

  6. Studying Overseas: Factors Impacting Intention of Female Students in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that impact Chinese female students' intention to study overseas. This study also aimed to understand how these factors impact female students' decision making process. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 96 female undergraduates who enrolled in a 4-year public university…

  7. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  8. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  9. The impacts of anthropogenic factors on the environment in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Madu, Ignatius A

    2009-03-01

    Generally speaking, there has been a consensus on the primary drivers of anthropogenic induced environmental degradation. However, little progress has been made in determining the magnitude of the impacts, particularly in developing countries. This creates a lacuna that needs to be filled up. The purpose of this study therefore is to ascertain the degree of anthropogenic induced environmental impacts in Nigeria. To achieve the aim, fossil fuel consumption was used as a surrogate for carbon dioxide emissions while the magnitude of the impacts was determined by regression statistics and the STIRPAT model. The results show that only three variables, namely population, affluence and urbanization, were statistically significant and that the regression model accounts for 60% of the variation in the environmental impacts. However, population and affluence, which have ecological elasticities of 1.699 and 2.709, respectively, are the most important anthropogenic drivers of environmental impacts in Nigeria while urbanization, with an elasticity of -0.570, reduces the effect of the impacts. This implies that modernization brings about a reduction in environmental impacts. The paper therefore makes a significant contribution to knowledge by successfully testing the STIRPAT model in this part of the world and by being the first application of the model at political units below the regional or nation states.

  10. The ups and downs of journal impact factors.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Trevor L; Bartley, David L

    2008-03-01

    The journal impact factor (JIF) for The Annals of Occupational Hygiene rose 68% between 2005 and 2006. JIFs are widely publicized and may influence subscriptions and where authors submit papers, so they are much discussed in the publishing world. But although they tell us something about a journal's citation performance, their shortcomings mean that they are poor general indicators of journal quality, and worse guides to the quality of authors and their institutions. The shortcomings include the following. (i) The two cited years may completely misrepresent the total current citation rate for the journal. (ii) The short citation period (1 year) results in many papers not contributing to the JIF, and usually two-thirds or more of the JIF depend on the most-cited 25% of papers. (iii) The JIF of the journal where a paper is published is therefore a very poor guide to the paper's citation performance or the success of the author. Citation counts more specific to the author are much better. (iv) The JIF depends strongly on the subject of the journal, even within the published categories. (v) Statistical analysis shows that the relative standard deviation of year-to-year variation of a JIF for a journal with a JIF approximately 1.5 is likely to be between 10 and 20%, on top of any longer trend. Quotation of JIFs to three decimal places is therefore meaningless, and, for a journal like Annals of Occupational Hygiene, a single annual change of 70% could easily be due to a chance shift from a negative to positive fluctuation. (vi) The citations counted are not only of individual papers, so it is difficult to reproduce the JIF calculation. (vii) The selection of journals has been criticized, for example, the alleged emphasis on American- or English-language publications. This journal's JIF does not noticeably influence the number of papers submitted to this journal, although it may influence some important authors. JIFs in our field seem to be increasing by approximately 5

  11. Photon impact factor and k{sub T}-factorization for DIS in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky, Giovanni Chirilli

    2013-01-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as an NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  12. The evaluation of the individual impact factor of researchers and research centers using the RC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Villafáfila, Amelia; Ramos-Brieva, Jesus A

    2015-01-01

    The RC algorithm quantitatively evaluates the personal impact factor of the scientific production of isolated researchers. The authors propose an adaptation of RC to evaluate the personal impact factor of research centers, hospitals and other research groups. Thus, these could be classified according to the accredited impact of the results of their scientific work between researchers of the same scientific area. This could be useful for channelling budgets and grants for research.

  13. Impact of interpersonal factors on insight in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hélène, Tastet; Hélène, Verdoux; Jean, Bouisson; Jean-Marc, Destaillats; Antoinette, Prouteau

    2014-11-01

    Whereas clinical insight in schizophrenia has been consistently associated with personal factors (i.e. sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms or cognition), little is known about its relationships with interpersonal factors (i.e. close environment and personal characteristics involved in social interactions). Most of the few studies available have focused on one particular interpersonal factor, such as social cognition, contact frequencies or therapeutic alliance. To date, no study has explored the specificity of associations between clinical insight and different levels of interpersonal factors, neither if these associations are independent of personal factors. Associations between insight and interpersonal factors were explored through multiple regression in a sample of 80 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Lower insight was associated with lower interpersonal functioning, independently from personal factors such as age, gender, age at first hospitalization, executive functioning and symptoms. Our findings replicate previous studies with regard to the associations between clinician-rated insight and social cognition or social contact frequencies. They also provide new information about specific associations between clinician-rated insight and perceived social support as well as between patient-rated insight and therapeutic alliance. Finally, models of insight based on personal factors were significantly improved by the inclusion of interpersonal factors. These results strongly support the crucial role of interpersonal factors in insight, both from the clinician's and the patient's point of view. These exploratory data require further replication.

  14. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  15. Factors Impacting the Advancement of Female Leaders to the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Sally Utley

    2009-01-01

    The position of the superintendency is a critical and influential one. It sets the strategic goals for teaching and learning for school divisions throughout the United States. It serves as a role model for future school leaders. The educational programs provided to students in public schools have a significant impact on the success of our youth.…

  16. Impact factor and other standardized measures of journal citation: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    The impact factor of journals has been widely used as glory quotients. Despite its limitations, this citation metric is widely used to reflect scientific merit and standing in one's field. Apart from the impact factor, other bibliometric indicators are also available but are not as popular among decision makers. These indicators are the immediacy index and cited half-life. The impact factor itself is affected by a wide range of sociological and statistical factors. This paper discusses the limitations of the impact factor with suggestions of how it can be used and how it should not be used. It also discusses how other bibliometric indicators can be used to assess the quality of publications.

  17. Impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in N=4 SYM with large number of colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. S.; Fiore, R.

    2014-06-01

    We calculate impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with four supercharges at large number of colours Nc. In the next-to-leading order impact factors are not uniquely defined and must accord with BFKL kernels and energy scales. We obtain the impact factor corresponding to the kernel and the energy evolution parameter, which is invariant under Möbius transformation in momentum space, and show that it is also Möbius invariant up to terms taken into account in the BDS ansatz.

  18. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Igor R C; Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho de; Andrade, Pedro Beraldo de; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometric indexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement.

  19. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Bienert, Igor R C; de Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho; de Andrade, Pedro Beraldo; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometricindexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement. PMID:26107458

  20. The journal impact factor: how to interpret its true value and importance.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2009-02-01

    In 1955, Garfield suggested that the number of references could be used to measure the "impact" of a journal, but the term "impact factor" was introduced in 1963 by Garfield and Sher. The primary goal of impact factor analysis was to improve the management of library journal collections. Single-parameter measurements of the quality of a journal article have become increasingly popular as a substitute for scientific quality. The simplicity of its counting system and convenience of its use are significant benefits. Probably for these reasons, funding bodies, academic authorities, and some governments began using the impact factor to guide decisions about allocating grants, awarding appointments and academic degrees, and defining scientific policy. The journal impact factor, which is often recognized as a symbol of scientific prestige and relevance, can be, however, greatly influenced by the type of medical article (review vs original work), clinical specialty, and research. The true value and implications of the journal impact factor (JIF) are important to understand. It is critical to remember that JIF can be used only to evaluate journals. All comparisons should include only journals and never individuals or departments. Only similar journals (particularly those dedicated to the same scientific specialty) must be compared, because the value of the impact factor varies greatly by discipline.

  1. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  2. Impact of Contextual Factors on Prostate Cancer Risk and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    retail food environment index 1 (Model 4b: ( convenience stores + fast food restaurants )/supermarkets), retail food environment index 2 (Model 4c...street segments), traffic density, commute, restaurant environment, retail food environment, parks, and farmers markets; and the social environment...neighborhood SES, and case-level education, adjusted sequentially for behavioral factors + hospital characteristics (Model 3), restaurant index (Model 4a

  3. Factors Impacting the Development of Substance Abuse Counseling Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbreth, John R.; Cooper, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors sought to examine factors that contribute to the overall development of supervisors in the substance abuse field. Significant predictors for supervisor development were found as were differences in these predictors that were based on supervisor recovery status. (Contains 3 tables.)

  4. Factors Impacting Members Decision to Continue FFA beyond High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanok, Danielle E.; Stripling, Christopher T.; Stephens, Carrie A.; Griffith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing FFA members to continue their FFA experience beyond high school. Two focus groups were conducted, one for collegiate FFA members and one for past/current state officers. Participants provided several areas of improvement for collegiate and alumni FFA membership. Participants noted…

  5. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  6. Factors Impacting Teachers' Adoption of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Callum, Kathryn; Jeffrey, Lynn; Kinshuk

    2014-01-01

    As mobile technology has advanced, awareness is growing that these technologies may benefit teaching and learning. However, despite this interest, the factors that will determine the acceptance of mobile technology by lecturers have been limited. This study proposed and tested a new model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) with…

  7. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  8. On indexing in the Web of Science and predicting journal impact factor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-Fang; Fu, Qiang; Rousseau, Ronald

    2008-07-01

    We discuss what document types account for the calculation of the journal impact factor (JIF) as published in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Based on a brief review of articles discussing how to predict JIFs and taking data differences between the Web of Science (WoS) and the JCR into account, we make our own predictions. Using data by cited-reference searching for Thomson Scientific's WoS, we predict 2007 impact factors (IFs) for several journals, such as Nature, Science, Learned Publishing and some Library and Information Sciences journals. Based on our colleagues' experiences we expect our predictions to be lower bounds for the official journal impact factors. We explain why it is useful to derive one's own journal impact factor.

  9. [National and international impact factor of Revista Española de Cardiología].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre Benavent, Rafael; Valderrama Zurián, Juan C; Castellano Gómez, Miguel; Miguel-Dasit, Alberto; Simó Meléndez, Raquel; Navarro Molina, Carolina

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the bibliometric indicators for Revista Española de Cardiologíathat were obtained from the "Potential impact factor of Spanish medical journals in 2001" study financed by the Spanish Ministerio de Educacion, Cultura y Deporte. Citations to Revista Española de Cardiología, its national and international impact factor, and its immediacy index were calculated with methods similar to those used by the Institute for Scientific Information. National indicators were based only on citations from 87 Spanish journals considered source journals, whereas international indicators were calculated on the basis of citations from both national journals and foreign source journals in the Science Citation Index. Revista Española de Cardiologíaobtained a national impact factor of 0.719 and an international impact factor of 0.837, placing it at the head of the ranking of Spanish medical journals.

  10. On indexing in the Web of Science and predicting journal impact factor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiu-fang; Fu, Qiang; Rousseau, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    We discuss what document types account for the calculation of the journal impact factor (JIF) as published in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Based on a brief review of articles discussing how to predict JIFs and taking data differences between the Web of Science (WoS) and the JCR into account, we make our own predictions. Using data by cited-reference searching for Thomson Scientific’s WoS, we predict 2007 impact factors (IFs) for several journals, such as Nature, Science, Learned Publishing and some Library and Information Sciences journals. Based on our colleagues’ experiences we expect our predictions to be lower bounds for the official journal impact factors. We explain why it is useful to derive one’s own journal impact factor. PMID:18600790

  11. Factors Influencing Observed Tillage Impacts on Herbicide Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, E. A.; Huang, C.; Smith, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    The widespread use and potential human health effects of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate have generated interest in establishing how no-tillage impacts loading of these herbicides to runoff water in comparison to other tillage practices. In this study, potentially confounding factos such as time in tillage practice and type and distribution of residue cover, are weighed against inherent tillage impacts to soil structure in terms of relative effects on herbicide transport with runoff water. In this study, two small watersheds (one in no-till (NT) and one rotational till (RT)) were monitored during the first three years since conversion of the RT watershed from NT. In addition, rainfall simulation was applied to plots within each watershed during the first, third, and fifth years since the conversion. Runoff atrazine and glyphosate losses from RT areas were compared to losses from NT areas as a ratio of RT:NT. Results indicate a trend of increasing RT:NT value with time in tillage. Watershed monitoring indicated greater herbicide loading to runoff water from the NT watershed than the RT watershed during the first year since RT conversion, but this relationship reversed by the third year since conversion to RT. In addition, rainfall simulations were performed on small boxes of NT or RT soil having varying types and levels of residue cover in an attempt to isolate residue cover effects from true tillage effects.

  12. Bradford's law, the long tail principle, and transparency in Journal Impact Factor calculations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the commonly mentioned limitations of the Journal Impact Factor, we discuss the obsolete principle of selecting journals to create a fake-representative sample of 'journals that matter' and the opacity around the calculation and listing of Impact Factors. We use the example of Pharmacy Practice: in 2015 for illustration. We hypothesize that a business-oriented system of measuring the science and quality of scholarly journals may not be the best option to avoid biases and conflicts of interest.

  13. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    SciTech Connect

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2015-04-10

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the photon to quark, antiquark and gluon transition within Balitsky’s shock-wave formalism. We also rederive the impact factor for photon to quark and antiquark transition. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering as well as for two and three jets diffractive production which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  14. Factors Impacting upon the Performance of Workplace Assessors: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a research project that elicits the main factors impacting on the performance of workplace assessors in the oil and gas industry. The purpose of the paper is to reveal the significance of the role of workplace assessors and the subsequent impact upon workforce engagement. One model of employee competency…

  15. Hospital Factors Impact Variation in Emergency Department Length of Stay more than Physician Factors

    PubMed Central

    Krall, Scott P.; Cornelius, Angela P.; Addison, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To analyze the correlation between the many different emergency department (ED) treatment metric intervals and determine if the metrics directly impacted by the physician correlate to the “door to room” interval in an ED (interval determined by ED bed availability). Our null hypothesis was that the cause of the variation in delay to receiving a room was multifactorial and does not correlate to any one metric interval. Methods We collected daily interval averages from the ED information system, Meditech©. Patient flow metrics were collected on a 24-hour basis. We analyzed the relationship between the time intervals that make up an ED visit and the “arrival to room” interval using simple correlation (Pearson Correlation coefficients). Summary statistics of industry standard metrics were also done by dividing the intervals into 2 groups, based on the average ED length of stay (LOS) from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2008 Emergency Department Summary. Results Simple correlation analysis showed that the doctor-to-discharge time interval had no correlation to the interval of “door to room (waiting room time)”, correlation coefficient (CC) (CC=0.000, p=0.96). “Room to doctor” had a low correlation to “door to room” CC=0.143, while “decision to admitted patients departing the ED time” had a moderate correlation of 0.29 (p <0.001). “New arrivals” (daily patient census) had a strong correlation to longer “door to room” times, 0.657, p<0.001. The “door to discharge” times had a very strong correlation CC=0.804 (p<0.001), to the extended “door to room” time. Conclusion Physician-dependent intervals had minimal correlation to the variation in arrival to room time. The “door to room” interval was a significant component to the variation in “door to discharge” i.e. LOS. The hospital-influenced “admit decision to hospital bed” i.e. hospital inpatient capacity, interval had a correlation to

  16. Evaluation of climate modeling factors impacting the variance of streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Aamery, N.; Fox, J. F.; Snyder, M.

    2016-11-01

    The present contribution quantifies the relative importance of climate modeling factors and chosen response variables upon controlling the variance of streamflow forecasted with global climate model (GCM) projections, which has not been attempted in previous literature to our knowledge. We designed an experiment that varied climate modeling factors, including GCM type, project phase, emission scenario, downscaling method, and bias correction. The streamflow response variable was also varied and included forecasted streamflow and difference in forecast and hindcast streamflow predictions. GCM results and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were used to predict streamflow for a wet, temperate watershed in central Kentucky USA. After calibrating the streamflow model, 112 climate realizations were simulated within the streamflow model and then analyzed on a monthly basis using analysis of variance. Analysis of variance results indicate that the difference in forecast and hindcast streamflow predictions is a function of GCM type, climate model project phase, and downscaling approach. The prediction of forecasted streamflow is a function of GCM type, project phase, downscaling method, emission scenario, and bias correction method. The results indicate the relative importance of the five climate modeling factors when designing streamflow prediction ensembles and quantify the reduction in uncertainty associated with coupling the climate results with the hydrologic model when subtracting the hindcast simulations. Thereafter, analysis of streamflow prediction ensembles with different numbers of realizations show that use of all available realizations is unneeded for the study system, so long as the ensemble design is well balanced. After accounting for the factors controlling streamflow variance, results show that predicted average monthly change in streamflow tends to follow precipitation changes and result in a net increase in the average annual precipitation and

  17. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service

    PubMed Central

    Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A.; Pollack, Keshia M.; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. Objective To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Method Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Results Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Conclusion Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice. PMID:26243248

  18. Investigation of factors impacting mobility and gait in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; McNeely, Marie E; Campbell, Meghan C; Duncan, Ryan P; Earhart, Gammon M

    2016-10-01

    Mobility and gait limitations are major issues for people with Parkinson disease (PD). Identification of factors that contribute to these impairments may inform treatment and intervention strategies. In this study we investigated factors that predict mobility and gait impairment in PD. Participants with mild to moderate PD and without dementia (n=114) were tested in one session 'off' medication. Mobility measures included the 6-Minute Walk test and Timed-Up-and-Go. Gait velocity was collected in four conditions: forward preferred speed, forward dual task, forward fast as possible and backward walking. The predictors analyzed were age, gender, disease severity, balance, balance confidence, fall history, self-reported physical activity, and executive function. Multiple regression models were used to assess the relationships between predictors and outcomes. The predictors, in different combinations for each outcome measure, explained 55.7% to 66.9% of variability for mobility and 39.5% to 52.8% for gait velocity. Balance was the most relevant factor (explaining up to 54.1% of variance in mobility and up to 45.6% in gait velocity). Balance confidence contributed to a lesser extent (2.0% to 8.2% of variance) in all models. Age explained a small percentage of variance in mobility and gait velocity (up to 2.9%). Executive function explained 3.0% of variance during forward walking only. The strong predictive relationships between balance deficits and mobility and gait impairment suggest targeting balance deficits may be particularly important for improving mobility and gait in people with PD, regardless of an individual's age, disease severity, fall history, or other demographic features.

  19. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    PubMed

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  20. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells.

    PubMed

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations.

  1. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. Methods The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Results Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). Conclusions The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. PMID:27500154

  2. Adult Prostitution Recidivism: Risk Factors and Impact of a Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…

  3. Impact of Organisational Factors on the Knowledge Sharing Practice of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the various organizational factors that influence the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various organizational factors on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the study…

  4. Reintegration Success and Failure: Factors Impacting Reintegration among Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbina, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…

  5. Factors that Impact Susceptibility to Fiber-Induced Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Below, Jennifer E.; Cox, Nancy J.; Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Hirvonen, Ari; Testa, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Asbestos and related fibers are associated with a number of adverse health effects, including malignant mesothelioma (MM), an aggressive cancer that generally develops in the surface serosal cells of the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Although approximately 80% of individuals with MM are exposed to asbestos, fewer than 5% of asbestos workers develop MM. In addition to asbestos, other mineralogical, environmental, genetic, and possibly viral factors might contribute to MM susceptibility. Given this complex etiology of MM, understanding susceptibility to MM needs to be a priority for investigators in order to reduce exposure of those most at risk to known environmental carcinogens. In this review, the current body of literature related to fiber-associated disease susceptibility including age, sex, nutrition, genetics, asbestos, and other mineral exposure is addressed with a focus on MM, and critical areas for further study are recommended. PMID:21534090

  6. IMPACT OF FIVE TREATMENT FACTORS ON MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-12-08

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify factors that affect mussel kill. Test results reported herein indicate that mussel kill should not be affected by: (1) air bubbles being carried by currents through power plant pipes; (2) pipe orientation (e.g., vertical or horizontal); (3) whether the bacterial cell concentration during a treatment is constant or slightly varying; (4) whether a treatment is between 3 hr and 12 hr in duration, given that the total quantity of bacteria being applied to the pipe is a constant; and (5) whether the water temperature is between 13 C and 23 C.

  7. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Hocine, Mounia N.; Aït Bouziad, Karim; Légeron, Patrick; Dab, William; Saporta, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors) requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention. PMID:27304854

  8. Increase of cytotoxicity during wastewater chlorination: Impact factors and surrogates.

    PubMed

    Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Lu, Yun; Hu, Hong-Ying; Yang, Yang; Liu, Rui; Liu, Feng

    2017-02-15

    Toxic and harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were formed during wastewater chlorination. It was recently suggested that cytotoxicity to mammalian cells reflects risks posed by chlorinated wastewater. Here, ATP assays were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Chlorination significantly increased cytotoxicity of treated wastewater. Factors affecting cytotoxicity formation during wastewater chlorination were investigated. Quenching with sodium thiosulfate and ascorbic acid decreased the formed cytotoxicity, while ammonium kept the cytotoxicity stable. The chlorine dose required for the maximum cytotoxicity increase was dramatically affected by DOC and ammonia concentrations. The maximum cytotoxicity increase, defined as the cytotoxicity formation potential (CtFP), occurred when wastewater was treated for 48h with a chlorine dose of 2·DOC+11·NH3N+10 (mg-Cl2/L). During chlorination, the amounts of AOX formation was found to be significantly correlated with cytotoxicity formation when no DBPs were destroyed. AOX formation could be used as a surrogate to estimate cytotoxicity increase during wastewater chlorination. Besides, the CtFP of 14 treated wastewater samples was assessed ranged from 5.4-20.4mg-phenol/L. The CtFP could be estimated from UV254 of treated wastewater because CtFP and UV254 were strongly correlated.

  9. [Impact of endocannabinoid system in modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors].

    PubMed

    Sulcová, A

    2006-06-01

    Endocannabinoid system, the complex of specific cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 subtypes) and their endogenous agonistic ligands (endocannabinoids) plays, besides others, an important role in the central and peripheral regulation of food intake, fat accumulation, and lipid and glucose metabolism. Alterations of these functions are associated with endocannabinoid system hyperactivity. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 antagonist rimonabant normalizes the over activated endocannabinoid system which contributes to the regulation of energy homeostasis, and improves lipid and glucose metabolism--decreases body weight, waist circumference, intra-abdominal obesity and triglycerides, increases HDL-C, improves insulin sensitivity according to HOMA index. Results of the international multicentric clinical trials confirm that rimonabant is well tolerated and show antiatherogenic effects (increased adiponectin, decreased marker of inflammation CRP and improvement of LDL profile) as well as decreased percentage of subjects with NCEP/ATPIII (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) defined metabolic syndrome. Thus, the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant is suggested to be a prospective drug decreasing cardiometabolic risk factors.

  10. A review of major factors influencing plant responses to recreation impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, Fred R.

    1986-09-01

    This article reviews some of the more important factors found to influence the susceptibility of plants to trampling impacts associated with recreational use of natural areas. A three-way interaction mediates plant responses to impacts: plant x environment x stress level(s). Plant responses vary in part according to the genetic constitution of the plant, life and growth form, the adaptive flexibility of the plant, and anatomical differences inherent to growth habit and morphology. Other factors that influence plant sensitivities to impacts are the habitat environments in which plants grow, since a number of conditions such as moisture excesses or deficiencies, nitrogen or oxygen starvation, late frosts, etc., cause physiological injury and may increase plant sensitivity to impacts. Among the environmental factors that may increase or lessen plant sensitivities to impacts are soil moisture levels, canopy density, elevation, aspect, microclimate, soil drainage, texture, fertility and productivity. Seasonal influences also bear consideration since environmental changes and phonological and physiological events are mediated by time of year. Stresses are caused by both direct and indirect forms of impact and vary according to season of use, frequency and amount of use, and the type of activity. These interactions are further complicated by evidence that inter- and intraspecific competition, antagonism, and commensalism may influence differences in the sensitivity of plant communities to impacts.

  11. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (Korean version).

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Il; Lee, Soonmook; Patton, Lauren L; Kim, Hae-Young

    2016-04-01

    Empirical support for the factor structure of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) has not been fully established. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the factor structure of the Korean version of the COHIP (COHIP-K) empirically using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on the theoretical framework and then to assess whether any of the factors in the structure could be grouped into a simpler single second-order factor. Data were collected through self-reported COHIP-K responses from a representative community sample of 2,236 Korean children, 8-15 yr of age. Because a large inter-factor correlation of 0.92 was estimated in the original five-factor structure, the two strongly correlated factors were combined into one factor, resulting in a four-factor structure. The revised four-factor model showed a reasonable fit with appropriate inter-factor correlations. Additionally, the second-order model with four sub-factors was reasonable with sufficient fit and showed equal fit to the revised four-factor model. A cross-validation procedure confirmed the appropriateness of the findings. Our analysis empirically supported a four-factor structure of COHIP-K, a summarized second-order model, and the use of an integrated summary COHIP score.

  12. E2F1 transcription factor and its impact on growth factor and cytokine signaling.

    PubMed

    Ertosun, Mustafa Gokhan; Hapil, Fatma Zehra; Osman Nidai, Ozes

    2016-10-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The transactivation capacity of E2F1 is regulated by pRb. In its hypophosphorylated form, pRb binds and inactivates DNA binding and transactivating functions of E2F1. The growth factor stimulation of cells leads to activation of CDKs (cyclin dependent kinases), which in turn phosphorylate Rb and hyperphosphorylated Rb is released from E2F1 or E2F1/DP complex, and free E2F1 can induce transcription of several genes involved in cell cycle entry, induction or inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, growth factors and cytokines generally utilize E2F1 to direct cells to either fate. Furthermore, E2F1 regulates expressions of various cytokines and growth factor receptors, establishing positive or negative feedback mechanisms. This review focuses on the relationship between E2F1 transcription factor and cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, LIF), growth factors (EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PDGF, HGF, NGF), and interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ).

  13. Factors impacting the decision to participate in and satisfaction with public/community psychiatry fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules

    2014-10-01

    During yearly meetings of the recently developed network of 15 public/community psychiatry fellowships, it has been noted that programs are having varying degrees of success with regard to recruitment. To understand factors that impact recruitment, a quality improvement survey of fellows and alumni was conducted. Respondents were asked to rate overall satisfaction with their fellowship training as well as perceived benefits and obstacles to participating in a fellowship program, and impact on their careers. A total of 155 (57%) fellows and alumni responded. Factor analysis was used to condense the variables, and a multiple regression explored factors predicting overall fellowship program satisfaction. Factors that represented perceived benefits had higher means than did factors that represent obstacles. Respondents highly valued the extent to which these fellowships enhanced their careers, with regard to job opportunities, academics, networking and leadership.

  14. The Impact of Psychological Factors on Device Removal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Golbakhsh, Mohammadreza; Sadaat, Mirmostafa; Noughani, Fatemeh; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Gholizadeh, Amirmohammad; Abedi, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Background Implant removal is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery which can be associated with many complications such as scar formation, hematoma, nerve injury, infection, and refracture. Indications for orthopedic implant removal have declined in recent years. Most studies have considered orthopedic hardware removal as an unnecessary procedure in the absence of severe complications such as nonunion. Some studies have reported the complications of orthopedic hardware removal to be 24% to 50% dependent on their types and locations as well as on other factors such as patient’s condition and the orthopedist’s experience. Objectives The present study surveyed possible mental and psychological causes among patients who asked for removal procedures in spite of orthopedic surgeons’ advice and being aware of complications. Patients and Methods Patients who had undergone plating for the treatment of radius and ulna fractures from 2011 to 2013, were told that it is not necessary to remove the plate and they were warned of all the risks of removal surgery, such as anesthesia, possible nerve or vascular damage, and the cost of surgery. Then, their tendency to remove the plate was examined based on evaluation criteria scores. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who insisted on surgery despite all the risks and patients who had little tendency or gave up after explanations. Both groups were given visual analog pain scale (VAS), symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90), and pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) questionnaires. The questions were explained for patients by an expert trained in the clinic and in case of ambiguity further explanations were given to the patients. The data were then entered into statistical package for the social science (SPSS) version 20 for analysis. Results A total of 29 patients with plates were enrolled. The first group consisted of 16 male and 13 female patients. In the control group (group II), there were 30 patients with no tendency for

  15. The Skin Picking Impact Scale: Factor structure, validity and development of a short version.

    PubMed

    Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Flessner, Christopher A; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Woods, Douglas W

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Impact Scale (SPIS; Keuthen, Deckersbach, Wilhelm et al., 2001), a 10 item self-report questionnaire designed to assess the psychosocial impact of skin picking disorder (SPD). Participants were 650 individuals who met criteria for SPD in an online survey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a unitary factor structure with high internal consistency (α = 0.94). Consequently, we constructed an abbreviated 4-item version that retained good internal consistency (α = 0.87) and a robust factor structure. Both the short and the full versions demonstrated discriminant and convergent/concurrent validity. In conclusion, the findings indicate that both versions are psychometrically sound measures of SPD related psychosocial impact; however, some potential limitations of the full scale are discussed.

  16. Perceptions of Factors Impacting Longevity among Hawai‘i Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kathryn; Homma, Mieko; Nobuhara, Hiroaki; Kubota, Tomio; Sakai, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    With increased life expectancy, people need more education about healthy aging. This paper examines older adult perceptions regarding various factors impacting longevity, including genetics, lifestyle, and the environment. Data were collected from 733 Hawai‘i adults age 50 years and older (39% Caucasian, 27% Japanese, 19% Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHOPI), 9% Chinese, and 7% Filipino) through randomized telephone interviews. Participants were asked to rate a variety of factors as having “great impact,” “some impact,” or “no impact” on lifespan. Regardless of ethnicity, more than half of the participants felt that eating habits, exercise, health information, health care, and the environment had great impact on lifespan. Less than half felt that economic status and community had great impact. Compared to the all ethnic groups, Filipino respondents were significantly less likely to feel that smoking (44%, compared with an average across all race/ethnicities of 64%) and stress (48%, average 62%) had great impact. Chinese participants were more likely to feel that drinking alcohol (64%) had great impact (average 38%). Filipinos and Chinese were more likely to perceive that working conditions have great impact (65% and 56%, respectively; average 45%), and NHOPI and Filipinos were more likely to perceive the natural environment as having great impact (59% and 54%, respectively; average 46%). Findings suggest that cultural values and experiences may shape older adults' perceptions of factors associated with lifespan, providing guidance for health professionals on how to tailor health messages to older adults in different ethnic groups. PMID:28352492

  17. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Stagge, James Howard; Tallaksen, Lena M.; De Stefano, Lucia; Vogt, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, meant as the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work tests the capability of commonly applied drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and combines information on past drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This hybrid approach bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact prediction in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro-region-specific sensitivities of drought indices, with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for a 12-month accumulation period as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictors, with information about land use and water resources being the best vulnerability-based predictors. The application of the hybrid approach revealed strong regional and sector-specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of the best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer accumulation periods, and a combination of information on land use and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information with drought risk prediction

  18. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, hazard indicators and vulnerability factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, V.; Stahl, K.; Stagge, J. H.; Tallaksen, L. M.; De Stefano, L.; Vogt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work (1) tests the capability of commonly applied hazard indicators and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and (2) combines information on past drought impacts, drought hazard indicators, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This "hybrid approach" bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact forecast in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro region specific sensitivities of hazard indicators, with the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for a twelve month aggregation period (SPEI-12) as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictor, with information about landuse and water resources as best vulnerability-based predictors. (3) The application of the "hybrid approach" revealed strong regional (NUTS combo level) and sector specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer aggregation periods, and a combination of information on landuse and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information

  19. Analyzing impact factors of CO{sub 2} emissions using the STIRPAT model

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Ying; Liu Lancui; Wu Gang; Wei Yiming . E-mail: ymwei@263.net

    2006-05-15

    Using the STIRPAT model, this paper analyzes the impact of population, affluence and technology on the total CO{sub 2} emissions of countries at different income levels over the period 1975-2000. Our main results show at the global level that economic growth has the greatest impact on CO{sub 2} emissions, and the proportion of the population between ages 15 and 64 has the least impact. The proportion of the population between 15 and 64 has a negative impact on the total CO{sub 2} emissions of countries at the high income level, but the impact is positive at other income levels. This may illustrate the importance of the 'B' in the 'I = PABT'; that is to say that different behavior fashions can greatly influence environmental change. For low-income countries, the impact of GDP per capita on total CO{sub 2} emissions is very great, and the impact of energy intensity in upper-middle income countries is very great. The impact of these factors on the total CO{sub 2} emissions of countries at the high income level is relatively great. Therefore, these empirical results indicate that the impact of population, affluence and technology on CO{sub 2} emissions varies at different levels of development. Thus, policy-makers should consider these matters fully when they construct their long-term strategies for CO{sub 2} abatement.

  20. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  1. Bradford’s law, the long tail principle, and transparency in Journal Impact Factor calculations

    PubMed Central

    Beyond the commonly mentioned limitations of the Journal Impact Factor, we discuss the obsolete principle of selecting journals to create a fake-representative sample of ‘journals that matter’ and the opacity around the calculation and listing of Impact Factors. We use the example of Pharmacy Practice: in 2015 for illustration. We hypothesize that a business-oriented system of measuring the science and quality of scholarly journals may not be the best option to avoid biases and conflicts of interest. PMID:27785170

  2. Prioritization of factors impacting on performance of power looms using AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulange, S. R.; Pundir, A. K.; Ganapathy, L.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical success factors influencing the performance of power loom textiles, to evaluate their impact on the organizational performance and to find out the effect of these factors on the organizational performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Solapur (Maharashtra) industrial sector using AHP. In the methodology adopted, factors are identified through the literature survey and finalization of these factors is done by taking the opinion of experts in the Indian context. By cognitive map, the relation between these factors (direct and indirect effect) is determined and cause and effect diagram is prepared. Then these factors are arranged hierarchically and tree diagram is prepared. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the experts; data is collected. Using expert choice software data is filled to quantify by pair-wise comparison of these factors and are prioritized. The weights demonstrate several key findings: local and global priority reveals that there is a substantial effect of the human resource, product style, and volume on the organizational performance. The skills and technology upgradation impact on organizational performance. Maintenance plays an important role in improving the organizational performances of the SMEs. Overall, the results showed the central role of the operational factors are important. The research is subject to the normal limitations of AHP. The study is using perceptual data provided by Experts which may not provide clear measures of impact factors. However, this can be overcome using more experts to collect data in future studies. Interestingly, the findings here may be generalisable outside Solapur like Ichalkarnji, Malegaon, and Bhiwadi (Maharashtra). Solapur power loom SMEs should consider AHP as an innovative tool for quantification of factors impacting on performance and improving operational and organizational performance in today's dynamic

  3. Impact of nonsynonymous mutations of factor X on the functions of factor X and anticoagulant activity of edoxaban.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kengo; Morishima, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Shinichi; Ishihara, Hiroaki; Shibano, Toshiro; Murata, Mitsuru

    2015-03-01

    Edoxaban is an oral direct factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor and its efficacy as an oral anticoagulant is less subject to drug-food and drug-drug interaction than existing vitamin K antagonists. Although this profile of edoxaban suggests it is well suited for clinical use, it is not clear whether genetic variations of factor X influence the activity of edoxaban. Our aim was to investigate a possible impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the factor X gene on the functions of factor X and the activity of edoxaban. Two nonsynonymous SNPs within mature factor X, Ala152Thr and Gly192Arg, were selected as possible candidates that might affect the functions of FXa and the activity of edoxaban. We measured catalytic activities of wild type and mutant FXas in a chromogenic assay using S-2222 and coagulation times including prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thrombin time (aPTT) of plasma-containing recombinant FXs in the presence and absence of edoxaban. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters of FXas, Km and Vmax values, PT and aPTT were not influenced by either mutation indicating these mutations do not affect the FXa catalytic and coagulation activities. The Ki values of edoxaban for the FXas and the concentrations of edoxaban required to double PT and aPTT were not different between wild type and mutated FXas indicating that both mutations have little impact on the activity of edoxaban. In conclusion, these data suggest that edoxaban has little interpatient variability stemming from SNPs in the factor X gene.

  4. A two-factor theory for concussion assessment using ImPACT: memory and speed.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Philip; Maerlender, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    We present the initial validation of a two-factor structure of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) using ImPACT composite scores and document the reliability and validity of this factor structure. Factor analyses were conducted for baseline (N = 21,537) and post-concussion (N = 560) data, yielding "Memory" (Verbal and Visual) and "Speed" (Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time) Factors; inclusion of Total Symptom Scores resulted in a third discrete factor. Speed and Memory z-scores were calculated, and test-retest reliability (using intra-class correlation coefficients) at 1 month (0.88/0.81), 1 year (0.85/0.75), and 2 years (0.76/0.74) were higher than published data using Composite scores. Speed and Memory scores yielded 89% sensitivity and 70% specificity, which was higher than composites (80%/62%) and comparable with subscales (91%/69%). This emergent two-factor structure has improved test-retest reliability with no loss of sensitivity/specificity and may improve understanding and interpretability of ImPACT test results.

  5. Form or Flesh: Social Factors That Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Patricia A.

    The social factors that impact Caucasian middle-class women's practice of breast self-examination (BSE) were examined through in-depth interviews with 15 women who were selected to represent a mix of women who practiced BSE monthly, occasionally, or never. The meaning of BSE was analyzed in relation to body image and the social definition of being…

  6. Student Performance in Teacher Education in Norway: The Impact of Student, Institutional and Structural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikan, Gerd; Bugge, Liv Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Many education systems face a challenge in recruiting graduates as teachers. This is also the situation in Norway and the newest estimates tell us that we will lack 9000 teachers in 2020. The situation is made even worse by the high number of dropouts and low performance rates in teacher education. There are many factors which have an impact on…

  7. Peer review and journal impact factor: the two pillars of contemporary medical publishing

    PubMed Central

    Triaridis, S; Kyrgidis, A

    2010-01-01

    The appraisal of scientific quality is a particularly difficult problem. Editorial boards resort to secondary criteria including crude publication counts, journal prestige, the reputation of authors and institutions, and estimated importance and relevance of the research field, making peer review a controversial rather than a rigorous process. On this background different methods for evaluating research may become required, including citation rates and journal impact factors (IF), which are thought to be more quantitative and objective indicators, directly related to published science. The aim of this review is to go into the two pillars of contemporary medical publishing, that is the peer review process and the IF. Qualified experts' reviewing the publications appears to be the only way for the evaluation of medical publication quality. To improve and standardise the principles, procedures and criteria used in peer review evaluation is of great importance. Standardizing and improving training techniques for peer reviewers, would allow for the magnification of a journal's impact factor. This may be a very important reason that impact factor and peer review need to be analyzed simultaneously. Improving a journal's IF would be difficult without improving peer-review efficiency. Peer-reviewers need to understand the fundamental principles of contemporary medical publishing, that is peer-review and impact factors. The current supplement of the Hippokratia for supporting its seminar for reviewers will help to fulfil some of these scopes. PMID:21487485

  8. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  9. Factors Impacting University-Level Language Teachers' Technology Use and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabulut ilgu, Aliye

    2013-01-01

    Despite the documented affordances of technology to enhance language teaching and learning, technology use does not seem to be normalized just yet. This dissertation investigates the factors that impact university-level language teachers' technology use and integration. Adopting the ecological perspective as a guiding framework, this study…

  10. [SOME CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE INTRINSIC VALUE OF THE IMPACT FACTOR OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS].

    PubMed

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-12-01

    The reason of higher number of citations of some articles is discussed. Some considerations about the journals' impact factor, its merits and its pitfalls are also made. Scientific journals' impact factor, popularized by the Institute for Scientific Information, has become an objective parameter for authors' evaluation and also for institutions and other related circumstances. There is no reason for the impact factor's gap between some English journals and those written in other languages. English journals probably benefit of the "Mathew's effect", according to which eminent scientists are more rewarded by similar contributions than others less known. It is paradoxical that most of the major achievements of our age do not appear among the 100 most cited articles. There is no homogeneity among all the articles appearing in each scientific journal: half of the articles are cited ten times more than the other half. However, those articles cited 0 times are credited like the better ones. Each article should be evaluated by its own citations, which would be its impact factor; the authors should be evaluated by their H index.

  11. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

  12. Factors that Impact Software Project Success in Offshore Information Technology (IT) Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edara, Venkatarao

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are unsuccessful at a rate of 65% to 75% per year, in spite of employing the latest technologies and training employees. Although many studies have been conducted on project successes in U.S. companies, there is a lack of research studying the impact of various factors on software project success in offshore IT…

  13. Home and School Factors Impacting Parental Involvement in a Title I Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartel, Virginia B.

    2010-01-01

    Before and after the interventions of summer classes for parents and an interactive homework program, parents of children in an inner-city southeastern U.S. elementary school were interviewed and teachers surveyed to determine home and school factors that impacted parental involvement in their children's education. Beliefs about roles and…

  14. Assessing Input Enhancement as Positive Factor and Its Impact on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motlagh, Seyyed Fariborz Pishdadi; Nasab, Mahdiyeh Seyed Beheshti

    2015-01-01

    Input enhancement's role to promote learners' awareness in L2 contexts has caused a tremendous amount of research. Conspicuously, by regarding all aspects of input enhancement, the study aimed to find out how differently many kinds of input enhancement factors such as bolding, underlining, and capitalizing impact on L2 learners' vocabulary…

  15. [National and international impact factor of Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Castellano Gómez, M; Simó Meléndez, R; Navarro Molina, C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the bibliometric indicators of Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría that were obtained from the study "Potential impact factor of the Spanish medical journals in 2001", financed by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. The citations made in Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría and its national and international impact factor and immediacy index have been obtained by the use of a methodology similar to the one used by the Institute for Scientific Information. The national indicators only take into account the citations made in 87 Spanish journals considered as sources, while those from the foreign source journals of Science Citation Index have been added to the previously cited ones. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría has obtained a national impact factor of 0.315 and an international impact factor of 0.395, which places it as a leader in the Spanish psychiatric journals.

  16. Impact of environmental factors on the demographic characteristics in Tomsk Oblast (Russia, 1980-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, E.; Mezhibor, A.; Makarenko, T.

    2016-09-01

    The research represents the analysis of essential demographic indexes in Tomsk Oblast (Russia): birth-rate, death-rate, natural increase (1980-2015), migration increase (19972014), and child mortality (1990-2015). Environmental factors were determined as influencing the health and as a consequence, having the impact on the demographic characteristics of the studied region.

  17. The Impact of Contextual Factors on the Use of Students' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Yilmaz; Karaaslan, Emre Harun; Ayas, Alipasa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of contextual factors on the use of students' conceptions. A total of 106 students received a questionnaire involving open-ended questions on acid-base and equilibrium concepts. Of these students, 16 students who provided complete and accurate responses to the questions participated in an interview. In…

  18. The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

  19. The Journal Impact Factor: Does It Devalue Applied Research in Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Elward K.

    2012-01-01

    A troubling trend in research is the reliance on the journal impact factor (IF) to establish a perceived "value" or importance of scholarly publications. Given that the IF of different scholarly journals may vary greatly, this phenomenon not only influences which journals receive submissions, but is beginning to influence the type of research that…

  20. Individual and Family Factors Impacting Diabetic Control for the Adolescent: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Mary; And Others

    Sixteen adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years and their parents participated in a preliminary study on the impact of family and individual factors on diabetes control for the adolescent. It was hypothesized that there was a relationship between the adolescent's perception of adolescent development, social support, depression, family…

  1. A Large-Scale Analysis of Impact Factor Biased Journal Self-Citations

    PubMed Central

    Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Based on three decades of citation data from across scientific fields of science, we study trends in impact factor biased self-citations of scholarly journals, using a purpose-built and easy to use citation based measure. Our measure is given by the ratio between i) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in the last two years, and ii) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in preceding years. A ratio higher than one suggests that a journal’s impact factor is disproportionally affected (inflated) by self-citations. Using recently reported survey data, we show that there is a relation between high values of our proposed measure and coercive journal self-citation malpractices. We use our measure to perform a large-scale analysis of impact factor biased journal self-citations. Our main empirical result is, that the share of journals for which our measure has a (very) high value has remained stable between the 1980s and the early 2000s, but has since risen strongly in all fields of science. This time span corresponds well with the growing obsession with the impact factor as a journal evaluation measure over the last decade. Taken together, this suggests a trend of increasingly pervasive journal self-citation malpractices, with all due unwanted consequences such as inflated perceived importance of journals and biased journal rankings. PMID:27560807

  2. Impact of Environmental Factors on Community Participation of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…

  3. Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Instrumental Factors That Impact Their Decisions to Remain in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Tiffany Pointer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that impact teachers' decisions to remain teaching in an urban school district. The researcher analyzed survey data provided by the Office of Planning and Accountability for an urban school district in Tennessee. The findings of the study are also discussed as well as any implication for…

  4. Factors that Impact Quality of E-Teaching/Learning Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daukilas, Sigitas; Kaciniene, Irma; Vaisnoriene, Daiva; Vascila, Vytautas

    2008-01-01

    The article analyzes and assesses factors that have impact upon the quality of eTeaching/learning technologies in higher education; it is on their basis that the concept of eTeaching/learning quality is denied. Research data about the students' motives in choosing various teaching/learning technologies for the development of their competence are…

  5. Journal impact factors and the influence of age and number of citations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact factor (IF) of a scientific journal is considered a measure of how important a journal is within its discipline, and it is based on a simple relationship between the number of citations of the journal’s articles divided by the number of articles in the scientific journal (http://en.wikipe...

  6. The "Human Factor" in Pure and in Applied Mathematics. Systems Everywhere: Their Impact on Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the relationship between people and mathematics could have on the development of pure and applied mathematics. Argues for (1) a growing interest in philosophy, history and sociology of science; (2) new models in educational and psychological research; and (3) a growing awareness of the human factor in technology,…

  7. Quasi-conformal shape of the BFKL kernel and impact factors for scattering of colourless particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. S.; Fiore, R.; Grabovsky, A. V.; Papa, A.

    2011-07-01

    The NLO BFKL kernel in the Möbius representation is transformed to the quasi-conformal shape in theories containing fermions and scalars in arbitrary representations of the colour group. Corresponding transformations of impact factors of colourless particles are discussed.

  8. Percentile-Based Journal Impact Factors: A Neglected Collection Development Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Various normalization techniques to transform journal impact factors (JIFs) into a standard scale or range of values have been reported a number of times in the literature, but have seldom been part of collection development librarians' tool kits. In this paper, JIFs as reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database are converted to…

  9. Judicious Use of Journal Impact Factors and the Preservation of Our Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    This article comments on the judicious use of journal impact factors. It aims to preserve our fields of study within the context of increased scholarly scrutiny and the hierarchical structures inherent in academia. It concludes by recommending actions for "JOPERD," other journals in the field, and the producers and evaluators of…

  10. [Beyond the impact factor. Reflections on the book of Stefanie Haustein].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2015-09-20

    The excellent book on multidimensional journal evaluation by Stefanie Haustein helps to find the place of the impact factor in the complex system of journal evaluation indicators. By delimiting the dimensions of evaluation and the user groups, the author of the book creates a framework that serves as a novel and useful guidance both for the lay reader and the expert.

  11. A Large-Scale Analysis of Impact Factor Biased Journal Self-Citations.

    PubMed

    Chorus, Caspar; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Based on three decades of citation data from across scientific fields of science, we study trends in impact factor biased self-citations of scholarly journals, using a purpose-built and easy to use citation based measure. Our measure is given by the ratio between i) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in the last two years, and ii) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in preceding years. A ratio higher than one suggests that a journal's impact factor is disproportionally affected (inflated) by self-citations. Using recently reported survey data, we show that there is a relation between high values of our proposed measure and coercive journal self-citation malpractices. We use our measure to perform a large-scale analysis of impact factor biased journal self-citations. Our main empirical result is, that the share of journals for which our measure has a (very) high value has remained stable between the 1980s and the early 2000s, but has since risen strongly in all fields of science. This time span corresponds well with the growing obsession with the impact factor as a journal evaluation measure over the last decade. Taken together, this suggests a trend of increasingly pervasive journal self-citation malpractices, with all due unwanted consequences such as inflated perceived importance of journals and biased journal rankings.

  12. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. Age of calf was...

  13. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. This study util...

  14. Fire-related cognitions moderate the impact of risk factors on adjustment following wildfire disaster.

    PubMed

    Scher, Christine D; Ellwanger, Joel

    2009-10-01

    This study builds upon current understanding of risk and protective factors for post-disaster adjustment by examining relationships between disaster-related cognitions, three empirically supported risk factors for poorer adjustment (i.e., greater disaster impact, female gender, and racial/ethnic minority status), and three common post-disaster outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints). Participants were 200 students exposed to wildfire disaster. Simultaneous hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, during the acute stress period: (1) disaster-related cognitions in interaction with fire impact and minority status, as well as gender, were related to anxiety symptoms, (2) cognitions were related to depression symptoms, and (3) cognitions in interaction with minority status, as well as fire impact, were related to somatic symptoms. No examined variables predicted symptom change.

  15. Multi-Factor Impact Analysis of Agricultural Production in Bangladesh with Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Major, David C.; Yu, Winston H.; Alam, Mozaharul; Hussain, Sk. Ghulam; Khan, Abu Saleh; Hassan, Ahmadul; Al Hossain, Bhuiya Md. Tamim; Goldberg, Richard; Horton, Radley M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Diverse vulnerabilities of Bangladesh's agricultural sector in 16 sub-regions are assessed using experiments designed to investigate climate impact factors in isolation and in combination. Climate information from a suite of global climate models (GCMs) is used to drive models assessing the agricultural impact of changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide concentrations, river floods, and sea level rise for the 2040-2069 period in comparison to a historical baseline. Using the multi-factor impacts analysis framework developed in Yu et al. (2010), this study provides new sub-regional vulnerability analyses and quantifies key uncertainties in climate and production. Rice (aman, boro, and aus seasons) and wheat production are simulated in each sub-region using the biophysical Crop Environment REsource Synthesis (CERES) models. These simulations are then combined with the MIKE BASIN hydrologic model for river floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins, and the MIKE21Two-Dimensional Estuary Model to determine coastal inundation under conditions of higher mean sea level. The impacts of each factor depend on GCM configurations, emissions pathways, sub-regions, and particular seasons and crops. Temperature increases generally reduce production across all scenarios. Precipitation changes can have either a positive or a negative impact, with a high degree of uncertainty across GCMs. Carbon dioxide impacts on crop production are positive and depend on the emissions pathway. Increasing river flood areas reduce production in affected sub-regions. Precipitation uncertainties from different GCMs and emissions scenarios are reduced when integrated across the large GBM Basins' hydrology. Agriculture in Southern Bangladesh is severely affected by sea level rise even when cyclonic surges are not fully considered, with impacts increasing under the higher emissions scenario.

  16. A Nation-Wide Study of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Fecal Impaction in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Enrique; Barcelo, Marta; Jiménez Cebrián, Maria Jose; Alvarez-Sanchez, Angel; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel; Rocha, Alberto Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people. Objective Estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with fecal impaction on a representative sample of the institutionalized elderly population. Design Two-phase study. Phase 1: pilot study validating the methodology in which all residents of a single nursing home participated. Phase 2: national multi-center cross-sectional study. Setting 34 randomly selected nursing homes. Measurements The presence of fecal impaction and associated factors were evaluated using three different tools: data collected from medical records; a self-completion questionnaire filled out by the subjects or a proxy; and a rectal examination. Subjects Older subjects living in nursing homes. Results The prevalence of chronic constipation was 70.7% (95%CI: 67.3–74.1%), of which 95.9% of patients were properly diagnosed and 43.1% were properly controlled. The prevalence of FI according to patient history was 47.3% (43.6–51.0%) and 6.6% (4.7–8.5%) according to rectal examination. Controlled constipation (OR: 9.8 [5.2–18.4]) and uncontrolled constipation (OR: 37.21 [19.7–70.1]), the number of medications (OR: 1.2 [1.1–1.3]), reduced functional capacity (OR: 0.98 [0.97–0.99]) and the occasional use of NSAIDs were independent risk factors for fecal impaction. Conclusions Constipation affects more than 70% of people living in nursing homes. Although it is properly diagnosed in more than 95% of cases, the disease is only controlled in less than 50%. Constipation, especially when not controlled, is the most significant risk factor leading to fecal impaction, which is prevalent in almost 50% of this population. PMID:25148393

  17. Degradation Factor Approach for Impacted Composite Structural Assessment: MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Project No. 96-17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, R.; Price, J. M.; Fox, D.

    2000-01-01

    This technical memorandum documents the results of the research to develop a concept for assessing the structural integrity of impacted composite structures using the strength degradation factor in conjunction with available finite element tools. For this purpose, a literature search was conducted, a plan for conducting impact testing on two laminates was developed, and a finite element model of the impact process was created. Specimens for the impact testing were fabricated to support the impact testing plan.

  18. Bibliometric analysis of Human Factors (1970-2000): a quantitative description of scientific impact.

    PubMed

    Dee, John D; Cassano-Pinché, Andrea; Vicente, Kim J

    2005-01-01

    Bibliometric analyses use the citation history of scientific articles as data to measure scientific impact. This paper describes a bibliometric analysis of the 1682 papers and 2413 authors published in Human Factors from 1970 to 2000. The results show that Human Factors has substantial relative scientific influence, as measured by impact, immediacy, and half-life, exceeding the influence of comparable journals. Like other scientific disciplines, human factors research is a highly stratified activity. Most authors have published only one paper, and many papers are cited infrequently, if ever. A small number of authors account for a disproportionately large number of the papers published and citations received. However, the degree of stratification is not as extreme as in many other disciplines, possibly reflecting the diversity of the human factors discipline. A consistent trend of more authors per paper parallels a similar trend in other fields and may reflect the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of human factors research and a trend toward addressing human-technology interaction in more complex systems. Ten of the most influential papers from each of the last 3 decades illustrate trends in human factors research. Actual or potential applications of this research include considerations for the publication and distribution policy of Human Factors.

  19. Ten factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts of visitors in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2010-02-01

    Protected areas represent the major method for conserving biodiversity. However, visitor use can threaten their conservation value. Based on a review of recent research, I have categorized factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts of visitor use. These factors need to be considered or evaluated when assessing visitor use of sites in protected areas. They are: (i) the conservation value of the site, (ii) its resistance to use, (iii) its recovery from use, (iv) its susceptibility to erosion, (v) the severity of direct impacts associated with specific activities, (vi) the severity of indirect impacts, (vii) the amount of use, (viii) the social and (ix) ecological dimensions to the timing of use, and (x) the total area affected. Although the factors may not be of equal importance or necessarily assessed on an equal scale, they allow people to make more informed assessments of potential impacts, assist in identifying where monitoring may be required, and indicate where additional site- or activity-specific research may be appropriate.

  20. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  1. Relationships between non-acoustic factors and subjective reactions to floor impact noise in apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hee; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Yang, Kwan Seop; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an understanding of how residents in apartment buildings perceive and react to impact sounds coming from the upstairs neighbours' dwellings. Based on existing theoretical and empirical studies on environmental noise, a conceptual model was developed to explain relationships among noise annoyance and non-acoustic factors. The model was then tested using structural equation modelling with survey data from residents living in apartment buildings (N = 487). The findings showed that the conceptual model was consistent with other models developed for environmental noises. The results indicated that annoyance induced by floor impact noise was associated with perceived disturbance, coping, and self-reported health complaints. Noise sensitivity had a direct impact on perceived disturbance and an indirect impact on annoyance, and moderating variables affected the non-acoustic factors. Exposure to footstep noises increased the impact size of noise sensitivity to disturbance. Predictability, marital status, and house ownership were found to influence the relationship between attitudes towards authorities and coping. In addition, a negative attitude towards neighbours (i.e., the noise source) moderated the positive relationship between annoyance and coping.

  2. Impact Factors for the "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education"--What Are They and Are They Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The notion of an impact factor was first posited by Eugene Garfield (1972) to study the use, prestige, and status of scientific journals. The Institute for Scientific Information created the impact factor as a means to measure the number of times an "average article" published in a journal was cited over a particular time period ("The impact…

  3. Risk factors, psychological impacts and current treatments of acne in Shanghai area of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peiru; Wang, Hongwei; Ding, Huilin; Lv, Ting; Miao, Fei; Li, Jingjing; Shi, Lei; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Acne is one complex skin disorders, which can lead to adverse psychological effects. Multiple factors are correlated with risk of acne and several treatments have been explored. The prevalence and risk factors are suspected to be varied in different populations with different genetic backgrounds and lifestyle. Therefore, this study investigated the risk factors, psychological impacts and current treatments of acne in Shanghai area of China by a retrospective questionnaire study. This study showed that the subjects with family history (especially paternal history) were prone to develop severe acne (p<0.001). Besides, patients with severe acne might exhibit more severe psychological disorders (p<0.001). The most frequently used methods were pharmacological treatments. These results indicate that acne is prone to induce severe psychological disorders, and could be affected by multiple factors. Furthermore, these results provide valuable reference for exploring the preventive measures and treatments of acne in Shanghai area of China.

  4. Impact of the Fano Factor on Position and Energy Estimation in Scintillation Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Vaibhav; Barrett, Harrison H.; Jha, Abhinav K.; Clarkson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Fano factor for an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Light from various scintillation crystals have been reported to have Fano factors from sub-Poisson (Fano factor < 1) to super-Poisson (Fano factor > 1). For a given mean, a smaller Fano factor implies a smaller variance and thus less noise. We investigated if lower noise in the scintillation light will result in better spatial and energy resolutions. The impact of Fano factor on the estimation of position of interaction and energy deposited in simple gamma-camera geometries is estimated by two methods - calculating the Cramér-Rao bound and estimating the variance of a maximum likelihood estimator. The methods are consistent with each other and indicate that when estimating the position of interaction and energy deposited by a gamma-ray photon, the Fano factor of a scintillator does not affect the spatial resolution. A smaller Fano factor results in a better energy resolution. PMID:26523069

  5. Impact of the Fano Factor on Position and Energy Estimation in Scintillation Detectors.

    PubMed

    Bora, Vaibhav; Barrett, Harrison H; Jha, Abhinav K; Clarkson, Eric

    2015-02-01

    The Fano factor for an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Light from various scintillation crystals have been reported to have Fano factors from sub-Poisson (Fano factor < 1) to super-Poisson (Fano factor > 1). For a given mean, a smaller Fano factor implies a smaller variance and thus less noise. We investigated if lower noise in the scintillation light will result in better spatial and energy resolutions. The impact of Fano factor on the estimation of position of interaction and energy deposited in simple gamma-camera geometries is estimated by two methods - calculating the Cramér-Rao bound and estimating the variance of a maximum likelihood estimator. The methods are consistent with each other and indicate that when estimating the position of interaction and energy deposited by a gamma-ray photon, the Fano factor of a scintillator does not affect the spatial resolution. A smaller Fano factor results in a better energy resolution.

  6. The Carbon_h-factor: predicting individuals' research impact at early stages of their career.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005) introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term "research impact" to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific "impact" of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well). As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor) into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology) and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal) with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx. 0.4, 0.8, and

  7. Factors impacting membership and non-membership in nursing associations: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Negarandeh, Reza

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the factors impacting membership and non-membership of nurses in nursing associations were identified and described. Participation in semistructured interviews was undertaken by 14 nurses working in a teaching hospital in an urban area of Iran. A qualitative design using a content analysis approach was used to analyze the data, from which three categories emerged: organizations' support of nurses' rights, professional obligations, and organizational power. Each of these categories contained several subcategories. Nurses' expectations of professional organizations might be one of the factors impacting associations being able to increase their membership, while retaining their existing members. Supporting nurses, tackling their professional problems, attempting to increase the power of legislative authorities, and clear explanations of their objectives are among the measures adopted by organizations in aiming to increase membership numbers and enhance organizational power.

  8. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Ploum, S. W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-04-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought). In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a promising research

  9. The Impact of Hope and Resilience on Multiple Factors in Neurosurgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Devika; Sacks-Zimmerman, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to outline and review the impact of stable psychological characteristics on the emotional and functional outcomes of neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical patients face adversity as inherent to their diagnoses and, consequently, experience emotional distress. Despite commonalities in diagnoses, diverse outcomes are seen post-neurosurgery, which are influenced by psychological factors. Therefore, an understanding of neurosurgical patients’ behavior, thoughts, and feelings surrounding their diagnoses, informed by psychological concepts, is important for both neuropsychology and neurosurgery. PMID:27909637

  10. The Journal Impact Factor: Moving Toward an Alternative and Combined Scientometric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nurmashev, Bekaidar

    2017-01-01

    The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a single citation metric, which is widely employed for ranking journals and choosing target journals, but is also misused as the proxy of the quality of individual articles and academic achievements of authors. This article analyzes Scopus-based publication activity on the JIF and overviews some of the numerous misuses of the JIF, global initiatives to overcome the ‘obsession’ with impact factors, and emerging strategies to revise the concept of the scholarly impact. The growing number of articles on the JIF, most of which are in English, reflects interest of experts in journal editing and scientometrics toward its uses, misuses, and options to overcome related problems. Solely displaying values of the JIFs on the journal websites is criticized by experts as these average metrics do not reflect skewness of citation distribution of individual articles. Emerging strategies suggest to complement the JIFs with citation plots and alternative metrics, reflecting uses of individual articles in terms of downloads and distribution of related information through social media and networking platforms. It is also proposed to revise the original formula of the JIF calculation and embrace the concept of the impact and importance of individual articles. The latter is largely dependent on ethical soundness of the journal instructions, proper editing and structuring of articles, efforts to promote related information through social media, and endorsements of professional societies. PMID:28049225

  11. The Journal Impact Factor: Moving Toward an Alternative and Combined Scientometric Approach.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Udovik, Elena E; Baryshnikov, Aleksandr A; Kitas, George D

    2017-02-01

    The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a single citation metric, which is widely employed for ranking journals and choosing target journals, but is also misused as the proxy of the quality of individual articles and academic achievements of authors. This article analyzes Scopus-based publication activity on the JIF and overviews some of the numerous misuses of the JIF, global initiatives to overcome the 'obsession' with impact factors, and emerging strategies to revise the concept of the scholarly impact. The growing number of articles on the JIF, most of which are in English, reflects interest of experts in journal editing and scientometrics toward its uses, misuses, and options to overcome related problems. Solely displaying values of the JIFs on the journal websites is criticized by experts as these average metrics do not reflect skewness of citation distribution of individual articles. Emerging strategies suggest to complement the JIFs with citation plots and alternative metrics, reflecting uses of individual articles in terms of downloads and distribution of related information through social media and networking platforms. It is also proposed to revise the original formula of the JIF calculation and embrace the concept of the impact and importance of individual articles. The latter is largely dependent on ethical soundness of the journal instructions, proper editing and structuring of articles, efforts to promote related information through social media, and endorsements of professional societies.

  12. [Impact factors and bibliometrics of science. Does pure science really exist?].

    PubMed

    Sochman, J; Belán, A

    2003-01-01

    The impact factor is an artificially created indicator which when applied separately does not achieve the value attributed to it. In its assessment a number of different influences are projected which cause partial mistakes with a cumulative effect. It can have an even worse effect if the impact factor is incorrectly conceived or inadequately handled. Only in a long-term review using specific corrections it can serve to determine really top class periodicals but only within the framework of a single scientific discipline. It is not suitable for comparison of interdisciplinary journals. It should be used very carefully in the evaluation of authors. However it is still used in various types of administrative management. From the submitted paper it may seen that with a certain amount of overstatement it is personified and acts on its own. Its personification is homo sapiens scientometricus who evaluates himself as well as his environment which is represented by mere homo sapiens scientificus. In addition to the impact factor the authors discuss also other indicators and some aspects of scientometry.

  13. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001).Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL.

  14. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  15. The impact of visual layout factors on performance in Web pages: a cross-language study.

    PubMed

    Parush, Avi; Shwarts, Yonit; Shtub, Avy; Chandra, M Jeya

    2005-01-01

    Visual layout has a strong impact on performance and is a critical factor in the design of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and Web pages. Many design guidelines employed in Web page design were inherited from human performance literature and GUI design studies and practices. However, few studies have investigated the more specific patterns of performance with Web pages that may reflect some differences between Web page and GUI design. We investigated interactions among four visual layout factors in Web page design (quantity of links, alignment, grouping indications, and density) in two experiments: one with pages in Hebrew, entailing right-to-left reading, and the other with English pages, entailing left-to-right reading. Some performance patterns (measured by search times and eye movements) were similar between languages. Performance was particularly poor in pages with many links and variable densities, but it improved with the presence of uniform density. Alignment was not shown to be a performance-enhancing factor. The findings are discussed in terms of the similarities and differences in the impact of layout factors between GUIs and Web pages. Actual or potential applications of this research include specific guidelines for Web page design.

  16. Modeling the impacts of multiple environmental stress factors on estuarine copepod populations.

    PubMed

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; De Hoop, Lisette; Mialet, Benoit; Maris, Tom; Tackx, Micky L M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-05-20

    Many studies have focused on natural stress factors that shape the spatial and temporal distribution of calanoid copepods, but bioassays have shown that copepods are also sensitive to a broad range of contaminants. Although both anthropogenic and natural stress factors are obviously at play in natural copepod communities, most studies consider only one or the other. In the present investigation, we modeled the combined impact of both anthropogenic and natural stress factors on copepod populations. The model was applied to estimate Eurytemora affinis densities in the contaminated Scheldt estuary and the relatively uncontaminated Darß-Zingst estuary in relation to temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, and sediment concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc. The results indicated that temperature was largely responsible for seasonal fluctuations of E. affinis densities. Our model results further suggested that exposure to zinc and copper was largely responsible for the reduced population densities in the contaminated estuary. The model provides a consistent framework for integrating and quantifying the impacts of multiple anthropogenic and natural stress factors on copepod populations. It facilitates the extrapolation of laboratory experiments to ecologically relevant end points pertaining to population viability.

  17. The impact of traditional risk factor development on the life course of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the profound impact of established risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), from the perspective of both shortterm and lifetime risks. Emerging data have confirmed the major importance of aggregate risk factor burden in middle and older age on remaining lifetime risks for CVD. The relatively new concept of the ideal cardiovascular health factor profile will play a central role in plans to improve the longevity, healthy longevity, and quality of life and health care costs of all Americans. In this context, the agenda of the Jackson Heart Study should promote understanding of and identify means for enhancing the roles of CVD prevention and health promotion among African Americans.

  18. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-03-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated with second-generation immigration was 0.70%. Highest cumulative incidence (CI=20.23%; 95% CI=18.10-22.62) was found in male offspring of 2 parents with schizophrenia. Cumulative incidences for male offspring or female offspring of a parent with schizophrenia were 9.53% (95% CI=7.71-11.79), and 4.89%, (95% CI 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches and seek to achieve higher predictive power on the individual level and higher population impact.

  19. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers.

  20. The prevalence and impact of risk factors for ethnic differences in loneliness

    PubMed Central

    El Fakiri, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that loneliness is more frequently present in citizens of ethnic minority groups than in natives. The current study investigates whether ethnic differences in emotional and social loneliness between Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese and Dutch adults living in the Netherlands are due to ethnic differences in the presence and/or impact of an array of possible risk factors, such as partnership, health and socioeconomic status. Methods: The data were collected in 2012 as a part of a general health questionnaire of the Public Health Services in the four major cities of the Netherlands, containing 20.047 Dutch, 1.043 Moroccan, 1.197 Turkish and 1.900 Surinamese respondents. Results: Structural equation models showed that ethnic differences in emotional and social loneliness can be ascribed to ethnic differences in the prevalence and impact of several risk factors. Main findings were that all three ethnic minority groups reported feeling less healthy and more discriminated against than the Dutch group, which was related to increased loneliness. Perceived financial difficulties and people in the neighbourhood not getting along had more impact on feelings of loneliness for the Turkish group than loneliness for the other ethnic groups. Furthermore, members of the Turkish group were found more at risk to feel anxious or depressed, which was in turn related to increased loneliness. Conclusions: Policy makers are encouraged to develop multifaceted prevention strategies concerning those risk factors that are most changeable, thereby focusing per risk factor on those ethnic groups for which it is an important contribution to loneliness. PMID:27497438

  1. Epidermal diseases in bottlenose dolphins: impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, B; Arnold, H; Bearzi, G; Fortuna, C M; Gaspar, R; Ingram, S; Liret, C; Pribanić, S; Read, A J; Ridoux, V; Schneider, K; Urian, K W; Wells, R S; Wood, C; Thompson, P M; Hammond, P S

    1999-01-01

    Experimental studies have highlighted the potential influence of contaminants on marine mammal immune function and anthropogenic contaminants are commonly believed to influence the development of diseases observed in the wild. However, estimates of the impact of contaminants on wild populations are constrained by uncertainty over natural variation in disease patterns under different environmental conditions. We used photographic techniques to compare levels of epidermal disease in ten coastal populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to a wide range of natural and anthropogenic conditions. Epidermal lesions were common in all populations (affecting > 60% of individuals), but both the prevalence and severity of 15 lesion categories varied between populations. No relationships were found between epidermal disease and contaminant levels across the four populations for which toxicological data were available. In contrast, there were highly significant linear relationships with oceanographic variables. In particular, populations from areas of low water temperature and low salinity exhibited higher lesion prevalence and severity. Such conditions may impact on epidermal integrity or produce more general physiological stress, potentially making animals more vulnerable to natural infections or anthropogenic factors. These results show that variations in natural environmental factors must be accounted for when investigating the importance of anthropogenic impacts on disease in wild marine mammals. PMID:10380684

  2. [Spanish versus English as a language of publication and impact factor of Neurologia].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Alonso-Arroyo, A; Miguel-Dasit, A; González de Dios, J; de Granda Orive, Ji

    2007-01-01

    Although the English language is considered nowadays as the international language of medical publications, some important Spanish journals with impact factor in the Journal Citation Reports as Neurologia, they bet for the publication in Spanish. Neurologia is the official publication of the Sociedad Española de Neurología and there is the conviction that you can have a Spanish language journal with a high quality and a strong impact. Its presence in the most important international data bases and the possibility of free access to its contents through Internet guarantees its proper diffusion around the world. From the point of view of citation, the repercussion of the language for Neurologia, is reflected in the fact that the 46,8 % of the citations that receive are from journals that are published in Spanish. The main factor to improve the impact of the journal is the quality of their papers, as well as the fulfillment of the international rules about periodical publications, the punctuality in its edition and distribution, the presence in national and international bibliographical data bases, its free diffusion in Internet, the training of its researchers and their sensitivity to consult and cite articles that have been published in quality Spanish journals, when necessary.

  3. The financial impact of hospitals on the local economy--2 new factors.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, Timothy; Liberman, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This research effort presents a descriptive analysis of the financial impact that several hospitals have on their local economy. An earlier study published by the authors included 3 distinct, yet overlapping components of financial impact: (1) the hospital system as a major health care provider, (2) the hospital system as a large employer, and (3) the hospital system as an entity whose employees contribute greatly to their local community. This new study added additional financial impact factors: (4) the hospital system as an organization committed to major construction projects in pursuit of its health services mission, and (5) the hospital system as an entity that pays taxes to government agencies. The inextricable relationship of these 5 categories both increases and enhances the impact of the hospital system on the local region. The results of this updated and expanded analysis suggest strongly that the hospital system represents 1 of the primary contributors to the economy of the region. The hospital system adds $3 billion to the $28 billion local economy, which means that the hospital system and its employees are responsible for 10.7% of the total economic prowess of the region.

  4. Gender and education impact on brain aging: a general cognitive factor approach.

    PubMed

    Proust-Lima, Cécile; Amieva, Hélène; Letenneur, Luc; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2008-09-01

    In cognitive aging research, the study of a general cognitive factor has been shown to have a substantial explanatory power over the study of isolated tests. The authors aimed at differentiating the impact of gender and education on global cognitive change with age from their differential impact on 4 psychometric tests using a new latent process approach, which intermediates between a single-factor longitudinal model for sum scores and an item-response theory approach for longitudinal data. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 2,228 subjects from PAQUID, a population-based cohort of older adults followed for 13 years with repeated measures of cognition. Adjusted for vascular factors, the analysis confirmed that women performed better in tests involving verbal components, while men performed better in tests involving visuospatial skills. In addition, the model suggested that women had a slightly steeper global cognitive decline with oldest age than men, even after excluding incident dementia or death. Subjects with higher education exhibited a better mean score for the 4 tests, but this difference tended to attenuate with age for tests involving a speed component.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Critical Factors for the Climate Impact of Landfill Mining.

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Cencic, Oliver; Svensson, Niclas; Krook, Joakim

    2016-07-05

    Landfill mining has been proposed as an innovative strategy to mitigate environmental risks associated with landfills, to recover secondary raw materials and energy from the deposited waste, and to enable high-valued land uses at the site. The present study quantitatively assesses the importance of specific factors and conditions for the net contribution of landfill mining to global warming using a novel, set-based modeling approach and provides policy recommendations for facilitating the development of projects contributing to global warming mitigation. Building on life-cycle assessment, scenario modeling and sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify critical factors for the climate impact of landfill mining. The net contributions to global warming of the scenarios range from -1550 (saving) to 640 (burden) kg CO2e per Mg of excavated waste. Nearly 90% of the results' total variation can be explained by changes in four factors, namely the landfill gas management in the reference case (i.e., alternative to mining the landfill), the background energy system, the composition of the excavated waste, and the applied waste-to-energy technology. Based on the analyses, circumstances under which landfill mining should be prioritized or not are identified and sensitive parameters for the climate impact assessment of landfill mining are highlighted.

  6. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric. PMID:27105434

  7. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines.

  8. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items.

    PubMed

    Kiesslich, Tobias; Weineck, Silke B; Koelblinger, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric.

  9. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Low Back: I. Overview of Large Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2001-03-01

    Scientific and medical data have been gathered for nearly 500 motor-vehicle occupants, whose dynamic response[1-2] was calculated to determine the forces generated at all potential injury sites. Particular attention was paid to the load within the lumbosacral spine to examine the influence of certain variables relating to the occupant (height, weight, sex), the impact (magnitude, direction), and the low back itself (local vector, anatomical level). Exhaustive efforts were made to match the force with each variable using linear and logarithmic fits, but correlation coefficients were generally not high. These results might be influenced by the emphasis in this research to obtain the best statistics with large groupings of patients. Hence, a separate study with more detail is proposed as a significant continuation of this effort. 1. Proper Treatment of Complex Human Structures, Announcer 27 (4), 100 (1997); 2. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I & II, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45, 1018 (2000).

  10. Material and thickness: the important factors in the impact resistance of spectacle lenses.

    PubMed

    Christianson, M D; Parker, J A; Arndt, J

    1977-10-01

    The identify the population at risk of permanent visual impairment from injuries associated with spectacles, we analysed 446 cases of penetrating ocular injury occurring over a ten year period. Sixteen injuries (3.6%) were due to spectacles; 40% of these were adult male amateur athletes. We used the drop-ball test to determine the important factors in the resistance to impact of 177 used spectacle lenses (29 plastic C39, 40 heat-tempered glass, 108 non-tempered glass). We found that material and thickness were the most important. The plastic lenses were the most impact resistant and non-tempered glass lenses the least, with heat-tempered glass lenses falling between. Plastic lenses of adequate centre thickness mounted in plastic frames are recommended for all children and all adults involved in athletics.

  11. Hazard Management Dealt by Safety Professionals in Colleges: The Impact of Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsung-Chih; Chen, Chi-Hsiang; Yi, Nai-Wen; Lu, Pei-Chen; Yu, Shan-Chi; Wang, Chien-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying, evaluating, and controlling workplace hazards are important functions of safety professionals (SPs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and frequency of hazard management dealt by safety professionals in colleges. The authors also explored the effects of organizational factors/individual factors on SPs’ perception of frequency of hazard management. The researchers conducted survey research to achieve the objective of this study. The researchers mailed questionnaires to 200 SPs in colleges after simple random sampling, then received a total of 144 valid responses (response rate = 72%). Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the hazard management scale (HMS) extracted five factors, including physical hazards, biological hazards, social and psychological hazards, ergonomic hazards, and chemical hazards. Moreover, the top 10 hazards that the survey results identified that safety professionals were most likely to deal with (in order of most to least frequent) were: organic solvents, illumination, other chemicals, machinery and equipment, fire and explosion, electricity, noise, specific chemicals, human error, and lifting/carrying. Finally, the results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated there were four individual factors that impacted the perceived frequency of hazard management which were of statistical and practical significance: job tenure in the college of employment, type of certification, gender, and overall job tenure. SPs within colleges and industries can now discuss plans revolving around these five areas instead of having to deal with all of the separate hazards. PMID:27918474

  12. Impact of different economic factors on biological invasions on the global scale.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

    2011-04-13

    Social-economic factors are considered as the key to understand processes contributing to biological invasions. However, there has been few quantified, statistical evidence on the relationship between economic development and biological invasion on a worldwide scale. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with biodiversity for 91 economies throughout the world. Our result indicates that the prevalence of invasive species in the economies can be well predicted by economic factors (R(2) = 0.733). The impact of economic factors on the occurrence of invasive species for low, lower-middle, upper-middle and high income economies are 0%, 34.3%, 46.3% and 80.8% respectively. Greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2), Nitrous oxide, Methane and Other greenhouse gases) and also biodiversity have positive relationships with the global occurrence of invasive species in the economies on the global scale. The major social-economic factors that are correlated to biological invasions are different for various economies, and therefore the strategies for biological invasion prevention and control should be different.

  13. The impact factors on 5-year survival rate in patients operated with oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Geum, Dong-Ho; Roh, Young-Chea; Yoon, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyo-Geon; Lee, Jung-Han; Song, Jae-Min; Lee, Jae-Yeol; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Deok; Shin, Sang-Hun; Chung, In-Kyo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical impact factors on the survival rate, and to acquire basic clinical data for the diagnosis of oral cancer, for a determination of the treatment plan with long-term survival in oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods Through a retrospective review of the medical records, the factors for long-term survival rate were analyzed. Thirty-seven patients, among patient database with oral cancer treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Pusan National University Hospital within a period from March 1998 to March 2008, were selected within the study criteria and were followed-up for more than 5 years. The analyzed factors were gender, age, drinking, smoking, primary tumor site, type of cancer, TNM stage, recurrence of affected region, and metastasis of cervical lymph node. The 5-year survival rate on the impact factors was calculated statistically using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results By classification of clinical TNM at the 1st visit, there were 11 (29.7%) cases for stage I, 11 (29.7%) cases for stage II, 3 (8.1%) cases for stage III, and 12 (32.5%) cases for stage IV. The 5-year survival rate of total oral cancer patients after the operation were 75.7%, pathological TNM stage related 5-year survival rate were as follows: stage I 90.0%, stage II 81.8%, stage III 100% and stage IV 45.5%; in which the survival rate difference by each stage was significantly observed. The recurrence of cervical lymph node was the significant impact factor for the survival rate, because only 30.0% the survival rate in recurrent cases existed. During the follow-up, there were 15 (40.5%) patients with confirmed recurrence, and the 5-year survival rate of these patients was decreased as 46.7%. Conclusion The classification of clinical and pathological TNM stage, local recurrence after surgery, and metastasis of cervical lymph node after surgery were analyzed as the 3 most significant factors. PMID:24471047

  14. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: Risk factors for infection and impact of resistance on outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Shanthi; Sekar, Uma; Kamalanathan, Arunagiri

    2017-01-01

    Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have increased in recent years leading to limitations of treatment options. The present study was undertaken to detect CPE, risk factors for acquiring them and their impact on clinical outcomes. Methods: This retrospective observational study included 111 clinically significant Enterobacteriaceae resistant to cephalosporins subclass III and exhibiting a positive modified Hodge test. Screening for carbapenemase production was done by phenotypic methods, and polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect genes encoding them. Retrospectively, the medical records of the patients were perused to assess risk factors for infections with CPE and their impact. The data collected were duration of hospital stay, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, use of invasive devices, mechanical ventilation, the presence of comorbidities, and antimicrobial therapy. The outcome was followed up. Univariate and multivariate analysis of the data were performed using SPSS software. Results: Carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected in 67 isolates. The genes detected were New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase, Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase, and oxacillinase-181.Although univariate analysis identified risk factors associated with acquiring CPE infections as ICU stay (P = 0.021), mechanical ventilation (P = 0.013), indwelling device (P = 0.011), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.036), usage of multiple antimicrobial agents (P = 0.007), administration of carbapenems (P = 0.042), presence of focal infection or sepsis (P = 0.013), and surgical interventions (P = 0.016), multivariate analysis revealed that all these factors were insignificant. Mortality rate was 56.7% in patients with CPE infections. By both univariate and multivariate analysis of impact of the variables on mortality in these patients, the significant factors were mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 0.141, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.024–0.812) and presence of

  15. Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in adults of Shandong province.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Hong; Xu, Ai Qiang; Lu, Zi Long; Yan, Liu Xia; Guo, Xiao Lei; Wang, Hui Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Zhang, Ji Yu; Dong, Jing; Wang, Lin Hong

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in 2 140 adults aged 18-69 years were analyzed. The mean daily sodium intake was 5745.0 (5427.6-6062.5) mg per day, which was higher in males than in females (P<0.01). After having been adjusted for gender, age and urban/city areas, the mean daily sodium intake was significantly higher in participants with a lower education level, drinkers and smokers than in those with a higher education level, nondrinkers and nonsmokers (P<0.01). The dietary sodium intake in adults of Shandong Province is higher than the recommended standards.

  16. Neuroprotective Activities of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Following Controlled Cortical Impact

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Matthew L.; Elliott, Bret R.; Haverland, Nicole A.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is facilitated by innate and adaptive immunity and can be harnessed to effect brain repair. In mice subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) we show that treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) affects regulatory T cell numbers coincident with decreased lesion volumes and increased cortical tissue sparing. This paralleled increases in neurofilament and diminished reactive microglial staining. Transcriptomic analysis showed that GM-CSF induces robust immune neuroprotective responses seven days following CCI. Together, these results support the therapeutic potential of GM-CSF for TBI. PMID:25468272

  17. Research on impact of the environmental factors on National Institute of Telecommunications time standards stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalec, M.; Lusawa, Marzenna

    2014-11-01

    National Institute of Telecommunications (NIT) has been operating time standards from over 15 years. They are part of worldwide and national time comparison system and are used in calculations of international and polish timescales, International Atomic Time Scale (TAI), Universal Time Coordinated (UTC), Polish Atomic Time Scale (TA(PL)) and Polish Official Time (UTC(PL)). This year the standards has been moved to new Time Standards Chamber which is precisely air conditioned and power secured. This article presents some interesting considerations on impact of the environmental factors on time standards stability.

  18. Sexual Violence Among Youth in New Mexico: Risk and Resiliency Factors That Impact Behavioral Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reed, Danielle; Reno, Jessica; Green, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between history of forced sex and poor behavioral health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe this relationship among high school students and to explore the impact of resiliency factors. Using data from the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey, we found that history of forced sex was associated with negative behavioral health outcomes for males and females, regardless of sexual orientation and disability status. Furthermore, the presence of a caring adult at home appeared to reduce the risk of substance abuse and suicidality among students with and without a history of forced sex.

  19. Auto-correlation of journal impact factor for consensus research reporting statements: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Journal Citation Reports journal impact factors (JIFs) are widely used to rank and evaluate journals, standing as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. However, numerous criticisms have been made of use of a JIF to evaluate importance. This problem is exacerbated when the use of JIFs is extended to evaluate not only the journals, but the papers therein. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between the number of citations and journal IF for identical articles published simultaneously in multiple journals. Methods. Eligible articles were consensus research reporting statements listed on the EQUATOR Network website that were published simultaneously in three or more journals. The correlation between the citation count for each article and the median journal JIF over the published period, and between the citation count and number of article accesses was calculated for each reporting statement. Results. Nine research reporting statements were included in this analysis, representing 85 articles published across 58 journals in biomedicine. The number of citations was strongly correlated to the JIF for six of the nine reporting guidelines, with moderate correlation shown for the remaining three guidelines (median r = 0.66, 95% CI [0.45-0.90]). There was also a strong positive correlation between the number of citations and the number of article accesses (median r = 0.71, 95% CI [0.5-0.8]), although the number of data points for this analysis were limited. When adjusted for the individual reporting guidelines, each logarithm unit of JIF predicted a median increase of 0.8 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [-0.4-5.2]), and each logarithm unit of article accesses predicted a median increase of 0.1 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [-0.9-1.4]). This model explained 26% of the variance in citations (median adjusted r (2) = 0.26, range 0.18-1.0). Conclusion. The impact factor of the

  20. Preliminary Results In Quantifying The Climatic Impact Forcing Factors Around 3 Ma Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluteau, F.; Ramstein, G.; Duringer, P.; Schuster, M.; Tiercelin, J. J.

    What is exactly the control of climate changes on the development of the Hominids ? Is it possible to quantify such changes ? and which are the forcing factors that create these changes ? We use here a General Circulation Model to investigate the climate sensitivity of 3 different forcing factors : the uplift of the East African Rift, the ex- tent (more than twenty time PD surfaces) of the Chad Lake and ultimately we shall with a coupled oceanatmospher GCM test the the effect of Indonesian throughflow changes. To achieve these goals, we need a multidisciplinary group to assess the evo- lution of the Rift and the extent of the Lake. We prescribe these different boundary conditions to the GCM and use a biome model to assess the vegetation changes. In this presentation we will only focus on the Rift uplift and the Chad lake impacts on Atmospheric circulation, monsoon and their environmental consequences in term of vegetation changes.

  1. Interactions between tobamovirus replication proteins and cellular factors: their impacts on virus multiplication.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Nishikiori, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2010-11-01

    Most viral gene products function inside cells in the presence of various host proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Thus, viral gene products come into direct contact with these molecules. The replication proteins of tobamovirus participate not only in viral genome replication but also in counterdefense mechanisms against RNA silencing and other plant defense systems. Accumulating evidence indicates that these functions are carried out through interactions with specific host components. Interactions with some cellular factors, however, are inhibitory to virus multiplication and contribute to host range restriction of tobamovirus. The interactions that have positive and negative impacts on virus multiplication should have been maintained and lost, respectively, during adaptation of the viruses to their respective natural hosts. This review lists the host factors that interact with the replication proteins of tobamovirus and discusses how they influence multiplication of the virus.

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adults: Impact, Comorbidity, Risk Factors, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    During the last 30 years, there has been a substantial increase in the study of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several high-profile traumatic events, such as the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center, have led to a greater public interest in the risk and protective factors for PTSD. In this In Review paper, I discuss some of the important advances in PTSD. The paper provides a concise review of the evolution of PTSD diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, impact of PTSD in the community, an overview of the established risk factors for developing PTSD, and assessment and treatment. Throughout the paper, controversies and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25565692

  3. Functional Impact of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Exposure on Tau Phosphorylation and Axon Transport.

    PubMed

    Le, Michelle H; Weissmiller, April M; Monte, Louise; Lin, Po Han; Hexom, Tia C; Natera, Orlangie; Wu, Chengbiao; Rissman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Stress exposure or increased levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) induce hippocampal tau phosphorylation (tau-P) in rodent models, a process that is dependent on the type-1 CRF receptor (CRFR1). Although these preclinical studies on stress-induced tau-P provide mechanistic insight for epidemiological work that identifies stress as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the actual impact of stress-induced tau-P on neuronal function remains unclear. To determine the functional consequences of stress-induced tau-P, we developed a novel mouse neuronal cell culture system to explore the impact of acute (0.5hr) and chronic (2hr) CRF treatment on tau-P and integral cell processes such as axon transport. Consistent with in vivo reports, we found that chronic CRF treatment increased tau-P levels and caused globular accumulations of phosphorylated tau in dendritic and axonal processes. Furthermore, while both acute and chronic CRF treatment led to significant reduction in CREB activation and axon transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), this was not the case with mitochondrial transport. Acute CRF treatment caused increased mitochondrial velocity and distance traveled in neurons, while chronic CRF treatment modestly decreased mitochondrial velocity and greatly increased distance traveled. These results suggest that transport of cellular energetics may take priority over growth factors during stress. Tau-P was required for these changes, as co-treatment of CRF with a GSK kinase inhibitor prevented CRF-induced tau-P and all axon transport changes. Collectively, our results provide mechanistic insight into the consequences of stress peptide-induced tau-P and provide an explanation for how chronic stress via CRF may lead to neuronal vulnerability in AD.

  4. An Assessment of the Predictive Validity of Impact Factor Scores: Implications for Academic Employment Decisions in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Onghena, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Bibliometrics is a method of examining scholarly communications. Concerns regarding the use of bibliometrics in general, and the impact factor score (IFS) in particular, have been discussed across disciplines including social work. Although there are frequent mentions in the literature of the IFS as an indicator of the impact or quality…

  5. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  6. An Exploration of Factors That Impact the Satisfaction and Success of Low Socioeconomic Status Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Damon A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explored multiple factors that impact the satisfaction and success of low socioeconomic status students at a California community college. In an effort to illuminate this impact, a quantitative study investigating extant data collected from a campus climate survey was conducted. The researcher was specifically interested in…

  7. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    PubMed

    Loidl, Verena; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Ballert, Carolina; Coenen, Michaela; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla

    2016-04-12

    Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  8. Impacts of meteorological and environmental factors on allergic rhinitis in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Mou, Zhe; Peng, Li; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Meteorological and environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR). An understanding of the risk factors will facilitate the development of diagnostic and preventative tools for AR children and improve their quality of life. However, research on the impact of these factors on subjective symptoms in AR children remains scarce. This study explored the relationships between subjective symptoms in pollen and dust mite positive AR children, and meteorological and environmental factors. Using a linear mixed effect model, we analyzed the correlations between monthly data on the subjective symptoms of 351 AR children (from the Shanghai Children's Medical Center) and meteorological and environmental factors during 2013. The monthly meteorological and environmental data were provided by the Shanghai Meteorological Service and Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau. Temperature and humidity were negatively correlated with the subjective symptom score, with a 0.04 point increase observed for every 1 °C decrease in temperature (P < 0.0001) or 10 % decline in humidity (P = 0.0412). The particulate matter (PM) 10 and PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with the subjective symptom score, with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 and PM2.5 yielding a 0.02 (P = 0.0235) and 0.03 (P = 0.0281) increase in the subjective symptom score, respectively. In conclusion, meteorological and environmental factors were correlated with subjective symptoms in AR children. Low temperatures, lower humidity, and high PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations aggravated subjective symptoms in AR children.

  9. [Impact of chemical and physical environmental factors on the course and outcome of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Slama, R; Cordier, S

    2013-09-01

    We review the epidemiological literature on the possible impact of chemical and physical factors on pregnancy outcome. Effects of in-utero exposures on child health are not considered here. The highest levels of evidence concern the effects of passive smoking (on fetal growth), of lead (pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal growth), of some Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB; on fetal growth) and, to a lesser extent, of atmospheric pollutants (on fetal growth and preterm delivery). For the other compounds, in particular non-persistent chemicals, the literature, which is generally based on poor exposure assessment, is less informative. In conclusion, the last decades have witnessed the development of mother-child cohorts in which exposure biomarkers have been assayed, allowing a large number of publications. For some persistent compounds, for which efficient exposure assessment approaches have been used, the literature indicates a likely impact on pregnancy outcomes. With the exception of air pollutants, the literature on non-persistent compounds is little conclusive; the assay of exposure biomarkers in repeated biological samples collected at relevant time points could help further increase knowledge regarding any health impact.

  10. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Polimeni, John M.; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I.; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M.; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A. PMID:27898017

  11. Factors Influencing the Stability of Stems Fixed with Impaction Graft in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Masanori; Ebara, Tsuneyuki; Okamoto, Yusaku; Kou, Hironori

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical stability of the stem is believed to be an important factor in successful impaction grafting in revision THA. We asked whether particle size, femoral bone deficiencies, stem design, graft composition, and impaction technique influenced the initial stability of the stem in vitro using model femora and human bone particles. Bone particles made with a reciprocating blade-type bone mill contained larger particles with a broader size distribution than those made by a rotating drum-type bone mill and had higher stiffness on compression testing. The stiffness on torsional testing decreased as the degree of proximal-medial segmental deficiencies increased. The stiffness and maximum torque in a stem with a rectangular cross section and wide anteroposterior surface were higher in torsional tests. Adding hydroxyapatite granules to the bone particles increased the torsional stability. To facilitate compact bone particles, we developed a spacer between the guidewire and modified femoral packers. This spacer facilitated compacting bone particles from the middle up to the proximal and the technique increased the amount of impacted bone particles at the middle of the stem and also improved the initial stability of the stem. Stem design and degree of deficiencies influenced stiffness in the torsional test and the addition of hydroxyapatite granules enhanced torsional stiffness. PMID:19184265

  12. Exploring the impact of determining factors behind CO2 emissions in China: A CGE appraisal.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bowen; Niu, Dongxiao; Wu, Han

    2017-03-01

    Along with the arrival of the post-Kyoto Protocol era, the Chinese government faces ever greater pressure to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Hence, this paper aims to discuss the drivers of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their impact on society as a whole. First, we analyzed the background and overall situations of CO2 emissions in China. Then, we reviewed previous studies to explore the determinants behind China's CO2 emissions. It is widely acknowledged that energy efficiency, energy mix, and economy structure are three key factors contributing to CO2 emissions. To explore the impacts of those three factors on the economy and CO2 emissions, we established a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The following results were found: (1) The decline of a secondary industry can cause an emission reduction effect, but this is at the expense of the gross domestic product (GDP), whereas the development of a tertiary industry can boost the economy and help to reduce CO2 emissions. (2) Cutting coal consumption can contribute significantly to emission reduction, which is accompanied by a great loss in the whole economy. (3) Although the energy efficiency improvement plays a positive role in promoting economic development, a backfire effect can weaken the effects of emission reduction and energy savings.

  13. The Impact of Individual and Institutional Factors on Turnover Intent Among Taiwanese Correctional Staff.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yung-Lien

    2017-01-01

    The existing literature on turnover intent among correctional staff conducted in Western societies focuses on the impact of individual-level factors; the possible effects of institutional contexts have been largely overlooked. Moreover, the relationships of various multidimensional conceptualizations of both job satisfaction and organizational commitment to turnover intent are still largely unknown. Using data collected by a self-reported survey of 676 custody staff employed in 22 Taiwanese correctional facilities during April of 2011, the present study expands upon theoretical models developed in Western societies and examines the effects of both individual and institutional factors on turnover intent simultaneously. Results from the use of the hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) statistical method indicate that, at the individual-level, supervisory versus non-supervisory status, job stress, job dangerousness, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment consistently produce a significant association with turnover intent after controlling for personal characteristics. Specifically, three distinct forms of organizational commitment demonstrated an inverse impact on turnover intent. Among institutional-level variables, custody staff who came from a larger facility reported higher likelihood of thinking about quitting their job.

  14. Beginning elementary school teachers' perceptions of structural and cultural context factors impacting their science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Hillary A.

    Science maintains low status in many elementary classrooms. Beginning teachers find it difficult to teach science effectively. The Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform Model suggests there are personal, structural, and cultural factors that impact teaching practices. The questions that drove this study were: (a) How do beginning teachers perceive structural and cultural factors of the TCSR model as affecting their science teaching practices? (b) How do those perceptions compare between beginning teachers who teach science and those who do not? (c) How do beginning teachers' perceptions compare to those of principals and veteran teachers? The model was used to collect and analyze data on the perceptions of factors that influenced beginning teachers' science teaching practices. A case study involved six beginning teachers from three elementary schools in the southwestern United States during the 2005--2006 school year. Through an initial survey, two groups of beginning teachers were first identified as (a) those who taught and liked science, and (b) those who did not teach or like science. Three teachers from each group were selected to participate in the study that consisted of semi-structured interviews, observations, and review of artifacts. These data were compared with interview data from three veteran teachers and three principals. The findings of this study supported the TCSR model and confirmed that the beginning teachers did perceive certain structural context factors (e.g., curriculum, materials, time, professional development, district requirements, classroom management), and cultural context factors (e.g., district-wide low priority of science) as having an impact on their science teaching. The veteran teachers' perceptions more closely matched those of the beginning teachers' than did those of the principals. Despite the contextual influences, the beginning teachers' perceptions ultimately differed in teacher thinking (i.e., those who taught science had

  15. Tumor-Intrinsic and Tumor-Extrinsic Factors Impacting Hsp90-Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, S. V.; Mollapour, M.; Lee, M.-J.; Tsutsumi, S.; Lee, S.; Kim, Y. S.; Prince, T.; Apolo, A.; Giaccone, G.; Xu, W.; Neckers, L. M.; Trepel, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    In 1994 the first heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor was identified and Hsp90 was reported to be a target for anticancer therapeutics. In the past 18 years there have been 17 distinct Hsp90 inhibitors entered into clinical trial, and the small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors have been highly valuable as probes of the role of Hsp90 and its client proteins in cancer. Although no Hsp90 inhibitor has achieved regulatory approval, recently there has been significant progress in Hsp90 inhibitor clinical development, and in the past year RECIST responses have been documented in HER2-positive breast cancer and EML4-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer. All of the clinical Hsp90 inhibitors studied to date are specific in their target, i.e. they bind exclusively to Hsp90 and two related heat shock proteins. However, Hsp90 inhibitors are markedly pleiotropic, causing degradation of over 200 client proteins and impacting critical multiprotein complexes. Furthermore, it has only recently been appreciated that Hsp90 inhibitors can, paradoxically, cause transient activation of the protein kinase clients they are chaperoning, resulting in initiation of signal transduction and significant physiological events in both tumor and tumor microenvironment. An additional area of recent progress in Hsp90 research is in studies of the posttranslational modifications of Hsp90 itself and Hsp90 co-chaperone proteins. Together, a picture is emerging in which the impact of Hsp90 inhibitors is shaped by the tumor intracellular and extracellular milieu, and in which Hsp90 inhibitors impact tumor and host on a microenvironmental and systems level. Here we review the tumor intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impact the efficacy of small molecules engaging the Hsp90 chaperone machine. PMID:22804236

  16. Extended criteria donors in liver transplantation Part I: reviewing the impact of determining factors.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Balázs; Gámán, György; Polak, Wojciech G; Gelley, Fanni; Hara, Takanobu; Ono, Shinichiro; Baimakhanov, Zhassulan; Piros, Laszlo; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-07-01

    The definition and factors of extended criteria donors have already been set; however, details of the various opinions still differ in many respects. In this review, we summarize the impact of these factors and their clinical relevance. Elderly livers must not be allocated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) positives, or patients with acute liver failure. In cases of markedly increased serum transaminases, donor hemodynamics is an essential consideration. A prolonged hypotension of the donor does not always lead to an increase in post-transplantation graft loss if post-OLT care is proper. Hypernatremia of less than 160 mEq/L is not an absolute contraindication to accept a liver graft per se. The presence of steatosis is an independent and determinant risk factor for the outcome. The gold standard of the diagnosis is the biopsy. This is recommended in all doubtful cases. The use of HCV+ grafts for HCV+ recipients is comparable in outcome. The leading risk factor for HCV recurrence is the actual RNA positivity of the donor. The presence of a proper anti-HBs level seems to protect from de novo HBV infection. A favourable outcome can be expected if a donation after cardiac death liver is transplanted in a favourable condition, meaning, a warm ischemia time < 30 minutes, cold ischemia time < 8-10 hours, and donor age 50-60 years. The pathway of organ quality assessment is to obtain the most relevant information (e.g. biopsy), consider the co-existing donor risk factors and the reserve capacity of the recipient, and avoid further technical issues.

  17. The impact of frequently encountered cardiovascular risk factors on sexual dysfunction in rheumatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Anyfanti, P; Pyrpasopoulou, A; Triantafyllou, A; Doumas, M; Gavriilaki, E; Triantafyllou, G; Gkaliagkousi, E; Chatzimichailidou, S; Petidis, K; Avagianou, P-A; Zamboulis, C; Aslanidis, S; Douma, S

    2013-07-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been acknowledged as major contributors to sexual dysfunction in the general population. The purpose of this study was to explore their impact on sexual function in rheumatologic patients. A total of 557 consecutive rheumatologic patients, 449 females and 108 males, had their sexual function evaluated with the Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire respectively. Personal data regarding presence of cardiovascular risk factors were collected and analysed in association with the FSFI and IIEF scores. Mean age of the participants was 54.1 ± 14.1 years, mean body mass index was 27.5 ± 5.29 and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 130.5 ± 19.82 and 79.5 ± 10.51 mmHg respectively. Hypertension was present in 39% of the participants, diabetes mellitus in 10.2%, dyslipidaemia in 33.6% and history of cardiovascular events in 8.6%, whereas smoking was recorded by 28.4% and alcohol consumption by 7.4%. Sexual dysfunction affected 68.6% of our study population (73.5% of females and 48.1% of males, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age was the only factor associated with a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction (p < 0.001 for both genders, p = 0.013 in males and p < 0.001 in females). Increased age was identified as the only independent predictor of sexual dysfunction in our population. Apart from age, traditional cardiovascular risk factors failed to explain the increased prevalence of sexual dysfunction in these patients. Other contributing factors (physical and/or psychological) might account for the increased occurrence of sexual dysfunction in rheumatic disorders.

  18. The Impact of Using Item Parcels on ad hoc Goodness of Fit Indices in Confirmatory Factor Analysis: An Empirical Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Tomone; Nasser, Fadia

    The Arabic version of I. G. Sarason's (1984) Reactions to Tests scale was used to examine the impact of using item parcels on ad hoc goodness of fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis. Item parcels with different numbers of items and different numbers of parcels per factor were used. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 420 tenth graders…

  19. A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students,…

  20. Higher Education Marketing Strategies Based on Factors Impacting the Enrollees' Choice of a University and an Academic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalimullin, Aydar M.; Dobrotvorskaya, Svetlana G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of studying the stated problem is due to the fact that for increasing the efficiency of higher education marketing it is necessary to take into account several factors, namely, factors that impact the choice of a university and an academic program by enrollees, as well as socio-psychological characteristics of the latter, while…

  1. Exploring How Factors Impact the Activities and Participation of Persons with Disability: Constructing a Model through Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Joy; Paterson, Margo

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a conceptualization of how factors impact activities of daily living (ADL) and participation from the perspective of persons with disability. This study identified what, and how, factors perceived by participants affect their daily activities, to better inform reporting of scores obtained on measures of ADLs and participation…

  2. The impact of co-morbid factors on the psychological outcome of tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Pajor, Anna Maria; Ormezowska, Elżbieta Agata; Jozefowicz-Korczynska, Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    The study was carried out to determine the impact of some co-morbid otological symptoms and demographic factors on the emotional distress and cognitive functioning in patients with tinnitus. One hundred consecutive patients, complaining of constant idiopathic tinnitus, were enrolled into the study. Four tests were administered: Beck Depression Inventory, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, A--anxiety, D--depression), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Trail Making Test (TMT). A multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the results of each of the tests and following co-morbid factors: age, sex, tinnitus duration, tinnitus laterality, hearing status (normal hearing, unilateral hearing loss and bilateral hearing loss) and vertigo/dizziness. It was found that the scores of MMSE and TMT were negatively correlated with age and with hearing status and the scores of HADS-A were slightly correlated with sex. In regression analysis, in HADS-A, sex and to a lesser extent tinnitus duration, in MMSE and TMT age and to a lesser extent tinnitus laterality were the variables that were comprised in the final model. Demographic factors had contributed more than overlapping otological symptoms to the psychological outcome in tinnitus patients.

  3. Impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat waves on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat waves were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat waves (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat waves (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat waves have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.

  4. Defining high, medium and low impact prognostic factors for developing multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tintore, Mar; Rovira, Àlex; Río, Jordi; Otero-Romero, Susana; Arrambide, Georgina; Tur, Carmen; Comabella, Manuel; Nos, Carlos; Arévalo, María Jesús; Negrotto, Laura; Galán, Ingrid; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Castilló, Joaquin; Palavra, Filipe; Simon, Eva; Mitjana, Raquel; Auger, Cristina; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    [adjusted hazard ratio 0.6 (0.4-1.0)] in adjusted models. The presence of oligoclonal bands increased the risk of clinically definite multiple sclerosis [adjusted hazard ratio 1.3 (1.0-1.8)] and of disability [adjusted hazard ratio 2.0 (1.2-3.6)] independently of other factors. The presence of 10 or more brain lesions on magnetic resonance increased the risk of clinically definite multiple sclerosis [adjusted hazard ratio 11.3 (6.7-19.3)] and disability [adjusted hazard ratio 2.9 (1.4-6.0)]. Disease-modifying treatment before the second attack reduced the risk of McDonald multiple sclerosis [adjusted hazard ratio 0.6 (0.4-0.9)] and disability accumulation [adjusted hazard ratio 0.5 (0.3-0.9)]. We conclude that the demographic and topographic characteristics are low-impact prognostic factors, the presence of oligoclonal bands is a medium-impact prognostic factor, and the number of lesions on brain magnetic resonance is a high-impact prognostic factor.

  5. Impact of insulin like growth factor-1 in development of coronary artery ectasia.

    PubMed

    Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Biyik, Ismail; Yalcin, Ahmet Arif; Isiksacan, Nilgun; Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Erturk, Mehmet

    2014-09-12

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is characterized by inappropriate dilatation of the coronary vasculature. The mechanisms of CAE are not well known. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) may make endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells more sensitive to the effects of growth hormone. In the present study, we hypothesized that IGF-1 may have an impact on the formation of ectasia and aneurysm in arterial system, and aimed to investigate the associations between the presence of CAE and serum IGF-1 levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography. The study included 2.980 subjects undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. We selected 40 patients diagnosed with CAE as CAE group and 44 subjects with absolutely normal coronary arteries were assigned as normal control group. IGF-1 levels were measured in both groups of patients. Groups were similar in terms of age, sex and coronary artery disease risk factors. The serum IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in CAE patients with 109.64 ± 54.64 ng/mL than in controls with 84.76 ± 34.01 ng/mL (p=0.016). HDL levels were lower in ectasia group with 41.5 ± 10.7 mg/dL than controls with 47.7 ± 10.4 mg/dL (p=0.018). By means of logistic regression analysis, high IGF-1 and low HDL levels were found to be independent risk factors for the presence of CAE (p<0.02, p<0.016, respectively). The study revealed that there was a positive correlation between serum IGF-1 levels and presence of CAE, and high IGF-1 levels and low HDL levels were independent risk factors for the presence of CAE. Future studies are needed to confirm these results.

  6. Risk Factors and Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Candidates for Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Debbie; Fallon, Michael B.; Krowka, Michael J.; Brown, Robert S.; Reinen, Jenna; Stadheim, Linda; Faulk, Dorothy; Nielsen, Carrie; Al-Naamani, Nadine; Roberts, Kari; Zacks, Steven; Perry, Ted; Trotter, James; Kawut, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may cause significant symptoms and have an impact on survival. Smoking is an important risk factor for COPD and is common in candidates for liver transplantation; however, the risk factors for and outcomes of COPD in this population are unknown. We performed a prospective cohort study of 373 patients being evaluated for liver transplantation at 7 academic centers in the United States. COPD was characterized by expiratory airflow obstruction and defined as follows: prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity < 0.70. Patients completed the Liver Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire 1.0, which included the Short Form-36. The mean age of the study sample was 53 ± 9 years, and 234 (63%) were male. Sixty-seven patients (18%, 95% confidence interval 14%–22%) had COPD, and 224 (60%) had a history of smoking. Eighty percent of patients with airflow obstruction did not previously carry a diagnosis of COPD, and 27% were still actively smoking. Older age and any smoking (odds ratio = 3.74, 95% confidence interval 1.94–7.23, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for COPD. Patients with COPD had worse New York Heart Association functional class and lower physical component summary scores on the 36-Item Short Form but had short-term survival similar to that of patients without COPD. In conclusion, COPD is common and often undiagnosed in candidates for liver transplantation. Older age and smoking are significant risk factors of COPD, which has adverse consequences on functional status and quality of life in these patients. PMID:18756494

  7. Risk factors and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in candidates for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Debbie; Fallon, Michael B; Krowka, Michael J; Brown, Robert S; Reinen, Jenna; Stadheim, Linda; Faulk, Dorothy; Nielsen, Carrie; Al-Naamani, Nadine; Roberts, Kari; Zacks, Steven; Perry, Ted; Trotter, James; Kawut, Steven M

    2008-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may cause significant symptoms and have an impact on survival. Smoking is an important risk factor for COPD and is common in candidates for liver transplantation; however, the risk factors for and outcomes of COPD in this population are unknown. We performed a prospective cohort study of 373 patients being evaluated for liver transplantation at 7 academic centers in the United States. COPD was characterized by expiratory airflow obstruction and defined as follows: prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity < 0.70. Patients completed the Liver Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire 1.0, which included the Short Form-36. The mean age of the study sample was 53 +/- 9 years, and 234 (63%) were male. Sixty-seven patients (18%, 95% confidence interval 14%-22%) had COPD, and 224 (60%) had a history of smoking. Eighty percent of patients with airflow obstruction did not previously carry a diagnosis of COPD, and 27% were still actively smoking. Older age and any smoking (odds ratio = 3.74, 95% confidence interval 1.94-7.23, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for COPD. Patients with COPD had worse New York Heart Association functional class and lower physical component summary scores on the 36-Item Short Form but had short-term survival similar to that of patients without COPD. In conclusion, COPD is common and often undiagnosed in candidates for liver transplantation. Older age and smoking are significant risk factors of COPD, which has adverse consequences on functional status and quality of life in these patients.

  8. Factors influencing the ballistic impact resistance of elastomer-coated metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, C. M.; Fragiadakis, D.; Gamache, R. M.; Casalini, R.

    2013-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out of various factors affecting the ballistic penetration resistance of elastomer/steel bilayers. For blunt penetrators, the contribution of the coating to performance is optimized using the hardest substrates, front surface placement of the elastomer, and (when normalizing by added weight) thin, ca. 2-3 mm, coatings. These results, none of which are predicted by existing models, evince the marked coupling of coating and substrate in the impact response of the bilayer. We also show that nanoparticle fillers have a modest effect on ballistic performance of polyurea coatings, changing the penetration velocity by a few percent or less. This contrasts with the linear dynamic mechanical behavior, which shows much more significant increases in energy absorption due to nano-reinforcement.

  9. 2009 Samoa tsunami: factors that exacerbated or reduced impacts in Samoa and American Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, L. A.; Ewing, L.; Brandt, J.; Irish, J. L.; Jones, C.; Long, K.; Lazrus, H.; McCullough, N.

    2009-12-01

    An interdisciplinary team with expertise in coastal and port engineering, coastal management, environmental science, anthropology, emergency management, and mitigation visited Samoa and American Samoa in late October and November, 2009. The team, sponsored by ASCE/COPRI, EERI, and the NTHMP focused on identifying the factors which effected the impacts of the September 29, 2009 tsunami. The engineering group assessed the value of engineered coastal protection and natural protective features (reefs, mangroves, etc.) in reducing tsunami inundation by comparing protected and unprotected coastlines and examined possible correlations between damage to the built environment and hydrodynamic forcing, namely loading by runup and velocity. The EERI group looked at how coastal land use planning and management, emergency planning and response, and culture, education and awareness of tsunami hazards affected outcomes. The group also looked at public response to the natural warnings of September 29 and the official warnings following the October 7 Vanuatu tsunami warning.

  10. The Impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors on Health Status of Ghanaians

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-01-01

    The article here investigated the impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors as measures of Health Status of Ghanaians. We carry out a cross-sectional analysis of 5573 adults who participated and had indicated that they needed to state their health description in the three years prior to the phase 2007 World Health Organization, a study on Global Ageing and Adult health (SAGE) conducted in Ghana. The ordinal logistic regression model was employed for analysis using R. The results suggest that, there is incontrovertible evidence showing a strong relationship between preventive health behaviors and health status of Ghanaians. Again, the lifestyle of Ghanaians clearly manifests in their positive correlation with the good and moderate health state due to the high percentage (38.96% and 39.04%) respectively. The outcome points to a potential link with the Ghanaian social and health policies. PMID:23985114

  11. Nutritional status and the impact of socioeconomic factors on pregnant women in Kamrup district of Assam.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Lipi B; Roy, Tanusree Deb; Dutta, Rongmili Gogoi; Devi, Arundhuti

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time in the course of life, having both health and social impacts for individuals, family, and society. The prevalence of undernutrition among pregnant women in a rural area of Assam, India, was examined using anthropometric and biochemical assessments. Key socioeconomic factors that affect nutritional status were examined. A cross-sectional study with a sample of 285 women from all three trimesters was done. The results found that 48% of the women were below normal for Body Mass Index (BMI), indicating a high level of undernutrition. The age of the mother and husband's occupation showed a strong positive correlation with BMI, while family size and income level showed a negative correlation. The results of the biochemical analysis showed that 62% of the women were anemic, and copper and zinc levels were 29% and 12% below normal levels, respectively. The study findings indicate that undernutrition is far higher than national and global standards.

  12. Climatic factors impact on the bio-optical sea water features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salyuk, P. A.; Akmaykin, D. A.; Bukin, O. A.; Golik, S. S.; Baulo, E. N.; Lastovskaya, I. A.; Schmirko, K. A.

    2006-11-01

    The estimation of the two most intensive climatic factors impacting on phytoplankton communities was carried out for marginal seas of western Pacific. Influences of some tropical cyclones on chlorophyll "A" concentrations (obtained by SeaWiFS) in 2001 were considered. It is shown that tropical cyclones cause local algae blooming at some regions. Also influence of dust storms from Gobi desert on phytoplankton at the area of the Sea of Japan was analyzed for the spring of 2006. Vladivostok lidar station data and MODIS data were applied for the analysis. Ground lidar data have shown that the most aerosol mass was in lower atmosphere layer (0-3 km). So dust storm could influence on the element composition of surface seawater layer. The high correlation coefficient between time series of chlorophyll A concentration and of aerosol optical thickness (at the 869 nm) was detected.

  13. Older Women's Sexual Desire Problems: Biopsychosocial Factors Impacting Them and Barriers to Their Clinical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Michelle; Laganà, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Sexual desire is a major component of sexuality at any age, and inhibited desire is one of the main sexual dysfunctions reported by older women. Nonetheless, in medical settings, for a variety of reasons discussed herein, its assessment—as well as the assessment of older women's sexual health in general—is typically avoided or conducted by asking a single sex question. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature (most of which is preliminary in nature) regarding the main psychosocial and health factors that could impact older women's sexual desire, as well as potential obstacles to the assessment and treatment of this geriatric sexual issue. It is certainly advisable that medical care providers who are uncomfortable discussing older women's sexual concerns be prepared to make appropriate referrals to clinicians who possess the proper training to accurately assess and treat sexual challenges (and female sexual interest problems in particular) in this neglected patient population. PMID:24995267

  14. Journal Impact Factor Shapes Scientists’ Reward Signal in the Prospect of Publication

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Frieder Michel; Rademacher, Lena; Schäfer, Theo Alexander Jose; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören

    2015-01-01

    The incentive structure of a scientist’s life is increasingly mimicking economic principles. While intensely criticized, the journal impact factor (JIF) has taken a role as the new currency for scientists. Successful goal-directed behavior in academia thus requires knowledge about the JIF. Using functional neuroimaging we examined how the JIF, as a powerful incentive in academia, has shaped the behavior of scientists and the reward signal in the striatum. We demonstrate that the reward signal in the nucleus accumbens increases with higher JIF during the anticipation of a publication and found a positive correlation with the personal publication record (pJIF) supporting the notion that scientists have incorporated the predominant reward principle of the scientific community in their reward system. The implications of this behavioral adaptation within the ecological niche of the scientist’s habitat remain unknown, but may also have effects which were not intended by the community. PMID:26555725

  15. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  16. [The impact of ecologic risk factors in mining cities of South Ural].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of common and primary morbidity according the statistic form 12 is presented. The assessment of health risk in major age groups of population in mining cities of Republic of Bashkortostan is provided. The dynamics of morbidity indicators trends to increasing because in all age groups higher levels of morbidity were detected. The analysis of input of environment pollution into morbidity of population of cities of Utchaly and Sybay revealed that a significant role is played by environment factors. So, the existence of specific geochemical territory and anthropogenic pollution of environment with inorganic compounds of highly toxic metals is a most significant risk fasctor impacting population health. This condition urges to develop various preventive measures.

  17. Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a Fuzzy Cognitive Map approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services. Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing these relationships. Methods Fuzzy Logic (FL) and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form (i.e., the FCM) which can be readily understood by social scientists and others. Using FL we converted information, taken from recently published, peer reviewed articles, for a select group of factors related to homelessness and then calculated the strength of influence (weights) for pairs of factors. We then used these weighted relationships in a FCM to test the effects of increasing or decreasing individual or groups of factors. Results of these trials were explainable according to current empirical knowledge related to homelessness. Results Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. The FCM technique captures greater degrees of dynamism and complexity than static models, allowing relevant concepts to be manipulated and interacted. This, in turn, allows for a much more realistic picture of homelessness. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness. Conclusions The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness

  18. The impact on health and risk factors of the diarrhoea epidemics in the 1998 Bangladesh floods.

    PubMed

    Kunii, O; Nakamura, S; Abdur, R; Wakai, S

    2002-03-01

    The 1998 flood in Bangladesh ravaged approximately 60% of the land and affected over 30 million people. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the flood on the health of the communities affected and to explore factors associated with episodes of diarrhoea. We conducted structured interviews with 517 people in two districts that had been affected in October 1998, when the flood water level was at its peak. Of the 517 respondents, 98.3% developed health problems or found that existing health problems were exacerbated. Many perceived that their general health condition was 'much worse' (16.9%) or 'worse' (64.3%). The most prevalent condition was fever (63.6%), followed by respiratory problems (46.8%), diarrhoea (44.3%), and skin problems (41.0%). Only 1.0% and 6.7% of the respondents treated water before drinking, by boiling and chlorination, respectively, although water collected from tube-wells (93.2%) and rivers (6.0%) was perceived by 75.0% of the respondents to be contaminated. Factors associated with developing or worsening diarrhoea were as follows; the number of family members, poor economic status, a lack of distribution of water purification tablets, the type of water storage vessels, not putting a lid on the vessel, no use of latrines, perceived change of drinking water, food scarcity, and worries about the future. In logistic regression analysis, men, poor economic status, lack of distribution of water purification tablets, and the type of water storage vessels had a significant association with diarrhoea. The 1998 Bangladesh flood had a substantial impact on the health of communities. Diarrhoea was associated with socioeconomic status, water handling and household sanitation. There ought to be more emphasis on health education in the pre-disaster period in order to empower communities against floods.

  19. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    PubMed

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship.

  20. Impacts of anthropogenic factors on land degradation during the anthropocene in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factors that effected the beginning of the Anthropogenic Era (human age) in Turkey and formation of biomes. Destruction of vegetation, soil erosion and land degradation are the most important factors in the formation of anthropogenic biomes in Turkey. For this reason, first of all, a literature review about land degradation, which has been going on for past 300 years in Turkey, and about its causes was made. Changes that have occurred over the last 70 years were studied with the help of aerial photos and satellite images. In addition, studies we have conducted in the last 35 years have contributed substantially to the determination of the extent of the destruction of vegetation and land degradation in Turkey. As a result of research based on literature reviews and fieldwork, the impact of humans on the natural habitat were identified, and the current situation was studied. The findings about the current situation that emerged due to human impact were then transferred to an electronic environment, and a map of anthropogenic biomes was produced with the help of ArcGIS Desktop software. Based on the results obtained, one can say that the natural habitat has considerably changed over the last 200 years; vegetation has been damaged, and land degradation has become faster because of human activities. These results indicate that 97% of natural biomes have become anthropogenic biomes, and this change has become more obvious during 20h century in Turkey. The results also show that the change has been more influential after 1950.

  1. Baryon scattering at high energies: wave function, impact factor, and gluon radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, J.; Motyka, L.

    2008-05-01

    The scattering of a baryon consisting of three massive quarks is investigated in the high energy limit of perturbative QCD. A model of a relativistic proton-like wave function, dependent on valence quark longitudinal and transverse momenta and on quark helicities, is proposed, and we derive the baryon impact factors for two, three and four t-channel gluons. We find that the baryonic impact factor can be written as a sum of three pieces: in the first one a subsystem consisting of two of the three quarks behaves very much like the quark antiquark pair in γ* scattering, whereas the third quark acts as a spectator. The second term belongs to the odderon, whereas in the third (C-even) piece all three quarks participate in the scattering. This term is new and has no analogue in γ* scattering. We also study the small x evolution of gluon radiation for each of these three terms. The first term follows the same pattern of gluon radiation as the γ*-initiated quark antiquark dipole, and, in particular, it contains the BFKL evolution followed by the 2→4 transition vertex (triple pomeron vertex). The odderon term is described by the standard BKP evolution, and the baryon couples to both known odderon solutions, the Janik Wosiek solution and the BLV solution. Finally, the t-channel evolution of the third term starts with a three-reggeized gluon state, which then, via a new 3→4 transition vertex, couples to the four-gluon (two-pomeron) state. We briefly discuss a few consequences of these findings, in particular the pattern of unitarization of high energy baryon scattering amplitudes.

  2. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p < 0.01, OR: 0.01, CI: 0.00 to 0.05), malocclusion (p < 0.01, OR: 0.06, CI: 0.01 to 0.35), and dental caries (p = 0.02, OR: 0.22, CI: 0.04 to 1.04) were observed. The OHRQoL overall mean score and subscales were relatively low independent of the evaluated group (p > 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor deficiencies impact anxiety-like behavior and the serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Leah R; Enix, Courtney L; Rich, Samuel C; Magno, Jinno A; Lowry, Christopher A; Tsai, Pei-San

    2014-05-01

    Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) are organized in anatomically distinct subregions that form connections with specific brain structures to modulate diverse behaviors, including anxiety-like behavior. It is unclear if the functional heterogeneity of these neurons is coupled to their developmental heterogeneity, and if abnormal development of specific DR serotonergic subregions can permanently impact anxiety circuits and behavior. The goal of this study was to examine if deficiencies in different components of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling could preferentially impact the development of specific populations of DR serotonergic neurons to alter anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Wild-type and heterozygous male mice globally hypomorphic for Fgf8, Fgfr1, or both (Fgfr1/Fgf8) were tested in an anxiety-related behavioral battery. Both Fgf8- and Fgfr1/Fgf8-deficient mice display increased anxiety-like behavior as measured in the elevated plus-maze and the open-field tests. Immunohistochemical staining of a serotonergic marker, tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), revealed reductions in specific populations of serotonergic neurons in the ventral, interfascicular, and ventrolateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray subregions of the DR in all Fgf-deficient mice, suggesting a neuroanatomical basis for increased anxiety-like behavior. Overall, this study suggests Fgf signaling selectively modulates the development of different serotonergic neuron subpopulations. Further, it suggests anxiety-like behavior may stem from developmental disruption of these neurons, and individuals with inactivating mutations in Fgf signaling genes may be predisposed to anxiety disorders.

  4. Are good ideas enough? The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation.

    PubMed

    Vàzquez-Salat, Núria

    2013-01-01

    In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.

  5. Evaluating the impact of single nucleotide variants on transcription factor binding

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wenqiang; Fornes, Oriol; Mathelier, Anthony; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases and phenotypes caused by disrupted transcription factor (TF) binding are being identified, but progress is hampered by our limited capacity to predict such functional alterations. Improving predictions may be dependent on expanding the set of bona fide TF binding alterations. Allele-specific binding (ASB) events, where TFs preferentially bind to one of the two alleles at heterozygous sites, reveal the impact of sequence variations in altered TF binding. Here, we present the largest ASB compilation to our knowledge, 10 765 ASB events retrieved from 45 ENCODE ChIP-Seq data sets. Our analysis showed that ASB events were frequently associated with motif alterations of the ChIP'ed TF and potential partner TFs, allelic difference of DNase I hypersensitivity and allelic difference of histone modifications. For TF dimers bound symmetrically to DNA, ASB data revealed that central positions of the TF binding motifs were disproportionately important for binding. Lastly, the impact of variation on TF binding was predicted by a classification model incorporating all the investigated features of ASB events. Classification models using only DNase I hypersensitivity and sequence data exhibited predictive accuracy approaching the models with substantially more features. Taken together, the combination of ASB data and the classification model represents an important step toward elucidating regulatory variants across the human genome. PMID:27492288

  6. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: II. Analysis of Specific Subsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2000-03-01

    The forces generated in the cervical spine were evaluated for a substantial number of motor-vehicle occupants in an associated study.[1] Correlation between these forces and various occupant- and impact-related parameters was generally not high for the broad groupings of the population considered at that time. In this research, smaller subsets with more elements in common were extracted from the data to try to detect any underlying relationships that might exist for the neck force. Although correlation coefficients for these subsets were higher than those for the previous groupings in more than three-quarters of the matches undertaken, the values still did not indicate consistently good fits. This suggests that there is no simple relationship for the force within the cervical spine and this, in turn, means that the potential for neck injury has to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. 1. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I. Overview of Large Population, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. in press (2000).

  7. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Low Back: II. Analysis of Specific Subsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2001-03-01

    The forces generated in the lumbosacral spine were evaluated for a substantial number of motor-vehicle occupants in an associated study.[1] Correlation between these forces and various occupant- and impact-related parameters was generally not high for the broad groupings of the population considered at that time. In this research, smaller subsets with more elements in common were extracted from the data to try to detect any underlying relationships that might exist for the low back force. Although correlation coefficients for these subsets were higher than those for the previous groupings in 71% of the matches undertaken, the values still did not indicate consistently good fits. This suggests that there is no simple relationship for the force within the lumbosacral spine and this, in turn, means that the potential for low back injury has to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. 1. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Low Back: I. Overview of Large Population, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. in press (2001).

  8. Knowledge of journal impact factors among nursing faculty: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Maha; Ha, Chau

    2017-01-01

    Objective The research assessed nursing faculty awareness and knowledge of the journal impact factor (JIF) and its impact on their publication choices. Methods A qualitative cross-sectional questionnaire was developed using Fluid Survey and distributed electronically to nursing faculty and instructors at three post-secondary institutions in Saskatchewan. Data were collected on place and status of employment, knowledge and awareness of JIFs, and criteria used to choose journals for publication. Results A total of forty-four nursing faculty and instructors completed the questionnaire. The authors found that faculty lack awareness or complete understanding of JIFs and that JIFs are not the most important or only criterion used when they choose a journal for publication. Conclusions There are various reasons for choosing a journal for publication. It is important for librarians to understand faculty views of JIFs and their criteria for choosing journals for publication, so that librarians are better equipped to guide researchers in considering their academic goals, needs, and personal values. PMID:28377676

  9. Factors involved in evaluating ground water impacts of deep coal mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.R.; Walton, W.C.

    1982-10-01

    The determination of probable ground water impacts of proposed deep coal mining is required as part of permit applications in the US. Impact prediction generally involves well production test analysis and modeling of ground water systems associated with coal seams. Well production tests are often complicated due to the relatively low permeabilities of sandstones and shales of ground water systems. The effects of the release of water stored within finite diameter production wells must be considered. Well storage capacity appreciably affects early well production test time drawdown or time recovery data. Low pumping rates, limited cones of depression, and length of required pumping periods are important well production test design factors. Coal seam ground water system models are usually multilayered and leaky artesian. Mine drafts partially penetrate the ground water system. Simulation of coal mine drainage often involves the horizontal permeability and storage coefficient of the coal seam zone, vertical permeabilities of sandstones and shales (aquitard) above and below the coal seam zone, and the hydrologic properties of the source bed above the aquitard overlying the coal seam zone.

  10. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements: Results from the 2011 Habitable Volume Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.; Whitmire, A.; Otto, C.; Neubek, D. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18-21, 2011 in Houston, TX at the Center for Advanced Space Studies-Universities Space Research Association. The workshop was convened by NASA to examine the factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long duration space missions. While there have been confinement studies and analogs that have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining the adequacy of the volume for future long duration exploration missions is a more complicated endeavor. It was determined that an improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge the adequacy of long duration habitat designs. The workshop brought together a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines and design professionals. These subject matter experts identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long duration exploration mission. The selected stressors were based on scientific evidence, as well as personal experiences from spaceflight and analogs. They were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.

  11. Impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children attending day care

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, Carolina; dos Santos, Mariana Martins; de Andrade Perez Marques, Luísa; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children aged 2-years old. Methods: 73 children attending public and 21 private day care centers were assessed. Day care environment was evaluated using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition (ITERS-R), fine motor performance was assessed through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSITD-III), socioeconomic data, maternal education and time of start at the day care were collected through interviews. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the association between the studied variables. Results: The time at the day care was positively correlated with the children's performance in some fine motor tasks of the BSITD-III, showing that the activities developed in day care centers were important for the refinement of specific motor skills, while the overall fine motor performance by the scale was associated with maternal education and the ITERS-R scale sub-item “language and understanding”. Conclusions: Extrinsic factors such as higher maternal education and quality of day care centers are associated with fine motor performance in children attending day care. PMID:27094472

  12. Effect of bibliographical classification on the impact factor of science- and engineering-based journals.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel

    2009-01-01

    The simplest and widely used assessment of academic research and researchers is the journal impact factor (JIF). However, the JIF may exhibit patterns that are skewed towards journals that publish high number of non-research items and short turnover research. Moreover, there are concerns as the JIF is often used as a comparison for journals from different disciplines. In this study, the JIF computation of eight top ranked journals from four different subject categories was analyzed. The analysis reveals that most of the published items (>65%) in the science disciplines were nonresearch items while fewer such items (<22%) were observed in engineering-based journals. The single regression analysis confirmed that there is correlation (R(2) > or = .99) in the number of published items or citations received over the two-year period used in the JIF calculation amongst the eight selected journals. A weighted factor computation is introduced to compensate for the smaller journals and journals that publish longer turnover research. It is hoped that the approach can provide a comprehensive assessment of the quality of a journal regardless of the disciplinary field.

  13. SPAD-based leaf nitrogen estimation is impacted by environmental factors and crop leaf characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dongliang; Chen, Jia; Yu, Tingting; Gao, Wanlin; Ling, Xiaoxia; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll meters are widely used to guide nitrogen (N) management by monitoring leaf N status in agricultural systems, but the effects of environmental factors and leaf characteristics on leaf N estimations are still unclear. In the present study, we estimated the relationships among SPAD readings, chlorophyll content and leaf N content per leaf area for seven species grown in multiple environments. There were similar relationships between SPAD readings and chlorophyll content per leaf area for the species groups, but the relationship between chlorophyll content and leaf N content per leaf area, and the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf N content per leaf area varied widely among the species groups. A significant impact of light-dependent chloroplast movement on SPAD readings was observed under low leaf N supplementation in both rice and soybean but not under high N supplementation. Furthermore, the allocation of leaf N to chlorophyll was strongly influenced by short-term changes in growth light. We demonstrate that the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf N content per leaf area is profoundly affected by environmental factors and leaf features of crop species, which should be accounted for when using a chlorophyll meter to guide N management in agricultural systems. PMID:26303807

  14. Phylogenetic and ecological factors impact the gut microbiota of two Neotropical primate species.

    PubMed

    Amato, Katherine R; Martinez-Mota, Rodolfo; Righini, Nicoletta; Raguet-Schofield, Melissa; Corcione, Fabiana Paola; Marini, Elisabetta; Humphrey, Greg; Gogul, Grant; Gaffney, James; Lovelace, Elijah; Williams, LaShanda; Luong, Albert; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Stumpf, Rebecca M; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that variation in diet across time and space results in changes in the mammalian gut microbiota. This variation may ultimately impact host ecology by altering nutritional status and health. Wild animal populations provide an excellent opportunity for understanding these interactions. However, compared to clinical studies, microbial research targeting wild animals is currently limited, and many published studies focus only on a single population of a single host species. In this study we utilize fecal samples from two species of howler monkey (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata) collected at four sites to investigate factors influencing the gut microbiota at three scales: taxonomic (host species), ecosystemic (forest type), and local (habitat disturbance/season). The results demonstrate that the effect of host species on the gut microbiota is stronger than the effect of host forest type, which is stronger than the effect of habitat disturbance or seasonality. Nevertheless, within host species, gut microbiota composition differs in response to forest type, habitat disturbance, and season. Variations in the effect size of these factors are associated both with host species and environment. This information may be beneficial for understanding ecological and evolutionary questions associated with Mesoamerican howler monkeys, as well as determining conservation challenges facing each species. These mechanisms may also provide insight into the ecology of other species of howler monkeys, non-human primates, and mammals.

  15. Impacts of Lithological and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Water Chemistry in the Upper Paraguay River Basin.

    PubMed

    Rezende-Filho, Ary T; Valles, Vincent; Furian, Sônia; Oliveira, Célia M S C; Ouardi, Jamila; Barbiero, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Located in the Upper Paraguay River Basin (UPRB), the Pantanal is considered the world's largest wetland, being rather pristine although increasingly threatened by development programs. The main objective of this paper is to provide a baseline of water chemistry for this region, which is largely unknown as a result of poor accessibility. We used two datasets (70 and 122 water samples) collected in the Pantanal floodplain and surrounding uplands during the wet season occurring from November to March. From the major-ion mineral chemistry, dissolved silica, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and the ionic forms of N, principal components analysis (PCA) treatments were used to identify and rank the main factors of variability and decipher the associated processes affecting the water chemistry. The results revealed that the water mineral concentration was a major factor of variability and it must be attributed first to lithology and second to agricultural inputs from extensive crop cultivation areas that mainly affects sulfate (SO) concentration on the eastern edge of the Pantanal. These processes influence the floodplain, where (i) the mixing of waters remains the main process, (ii) the weight of the biological and redox processes increased, and (iii) the chemical signature of the extensive cropping is transferred along the São Lourenço Basin down to its confluence with the Cuiaba River. Optimized parameters based on projections in the main factorial score plots were used for the mapping of lithological and agricultural impacts on water chemistry.

  16. Impact of the Chromatin Remodeling Factor CHD1 on Gut Microbiome Composition of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Krogsdam, Anne; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Lusser, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota of Drosophila has been studied in some detail in recent years. Environmental, developmental and host-specific genetic factors influence microbiome composition in the fly. Our previous work has indicated that intestinal bacterial load can be affected by chromatin-targeted regulatory mechanisms. Here we studied a potential role of the conserved chromatin assembly and remodeling factor CHD1 in the shaping of the gut microbiome in Drosophila melanogaster. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we found that Chd1 deletion mutant flies exhibit significantly reduced microbial diversity compared to rescued control strains. Specifically, although Acetobacteraceae dominated the microbiota of both Chd1 wild-type and mutant guts, Chd1 mutants were virtually monoassociated with this bacterial family, whereas in control flies other bacterial taxa constituted ~20% of the microbiome. We further show age-linked differences in microbial load and microbiota composition between Chd1 mutant and control flies. Finally, diet supplementation experiments with Lactobacillus plantarum revealed that, in contrast to wild-type flies, Chd1 mutant flies were unable to maintain higher L. plantarum titres over time. Collectively, these data provide evidence that loss of the chromatin remodeler CHD1 has a major impact on the gut microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:27093431

  17. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schuller, Hildegard M.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation. PMID:24633083

  18. Impact of the Chromatin Remodeling Factor CHD1 on Gut Microbiome Composition of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sebald, Johanna; Willi, Michaela; Schoberleitner, Ines; Krogsdam, Anne; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Lusser, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota of Drosophila has been studied in some detail in recent years. Environmental, developmental and host-specific genetic factors influence microbiome composition in the fly. Our previous work has indicated that intestinal bacterial load can be affected by chromatin-targeted regulatory mechanisms. Here we studied a potential role of the conserved chromatin assembly and remodeling factor CHD1 in the shaping of the gut microbiome in Drosophila melanogaster. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we found that Chd1 deletion mutant flies exhibit significantly reduced microbial diversity compared to rescued control strains. Specifically, although Acetobacteraceae dominated the microbiota of both Chd1 wild-type and mutant guts, Chd1 mutants were virtually monoassociated with this bacterial family, whereas in control flies other bacterial taxa constituted ~20% of the microbiome. We further show age-linked differences in microbial load and microbiota composition between Chd1 mutant and control flies. Finally, diet supplementation experiments with Lactobacillus plantarum revealed that, in contrast to wild-type flies, Chd1 mutant flies were unable to maintain higher L. plantarum titres over time. Collectively, these data provide evidence that loss of the chromatin remodeler CHD1 has a major impact on the gut microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster.

  19. Factors that impact turnaround time of surgical pathology specimens in an academic institution.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samip; Smith, Jennifer B; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Guarner, Jeannette

    2012-09-01

    Turnaround time of laboratory results is important for customer satisfaction. The College of American Pathologists' checklist requires an analytic turnaround time of 2 days or less for most routine cases and lets every hospital define what a routine specimen is. The objective of this study was to analyze which factors impact turnaround time of nonbiopsy surgical pathology specimens. We calculated the turnaround time from receipt to verification of results (adjusted for weekends and holidays) for all nonbiopsy surgical specimens during a 2-week period. Factors studied included tissue type, number of slides per case, decalcification, immunohistochemistry, consultations with other pathologists, and diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 713 specimens were analyzed, 551 (77%) were verified within 2 days and 162 (23%) in 3 days or more. Lung, gastrointestinal, breast, and genitourinary specimens showed the highest percentage of cases being signed out in over 3 days. Diagnosis of malignancy (including staging of the neoplasia), consultation with other pathologists, having had a frozen section, and use of immunohistochemical stains were significantly associated with increased turnaround time in univariate analysis. Decalcification was not associated with increased turnaround time. In multivariate analysis, consultation with other pathologists, use of immunohistochemistry, diagnosis of malignancy, and the number of slides studied continued to be significantly associated with prolonged turnaround time. Our findings suggest that diagnosis of malignancy is central to significantly prolonging the turnaround time for surgical pathology specimens, thus institutions that serve cancer centers will have longer turnaround time than those that do not.

  20. The impact of s-bar{s} asymmetry on the strange electromagnetic form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasempour Nesheli, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The existence of the strange quark asymmetry in the nucleon sea has been indicated by both the experimental and theoretical analyses. Although it is well known that the s-bar{{s}} asymmetry is important for some processes in high-energy hadron collisions, it has also been indicated that it can be related to the strange Dirac form factor F 1 s. In this work, we have studied the impact of s- bar{{s}} asymmetry and its uncertainty from various modern parton distribution functions (PDFs) on F 1 s and compared the obtained results with the available experimental information. As a result, we found that the uncertainty in F 1 s( t) due to the s( x) - bar{s}( x) distribution is rather large so that it dominates the model uncertainty at all values of the squared momentum transfer t. However, taking into account the uncertainties, the theoretical predictions of F 1 s( t) are fully compatible with the estimate extracted from experiment. We concluded that the future accurate experimental data of the strange Dirac form factor might be used to put direct constraints on the strange content of the proton and reduce its uncertainty that has always been a challenge.

  1. The impact of non-electrical factors on electrical gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiemiao; Cutrera, Jeffry; Li, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Electrical pulses directly and effectively boost both in vitro and in vivo gene transfer, but this process is greatly affected by non-electrical factors that exist during electroporation. These factors include, but are not limited to, the types of cells or tissues used, the property of DNA, DNA formulation, and the expressed protein. In this mini-review, we only describe and discuss a summary of DNA properties and selected DNA formulations on gene transfer via electroporation. The properties of DNA were selected for review because a substantial amount of remarkable work has been performed during the past few years but has received less notice than other work, although DNA properties appear to be critical for boosting electroporation delivery. The selected formulations will be covered in this mini-review because we are only interested in the simple formulations that could be used for cell or gene therapy via electroporation. Plus, there was an extensive review of DNA formulations in the first edition of this book. The formulations discussed in this mini-review represent novel developments in recent years and may impact electroporation significantly. These advancements in DNA formulations could prove to be important for gene delivery and disease treatment. PMID:24510810

  2. The impact of selected factors on parameters of weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Paweł; Kudlicka, Emilia; Ciesielski, Adam; Cabaj, Hubert; Tarnowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effectiveness of sleeve gastrectomy has been confirmed in many studies. The impact of individual factors on the parameters of weight loss is still not clear. Aim To identify important factors affecting the parameters of weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy. Material and methods The impact of prognostic factors and postoperative care components on body mass index (BMI) and percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) was assessed in a group of 100 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Results The baseline BMI and body mass in patients with BMI < 30 kg/m2 and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 12 months after surgery were, respectively, 39.7 ±3.2 vs. 45.9 ±4.6 kg/m2, p < 0.0001, and 114.4 ±16.8 vs. 130.3 ±18.5 kg, p < 0.0001. In the group with EWL < 50%, the average age was 47.1 ±7.7 vs. 40.6 ±10.8 in the group with EWL ≥ 50%, p = 0.0025. In the group of patients with preoperative weight loss, %EWL was 61.4 ±17.2 vs. 53.3 ±19.3% in the group with no weight loss, p = 0.0496. Body mass index of the patients who started physical activities was 30.6 ±4.2 kg/m2 vs. 34.0 ±5.6 kg/m2 in the patients with no physical activity, p = 0.0013, and %EWL was 63.4 ±14.6 vs. 47.0 ±19.9%, p < 0.0001, respectively. In the case of patients regularly consulted by a dietician BMI was 30.6 ±4.2 kg/m2 vs. 35.1 ±5.5 kg/m2 in the group without systematic consultations, p < 0.0001, and %EWL was 63.1 ±15.1% vs. 42.3 ±18.2%, p < 0.0001. Conclusions Lower baseline body weight parameters, younger age, preoperative weight loss, starting systematic physical activities and constant care of a dietician were conducive to achieving better results of surgery, as assessed on the basis of changes in BMI and %EWL. PMID:28194250

  3. Risk Factors and Clinical Impact of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase–Producing K. pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Gasink, Leanne B.; Edelstein, Paul H.; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Synnestvedt, Marie; Fishman, Neil O.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing K. pneumoniae is an emerging pathogen with serious clinical and infection control implications. To our knowledge, no study has specifically examined risk factors for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae or its impact on mortality. METHODS To identify risk factors for infection or colonization with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae, a case-control study was performed. Case patients with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae were compared with control subjects with carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae. A cohort study evaluated the association between KPC-producing K. pneumoniae and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS Fifty-six case patients and 863 control subjects were identified. In multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae were (1) severe illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.25–8.25), (2) prior fluoroquinolone use (AOR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.50, 7.66), and (3) prior extended-spectrum cephalosporin use (AOR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.18, 5.52). Compared with samples from other anatomic locations, K. pneumoniae isolates from blood samples were less likely to harbor KPC (AOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12, 0.86). KPC-producing K. pneumoniae was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (AOR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.87–6.91). CONCLUSIONS KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is an emerging pathogen associated with significant mortality. Our findings highlight the urgent need to develop strategies for prevention and infection control. Limiting use of certain antimicrobials, specifically fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, use may be effective strategies. PMID:19860564

  4. Discriminating impacts of geomorphological and human factors on vineyard soil erosion (Burgundy, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevigny, Emmanuel; Quiquerez, Amélie; Petit, Christophe; Curmi, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Burgundy vineyards have been recognized for the high diversity of Terroirs, controlled by complex interactions between natural features, historical parameters and soil management practices. Vineyards are known to undergo substantial soil loss in comparison with other types of agricultural land. Hydric erosion on vineyards is controlled by complex interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors leading to intra-plot spatial heterogeneities of topsoil at a scale of a metre. Studying the relationship between soils and their degradation is crucial in this situation where soil sustainability is threatened. This study explores the relative influences of historical and present-day anthropogenic factors and geomorphological processes controlling soil erosion on vineyard hillslopes. The selected area was located in the Monthelie vineyard (Côte de Beaune, France) where intensive erosion occurred during high-intensity rainfall events. Soil erosion quantification was performed at a square-metre scale using dendrogeomorphology. This method is based on the measurement of the unearthing of the stock located on the vine plants, considered as a passive marker of soil-surface vertical displacement since the year of plantation. The obtained maps, together with various complementary datasets, such as geological and geomorphological data, but also historical documents (cadastral plans, cadastral matrices and old aerial photographs) allow landscape evolution to be assessed. The combination of all these data shows that spatial distribution and intensity of erosion are controlled mainly by lithology and slope value. However, our study highlights that the sediment dynamics in this vineyard plot is highly related to historical former plot limits and present-day management practices. Nonetheless, quantification of sediment dynamic for the last decade reveals that the impacts of historical structures are disappearing gradually, in response to present-day management practices and

  5. Risk factors associated with impact severity of cyberbullying victimization: a qualitative study of adolescent online social networking.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John F M; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl

    2014-05-01

    Cyberbullying victimization is associated with a range of emotional and behavioral outcomes for adolescents. However, previous research has shown that this type of victimization does not affect all individuals negatively. The factors that account for individual differences in reactions to the same online experiences are not well understood. Using a qualitative inductive approach, a set of strong themes relating to factors that either increased the severity of impact of cyberbullying victimization or buffered victims against the impact emerged from interviews with 25 adolescents aged 15-24 years. Themes related to publicity, anonymity of perpetrators, features of the medium, presence of bystanders, and individual level factors were identified as potential influences upon impact severity. The implications of these results for further research and for school/university cyberbullying prevention programs for victims, perpetrators, and bystanders are discussed.

  6. Impact factor for gluon production in multi-Regge kinematics in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, M. G. Reznichenko, A. V. Fadin, V. S.

    2012-07-15

    The one-loop correction to the impact factor for gluon production upon the transition of a one-Reggeon state in the t channel to a two-Reggeon state is found. This impact factor is an element of multiparticle amplitudes in multi-Regge kinematics. The correction in question is necessary for developing the theory of Regge and multi-Regge processes. In particular, it is necessary for proving the multi-Regge form of the amplitude in the next-to-leading-logarithm approximation. This correction also makes it possible to complete the verification of the last of the unproven bootstrap conditions for gluon Reggeization and to prove, in this approximation, the validity of the multi-Regge form of the amplitude. All necessary calculations are presented, and an explicit expression for the impact factor in front of all possible color states in the t channel is given.

  7. Overall impact of speed-related initiatives and factors on crash outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M

    2007-01-01

    From December 2000 until July 2002 a package of speed-related initiatives and factors took place in Victoria, Australia. The broad aim of this study was to evaluate the overall impact of the package on crash outcomes. Monthly crash counts and injury severity proportions were assessed using Poisson and logistic regression models respectively. The model measured the overall effect of the package after adjusting as far as possible for non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. The speed-related package was associated with statistically significant estimated reductions in casualty crashes and suggested reductions in injury severity with trends towards increased reductions over time. From December 2000 until July 2002, three new speed enforcement initiatives were implemented in Victoria, Australia. These initiatives were introduced in stages and involved the following key components: More covert operations of mobile speed cameras, including flash-less operations; 50% increase in speed camera operating hours; and lowering of cameras' speed detection threshold. In addition, during the period 2001 to 2002, the 50 km/h General Urban Speed Limit (GUSL) was introduced (January 2001), there was an increase in speed-related advertising including the "Wipe Off 5" campaign, media announcements were made related to the above enforcement initiatives and there was a speeding penalty restructure. The above elements combine to make up a package of speed-related initiatives and factors. The package represents a broad, long term program by Victorian government agencies to reduce speed based on three linked strategies: more intensive Police enforcement of speed limits to deter potential offenders, i.e. the three new speed enforcement initiatives just described - supported by higher penalties; a reduction in the speed limit on local streets throughout Victoria from 60 km/h to 50 km/h; and provision of information using the mass media (television, radio and billboard) to

  8. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  9. Marketing data: has the rise of impact factor led to the fall of objective language in the scientific article?

    PubMed

    Fraser, Véronique J; Martin, James G

    2009-05-11

    The language of science should be objective and detached and should place data in the appropriate context. The aim of this commentary was to explore the notion that recent trends in the use of language have led to a loss of objectivity in the presentation of scientific data. The relationship between the value-laden vocabulary and impact factor among fundamental biomedical research and clinical journals has been explored. It appears that fundamental research journals of high impact factors have experienced a rise in value-laden terms in the past 25 years.

  10. Incidence, influencing factors, and prognostic impact of intraoperative massive blood loss in adolescents with neuromuscular scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Rui; Li, Na; Xu, Bi-Yun; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Xiao-ping; Ma, Zheng-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Factors influencing massive blood loss for neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) patients. Despite advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques, scoliosis surgery is still associated with intraoperative massive blood loss, which can result in postoperative mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, influencing factors, and prognostic impact of intraoperative massive blood loss in adolescents with NMS. A retrospective review of adolescents who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for NMS was performed. Perioperative variables and data were recorded. Massive blood loss was defined as an estimated blood loss that exceeds 30% of total blood volume. We obtained data for 114 patients, of whom 63 (55%) had intraoperative massive blood loss. Compared with those without, patients with massive blood loss were more likely to be older, have lower body mass indexes (BMIs), larger Cobb angles, more fused levels, more osteotomy procedures, and prolonged duration of operation. Logistic regression analysis identified the number of fused levels to be more than 12 (P = 0.003, odds ratio = 6.614, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.891–23.131), BMI lower than 16.8 kg/m2 (P = 0.025, odds ratio = 3.293, 95% CI: 1.159–9.357), age greater than 15 years (P = 0.014, odds ratio = 3.505, 95% CI: 1.259–9.761), and duration of operation longer than 4.4 hours (P = 0.016, odds ratio = 3.746, 95% CI: 1.428–9.822) as influencing factors. Patients with massive blood loss are associated with more intraoperative colloids infusion and blood transfusions (red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma), as well as postoperative drainage volume. In adolescents with NMS who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion operations, intraoperative massive blood loss is common. The number of fused levels, BMI, age, and duration of operation are factors influencing intraoperative massive blood loss. PMID:28296737

  11. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  12. Factors impacting the success of post-mortem sperm rescue in the rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Robeck, T R; O'Brien, J K

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify factors that influenced the ability to successfully rescue sperm post-mortem from rhinoceroses maintained in North American zoos. Factors considered included procedural technicalities, individual rhinoceros characteristics and timing. Gross testicular pathology was noted in 17.4% of males (4/23) but did not impact sperm recovery except in one case of azoospermia (4.3%). Of the males in which sperm recovery was attempted (n=21), 62% yielded quality samples considered adequate for cryopreservation (≥ 30% motility with ≥ 2.0 forward progressive status). A high percentage of males (70.6%; 12/17) from which reproductive tissue was removed an d cooled ≤ 4 h after death yielded quality sperm samples, whereas only 25% (1/4) of males from which tissue was removed>4h after death yielded quality samples. Quality samples were recovered 1-51 h post-mortem from rhinoceroses 8 to 36 years old. Neither type of illness (prolonged or acute), or method of death (euthanasia or natural) affected the ability to harvest quality samples (P > 0.05). The Indian rhinoceros yielded significantly more sperm on average (40 × 10(9)) than the African black rhinoceros (3.6 × 10(9); P < 0.01) and the African white rhinoceros (3.2 × 10(9); P < 0.05). Across all species and samples assessed (n = 11), mean post-thaw sperm motility (41%), was only 15% less than pre-freeze motility (56%) and only decreased to 22% during the 6h post-thaw assessment period. Rhinoceros sperm rescue post-mortem is relatively successful across a wide range of variables, especially when tissues are removed and cooled promptly after death, and should be considered standard practice among zoos.

  13. The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment: A Review of Neurobiological and Genetic Factors

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A.; Viding, Essi

    2011-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents a significant risk factor for psychopathology. Recent research has begun to examine both the functional and structural neurobiological correlates of adverse care-giving experiences, including maltreatment, and how these might impact on a child’s psychological and emotional development. The relationship between such experiences and risk for psychopathology has been shown to vary as a function of genetic factors. In this review we begin by providing a brief overview of neuroendocrine findings, which indicate an association between maltreatment and atypical development of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then selectively review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that have investigated possible structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Differences in the corpus callosum identified by structural MRI have now been reliably reported in children who have experienced abuse, while differences in the hippocampus have been reported in adults with childhood histories of maltreatment. In addition, there is preliminary evidence from functional MRI studies of adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment of amygdala hyperactivity and atypical activation of frontal regions. These functional differences can be partly understood in the context of the information biases observed in event-related potential and behavioral studies of physically abused children. Finally we consider research that has indicated that the effect of environmental adversity may be moderated by genotype, reviewing pertinent studies pointing to gene by environment interactions. We conclude by exploring the extent to which the growing evidence base in relation to neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention. PMID:21847382

  14. Impact of Cultural and Linguistic Factors on Symptom Reporting by Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cleeland, Charles S.; Mendoza, Tito R.; Yun, Young Ho; Wang, Ying; Okuyama, Toru; Johnson, Valen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patient reporting of the severity and impact of symptoms is an essential component of cancer symptom management and cancer treatment clinical trials. In multinational clinical trials, cultural and linguistic variations in patient-reported outcomes instruments could confound the interpretation of study results. Methods The severity and interference of multiple symptoms in 1433 cancer patients with mixed diagnoses and treatment status from the United States, China, Japan, Russia, and Korea were measured with psychometrically validated language versions of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Mixed-effect ordinal probit regression models were fitted to the pooled data to compare the magnitude of the effect of “country” (nation and linguistic factors) with between-subjects effects on symptom reporting, adjusted for patient and clinical factors (age, sex, performance status, and chemotherapy status). Results For the pooled sample, fatigue, disturbed sleep, distress, pain, and lack of appetite were the most severe patient-reported MDASI symptoms. The magnitude of the variance of the country random effects was only one-fourth to one-half of the interpatient variation (σ2 = 0.23–0.46) for all symptoms, except nausea and vomiting. Conclusions Cultural and linguistic variations in symptom reporting among the five language versions of the validated MDASI were limited. Ordinal probit modeling provided a simple mechanism for accounting for cultural and linguistic differences in patient populations. The equivalence among MDASI translations in this study suggests that symptom ratings collected from various cultural and language groups using the MDASI can be interpreted in a similar way in oncology practice, clinical trials, and clinical research. PMID:20348233

  15. Protective Functions of Family Relationships and School Factors on the Deviant Behavior of Adolescent Boys and Girls: Reducing the Impact of Risky Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Erickson, Kristan Glasgow; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    2002-01-01

    Used self-reports and reports from friends to explore gender differences in the impact of risk and protective factors on adolescent deviant behavior. Both family and school factors reduced adolescent delinquency and substance use and protected adolescents against the impact of having deviant friends, though school factors were more consistently…

  16. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy.

  17. Endoscope reprocessing methods: a prospective study on the impact of human factors and automation.

    PubMed

    Ofstead, Cori L; Wetzler, Harry P; Snyder, Alycea K; Horton, Rebecca A

    2010-01-01

    The main cause of endoscopy-associated infections is failure to adhere to reprocessing guidelines. More information about factors impacting compliance is needed to support the development of effective interventions. The purpose of this multisite, observational study was to evaluate reprocessing practices, employee perceptions, and occupational health issues. Data were collected utilizing interviews, surveys, and direct observation. Written reprocessing policies and procedures were in place at all five sites, and employees affirmed the importance of most recommended steps. Nevertheless, observers documented guideline adherence, with only 1.4% of endoscopes reprocessed using manual cleaning methods with automated high-level disinfection versus 75.4% of those reprocessed using an automated endoscope cleaner and reprocessor. The majority reported health problems (i.e., pain, decreased flexibility, numbness, or tingling). Physical discomfort was associated with time spent reprocessing (p = .041). Discomfort diminished after installation of automated endoscope cleaners and reprocessors (p = .001). Enhanced training and accountability, combined with increased automation, may ensure guideline adherence and patient safety while improving employee satisfaction and health.

  18. Impact of Rurality, Broiler Operations, and Community Socioeconomic Factors on the Risk of Campylobacteriosis in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Zappe Pasturel, Barbara; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E.; Palmer, Amanda; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Hogan, Brenna; Jung, Carrianne; Joseph, Sam W.; Wang, Min Qi; Ting Lee, Mei-Ling; Puett, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the combined impact of community-level environmental and socioeconomic factors on the risk of campylobacteriosis. Methods. We obtained Campylobacter case data (2002–2010; n = 3694) from the Maryland Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network. We obtained community-level socioeconomic and environmental data from the 2000 US Census and the 2007 US Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code. We derived incidence rate ratios by Poisson regressions. We mapped a subset of zip code–level characteristics. Results. In zip codes that were 100% rural, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of campylobacteriosis were 6 times (IRR = 6.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.19, 11.97) greater than those in urban zip codes. In zip codes with broiler chicken operations, incidence rates were 1.45 times greater than those in zip codes without broilers (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.34, 1.58). We also observed higher rates in zip codes whose populations were predominantly White and had high median incomes. Conclusions. The community and environment in which one lives may significantly influence the risk of campylobacteriosis. PMID:24134343

  19. Citations for Randomized Controlled Trials in Sepsis Literature: The Halo Effect Caused by Journal Impact Factor

    PubMed Central

    Poucke, Sven Van

    2017-01-01

    Citations for randomized controlled trials (RCT) are important for the dissemination of study results. However, predictors of citations for RCTs have not been investigated. The study aimed to investigate the predictors of citations for RCTs in sepsis literature. RCTs that investigated the efficacy of treatment strategies on clinical outcomes in sepsis patients were included, and publication dates were restricted to the period from 2000 to 2016. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews and interventions. A multivariable linear regression model was built to investigate the independent variables associated with total citations. In total, 160 RCTs met our inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. The median of total citations was 28.5 (IQR: 6–76). The journal impact factor (IF) for articles was 6.312 (IQR: 3.143–7.214). The dependent variable was transformed by the square root to improve normality and meet the assumption of homoscedasticity. The journal IF (coefficient: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.25) was independently associated with total citations. Large samples were associated with more total citations (coefficient: 0.0026; 95% CI: 0.0013, 0.0039). The study demonstrated that the journal IF was a major determinant of the RCT’s total citation number. PMID:28046105

  20. [Characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain in Fuzhou and Xiamen 1992-2012].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiu-Ping; Wang, Hong; Chen, Bin-Bin; Sui, Ping; Lin, Wen

    2014-10-01

    Based on the observed acid rain data, synoptic situations and mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants data from 1992 to 2012, the temporal variation characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain were analyzed in Fuzhou and Xiamen. The results showed that acid rain and non-acid rain accounted for 38.1% and 61.9% respectively in Fuzhou, 40.6% and 59.4% respectively in Xiamen. The annual average pH was 4.1-5.5 in Fuzhou. Acid rain pollution alleviated after 2007 in Fuzhou, and alleviated after 2006 in Xiamen. Acid rain was more serious in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. Precipitation intensity could affect the acidity of rain. Acid rain was observed more serious in southeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Fuzhou, and more serious in northeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Xiamen. Acid rain was most severe under the condition of transformed surface cold high, while most light under the conditions of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone) and outside of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone). There was a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, PM10, and the pH of rain in Fuzhou.

  1. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-03-10

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy.

  2. Ophthalmology and vision science research. Part 1: Understanding and using journal impact factors and citation indices.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Victoria A; McGhee, Charles N J

    2005-10-01

    In an increasingly "publish or perish" clinical and academic environment, all clinicians and clinician-scientists involved in research must have a firm understanding of the measures commonly used to assess the quality of scientific journals and, by default, those extended to grade individual articles and authors. The publication of research is a vital part of clinical and experimental research, and citation analyses of research publications have increasingly been adopted as a means of assessing the apparent quality of journals and the research published therein. In the first of a series of articles for those embarking on ophthalmic and vision science research, this paper discusses the key features of citation analysis, concentrating on the 2004 Journal Citation Report figures for the field of ophthalmology that include 42 ophthalmology, vision science, physiological optics, and optometry journals. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) calculates a number of parameters including citation counts, Journal Impact Factor (JIF), Immediacy Index, and cited/citing half-life. This article discusses the methods of calculation and possible uses along with current controversies and potential abuses. The JIF and its relevance, potential bias, and limitations are discussed in depth as it has become the most widely used analysis of journal quality. The possible alternatives to ISI citation analysis are presented, and we conclude that citation analysis can be considered a reasonable measure of journal research quality only if used correctly.

  3. Astronomical phenomena: events with high impact factor in teaching optics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curticapean, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Astronomical phenomena fascinate people from the very beginning of mankind up to today. They have a enthusiastic effect, especially on young people. Among the most amazing and well-known phenomena are the sun and moon eclipses. The impact factor of such events is very high, as they are being covered by mass media reports and the Internet, which provides encyclopedic content and discussion in social networks. The principal optics and photonics topics that can be included in such lessons originate from geometrical optics and the basic phenomena of reflection, refraction and total internal reflection. Lenses and lens systems up to astronomical instruments also have a good opportunity to be presented. The scientific content can be focused on geometrical optics but also diffractive and quantum optics can be incorporated successfully. The author will present how live streams of the moon eclipses can be used to captivate the interest of young listeners for optics and photonics. The gathered experience of the last two moon eclipses visible from Germany (on Dec, 21 2010 and Jun, 15 2011) will be considered. In an interactive broadcast we reached visitors from more than 135 countries.

  4. Adaptive and innate transforming growth factor beta signaling impact herpes simplex virus 1 latency and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sariah J; Mott, Kevin R; Wechsler, Steven L; Flavell, Richard A; Town, Terrence; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-11-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play important protective roles by combating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key negative cytokine regulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Yet, it is unknown whether TGF-β signaling in either immune compartment impacts HSV-1 replication and latency. We undertook genetic approaches to address these issues by infecting two different dominant negative TGF-β receptor type II transgenic mouse lines. These mice have specific TGF-β signaling blockades in either T cells or innate cells. Mice were ocularly infected with HSV-1 to evaluate the effects of restricted innate or adaptive TGF-β signaling during acute and latent infections. Limiting innate cell but not T cell TGF-β signaling reduced virus replication in the eyes of infected mice. On the other hand, blocking TGF-β signaling in either innate cells or T cells resulted in decreased latency in the trigeminal ganglia of infected mice. Furthermore, inhibiting TGF-β signaling in T cells reduced cell lysis and leukocyte infiltration in corneas and trigeminal ganglia during primary HSV-1 infection of mice. These findings strongly suggest that TGF-β signaling, which generally functions to dampen immune responses, results in increased HSV-1 latency.

  5. Methods and analysis of factors impact on the efficiency of the photovoltaic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianze, Li; Xia, Zhang; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou

    2011-02-01

    First of all, the thesis elaborates two important breakthroughs which happened In the field of the application of solar energy in the 1950s.The 21st century the development of solar photovoltaic power generation will have the following characteristics: the continued high growth of industrial development, the significantly reducing cost of the solar cell, the large-scale high-tech development of photovoltaic industries, the breakthroughs of the film battery technology, the rapid development of solar PV buildings integration and combined to the grids. The paper makes principles of solar cells the theoretical analysis. On the basis, we study the conversion efficiency of solar cells, find the factors impact on the efficiency of the photovoltaic generation, solve solar cell conversion efficiency of technical problems through the development of new technology, and open up new ways to improve the solar cell conversion efficiency. Finally, the paper connecting with the practice establishes policies and legislation to the use of encourage renewable energy, development strategy, basic applied research etc.

  6. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy. PMID:28281668

  7. Soil factors of ecosystems' disturbance risk reduction under the impact of rocket fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechetov, Pavel; Koroleva, Tatyana; Sharapova, Anna; Chernitsova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Environmental impacts occur at all stages of space rocket launch. One of the most dangerous consequences of a missile launch is pollution by components of rocket fuels ((unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)). The areas subjected to falls of the used stages of carrier rockets launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome occupy thousands of square kilometers of different natural landscapes: from dry steppes of Kazakhstan to the taiga of West Siberia and mountains of the Altai-Sayany region. The study aims at assessing the environmental risk of adverse effects of rocket fuel on the soil. Experimental studies have been performed on soil and rock samples with specified parameters of the material composition. The effect of organic matter, acid-base properties, particle size distribution, and mineralogy on the decrease in the concentration of UDMH in equilibrium solutions has been studied. It has been found that the soil factors are arranged in the following series according to the effect on UDMH mobility: acid-base properties > organic matter content >clay fraction mineralogy > particle size distribution. The estimation of the rate of self-purification of contaminated soil is carried out. Experimental study of the behavior of UDMH in soil allowed to define a model for calculating critical loads of UDMH in terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Overall Impact of Speed-Related Initiatives and Factors on Crash Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    D’Elia, A.; Newstead, S.; Cameron, M.

    2007-01-01

    From December 2000 until July 2002 a package of speed-related initiatives and factors took place in Victoria, Australia. The broad aim of this study was to evaluate the overall impact of the package on crash outcomes. Monthly crash counts and injury severity proportions were assessed using Poisson and logistic regression models respectively. The model measured the overall effect of the package after adjusting as far as possible for non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. The speed-related package was associated with statistically significant estimated reductions in casualty crashes and suggested reductions in injury severity with trends towards increased reductions over time. From December 2000 until July 2002, three new speed enforcement initiatives were implemented in Victoria, Australia. These initiatives were introduced in stages and involved the following key components: More covert operations of mobile speed cameras, including flash-less operations; 50% increase in speed camera operating hours; and lowering of cameras’ speed detection threshold. In addition, during the period 2001 to 2002, the 50 km/h General Urban Speed Limit (GUSL) was introduced (January 2001), there was an increase in speed-related advertising including the “Wipe Off 5” campaign, media announcements were made related to the above enforcement initiatives and there was a speeding penalty restructure. The above elements combine to make up a package of speed-related initiatives and factors. The package represents a broad, long term program by Victorian government agencies to reduce speed based on three linked strategies: more intensive Police enforcement of speed limits to deter potential offenders, i.e. the three new speed enforcement initiatives just described - supported by higher penalties; a reduction in the speed limit on local streets throughout Victoria from 60 km/h to 50 km/h; and provision of information using the mass media (television, radio and

  9. Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary…

  10. Observations Concerning the Two- and Three-Year Synchronous Impact Factor, Based on the "Chinese Science Citation Database."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald; Jin, Bihui; Liu, Xiaomin; Yang, Ninghui

    2001-01-01

    Discusses synchronous impact factors and theoretical models derived from observations based on "Science Citation Index", and presents an exception to the general rules based on data from the "Chinese Science Citation Database". Considers that the observed discrepancies could be statistical fluctuations of the basic…

  11. The Impact of Protective Factors in Desistance from Violent Reoffending: A Study in Three Samples of Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of protective factors, assessed by means of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), on desistance from violent reoffending in adolescents. Three samples included male adolescents in different stages of the judicial process: pre-trial (n = 111); during residential treatment (n = 66); and after…

  12. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined…

  13. Why Do I Like You? Students' Understanding of the Impact of the Factors That Contribute to Liking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnadore, Amy E.; And Others

    A study examined the impact of both gender and college experience on judgments of the importance of its factors that determine liking. Seniors and freshmen completed a survey on friend relationships. Participants provided demographic information about a best friend (i.e., where the friend is now, age, and sex), and rated the importance of…

  14. Factors of Significant Impact on Proficiency Levels of Adult ESL Learners within Post-Secondary Education in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study seeks to identify factors that have a significant impact on the second language proficiency levels of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at a four-year university in Puerto Rico. Current data indicate that a significant percentage of adult ESL learners encounter major difficulties within the process of…

  15. Selected Administrative Factors and Guidance Functions: A Study of the Impact of Organization, Staff, and Finance Upon Guidance Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Annabelle E.

    This study examines selected administrative factors to discover their impact upon the functioning of a secondary school counselor. Three major null hypotheses are stated: there is no relationship between senior high school counselor' functions and (1) the organizational pattern of guidance of pupil services; (2) the competencies implied by…

  16. The Psychological Impact of Forced Displacement and Related Risk Factors on Eastern Congolese Adolescents Affected by War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Rosseel, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background: While the current knowledge base on the mental health effects of displacement is mainly limited to refugees residing in industrialised countries, this paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement and related risk factors on the mental health of Eastern Congolese adolescents, and compares currently internally displaced…

  17. Factors Impacting Job Performance and Role Attractiveness in Academic Directors and Their Implications for Policy and Practice in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that impacted on the performance and attractiveness of the Academic Director's role. Academic Directors are responsible for leading and managing an academic qualification. Academic Directors (n = 101) participating in a leadership development programme were invited to respond to an online 360…

  18. The Impact of Personal Factors on Self-Determination and Early Adulthood Outcome Constructs in Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shogren, Karrie A.; Shaw, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) were used to examine the impact of three personal factors--race/ethnicity, gender, and family income--on self-determination (i.e., autonomy, psychological empowerment, self-realization) and early adulthood outcome constructs. Findings suggest for those with high incidence disabilities,…

  19. The uncertainty of reference standards--a guide to understanding factors impacting uncertainty, uncertainty calculations, and vendor certifications.

    PubMed

    Gates, Kevin; Chang, Ning; Dilek, Isil; Jian, Huahua; Pogue, Sherri; Sreenivasan, Uma

    2009-10-01

    Certified solution standards are widely used in forensic toxicological, clinical/diagnostic, and environmental testing. Typically, these standards are purchased as ampouled solutions with a certified concentration. Vendors present concentration and uncertainty differently on their Certificates of Analysis. Understanding the factors that impact uncertainty and which factors have been considered in the vendor's assignment of uncertainty are critical to understanding the accuracy of the standard and the impact on testing results. Understanding these variables is also important for laboratories seeking to comply with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements and for those preparing reference solutions from neat materials at the bench. The impact of uncertainty associated with the neat material purity (including residual water, residual solvent, and inorganic content), mass measurement (weighing techniques), and solvent addition (solution density) on the overall uncertainty of the certified concentration is described along with uncertainty calculations.

  20. The distribution of forensic journals, reflections on authorship practices, peer-review and role of the impact factor.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne

    2007-01-17

    This article presents information about journals specializing in the forensic sciences and legal medicine, their development and distribution and their current status as reflected in the journal impact factor. The first scientific journal devoted to spreading information and reporting new developments in social and legal medicine seemingly originated in Germany about 150 years ago. The official journal of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (Journal of Forensic Sciences, JFS) was founded in 1956 and has enjoyed 50 years of scholarly publishing. The two leading European journals specializing in forensics are Forensic Science International (FSI) and International Journal of Legal Medicine (IJLM). Besides the size of the circulation, the readership numbers, the quality of the editorial staff and the peer-reviewers, the number of submitted and accepted manuscripts, considerable interest has focused on the journal's impact factor as a measure of prestige. The 2006 impact factor of a certain journal is derived by counting the number of citations in 2006 to all material published in the journal in the previous 2 years (2004 and 2005) and dividing this total by the number of citable items (articles and reviews) published in the same 2 years. Impact factors for several thousand scientific journals are compiled and published by a company called Thomson Institute for Scientific Information (Thomson ISI) and are available on-line via the database Journal Citation Reports. Forensic journals are grouped within the subject category Medicine, Legal, which currently comprises nine journals a few of which are seemingly unrelated to mainstream forensics. The top-ranked forensic journal in terms of its impact factor was IJLM with a score of just over 2.0 in 2004. This means that the average article published in 2003 and 2002 was cited twice per year in the 2-year window after publication. Impact factors of forensic journals are fairly low in comparison with many other

  1. Bibliometrics of systematic reviews: analysis of citation rates and journal impact factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are important for informing clinical practice and health policy. The aim of this study was to examine the bibliometrics of systematic reviews and to determine the amount of variance in citations predicted by the journal impact factor (JIF) alone and combined with several other characteristics. Methods We conducted a bibliometric analysis of 1,261 systematic reviews published in 2008 and the citations to them in the Scopus database from 2008 to June 2012. Potential predictors of the citation impact of the reviews were examined using descriptive, univariate and multiple regression analysis. Results The mean number of citations per review over four years was 26.5 (SD ±29.9) or 6.6 citations per review per year. The mean JIF of the journals in which the reviews were published was 4.3 (SD ±4.2). We found that 17% of the reviews accounted for 50% of the total citations and 1.6% of the reviews were not cited. The number of authors was correlated with the number of citations (r = 0.215, P < 0.001). Higher numbers of citations were associated with the following characteristics: first author from the United States (36.5 citations), an ICD-10 chapter heading of Neoplasms (31.8 citations), type of intervention classified as Investigation, Diagnostics or Screening (34.7 citations) and having an international collaboration (32.1 citations). The JIF alone explained more than half of the variation in citations (R2 = 0.59) in univariate analysis. Adjusting for both JIF and type of intervention increased the R2 value to 0.81. Fourteen percent of reviews published in the top quartile of JIFs (≥ 5.16) received citations in the bottom quartile (eight or fewer), whereas 9% of reviews published in the lowest JIF quartile (≤ 2.06) received citations in the top quartile (34 or more). Six percent of reviews in journals with no JIF were also in the first quartile of citations. Conclusions The JIF predicted over half of the variation in citations to the

  2. [The impact factor: a fair measure of research excellence in nursing?].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Moreira, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Nursing in Spain is now reaching a turning point due to the expansion of its academic horizons. In order to consolidate its existence and development, it must strengthen its scientific base. Bibliometric indicators report in a quantitative way on the production, transmission and consumption of scientific information, with the impact factor (IF) being the most internationally accepted bibliometric indicator. This is a tool that compares journals and assesses the relative importance of a journal within a scientific field, and its calculation is possible by consulting certain databases recording papers published in the major journals. Thomson Scientific analyzes the production of journals for this purpose, and annually ranks journals by their IF. It has become the benchmark for excellence in the evaluation of scientific production. An article published in a journal without an IF should not be judged in advance to be of lower quality. Given that few nursing publications are indexed, have a low IF, are almost exclusively English-speaking and from the U.S., this makes publishing more difficult in IF journals for nursing professionals, especially if they are not English-speaking. The journal's IF where the author publishes has become an increasingly strong criterion for resources allocation. In Spain, it is among the evaluation criteria of the Health Research Fund (FIS), the ANECA (National Agency for Quality Assessment and accreditation) and at the National Commission for the Assessment of Research. There have been several proposals for alternative indices to the IF, aimed at assessing the scientific excellence of the journals and papers published. In the nursing and care field, what is most relevant is that the generation of knowledge strengthens the discipline, and has a social impact capable, ultimately, of improving the care and health of the population these professionals serve. This raises the need for a bibliometric indicator, which incorporates the social and

  3. Consequences of the dynamic triple peak impact factor in Traumatic Brain Injury as Measured with Numerical Simulation.

    PubMed

    von Holst, Hans; Li, Xiaogai

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about the direct neuromechanical consequences in traumatic brain injury (TBI) at the scene of accident. In this study we use a finite element model of the human head to study the dynamic response of the brain during the first milliseconds after the impact with velocities of 10, 6, and 2 meters/second (m/s), respectively. The numerical simulation was focused on the external kinetic energy transfer, intracranial pressure (ICP), strain energy density and first principal strain level, and their respective impacts to the brain tissue. We show that the oblique impacts of 10 and 6 m/s resulted in substantial high peaks for the ICP, strain energy density, and first principal strain levels, however, with different patterns and time frames. Also, the 2 m/s impact showed almost no increase in the above mentioned investigated parameters. More importantly, we show that there clearly exists a dynamic triple peak impact factor to the brain tissue immediately after the impact regardless of injury severity associated with different impact velocities. The dynamic triple peak impacts occurred in a sequential manner first showing strain energy density and ICP and then followed by first principal strain. This should open up a new dimension to better understand the complex mechanisms underlying TBI. Thus, it is suggested that the combination of the dynamic triple peak impacts to the brain tissue may interfere with the cerebral metabolism relative to the impact severity thereby having the potential to differentiate between severe and moderate TBI from mild TBI.

  4. METHOD AND LOCATION OF GROUND WATER SAMPLING: IMPACT ON ATTENUATION FACTORS FOR ASSESSING IMPACT ON VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document was established to "address the incremental increases in exposures and risks from subsurface contaminants that my be intruding into indoor air". The document utilizes attenuation factors based on indoor air/soil gas or i...

  5. Impact of environmental factors on dissolved organic carbon concentrations in German bogs under grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    DOC concentrations. At these sites, the highest DOC concentrations were measured in the zone of transition between peat and mineral layer. No consistent relationship between DOC concentrations and electrical conductivity or pH-value could be found. In the "Ahlenmoor", seasonal variations of temperature and water table position influence DOC concentrations. The highest values were measured in late summer after warm and dry periods. At the study sites of the "Großes Moor", the seasonal variation of temperature and groundwater table had no impact on DOC concentrations. Our results show that while it is difficult to unravel all factors controlling DOC concentrations, drainage and physical disturbance clearly increase DOC concentrations.

  6. Diffuse nutrient losses and the impact factors determining their regional differences in four catchments from North to South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Zhou, Yujian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Hongbin; Lei, Qiuliang; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xuelei

    2016-12-01

    Diffuse nutrient loss mechanism is complicated and shows remarkably regional differences due to spatial heterogeneities of underlying surface conditions, climate and agricultural practices. Moreover, current available observations are still hard to support the identification of impact factors due to different time or space steps. In this study, an integrated water system model (HEQM) was adopted to obtain the simulated loads of diffuse components (carriers: runoff and sediment; nutrient: total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP)) with synchronous scales. Multivariable statistical analysis approaches (Analysis of Similarity and redundancy analysis) were used to assess the regional differences, and to identify impact factors as well as their contributions. Four catchments were selected as our study areas, i.e., Xiahui and Zhangjiafen Catchments of Miyun Basin in North China, Yuliang and Tunxi Catchments of Xin'anjiang Basin in South China. Results showed that the model performances of monthly processes were very good for runoff and good for sediment, TN and TP. The annual average coefficients of all the diffuse components in Xin'anjiang Basin were much greater than those in Miyun Basin, and showed significantly regional differences. All the selected impact factors interpreted 72.87-82.16% of the regional differences of carriers, and 62.72-71.62% of those of nutrient coefficients, respectively. For individual impact factor categories, the critical category was geography, followed by land-use/cover, carriers, climate, as well as soil and agricultural practices in Miyun Basin, or agricultural practices and soil in Xin'anjiang Basin. For individual factors, the critical factors were locations for the carrier regional differences, and carriers or chemical fertilizer for the nutrient regional differences. This study is expected to promote further applications of integrated water system model and multivariable statistical analysis in the diffuse nutrient studies, and

  7. The impact of abiotic factors (temperature and glucose) on physicochemical properties of lipids from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bakholdina, S I; Sanina, N M; Krasikova, I N; Popova, O B; Solov'eva, T F

    2004-12-01

    The impact of the availability of glucose in nutrition medium and growth temperature on the composition and thermotropic behavior of lipids from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Enterobacteriaceae) was studied. Y. pseudotuberculosis was grown in nutrition broth (NB) with/without glucose at 8 and 37 degrees C, corresponding to the temperatures of saprophytic and parasitic phases of this bacterium life. The decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unsaturated fatty acids and the parallel increase of lysophosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol and saturated and cyclopropane acids were the most significant changes with temperature in bacterial phospholipid (PL) classes and fatty acids, respectively. Glucose did not effect the direction of temperature-induced changes in the contents of PLs, fatty acids, however it enhanced (for PLs) or diminished (for fatty acids) intensity of these changes. The thermally induced transitions of lipids were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was revealed that the addition of glucose to NB induced a sharp shift of DSC thermograms to lower temperatures in the "warm" variants of bacteria. The peak maximum temperature (Tmax) of thermal transitions dropped from 50 to 26 degrees C that is the optimal growth temperature of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Tmax of total lipids of the cells grown at 8 degrees C without glucose in NB was equal to growth temperature that corresponded to the classical mechanism of homeoviscous adaptation of bacteria. An addition of glucose to NB at this growth temperature caused the subsequent reduction of Tmax to -8 degrees C, while the temperature ranges of thermograms were not substantially changed. So, not only the temperature growth of bacteria, but also the presence of glucose in NB can modify the physical state of lipids from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In this case, both factors affect additively. It is suggested that glucose influences some membrane-associated proteins and

  8. Impact of physical and psychosocial factors on disability caused by lumbar pain amongst fishing sector workers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Beatriz; Pita-Fernández, Salvador; Carballo-Costa, Lidia

    2013-07-01

    Functional disability due to lumbar pain should be considered from the biopsychosocial model. There is inconclusive evidence as to whether the key determining factors in this form of disability are psychosocial or physical. Our aim is to identify variables that cause functional disability due to lumbar pain amongst shellfish gatherers in Galicia by means of a cross-sectional survey. Participants (N = 929) completed a self-administered, paper-based questionnaire including sociodemographic and lifestyle issues, as well as the nature of the lumbar pain, the presence of musculoskeletal pain in other regions of the body, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and SF-36. Univariate examination, ROC curve and logistic regression analyses were performed. Most of these workers are women (98.7 %), with a mean age of 50.6 years. The point-prevalence of lumbar pain stands at 65.5 %. The RMDQ mean was 4.9 (SD = 4.7). In the logistic regression analysis, the variables associated with disability (RMDQ > median) were age (OR = 1.04), physical exercise (OR = 0.57), pain intensity (OR = 1.16), the number of regions of musculoskeletal pain (OR = 1.24) and mental health (SF-36) (OR = -0.95). Functional disability is determined by the physical nature of the pain and mental health attributes, although the former has a greater impact. In decreasing order of importance, functional disability is attributable to the presence of lower back pain, the number of regions of musculoskeletal pain, the intensity of that pain and age. Regular physical exercise and better mental health have a protective effect on disability.

  9. Impact of Fli-1 transcription factor on autoantibody and lupus nephritis in NZM2410 mice

    PubMed Central

    Mathenia, J; Reyes-Cortes, E; Williams, S; Molano, I; Ruiz, P; Watson, D K; Gilkeson, G S; Zhang, X K

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor Fli-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of both murine and human lupus. Increased levels of Fli-1 mRNA were present in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from lupus patients; furthermore, transgenic overexpression of Fli-1 in normal mice resulted in the development of a lupus-like disease. Lupus nephritis is a major cause of death in both lupus patients as well as in animal models. In this study, we generated Fli-1 heterozygous knockout (Fli-1+/-) NZM2410 mice (of which the wild-type is a widely used lupus murine model) that expressed decreased levels of Fli-1 and investigated the impact of Fli-1 expression on lupus nephritis development and survival. Ninety-three per cent of the Fli-1+/− NZM2410 mice survived to the age of 52 weeks compared to only 35% of wild-type NZM2410 mice. Autoantibodies, including anti-dsDNA and anti-glomerular basement antigen, in Fli-1+/− NZM2410 mice were statistically significantly lower when compared to wild-type NZM2410 mice at the ages of 30 and 34 weeks. Total B cell and activated B cell populations in the spleens from Fli-1+/− NZM2410 mice were decreased significantly compared to wild-type NZM2410 mice. Fli-1+/− NZM2410 mice also had remarkably diminished proteinuria and decreased renal pathological scores when compared with wild-type NZM2410 mice. Expression of early growth response 1 (Egr-1) was decreased significantly in the kidneys from Fli-1+/− NZM2410 mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Our data indicate that expression of Fli-1 plays an important role in lupus disease development in NZM2410 mice. PMID:20731671

  10. Impact of environmental factors and biological soil crust types on soil respiration in a desert ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

    2014-01-01

    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93 ± 0.43 µmol m-2 s-1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73 ± 0.31 µmol m-2 s-1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m-3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level.

  11. Impact of Dose Tapering of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor on Radiographic Progression in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Won; Kwon, Hyun Mi; Park, Jin Kyun; Choi, Ja-Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Song, Yeong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of dose reduction of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) on radiographic progression in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods One hundred and sixty-five patients treated with etanercept or adalimumab were selected from a consecutive single-center observational cohort based on the availability of radiographs at baseline and after two- and/or four-years of follow up. Radiographs were assessed by two blinded readers using the modified Stokes AS Spinal Score (mSASSS). Radiographic progression in patients treated with standard-dose TNFi (standard-dose group, n = 49) was compared with patients whose dosage was tapered during the treatment (tapering group, n = 116) using linear mixed models. Results Baseline characteristics between two groups were comparable except for higher BASDAI (7.1 vs. 6.3, p = 0.003) in the standard-dose group. At two years after the treatment, mean dose quotient (S.D.) of the tapering group was 0.59 (0.17). During follow up, rate of radiographic progression in overall patients was 0.90 mSASSS units/year. Radiographic progression over time between the two groups was similar at the entire group level. However, in the subgroup of patients with baseline syndesmophytes, progression occurred significantly faster in the tapering group after the adjustment for baseline status (1.23 vs. 1.72 mSASSS units/year, p = 0.023). Results were consistent when radiographic progression was assessed by the number of newly developed syndesmophytes (0.52 vs. 0.73/year, p = 0.047). Sensitivity analysis after multiple imputation of missing radiographs also showed similar results. Conclusion A dose tapering strategy of TNFi is associated with more rapid radiographic progression in AS patients who have syndesmophytes at baseline. PMID:28033420

  12. The Metabolic Syndrome: Prevalence, Associated Factors, and Impact on Survival among Older Persons in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khanam, Masuma Akter; Qiu, Chengxuan; Lindeboom, Wietze; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Wahlin, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among older persons in rural Bangladesh, to investigate whether the prevalence varies by age, sex, literacy, marital status, nutritional status and socio-economic status, and to assess the impact of MetS on survival. Methods The study consisted of 456 persons who were aged ≥60 years living in a rural area of Bangladesh during July 2003–March 2004. Data were collected through interview, clinical examination, and laboratory tests, and their survival status until 30th June 2009 was ascertained through the Matlab surveillance system. We defined MetS following the NCEP ATP III criteria, with minor modifications, i.e., presence of any three of the following: hypertension (BP ≥130/85 mm Hg); random blood glucose (RBG) level ≥7.0 mmol/L; hyper-triglyceridemia (≥2.28 mmol/L); low level of HDL-cholesterol (<1.04 mmol/L for men and <1.29 mmol/L for women); and BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2. Data were analysed with logistic regressions for the influential factors of MetS, and with Cox models for the association of MetS with the survival status. Findings The overall prevalence of MetS was 19.5%, 20.8% in women, and 18.0% in men. Asset-index and nutritional status were independently associated with MetS. During 4.93 years of follow-up, 18.2% died. In the presence of high RBG, MetS has a significant negative effect on survival (69.4% vs 95.2%, log rank p = 0.02). Conclusion This study highlights the importance of the metabolic syndrome in rural Bangladesh. Our findings suggest that there is a need for screening programmes involving the metabolic syndrome to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21697988

  13. Impact of Fli-1 transcription factor on autoantibody and lupus nephritis in NZM2410 mice.

    PubMed

    Mathenia, J; Reyes-Cortes, E; Williams, S; Molano, I; Ruiz, P; Watson, D K; Gilkeson, G S; Zhang, X K

    2010-11-01

    The transcription factor Fli-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of both murine and human lupus. Increased levels of Fli-1 mRNA were present in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from lupus patients; furthermore, transgenic overexpression of Fli-1 in normal mice resulted in the development of a lupus-like disease. Lupus nephritis is a major cause of death in both lupus patients as well as in animal models. In this study, we generated Fli-1 heterozygous knockout (Fli-1(+/)⁻ ) NZM2410 mice (of which the wild-type is a widely used lupus murine model) that expressed decreased levels of Fli-1 and investigated the impact of Fli-1 expression on lupus nephritis development and survival. Ninety-three per cent of the Fli-1(+/)⁻ NZM2410 mice survived to the age of 52 weeks compared to only 35% of wild-type NZM2410 mice. Autoantibodies, including anti-dsDNA and anti-glomerular basement antigen, in Fli-1(+/)⁻ NZM2410 mice were statistically significantly lower when compared to wild-type NZM2410 mice at the ages of 30 and 34 weeks. Total B cell and activated B cell populations in the spleens from Fli-1(+/)⁻ NZM2410 mice were decreased significantly compared to wild-type NZM2410 mice. Fli-1(+/)⁻ NZM2410 mice also had remarkably diminished proteinuria and decreased renal pathological scores when compared with wild-type NZM2410 mice. Expression of early growth response 1 (Egr-1) was decreased significantly in the kidneys from Fli-1(+/)⁻ NZM2410 mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Our data indicate that expression of Fli-1 plays an important role in lupus disease development in NZM2410 mice.

  14. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  15. Factors affecting miniature Izod impact strength of tungsten-fiber-metal-matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, E. A.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The miniature Izod and Charpy impact strengths of copper, copper-nickel, and nickel-base superalloy uniaxially reinforced with continuous tungsten fibers were studied. In most cases, impact strength was increased by increasing fiber or matrix toughness, decreasing fibermatrix reaction, increasing test temperature, hot working, or heat treating. Notch sensitivity was reduced by increasing fiber content or matrix toughness. An equation relating impact strength to fiber and matrix properties and fiber content was developed. Program results imply that tungsten alloy-fiber/superalloy matrix composites can be made with adequate impact resistance for turbine blade or vane applications.

  16. Species Distribution Models and Impact Factor Growth in Environmental Journals: Methodological Fashion or the Attraction of Global Change Science

    PubMed Central

    Brotons, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    In this work, I evaluate the impact of species distribution models (SDMs) on the current status of environmental and ecological journals by asking the question to which degree development of SDMs in the literature is related to recent changes in the impact factors of ecological journals. The hypothesis evaluated states that research fronts are likely to attract research attention and potentially drive citation patterns, with journals concentrating papers related to the research front receiving more attention and benefiting from faster increases in their impact on the ecological literature. My results indicate a positive relationship between the number of SDM related articles published in a journal and its impact factor (IF) growth during the period 2000–09. However, the percentage of SDM related papers in a journal was strongly and positively associated with the percentage of papers on climate change and statistical issues. The results support the hypothesis that global change science has been critical in the development of SDMs and that interest in climate change research in particular, rather than the usage of SDM per se, appears as an important factor behind journal IF increases in ecology and environmental sciences. Finally, our results on SDM application in global change science support the view that scientific interest rather than methodological fashion appears to be the major driver of research attraction in the scientific literature. PMID:25386926

  17. Species distribution models and impact factor growth in environmental journals: methodological fashion or the attraction of global change science.

    PubMed

    Brotons, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    In this work, I evaluate the impact of species distribution models (SDMs) on the current status of environmental and ecological journals by asking the question to which degree development of SDMs in the literature is related to recent changes in the impact factors of ecological journals. The hypothesis evaluated states that research fronts are likely to attract research attention and potentially drive citation patterns, with journals concentrating papers related to the research front receiving more attention and benefiting from faster increases in their impact on the ecological literature. My results indicate a positive relationship between the number of SDM related articles published in a journal and its impact factor (IF) growth during the period 2000-09. However, the percentage of SDM related papers in a journal was strongly and positively associated with the percentage of papers on climate change and statistical issues. The results support the hypothesis that global change science has been critical in the development of SDMs and that interest in climate change research in particular, rather than the usage of SDM per se, appears as an important factor behind journal IF increases in ecology and environmental sciences. Finally, our results on SDM application in global change science support the view that scientific interest rather than methodological fashion appears to be the major driver of research attraction in the scientific literature.

  18. The assessment of science: the relative merits of post-publication review, the impact factor, and the number of citations.

    PubMed

    Eyre-Walker, Adam; Stoletzki, Nina

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of scientific publications is an integral part of the scientific process. Here we investigate three methods of assessing the merit of a scientific paper: subjective post-publication peer review, the number of citations gained by a paper, and the impact factor of the journal in which the article was published. We investigate these methods using two datasets in which subjective post-publication assessments of scientific publications have been made by experts. We find that there are moderate, but statistically significant, correlations between assessor scores, when two assessors have rated the same paper, and between assessor score and the number of citations a paper accrues. However, we show that assessor score depends strongly on the journal in which the paper is published, and that assessors tend to over-rate papers published in journals with high impact factors. If we control for this bias, we find that the correlation between assessor scores and between assessor score and the number of citations is weak, suggesting that scientists have little ability to judge either the intrinsic merit of a paper or its likely impact. We also show that the number of citations a paper receives is an extremely error-prone measure of scientific merit. Finally, we argue that the impact factor is likely to be a poor measure of merit, since it depends on subjective assessment. We conclude that the three measures of scientific merit considered here are poor; in particular subjective assessments are an error-prone, biased, and expensive method by which to assess merit. We argue that the impact factor may be the most satisfactory of the methods we have considered, since it is a form of pre-publication review. However, we emphasise that it is likely to be a very error-prone measure of merit that is qualitative, not quantitative.

  19. Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-α on hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Afkar Abdel-Ghany; El-Hindawi, Ali; Hammam, Olfat; Moussa, Mona; Gabal, Samia; Said, Noha

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor system plays a central hepato-protective and pro-regenerative role in liver. Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) is an important autocrine growth regulator of hepatocytes that plays a role in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study was done on 40 core liver biopsies from patients with CHC, 20 liver specimens from HCC cases on top of CHC as well as five normal controls. All were immunohistochemically stained with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and TGF-α antibodies. Some selected HCC cases were submitted for FISH technique to detect EGFR gene alteration. By immunohistochemistry EGFR and TGF-α were overexpressed in HCC and cirrhotic cases compared to CHC cases without cirrhosis. Also, their expression was stronger in CHC cases with higher grades of activity and stages of fibrosis compared to lower ones. FISH positive results for EGFR were detected in 33.3% of the examined HCC cases. EGFR and TGF-α can be used as predictive markers for activity, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis in CHC patients. Overexpression of EGFR in HCC patients can be promising in selecting those who can get benefit from anti-EGFR target therapy.

  20. Impact factor and other indices to assess science, scientists and scientific journals.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, K

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of measures and parameters for the evaluation of science and scientific journals from the first attempts during the early part of the last century to the development of the most popular, current and widely used metrics viz., citations, impact factor (IF) etc. The identification of measures of evaluation in science and scientific reporting paralled the post-war increase in funding in the United States of America. Biomedical and medical sciences continue to garner a major share, estimated to be almost two-thirds of total research and development funding of over US$ 350 billion. There has been a concomitant growth in the publications in learned journals. About 1.4 million papers are published every year in an estimated 20,000 journals. In India there are an estimated 100 journals in medical sciences. With a steady increase of about 10% every year, the competition for grants, awards, rewards etc., is fierce. This unrelenting increase in number of scientists and the resultant competition, the limitation of peer review was felt. A search was on for new quantifiable measures for informed decision making for funding, awards, rewards, etc. Now virtually all major decisions all over the world are based on some data linked to publications and/or citations. The concept of citations as tool for 'evaluating' science was first proposed by Eugene Garfield in 1955. The availability of Science Citation Index (SCI), Journal Citation Reports (JCR), Web of Science etc. and the relative ease with which they could be used (and abused) has spawned an entirely new area bibliometrics/scientometrics. As only a limited number of journals could be included in the Thomson Reuters (TR) databases (currently numbering about 10500), analyses based on such a limited dataset (also selected in a non-transparent way by the TR) has been widely and severely criticized by both the developed and developing countries. Yet, studies have shown that citation-based data and

  1. Impact factors identification of spatial heterogeneity of herbaceous plant diversity on five southern islands of Miaodao Archipelago in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yuan; Shi, Honghua; Wang, Xiaoli; Qin, Xuebo; Zheng, Wei; Peng, Shitao

    2016-09-01

    Herbaceous plants are widely distributed on islands and where they exhibit spatial heterogeneity. Accurately identifying the impact factors that drive spatial heterogeneity can reveal typical island biodiversity patterns. Five southern islands in the Miaodao Archipelago, North China were studied herein. The spatial distribution of herbaceous plant diversity on these islands was analyzed, and the impact factors and their degree of impact on spatial heterogeneity were identified using CCA ordination and ANOVA. The results reveal 114 herbaceous plant species, belonging to 94 genera from 34 families in the 50 plots sampled. The total species numbers on different islands were significantly positively correlated with island area, and the average α diversity was correlated with human activities, while the β diversity among islands was more affected by island area than mutual distances. Spatial heterogeneity within islands indicated that the diversities were generally high in areas with higher altitude, slope, total nitrogen, total carbon, and canopy density, and lower moisture content, pH, total phosphorus, total potassium, and aspect. Among the environmental factors, pH, canopy density, total K, total P, moisture content, altitude, and slope had significant gross effects, but only canopy density exhibited a significant net effect. Terrain affected diversity by restricting plantation, plantation in turn influenced soil properties and the two together affected diversity. Therefore, plantation was ultimately the fundamental driving factor for spatial heterogeneity in herbaceous plant diversity on the five islands.

  2. Evaluating the impact of implementation factors on family-based prevention programming: methods for strengthening causal inference.

    PubMed

    Crowley, D Max; Coffman, Donna L; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2014-04-01

    Despite growing recognition of the important role implementation plays in successful prevention efforts, relatively little work has sought to demonstrate a causal relationship between implementation factors and participant outcomes. In turn, failure to explore the implementation-to-outcome link limits our understanding of the mechanisms essential to successful programming. This gap is partially due to the inability of current methodological procedures within prevention science to account for the multitude of confounders responsible for variation in implementation factors (i.e., selection bias). The current paper illustrates how propensity and marginal structural models can be used to improve causal inferences involving implementation factors not easily randomized (e.g., participant attendance). We first present analytic steps for simultaneously evaluating the impact of multiple implementation factors on prevention program outcome. Then, we demonstrate this approach for evaluating the impact of enrollment and attendance in a family program, over and above the impact of a school-based program, within PROSPER, a large-scale real-world prevention trial. Findings illustrate the capacity of this approach to successfully account for confounders that influence enrollment and attendance, thereby more accurately representing true causal relations. For instance, after accounting for selection bias, we observed a 5% reduction in the prevalence of 11th grade underage drinking for those who chose to receive a family program and school program compared to those who received only the school program. Further, we detected a 7% reduction in underage drinking for those with high attendance in the family program.

  3. Modeling the influence of temporal and spatial factors on the assessment of impacts of pesticides on skylarks.

    PubMed

    Topping, Christopher John; Odderskaer, Peter

    2004-02-01

    Spatio-temporal factors strongly influence the population dynamics of animals; thus there have been calls to integrate these factors in environmental impact assessment of toxic compounds. To date, methodological difficulties have probably prevented this union. However, new modeling techniques that could help are available. This paper presents the construction and application of an agent-based simulation model of skylarks in agricultural landscapes and its use to assess the impact of pesticides relative to changes in landscape structure and mortality assumptions. Simulations indicated that pesticides had a negative impact on skylark population size. The annual reduction in numbers was variable and depended primarily upon migration mortality and an interaction between weather and pesticides. Altering landscape structure, crop diversity, or migration mortality assumptions resulted in a population change of approximately 37%, compared to a mean of 4% for pesticides. It was concluded that factors other than pesticides are likely to be limiting skylark numbers in most landscapes. This study demonstrates the importance of modeling the interactions between spatio-temporal environmental factors and the study organisms. Agent-based models (ABMs) are able to extract these relationships as emergent properties of their mechanistic nature. Therefore, we recommend the use of ABM models in future regulatory assessment of pesticides.

  4. Asthma phenotypes modify the impact of environmetnal factors on lung function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have examined the role of childhood asthma phenotypes based on clinical history on asthma severity and symptom aggravation by environmental risk factors. The current study focuses on the associations between lung function in childhood and environmental factors an...

  5. The Retention of Experienced Faculty in Online Distance Education Programs: Understanding Factors that Impact Their Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tim; Alejandro, Jeffery; Brown, Abbie H.

    2009-01-01

    The study sought to determine factors that affect faculty decisions regarding their involvement in teaching online distance education courses. A survey was administered to online distance education faculty across the United States to determine those factors that encourage or discourage them from continuing to teach online courses. The factors were…

  6. Postconcussive Symptoms in OEF-OIF Veterans: Factor Structure and Impact of Posttraumatic Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-03

    generally include somatic, affec- tive, and cognitive factors, in addition to other factors (see Potter, Leigh, Wade, & Fleminger , 2006, p.1605, for a... Fleminger , S. (2006). The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire: A confirmatory factor anal- ysis. Journal of Neurology, 253, 1603–1614

  7. Potential factors impacting season-long expression of Cry1Ac in 13 commercial varieties of Bollgard® cotton

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, John J.; Sumerford, Douglas V.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen commercial varieties of transgenic Cry1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) cotton were examined across two sites in 2000 for potential factors that impact endotoxin expression. In all cases, two varieties (NuCOTN 33B and DP 458B/RR, Delta & Pineland Co., Scott, MS) expressed more Cry1Ac than the other 11 varieties in various plant structures. These two varieties share the same parental background (DP 5415). Furthermore, when the next generation of plants were tested in the greenhouse, the same varietal patterns were exhibited. These data strongly suggest that factors such as parental background had a stronger impact on the expression of Cry1Ac than the environment. PMID:15455073

  8. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita; Moonsamy, Suri; Abbai, Nathlee Samantha; Wand, Handan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002–2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR) were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old), unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole. PMID:27104835

  9. Incidence and risk factors of injuries and their impact on academic success: A prospective study in PETE students.

    PubMed

    Bliekendaal, S; Goossens, L; Stubbe, J H

    2017-01-30

    Injuries can have a major impact on the physical performance and academic career of physical education teacher education (PETE) students. To investigate the injury problem, risk factors, and the impact of injuries on academic success, 252 PETE students were followed during their first semester. Risk factor analysis was conducted by means of logistic regression analysis with a differentiation for upper body, lower body, acute, overuse, and severe injuries. An incidence of 1.26 injuries/student/semester was found. Most injuries involved the lower body (61%), were new injuries (76%), occurred acutely (66%), and were sustained during curricular gymnastics (25%) or extracurricular soccer (28%). Significant risk factors for lower body acute injuries were age (OR=2.14; P=.01), previous injury (OR=2.23; P=.01), and an injury at the start of the year (OR=2.56; P=.02). For lower body overuse injuries, gender (OR=2.85; P=.02) and the interval shuttle run test score (OR=2.44; P=.04) were significant risk factors. Previous injury (OR=2.59; P=.04) and injury at the start of the year (upper body: OR=4.57; P=.02; lower body: OR=3.75; P<.01) were risk factors for severe injuries. Injury-related time loss was positively related to total academic success (r=.20; P=.02) and success in theoretical courses (r=.24; P=<.01). No association was found between time loss and academic success for sport courses.

  10. The impact of environmental, parental and child factors on health-related behaviors among low-income children.

    PubMed

    Musaad, Salma M A; Speirs, Katherine E; Hayes, Jenna T; Mobley, Amy R; Fitzgerald, Nurgul; Jones, Blake L; VanBrackle, Angela; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2017-05-01

    Multi-level factors act in concert to influence child weight-related behaviors. This study examined the simultaneous impact of variables obtained at the level of the home environment (e.g., mealtime ritualization), parent (e.g., modeling) and child (e.g., satiety responsiveness) with the outcomes of practicing healthy and limiting unhealthy child behaviors (PHCB and LUCB, respectively) in a low-income U.S.

  11. Malaysia -U.S. Relations: Influencing Factors and its Impact on Malaysia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    and the U.S. as a combination of critism and cooperation? What are the impacts of these relations on Malaysia? How best can understanding of the...relations between Malaysia and the U.S. as a combination of critism and cooperation? What are the impacts of these relations on Malaysia? How best...ideal was now increasingly condemned by some 5 as authoritarian and conformist. The theory and practice of multi-culturalism began to prevail

  12. Infectious disease, shifting climates, and opportunistic predators: cumulative factors potentially impacting wild salmon declines

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kristina M; Teffer, Amy; Tucker, Strahan; Li, Shaorong; Schulze, Angela D; Trudel, Marc; Juanes, Francis; Tabata, Amy; Kaukinen, Karia H; Ginther, Norma G; Ming, Tobi J; Cooke, Steven J; Hipfner, J Mark; Patterson, David A; Hinch, Scott G

    2014-01-01

    Emerging diseases are impacting animals under high-density culture, yet few studies assess their importance to wild populations. Microparasites selected for enhanced virulence in culture settings should be less successful maintaining infectivity in wild populations, as once the host dies, there are limited opportunities to infect new individuals. Instead, moderately virulent microparasites persisting for long periods across multiple environments are of greatest concern. Evolved resistance to endemic microparasites may reduce susceptibilities, but as barriers to microparasite distributions are weakened, and environments become more stressful, unexposed populations may be impacted and pathogenicity enhanced. We provide an overview of the evolutionary and ecological impacts of infectious diseases in wild salmon and suggest ways in which modern technologies can elucidate the microparasites of greatest potential import. We present four case studies that resolve microparasite impacts on adult salmon migration success, impact of river warming on microparasite replication, and infection status on susceptibility to predation. Future health of wild salmon must be considered in a holistic context that includes the cumulative or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors. These approaches will identify populations at greatest risk, critically needed to manage and potentially ameliorate the shifts in current or future trajectories of wild populations. PMID:25469162

  13. Wetting state and maximum spreading factor of microdroplets impacting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces with anisotropic arrays of pillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Hee; Huh, Hyung Kyu; Lee, Sang Joon

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic behaviors of microdroplets that impact on textured surfaces with various patterns of microscale pillars are experimentally investigated in this study. A piezoelectric inkjet is used to generate the microdroplets that have a diameter of less than 46 μm and a controlled Weber number. The impact and spreading dynamics of an individual droplet are captured by using a high-speed imaging system. The anisotropic and directional wettability and the wetting states on the textured surfaces with anisotropically arranged pillars are revealed for the first time in this study. The impalement transition from the Cassie-Baxter state to the partially impaled state is evaluated by balancing the wetting pressure P wet and the capillary pressure P C even on the anisotropic textured surfaces. The maximum spreading factor is measured and compared with the theoretical prediction to elucidate the wettability of the textured surfaces. For a given Weber number, the maximum spreading factor decreases as the texture area fraction of the textured surface decreases. In addition, the maximum spreading factors along the direction of longer inter-pillar spacing always have smaller values than those along the direction of shorter inter-pillar spacing when a droplet impacts on the anisotropic arrays of pillars.

  14. Power of two: Assessing the impact of a second measurement of the weak-charge form factor of 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarewicz, J.; Linero, A. R.; Giuliani, P.; Chicken, E.

    2016-09-01

    Background: Besides its intrinsic value as a fundamental nuclear-structure observable, the weak-charge density of 208Pb—a quantity that is closely related to its neutron distribution—is of fundamental importance in constraining the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. Purpose: To assess the impact that a second electroweak measurement of the weak-charge form factor of 208Pb may have on the determination of its overall weak-charge density. Methods: Using the two putative experimental values of the form factor, together with a simple implementation of Bayes' theorem, we calibrate a theoretically sound—yet surprisingly little known—symmetrized Fermi function, that is characterized by a density and form factor that are both known exactly in closed form. Results: Using the charge form factor of 208Pb as a proxy for its weak-charge form factor, we demonstrate that using only two experimental points to calibrate the symmetrized Fermi function is sufficient to accurately reproduce the experimental charge form factor over a significant range of momentum transfers. Conclusions: It is demonstrated that a second measurement of the weak-charge form factor of 208Pb supplemented by a robust theoretical input in the form of the symmetrized Fermi function would place significant constraints on the neutron distribution of 208Pb. In turn, such constraints will become vital in the interpretation of hadronic experiments that will probe the neutron-rich skin of exotic nuclei at future radioactive beam facilities.

  15. Why do residential recycled water schemes fail? A comprehensive review of risk factors and impact on objectives.

    PubMed

    West, Camilla; Kenway, Steven; Hassall, Maureen; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-10-01

    In Australia, recycled water schemes have been implemented in residential developments to contribute to sustainable urban development, improve water supply security and reduce pollutant discharges to the environment. A proportion of these schemes, however, have been decommissioned well before the end of their design life which raises questions about the adequacy of the risk assessment and management practices adopted for recycled water schemes. Through a detailed literature review, an investigation of 21 residential recycled water schemes and in-depth interviews with nine scheme stakeholders, we identified 34 risk factors arising from six sources which have the potential to impact the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes. Of the 34 risk factors identified, 17 were reported to have occurred during the development and implementation of the 21 schemes investigated. The overall risk rating of the 17 factors was qualitatively defined on the basis of the likelihood of occurrence and the impact of the risk factors on the scheme objectives. The outcomes of the assessment indicate that the critical risks to the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes are 1. unanticipated operational costs, 2. legal and contractual arrangements, 3. regulatory requirements and approval process and 4. customer complaints and expectations not met. To date, public health risks associated with the provision of recycled water have been of primary concern, though the outcomes of this study indicate that the impact to public health has been low. Evidently there is a need for improved assessment and management practices which address the range of critical risk factors, in addition to the routine consideration of public health risks.

  16. The impact of atherosclerotic factors on cerebral aneurysm is location dependent: aneurysms in stroke patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Hokari, Masaaki; Isobe, Masanori; Imai, Tetsuaki; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Iwamoto, Naotaka; Isu, Toyohiko

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) seem to increase the occurrence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). However, this maybe explained by the fact that CVDs and UIAs share common risk factors, such as hypertension (HT) and smoking. To clarify the impact of atherosclerotic risk factors on cerebral aneurysmal formation, we explored the incidence of UIAs and their locations in healthy controls and patients with CVD, who frequently have atherosclerotic risk factors. This study included consecutive 283 asymptomatic healthy adults and 173 acute stroke patients, from patients diagnosed with acute cerebral hemorrhage or cerebral infarction and admitted to our hospital. The incidence, maximum diameter, and location of UIAs were evaluated, and we also investigated the following factors: age, gender, current smoking, HT, diabetes mellitus (DM), and dyslipidemia. UIAs were found in 19 of the total 456 subjects (4.2%), 11 of 283 healthy subjects (3.9%), and 8 of 173 stroke patients (4.6%). These differences are not statically significant. The incidence of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms was significantly higher in the CVD patients than in the healthy controls (P = .03), and the incidence of paraclinoid aneurysms was significantly higher in the healthy controls than in the CVD patients (P = .03). Moreover, higher incidences of HTs and CVDs in the MCA aneurysms than in the other locations of UIAs were observed. These results indicate that the impact of atherosclerotic factors on cerebral aneurysmal formation depends on their location and that there is a stronger impact on MCA aneurysms than on paraclinoid aneurysms.

  17. Projecting Burden of Dementia in Spain, 2010-2050: Impact of Modifying Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Arrospide, Arantzazu; Moreno-Izco, Fermín; Martínez-Lage, Pablo; Castilla, Iván; Mar, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Risk and protective factors such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, physical activity, and hypertension can play a role in the development of dementia. Our objective was to measure the effect of modification of risk and protective factors on the prevalence and economic burden of dementia in the aging Spanish population during 2010-2050. A discrete event simulation model including risk and protective factors according to CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Incidence of Dementia) Risk Score was built to represent the natural history of dementia. Prevalence of dementia was calculated from 2010 to 2050 according to different scenarios of risk factor prevalence to assess the annual social and health care costs of dementia. The model also supplied hazard ratios for dementia. Aging will increase between 49% and 16% each decade in the number of subjects with dementia. The number of working-age individuals per person with dementia will decrease to a quarter by 2050. An intervention leading to a 20% change in risk and protective factors would reduce dementia by 9% , prevent over 100,000 cases, and save nearly 4,900 million euros in 2050. Switching individuals from a group with a specific risk factor to one without it nearly halved the risk of the development of dementia. Dementia prevalence will grow unmanageable if effective prevention strategies are not developed. Interventions aiming to reduce modifiable risk factor prevalence represent valid and effective alternatives to reduce dementia burden. However, further research is needed to identify causal relationships between dementia and risk factors.

  18. Heterogeneous impacts of gender-interpreted contributing factors on driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Chen, Cong; Tarefder, Rafiqul; Wang, Haizhong; Wei, Heng

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a mixed logit model is developed to identify the heterogeneous impacts of gender-interpreted contributing factors on driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes. The random parameter of the variables in the mixed logit model, the heterogeneous mean, is elaborated by driver gender-based linear regression models. The model is estimated using crash data in New Mexico from 2010 to 2012. The percentage changes of factors' predicted probabilities are calculated in order to better understand the model specifications. Female drivers are found more likely to experience severe or fatal injuries in rollover crashes than male drivers. However, the probability of male drivers being severely injured is higher than female drivers when the road surface is unpaved. Two other factors with fixed parameters are also found to significantly increase driver injury severities, including Wet and Alcohol Influenced. This study provides a better understanding of contributing factors influencing driver injury severities in rollover crashes as well as their heterogeneous impacts in terms of driver gender. Those results are also helpful to develop appropriate countermeasures and policies to reduce driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes.

  19. Impact of targeting insulin-like growth factor signaling in head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Limesand, Kirsten H; Chibly, Alejandro Martinez; Fribley, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The IGF system has been shown to have either negative or negligible impact on clinical outcomes of tumor development depending on specific tumor sites or stages. This review focuses on the clinical impact of IGF signaling in head and neck cancer, the effects of IGF targeted therapies, and the multi-dimensional role of IRS 1/2 signaling as a potential mechanism in resistance to targeted therapies. Similar to other tumor sites, both negative and positive correlations between levels of IGF-1/IGF-1-R and clinical outcomes in head and neck cancer have been reported. In addition, utilization of IGF targeted therapies has not demonstrated significant clinical benefit; therefore the prognostic impact of the IGF system on head and neck cancer remains uncertain.

  20. Factors influencing the implementation of antibiotic de-escalation and impact of this strategy in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A rational use of antibiotics is of paramount importance in order to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria that can lead to therapeutic impasse, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). A de-escalation strategy is therefore naturally advocated as part of better antibiotics usage. However, the clinical impact of such a strategy has not been widely studied. We aimed to assess the feasibility and the clinical impact of a de-escalation strategy in a medical ICU and to identify factors associated when de-escalation was possible. Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients hospitalized in a medical ICU over a period of six months. Independent factors associated with de-escalation and its clinical impact were assessed. Results Two hundred and twenty-nine patients were included in the study. Antibiotics were de-escalated in 117 patients (51%). The appropriateness of initial antibiotic therapy was the only independent factor associated with the performance of de-escalation (OR = 2.9, 95% CI, 1.5-5.7; P = 0.002). By contrast, inadequacy of initial antibiotic therapy (OR = 0.1, 0.0 to 0.1, P <0.001) and the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria (OR = 0.2, 0.1 to 0.7, P = 0.006) prevented from de-escalation. There were no differences in terms of short (ICU) or long-term (at 1 year) mortality rates or any secondary criteria such as ICU length of stay, duration of antibiotic therapy, mechanical ventilation, incidence of ICU-acquired infection, or multi-drug resistant bacteria emergence. Conclusions De-escalation appears feasible in most cases without any obvious negative clinical impact in a medical ICU. PMID:23849321

  1. Climate change impacts: The challenge of quantifying multi-factor causation, multi-component responses, and leveraging from extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling climate change impacts is challenging for a variety of reasons. Some of these are related to causation. A weather or climate event is rarely the sole cause of an impact, and, for many impacts, social, economic, cultural, or ecological factors may play a larger role than climate. Other challenges are related to outcomes. Consequences of an event are often most severe when several kinds of responses interact, typically in unexpected ways. Many kinds of consequences are difficult to quantify, especially when they include a mix of market, cultural, personal, and ecological values. In addition, scale can be tremendously important. Modest impacts over large areas present very different challenges than severe but very local impacts. Finally, impacts may respond non-linearly to forcing, with behavior that changes qualitatively at one or more thresholds and with unexpected outcomes in extremes. Modeling these potentially complex interactions between drivers and impacts presents one set of challenges. Evaluating the models presents another. At least five kinds of approaches can contribute to the evaluation of impact models designed to provide insights in multi-driver, multi-responder, multi-scale, and extreme-driven contexts, even though none of these approaches is a complete or "silver-bullet" solution. The starting point for much of the evaluation in this space is case studies. Case studies can help illustrate links between processes and scales. They can highlight factors that amplify or suppress sensitivity to climate drivers, and they can suggest the consequences of intervening at different points. While case studies rarely provide concrete evidence about mechanisms, they can help move a mechanistic case from circumstantial to sound. Novel approaches to data collection, including crowd sourcing, can potentially provide tools and the number of relevant examples to develop case studies as statistically robust data sources. A critical condition for progress in this

  2. Examination of Factors Impacting Student Satisfaction with a New Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lucy Santos; Inan, Fethi A.; Denton, Bree

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influenced student satisfaction with a new learning management system and to identify which of these factors were most important. The data was collected using an an online survey tool that was administered to students enrolled in courses designed and taught by faculty who participated in a…

  3. Contextual Factors Impacting Battered Women's Intentions to Reuse the Criminal Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury-Steiner, Ruth E.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Belknap, Joanne; Melton, Heather C.

    2006-01-01

    While a small number of past studies have examined either situational, relational, or systems-level factors that influence battered women's use of either the police, prosecutorial, or court systems, no study to date has examined how these factors each influence women's intentions to reuse these systems. To address this gap, in-person interviews…

  4. Laptops in the K-12 Classrooms: Exploring Factors Impacting Instructional Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Fethi A.; Lowther, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting teachers' integration of laptops into classroom instruction. A research-based path model was tested based on data gathered from 379 K-12 school teachers to examine direct and indirect contributions of relevant institutional factors (overall support for school technology, technical support,…

  5. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    PubMed Central

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  6. The Impact of Employee Engagement Factors and Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Mary Lynn; Morris, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    The current literature review examined a proposed relationship between the antecedent-employee engagement factors--and the outcome variable turnover intent mediated by job satisfaction. Kahn's Personal Engagement Theory, Equity Theory, and Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction were used as the theoretical underpinnings for the review.…

  7. The Impacts of System and Human Factors on Online Learning Systems Use and Learner Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshare, Khaled A.; Freeze, Ronald D.; Lane, Peggy L.; Wen, H. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Success in an online learning environment is tied to both human and system factors. This study illuminates the unique contributions of human factors (comfort with online learning, self-management of learning, and perceived Web self-efficacy) to online learning system success, which is measured in terms of usage and satisfaction. The research model…

  8. A Study of Factors That Impact Teacher Job Satisfaction in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgartner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that low job satisfaction among teachers may lead to undesired consequences for educators, students, and communities. The greatest impact appears to be a high rate of attrition among teachers, which is growing (NCTAF, 2007). Teacher effectiveness, teacher retention, and student achievement can be directly…

  9. A New Classification System To Describe the Ageing of Scientific Journals and Their Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moed, H. F.; Van Leeuwen, Th. N.; Reedijk, J.

    1998-01-01

    Aging patterns are examined in "formal" use or impact of all scientific journals processed for the "Science Citation Index" during 1981 to 1995. A new classification system of journals in terms of their aging characteristics is introduced. It is shown that the cited half-life, printed in the "Journal Citation…

  10. The Impact of School Desegregation: An Investigation of Three Mediating Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce A.

    The inconsistency of results to be found in the study of the impact of school desegregation arises in part from the failure to appreciate the complexity of the phenomenon. This report takes a broader view of school desegregation; the basic dependent variables are school level means in the following basic areas: (1) racial attitudes, (2) political…

  11. Impact of the Thirteen College Curriculum Program on Graduating Seniors: Motivational and Attitudinal Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmeter, J. Thomas

    This document reports on some student impact results of the Thirteen College Curriculum Program (TCCP). The TCCP is a major effort in intervention and reform in the higher education of black Americans generated in predominantly black colleges. The goals were to reduce attrition rates by improving the quality of instruction at freshman and…

  12. Key Factors for Determining Risk of Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Susan; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Chris; Bacon, Diana

    2014-01-06

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow underwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models,l referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which "no impact" to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur.

  13. Key Factors Associated with the Effective Implementation and Impact of California's Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David D.

    This study focused on the implementation of "top-down" California state-initiated reform in secondary schools and the impact of that process on several outcomes: student academic achievement and the capacity of the organization to carry out ongoing reform. The research was part of a broader study of secondary school reform and how the…

  14. The Impact Factor: Measuring Student Professional Growth in an Online Doctoral Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Swapna; Dawson, Kara

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the impact of an online Ed.D. in educational technology based on data collected from students at regular intervals during the program. It documents how students who were working professionals applied learning from the program within their practice, enculturated into the educational technology community, and grew…

  15. Institutional Factors That Positively Impact First-Year Students' Sense of Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmening, Debra S.; Jacob, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study conducted at a single institution in the Midwest examines how institutional context and environment impact college students' sense of well-being. Twenty-seven first-year students participated in one to two hour, in-depth interviews where they talked about their first-year experiences, their concepts of well-being, and…

  16. The Impact of Familial and Environmental Factors on the Adjustment of Immigrants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mirsky, Julia; Rubinstein, Ludmila; Nauck, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of family interaction, perceived discrimination, stressful life events, and the hosting country on the adjustment of Israeli and German immigrants. Results show that changes in self-esteem between the 1st year of immigration and 2 and 4 years later were significantly related to family relations: the better the…

  17. A community survey on knowledge of the impact of environmental and epigenetic factors on health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marian; Bailey, Banita; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Levin, Linda; Metzger, Traci; Pinney, Susan M; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Aim An outreach effort was designed to survey breast cancer survivors, supporters and their families and friends with respect to their interest in, and knowledge of, the potential impact of the environment and epigenetics on health. Methods Two nearly identical questionnaires (one for adolescents and one for adults) were designed to gauge the perception of this community as to whether the environment impacts health and cancer risk through processes other than genetics. The questionnaires were filled out at casual social gatherings, fundraisers and wellness campaigns as well as in schools (730 participants). The differences among correct (scientific consensus) versus other responses (incorrect and not known) were evaluated. Each answer was first analysed individually and then grouped into one of three categories (diet, inheritance and environment) with age, race and gender. Differences for each response, question or group were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Respondents generally acknowledged that many factors could be associated with breast cancer although answers to key questions related to epigenetics based on diet, inheritance and environment were often incorrect or not known. The adult participants tended to answer more questions correctly than adolescents did. The majority of participants preferred the Internet as a major source for obtaining further information. Conclusion The growing awareness and educational needs for adolescents may bring new paradigm-related environmental risk factors, which may minimise negative epigenetic outcome in subsequent generations. There is an educational opportunity, especially using electronic media, for public education concerning the impact of the environment on human health. PMID:26941233

  18. How to Do It. Impact of Environmental Factors on Populations of Soil Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Francoise M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are simple experiments designed to demonstrate the effect of some factors of the environment (dryness, temperature, and fungicide application) on the size of some populations of soil microorganisms. Materials, media, techniques, procedures, and results are discussed. (CW)

  19. What Environmental Factors Impact the Concentration of Microcystin in an Inland Reservoir?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria are naturally occurring phytoplankton in aquatic environments. Increased nutrient inputs and temperatures, among others, have been identified as contributing factors in the proliferation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). CyanoHABs potentially produce toxic compounds ...

  20. Factors Impacting the Successful Implementation of Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs in Nova Scotia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Ron; Sumarah, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses factors that contribute to the successful implementation of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs at the elementary, junior, and senior high school levels in Nova Scotia. Examines counselors' perceptions of what helps or hinders successful implementation. (Contains 15 references.) (GCP)

  1. Splicing factor gene mutations in the myelodysplastic syndromes: impact on disease phenotype and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Pellagatti, Andrea; Boultwood, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Splicing factor gene mutations are the most frequent mutations found in patients with the myeloid malignancy myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), suggesting that spliceosomal dysfunction plays a major role in disease pathogenesis. The aberrantly spliced target genes and deregulated cellular pathways associated with the commonly mutated splicing factor genes in MDS (SF3B1, SRSF2 and U2AF1) are being identified, illuminating the molecular mechanisms underlying MDS. Emerging data from mouse modeling studies indicate that the presence of splicing factor gene mutations can lead to bone marrow hematopoietic stem/myeloid progenitor cell expansion, impaired hematopoiesis and dysplastic differentiation that are hallmarks of MDS. Importantly, recent evidence suggests that spliceosome inhibitors and splicing modulators may have therapeutic value in the treatment of splicing factor mutant myeloid malignancies.

  2. Extracellular matrix sub-types and mechanical stretch impact human cardiac fibroblast responses to transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed

    Watson, Chris J; Phelan, Dermot; Collier, Patrick; Horgan, Stephen; Glezeva, Nadia; Cooke, Gordon; Xu, Maojia; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Baugh, John A

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the impact of extracellular matrix sub-types and mechanical stretch on cardiac fibroblast activity is required to help unravel the pathophysiology of myocardial fibrotic diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate pro-fibrotic responses of primary human cardiac fibroblast cells exposed to different extracellular matrix components, including collagen sub-types I, III, IV, VI and laminin. The impact of mechanical cyclical stretch and treatment with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) on collagen 1, collagen 3 and alpha smooth muscle actin mRNA expression on different matrices was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results revealed that all of the matrices studied not only affected the expression of pro-fibrotic genes in primary human cardiac fibroblast cells at rest but also affected their response to TGFβ1. In addition, differential cellular responses to mechanical cyclical stretch were observed depending on the type of matrix the cells were adhered to. These findings may give insight into the impact of selective pathological deposition of extracellular matrix proteins within different disease states and how these could impact the fibrotic environment.

  3. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting and their impact on design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leowenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  4. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  5. The impact of plasma rich in growth factors on clinical and biological factors involved in healing processes after third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Mozzati, Marco; Martinasso, Germana; Pol, Renato; Polastri, Carolina; Cristiano, Antonio; Muzio, Giuliana; Canuto, Rosa

    2010-12-01

    Extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar is a common surgical procedure, although it still leads to several postoperative symptoms and complications. The study assessed the efficacy of autologous plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in the healing process by checking the difference of tissue cytokines and other healing factors produced by the mucosa after extraction between sites treated with PRGF and control sites and, at the same time, by evaluating the clinical efficacy of PRGF in terms of reduced pain and facial swelling. This study was a split-mouth study, in which the patient becomes his/her own control, to eliminate any individual response differences toward PRGF treatment. The parameters regarding inflammation and subsequent wound healing were all significantly higher at PRGF sites than at control sites. The increase at PRGF sites of the two proinflammatory cytokines evaluated, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, was accompanied by the increase of two anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. Furthermore, IL-1β and IL-6 induce fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation, important events in wound healing. Postoperative pain and the swelling, measured at all experimental times, were reduced in the presence of PRGF.

  6. Exploring the Psychosocial Impact of Wheelchair and Contextual Factors on Quality of Life of People with Neuromuscular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pousada García, Thais; Groba González, Betania; Nieto Rivero, Laura; Pereira Loureiro, Javier; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Pazos Sierra, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are a group of heterogeneous diseases that show differences in incidence, hereditary, etiology, prognosis, or functional impairments. Wheelchair use (manual or powered) is influenced by several factors, including personal and contextual factors, and comprehensive evaluation of their impact is required in order to optimize prescription and provision of wheelchairs. The authors therefore assessed the influence of wheelchair use on the quality of life (QoL) of 60 participants with NMD using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and a specially developed questionnaire were used to obtain information about contextual factors and participants' activity profile of activities of the participants. The results showed that using a wheelchair has psychosocial benefits, with the main determinants of benefit being type of wheelchair (powered), non-ambulation ability, and independence in mobility. Ensuring a good match between user and assistive technology (AT; e.g., wheelchair), as well as the effectiveness of the particular device, will increase the likelihood that the user will adopt it and use it effectively in daily life. Clinical prescription of AT would be improved by making appropriate use of outcome measures.

  7. The impact of individual and combined abiotic factors on daily otolith growth in a coral reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Amelia S.; Whinney, James; Taylor, Brett; Kroon, Frederieke

    2016-06-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly subjected to both local and global stressors, however, there is limited information on how reef organisms respond to their combined effects under natural conditions. This field study examined the growth response of the damselfish Neopomacentrus bankieri to the individual and combined effects of multiple abiotic factors. Turbidity, temperature, tidal movement, and wave action were recorded every 10 minutes for four months, after which the daily otolith growth of N. bankieri was aligned with corresponding abiotic conditions. Temperature was the only significant driver of daily otolith increment width, with increasing temperatures resulting in decreasing width. Although tidal movement was not a significant driver of increment width by itself, the combined effect of tidal movement and temperature had a greater negative effect on growth than temperature alone. Our results indicate that temperature can drive changes in growth even at very fine scales, and demonstrate that the cumulative impact of abiotic factors can be substantially greater than individual effects. As abiotic factors continue to change in intensity and duration, the combined impacts of them will become increasingly important drivers of physiological and ecological change.

  8. The impact of individual and combined abiotic factors on daily otolith growth in a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Amelia S.; Whinney, James; Taylor, Brett; Kroon, Frederieke

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly subjected to both local and global stressors, however, there is limited information on how reef organisms respond to their combined effects under natural conditions. This field study examined the growth response of the damselfish Neopomacentrus bankieri to the individual and combined effects of multiple abiotic factors. Turbidity, temperature, tidal movement, and wave action were recorded every 10 minutes for four months, after which the daily otolith growth of N. bankieri was aligned with corresponding abiotic conditions. Temperature was the only significant driver of daily otolith increment width, with increasing temperatures resulting in decreasing width. Although tidal movement was not a significant driver of increment width by itself, the combined effect of tidal movement and temperature had a greater negative effect on growth than temperature alone. Our results indicate that temperature can drive changes in growth even at very fine scales, and demonstrate that the cumulative impact of abiotic factors can be substantially greater than individual effects. As abiotic factors continue to change in intensity and duration, the combined impacts of them will become increasingly important drivers of physiological and ecological change. PMID:27350589

  9. The impact of individual and combined abiotic factors on daily otolith growth in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Amelia S; Whinney, James; Taylor, Brett; Kroon, Frederieke

    2016-06-28

    Coral reefs are increasingly subjected to both local and global stressors, however, there is limited information on how reef organisms respond to their combined effects under natural conditions. This field study examined the growth response of the damselfish Neopomacentrus bankieri to the individual and combined effects of multiple abiotic factors. Turbidity, temperature, tidal movement, and wave action were recorded every 10 minutes for four months, after which the daily otolith growth of N. bankieri was aligned with corresponding abiotic conditions. Temperature was the only significant driver of daily otolith increment width, with increasing temperatures resulting in decreasing width. Although tidal movement was not a significant driver of increment width by itself, the combined effect of tidal movement and temperature had a greater negative effect on growth than temperature alone. Our results indicate that temperature can drive changes in growth even at very fine scales, and demonstrate that the cumulative impact of abiotic factors can be substantially greater than individual effects. As abiotic factors continue to change in intensity and duration, the combined impacts of them will become increasingly important drivers of physiological and ecological change.

  10. Dogs on the Move: Factors Impacting Animal Shelter and Rescue Organizations’ Decisions to Accept Dogs from Distant Locations

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Kaitlyn E.; Hoffman, Christy L.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dog transfer programs are a topic of burgeoning interest in the animal welfare community, but little research has focused on such programs. This exploratory study, which surveyed 193 individuals associated with animal shelter and rescue organizations in the United States, evaluated factors that impacted organizations’ decisions to transfer in dogs over long distances (>100 miles) and assessed what criteria were commonly valued by destination organizations. Specifically, we examined the following aspects of long-distance transfer programs: (1) logistics of long-distance dog transfers; (2) factors impacting dog selection; (3) medical requirements; (4) partnerships formed between source and destination organizations; and (5) perceptions of long-distance dog transfer programs by individuals affiliated with the destination organizations. This study revealed that many logistical considerations factor into transfer decisions and the formation of healthy partnerships between source and destination organizations. Participants indicated their organization’s willingness to receive dogs of various sizes, coat colors and ages, but organizations often had restrictions regarding the breeds they would accept. Study findings indicate some organizations have strict quarantine policies and pre-transfer medical requirements, while others have no such requirements. PMID:26848694

  11. The criteria weight determination of factors impacting the melt flow index of degradable plastics using Lambda-Max method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dom, Rosma Mohd; Saadon, Nurul Adzlyana; Mohamad, Daud

    2013-09-01

    Three common methods of determining criteria weights using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are extent analysis, logarithmic least square method (LLSM) and Lambda-Max. Lambda-Max criteria weights determination method uses pair wise comparison of criteria considered. Studies have shown that Lambda-Max is a preferred criteria weight determination method since it involves lesser computation with consistent results of precise criteria weights generated. In this paper the criteria weights of four factors impacting the Melt Flow Index of degradable plastics are calculated using Lambda-Max method. The input factors (criteria) are the percentages by mass of polyethylene, oil palm biomass, palm olein and starch used in the formulation of degradable plastics. The criteria weights are calculated using Lambda-Max based on input given by four experts. The finding indicates the feasibility of using Lambda-Max method in criteria weight determination for determining the impact of four factors in the formulation of degradable plastics as reflected by the consistency control index value calculated.

  12. Examining Factors That Impact Inpatient Management of Diabetes and the Role of Insulin Pen Devices.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Chelsea; Lamarche, Danièle; Chevrier, Annie

    2017-02-01

    Insulin administration in the acute care setting is an integral component of inpatient diabetes management. Although some institutions have moved to insulin pen devices, many acute care settings continue to employ the vial and syringe method of insulin administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of insulin pen implementation in the acute care setting on patients, healthcare workers and health resource utilization. A review of published literature, including guidelines, was conducted to identify how insulin pen devices in the acute care setting may impact inpatient diabetes management. Previously published studies have revealed that insulin pen devices have the potential to improve inpatient management through better glycemic control, increased adherence and improved self-management education. Furthermore, insulin pen devices may result in cost savings and improved safety for healthcare workers. There are benefits to the use of insulin pen devices in acute care and, as such, their implementation should be considered.

  13. Multiple impacts of epilepsy and contributing factors: findings from an ethnographic study in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Nuran; Vu Trung, Dang; Snape, Dee; Baker, Gus A; Jacoby, Ann

    2009-01-01

    We investigated issues related to treatment, impact of epilepsy, attitudes toward epilepsy and disclosure in Vietnam by using in depth interviews with people with epilepsy (PWE) and their family members. We found that although participants prefer Western treatment methods more than traditional ones, they experience problems in accessing different kinds of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and higher-level treatment facilities and with respect to treatment expenses. The impact of epilepsy can be observed in a wide range of daily living activities which include working, education, marriage prospects and family formation. Although both families and society at large do not hold negative attitudes toward epilepsy, most PWE reported a sense of burden to others. Both PWE and family members generally prefer disclosing epilepsy rather than concealing it from others. Our findings strongly suggest a need for different types of AEDs, and supporting information for PWE, family members and general public about epilepsy. PMID:19800851

  14. Non-genetic impact factors on chronological lifespan and stress resistance of baker’s yeast

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Survival under nutrient limitation is an essential feature of microbial cells, and it is defined by the chronological lifespan. We summarize recent findings, illustrating how crucial the choice of the experimental setup is for the interpretation of data in this field. Especially the impact of oxygen supply differs depending on the culture type, highlighting the differences of alternatives like the retentostat to classical batch cultures. Finally the importance of culture conditions on cell aging and survival in biotechnological processes is highlighted. PMID:28362008

  15. The evaluation of the environmental impact and the external factors of urban transport in Constanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanca, C.; Stîngă, V. G.; Georgescu, S.; Cupşa, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    Transport activities are known to have a substantial negative environmental impact especially when referring to the urban transport. Studies have shown that external costs (as accidents, congestion, air emissions, climate change or noise) are an important subject of the European Union, that is why were carried out several research projects. This paper will highlight the current requirements and methodologies used by the European Union regarding the impact of the external costs of urban transport in most of the growth poles of Europe. Taking into consideration that Constanta is considered to be one of the seven major growth poles of Romania for the 2014-2020 period, this study aims at analyzing how the results of similar studies made in others centers of the European Union can be applied in Constanta, showing different methodologies and evaluations regarding the external costs and their impact. We will analyze how the conclusions obtained in previous projects are applicable to data collected by us throughout a field research on the technical description of the means of transport used it this city. As methodology, we will use one that was adopted by the European Union regarding the estimation of urban external costs, taking into consideration that each externality has a different method for estimating it. The results of this study may be useful in developing the sustainable urban mobility plan for Constanta, as a strategic plan design to reduce the impact of urban transport for a better quality of life at present and in the future. Through this paper we will get an insight into the urban transport in Constanta, but also data on external costs generated by the urban transport, given that road transport is considered to be the most polluting transport mode.

  16. Incorporating Transmission Into Causal Models of Infectious Diseases for Improved Understanding of the Effect and Impact of Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Paynter, Stuart

    2016-03-15

    Conventional measures of causality (which compare risks between exposed and unexposed individuals) do not factor in the population-scale dynamics of infectious disease transmission. We used mathematical models of 2 childhood infections (respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus) to illustrate this problem. These models incorporated 3 causal pathways whereby malnutrition could act to increase the incidence of severe infection: increasing the proportion of infected children who develop severe infection, increasing the children's susceptibility to infection, and increasing infectiousness. For risk factors that increased the proportion of infected children who developed severe infection, the population attributable fraction (PAF) calculated conventionally was the same as the PAF calculated directly from the models. However, for risk factors that increased transmission (by either increasing susceptibility to infection or increasing infectiousness), the PAF calculated directly from the models was much larger than that predicted by the conventional PAF calculation. The models also showed that even when conventional studies find no association between a risk factor and an outcome, risk factors that increase transmission can still have a large impact on disease burden. For a complete picture of infectious disease causality, transmission effects must be incorporated into causal models.

  17. Complex interactions between dietary and genetic factors impact lycopene metabolism and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Nancy E.; Erdman, John W.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    Intake of lycopene, a red, tetraterpene carotenoid found in tomatoes is epidemiologically associated with a decreased risk of chronic disease processes, and lycopene has demonstrated bioactivity in numerous in vitro and animal models. However, our understanding of absorption, tissue distribution, and biological impact in humans remains very limited. Lycopene absorption is strongly impacted by dietary composition, especially the amount of fat. Concentrations of circulating lycopene in lipoproteins may be further influenced by a number of variations in genes related to lipid absorption and metabolism. Lycopene is not uniformly distributed among tissues, with adipose, liver, and blood being the major body pools, while the testes, adrenals, and liver have the greatest concentrations compared to other organs. Tissue concentrations of lycopene are likely dictated by expression of and genetic variation in lipoprotein receptors, cholesterol transporters, and carotenoid metabolizing enzymes, thus impacting lycopene accumulation at target sites of action. The novel application of genetic evaluation in concert with lycopene tracers will allow determination of which genes and polymorphisms define individual lycopene metabolic phenotypes, response to dietary variables, and ultimately determine biological and clinical outcomes. A better understanding of the relationship between diet, genetics, and lycopene distribution will provide necessary information to interpret epidemiological findings more accurately and to design effective, personalized clinical nutritional interventions addressing hypotheses regarding health outcomes. PMID:23845854

  18. The impact of non-discretionary factors on DEA and SFA technical efficiency differences.

    PubMed

    Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Papathanasiou, Nikolaos D; Flokou, Angeliki; Tountas, Yannis; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if factors of the external operating environment can explain differences in technical efficiency derived from Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). In a sample of 124 dialysis facilities, technical efficiency was compared according to ownership, region, years in operation and size. With second-stage Tobit regression, DEA and SFA efficiency was regressed against these environmental factors to determine their potential for predicting technical efficiency, as well as the efficiency differences between the two frontier methods. DEA expectedly generated lower mean efficiency scores than SFA (68.2% vs. 79.4%, P < 0.001), due to the "random effects" term computed by the latter, in addition to "true" inefficiency. This finding was consistent for the subgroups formed on the basis of the environmental factors. Half the variation in the DEA-SFA efficiency differences was explained by environmental factors. This suggests that in addition to market instabilities, luck, and other related phenomena, decision-makers in their effort to determine optimal resource allocation, should point their attention to the potentially useful insight provided by environmental factors.

  19. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D.; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor “source of funding”: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors “agreeableness” and “openness” showed moderate to modest – but significant – effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion. PMID:24624100

  20. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual's financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor "source of funding": students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors "agreeableness" and "openness" showed moderate to modest - but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion.

  1. Journals Not Included in BIOSIS Previews Have a Notable Impact in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lascar, Claudia; Barnett, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal influential journals used by life scientists; journals not currently included in "BIOSIS Previews," but included in either "PubMed" or "Science Citation Index Expanded". These 252 journals were revealed by the Eigenfactor, an iterative ranking scheme which quantitatively measures the scientific influence of…

  2. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenxue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Chris; Bacon, Diana

    2014-09-07

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores

  3. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; ...

    2014-09-07

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could resultmore » from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores are the most likely

  4. Differential procoagulant activity of microparticles derived from monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells: impact of active tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Shustova, Olga N; Antonova, Olga A; Golubeva, Nina V; Khaspekova, Svetlana G; Yakushkin, Vladimir V; Aksuk, Svetlana A; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Y; Mazurov, Alexey V

    2016-12-06

    Microparticles released by activated/apoptotic cells exhibit coagulation activity as they express phosphatidylserine and some of them - tissue factor. We compared procoagulant properties of microparticles from monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells and assessed the impact of tissue factor in observed differences. Microparticles were sedimented (20 000g, 30 min) from the supernatants of activated monocytes, monocytic THP-1 cells, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. Coagulation activity of microparticles was examined using plasma recalcification assay. The size of microparticles was evaluated by dynamic light scattering. Tissue factor activity was measured by its ability to activate factor X. All microparticles significantly accelerated plasma coagulation with the shortest lag times for microparticles derived from monocytes, intermediate - for microparticles from THP-1 cells and endothelial cells, and the longest - for microparticles from granulocytes and platelets. Average diameters of microparticles ranged within 400-600 nm. The largest microparticles were produced by endothelial cells and granulocytes, smaller - by monocytes, and the smallest - by THP-1 cells and platelets. The highest tissue factor activity was detected in microparticles from monocytes, lower activity - in microparticles from endothelial cells and THP-1 cells, and no activity - in microparticles from platelets and granulocytes. Anti-tissue factor antibodies extended coagulation lag times for microparticles from monocytes, endothelial cells and THP-1 cells and equalized them with those for microparticles from platelets and granulocytes. Higher coagulation activity of microparticles from monocytes, THP-1 cells and endothelial cells in comparison with microparticles from platelets and granulocytes is determined mainly by the presence of active tissue factor.

  5. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined young adult externalizing and internalizing problems (aged 18-19 years) and adolescent protective factors related to self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization among over 650 Victorians aged 16-17 years. Opportunities for prosocial involvement in the family lessened subsequent involvement in nonviolent antisocial behavior, as an outcome of prior bullying. High academic performance and having strategies to cope with stress reduced young adult depressive symptoms for participants who had been victims of bullying. The implications for bullying prevention and early intervention programs are discussed.

  6. A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students, students from high socioeconomic status (SES) families, students with higher motivation and higher self-efficacy, and students whose parents highly value science are more likely to demonstrate achievement in science. At the school level, the results showed school science achievement differences can be explained by school enrolment size, school SES composition, and instruction time per week. Contrary to the negative influence of school size that was reported in previous studies, our findings suggested a positive relationship between school enrolment size and science achievement. This finding leads to an international discussion of school size.

  7. To Stay or Leave: Factors That Impact Undergraduate Women's Persistence in Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayles, Joy Gaston; Ampaw, Frim

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors that influenced undergraduates' decision to enter, leave, or stay within science majors. In addition, we sought to understand if such decisions differed by gender and type of science major. Using Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) longitudinal survey data, we found that women were less likely to select a science…

  8. The Impact of Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Factors on Latina/o College Students' Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Javier C.; Ikonomopoulos, James; Hinojosa, Karina; Gonzalez, Stacey L.; Duque, Omar; Calvillo, Megan

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript investigated the contributions of individual, interpersonal, and institutional factors on Latina/o college students' life satisfaction. Participants included 130 Latina/o students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution. Results indicated that search for meaning in life, mentoring, and family support were significant predictors…

  9. Impact of non-oncological factors on tumor recurrence after liver transplantation in hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiang-Qian; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Teng, Da-Hong; Sun, Ji-San; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary neoplasm of the liver and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Liver transplantation (LT) has become one of the best curative therapeutic options for patients with HCC, although tumor recurrence after LT is a major and unaddressed cause of mortality. Furthermore, the factors that are associated with recurrence are not fully understood, and most previous studies have focused on the biological properties of HCC, such as the number and size of the HCC nodules, the degree of differentiation, the presence of hepatic vascular invasion, elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, and the tumor stage outside of the Milan criteria. Thus, little attention has been given to factors that are not directly related to HCC (i.e., “non-oncological factors”), which have emerged as predictors of tumor recurrence. This review was performed to assess the effects of non-oncological factors on tumor recurrence after LT. The identification of these factors may provide new research directions and clinical strategies for the prophylaxis and surveillance of tumor recurrence after LT, which can help reduce recurrence and improve patient survival. PMID:26973413

  10. Genetic and Environmental Factors That Impact Gestation Length in Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated. Data from over 9 million parturitions from 1999 through 2006 for 7 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, and dystocia records from across the United States. Effects examined were year of ...

  11. FACTORS RELATING TO SUCCESS OF COPING WITH CRISIS. IMPACT OF FATHER ABSENCE IN MILITARY FAMILIES, II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAGEN, STANLEY A.; AND OTHERS

    THE PATTERN OF PREDISPOSITIONAL AND MEDIATIONAL FACTORS RELATING TO DIFFERENTIAL MATERNAL SUCCESS IN COPING WITH THE CRISIS CREATED BY FATHER ABSENCE IN MILITARY FAMILIES WAS EXAMINED. MOTHERS IN 23 FAMILIES WHOSE HUSBANDS WERE ABSENT ON EXTENDED MILITARY TOURS, WERE ADMINISTERED AN EXTENSIVE BATTERY OF SOCIOMETRIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PRIOR TO…

  12. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  13. Electronic Portfolios in the Classroom: Factors Impacting Teachers' Integration of New Technologies and New Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, E. J.; Abrami, P. C.; Wade, A.; Scherzer, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study on the use of an electronic portfolio (EP) in 16 elementary classrooms across Canada. Using a mixed-methods approach, data were collected to understand how teachers used EPs in their classrooms, to what extent they integrated the EP into their practice, and the factors influencing their use. Using…

  14. The Impact of Sample Size and Other Factors When Estimating Multilevel Logistic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeneberger, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    The design of research studies utilizing binary multilevel models must necessarily incorporate knowledge of multiple factors, including estimation method, variance component size, or number of predictors, in addition to sample sizes. This Monte Carlo study examined the performance of random effect binary outcome multilevel models under varying…

  15. The impact of socioeconomic factors on asthma hospitalization rates by rural classification.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Stransky, Michelle L; Seavey, John W

    2011-06-01

    Asthma hospitalization rates have increased in the past decade. Research has shown that there are multiple correlates for this increase but that driving causal factors may differ for asthma hospitalization rates in rural and non-rural settings. Here we examine the socioeconomic correlates to asthma hospitalization rates in Maine for both rural and non-rural populations to examine the similarity and differences in causal factors. Findings indicate a clear SES gradient relative to asthma hospitalization rates; as population measured SES decreased, asthma hospitalization rates increased. The associated causal factors were found to differ in rural and non-rural areas. In non-rural areas, the presence of insurance was associated with increases in the asthma hospitalization rates while in rural areas, income, occupation and the percentage of non-English language speaking persons were associated with lower asthma hospitalization rates. Public policy should focus on targeted prevention strategies at the community level, especially in rural areas where cultural competency and socioeconomic factors are increasingly important.

  16. Student Engagement in the Classroom: The Impact of Classroom, Teacher, and Student Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra Steinbrenner, Jessica R.; Watson, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have highlighted engagement as a critical component of effective interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet there is limited research related to engagement in school-age children with ASD. This descriptive study was designed to examine joint engagement and its relationship with classroom factors and student…

  17. Campus Life: The Impact of External Factors on Emotional Health of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Dalena

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the perceptions of students at a university campus in Gauteng South Africa on external factors that may contribute to their emotional (psychological) and academic functioning. During a preliminary investigation, three students at a residential university voluntary came for psychological counseling sessions because of stress…

  18. Teachers' Perspectives: Factors That Impact Implementation of Integrated Curriculum in K-3 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Yao; Sibert, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the factors that may influence K-3 in-service teachers' implementation of integrated curriculum (IC). To provide a consistent research base, the broad definition of IC and Jacob's model were adopted to clarify the controversial concept of IC. Survey data were collected from forty-two teachers from ten…

  19. Identification and Quantification of Cumulative Factors that Increase Environmental Exposures and Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the combined adverse effects of multiple stressors upon human health is an imperative component of cumulative risk assessment (CRA)1. In addition to chemical stressors, other non-chemical factors are also considered. For examples, smoking will elevate the risks of havi...

  20. Impact of topography and soil factors on crop suitability in two Mediterranean areas (Egypt and Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elmabod, S. K.; Jordán, A.; Anaya-Romero, M.; Ali, R. R.; Muñoz-Rojas, M.; Zavala, L. M.; de la Rosa, D.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this research is to study the influence of topography and soil factors on crop suitability two Mediterranean areas: Sevilla (southern Spain) and El-Fayoum (northern Egypt). The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) images were processed using ENVI 4.7 software to extract elevation data, slope gradient and slope direction. North-south toposequences from both areas were extracted and studied using Arc-GIS 9.3 software. Soil characteristics along these toposequences were extracted from regional soil maps, as well as land surveying and laboratory analyses. The Almagra model (included in the agro-ecological system MicroLEIS DSS) was used to evaluate agricultural soil suitability using soil factors of useful depth, texture, drainage, carbonate content, salinity, sodium saturation, and degree of development of the profile. Changes of soil characteristics through the toposequences are discussed. The results of Almagra model indicate that the crop suitability main limiting factors are soil texture, drainage, soil salinity and sodium saturation percent and topography factors elevation, slope gradient, slope direction.

  1. Factors Impacting on Teachers' Job Satisfaction Related to Science Teaching: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, S.; Mustafa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Science teachers' job satisfaction is identified as a major factor that affects the quality of a science program. This research investigated to what extent a science program supports science teachers in terms of curriculum materials or extracurricular activities. It also examined the relationships among schools' curriculum support, the number of…

  2. A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

  3. Engaging Online Adult Learners in Higher Education: Motivational Factors Impacted by Gender, Age, and Prior Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David

    2013-01-01

    As the number of online degree programs continues to grow among higher education institutions in the United States, engaging online adult learners to online degree programs is getting more difficult than before. Therefore, this study, situated in a land grant university, investigated the motivational factors that contribute to adult learners'…

  4. Understanding the Impact of School Factors on School Counselor Burnout: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardhoshi, Gerta; Schweinle, Amy; Duncan, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between burnout and performing noncounseling duties among a national sample of professional school counselors, while identifying school factors that could attenuate this relationship. Results of regression analyses indicate that performing noncounseling duties significantly predicted burnout…

  5. Cannabis use in adolescents: the impact of risk and protective factors and social functioning.

    PubMed

    Best, David; Gross, Samantha; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Strang, John

    2005-11-01

    The study uses a school-based sample to test the social and familial risk and protective factors relating to cannabis use. Based on a self-completion survey of 2078 14-16-year-olds (mean age of 15 years) attending seven standard state-run secondary schools in south London, an assessment was made of rates and risk factors for cannabis use. Twenty-four per cent of the total sample had ever used cannabis, with 15% having done so in the month prior to assessment. In addition to greater likelihood of illicit drug use, lifetime cannabis users were less likely to spend time regularly with both their mothers and fathers, but more likely to spend free time with friends who smoked, drank alcohol and used illicit drugs, and with friends involved in criminal activities. Among those who had ever used cannabis, frequency of cannabis use was predicted (using linear regression) by two onset factors (earlier initiation of drinking and cannabis use were both linked to more frequent use) and two social factors (more time spent with drug-using friends and less time spent with the mother). Overall, the study showed that early onset, itself predicted by social networks, is linked to more frequent use of cannabis and that this appears to be sustained by less time spent with parents and more with drug-using peers.

  6. Choosing Employment: Factors that Impact Employment Decisions for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Jaimie Ciulla; Hall, Allison Cohen; Bose, Jennifer; Wolfe, Ashley; Winsor, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that shape the employment-related decisions of individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. Findings from qualitative interviews with individuals, their family members, and employment-support professionals from four community rehabilitation providers throughout Massachusetts were reported.…

  7. Human Adenomyosis Endometrium Stromal Cells Secreting More Nerve Growth Factor: Impact and Effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian; Zhang, Shaofen

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) was found in adenomyosis (AM). We collected AM foci from patients and eutopic endometrium from non-AM controls. Endometrium stromal cells (ESCs) were cultured. Different levels of 17β-estradiol, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), CoCl2, and H2O2 were added to the culture system separately, then the expression level of NGF in ESCs was detected. After adding different levels of NGF, the proliferation and apoptosis of ESCs and aromatase expression were detected. We found that 17β-estradiol promoted NGF production in AM ESCs but not in control ESCs; TNF promoted NGF production in both AM and control ESCs; and CoCl2 inhibited NGF production in control ESCs, but had no effect in AM ESCs. Nerve growth factor promoted the proliferation and synthesis of aromatase in AM ESCs. In conclusion, locally increased estrogen levels and inflammation may cause increased NGF production in the uterus of patients with AM. Nerve growth factor stimulated the proliferation and increased aromatase expression of ESCs from AM foci, suggesting NGF might contribute to the pathology and etiology of AM.

  8. Retention in Higher Education: Faculty and Student Perceptions of Retention Programs and Factors Impacting Attrition Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Malinda; O'Leary, Erin; Webb, Shekeita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine faculty and student perceptions of what factors are contributing to drop-out rates in a Northern Indiana higher educational facility and to study whether or not the drop-out prevention programs that are in place are effective. Survey links were sent out to all adjuncts and some full-time faculty at a local…

  9. The Impact of External Factors on the Epigenome: In Utero and over Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Toraño, Estela G.; García, María G.; Fernández-Morera, Juan Luis; Niño-García, Pilar; Fernández, Agustín F.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic marks change during fetal development, adult life, and aging. Some changes play an important role in the establishment and regulation of gene programs, but others seem to occur without any apparent physiological role. An important future challenge in the field of epigenetics will be to describe how the environment affects both of these types of epigenetic change and to learn if interaction between them can determine healthy and disease phenotypes during lifetime. Here we discuss how chemical and physical environmental stressors, diet, life habits, and pharmacological treatments can affect the epigenome during lifetime and the possible impact of these epigenetic changes on pathophysiological processes. PMID:27294112

  10. Geomagnetic avtivity triggered by interplanetary shocks: The shock impact angle as a controlling factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D. M.; Raeder, J.; Tsurutani, B.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    We study the influence of interplanetary (IP) shock impact angles in the shock geoeffectiveness focusing on simulations and observations. In our simulations, we use OpenGGCM simulations to study the magnetospheric and ionospheric responses to shock impacts. Three cases are presented here: two inclined shocks, with 3.7 and 7.4 Mach numbers, and a frontal shock, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with Mach number of 7.4. We find that, in the two inclined cases, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the magnetotail is compressed from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm. By comparing the strong inclined shock and the frontal shock, we find that, despite the inclined shock having a larger Mach number, the frontal shock leads to a larger geomagnetic response in the nightside ionosphere. As a result, we conclude that IP shocks with similar upstream conditions, such as Mach number, can have different geoeffectiveness, depending on their shock normal orientation. In our observational study, we present a survey of IP shocks at 1 AU using Wind and ACE satellite data from Jan 1995 to Dec 2013 to study the same shock-related effects. A shock list covering one and a half solar cycle is compiled. We use data from SuperMAG, a large chain with more than 300 geomagnetic stations, to study geoeffectiveness triggered by IP shocks. The SuperMAG SML index (enhanced AL index), is used to quantify substorm strength. The jumps of the SML index triggered by shock impacts is investigated in terms of shock orientation and speed. We find that, in general, strong and almost frontal shocks are more geoeffective than inclined shocks with low speed. The highest correlations (R = 0.78) occurs for fixed shock speed and varying the shock impact angle. We attribute this result

  11. Impact of disease, cognitive and behavioural factors on caregiver outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Watermeyer, Tamlyn J; Brown, Richard G; Sidle, Katie C L; Oliver, David J; Allen, Christopher; Karlsson, Joanna; Ellis, Cathy; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Goldstein, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show mild to moderate cognitive-behavioural change alongside their progressive functional impairment. This study examines the relative impact of patients' disease symptoms, behavioural change and current executive function and social cognition abilities on psychosocial outcomes in spouse caregivers of people with ALS. Thirty-five spouse caregivers rated their own levels of depression and anxiety, subjective burden and marital satisfaction. Caregivers also rated their partner's everyday behaviour. The patients were assessed for disease severity and cognitive function, with composite scores derived for executive function and social cognition. Regression analyses revealed that caregiver burden was predicted by the severity of patients' limb involvement and behavioural problems. Depression was predicted by patients' limb involvement, while behavioural problems and patient age predicted caregiver anxiety. Current marital satisfaction was predicted by patient behavioural problems beyond the level of pre-illness marital satisfaction. In conclusion, the study highlights the potential impact of ALS patients' functional impairment and behavioural change on ALS caregivers' psychosocial functioning. Clinical communication with ALS families should emphasise both physical and psychological challenges presented by the disease.

  12. A mixed methods study of the factors that influence whether intervention research has policy and practice impacts: perceptions of Australian researchers

    PubMed Central

    Newson, Robyn; King, Lesley; Rychetnik, Lucie; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally; Milat, Andrew J; Schroeder, Jacqueline; Cohen, Gillian; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate researchers’ perceptions about the factors that influenced the policy and practice impacts (or lack of impact) of one of their own funded intervention research studies. Design Mixed method, cross-sectional study. Setting Intervention research conducted in Australia and funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council between 2003 and 2007. Participants The chief investigators from 50 funded intervention research studies were interviewed to determine if their study had achieved policy and practice impacts, how and why these impacts had (or had not) occurred and the approach to dissemination they had employed. Results We found that statistically significant intervention effects and publication of results influenced whether there were policy and practice impacts, along with factors related to the nature of the intervention itself, the researchers’ experience and connections, their dissemination and translation efforts, and the postresearch context. Conclusions This study indicates that sophisticated approaches to intervention development, dissemination actions and translational efforts are actually widespread among experienced researches, and can achieve policy and practice impacts. However, it was the links between the intervention results, further dissemination actions by researchers and a variety of postresearch contextual factors that ultimately determined whether a study had policy and practice impacts. Given the complicated interplay between the various factors, there appears to be no simple formula for determining which intervention studies should be funded in order to achieve optimal policy and practice impacts. PMID:26198428

  13. Impact of pre-analytical factors on the proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Seonaid M; Craven, Rachel A; Nirmalan, Niroshini J; Harnden, Patricia; Selby, Peter J; Banks, Rosamonde E

    2013-04-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples represent a tremendous potential resource for biomarker discovery, with large numbers of samples in hospital pathology departments and links to clinical information. However, the cross-linking of proteins and nucleic acids by formalin fixation has hampered analysis and proteomic studies have been restricted to using frozen tissue, which is more limited in availability as it needs to be collected specifically for research. This means that rare disease subtypes cannot be studied easily. Recently, improved extraction techniques have enabled analysis of FFPE tissue by a number of proteomic techniques. As with all clinical samples, pre-analytical factors are likely to impact on the results obtained, although overlooked in many studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the various pre-analytical factors, which include warm and cold ischaemic time, size of sample, fixation duration and temperature, tissue processing conditions, length of storage of archival tissue and storage conditions, and to review the studies that have considered these factors in more detail. In those areas where investigations are few or non-existent, illustrative examples of the possible importance of specific factors have been drawn from studies using frozen tissue or from immunohistochemical studies of FFPE tissue.

  14. Risk factors and impact of retained fetal membranes on performance of dairy bovines reared under subtropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Susavi; Prasad, Shiv; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar; Pathak, Rupal; Boro, Prasanta; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Ravi, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    The risk factors and impact of retained fetal membranes (RFM) on productive and reproductive performance of crossbred cattle, Zebu cattle, and Murrah buffalos were evaluated using data spread over 12 years. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors and to quantify their odds ratio (OR). Overall incidence of RFM in crossbred cattle, Zebu cattle, and Murrah buffalos were 26, 16, and 13 %, respectively; and significant risk factors for RFM in crossbred cattle were abortion (OR = 3.9), dead calf (OR = 4.1), dystocia (OR = 4.3), pluriparity (OR = 1.5), and shorter gestation length (OR = 4.3). In Zebu cattle, abortion (OR = 4.0), dead calf (OR = 3.7), dystocia (OR = 3.9), lower birth weight of calf (OR = 1.6), and shorter gestation length (OR = 6.4) were significant risk factors for RFM. In Murrah buffalos, abortion (OR = 19.2), dead calf (OR = 4.4), dystocia (OR = 4.7), pluriparity (OR = 1.7), shorter gestation length (OR = 12.7), and calving during summer season (OR = 1.8) were the risk factors for RFM. Although the occurrence of RFM did not affect fertility parameters, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in 305-day milk yield and total milk yield was observed in RFM-affected crossbred cattle. Taken together, it may be concluded that increased parity, abnormal calving, and short gestation length were the main risk factors for RFM in dairy bovine.

  15. Interferon-γ differentially modulates the impact of tumor necrosis factor-α on human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Spratte, Julia; Oemus, Anne; Zygmunt, Marek; Fluhr, Herbert

    2015-09-01

    The pro-inflammatory T helper (Th)-1 cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), are immunological factors relevant at the feto-maternal interface and involved in the pathophysiology of implantation disorders. The synergistic action of the two cytokines has been described with regard to apoptotic cell death and inflammatory responses in different cell types, but little is known regarding the human endometrium. Therefore, we examined the interaction of TNF-α and IFN-γ in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). ESCs were isolated from specimens obtained during hysterectomy and decidualized in vitro. Cells were incubated with TNF-α, IFN-γ or signaling-inhibitor. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, prolactin (PRL), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were measured using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. Nuclear factor of transcription (NF)-κB and its inhibitor (IκBα) were analyzed by in-cell western assay and transcription factor assay. TNF-α inhibited and IFN-γ did not affect the decidualization of ESCs. In contrast, IFN-gamma differentially modulated the stimulating effect of TNF-alpha on cytokines by enhancing IL-6, RANTES and MCP-1 and attenuating LIF mRNA expression. These effects were time- and dose-dependent. IFN-γ had no impact on the initial activation of NF-κB signaling. Histone-deacetylase activity was involved in the modulating effect of IFN-γ on RANTES secretion. These observations showed a distinct pattern of interaction of the Th-1 cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the human endometrium, which could play an important role in the pathophysiology of implantation disorders.

  16. The impact factor of a journal is a poor measure of the clinical relevance of its papers.

    PubMed

    Kodumuri, P; Ollivere, B; Holley, J; Moran, C G

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the top 13 journals in trauma and orthopaedics by impact factor and looked at the longer-term effect regarding citations of their papers. All 4951 papers published in these journals during 2007 and 2008 were reviewed and categorised by their type, subspecialty and super-specialty. All citations indexed through Google Scholar were reviewed to establish the rate of citation per paper at two, four and five years post-publication. The top five journals published a total of 1986 papers. Only three (0.15%) were on operative orthopaedic surgery and none were on trauma. Most (n = 1084, 54.5%) were about experimental basic science. Surgical papers had a lower rate of citation (2.18) at two years than basic science or clinical medical papers (4.68). However, by four years the rates were similar (26.57 for surgery, 30.35 for basic science/medical), which suggests that there is a considerable time lag before clinical surgical research has an impact. We conclude that high impact journals do not address clinical research in surgery and when they do, there is a delay before such papers are cited. We suggest that a rate of citation at five years post-publication might be a more appropriate indicator of importance for papers in our specialty.

  17. Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R.; Otto, John S.; Sánchez, Mario A.; Bustamante, Fabián E.; Amaral, Luís A. N.; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking. PMID:25288755

  18. Workplace Vaccination and Other Factors Impacting Influenza Vaccination Decision among Employees in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the factors affecting the decision to be vaccinated against influenza among employees in Israel. The research, conducted in 2007/2008, included 616 employees aged 18−65 at various workplaces in Israel, among them companies that offered their employees influenza vaccination. The research questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, and the Health Belief Model principles. The results show that the significant factors affecting vaccination compliance include a vaccination program at workplaces, vaccinations in the past, higher levels of vaccine’s perceived benefits, and lower levels of barriers to getting the vaccine. We conclude that vaccine compliance is larger at companies with workplace vaccination programs providing easier accessibility to vaccination. PMID:20617008

  19. Choosing employment: factors that impact employment decisions for individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Jaimie Ciulla; Hall, Allison Cohen; Bose, Jennifer; Wolfe, Ashley; Winsor, Jean

    2011-08-01

    Little is known about the factors that shape the employment-related decisions of individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. Findings from qualitative interviews with individuals, their family members, and employment-support professionals from four community rehabilitation providers throughout Massachusetts were reported. Recognizing the value of participatory action research, we also included a co-researcher with intellectual disability who participated in all facets of the research process. Findings revealed a collection of people and factors considered influential in employment-related decision-making. The family in the formative years, school-based staff and early employment experiences, the culture of the community rehabilitation providers, the job developer, and personal preferences all influenced participants' decisions. Through understanding these persuasive elements, we offer recommendations to those in the intellectual and developmental disabilities field to optimize employment choices and outcomes.

  20. Factors influencing the degradation of garbage in methanogenic bioreactors and impacts on biogas formation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masahiko; Sasaki, Kengo

    2012-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of garbage is attracting much attention because of its application in waste volume reduction and the recovery of biogas for use as an energy source. In this review, various factors influencing the degradation of garbage and the production of biogas are discussed. The surface hydrophobicity and porosity of supporting materials are important factors in retaining microorganisms such as aceticlastic methanogens and in attaining a higher degradation of garbage and a higher production of biogas. Ammonia concentration, changes in environmental parameters such as temperature and pH, and adaptation of microbial community to ammonia have been related to ammonia inhibition. The effects of drawing electrons from the methanogenic community and donating electrons into the methanogenic community on methane production have been shown in microbial fuel cells and bioelectrochemical reactors. The influences of trace elements, phase separation, and co-digestion are also summarized in this review.

  1. Socioeconomic status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: impact of dietary mediators.

    PubMed

    Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Hatzis, George; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Androulakis, Emmanuel; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western societies. A number of risk factors such as family history, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity are responsible for a significant proportion of the overall cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, recent data suggest there is a gradient in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease across the spectrum of socioeconomic status, as this is defined by educational level, occupation or income. Additionally, dietary mediators seem to play significant role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, mediating some of the discrepancies in atherosclerosis among different socioeconomic layers. Therefore, in the present article, we aim to review the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and the role of different dietary mediators.

  2. Student Engagement in the Classroom: The Impact of Classroom, Teacher, and Student Factors.

    PubMed

    Dykstra Steinbrenner, Jessica R; Watson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Researchers have highlighted engagement as a critical component of effective interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet there is limited research related to engagement in school-age children with ASD. This descriptive study was designed to examine joint engagement and its relationship with classroom factors and student characteristics. The sample included 25 elementary and middle school students with ASD. Mixed level modeling was used to examine relationships between joint engagement and classroom factors and student characteristics. Joint engagement was significantly related to group size, use of student-directed practices, autism severity, and expressive communication skills. These findings have important implications for educational policies and practices and future research related to engagement and effective interventions for students with ASD.

  3. Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R; Otto, John S; Sánchez, Mario A; Bustamante, Fabián E; Amaral, Luís A N; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

    2014-10-28

    Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking.

  4. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Pinho, P; Augusto, S; Máguas, C; Pereira, M J; Soares, A; Branquinho, C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors.

  5. The impact of selected environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors on schoolchildren's somatic and mental health.

    PubMed

    Vondrova, Diana; Kapsdorfer, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica; Hirosova, Katarina; Samohyl, Martin; Sevcikova, Ludmila

    2017-03-01

    Children develop rapidly and many exogenous determinants of health significantly affect their somatic and mental development. There is a subjective perception of cognitive load associated with the educational process. The aim of the study is to assess individual environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors influencing physical health and to investigate the amount of mental load in children. We investigated 87 schoolchildren (47 girls and 40 boys) aged 10-12 years, who were attending primary school in Bratislava. To assess values of selected factors we used a questionnaire form and personality characteristics were estimated by standardized psycho-diagnostic and IQ tests [range of classic fear, social-situation anxiety and jitters [skala Klasickeho strachu a Socialno-situacnej (in Slovak)] (KSAT), Eyesenck Personality Questionnaire for children (EPQ), Raven's IQ test]. Self-reported perception of mental load was assessed by questionnaire of subjective feelings and states (SFS). Children's body parameters were assessed using anthropometric measurements [height, weight, chest, abdominal and hip girth, Rohrer's index (RI), body mass index (BMI)] and a body fat measurement method (skinfold thickness). The results confirmed a significant relationship between higher parameters of overweight and obesity and irregular breakfast eating (p<0.05), absence of family dining (p<0.05), exposure to tobacco smoke in the family environment (p<0.01) and mother's level of education (p<0.05). Almost 60% of children reported high mental effort and cognitive load associated with the educational process. We note a close relationship between the higher mental load and the score of neuroticism (p<0.01). The physical and mental health of schoolchildren is significantly affected by exogenous factors. Therefore, in terms of protection and promotion of children's health, it is important to evaluate and monitor environmental risk factors and to form their healthy habits.

  6. Measuring the impact of arthritis on worker productivity: perspectives, methodologic issues, and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kenneth; Escorpizo, Reuben; Beaton, Dorcas E; Bombardier, Claire; Lacaille, Diane; Zhang, Wei; Anis, Aslam H; Boonen, Annelies; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H; Fautrel, Bruno; Gignac, Monique A M; Tugwell, Peter S

    2011-08-01

    Leading up to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 10 meeting, the goal of the Worker Productivity Special Interest Group (WP-SIG) was to make progress on 3 key issues that relate to the application and interpretation of worker productivity outcomes in arthritis: (1) to review existing conceptual frameworks to help consolidate our intended target and scope of measurement; (2) to examine the methodologic issues associated with our goal of combining multiple indicators of worker productivity loss (e.g., absenteeism <-> presenteeism) into a single comprehensive outcome; and (3) to examine the relevant contextual factors of work and potential implications for the interpretation of scores derived from existing outcome measures. Progress was made on all 3 issues at OMERACT 10. We identified 3 theoretical frameworks that offered unique but converging perspectives on worker productivity loss and/or work disability to provide guidance with classification, selection, and future recommendation of outcomes. Several measurement and analytic approaches to combine absenteeism and presenteeism outcomes were proposed, and the need for further validation of such approaches was also recognized. Finally, participants at the WP-SIG were engaged to brainstorm and provide preliminary endorsements to support key contextual factors of worker productivity through an anonymous "dot voting" exercise. A total of 24 specific factors were identified, with 16 receiving ≥ 1 vote among members, reflecting highly diverse views on specific factors that were considered most important. Moving forward, further progress on these issues remains a priority to help inform the best application of worker productivity outcomes in arthritis research.

  7. Becoming a general practitioner - Which factors have most impact on career choice of medical students?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Germany, there is a shortage of young physicians in several specialties, the situation of general practitioners (GP) being especially precarious. The factors influencing the career choice of German medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors influencing medical students' specialty choice laying a special focus on general practice. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. In 2010, students at the five medical schools in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) filled out an online-questionnaire. On 27 items with 5-point Likert scales, the students rated the importance of specified individual and occupational aspects. Furthermore, students were asked to assign their intended medical specialty. Results 1,299 students participated in the survey. Thereof, 1,114 students stated a current choice for a specialty, with 708 students choosing a career in one of the following 6 specialties: internal medicine, surgery, gynaecology and obstetrics, paediatrics, anaesthetics and general practice. Overall, individual aspects ('Personal ambition', 'Future perspective', 'Work-life balance') were rated as more important than occupational aspects (i.e. 'Variety in job', 'Job-related ambition') for career choice. For students favouring a career as a GP individual aspects and the factor 'Patient orientation' among the occupational aspects were significantly more important and 'Job-related ambition' less important compared to students with other specialty choices. Conclusions This study confirms that future GPs differ from students intending to choose other specialties particularly in terms of patient-orientation and individual aspects such as personal ambition, future perspective and work-life balance. Improving job-conditions in terms of family compatibility and work-life balance could help to increase the attractiveness of general practice. Due to the shortage of GPs those factors should be made explicit at an

  8. Impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation: Role of systemic and local factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Halloran, Bernard P.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    We have developed a model of skeletal unloading using growing rats whose hindlimbs are unweighted by tail suspension. The bones in the hindlimbs undergo a transient cessation of bone growth; when reloaded bone formation is accelerated until bone mass is restored. These changes do not occur in the normally loaded bones of the forelimbs. Associated with the fall in bone formation is a fall in 1,25(OH) 2D 3 production and osteocalcin levels. In contrast, no changes in parathyroid hormone, calcium, or corticosterone levels are seen. To examine the role of locally produced growth factors, we have measured the mRNA and protein levels of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in bone during tail suspension. Surprisingly, both the mRNA and protein levels of IGF-1 increase during tail suspension as bone formation is reduced. Furthermore, the bones in the hindlimbs of the suspended animals develop a resistance to the growth promoting effects of both growth hormone and IGF-1 when given parenterally. Thus, the cessation of bone growth with skeletal unloading is apparently associated with a resistance to rather than failure to produce local growth factors. The cause of this resistance remains under active investigation.

  9. Impact of environmental factors on knee injuries in male and female recreational skiers.

    PubMed

    Ruedl, G; Fink, C; Schranz, A; Sommersacher, R; Nachbauer, W; Burtscher, M

    2012-04-01

    In alpine skiing, the knee represents the dominant injury location with marked gender differences. Snow, slope and weather conditions as well as altitude and low temperatures are thought to influence the prevalence of knee injuries. Therefore, ski patrol injury reports were used to compare gender-specific prevalence of knee injuries with regard to several environmental factors including the actual air temperatures. A total of 1039 non-contact knee injuries were reported with a corresponding prevalence of knee injuries of 44.4% (males: 30.1%; females: 57.4%). Temperature quartiles of all recorded injuries were calculated to compare gender-specific prevalence of knee injury with regard to temperatures. Comparing the first quartile (mean temperature -11°C) with the fourth quartile (mean temperature +3°C), the prevalence of knee injury in female skiers was higher at low ambient temperatures (61% vs 50%, odds ratio: 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-2.22; P=0.005) while no such association was found for male skiers. Additionally, knee-injured females showed a twofold prevalence when skiing during snowfall compared with females with other injuries (15.4% vs 8.6%; P=0.001). No other environmental factor showed a significant association with the gender-specific prevalence of knee injury. In conclusion, low ambient temperature and snowfall are important environmental risk factors for knee injuries in female skiers.

  10. Factors impacting on progress towards elimination of transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades China has made a great stride in controlling schistosomiasis, eliminating transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in 5 provinces and remarkably reducing transmission intensities in the rest of the seven endemic provinces. Recently, an integrated control strategy, which focuses on interventions on humans and bovines, has been implemented throughout endemic areas in China. This strategy assumes that a reduction in transmission of S. japonicum from humans and bovines to the intermediate Oncomelania snail host would eventually block the transmission of this parasite, and has yielded effective results in some endemic areas. Yet the transmission of S. japonicum is relatively complicated – in addition to humans and bovines, more than 40 species of mammalians can serve as potential zoonotic reservoirs. Here, we caution that some factors – potential roles of other mammalian reservoirs and human movement in sustaining the transmission, low sensitivity/specificity of current diagnostic tools for infections, praziquantel treatment failures, changes in environmental and socio-economic factors such as flooding in key endemic areas - may pose great obstacles towards transmission interruption of the parasite. Assessing potential roles of these factors in the transmission and implications for current control strategies aiming at transmission interruption is needed. PMID:23206326

  11. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnejad, Farzaneh; Otarod, Vahid; Fathnia, Amanollah; Ahmadabadi, Ali; Fallah, Mohammad H.; Zavareh, Alireza; Miandehi, Nargess; Durand, Benoit; Sabatier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran. Methods: Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland area, type of stable, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), annual mean temperature, humidity and precipitation. Results: The important risk factors included annual mean temperature, distance to wetlands, local and seasonal NDVI differences. The effect of local NDVI differences in spring was particularly notable. This was a normalized difference of average NDVI between two areas: a 5 km radius area centered on the stable and the 5–10 km surrounding area. Conclusion: The model indicated that local NDVI’s contrast during spring is a major risk factor of the transmission of West-Nile virus in Iran. This so-called oasis effect consistent with the seasonal production of vegetation in spring, and is associated to the attractiveness of the local NDVI environment for WNV vectors and hosts. PMID:27308290

  12. Impact of correction factors in human brain lesion-behavior inference.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Christoph; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2017-03-01

    Statistical voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping (VLBM) in neurological patients with brain lesions is frequently used to examine the relationship between structure and function of the healthy human brain. Only recently, two simulation studies noted reduced anatomical validity of this method, observing the results of VLBM to be systematically misplaced by about 16 mm. However, both simulation studies differed from VLBM analyses of real data in that they lacked the proper use of two correction factors: lesion size and "sufficient lesion affection." In simulation experiments on a sample of 274 real stroke patients, we found that the use of these two correction factors reduced misplacement markedly compared to uncorrected VLBM. Apparently, the misplacement is due to physiological effects of brain lesion anatomy. Voxel-wise topographies of collateral damage in the real data were generated and used to compute a metric for the inter-voxel relation of brain damage. "Anatomical bias" vectors that were solely calculated from these inter-voxel relations in the patients' real anatomical data, successfully predicted the VLBM misplacement. The latter has the potential to help in the development of new VLBM methods that provide even higher anatomical validity than currently available by the proper use of correction factors. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1692-1701, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [The impact factor of Nutrición Hospitalaria is 1.096].

    PubMed

    Culebras, J M; García de Lorenzo, A

    2009-01-01

    The editors of Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp) analyze the journal from its foundation in 1979 to the present time, on occasion of the first publication of its impact factorby Journal Citation Reports (JCR). The actions taken along this thirty year period are described, including its incorporation to multiple web databases, the Open Access policy of the journal, its progressive internationality, and the bibliometric analysis made in 1999. A figure with the journal citation trends is included. Nutr Hosp, included in the "Nutrition & Dietetics" group of JCR, is in the position 42/59, i.e. in the third quartile. Among the Spanish journals included in JCR,Nutr Hosp is located in the 14/37 position. A few considerations are made related to the economical aspects of the journal, the number of articles received so far, the articles expected in the future, the rejection rate and the language (Spanish or English) in which Nutr Hosp should be published.

  14. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I. Overview of Large Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2000-03-01

    Scientific and medical data have been gathered for nearly 500 motor-vehicle occupants, whose dynamic response[1-2] was calculated to determine the forces generated at all potential injury sites. Particular attention was paid to the load within the cervical spine to examine the influence of certain variables relating to the occupant (height, weight, sex), the impact (magnitude, direction), and the neck itself (local vector, anatomical level). Exhaustive efforts were made to match the force with each variable using linear and logarithmic fits, but correlation coefficients were generally not high. These results might be influenced by the emphasis in this research to obtain the best statistics with large groupings of patients. Hence, a separate study with more detail is proposed as a significant continuation of this effort. 1. Proper Treatment of Complex Human Structures, Announcer 27 (4), 100 (1997); 2. Physics as a Key Element in the Complete Description of Dichotomies in Injury Distribution, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 274 (1999).

  15. Impact of psychosocial factors on functional improvement in Latino older adults after Tai Chi exercise.

    PubMed

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Rajaram, Shireen S; Padilla, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence underscores the health benefits of Tai Chi (TC), although there is limited evidence of benefits among racial and ethnic minorities. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial status on balance among 23 Latino seniors after a twice-a-week, 12-week TC exercise program. Functional status was measured at baseline, immediately after, and three months following the TC exercise program, using the Timed Up and Go Test and Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale. Psychosocial status was measured at baseline by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. Both measures of functional status improved and were sustained after three months of TC. Greater improvement was significantly related to a higher level of baseline social support. More depressed seniors reported less fear of falling after TC. Depression and social support are important moderators of functional improvement after TC among Latino seniors.

  16. Space Environmental Factor Impacts upon Murine Colon Microbiota and Mucosal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Stella S.; Weeks, Brad R.; Lima, Florence; Bloomfield, Susan A.; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Astronaut intestinal health may be impacted by microgravity, radiation, and diet. The aim of this study was to characterize how high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, microgravity, and elevated dietary iron affect colon microbiota (determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing) and colon function. Three independent experiments were conducted to achieve these goals: 1) fractionated low LET γ radiation (137Cs, 3 Gy, RAD), high Fe diet (IRON) (650 mg/kg diet), and a combination of low LET γ radiation and high Fe diet (IRON+RAD) in male Sprague-Dawley rats; 2) high LET 38Si particle exposure (0.050 Gy), 1/6 G partial weight bearing (PWB), and a combination of high LET38Si particle exposure and PWB in female BalbC/ByJ mice; and 3) 13 d spaceflight in female C57BL/6 mice. Low LET radiation, IRON and spaceflight increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes. RAD and IRON+RAD increased Lactobacillales and lowered Clostridiales compared to the control (CON) and IRON treatments. Low LET radiation, IRON, and spaceflight did not significantly affect diversity or richness, or elevate pathogenic genera. Spaceflight increased Clostridiales and decreased Lactobacillales, and similar trends were observed in the experiment using a ground-based model of microgravity, suggesting altered gravity may affect colonic microbiota. Although we noted no differences in colon epithelial injury or inflammation, spaceflight elevated TGFβ gene expression. Microbiota and mucosal characterization in these models is a first step in understanding the impact of the space environment on intestinal health. PMID:26083373

  17. Impact of meteorological factors on the spatiotemporal patterns of dengue fever incidence.

    PubMed

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2014-12-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases and has caused more than 50 million infections annually over the world. For the purposes of disease prevention and climate change health impact assessment, it is crucial to understand the weather-disease associations for dengue fever. This study investigated the nonlinear delayed impact of meteorological conditions on the spatiotemporal variations of dengue fever in southern Taiwan during 1998-2011. We present a novel integration of a distributed lag nonlinear model and Markov random fields to assess the nonlinear lagged effects of weather variables on temporal dynamics of dengue fever and to account for the geographical heterogeneity. This study identified the most significant meteorological measures to dengue fever variations, i.e., weekly minimum temperature, and the weekly maximum 24-hour rainfall, by obtaining the relative risk (RR) with respect to disease counts and a continuous 20-week lagged time. Results show that RR increased as minimum temperature increased, especially for the lagged period 5-18 weeks, and also suggest that the time to high disease risks can be decreased. Once the occurrence of maximum 24-hour rainfall is >50 mm, an associated increased RR lasted for up to 15 weeks. A temporary one-month decrease in the RR of dengue fever is noted following the extreme rain. In addition, the elevated incidence risk is identified in highly populated areas. Our results highlight the high nonlinearity of temporal lagged effects and magnitudes of temperature and rainfall on dengue fever epidemics. The results can be a practical reference for the early warning of dengue fever.

  18. Space Environmental Factor Impacts upon Murine Colon Microbiota and Mucosal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lauren E; Taddeo, Stella S; Weeks, Brad R; Lima, Florence; Bloomfield, Susan A; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Zwart, Sara R; Smith, Scott M; Turner, Nancy D

    2015-01-01

    Astronaut intestinal health may be impacted by microgravity, radiation, and diet. The aim of this study was to characterize how high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, microgravity, and elevated dietary iron affect colon microbiota (determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing) and colon function. Three independent experiments were conducted to achieve these goals: 1) fractionated low LET γ radiation (137Cs, 3 Gy, RAD), high Fe diet (IRON) (650 mg/kg diet), and a combination of low LET γ radiation and high Fe diet (IRON+RAD) in male Sprague-Dawley rats; 2) high LET 38Si particle exposure (0.050 Gy), 1/6 G partial weight bearing (PWB), and a combination of high LET38Si particle exposure and PWB in female BalbC/ByJ mice; and 3) 13 d spaceflight in female C57BL/6 mice. Low LET radiation, IRON and spaceflight increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes. RAD and IRON+RAD increased Lactobacillales and lowered Clostridiales compared to the control (CON) and IRON treatments. Low LET radiation, IRON, and spaceflight did not significantly affect diversity or richness, or elevate pathogenic genera. Spaceflight increased Clostridiales and decreased Lactobacillales, and similar trends were observed in the experiment using a ground-based model of microgravity, suggesting altered gravity may affect colonic microbiota. Although we noted no differences in colon epithelial injury or inflammation, spaceflight elevated TGFβ gene expression. Microbiota and mucosal characterization in these models is a first step in understanding the impact of the space environment on intestinal health.

  19. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602

  20. [Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Lake Taihu Surface Albedo and Its Impact Factors].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang; Li, Xu-hui; Zhang, Mi; Liu, Shou-dong; Xiao, Wei; Xiao, Qi-tao; Xu, Jia-ping

    2015-10-01

    Lake surface albedo determines energy balance of water-atmospheric interface and water physical environment. Solar elevation angle, cloudiness, wind speed, water quality and other factors can affect lake surface albedo. Using solar radiation, wind speed, and water quality data (turbidity and chlorophyll-a concentration) which were observed in four eddy covariance sites (Meiliangwan, Dapukou, Bifenggang and Xiaoleishan i. e. MLW, DPK, BFG and XLS) in Lake Taihu and clearness index (k(t)), the influence of these factors on Lake Taihu surface albedo and the reasons that led to its spatial difference were investigated. The results showed that solar elevation angle played a leading role in the diurnal and seasonal change of lake surface albedo; lake surface albedo reached two peaks in 0 < k(t) < 0.1 and 0.4 < k(t) < 0.6 respectively, when solar elevation angle was below 35 degrees. The surface albedo increased with the increasing wind speed, turbidity and chlorophyll-a concentration. However, wind could indirectly affect surface albedo through leading to the changes in sediment resuspension and chlorophyll-a distribution. The sequence of albedo in the four sites was XLS > BFG > DPK > MLW. XLS and BFG belonged to the higher albedo group, while DPK and MLW belonged to the lower albedo group. The different biological environments caused by aquatic macrophytes and algae resulting in the spatial variation of Lake Taihu surface albedo. The relationship between albedo and chlorophyll-a concentration was not a very sensitive factor for indicating the outbreak of algae. This study can provide theoretical reference for lake albedo parameterization.

  1. Impact of CO2 and climate on Last Glacial maximum vegetation - a factor separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, M.; Selent, K.; Brovkin, V.; Raddatz, T.; Gayler, V.

    2013-06-01

    The factor separation of Stein and Alpert (1993) is applied to simulations with the MPI Earth system model to determine the factors which cause the differences between vegetation patterns in glacial and pre-industrial climate. The factors firstly include differences in the climate, caused by a strong increase in ice masses and the radiative effect of lower greenhouse gas concentrations; secondly, differences in the ecophysiological effect of lower glacial atmospheric CO2 concentrations; and thirdly, the synergy between the pure climate effect and the pure effect of changing physiologically available CO2. It is has been shown that the synergy can be interpreted as a measure of the sensitivity of ecophysiological CO2 effect to climate. The pure climate effect mainly leads to a contraction or a shift in vegetation patterns when comparing simulated glacial and pre-industrial vegetation patterns. Raingreen shrubs benefit from the colder and drier climate. The pure ecophysiological effect of CO2 appears to be stronger than the pure climate effect for many plant functional types - in line with previous simulations. The pure ecophysiological effect of lower CO2 mainly yields a reduction in fractional coverage, a thinning of vegetation and a strong reduction in net primary production. The synergy appears to be as strong as each of the pure contributions locally, but weak on global average for most plant functional types. For tropical evergreen trees, however, the synergy is strong on global average. It diminishes the difference between glacial and pre-industrial coverage of tropical evergreen trees, due to the pure climate effect and the pure ecophysiological CO2 effect, by approximately 50 per cent.

  2. Impact of lexical and sentiment factors on the popularity of scientific papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, Julian; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate how textual properties of scientific papers relate to the number of citations they receive. Our main finding is that correlations are nonlinear and affect differently the most cited and typical papers. For instance, we find that, in most journals, short titles correlate positively with citations only for the most cited papers, whereas for typical papers, the correlation is usually negative. Our analysis of six different factors, calculated both at the title and abstract level of 4.3 million papers in over 1500 journals, reveals the number of authors, and the length and complexity of the abstract, as having the strongest (positive) influence on the number of citations.

  3. Impact of lexical and sentiment factors on the popularity of scientific papers

    PubMed Central

    Sienkiewicz, Julian; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how textual properties of scientific papers relate to the number of citations they receive. Our main finding is that correlations are nonlinear and affect differently the most cited and typical papers. For instance, we find that, in most journals, short titles correlate positively with citations only for the most cited papers, whereas for typical papers, the correlation is usually negative. Our analysis of six different factors, calculated both at the title and abstract level of 4.3 million papers in over 1500 journals, reveals the number of authors, and the length and complexity of the abstract, as having the strongest (positive) influence on the number of citations. PMID:27429773

  4. Analyzing the Impact of Residential Building Attributes, Demographic and Behavioral Factors on Natural Gas Usage

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2011-03-03

    This analysis examines the relationship between energy demand and residential building attributes, demographic characteristics, and behavioral variables using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2005 microdata. This study investigates the applicability of the smooth backfitting estimator to statistical analysis of residential energy consumption via nonparametric regression. The methodology utilized in the study extends nonparametric additive regression via local linear smooth backfitting to categorical variables. The conventional methods used for analyzing residential energy consumption are econometric modeling and engineering simulations. This study suggests an econometric approach that can be utilized in combination with simulation results. A common weakness of previously used econometric models is a very high likelihood that any suggested parametric relationships will be misspecified. Nonparametric modeling does not have this drawback. Its flexibility allows for uncovering more complex relationships between energy use and the explanatory variables than can possibly be achieved by parametric models. Traditionally, building simulation models overestimated the effects of energy efficiency measures when compared to actual "as-built" observed savings. While focusing on technical efficiency, they do not account for behavioral or market effects. The magnitude of behavioral or market effects may have a substantial influence on the final energy savings resulting from implementation of various energy conservation measures and programs. Moreover, variability in behavioral aspects and user characteristics appears to have a significant impact on total energy consumption. Inaccurate estimates of energy consumption and potential savings also impact investment decisions. The existing modeling literature, whether it relies on parametric specifications or engineering simulation, does not accommodate inclusion of a behavioral component. This

  5. Do citations and impact factors relate to the real numbers in publications? A case study of citation rates, impact, and effect sizes in ecology and evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Lortie, Christopher J; Aarssen, Lonnie W; Budden, Amber E; Leimu, Roosa

    2013-02-01

    Metrics of success or impact in academia may do more harm than good. To explore the value of citations, the reported efficacy of treatments in ecology and evolution from close to 1,500 publications was examined. If citation behavior is rationale, i.e. studies that successfully applied a treatment and detected greater biological effects are cited more frequently, then we predict that larger effect sizes increases study relative citation rates. This prediction was not supported. Citations are likely thus a poor proxy for the quantitative merit of a given treatment in ecology and evolutionary biology-unlike evidence-based medicine wherein the success of a drug or treatment on human health is one of the critical attributes. Impact factor of the journal is a broader metric, as one would expect, but it also unrelated to the mean effect sizes for the respective populations of publications. The interpretation by the authors of the treatment effects within each study differed depending on whether the hypothesis was supported or rejected. Significantly larger effect sizes were associated with rejection of a hypothesis. This suggests that only the most rigorous studies reporting negative results are published or that authors set a higher burden of proof in rejecting a hypothesis. The former is likely true to a major extent since only 29 % of the studies rejected the hypotheses tested. These findings indicate that the use of citations to identify important papers in this specific discipline-at least in terms of designing a new experiment or contrasting treatments-is of limited value.

  6. Impact of the Choice of Normalization Method on Molecular Cancer Class Discovery Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haixuan; Seoighe, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has proved to be an effective method for unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression data. By the nonnegativity constraint, NMF provides a decomposition of the data matrix into two matrices that have been used for clustering analysis. However, the decomposition is not unique. This allows different clustering results to be obtained, resulting in different interpretations of the decomposition. To alleviate this problem, some existing methods directly enforce uniqueness to some extent by adding regularization terms in the NMF objective function. Alternatively, various normalization methods have been applied to the factor matrices; however, the effects of the choice of normalization have not been carefully investigated. Here we investigate the performance of NMF for the task of cancer class discovery, under a wide range of normalization choices. After extensive evaluations, we observe that the maximum norm showed the best performance, although the maximum norm has not previously been used for NMF. Matlab codes are freely available from: http://maths.nuigalway.ie/~haixuanyang/pNMF/pNMF.htm.

  7. Impact of the Choice of Normalization Method on Molecular Cancer Class Discovery Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haixuan; Seoighe, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has proved to be an effective method for unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression data. By the nonnegativity constraint, NMF provides a decomposition of the data matrix into two matrices that have been used for clustering analysis. However, the decomposition is not unique. This allows different clustering results to be obtained, resulting in different interpretations of the decomposition. To alleviate this problem, some existing methods directly enforce uniqueness to some extent by adding regularization terms in the NMF objective function. Alternatively, various normalization methods have been applied to the factor matrices; however, the effects of the choice of normalization have not been carefully investigated. Here we investigate the performance of NMF for the task of cancer class discovery, under a wide range of normalization choices. After extensive evaluations, we observe that the maximum norm showed the best performance, although the maximum norm has not previously been used for NMF. Matlab codes are freely available from: http://maths.nuigalway.ie/~haixuanyang/pNMF/pNMF.htm. PMID:27741311

  8. Global analysis of the impact of linezolid onto virulence factor production in S. aureus USA300.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Florian; Pané-Farré, Jan; Schlüter, Rabea; Schaffer, Marc; Fuchs, Stephan; Bernhardt, Jörg; Riedel, Katharina; Otto, Andreas; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hecker, Michael; Mäder, Ulrike; Becher, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    The translation inhibitor linezolid is an antibiotic of last resort against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin resistant strains of the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Linezolid is reported to inhibit production of extracellular virulence factors, but the molecular cause is unknown. To elucidate the physiological response of S. aureus to linezolid in general and the inhibition of virulence factor synthesis in particular a holistic study was performed. Linezolid was added to exponentially growing S. aureus cells and the linezolid stress response was analyzed with transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics methods. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy experiments as well as fluorescence microscopy analyses of the cellular DNA and membrane were performed. As previously observed in studies on other translation inhibitors, S. aureus adapts its protein biosynthesis machinery to the reduced translation efficiency. For example the synthesis of ribosomal proteins was induced. Also unexpected results like a decline in the amount of extracellular and membrane proteins were obtained. In addition, cell shape and size changed after linezolid stress and cell division was diminished. Finally, the chromosome was condensed after linezolid stress and lost contact to the membrane. These morphological changes cannot be explained by established theories. A new hypothesis is discussed, which suggests that the reduced amount of membrane and extracellular proteins and observed defects in cell division are due to the disintegration of transertion complexes by linezolid.

  9. Impact of various factors on pharmacokinetics of bioactive polyphenols: an overview.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Macià, Alba; Motilva, Maria-José

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies throughout the years have suggested that polyphenols from fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce the risk of certain chronic and neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, it has been proved to be extremely difficult to quantitatively establish the benefit afforded by polyphenols, principally due to the limited understanding of the extent of its absorption and metabolic fate. Pharmacokinetics includes the study of the mechanisms of absorption and distribution of an ingested polyphenol, its chemical changes in the body (e.g. by metabolic enzymes), and the effects and routes of excretion of the metabolites. In recent years, there have been major advances in our knowledge of polyphenol absorption and metabolism, and it is apparent that most classes of polyphenols are sufficiently absorbed to have the potential to exert biological effects. The pharmacokinetics of polyphenols includes the same steps as those for orally ingested drugs (LADME) and faces some of the same challenges, including transporters and enzymes. However, unraveling the bioavailability of polyphenols is even more challenging than with drugs, since many other factors, such as the variety in the chemical structure, the food matrix and the gut microbiota, can affect bioavailability of polyphenols during digestion. This review focuses on the most relevant factors that influence polyphenol pharmacokinetics, and also on the most recent technological strategies developed to overcome the poor bioavailability of phenolic compounds and thus increase their potential for greater health benefits.

  10. Impacts of climate, host and landscape factors on Culicoides species in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Purse, B V; Falconer, D; Sullivan, M J; Carpenter, S; Mellor, P S; Piertney, S B; Mordue Luntz, A J; Albon, S; Gunn, G J; Blackwell, A

    2012-06-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vector a wide variety of internationally important arboviral pathogens of livestock and represent a widespread biting nuisance. This study investigated the influence of landscape, host and remotely-sensed climate factors on local abundance of livestock-associated species in Scotland, within a hierarchical generalized linear model framework. The Culicoides obsoletus group and the Culicoides pulicaris group accounted for 56% and 41%, respectively, of adult females trapped. Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer and C. pulicaris s.s. Linnaeus were the most abundant and widespread species in the C. pulicaris group (accounting for 29% and 10%, respectively, of females trapped). Abundance models performed well for C. impunctatus, Culicoides deltus Edwards and Culicoides punctatus Meigen (adjusted R(2) : 0.59-0.70), but not for C. pulicaris s.s. (adjusted R(2) : 0.36) and the C. obsoletus group (adjusted R(2) : 0.08). Local-scale abundance patterns were best explained by models combining host, landscape and climate factors. The abundance of C. impunctatus was negatively associated with cattle density, but positively associated with pasture cover, consistent with this species' preference in the larval stage for lightly grazed, wet rush pasture. Predicted abundances of this species varied widely among farms even over short distances (less than a few km). Modelling approaches that may facilitate the more accurate prediction of local abundance patterns for a wider range of Culicoides species are discussed.

  11. DECONTAMINATION FACTORS AND FILTRATION FLUX IMPACT TO ARP AT REDUCED MST CONCENTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-06-27

    Tank Farm and Closure Engineering is evaluating changes to the Actinide Removal Process facility operations to decrease the MST concentration from 0.4 g/L to 0.2 g/L and the contact time from 12 hours to between 6 and 8 hours. For this evaluation, SRNL reviewed previous datasets investigating the performance of MST at 0.2 g/L in salt solutions ranging from 4.5 to 7.5 M in sodium concentration. In general, reducing the MST concentration from 0.4 to 0.2 g/L and increasing the ionic strength from 4.5 to 7.5 M in sodium concentration will decrease the measured decontamination factors for plutonium, neptunium, uranium and strontium. The decontamination factors as well as single standard deviation values for each sorbate are reported. These values are applicable within the sorbate and sodium concentrations used in the experimental measurements. Decreasing the MST concentration in the ARP from 0.4 g/L to 0.2 g/L will produce an increase in the filter flux, and could lead to longer operating times between filter cleaning. The increase in flux is a function of a number of operating parameters, and is difficult to quantify. However, it is estimated that the reduction in MST could result in a reduction of filtration time of up to 20%.

  12. A qualitative investigation of Hispanic construction worker perspectives on factors impacting worksite safety and risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hispanic workers have higher rates of injury and death on construction worksites than workers of other ethnicities. Language barriers and cultural differences have been hypothesized as reasons behind the disparate rates. Methods We conducted two series of focus groups with union and non-union Hispanic construction workers to ask them about their perceptions of the causes for the unequal rates. Spanish transcripts were translated and coded in QSR NVivo software for common themes. Results Workers reported a difficult work environment characterized by supervisor pressure, competition for jobs and intimidation with regard to raising safety concerns. Language barriers or cultural factors were not strongly represented as causative factors behind the rates. Conclusion The results of this study have informed the development of an intervention trial that seeks to prevent falls and silica dust exposure by training contractors employing Hispanic construction workers in the elements of safety leadership, including building respect for their Hispanic workers and facilitating their participation in a safety program. PMID:21962128

  13. Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gould, E.A.; Higgs, S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary While some sceptics remain unconvinced that global climate change is a reality, there is no doubt that during the past 50 years or so, patterns of emerging arbovirus diseases have changed significantly. Can this be attributed to climate change? Climate is a major factor in determining: (1) the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods; (2) characteristics of arthropod life cycles; (3) dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses; (4) the evolution of arboviruses; and (5) the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. Thus, under the influence of increasing temperatures and rainfall through warming of the oceans, and alteration of the natural cycles that stabilise climate, one is inevitably drawn to the conclusion that arboviruses will continue to emerge in new regions. For example, we cannot ignore the unexpected but successful establishment of chikungunya fever in northern Italy, the sudden appearance of West Nile virus in North America, the increasing frequency of Rift Valley fever epidemics in the Arabian Peninsula, and very recently, the emergence of Bluetongue virus in northern Europe. In this brief review we ask the question, are these diseases emerging because of climate change or do other factors play an equal or even more important role in their emergence? PMID:18799177

  14. Acetylation impacts Fli-1-driven regulation of granulocyte colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Lennard Richard, Mara L; Brandon, Danielle; Lou, Ning; Sato, Shuzo; Caldwell, Tomika; Nowling, Tamara K; Gilkeson, Gary; Zhang, Xian K

    2016-10-01

    Fli-1 has emerged as a critical regulator of inflammatory mediators, including MCP-1, CCL5, and IL-6. The cytokine, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) regulates neutrophil precursor maturation and survival, and activates mature neutrophils. Previously, a significant decrease in neutrophil infiltration into the kidneys of Fli-1(+/-) lupus-prone mice was observed. In this study, a significant decrease in G-CSF protein expression was detected in stimulated murine and human endothelial cells when expression of Fli-1 was inhibited. The murine G-CSF promoter contains numerous putative Fli-1 binding sites and several regions within the proximal promoter are significantly enriched for Fli-1 binding. Transient transfection assays indicate that Fli-1 drives transcription from the G-CSF promoter and mutation of the Fli-1 DNA binding domain resulted in a 94% loss of transcriptional activation. Mutation of a known acetylation site, led to a significant increase in G-CSF promoter activation. The histone acetyltransferases p300/CBP and p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF) significantly decrease Fli-1 specific activation of the G-CSF promoter. Thus, acetylation appears to be an important mechanism behind Fli-1 driven activation of the G-CSF promoter. These results further support the theory that Fli-1 plays a major role in the regulation of several inflammatory mediators, ultimately affecting inflammatory disease pathogenesis.

  15. Modulation of proteostasis by transcription factor NRF2 and impact in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Pajares, Marta; Cuadrado, Antonio; Rojo, Ana I

    2017-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to the accumulation of specific protein aggregates, suggesting an intimate connection between injured brain and loss of proteostasis. Proteostasis refers to all the processes by which cells control the abundance and folding of the proteome thanks to a wide network that integrates the regulation of signaling pathways, gene expression and protein degradation systems. This review attempts to summarize the most relevant findings about the transcriptional modulation of proteostasis exerted by the transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2). NRF2 has been classically considered as the master regulator of the antioxidant cell response, although it is currently emerging as a key component of the transduction machinery to maintain proteostasis. As we will discuss, NRF2 could be envisioned as a hub that compiles emergency signals derived from misfolded protein accumulation in order to build a coordinated and perdurable transcriptional response. This is achieved by functions of NRF2 related to the control of genes involved in the maintenance of the endoplasmic reticulum physiology, the proteasome and autophagy.

  16. Factors Associated with Removal of Impactted Fishbone in Children, Suspected Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chun Woo; Park, Min Hwan; Do, Hyun Jeong; Yeom, Jung-Sook; Park, Eun Sil; Seo, Ji Hyun; Park, Jung Je; Lim, Jae Young; Park, Chan Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The management and clinical course in pediatric patients who had ingested foreign body were investigated retrospectively to evaluate the frequency and factor associated with successful removal of fishbone foreign body. Methods Based on the medical records of patients younger than 15 years old who visited emergency room because of foreign body ingestion from January 1999 to December 2012, the authors reviewed clinical characteristics including type of ingested foreign bodies, time to visits, managements and complications. Results Fishbone (50.1%) was the most common ingested foreign body in children. Among 416 patients with ingested fishbone, 245 (58.9%) were identified and removed using laryngoscope, rigid or flexible endoscope from pharynx or upper esophagus by otolaryngologists and pediatric gastroenterologists. The kind of ingested fish bone in children was diverse. The mean age of identified and removed fishbone group was 7.39 years old, and higher than that of unidentified fishbone group (5.81 years old, p<0.001). Identified and removed fishbone group had shorter time until hospital visit than the unidentified fishbone group (2.03 vs. 6.47 hours, p<0.001). No complication due to ingested fishbone or procedure occurred. Conclusion Older age and shorter time from accident to hospital visit were the different factors between success and failure on removal of ingested fish bone in children. PMID:27738598

  17. Johne’s disease in Canada Part II: Disease impacts, risk factors, and control programs for dairy producers

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Shawn L.B.; Keefe, Greg P.; Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John; Barkema, Herman W.

    2006-01-01

    Part I of this 2-part review examined the clinical stages, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and epidemiology of Johne’s disease, providing information relevant to Canada, where available. In Part II, a critical review of the economic impacts of the disease, risk factors, and important control measures are presented to enable Canadian bovine practitioners to successfully implement control strategies and participate in control programs. In cattle positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, there is a 2.4 times increase in the risk of their being culled, and their lactational 305-day milk production is decreased by at least 370 kg. Reduced slaughter value and premature culling account for losses of CDN$1330 per year per infected 50-cow herd. Research has failed to show a consistent association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis test status and reduced fertility or risk of clinical or subclinical mastitis. Host level factors include age and level of exposure, along with source of exposure, such as manure, colostrum, or milk. Agent factors involve the dose of infectious agent and strains of bacteria. Environmental management factors influence the persistence of the bacteria and the level of contamination in the environment. Emphasizing a risk factor approach, various control strategies are reviewed, including a number of national control programs currently in place throughout the world, specifically Australia, The Netherlands, and the United States. By reviewing the scientific literature about Johne’s disease, control of the disease could be pursued through informed implementation of rational biosecurity efforts and the strategic use of testing and culling. PMID:17147140

  18. Assessment of factors impacting cervical cancer screening among low-income women living with HIV-AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ogunwale, Abayomi N; Coleman, Maame Aba; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Valverde, Ivan; Montealegre, Jane; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria; Anderson, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Very little is currently known about factors impacting the prevalence of cervical cancer screening among women living with HIV-AIDS (WLHA). To better understand this issue, we surveyed low-income, medically underserved women receiving subsidized gynecologic care through an integrated HIV clinic. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 209 women who self-identified as HIV positive. A total of 179 subjects (85.7%) reported having had a Pap test in the last three years. The majority of WLHA (95%) knew that the Pap test screens for cervical cancer. However, overall knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors, such as multiple sexual partners or sex with a man with multiple partners, was low (43% and 35%, respectively). Unscreened women were younger and more likely to be single with multiple current sexual partners. In multivariable analyses, the only factors associated with Pap testing were a woman's perception that her partner wants her to receive regular screening (aOR 4.64; 95% CI: 1.15-23.76; p = .04), number of clinic visits during the past year (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05-1.94; p = .04) and knowledge that the need for a Pap test does not depend on whether or not a woman is experiencing vaginal bleeding (aOR 6.52, 95% CI: 1.04-49.71; p = .05). We conclude that support from male partners in addition to effective contact with the health system and knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors influence Pap utilization among low-income WLHA. Future measures to improve the care for this population should increase knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and encourage social support for cervical cancer screening among WLHA.

  19. The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

    High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption

  20. Impact Factors and Risk Analysis of Tropical Cyclones on a Highway Network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Saini; Hu, Fuyu; Jaeger, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Coastal areas typically have high social and economic development and are likely to suffer huge losses due to tropical cyclones. These cyclones have a great impact on the transportation network, but there have been a limited number of studies about tropical-cyclone-induced transportation network functional damages, especially in Asia. This study develops an innovative measurement and analytical tool for highway network functional damage and risk in the context of a tropical cyclone, with which we explored the critical spatial characteristics of tropical cyclones with regard to functional damage to a highway network by developing linear regression models to quantify their relationship. Furthermore, we assessed the network's functional risk and calculated the return periods under different damage levels. In our analyses, we consider the real-world highway network of Hainan province, China. Our results illustrate that the most important spatial characteristics were location (in particular, the midlands), travel distance, landfalling status, and origin coordinates. However, the trajectory direction did not obviously affect the results. Our analyses indicate that the highway network of Hainan province may suffer from a 90% functional damage scenario every 4.28 years. These results have critical policy implications for the transport sector in reference to emergency planning and disaster reduction.

  1. Factors impacting the formation of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) fatty acid diesters during palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil production.

    PubMed

    Craft, Brian D; Nagy, Kornél; Sandoz, Laurence; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Recently, organic and inorganic chlorinated compounds were detected in crude and commercially refined palm oils. Further, the predominant formation mechanism of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) diesters at high temperatures (>170-180°C) was revealed. The present study involved the development and comparison of solutions to mitigate MCPD diester levels in oils from various stages of palm oil production. Partially refined palm oil samples and oil extracted from fresh palm fruits were submitted to bench-top deodorisation experiments. Application of glycerol and ethanol as refining aids during the deodorisation of refined-bleached palm oil proved to be moderately effective; about 25%-35% reduction of MCPD diester levels was achieved. Washing crude palm oil with ethanol-water (1:1) prior to deodorisation was also an effective strategy yielding an ∼30% reduction of MCPD diester contents. Washing palm fruit pulp before oil extraction, however, was most impactful, resulting in a 95% reduction of MCPD diesters when compared to the deodorised control oil. This suggests that intervention upstream in the process chain is most efficient in reducing levels of these contaminants in refined oils. Following the study, a root-cause analysis was performed in order to map the parameters potentially responsible for the occurrence of MCPD diesters in refined palm oil and related fractions.

  2. Impact of ecological factors on concern and awareness about disability: a statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Gabriela

    2014-11-01

    The barriers that people with disabilities face around the world are not only inherent in the limitations resulting from the disability itself, but, more importantly, these barriers rest with the societal technologies of exclusion. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the statistical relationship between the national level of development, the level of democratization, and the level of education of a country's population on one hand, and expressed concern for people with disabilities on another hand. The results reveal that a greater worry for the well-being of people with disabilities is correlated with a high level of country development, a decreased value of political stability and absence of violence, a decreased level of government effectiveness, and a greater level of law enforcement. There is a direct correlation between concern for people with disabilities and people's awareness about disabilities. Surprisingly, the level of education has no impact on the compassion toward people with disabilities. A comparison case for in depth illustration is discussed.

  3. The Impact of BIB-Spiralling Induced Missing Data Patterns on Goodness-of-Fit Tests in Factor Analysis. Occasional Paper OP93-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David

    The impact of the use of data arising from balanced incomplete block (BIB) spiralled designs on the chi-square goodness-of-fit test in factor analysis is considered. Data from BIB designs posses a unique pattern of missing data that can be characterized as missing completely at random (MCAR). Standard approaches to factor analyzing such data rest…

  4. Confronting Suffering and Death at the End of Life: The Impact of Religiosity, Psychosocial Factors, and Life Regret among Hospice Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Robert A.; Currier, Joseph M.; Coleman, Rachel; Tomer, Adrian; Samuel, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of spiritual, psychological, and social factors is receiving increasing attention in the end of life (EOL) context, we know far less than we need to about how these factors shape attitudes toward life and death in the face of looming loss. The present study begins to remedy these limitations by examining the relative impact of…

  5. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ≈ 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the

  6. Impact of social and clinical factors on diagnostic delay of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dianatinasab, Mostafa; Fararouei, Mohammad; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Zare-Bandamiri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One of the reasons for high mortality of breast cancer is long delay in seeking medical care. This study was designed to measure the association of a wide range of socio-demographic and clinical factors with the diagnostic delay in breast cancer among Iranian patients. This study was conducted on 505 newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer from southern part of Iran. Medical files of the patients who were admitted to the hospital from November 2013 to May 2015 were examined and clinical and demographic information were extracted. According to the results, illiterate patients were diagnosed on average 87.42 days later compared with those with a college degree (95%CI: 29.68–145.16, P = 0.003) and those from rural area were diagnosed on average 72.48 days later (95%CI: 35.94–109.03, P = 0.001) compared with urban residences. Single women were diagnosed 65.99 days later (95%CI: 7.37–124.61, P = 0.02) compared with those married. Lobular or medullary types of cancer were diagnosed 65.19 days later (95%CI: 2.67–127.70, P = 0.04) compared with ductal type. On the other hand, those who were able to perform breast self-exam were diagnosed 49.07 days earlier compared with others (95%CI: 18.69–79.45, P = 0.002). Those felt lump as the initiating symptom were diagnosed 62.01 days earlier, (95%CI: 8.17–115.85, P = 0.02) compared with those with other initial symptoms. The only factor associated with doctors diagnosis delay was the place of residence as rural residences were diagnosed on average 87.42 days later compared with urban residences, (95%CI: 53.82–121.92, P = 0.001). Higher education, living in cities, ductal type of tumor, and noticing lump in breast were the most important demographic and clinical factors associated with shorter breast cancer diagnosis delay. Informing women and doctors, especially general physicians who are practicing in rural areas, of the common symptoms of breast cancer as well as training women to perform breast self

  7. Impact of population age structure on Wolbachia transgene driver efficacy: ecologically complex factors and release of genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rasgon, Jason L; Scott, Thomas W

    2004-07-01

    Wolbachia symbionts hold theoretical promise as a way to drive transgenes into insect vector populations for disease prevention. For simplicity, current models of Wolbachia dynamics and spread ignore ecologically complex factors such as the age structure of vector populations and overlapping vector generations. We developed a model including these factors to assess their impact on the process of Wolbachia spread into populations of three mosquito species (Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens). Depending on the mosquito species, Wolbachia parameters, released mosquito life stage and initial age structure of the target population, the number of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes that we predict would need to be released ranged from less than the threshold calculated by the simple model to a 10-30-fold increase. Transgenic releases into age-structured populations, which is an expectation for wild mosquitoes, will be difficult and depending on the circumstances may not be economically or logistically feasible due to the large number of infected mosquitoes that must be released. Our results support the perspective that understanding ecological factors is critical for designing transgenic vector-borne disease control strategies.

  8. Impact of environmental and genetic factors on the scale shape of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822): a geometric morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Staszny, A; Havas, Enikő; Kovács, R; Urbányi, B; Paulovits, G; Bencsik, Dóra; Ferincz, A; Müller, T; Specziár, A; Bakos, Katalin; Csenki, Zs

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific morphological variability may reflect either genetic divergence among groups of individuals or response of individuals to environmental circumstances within the frame of phenotypic plasticity. Several studies were able to discriminate wild fish populations based on their scale shape. Here we examine whether the variations in the scale shape in fish populations could be related to genetic or environmental factors, or to both of them. In the first experiment, two inbred lines of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822) reared under identical environmental conditions were compared. Secondly, to find out what effect environmental factors might have, offsprings were divided into two groups and reared on different diets for 12 weeks. Potential recovery of scales from an environmental effect was also assessed. Experimental groups could successfully be distinguished according to the shape of scales in both experiments, and the results showed that both genetic and environmental factors may notably influence scale shape. It was concluded that scale shape analysis might be used as an explanatory tool to detect potential variability of environmental influences impacting genetically homogeneous groups of fish. However, due to its sensitivity to environmental heterogeneity, the applicability of this technique in identifying intraspecific stock membership of fish could be limited.

  9. Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in haematology patients: long-term impact and early predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Lagier, D; Platon, L; Chow-Chine, L; Sannini, A; Bisbal, M; Brun, J-P; Blache, J-L; Faucher, M; Mokart, D

    2016-09-01

    Severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with haematological diseases expose clinicians to specific medical and ethical considerations. We prospectively followed 143 patients with haematological malignancies, and whose lungs were mechanically ventilated for more than 24 h, over a 5-y period. We sought to identify prognostic factors of long-term outcome, and in particular to evaluate the impact of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome in these patients. A secondary objective was to identify the early (first 48 h from ICU admission) predictive factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome severity. An evolutive haematological disease (HR 1.71; 95% CI 1.13-2.58), moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 1.81; 95% CI 1.13-2.69) and need for renal replacement therapy (HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.52-3.31) were associated with long-term mortality. Resolution of neutropaenia during ICU stay (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42-0.94) and early microbiological documentation (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.91) were associated with survival. The extent of pulmonary infiltration observed on the first chest X-ray and the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection were the most relevant early predictive factors of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  10. The impact of workplace factors on evidence-based speech-language pathology practice for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gladys; Trembath, David; Arciuli, Joanne; Togher, Leanne

    2013-08-01

    Although researchers have examined barriers to implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) at the level of the individual, little is known about the effects workplaces have on speech-language pathologists' implementation of EBP. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of workplace factors on the use of EBP amongst speech-language pathologists who work with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study sought to (a) explore views about EBP amongst speech-language pathologists who work with children with ASD, (b) identify workplace factors which, in the participants' opinions, acted as barriers or enablers to their provision of evidence-based speech-language pathology services, and (c) examine whether or not speech-language pathologists' responses to workplace factors differed based on the type of workplace or their years of experience. A total of 105 speech-language pathologists from across Australia completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The results indicate that, although the majority of speech-language pathologists agreed that EBP is necessary, they experienced barriers to their implementation of EBP including workplace culture and support, lack of time, cost of EBP, and the availability and accessibility of EBP resources. The barriers reported by speech-language pathologists were similar, regardless of their workplace (private practice vs organization) and years of experience.

  11. Following in real time the impact of pneumococcal virulence factors in an acute mouse pneumonia model using bioluminescent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Malek; Abdullah, Mohammed R; Schulz, Christian; Kohler, Thomas; Pribyl, Thomas; Jensch, Inga; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2014-02-23

    Pneumonia is one of the major health care problems in developing and industrialized countries and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in knowledge of this illness, the availability of intensive care units (ICU), and the use of potent antimicrobial agents and effective vaccines, the mortality rates remain high(1). Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and one of the most common causes of bacteremia in humans. This pathogen is equipped with an armamentarium of surface-exposed adhesins and virulence factors contributing to pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The assessment of the in vivo role of bacterial fitness or virulence factors is of utmost importance to unravel S. pneumoniae pathogenicity mechanisms. Murine models of pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis are being used to determine the impact of pneumococcal factors at different stages of the infection. Here we describe a protocol to monitor in real-time pneumococcal dissemination in mice after intranasal or intraperitoneal infections with bioluminescent bacteria. The results show the multiplication and dissemination of pneumococci in the lower respiratory tract and blood, which can be visualized and evaluated using an imaging system and the accompanying analysis software.

  12. Air pollution, a rising environmental risk factor for cognition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration: The clinical impact on children and beyond.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Leray, E; Heydarpour, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Reis, J

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution (indoors and outdoors) is a major issue in public health as epidemiological studies have highlighted its numerous detrimental health consequences (notably, respiratory and cardiovascular pathological conditions). Over the past 15 years, air pollution has also been considered a potent environmental risk factor for neurological diseases and neuropathology. This review examines the impact of air pollution on children's brain development and the clinical, cognitive, brain structural and metabolic consequences. Long-term potential consequences for adults' brains and the effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) are also discussed. One challenge is to assess the effects of lifetime exposures to outdoor and indoor environmental pollutants, including occupational exposures: how much, for how long and what type. Diffuse neuroinflammation, damage to the neurovascular unit, and the production of autoantibodies to neural and tight-junction proteins are worrisome findings in children chronically exposed to concentrations above the current standards for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and may constitute significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease later in life. Finally, data supporting the role of air pollution as a risk factor for MS are reviewed, focusing on the effects of PM10 and nitrogen oxides.

  13. Estimating the impact of natural and technogenic factors on the incidence of malignant neoplasms in Altai krai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, A. N.; Kovrigin, A. O.; Lazarev, A. F.; Lubennikov, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution by industry and motor vehicles, the use of coal ash for the construction of residential and nonresidential buildings, and the presence of dead zones in the residential sector are the main factors of carcinogenic risk to human health. Natural factors (such as topography and prevailing wind directions) can weaken or strengthen technogenic factors. Based on the estimate of pollutant concentrations in the snow cover of Barnaul, we reveal residential areas that are located at the crossroads of atmospheric transport of carcinogenic substances and characterized by concentrations considerably exceeding the maximum allowable concentration. These areas are characterized by the integral accumulation of carcinogenic substances concurrently from multiple sources; for almost any wind rose, the impact of one of the pollution sources is observed throughout the year. The assessment of the carcinogenic risk for a territory depends much on the correlation between local topography and the height of apartments above ground level. Using cancer register data for Barnaul, we reveal an increased level of the incidence of malignant neoplasms in people living in high-rise buildings located in areas with a sharp change in topography (such as ledges, hills, and lowlands). This may occur due to stagnant zones and wind shadows; under certain correlation between topography and the height and shape of buildings, carcinogenic substances accumulate maximally.

  14. Analyzing the Impact of Pan- and Class-Specific HDACi on Differentiation-Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Noack, Katrin; Krämer, Oliver H

    2017-01-01

    The differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature blood cells is a highly ordered process and dysregulation of this process can lead to leukemogenesis. Agents that are used to cure acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) can induce differentiation and/or apoptosis. Here, we describe how effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) on APL cell differentiation can be evaluated by immunoblotting and by flow cytometry. We show how the levels of differentiation-associated transcription factors of the CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family can be determined by Western blot and we explain how the cell surface expression of the leukocyte surface antigen CD11b can be measured by flow cytometry.

  15. Satisfaction guaranteed? How individual, partner, and relationship factors impact sexual satisfaction within partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Within committed relationships, a wide range of factors may challenge or facilitate sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study was to clarify which individual, partner-, and partnership-related aspects of a sexual relationship are crucial for the prediction of sexual satisfaction. The study included data of a representative sample of 964 couples from the general population. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to estimate actor and partner effects. Overall, predictors explained 57% of outcome variance. Actor effects were found for sexual function, sexual distress, frequency of sexual activity, desire discrepancy, sexual initiative, sexual communication, sociosexual orientation, masturbation, and life satisfaction. Gender-specific partner effects were found for sexual function and sexual distress. Neither age, nor relationship duration were significant predictors. To deepen our understanding of sexual satisfaction, it is necessary to take quantitative and qualitative aspects of sexual relationships into account and to consider actor-, partner-, and relationship-related predictors. PMID:28231314

  16. Ageism among social work faculty: impact of personal factors and other "isms".

    PubMed

    Chonody, Jill M; Wang, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was (a) to determine the extent to which ageist attitudes are evident among social work faculty and how educational factors may contribute to ageism, (b) to determine if terror management theory (in terms of aging anxiety) offers a further explanation for ageist attitudes beyond known correlates, and (c) to understand how intersecting prejudices (attitudes toward women, gay men, and lesbians) may be associated with ageist attitudes. Results indicated a low bias toward older adults, with two variables, psychological anxiety about aging and paid experience with older adults, accounting for 29.7% of the variance. Further, no association was found between ageism and sexism and sexual prejudice in the multivariate analyses. These results indicate promising advances for terror management theory in explaining ageism. Social work faculty's low bias and perceived need for gerontological content in curricula is an encouraging finding for gerontological social work education.

  17. Violence, teenage pregnancy, and life history : ecological factors and their impact on strategy-driven behavior.

    PubMed

    Copping, Lee T; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Guided by principles of life history strategy development, this study tested the hypothesis that sexual precocity and violence are influenced by sensitivities to local environmental conditions. Two models of strategy development were compared: The first is based on indirect perception of ecological cues through family disruption and the second is based on both direct and indirect perception of ecological stressors. Results showed a moderate correlation between rates of violence and sexual precocity (r = 0.59). Although a model incorporating direct and indirect effects provided a better fit than one based on family mediation alone, significant improvements were made by linking some ecological factors directly to behavior independently of strategy development. The models support the contention that violence and teenage pregnancy are part of an ecologically determined pattern of strategy development and suggest that while the family unit is critical in affecting behavior, individuals' direct experiences of the environment are also important.

  18. Impact of health system factors on changes in human resource and expenditures levels in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Narine, L

    2000-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the system factors responsible for changes in the health workforce, this study undertook an empirical examination of the determinants of the size of the health workforce and overall health expenditures across fifteen OECD countries. Specifically, using the latest release of OECD data, the analysis estimated and evaluated the effects of variables such as the proportion of female physicians and the elderly, expenditures on ambulatory care, enrollment levels in training programs, level of public financing, and per capita income on the size of the health workforce and level of health spending between 1970-1991. The findings of this study help to place the problem of the changing health workforce within the context of the complexity of health systems. It confirms any understanding of what accounts for changes in the size of the health labor force and expenditures require disentangling the effects of variables which needs to be taken into account when considering health system reforms.

  19. [A review on carbon and water interactions of forest ecosystem and its impact factors].

    PubMed

    Song, Chun-lin; Sun, Xiang-yang; Wang, Gen-xu

    2015-09-01

    Interaction between carbon and water in forest ecosystem is a coupling process in terrestrial ecosystem, which is an indispensable aspect for the study of forest carbon pool, ecohydrological processes and the responses to global change. In the context of global change, the interaction and coupling of carbon and water in forest ecosystem has attracted much attention among scientists. In this paper, we reviewed the process mechanism of forest carbon and water relationships based on previous studies, which consisted of advance in forest water use efficiency, carbon and water interactions at different scales, scaling, and model simulation. We summed up the factors affecting for- est water and carbon interaction, including water condition, carbon dioxide enrichment, warming, nitrogen deposition, ozone concentration variation, solar radiation, and altitudinal gradients. Finally, we discussed the problems in the previous studies, and prospected the possible future research fields, among which we thought the inherent dynamics mechanism and scaling of forest carbon and water interactions should be enhanced.

  20. Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Éric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances–especially prescription drugs–is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances. PMID:23940757