Science.gov

Sample records for impact instrument calibration

  1. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Ipatov, Sergei; Li Jianyang; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Wellnitz, Dennis; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Thomas, Peter; Hampton, Donald; Lisse, Carey

    2008-09-15

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [{approx}1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of {approx}9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is {approx}1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to {approx}1%. Spectrometer read noise is {approx}2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to {approx}10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of {approx}2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to {approx}0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  2. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration.

    PubMed

    Klaasen, Kenneth P; A'Hearn, Michael F; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Ipatov, Sergei; Li, Jianyang; Lisse, Carey; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [ approximately 1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of approximately 9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is approximately 1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to approximately 1%. Spectrometer read noise is approximately 2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to approximately 10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of approximately 2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to approximately 0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  3. Human-Robot Collaboration Dynamic Impact Testing and Calibration Instrument for Disposable Robot Safety Artifacts.

    PubMed

    Dagalakis, Nicholas G; Yoo, Jae Myung; Oeste, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Impact Testing and Calibration Instrument (DITCI) is a simple instrument with a significant data collection and analysis capability that is used for the testing and calibration of biosimulant human tissue artifacts. These artifacts may be used to measure the severity of injuries caused in the case of a robot impact with a human. In this paper we describe the DITCI adjustable impact and flexible foundation mechanism, which allows the selection of a variety of impact force levels and foundation stiffness. The instrument can accommodate arrays of a variety of sensors and impact tools, simulating both real manufacturing tools and the testing requirements of standards setting organizations. A computer data acquisition system may collect a variety of impact motion, force, and torque data, which are used to develop a variety of mathematical model representations of the artifacts. Finally, we describe the fabrication and testing of human abdomen soft tissue artifacts, used to display the magnitude of impact tissue deformation. Impact tests were performed at various maximum impact force and average pressure levels.

  4. Human-Robot Collaboration Dynamic Impact Testing and Calibration Instrument for Disposable Robot Safety Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Dagalakis, Nicholas G.; Yoo, Jae Myung; Oeste, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Dynamic Impact Testing and Calibration Instrument (DITCI) is a simple instrument with a significant data collection and analysis capability that is used for the testing and calibration of biosimulant human tissue artifacts. These artifacts may be used to measure the severity of injuries caused in the case of a robot impact with a human. In this paper we describe the DITCI adjustable impact and flexible foundation mechanism, which allows the selection of a variety of impact force levels and foundation stiffness. The instrument can accommodate arrays of a variety of sensors and impact tools, simulating both real manufacturing tools and the testing requirements of standards setting organizations. A computer data acquisition system may collect a variety of impact motion, force, and torque data, which are used to develop a variety of mathematical model representations of the artifacts. Finally, we describe the fabrication and testing of human abdomen soft tissue artifacts, used to display the magnitude of impact tissue deformation. Impact tests were performed at various maximum impact force and average pressure levels. PMID:28579658

  5. SOFIE instrument ground calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Scott; Fish, Chad; Romrell, Devin; Gordley, Larry; Hervig, Mark

    2006-08-01

    Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), in partnership with GATS, Inc., designed and built an instrument to conduct the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE). SOFIE is the primary infrared sensor in the NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) instrument suite. AIM's mission is to study polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). SOFIE will make measurements in 16 separate spectral bands, arranged in eight pairs between 0.29 and 5.3 μm. Each band pair will provide differential absorption limb-path transmission profiles for an atmospheric component of interest, by observing the sun through the limb of the atmosphere during solar occultation as AIM orbits Earth. A pointing mirror and imaging sun sensor coaligned with the detectors are used to track the sun during occultation events and maintain stable alignment of the sun on the detectors. Ground calibration experiments were performed to measure SOFIE end-to-end relative spectral response, nonlinearity, and spatial characteristics. SDL's multifunction infrared calibrator #1 (MIC1) was used to present sources to the instrument for calibration. Relative spectral response (RSR) measurements were performed using a step-scan Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Out-of-band RSR was measured to approximately 0.01% of in-band peak response using the cascaded filter Fourier transform spectrometer (CFFTS) method. Linearity calibration was performed using a calcium fluoride attenuator in combination with a 3000K blackbody. Spatial characterization was accomplished using a point source and the MIC1 pointing mirror. SOFIE sun sensor tracking algorithms were verified using a heliostat and relay mirrors to observe the sun from the ground. These techniques are described in detail, and resulting SOFIE performance parameters are presented.

  6. Calibration of shaft alignment instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, Bjorn

    1998-09-01

    Correct shaft alignment is vital for most rotating machines. Several shaft alignment instruments, ranging form dial indicator based to laser based, are commercially available. At VTT Manufacturing Technology a device for calibration of shaft alignment instruments was developed during 1997. A feature of the developed device is the similarity to the typical use of shaft alignment instruments i.e. the rotation of two shafts during the calibration. The benefit of the rotation is that all errors of the shaft alignment instrument, for example the deformations of the suspension bars, are included. However, the rotation increases significantly the uncertainty of calibration because of errors in the suspension of the shafts in the developed device for calibration of shaft alignment instruments. Without rotation the uncertainty of calibration is 0.001 mm for the parallel offset scale and 0,003 mm/m for the angular scale. With rotation the uncertainty of calibration is 0.002 mm for the scale and 0.004 mm/m for the angular scale.

  7. ALTEA: The instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Belli, F.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; di Fino, L.; Narici, L.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Sannita, W. G.; Finetti, N.; Nurzia, G.; Rantucci, E.; Scrimaglio, R.; Segreto, E.; Schardt, D.

    2008-05-01

    The ALTEA program is an international and multi-disciplinary project aimed at studying particle radiation in space environment and its effects on astronauts’ brain functions, as the anomalous perception of light flashes first reported during Apollo missions. The ALTEA space facility includes a 6-silicon telescopes particle detector, and is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006. In this paper, the detector calibration at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI Darmstadt will be presented and compared to the Geant 3 Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the results of a neural network analysis that was used for ion discrimination on fragmentation data will also be presented.

  8. SOFIE instrument ground calibration update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Scott; Fish, Chad; Shumway, Andrew; Gordley, Larry; Hervig, Mark

    2007-09-01

    Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), in partnership with GATS, Inc., designed and built an instrument to conduct the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE). SOFIE is an infrared sensor in the NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) instrument suite. AIM's mission is to study polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). SOFIE will make measurements in 16 separate spectral bands, arranged in 8 pairs between 0.29 and 5.3 μm. Each band pair will provide differential absorption limb-path transmission profiles for an atmospheric component of interest, by observing the sun through the limb of the atmsophere during solar occulation as AIM orbits Earth. The AIM mission was launched in April, 2007. SOFIE originally completed calibration and was delivered in March 2006. The design originally included a steering mirror coaligned with the science detectors to track the sun during occultation events. During spacecraft integration, a test anomaly resulted in damage to the steering mirror mechanism, resulting in the removal of this hardware from the instrument. Subsequently, additional ground calibration experiments were performed to validate the sensor performance following the change. Measurements performed in this additional phase of calibration testing included SOFIE end-to-end relative spectral response, nonlinearity, and spatial characterization. SDL's multifunction infrared calibrator #1 (MIC1) was used to present sources to the instrument for calibration. Relative spectral response (RSR) measurements were performed using a step-scan Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Out-of-band RSR was measured to approximately 0.01% of in-band peak response using the cascaded filter Fourier transform spectrometer (CFFTS) method. Linearity calibration was performed using a calcium fluoride attenuator in combination with a 3000K blackbody. Spatial characterization was accomplished using a point source and the MIC1 pointing mirror. These techniques are described in detail, and resulting

  9. Status of MODIS Instruments and Calibration Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Geng, X.; Wilson, T.; Wu, A.

    2016-12-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS instruments have successfully operated for more than 16 and 14 years, respectively. A broad range of science products has been routinely generated from MODIS observations to support users worldwide for their studies of the Earth's system and changes in its key geophysical parameters. Though in their extended missions, both MODIS instruments continue to operate nominally with all of the key on-board calibrators (OBC) working effectively. MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) are calibrated primarily by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) and the thermal emissive bands (TEB) by an on-board blackbody (BB). Since launch, extensive calibration and characterization efforts have been made by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to derive and deliver Level 1B (L1B) calibration look-up tables (LUT) in order to maintain MODIS product quality. In this presentation, we provide an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, and on-orbit performance. We discuss in particular our recent activities developed to address several key challenging issues, such as on-orbit changes in sensor response versus scan angle (RVS), polarization sensitives, and electronic crosstalk that have had noticeable impact on sensor calibration, and proposed or implemented calibration strategies and improvements.

  10. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  11. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (˜10-9 - 10-8 Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  12. A statistical approach to instrument calibration

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer; David Strauss

    1978-01-01

    Summary - It has been found that two instruments will yield different numerical values when used to measure identical points. A statistical approach is presented that can be used to approximate the error associated with the calibration of instruments. Included are standard statistical tests that can be used to determine if a number of successive calibrations of the...

  13. Microfabricated field calibration assembly for analytical instruments

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex L [Albuquerque, NM; Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Moorman, Matthew W [Albuquerque, NM; Rodacy, Philip J [Albuquerque, NM; Simonson, Robert J [Cedar Crest, NM

    2011-03-29

    A microfabricated field calibration assembly for use in calibrating analytical instruments and sensor systems. The assembly comprises a circuit board comprising one or more resistively heatable microbridge elements, an interface device that enables addressable heating of the microbridge elements, and, in some embodiments, a means for positioning the circuit board within an inlet structure of an analytical instrument or sensor system.

  14. Metrology on VLT Instruments and CRIRES+ Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Paul

    2017-09-01

    "There are many examples of "metrology" to be found in ESO telescopes instrumentation. We will consider here automated calibration measurements coupled to corrective feedback. After an overview of several such systems on VLT instruments, we will look in more detail at the example of the metrology system first implemented for the original CRIRES instrument and now being adapted for CRIRES+"

  15. Calibration Changes in EUV Solar Satellite Instruments.

    PubMed

    Reeves, E M; Parkinson, W H

    1970-05-01

    This paper reviews the problem of absolute photometric calibration in the extreme uv range with particular reference to a solar satellite instrument. EUV transfer standards, the use of predispersing spectrometers, and polarization effects at near normal incidence are discussed. Changes in preflight calibration associated with the general problems of contamination are given as the background to the main discussion relating to changes in photometric calibration during orbital operation. Conclusions relating to adequate photometric measurements in orbit are drawn, with a short list of the "best" solar flux measurements for reference. Finally, the importance of rocket flights for photometric calibration of satellite instruments is indicated.

  16. Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

  17. Instrument Calibration and Certification Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. Wesley

    2016-05-31

    The Amptec 640SL-2 is a 4-wire Kelvin failsafe resistance meter, designed to reliably use very low-test currents for its resistance measurements. The 640SL-1 is a 2-wire version, designed to support customers using the Reynolds Industries type 311 connector. For both versions, a passive (analog) dual function DC Milliameter/Voltmeter allows the user to verify the actual 640SL output current level and the open circuit voltage on the test leads. This procedure includes tests of essential performance parameters. Any malfunction noticed during calibration, whether specifically tested for or not, shall be corrected before calibration continues or is completed.

  18. MODIS Instrument Operation and Calibration Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Madhavan, S.; Link, D.; Geng, X.; Wenny, B.; Wu, A.; Chen, H.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-01-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for over 14 and 12 years since their respective launches in 1999 and 2002. The MODIS on-orbit calibration is performed using a set of on-board calibrators, which include a solar diffuser for calibrating the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). On-orbit changes in the sensor responses as well as key performance parameters are monitored using the measurements of these on-board calibrators. This paper provides an overview of MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities, and instrument long-term performance. It presents a brief summary of the calibration enhancements made in the latest MODIS data collection 6 (C6). Future improvements in the MODIS calibration and their potential applications to the S-NPP VIIRS are also discussed.

  19. Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Mather, J. C.; Massa, D. L.; Meyer, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite was designed to accurately measure the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) in the frequency range 1-95/cm with an angular resolution of 7 deg. We describe the calibration of this instrument, including the method of obtaining calibration data, reduction of data, the instrument model, fitting the model to the calibration data, and application of the resulting model solution to sky observations. The instrument model fits well for calibration data that resemble sky condition. The method of propagating detector noise through the calibration process to yield a covariance matrix of the calibrated sky data is described. The final uncertainties are variable both in frequency and position, but for a typical calibrated sky 2.6 deg square pixel and 0.7/cm spectral element the random detector noise limit is of order of a few times 10(exp -7) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm for 2-20/cm, and the difference between the sky and the best-fit cosmic blackbody can be measured with a gain uncertainty of less than 3%.

  20. Uncertainty Analysis of Instrument Calibration and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping

    1999-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic researchers require estimated precision and bias uncertainties of measured physical quantities, typically at 95 percent confidence levels. Uncertainties of final computed aerodynamic parameters are obtained by propagation of individual measurement uncertainties through the defining functional expressions. In this paper, rigorous mathematical techniques are extended to determine precision and bias uncertainties of any instrument-sensor system. Through this analysis, instrument uncertainties determined through calibration are now expressed as functions of the corresponding measurement for linear and nonlinear univariate and multivariate processes. Treatment of correlated measurement precision error is developed. During laboratory calibration, calibration standard uncertainties are assumed to be an order of magnitude less than those of the instrument being calibrated. Often calibration standards do not satisfy this assumption. This paper applies rigorous statistical methods for inclusion of calibration standard uncertainty and covariance due to the order of their application. The effects of mathematical modeling error on calibration bias uncertainty are quantified. The effects of experimental design on uncertainty are analyzed. The importance of replication is emphasized, techniques for estimation of both bias and precision uncertainties using replication are developed. Statistical tests for stationarity of calibration parameters over time are obtained.

  1. HPS instrument calibration laboratory accreditation program

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, F.X; Eisenhower, E.H.; Swinth, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate overview of the development and structure of the program established by the Health Physics Society (HPS) for accrediting instrument calibration laboratories relative to their ability to accurately calibrate portable health physics instrumentation. The purpose of the program is to provide radiation protection professionals more meaningful direct and indirect access to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) national standards, thus introducing a means for improving the uniformity, accuracy, and quality of ionizing radiation field measurements. The process is designed to recognize and document the continuing capability of each accredited laboratory to accurately perform instrument calibration. There is no intent to monitor the laboratory to the extent that each calibration can be guaranteed by the program; this responsibility rests solely with the accredited laboratory.

  2. NASA AURA HIRDLS instrument calibration facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Barnett, John J.; Watkins, Robert E. J.; Row, Frederick; Wolfenden, Roger; Djotni, Karim; Oduleye, Olusoji O.; Whitney, John G.; Walton, Trevor W.; Arter, Philip I.

    2003-11-01

    A state-of-the-art calibration facility was designed and built for the calibration of the HIRDLS instrument at the University of Oxford, England. This paper describes the main features of the facility, the driving requirements and a summary of the performance that was achieved during the calibration. Specific technical requirements and a summary of the performance that was achieved during the calibration. Specific technical requirements and other constaints determined the design solutions that were adopted and the implementation methodology. The main features of the facility included a high performance clean room, vacuum chamber with thermal environmental control as well as the calibration sources. Particular attention was paid to maintenance of cleanliness (molecular and particulate), ESD control, mechanical isolation and high reliability. Schedule constraints required that all the calibration sources were integrated into the facility so that the number of re-press and warm up cycles was minimized and so that all the equipment could be operated at the same time.

  3. HIRDLS instrument radiometric calibration black body targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Watkins, Robert E. J.; Row, Frederick; Barnett, John J.; Peters, Daniel M.; Palmer, Christopher W. P.; Wolfenden, Roger; Djotni, Karim; Arter, Philip I.

    2003-11-01

    The pre-launch calibration of the HIRDLS instrument took place in a dedicated facility at the University of Oxford. One aspect of this calibration was the determination of the response of the instrument to black body radiation. This was achieved with the use of purpose built full aperture black body targets which were mounted in the vacuum chamber together with all of the calibration equipment. Special attention was placed on the absolute knowledge of the emission from these targets. This was done through a combination of thermometric sensor calibration traceable to the International Temperature Standard (ITS-90), surface emission measurements, cavity design and modeling and controlling the stray light sources in the vacuum chamber. This paper describes the design requirements, implementation and performance achieved.

  4. Postlaunch calibration of spacecraft attitude instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W.; Hashmall, J.; Garrick, J.; Harman, R.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of both onboard and ground attitude determination can be significantly enhanced by calibrating spacecraft attitude instruments (sensors) after launch. Although attitude sensors are accurately calibrated before launch, the stresses of launch and the space environment inevitably cause changes in sensor parameters. During the mission, these parameters may continue to drift requiring repeated on-orbit calibrations. The goal of attitude sensor calibration is to reduce the systematic errors in the measurement models. There are two stages at which systematic errors may enter. The first occurs in the conversion of sensor output into an observation vector in the sensor frame. The second occurs in the transformation of the vector from the sensor frame to the spacecraft attitude reference frame. This paper presents postlaunch alignment and transfer function calibration of the attitude sensors for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE).

  5. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calibration of survey instruments. 35.61 Section 35.61... § 35.61 Calibration of survey instruments. (a) A licensee shall calibrate the survey instruments used... of calibration. (b) A licensee may not use survey instruments if the difference between the...

  6. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration of survey instruments. 35.61 Section 35.61... § 35.61 Calibration of survey instruments. (a) A licensee shall calibrate the survey instruments used... of calibration. (b) A licensee may not use survey instruments if the difference between the...

  7. Validating instrument models through the calibration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Tansock, J. J.

    2006-08-01

    The performance of modern IR instruments is becoming so good that meeting science requirements requires an accurate instrument model be used throughout the design and development process. The huge cost overruns on recent major programs are indicative that the design and cost models being used to predict performance have lagged behind anticipated performance. Tuning these models to accurately reflect the true performance of target instruments requires a modeling process that has been developed over several instruments and validated by careful calibration. The process of developing a series of Engineering Development Models is often used on longer duration programs to achieve this end. The accuracy of the models and their components has to be validated by a carefully planned calibration process, preferably considered in the instrument design. However, a good model does not satisfy all the requirements to bring acquisition programs under control. Careful detail in the specification process and a similar, validated model on the government side will also be required. This paper discusses the model development process and calibration approaches used to verify and update the models of several new instruments, including Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) and Far Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST).

  8. USE OF THE SDO POINTING CONTROLLERS FOR INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION MANEUVERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vess, Melissa F.; Starin, Scott R.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    During the science phase of the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, the three science instruments require periodic instrument calibration maneuvers with a frequency of up to once per month. The command sequences for these maneuvers vary in length from a handful of steps to over 200 steps, and individual steps vary in size from 5 arcsec per step to 22.5 degrees per step. Early in the calibration maneuver development, it was determined that the original attitude sensor complement could not meet the knowledge requirements for the instrument calibration maneuvers in the event of a sensor failure. Because the mission must be single fault tolerant, an attitude determination trade study was undertaken to determine the impact of adding an additional attitude sensor versus developing alternative, potentially complex, methods of performing the maneuvers in the event of a sensor failure. To limit the impact to the science data capture budget, these instrument calibration maneuvers must be performed as quickly as possible while maintaining the tight pointing and knowledge required to obtain valid data during the calibration. To this end, the decision was made to adapt a linear pointing controller by adjusting gains and adding an attitude limiter so that it would be able to slew quickly and still achieve steady pointing once on target. During the analysis of this controller, questions arose about the stability of the controller during slewing maneuvers due to the combination of the integral gain, attitude limit, and actuator saturation. Analysis was performed and a method for disabling the integral action while slewing was incorporated to ensure stability. A high fidelity simulation is used to simulate the various instrument calibration maneuvers.

  9. Portable calibration instrument of hemodialysis unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liang-bing; Li, Dong-sheng; Chen, Ai-jun

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of meeting the rapid development of blood purification in China, improve the level of blood purification treatment, and get rid of the plight of the foreign technology monopolization to promise patients' medical safety, a parameter-calibrator for the hemodialysis unit, which can detect simultaneously multi-parameter, is designed. The instrument includes a loop, which connects to the hemodialysis unit. Sensors are in the loop in series, so that the dialysis can flow through this loop and the sensors can acquisitive data of various parameters. In order to facilitate detection and carrying, the integrated circuit part modularly based on the ultralow-power microcontrollers,TI MSP430 is designed. High-performance and small-packaged components are used to establish a modular, high-precision, multi-functional, portable system. The functions and the key technical indexes of the instrument have reached the level of products abroad.

  10. Prelaunch calibration of the HIRDLS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, John J.; Darbyshire, A. G.; Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Palmer, Christopher W.; Row, F.; Venters, P.; Watkins, R. E.; Whitney, John G.; Gille, John C.; Johnson, Brian R.

    1998-11-01

    The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument is being built jointly by the UK and USA, and is scheduled for launch on the NASA EOS Chem satellite in 2002. HIRDLS will measure the concentration of trace species and aerosol, and temperature and pressure variations in the Earth's atmosphere between about 8 and 100 km altitude. It is an infrared limb emission sounder, and a primary aim is that it should measure to much finder spatial resolution than has previously been achieved, with simultaneous 1 km vertical and 500 km horizontal resolutions, globally, every 12 hours. Achieving these objectives will depend upon very precise pre-launch calibration. This will be undertaken at Oxford University in a test laboratory that is currently being constructed specifically for the task. The instrument will be surrounded by cryogenically cooled walls, and mounted together with the test equipment on an optical table contained in a vacuum chamber. The table will be mounted independently of the chamber, on an inertial mass supported on pneumatic isolators. Test equipment is being manufactured to measure (1) the radiometric response (with an absolute accuracy equivalent to 70 mK) using full aperture black body targets, (2) the spectral response of each of the filter channels using a grating monochromator, (3) the spatial response of the instrument field of view, including low level out-of-field contributions, to 10 (mu) rad accuracy using a monochromator. The methods and equipment used are described together with the principal requirements.

  11. New instrument calibration facility for the DOE Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkie, W.H.; Polz, E.J.

    1993-12-31

    A new laboratory facility is being designed, constructed, and equipped at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a fiscal year 1992 line item project. This facility will provide space and equipment for test, evaluation, repair, maintenance, and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation. The project will replace an obsolete facility and will allow implementation of program upgrades necessary to meet ANSI N323 requirements and National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) criteria for accreditation of federally owned secondary calibration laboratories. An outline of the project is presented including description, scope, cost, management organization, chronology, and current status. Selected design criteria and their impacts on the project are discussed. The upgraded SRS calibration program is described, and important features of the new facility and equipment that will accommodate this program are listed. The floor plan for the facility is shown, and equipment summaries and functional descriptions for each area are provided.

  12. Gaia astrometric instrument calibration and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda, J.; Fabricius, C.; Portell, J.; Garralda, N.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Clotet, M.; Torra, J.

    2017-03-01

    The astrometric instrument calibration and image processing is an integral and critical part of the Gaia mission. The data processing starts with a preliminary treatment on daily basis of the most recent data received and continues with the execution of several processing chains included in a cyclic reduction system. The cyclic processing chains are reprocessing all the accumulated data again in each iteration, thus adding the latest measurements and recomputing the outputs to obtain better quality on their results. This cyclic processing lasts until the convergence of the results is achieved and the catalogue is consolidated and published periodically. In this paper we describe the core of the data processing which has made possible the first catalogue release from the Gaia mission.

  13. Comparison of Two Methodologies for Calibrating Satellite Instruments in the Visible and Near Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Butler, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance response in a two-step method. In the first step, the spectral response of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source, such a lamp-illuminated monochromator. Such sources only provide a relative spectral response (RSR) for the instrument, since they do not act as calibrated sources of light nor do they typically fill the field-of-view of the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. In the traditional method, the RSR and the sphere spectral radiance are combined and, with the instrument's response, determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the instrument. More recently, an absolute calibration system using widely tunable monochromatic laser systems has been developed, Using these sources, the absolute spectral responsivity (ASR) of an instrument can be determined on a wavelength-hy-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs. the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as integrating spheres. Here we describe the laser-based calibration and the traditional broad-band source-based calibration of the NPP VIIRS sensor, and compare the derived calibration coefficients for the instrument. Finally, we evaluate the impact of the new calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor.

  14. Onboard calibration status of the ASTER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Inada, Hitomi; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2012-11-01

    The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. ASTER consists of three radiometers, VNIR, SWIR and TIR whose spatial resolutions are 15 m, 30 m and 90 m, respectively. Unfortunately SWIR stopped taking images since May 2008 due to the offset rise caused by the detector temperature rise, but VNIR and TIR are taking Earth images of good quality. VNIR and TIR experienced responsivity degradation while SWIR showed little change. Band 1 (0.56 μm) decreased most among three VNIR bands and 30 % in twelve years. Band 12 (9.1 μm) decreased 40 % and most among five TIR bands. There are some discussions of the causes of the responsivity degradation of VNIR and TIR. Possible causes are contamination accretion by silicone outgas, thruster plume and plasma interaction. We marked hydrazine which comes out unburned in the thruster plume during the inclination adjust maneuver (IAM). Hydrazine has the absorption spectra corresponding to the TIR responsivity degradation in the infrared region. We studied the IAM effect on the ASTER by allocating the additional onboard calibration activities just before and after the IAM while the normal onboard calibration activity is operated once in 49 days. This experiment was carried out three times in fiscal year 2011.

  15. Instrument calibration architecture of Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, T.; Bhan, R.; Putrevu, D.; Mehrotra, P.; Nandy, P. S.; Shukla, S. D.; Rao, C. V. N.; Dave, D. B.; Desai, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1) payload system is configured to perform self-calibration of transmit and receive paths before and after imaging sessions through a special instrument calibration technique. Instrument calibration architecture of RISAT-1 supported ground verification and validation of payload including active array antenna. During on-ground validation of 126 beams of active array antenna which needed precise calibration of boresight pointing, a unique method called "collimation coefficient error estimation" was utilized. This method of antenna calibration was supported by special hardware and software calibration architecture of RISAT-1. This paper concentrates on RISAT-1 hardware and software architecture which supports in-orbit and on-ground instrument calibration. Efforts are also put here to highlight use of special calibration scheme of RISAT-1 instrument to evaluate system response during ground verification and validation.

  16. Calibration and postlaunch performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Jaross, G.; Krueger, A.; Cebula, R.P.; Seftor, C.; Hartmann, U.; Haring, R.; Burchfield, D. ||

    1995-02-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch calibration results for the Meteor 3/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are presented here. Ozone amounts are retrieved from measurements of Earth albedo in the 312- to 380-nm range. The accuracy of albedo measurements is primarily tied to knowledge of the reflective properties of diffusers used in the calibrations and to the instrument`s wavelength selection. These and other important prelaunch calibrations are presented. Their estimated accuracies are within the bounds necessary to determine column ozone to better than 1%. However, postlaunch validation results indicate some prelaunch calibration uncertainties may be larger than originally estimated. Instrument calibrations have been maintained postlaunch to within a corresponding 1% error in retrieved ozone. Onboard calibrations, including wavelength monitoring and a three-diffuser solar measurement system, are described and specific results are presented. Other issues, such as the effects of orbital precession on calibration and recent chopper wheel malfunctions, are also discussed.

  17. Calibrating coastal GNSS-R instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Johan; Haas, Rüdiger; Hobiger, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Since 2011, a GNSS-R (Global Navigation Satellite System - Reflectometry) instrument for local sea level observations is operated at the Onsala Space Observatory (Löfgren et al., 2011). The Onsala Space Observatory is the Swedish geodetic fundamental station, located at the Swedish West Coast, and contributes to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) by a variety of geodetic and geophysical observations. The Onsala GNSS-R instrumentation consists of two GNSS antennas that are mounted back-to-back on a bar at the coastline extending over the open sea in southward direction. One of the antennas is upward oriented and receives the direct satellite signals, while the other antenna is downward oriented and receives the satellite signals that reflect off the sea surface. The antennas are connected to a commercial GNSS receiver each and data are recorded with sampling rate of up to 20 Hz. Satellite signals of several GNSS are received and are analysed with various different analysis strategies to provide sea level results with different temporal resolution and precision (Larson et al., 2013; Löfgren and Haas, 2014). Since the instrumentation uses GNSS signals, it is possible to derive both local sea level, i.e. relative to the coast, and absolute sea level, i.e. relative to the geocentre as realised by the GNSS. The bar carrying the two antennas can be placed in 10 different vertical positions covering a height difference of 2.5 m between the highest and lowest position. We present results from a calibration campaign of the Onsala GNSS-R instrumentation performed in 2014. During this several weeks long campaign the antennas were placed at different vertical positions for several days at each position. The recorded data are analysed with the different analysis strategies, and the results are compared to the results derived from the co-located tide gauge equipment. References - Löfgren J, Haas R, Scherneck H-G (2011). Three months of local sea-level derived from

  18. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser .

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  19. Calibration of space instruments at the Metrology Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. Fliegauf, R.; Gottwald, A.; Kolbe, M.; Paustian, W.; Reichel, T.; Richter, M.; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, G.

    2016-07-27

    PTB has more than 20 years of experience in the calibration of space-based instruments using synchrotron radiation to cover the UV, VUV and X-ray spectral range. New instrumentation at the electron storage ring Metrology Light Source (MLS) opens up extended calibration possibilities within this framework. In particular, the set-up of a large vacuum vessel that can accommodate entire space instruments opens up new prospects. Moreover, a new facility for the calibration of radiation transfer source standards with a considerably extended spectral range has been put into operation. Besides, characterization and calibration of single components like e.g. mirrors, filters, gratings, and detectors is continued.

  20. Calibration procedure for Slocum glider deployed optical instruments.

    PubMed

    Cetinić, Ivona; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Ragan, Matthew; Oberg, Carl; Jones, Burton H

    2009-08-31

    Recent developments in the field of the autonomous underwater vehicles allow the wide usage of these platforms as part of scientific experiments, monitoring campaigns and more. The vehicles are often equipped with sensors measuring temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Chl a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence, phycoerithrin (PE) fluorescence and spectral volume scattering function at 117 degrees, providing users with high resolution, real time data. However, calibration of these instruments can be problematic. Most in situ calibrations are performed by deploying complementary instrument packages or water samplers in the proximity of the glider. Laboratory calibrations of the mounted sensors are difficult due to the placement of the instruments within the body of the vehicle. For the laboratory calibrations of the Slocum glider instruments we developed a small calibration chamber where we can perform precise calibrations of the optical instruments aboard our glider, as well as sensors from other deployment platforms. These procedures enable us to obtain pre- and post-deployment calibrations for optical fluorescence instruments, which may differ due to the biofouling and other physical damage that can occur during long-term glider deployments. We found that biofouling caused significant changes in the calibration scaling factors of fluorescent sensors, suggesting the need for consistent and repetitive calibrations for gliders as proposed in this paper.

  1. L-band Radiometer Calibration Consistency Assessment for the SMOS, SMAP, and Aquarius Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel; Le Vine, David

    2016-01-01

    Three L-band radiometers have been observing the Earth in order to retrieve soil moisture and ocean salinity. They use different instrument configurations and calibration and retrieval algorithms. In any case, the brightness temperature retrieved at the Earth surface should be consistent between all instruments. One reason for inconsistency would be the use of different approaches for the instrument calibration or the use of different models to retrieve surface brightness temperature. We report on the different approaches used for the SMOS, SMAP and Aquarius instruments and their impact on the observations consistency.

  2. Geometric calibration of rotational kaleidoscopic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havran, Vlastimil; Němcová, Šárka; Čáp, Jiří; Hošek, Jan; Bittner, Jiří; Macúchová, Karolina

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of spatially varying surface reflectance is required for faithful reproduction of real world to allow for predictive look of computer generated images. One such proposed method uses a rotational kaleidoscopic imaging, where illumination and imaging paths are realized by subimages on kaleidoscopic mirrors and illumination is carried out by a DLP projector. We describe a novel geometric calibration method for a rotational kaleidoscope that is necessary to get aligned and accurate data from measurement. The calibration has two stages. The first stage mechanically adjusts the camera, the projector, and the autocollimator against the kaleidoscope mirrors. The second stage is based on the software. By random perturbation of camera and projector in corresponding mathematical model of the kaleidoscope we estimate better real positions of camera and projector in a physical setup, comparing the computed images from the software simulator and the acquired images from the physical setup.

  3. Impact Disdrometers Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    2016-03-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility has been collecting observations of the drop size spectra of rain events since early in 2006. Impact disdrometers were the initial choice due to their reliability, ease of maintenance, and relatively low cost. Each of the two units deployed was accompanied by a nearby tipping bucket. In 2010, the tipping buckets were replaced by weighing buckets rain gauges. Five video disdrometers were subsequently purchased and are described in ARM’s VDIS Handbook.1 As of April 2011, three of the weighing bucket instruments were deployed, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the fifth was a spare. Two of the video disdrometers were deployed, a third was to be deployed later in the spring of 2011, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the last was a spare. Detailed descriptions of impact disdrometers and their datastreams are provided in this document.

  4. IOT Overview: Calibrations of the VLTI Instruments (MIDI and AMBER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, S.; Rantakyrö, F.; Rivinius, T.; Stefl, S.; Hummel, C.; Brillant, S.; Schöller, M.; Percheron, I.; Wittkowski, M.; Richichi, A.; Ballester, P.

    We present here a short review of the calibration processes that are currently applied to the instruments AMBER and MIDI of the VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) at Paranal. We first introduce the general principles to calibrate the raw data (the "visibilities") that have been measured by long-baseline optical interferometry. Then, we focus on the specific case of the scientific operation of the VLTI instruments. We explain the criteria that have been used to select calibrator stars for the observations with the VLTI instruments, as well as the routine internal calibration techniques. Among these techniques, the "P2VM" (Pixel-to-Visibility Matrix) in the case of AMBER is explained. Also, the daily monitoring of AMBER and MIDI, that has recently been implemented, is shortly introduced.

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on radiation survey instruments and calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.; Murphy, B.L.

    1985-11-01

    The workshop was held to discuss two topics: first, a performance standard for radiation survey instruments and the potential for a testing program based on that standard; and second, a system of secondary standards laboratories to provide instrument calibrations and related services. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (ACR)

  6. Comparison of two methodologies for calibrating satellite instruments in the visible and near-infrared.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Robert A; Brown, Steven W; Lykke, Keith R; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J; Schwarting, Thomas; Turpie, Kevin; Moyer, David; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher

    2015-12-10

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field of view of the instrument nor act as calibrated sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere's absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the instrument. More recently, a full-aperture absolute calibration approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an instrument can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as lamp-illuminated integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based calibration of the Suomi National Preparatory Project Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor is compared with the laser-based calibration of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered.

  7. Comparison of two methodologies for calibrating satellite instruments in the visible and near infrared

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J.; Schwarting, Thomas; Moyer, David; Turpie, Kevin; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field-of-view of the instrument nor act as calibrated sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the instrument. More recently, a full-aperture absolute calibration approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an instrument can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based calibration of the Suomi National Preparatory Project (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor is compared with the laser-based calibration of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered. PMID:26836861

  8. Comparison of Two Methodologies for Calibrating Satellite Instruments in the Visible and Near-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J.; Schwarting, Thomas; Turpie, Kevin; Moyer, David; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field-of-view of the instrument nor act as calibrated sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the instrument. More recently, a full-aperture absolute calibration approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an instrument can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as lamp-illuminated integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based calibration of the Suomi National Preparatory Project (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor is compared with the laser-based calibration of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered.

  9. A calibration service for biomedical instrumentation maintenance laboratories.

    PubMed

    Barnes, A; Evans, A L; Job, H M; Laing, R; Smith, D C

    1999-01-01

    An in-house calibration laboratory for the Biomedical Instrumentation Maintenance Services of the hospitals in the West of Scotland was established in 1993. This paper describes the development of this calibration service in the context of an overall quality system and also estimates its costs. Not only does the in-house service have many advantages but it is shown to be cost effective for workloads exceeding 260 items per annum.

  10. Evaluation of two gas-dilution methods for instrument calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two gas dilution methods were evaluated for use in the calibration of analytical instruments used in air pollution studies. A dual isotope fluorescence carbon monoxide analyzer was used as the transfer standard. The methods are not new but some modifications are described. The rotary injection gas dilution method was found to be more accurate than the closed loop method. Results by the two methods differed by 5 percent. This could not be accounted for by the random errors in the measurements. The methods avoid the problems associated with pressurized cylinders. Both methods have merit and have found a place in instrument calibration work.

  11. 10 CFR 35.61 - Calibration of survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calibration of survey instruments. 35.61 Section 35.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements... to show compliance with this part and 10 CFR Part 20 before first use, annually, and following...

  12. Contact Instrument Calibration Targets on Mars Rover Curiosity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-07

    Two instruments at the end of the robotic arm on NASA Mars rover Curiosity will use calibration targets attached to a shoulder joint of the arm. The penny is a size reference giving the public a familiar object for perceiving size on Mars easily.

  13. Instrument calibration plan of the Technical Support Section

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, K.L.; Davis, B.C.; Smith, H.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Robbins, W.L.

    1997-06-01

    This document describes the Calibration Program for the Instrumentation and Controls Division`s Technical Support Section (TSS). The implementation of the program is the responsibility of TSS; however, determining whether or not equipment is to be calibrated is the responsibility of the equipment`s custodian or user. The Calibration Program is a planned, systematic schedule of actions necessary to provide confidence that equipment used to make measurements or quality judgments meets established technical requirements and that its performance is traceable to nationally recognized standards. It is imperative that all parties maintain timely and effective dialogue to ensure that the process is adequate to meet the needs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is especially important to place this guidance in the proper context. ORNL instrumentation support at the shop and facility level is the primary application. Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMER) and site policy provide the umbrella guidance for overall measuring and test equipment support.

  14. Calibration and testing of wide-field UV instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Loicq, J.; Habraken, S.

    2017-06-01

    As with all optical systems the calibration of wide-field ultraviolet (UV) systems includes three main areas: sensitivity, imaging quality, and imaging capability. The one thing that makes UV calibrations difficult is the need for working in vacuum substantially extending the required time and effort compared to visible systems. In theory a ray tracing and characterization of each individual component of the optical system (mirrors, windows, and grating) should provide the transmission efficiency of the combined system. However, potentially unknown effects (contamination, misalignment, and measurement errors) can make the final error too large and unacceptable for most applications. Therefore, it is desirable to test and measure the optical properties of the whole system in vacuum and compare the overall response to the response of a calibrated photon detector. A proper comparison then allows the quantification of individual sources of uncertainty and ensures that the whole instrument performance is within acceptable tolerances or pinpoints which parts fail to meet requirements. Based on the experience with the IMAGE Spectrographic Imager, the Wide-band Imaging Camera, and the ICON Far Ultraviolet instruments, we discuss the steps and procedures for the proper radiometric sensitivity and passband calibration, spot size, imaging distortions, flatfield, and field of view determination.Plain Language SummaryAs with all optical systems the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of wide-field ultraviolet (UV) systems includes three main areas: sensitivity, imaging quality, and imaging capability. The one thing that makes UV <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> difficult is the need for working in vacuum substantially extending the required time and effort compared to visible systems. Based on the experience with the IMAGE Spectrographic Imager, the Wide-band Imaging Camera (WIC), and the ICON Far Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, we discuss the steps and procedures for the proper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9894978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9894978"><span>Universal <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of surgical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for spinal stereotaxy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, K D; Johnson, J P; Masciopinto, J E; Bloch, O; Saracen, M J; Villablanca, J P</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>To describe new software applications and interchangeable <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> enabling the use of standard surgical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with image-guided systems for stereotactic spinal procedures. The ability to adapt essentially any surgical <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for stereotactic procedures will improve the safety and accuracy of image-guided spinal surgery. Using universal dynamic registration hardware and software, standard surgical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are adapted for real-time image-guided surgery. The Radionics Optical Tracking System (Radionics, Inc., Burlington, MA) has custom software applications and universal hardware adaptation devices for spinal stereotaxy that allows the use of standard <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for intraoperative guidance. An array of light-emitting diodes can be attached to essentially any rigid <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with a definable tip and can then be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> to the system for intraoperative use. Stereotactic guidance of a drill, tap, and screwdriver may improve screw placement accuracy in spinal surgery because every step of the procedure can be monitored in real time. Most stereotactic systems have only a standard probe or limited <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for localization, targeting, and tracking a procedure. The surgeon then resumes the operation using standard surgical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> without the benefit of image guidance for the key steps of the procedure. Because each surgical step for screw placement in the spine has a potential for error, use of multiple <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that can be interchanged for real-time image-guided spinal surgery may increase the accuracy and safety of spinal <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> procedures. These techniques can also be applied to intracranial image-guided surgery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908085','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908085"><span>Traceable Micro-Force Sensor for <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> Indentation <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, D T; Shaw, G A; Seugling, R M; Xiang, D; Pratt, J R</p> <p>2007-04-02</p> <p><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> indentation testing (IIT), commonly referred to as nanoindentation when small forces are used, is a popular technique for determining the mechanical properties of small volumes of material. Sample preparation is relatively easy, usually requiring only that a smooth surface of the material to be tested be accessible to a contact probe, and <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that combine sophisticated automation with straightforward user interfaces are available commercially from several manufacturers. In addition, documentary standards are now becoming available from both the International Standards Organization (ISO 14577) and ASTM International (E28 WK382) that define test methods and standard practices for IIT, and will allow the technique to be used to produce material property data that can be used in product specifications. These standards also define the required level of accuracy of the force data produced by IIT <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, as well as methods to verify that accuracy. For forces below 10 mN, these requirements can be difficult to meet, particularly for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> owners who need to verify the performance of their <span class="hlt">instrument</span> as it is installed at their site. In this paper, we describe the development, performance and application of an SI-traceable force sensor system for potential use in the field <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of commercial IIT <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The force sensor itself, based on an elastically deforming capacitance gauge, is small enough to mount in a commercial <span class="hlt">instrument</span> as if it were a test specimen, and is used in conjunction with an ultra-high accuracy capacitance bridge. The sensor system is <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with NIST-traceable masses over the range 5.0 {micro}N through 5.0 mN. We will present data on its accuracy and precision, as well its potential application to the verification of force in commercial <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AAS...200.6603M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AAS...200.6603M"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Damage to <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maag, C. R.; Hansen, P. A.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>Today measured <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of orbiting manmade debris on spacecraft presents one of the more serious space environmental threats to space missions. Post-flight data from recently returned hardware have provided very interesting and alarming results. The data suggests that mathematical models are conservative for predicting the number of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> (flux) a spacecraft will receive from small particles (less than 0.8 mm diameter), while the models predict a flux nearly a factor of 10 less than that measured for particles above 1.0 mm. The data observed at the larger sizes is well above the predicted values. In the future, as the population of debris grows with increasing space traffic, the likelihood of debris <span class="hlt">impacts</span> will become a critical problem. Data on population growth of larger sized particles have implications concerning the constellations of satellites that will support the information super highway. It is clear that the solutions to the exacerbation of the space debris environment in constellation orbits are a combination of operations and design. For those spacecraft not in constellation orbits, it is imperative that they prevent penetrations into their interior volumes. This paper presents the problems and solutions associated with surviving the debris environment, and eliminating the penetration potential to subsystems for three (3) current NASA science missions. These innovative concepts, while simplistic in nature, of stopping hypervelocity particles have unique applications for all space systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008501&hterms=dichroism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddichroism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008501&hterms=dichroism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddichroism"><span>The Gemini Planet Imager <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Wavefront Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> wavefront sensor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for GPI has been built. We will describe the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and its performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008501&hterms=gemini&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgemini','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008501&hterms=gemini&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgemini"><span>The Gemini Planet Imager <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Wavefront Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> wavefront sensor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for GPI has been built. We will describe the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and its performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107613"><span><span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> plan of the Technical Support Department</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allison, K.L.; Duncan, D.M.; McIntyre, T.J.; Millet, A.J.; Swabe, T.E.; Vines, R.A.</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>This document describes the management of the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Program of the <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and Controls Division`s Technical Support Department (ISD). The implementation of the program is the responsibility of ISD; however, the decision as to whether or not equipment is <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> is the responsibility of the end user. It is imperative that all parties maintain timely and effective dialogue to ensure that the process is adequate to meet the needs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program is a planned, systematic schedule of actions necessary to provide confidence that equipment used to make measurements or quality judgments conforms to established technical requirements and is traceable to nationally recognized standards. It is especially important to place this guidance in the context for which it is intended. ORNL <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> support at the shop and facility level is the primary application. Energy Systems and site policy provide the umbrella guidance needed for overall measuring and test equipment support.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9904E..4VR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9904E..4VR"><span>Xenon arc lamp spectral radiance modelling for satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rolt, Stephen; Clark, Paul; Schmoll, Jürgen; Shaw, Benjamin J. R.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Precise radiometric measurements play a central role in many areas of astronomical and terrestrial observation. We focus on the use of continuum light sources in the absolute radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of detectors in an imaging spectrometer for space applications. The application, in this instance, revolves around the ground based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Sentinel-4/UVN <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. This imaging spectrometer <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is expected to be deployed in 2019 and will make spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric chemistry. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, which operates across the UV/VIS and NIR spectrum from 305-775 nm, is designed to measure the absolute spectral radiance of the Earth and compare it with the absolute spectral irradiance of the Sun. Of key importance to the fidelity of these absolute measurements is the ground based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign. Continuum lamp sources that are temporally stable and are spatially well defined are central to this process. Xenon short arc lamps provide highly intense and efficient continuum illumination in a range extending from the ultra-violet to the infra-red and their spectrum is well matched to this specific application. Despite their widespread commercial use, certain aspects of their performance are not well documented in the literature. One of the important requirements in this <span class="hlt">calibration</span> application is the delivery of highly uniform, collimated illumination at high radiance. In this process, it cannot be assumed that the xenon arc is a point source; the spatial distribution of the radiance must be characterised accurately. We present here careful measurements that thoroughly characterise the spatial distribution of the spectral radiance of a 1000W xenon lamp. A mathematical model is presented describing the spatial distribution. Temporal stability is another exceptionally important requirement in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process. As such, the paper also describes strategies to re-inforce the temporal stability of the lamp output by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24497292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24497292"><span>PROSAD: a powerful platform for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and quantification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Floridia, Matteo; Cristoni, Simone</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>There is critical need for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and correction procedures that can improve the quality of mass spectral quantitative results. Currently, mass spectrometry (MS) technologies suffer from certain biases related to <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> responses, which tend to restrict its application. To overcome these biases, we developed the PROgressive SAmple Dosage (PROSAD) platform and tested it. PROSAD, an optimized sample preparation and data analysis method, is used in conjunction with a liquid chromatography (LC)/MS system and a low-voltage ionization source (e.g., no-discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ND-APCI)). The mass spectrometers used for this report were an HCT Ultra ion trap, a LTQ XL Orbitrap, and a TSQ Vantage triple-stage quadrupole. The PROSAD elaborative system, because of its dedicated mathematical algorithm, provided a dynamic linear <span class="hlt">calibration</span> check and correction. We tested PROSAD using a leucomalachite green-fish homogenate assay. Atrazine in tea matrix samples were also quantified. Better quantification was achieved using PROSAD compared with the classic linear, static <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure in both test cases. PROSAD provides a dynamically optimized <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curve that affords increased stability, accuracy, and precision for the quantification of MS data. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008670"><span>Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Summary. Version 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Kimberly Ennico; Colaprete, Anthony; Shirley, Mark H.; Wooden, Diane H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This document describes the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the LCROSS <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. It will be released to the public via the Planetary Data System. We need a quick review, if possible, because the data has been delivered to the PDS, and this document is needed to interpret the LCROSS <span class="hlt">impact</span> data fully. [My mistake [shirley) in not realizing this needed to be treated as a normal publication.] The LCROSS <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are commercially available units except for one designed and built at Ames. The commercially available <span class="hlt">instruments</span> don't seem to me to present ITAR issues (Sony video camera, thermal camera from England, and so on.) Also, the internal design details of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are not included in this report, only the process of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> them against standard targets. Only very high-level descriptions of the spacecraft are included, comparable to the level of detail included in the public web pages on nasa.gov.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1187978','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1187978"><span>Precision Spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System for Dark Energy <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schubnell, Michael S.</p> <p>2015-06-30</p> <p>For this research we build a precision <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system and carried out measurements to demonstrate the precision that can be achieved with a high precision spectrometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system. It was shown that the system is capable of providing a complete spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> at the sub-pixel level. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system uses a fast, high precision monochromator that can quickly and efficiently scan over an instrument’s entire spectral range with a spectral line width of less than 0.01 nm corresponding to a fraction of a pixel on the CCD. The system was extensively evaluated in the laboratory. Our research showed that a complete spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard for spectroscopic survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span> such as DESI is possible. The monochromator precision and repeatability to a small fraction of the DESI spectrograph LSF was demonstrated with re-initialization on every scan and thermal drift compensation by locking to multiple external line sources. A projector system that mimics telescope aperture for point source at infinity was demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9605E..1BW','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9605E..1BW"><span>The CHEOPS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on-ground <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wildi, F. P.; Chazelas, B.; Deline, A.; Sordet, M.; Sarajlic, M.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to the search for exoplanet photometric transits. Its launch readiness is expected at the end of 2017. The CHEOPS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> will be the first space telescope dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. By being able to point at nearly any location on the sky, it will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for a subset of those planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based spectroscopic surveys. To reach its goals CHEOPS will measure photometric signals with a precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time for a 9th magnitude star. This corresponds to a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 for a transit of an Earth-sized planet orbiting a solar-sized star. Achieving the precision goal requires thorough post-processing of the data acquired by the CHEOPS' <span class="hlt">instrument</span> system (CIS) in order to remove as much as possible the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s signature. To this purpose, a rigorous <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign will be conducted after the CIS tests in order to measure, its behavior under the different environmental conditions. The main tool of this <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign is a custom-made <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system that will inject a stimulus beam in the CIS and measure its response to the variation of electrical and environmental parameters. These variations will be compiled in a correction model. Ultimately, the CIS photometric performance will be measured on an artificial star, applying the correction model This paper addresses the requirements applicable to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system, its design and its design performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec35-2061.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the model...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040182597','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040182597"><span>Aquarius <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Science <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> During the Risk Reduction Phase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruf, Christopher S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This final report presents the results of work performed under NASA Grant NAG512726 during the period 15 January 2003 through 30 June 2004. An analysis was performed of a possible vicarious <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method for use by Aquarius to monitor and stabilize the absolute and relative <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of its microwave radiometer. Stationary statistical properties of the brightness temperature (T(sub B)) measured by a low Earth orbiting radiometer operating at 1.4135 GHz are considered as a means of validating its absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The global minimum, maximum, and average T(sub B) are considered, together with a vicarious cold reference method that detects the presence of a sharp lower bound on naturally occurring values for T(sub B). Of particular interest is the reliability with which these statistics can be extracted from a realistic distribution of T(sub B) measurements that would be observed by a typical sensor. Simulations of measurements are performed that include the effects of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> noise and variable environmental factors such as the global water vapor and ocean surface temperature, salinity and wind distributions. Global minima can vary widely due to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> noise and are not a reliable <span class="hlt">calibration</span> reference. Global maxima are strongly influenced by several environmental factors as well as <span class="hlt">instrument</span> noise and are even less stationary. Global averages are largely insensitive to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> noise and, in most cases, to environmental conditions as well. The global average T(sub B) varies at only the 0.1 K RMS level except in cases of anomalously high winds, when it can increase considerably more. The vicarious cold reference is similarly insensitive to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> effects and most environmental factors. It is not significantly affected by high wind conditions. The stability of the vicarious reference is, however, found to be somewhat sensitive (at the several tenths of Kelvins level) to variations in the background cold space brightness, T(sub c). The global</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23263144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23263144"><span>Terahertz time-domain spectroscopic ellipsometry: <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neshat, Mohammad; Armitage, N P</p> <p>2012-12-17</p> <p>We present a new <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic ellipsometry (THz-TDSE) that is a newly established characterization technique. The experimental setup is capable of providing arbitrary angle of incidence in the range of 15°-85° in the reflection geometry, and with no need for realignment. The setup is also configurable easily into transmission geometry. For this setup, we successfully used hollow core photonic band gap fiber with no pre-chirping in order to deliver a femtosecond laser into a THz photoconductive antenna detector, which is the first demonstration of this kind. The proposed <span class="hlt">calibration</span> scheme can compensate for the non-ideality of the polarization response of the THz photoconductive antenna detector as well as that of wire grid polarizers used in the setup. In the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> scheme, the ellipsometric parameters are obtained through a regression algorithm which we have adapted from the conventional regression <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method developed for rotating element optical ellipsometers, and used here for the first time for THz-TDSE. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, results are presented for a high resistivity silicon substrate as well as an opaque Si substrate with a high phosphorus concentration. We also demonstrate the capacity to measure a few micron thick grown thermal oxide on top of Si. Each sample was characterized by THz-TDSE in reflection geometry with different angle of incidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SSRv..141..277M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SSRv..141..277M"><span>The THEMIS ESA Plasma <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> and In-flight <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McFadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Larson, D.; Ludlam, M.; Abiad, R.; Elliott, B.; Turin, P.; Marckwordt, M.; Angelopoulos, V.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The THEMIS plasma <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is designed to measure the ion and electron distribution functions over the energy range from a few eV up to 30 keV for electrons and 25 keV for ions. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> consists of a pair of “top hat” electrostatic analyzers with common 180°×6° fields-of-view that sweep out 4 π steradians each 3 s spin period. Particles are detected by microchannel plate detectors and binned into six distributions whose energy, angle, and time resolution depend upon <span class="hlt">instrument</span> mode. On-board moments are calculated, and processing includes corrections for spacecraft potential. This paper focuses on the ground and in-flight <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the 10 sensors on five spacecraft. Cross-<span class="hlt">calibrations</span> were facilitated by having all the plasma measurements available with the same resolution and format, along with spacecraft potential and magnetic field measurements in the same data set. Lessons learned from this effort should be useful for future multi-satellite missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9556M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9556M"><span>SMOS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Performance and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> after 3 Years in Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin-Neira, Manuel; Corbella, Ignasi; Torres, Francesc; Kainulainen, Juha; Oliva, Roger; Closa, Josep; Cabot, François; Castro, Rita; Barbosa, Jose; Gutierrez, Antonio; Anterrieu, Eric; Tenerelli, Joe; Martin-Porqueras, Fernando; Buenadicha, Guillermo; Delwart, Steven; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; Suess, Martin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been in orbit for already over 3 years which has allowed the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and data processing team consolidating both the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategy and the Level-1 processor which transforms the raw visibility samples into polarimetric brightness temperature images. The payload on board SMOS, MIRAS, is quite unique in that it is the first microwave radiometer in space ever capable to generate wide field of view images at every snapshot measurement. This means that most of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> as well as image processing techniques are being developed for the first time with little heritage from any previous space mission. Issues intrinsically attached to its wide field of view such as spatial ripples across the snapshot images are particular to MIRAS and to no other earlier radiometer. Even the fundamental theory behind the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was put at test, first on ground inside an electromagnetic compatibility chamber, and now in orbit when imaging the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation of the cold sky. A groundbreaking effort is being carried out by the SMOS project team to understand and master all <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and image reconstruction issues of this novel microwave interferometer payload. MIRAS in-orbit performance is driven by the amplitude of spatial ripples across the image and orbital and seasonal radiometer stability. Spatial ripples are unique to interferometric radiometers and are produced by (a) a limited knowledge of the antenna patterns and, in general, of the model of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, (b) some fundamental limitations related to the inverse problem of image reconstruction in undetermined conditions and (c) subtle data processing inconsistencies which are discovered and corrected. To reduce the spatial ripples sea surface salinity retrievals are performed by first removing the brightness temperature spatial errors using a uniform region of the Pacific Ocean. However soil moisture retrievals cannot benefit of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860047833&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DNeutralization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860047833&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DNeutralization"><span>Integrated development facility for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of low-energy charged particle flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biddle, A. P.; Reynolds, J. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The design of a low-energy ion facility for development and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of thermal ion <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> is examined. A directly heated cathode provides the electrons used to produce ions by <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization and an applied magnetic field increases the path length followed by the electrons. The electrostatic and variable geometry magnetic mirror configuration in the ion source is studied. The procedures for the charge neutralization of the beam and the configuration and function of the 1.4-m drift tube are analyzed. A microcomputer is utilized to control and monitor the beam energy and composition, and the mass- and angle-dependent response of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> under testing. The facility produces a high-quality ion beam with an adjustable range of energies up to 150 eV; the angular divergence and uniformity of the beam is obtained from two independent retarding potential analyzers. The procedures for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> being developed are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150004069','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150004069"><span>GMI <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Spin Balance Method, Optimization, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3-year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and center of gravity (CG) to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006391','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006391"><span>GMI <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Spin Balance Method, Optimization, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, and Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3 year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and CG to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6433054','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6433054"><span><span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> plan of the Maintenance Management Department</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blanton, J.D.; Cooper, M.H.; Millet, A.J.; Vines, R.A.</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>This document describes the methods and procedures for management of the <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and Controls I C Division Maintenance Management Department <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Program. The implementation of the Program rests primarily with the I C Division Maintenance shops and the services supplied by the I C Division Metrology Research and Development Laboratory. An important aspect of the overall program is the user or customer interface. Support activities are initiated and maintained through an active participation of operations and research organizations. It is imperative that all parties involved in the process maintain timely and effective dialogue to ensure that the process is adequate for the needs of the Laboratory. 1 ref., 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871213','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871213"><span>Monocrystalline test structures, and use for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cresswell, Michael W.; Ghoshtagore, R. N.; Linholm, Loren W.; Allen, Richard A.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>An improved test structure for measurement of width of conductive lines formed on substrates as performed in semiconductor fabrication, and for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for such measurements, is formed from a monocrystalline starting material, having an insulative layer formed beneath its surface by ion implantation or the equivalent, leaving a monocrystalline layer on the surface. The monocrystalline surface layer is then processed by preferential etching to accurately define components of the test structure. The substrate can be removed from the rear side of the insulative layer to form a transparent window, such that the test structure can be inspected by transmissive-optical techniques. Measurements made using electrical and optical techniques can be correlated with other measurements, including measurements made using scanning probe microscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018523','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018523"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of LSST <span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> and Atmospheric Photometric Passbands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burke, David L.; Axelrod, T.; Barrau, Aurelien; Baumont, Sylvain; Blondin, Stephane; Claver, Chuck; Gorecki, Alexia; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; Krabbendam, Victor; Liang, Ming; Saha, Abhijit; Smith, Allyn; Smith, R.Chris; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.</p> <p>2011-07-06</p> <p>The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast and persistent cadence of the LSST survey will significantly improve the temporal sampling rate with which celestial events and motions are tracked. To achieve these goals, and to optimally utilize the observing calendar, it will be necessary to obtain excellent photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of data taken over a wide range of observing conditions - even those not normally considered 'photometric'. To achieve this it will be necessary to routinely and accurately measure the full optical passband that includes the atmosphere as well as the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> telescope and camera system. The LSST mountain facility will include a new monochromatic dome illumination projector system to measure the detailed wavelength dependence of the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> passband for each channel in the system. The facility will also include an auxiliary spectroscopic telescope dedicated to measurement of atmospheric transparency at all locations in the sky during LSST observing. In this paper, we describe these systems and present laboratory and observational data that illustrate their performance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010894','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010894"><span>Comparison of Spectral Radiance <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Techniques Used for Backscatter Ultraviolet Satellite <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Janz, Scott</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Methods for determining the absolute radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sensitivities of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are compared as part of an effort to minimize pre-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> errors. An internally illuminated integrating sphere source has been used for the Shuttle Solar BUV (SSBUV), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Ozone Mapping <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (OMI), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) using standardized procedures traceable to national standards. These sphere-based sensitivities agree to within three percent [k equals 2] relative to <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> performed using an external diffuser illuminated by standard irradiance sources, the customary radiance <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method for BUV <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The uncertainty for these <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques as implemented at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Centers Radiometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Development Laboratory is shown to be 4 percent at 250nm [k equals 2] when using a single traceable <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard. Significant reduction in the uncertainty of nearly 1 percent is demonstrated when multiple <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards are used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AIPC..568..501C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AIPC..568..501C"><span>Statistical self-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of SPOT satellite imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carfantan, H.; Idier, J.; Beghin, B.; Meygret, A.; Rougé, B.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>SPOT satellites imaging <span class="hlt">instruments</span> acquire rows of up to 6000 elements using a CCD linear array. The other dimension is obtained by the column-wise scanning resulting from the motion of the satellite. In practice, the responses of the detectors are not strictly identical along the array, which generates a stripe effect in the direction of columns. Our aim is to perform the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the detectors response from the observed image, without supervision, in the restricted case of perfectly linear responses. In a Bayesian framework, we rely on a first-order Markov model for the image and on a Gaussian model for the gains of the detector. The MAP estimate minimizes a criterion, quadratic, convex, or nonconvex according to the chosen Markov model. In the quadratic case, MAP computation amounts to solving a tridiagonal linear system. In the other cases, we take advantage of introducing an equivalent augmented half-quadratic criterion, which can be minimized by iterately solving tridiagonal linear systems. Minimizing nonconvex criteria provides the best results, although convergence towards the global minimizer is not ensured in this case. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-61.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-61.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.61 - <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements... repair that affects the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. A licensee shall— (1) <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> all scales with readings up to 10 mSv (1000 mrem) per hour with a radiation source; (2) <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> two separated readings on each scale...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-61.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-61.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.61 - <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements... repair that affects the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. A licensee shall— (1) <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> all scales with readings up to 10 mSv (1000 mrem) per hour with a radiation source; (2) <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> two separated readings on each scale...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25625686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25625686"><span>Direct Reading Particle Counters: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Verification and Multiple <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Agreement via Bump Testing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L; Ogle, Burton R; Hollenbeck, Scott</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> records of two direct reading <span class="hlt">instruments</span> designated as condensation particle counters were examined to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. Both <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s response. Therefore, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to determine the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is performing as it was at the time of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> verification. The bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> year or prior to field monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287008','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287008"><span>Direct Reading Particle Counters: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Verification and Multiple <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Agreement via Bump Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; Hollenbeck, Scott</p> <p>2015-01-27</p> <p>We examined the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> records of two direct reading <span class="hlt">instruments</span> designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to determine the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is performing as it was at the time of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> year or prior to field monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6682437','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6682437"><span>Validation of smart sensor technologies for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> reduction in nuclear power plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hashemian, H M; Mitchell, D W; Petersen, K M; Shell, C S</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This report presents the preliminary results of a research and development project on the validation of new techniques for on-line testing of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> drift of process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> channels in nuclear power plants. These techniques generally involve a computer-based data acquisition and data analysis system to trend the output of a large number of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channels and identify the channels that have drifted out of tolerance. This helps limit the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> effort to those channels which need the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, as opposed to the current nuclear industry practice of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> essentially all the safety-related <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channels at every refueling outage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScR..10...50J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScR..10...50J"><span>Generic System for Remote Testing and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Measuring <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>: Security Architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jurčević, M.; Hegeduš, H.; Golub, M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Testing and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of laboratory <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and reference standards is a routine activity and is a resource and time consuming process. Since many of the modern <span class="hlt">instruments</span> include some communication interfaces, it is possible to create a remote <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system. This approach addresses a wide range of possible applications and permits to drive a number of different devices. On the other hand, remote <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process involves a number of security issues due to recommendations specified in standard ISO/IEC 17025, since it is not under total control of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> laboratory personnel who will sign the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> certificate. This approach implies that the traceability and integrity of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process directly depends on the collected measurement data. The reliable and secure remote control and monitoring of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> is a crucial aspect of internet-enabled <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Metro..52..145K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Metro..52..145K"><span>Comparison of spectral radiance responsivity <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques used for backscatter ultraviolet satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kowalewski, M. G.; Janz, S. J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Methods of absolute radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are compared as part of an effort to minimize pre-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainties. An internally illuminated integrating sphere source has been used for the Shuttle Solar BUV, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, Ozone Mapping <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>, and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 using standardized procedures traceable to national standards. These sphere-based spectral responsivities agree to within the derived combined standard uncertainty of 1.87% relative to <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> performed using an external diffuser illuminated by standard irradiance sources, the customary spectral radiance responsivity <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method for BUV <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The combined standard uncertainty for these <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques as implemented at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s Radiometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Development Laboratory is shown to less than 2% at 250 nm when using a single traceable <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004705','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004705"><span>A new method for monitoring long term <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the SBUV and TOMS <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ahmad, Z.; Seftor, C.; Wellemeyer, C.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A new method has been developed to monitor the long-term <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. It is based on the fact that the radiance in one channel can be expressed as a linear sum of the radiances in neighboring channels. Using simulated radiances for the SBUV and TOMS <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, various scenarios of changes in <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are investigated. Results from sample processing of SBUV data are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004225','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004225"><span>Positioning system for single or multi-axis sensitive <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system for use therewith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Finley, Tom D. (Inventor); Parker, Peter A. (Inventor)</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A positioning and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system are provided for use in <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> a single or multi axis sensitive <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, such as an inclinometer. The positioning system includes a positioner that defines six planes of tangential contact. A mounting region within the six planes is adapted to have an inclinometer coupled thereto. The positioning system also includes means for defining first and second flat surfaces that are approximately perpendicular to one another with the first surface adapted to be oriented relative to a local or induced reference field of interest to the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> being <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>, such as a gravitational vector. The positioner is positioned such that one of its six planes tangentially rests on the first flat surface and another of its six planes tangentially contacts the second flat surface. A <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system is formed when the positioning system is used with a data collector and processor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010013','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010013"><span>Radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> stability and inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of solar-band <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in orbit using the moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stone, T.C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>With the increased emphasis on monitoring the Earth's climate from space, more stringent <span class="hlt">calibration</span> requirements are being placed on the data products from remote sensing satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Among these are stability over decade-length time scales and consistency across sensors and platforms. For radiometer <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the solar reflectance wavelength range (visible to shortwave infrared), maintaining <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on orbit is difficult due to the lack of absolute radiometric standards suitable for flight use. The Moon presents a luminous source that can be viewed by all <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in Earth orbit. Considered as a solar diffuser, the lunar surface is exceedingly stable. The chief difficulty with using the Moon is the strong variations in the Moon's brightness with illumination and viewing geometry. This mandates the use of a photometric model to compare lunar observations, either over time by the same <span class="hlt">instrument</span> or between <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona, under NASA sponsorship, has developed a model for the lunar spectral irradiance that explicitly accounts for the effects of phase, the lunar librations, and the lunar surface reflectance properties. The model predicts variations in the Moon's brightness with precision ???1% over a continuous phase range from eclipse to the quarter lunar phases. Given a time series of Moon observations taken by an <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, the geometric prediction capability of the lunar irradiance model enables sensor <span class="hlt">calibration</span> stability with sub-percent per year precision. Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with similar passbands can be achieved with precision comparable to the model precision. Although the Moon observations used for intercomparison can be widely separated in phase angle and/or time, SeaWiFS and MODIS have acquired lunar views closely spaced in time. These data provide an example to assess inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> biases between these two <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27782587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27782587"><span>A virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to standardise the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of atomic force microscope cantilevers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sader, John E; Borgani, Riccardo; Gibson, Christopher T; Haviland, David B; Higgins, Michael J; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul; Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Thorén, Per-Anders; Tran, Jim; Zhang, Heyou; Zhang, Hongrui; Zheng, Tian</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Atomic force microscope (AFM) users often <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the spring constants of cantilevers using functionality built into individual <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is performed without reference to a global standard, hindering the robust comparison of force measurements reported by different laboratories. Here, we describe a virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (an internet-based initiative) whereby users from all laboratories can instantly and quantitatively compare their <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurements to those of others-standardising AFM force measurements-and simultaneously enabling non-invasive <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of AFM cantilevers of any geometry. This global <span class="hlt">calibration</span> initiative requires no additional <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> or data processing on the part of the user. It utilises a single website where users upload currently available data. A proof-of-principle demonstration of this initiative is presented using measured data from five independent laboratories across three countries, which also allows for an assessment of current <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87i3711S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87i3711S"><span>A virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to standardise the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of atomic force microscope cantilevers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sader, John E.; Borgani, Riccardo; Gibson, Christopher T.; Haviland, David B.; Higgins, Michael J.; Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul; Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Thorén, Per-Anders; Tran, Jim; Zhang, Heyou; Zhang, Hongrui; Zheng, Tian</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Atomic force microscope (AFM) users often <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the spring constants of cantilevers using functionality built into individual <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is performed without reference to a global standard, hindering the robust comparison of force measurements reported by different laboratories. Here, we describe a virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (an internet-based initiative) whereby users from all laboratories can instantly and quantitatively compare their <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurements to those of others—standardising AFM force measurements—and simultaneously enabling non-invasive <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of AFM cantilevers of any geometry. This global <span class="hlt">calibration</span> initiative requires no additional <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> or data processing on the part of the user. It utilises a single website where users upload currently available data. A proof-of-principle demonstration of this initiative is presented using measured data from five independent laboratories across three countries, which also allows for an assessment of current <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......144K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......144K"><span>Improving RR Lyrae Distance Indicators Through <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span>, Observation, and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klein, Christopher Robert</p> <p></p> <p>Due to technological limitations and peculiarities of Nature, classes of astronomical distance indicators are applicable only in specific distance ranges. The Cosmic Distance Ladder is the framework by which we link together distance indicators, climbing from one rung to the next, in order to measure physical distance on an absolute scale. The object of this dissertation is one category of distance indicators, called RR Lyrae pulsating variable stars, which has commanded substantial scientific study for more than a century. RR Lyrae stars are low mass (M ≈ 0.7 Msol), old (age > 1010 yr) Population II objects that are found mixed in with any stellar population of requisite age. They are unstable to radial harmonic oscillations (pulsations) because of their specific mass, metallicity content, and interior composition. It has been empirically determined, and theoretically justified, that the pulsation periods of individual RR Lyrae stars are correlated with their intrinsic luminosity; hereafter referred to as the RR Lyrae period--luminosity relation. Thus, if one can measure the period of a star (a relatively straightforward task given sufficient observations), then one can use that star as a standard candle and infer its distance. The work in this dissertation is aimed at improving our understanding of the period--luminosity relation of RR Lyrae stars, and particularly at improving the precision of RR Lyrae distance measurements. By leveraging (and advancing) new observational facilities, gathering an abundance of new classical observations, and developing new statistical methods to combine a wealth of multi-wavelength data, this goal has been accomplished. In this dissertation I describe the involved methodology and report distances to a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sample of 134 RR Lyrae stars with a median fractional distance error of 0.66 per cent. In the following chapters I describe the arc of this research. First, I present an <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development project that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004355','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004355"><span>Post-Launch <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Testing of Space Weather <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> on GOES-R Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tadikonda, Sivakumara S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todirita, Monica</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three <span class="hlt">instruments</span> - Solar Ultra Violet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar backgrounds/events <span class="hlt">impacting</span> climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> details are presented in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..0LT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..0LT"><span>Post-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and testing of space weather <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on GOES-R satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tadikonda, Sivakumara S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todirita, Monica</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three <span class="hlt">instruments</span> -- Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar backgrounds/events <span class="hlt">impacting</span> climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> details are presented in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004690','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004690"><span>Post-Launch <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Testing of Space Weather <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> on GOES-R Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tadikonda, S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todrita, Monica</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three <span class="hlt">instruments</span> Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar back-ground-sevents <span class="hlt">impacting</span> climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> details are presented in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf"><span>40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf"><span>40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec92-117.pdf"><span>40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec92-117.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec92-117.pdf"><span>40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec92-117.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec92-117.pdf"><span>40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=245023','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=245023"><span>Transfer of <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> for barley quality from dispersive intrument to fourier transform near-infrared <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study deals with transferring the near-infrared (NIR) <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models for quality assessment of barley between two <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with different resolutions and number of data points, a Fourier transform <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (master) and a dispersive <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (slave). A file of spectra from 206 ground ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.470.1849E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.470.1849E"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of modelling errors on interferometer <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for 21 cm power spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Dillon, Joshua S.; Liu, Adrian; Hewitt, Jacqueline</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We study the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sky-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> errors from source mismodelling on 21 cm power spectrum measurements with an interferometer and propose a method for suppressing their effects. While emission from faint sources that are not accounted for in <span class="hlt">calibration</span> catalogues is believed to be spectrally smooth, deviations of true visibilities from model visibilities are not, due to the inherent chromaticity of the interferometer's sky response (the 'wedge'). Thus, unmodelled foregrounds, below the confusion limit of many <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, introduce frequency structure into gain solutions on the same line-of-sight scales on which we hope to observe the cosmological signal. We derive analytic expressions describing these errors using linearized approximations of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> equations and estimate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of this bias on measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum during the epoch of reionization. Given our current precision in primary beam and foreground modelling, this noise will significantly <span class="hlt">impact</span> the sensitivity of existing experiments that rely on sky-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Our formalism describes the scaling of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> with array and sky-model parameters and can be used to guide future <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategy. We find that sky-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> that downweights long baselines can eliminate contamination in most of the region outside of the wedge with only a modest increase in <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> noise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JATIS...2d4002K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JATIS...2d4002K"><span>Source-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of space <span class="hlt">instruments</span> using calculable synchrotron radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klein, Roman; Fliegauf, Rolf; Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Reichel, Thomas; Richter, Mathias; Thornagel, Reiner</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has more than 20 years of experience in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of space-based <span class="hlt">instruments</span> using synchrotron radiation to cover the ultraviolet (UV), vacuum UV (VUV), and x-ray spectral range. Over the past decades, PTB has performed <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for numerous space missions within scientific collaborations and has become an important partner for activities in this field. New <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> at the electron storage ring, metrology light source, creates additional <span class="hlt">calibration</span> possibilities within this framework. A new facility for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of radiation transfer source standards with a considerably extended spectral range has been put into operation. The commissioning of a large vacuum vessel that can accommodate entire space <span class="hlt">instruments</span> opens up new prospects. Finally, an existing VUV transfer <span class="hlt">calibration</span> source was upgraded to increase the spectral range coverage to a band from 15 to 350 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AMTD....5.2315B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AMTD....5.2315B"><span>Soot Reference Materials for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baumgardner, D.; Popovicheva, O.; Allan, J.; Bernardoni, V.; Cao, J.; Cavalli, F.; Cozic, J.; Diapouli, E.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Genberg, P. J.; Gonzalez, C.; Gysel, M.; John, A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.; Laborde, M.; Lack, D.; Müller, T.; Niessner, R.; Petzold, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Putaud, J. P.; Schwarz, J.; Sheridan, P.; Subramanian, R.; Swietlicki, E.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Viana, M.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Soot, which is produced from biomass burning and the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, has been linked to regional and global climate change and to negative health problems. Scientists measure soot using a variety of methods in order to quantify source emissions and understand its atmospheric chemistry, reactivity under emission conditions, interaction with solar radiation, influence on clouds, and health <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. A major obstacle currently limiting progress is the absence of established standards or reference materials for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the many <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the various properties of soot. The current state of availability and practicability of soot standard reference materials (SRMs) was reviewed by a group of 50 international experts during a workshop in June of 2011. The workshop was convened to summarize the current knowledge on soot measurement techniques, identify the measurement uncertainties and limitations related to the lack of SRMs, and identify attributes of SRMs that, if developed, would reduce measurement uncertainties. The workshop established that suitable SRMs are available for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> some, but not all, measurement methods. The community of single-particle sootphotometer (SP2) users identified a suitable SRM, fullerene soot, but users of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure light absorption by soot collected on filters did not. Similarly, those who use thermal optical analysis (TOA) to analyze the organic and elemental carbon components of soot were not satisfied with current SRMs. The workshop produced recommendations for the development of new SRMs that would be suitable for the different soot measurement methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090023624','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090023624"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for Measuring Wind Velocity and Direction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vogler, Raymond D.; Pilny, Miroslav J.</p> <p>1950-01-01</p> <p>Signal Corps wind equipment AN/GMQ-1 consisting of a 3-cup anemometer and wind vane was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for wind velocities from 1 to 200 miles per hour. Cup-shaft failure prevented <span class="hlt">calibration</span> at higher wind velocities. The action of the wind vane was checked and found to have very poor directional accuracy below a velocity of 8 miles per hour. After shaft failure was reported to the Signal Corps, the cup rotors were redesigned by strengthening the shafts for better operation at high velocities. The anemometer with the redesigned cup rotors was recalibrated, but cup-shaft failure occurred again at a wind velocity of approximately 220 miles per hour. In the course of this <span class="hlt">calibration</span> two standard generators were checked for signal output variation, and a wind-speed meter was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for use with each of the redesigned cup rotors. The variation of pressure coefficient with air-flow direction at four orifices on a disk-shaped pitot head was obtained for wind velocities of 37.79 53.6, and 98.9 miles per hour. A pitot-static tube mounted in the nose of a vane was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> up to a dynamic pressure of 155 pounds per square foot, or approximately 256 miles per hour,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1287008-direct-reading-particle-counters-calibration-verification-multiple-instrument-agreement-via-bump-testing','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1287008-direct-reading-particle-counters-calibration-verification-multiple-instrument-agreement-via-bump-testing"><span>Direct Reading Particle Counters: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Verification and Multiple <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Agreement via Bump Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; ...</p> <p>2015-01-27</p> <p>We examined the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> records of two direct reading <span class="hlt">instruments</span> designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The methodmore » consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to determine the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is performing as it was at the time of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> year or prior to field monitoring.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017sgvi.confE...2B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017sgvi.confE...2B"><span>Polarimetric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Accuracy: Lessons Learnt from Present <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagnulo, Stefano</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>"We will discuss several sources of non-photon noise that may prevent the current polarimetric <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> from reaching the accuracy needed in various astronomical applications, from the detection of weak magnetic fields to the characterisation of (exo) planetary atmospheres and the search of extra-terrestrial life. Lessons learnt today will help to improve the design of future <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740002187','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740002187"><span>NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station. [<span class="hlt">calibration</span>, functional checks, and operation of measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Information required to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span>, functionally check, and operate the <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> Branch equipment on the NASA-6 aircraft is provided. All procedures required for preflight checks and in-flight operation of the NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station are given. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> section is intended for only that portion of the system maintained and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> by IN-MSD-12 Systems Operation contractor personnel. Maintenance is not included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860052267&hterms=Satellite+locations&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSatellite%2Blocations','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860052267&hterms=Satellite+locations&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSatellite%2Blocations"><span>Which <span class="hlt">calibration</span>-pulse location method is robust?. [for satellite imaging <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gunther, F. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The Threshold method, with high threshold and contiguous-block parameter values, was found to be a robust method of locating <span class="hlt">calibration</span> pulses in the presence of light-leak and shutter-edge pulses within the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> window. Tests used digitized <span class="hlt">calibration</span>-window background and light-pulse data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, analyzed by special software on an Apple II+ personal computer and on a VAX 11/780 minicomputer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1270785','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1270785"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Indoor and Outdoor Radiometer <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> on Solar Measurements: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Accurate solar radiation data sets are critical to reducing the expenses associated with mitigating performance risk for solar energy conversion systems, and they help utility planners and grid system operators understand the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of solar resource variability. The accuracy of solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance specification, installation method, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methodologies and the resulting <span class="hlt">calibration</span> responsivities provided by radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these radiometers are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> indoors, and some are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methodology, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from these radiometers. This study investigates <span class="hlt">calibration</span> responsivities provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer <span class="hlt">calibration</span> (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The reference radiometer <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> are traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. These different methods of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstrated 1% to 2% differences in solar irradiance measurement. Analyzing these values will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the radiometer data and will assist in developing consensus on a standard for <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Msngr.167...37S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Msngr.167...37S"><span>Report on the ''2017 ESO <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Workshop: The Second-Generation VLT <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> and Friends''</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smette, A.; Kerber, F.; Kaufer, A.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The participants at the 2017 ESO <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Workshop shared their experiences and the challenges encountered in <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> VLT second-generation <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and the upgraded first-generation <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, and discussed improvements in the characterisation of the atmosphere and data reduction. A small group of ESO participants held a follow-up retreat and identified possible game changers in the future operations of the La Silla Paranal Observatory: feedback on the proposals is encouraged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015773','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015773"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and control of a continuous-flow cryogenic tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ladson, C. L.; Kilgore, R. A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Those aspects of selection and application of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and control <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> that are influenced by the extremes in the temperature environment to be found in cryogenic tunnels are described with emphasis on the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and data acquisition system used in the Langley 0.3 m transonic cryogenic tunnel. Typical <span class="hlt">calibration</span> results obtained in a 20 by 60 cm two dimensional test section are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810007912','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810007912"><span>Specifying and <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> <span class="hlt">instrumentations</span> for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and specification are discussed. Tested <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013066','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013066"><span>Absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Landsat <span class="hlt">instruments</span> using the moon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of absolute radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90922','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90922"><span>On-line <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> channels in nuclear power plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hashemian, H.M.; Farmer, J.P.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>An on-line <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> monitoring system was developed and validated for use in nuclear power plants. This system continuously monitors the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> status of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channels and determines whether or not they require manual <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. This is accomplished by comparing the output of each <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channel to an estimate of the process it is monitoring. If the deviation of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channel from the process estimate is greater than an allowable limit, then the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is said to be {open_quotes}out of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>{close_quotes} and manual adjustments are made to correct the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The success of the on-line monitoring system depends on the accuracy of the process estimation. The system described in this paper incorporates both simple intercomparison techniques as well as analytical approaches in the form of data-driven empirical modeling to estimate the process. On-line testing of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> channels will reduce the number of manual <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> currently performed, thereby reducing both costs to utilities and radiation exposure to plant personnel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43H1629O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43H1629O"><span>SMOS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Performance and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> After 6 Years in Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliva, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been in orbit for over 6 years, and its Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) in two dimensions keeps working well. The data for this whole period has been recently reprocessed with the new fully polarimetric version (v620) of the Level-1 processor which also includes refined <span class="hlt">calibration</span> schema for the antenna losses. This reprocessing has allowed the assessment of an improved performance benchmark. The long term drift exhibited by the previous processor version has been significantly mitigated thanks to a better <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the antenna losses and the use of only the most accurate Noise Injection Radiometer. These improvements have also reduced the orbital and seasonal variations, although residual drifts still remain, in particular during the satellite eclipse season. The spatial tilt existing in the images produced with the previous version of the Level-1 processor has been considerably decreased, removing the negative trend at low incidence angles and reducing the overall standard deviation of the spatial ripples. The expected improvement in the 3rd and 4th Stokes, after correcting the use of the cross-polar antenna patterns, has been confirmed, enabling accurate retrieval of the Faraday rotation angle. Finally, a better Sun and RFI flagging strategy has been implemented, allowing for the removal of the corrupted data. A problem which still persist in the new Level-1 data is the land-sea contamination. However, recent progress in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> investigations has shed new light on the origin of the land-sea contamination, linking it to visibility amplitude <span class="hlt">calibration</span> errors. Thus, future versions of the Level-1 processor will have very much reduced land-sea contamination. An overview of the results and the progress achieved in both <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and image reconstruction will be presented in this contribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6048871','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6048871"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> testing at high velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Delfosse, D.; Pageau, G.; Bennett, R.; Poursartip, A. Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, Courcelette )</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> loading of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) aircraft parts is a major concern. Birds or hailstones striking an aircraft generally have a low mass and a high velocity, whereas typically <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments are performed with a high mass and a low velocity. Our aim has been to build an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> facility with a low-mass projectile capable of simulating these <span class="hlt">impact</span> events, since there is evidence that a low-velocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> will not always result in the same amount or even type of damage as a high-velocity <span class="hlt">impact</span>. This paper provides a detailed description of the <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> low-mass <span class="hlt">impact</span> facility at The University of British Columbia (UBC). A gas gun is used to accelerate the <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> projectile to <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocities as high as 50 m/s, corresponding to an energy level of 350 J. The contact force during the <span class="hlt">impact</span> event is measured by an incorporated load cell. The necessary mathematical operations to determine the real load-displacement curves are outlined, and the results of some <span class="hlt">impact</span> events at different velocities are shown. 23 refs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000566&hterms=tester&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtester','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000566&hterms=tester&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtester"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> Pneumatic-<span class="hlt">Impact</span> Tester</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shelley, Richard M.; Armendariz, Norman</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Pneumatic-<span class="hlt">impact</span> tester is small pressure chamber equipped with specimen holder and optical port. Device designed to test susceptibility of polymeric material to ignition by "pneumatic <span class="hlt">impact</span>" in high-pressure gaseous oxygen. Used to determine differences among susceptibilities to ignition of different materials and of different batches of nominally same material proposed for use in systems containing pressurized oxygen. Also used to show characteristics of ignition and combustion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000566&hterms=first+pneumatic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfirst%2Bpneumatic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000566&hterms=first+pneumatic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfirst%2Bpneumatic"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> Pneumatic-<span class="hlt">Impact</span> Tester</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shelley, Richard M.; Armendariz, Norman</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Pneumatic-<span class="hlt">impact</span> tester is small pressure chamber equipped with specimen holder and optical port. Device designed to test susceptibility of polymeric material to ignition by "pneumatic <span class="hlt">impact</span>" in high-pressure gaseous oxygen. Used to determine differences among susceptibilities to ignition of different materials and of different batches of nominally same material proposed for use in systems containing pressurized oxygen. Also used to show characteristics of ignition and combustion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000387','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000387"><span>Laser <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Disdrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lane, John E.; Kasparis, Takis; Metzger, Philip T.; Jones, W. Linwood</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A practical approach to developing an operational low-cost disdrometer hinges on implementing an effective in situ adaptive <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategy. This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategy lowers the cost of the device and provides a method to guarantee continued automatic <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. In previous work, a collocated tipping bucket rain gauge was utilized to provide a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> signal to the disdrometer's digital signal processing software. Rainfall rate is proportional to the 11/3 moment of the drop size distribution (a 7/2 moment can also be assumed, depending on the choice of terminal velocity relationship). In the previous case, the disdrometer <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was characterized and weighted to the 11/3 moment of the drop size distribution (DSD). Optical extinction by rainfall is proportional to the 2nd moment of the DSD. Using visible laser light as a means to focus and generate an auxiliary <span class="hlt">calibration</span> signal, the adaptive <span class="hlt">calibration</span> processing is significantly improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6686470','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6686470"><span>A Sr-90/Y-90 field <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> for performance testing of beta-gamma survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olsher, R.H.; Haynie, J.S.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>ANSI and regulatory agency guidelines prescribe periodic performance tests for radiation protection <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. Reference readings should be obtained for one point on each scale or decade normally used. A small and lightweight <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> has been developed that facilitates field testing of beta-gamma survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> uses a 45 microcurie Sr-90/Y-90 beta source with a filter wheel to generate variable dose rates in the range from 4 to 400 mrad/hr. Thus, several ranges may be checked by dialing in appropriate filters. The design, use, and typical applications of the <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AMT.....5.1869B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AMT.....5.1869B"><span>Soot reference materials for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baumgardner, D.; Popovicheva, O.; Allan, J.; Bernardoni, V.; Cao, J.; Cavalli, F.; Cozic, J.; Diapouli, E.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Genberg, P. J.; Gonzalez, C.; Gysel, M.; John, A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.; Laborde, M.; Lack, D.; Müller, T.; Niessner, R.; Petzold, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Putaud, J. P.; Schwarz, J.; Sheridan, P.; Subramanian, R.; Swietlicki, E.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Viana, M.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Soot, which is produced from biomass burning and the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, has been linked to regional and global climate change and to negative health problems. Scientists measure the properties of soot using a variety of methods in order to quantify source emissions and understand its atmospheric chemistry, reactivity under emission conditions, interaction with solar radiation, influence on clouds, and health <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. A major obstacle currently limiting progress is the absence of established standards or reference materials for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the many <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the various properties of soot. The current state of availability and practicability of soot standard reference materials (SRMs) was reviewed by a group of 50 international experts during a workshop in June of 2011. The workshop was convened to summarize the current knowledge on soot measurement techniques, identify the measurement uncertainties and limitations related to the lack of soot SRMs, and identify attributes of SRMs that, if developed, would reduce measurement uncertainties. The workshop established that suitable SRMs are available for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> some, but not all, measurement methods. The community of users of the single-particle soot-photometer (SP2), an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using laser-induced incandescence, identified a suitable SRM, fullerene soot, but users of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure light absorption by soot collected on filters did not. Similarly, those who use thermal optical analysis (TOA) to analyze the organic and elemental carbon components of soot were not satisfied with current SRMs. The workshop, and subsequent, interactive discussions, produced a number of recommendations for the development of new SRMs, and their implementation, that would be suitable for the different soot measurement methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf..693K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf..693K"><span>Dust <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Monitor DIM onboard Rosetta/Philae: Laboratory <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> with <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krüger, H.; Ossowski, T.; Seidensticker, K.; Apathy, I.; Fischer, H.-H.; Hirn, A.; Jünemann, M.; Loose, A.; Peter, A.; Sperl, M.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The Rosetta lander spacecraft Philae, which will land on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko in late 2014, is equipped with the Dust <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Monitor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (DIM). The DIM sensor, which is part of the SESAME <span class="hlt">instrument</span> package [Seidensticker et al., 2007], consists of three piezoelectric detectors, each one mounted on the outer side of a cube facing in three orthogonal directions. The total sensor area is approximately 70 cm2. DIM will measure <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of sub-millimeter and millimeter sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma by the escaping gas flow. A grain-size dependent fraction of the emitted grains is expected to fall back to the nucleus surface due to gravity. DIM will be able to detect both these components, the backfalling particles as well as the grains hitting the detector on direct trajectories from the surface. With DIM we will be able to measure fluxes, <span class="hlt">impact</span> directions as well as the speed and size of the <span class="hlt">impacting</span> cometary particles. Two particle acceleration devices for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> experiments are presently available at Max- Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung (MPS), Katlenburg-Lindau: With (a) a dedicated dropping device and (b) a small air gun we can simulate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with particles of different materials (steel, glass, ruby, polyethylen, etc.), radii between 0.2 and 1mm and <span class="hlt">impact</span> speeds up to 2msec-1. We have performed a large number of <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments with two flight spare units of the DIM sensor at MPS. We present the results from our <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments and discuss their implications for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the DIM flight <span class="hlt">instrument</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1813d0004R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1813d0004R"><span>Application of six sigma and AHP in analysis of variable lead time <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rimantho, Dino; Rahman, Tomy Abdul; Cahyadi, Bambang; Tina Hernawati, S.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> equipment in the pharmaceutical industry is an important activity to determine the true value of a measurement. Preliminary studies indicated that occur lead-time <span class="hlt">calibration</span> resulted in disruption of production and laboratory activities. This study aimed to analyze the causes of lead-time <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Several methods used in this study such as, Six Sigma in order to determine the capability process of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> of equipment. Furthermore, the method of brainstorming, Pareto diagrams, and Fishbone diagrams were used to identify and analyze the problems. Then, the method of Hierarchy Analytical Process (AHP) was used to create a hierarchical structure and prioritize problems. The results showed that the value of DPMO around 40769.23 which was equivalent to the level of sigma in <span class="hlt">calibration</span> equipment approximately 3,24σ. This indicated the need for improvements in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process. Furthermore, the determination of problem-solving strategies Lead Time <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> such as, shortens the schedule preventive maintenance, increase the number of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibrators</span>, and train personnel. Test results on the consistency of the whole matrix of pairwise comparisons and consistency test showed the value of hierarchy the CR below 0.1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10155E..0XY','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10155E..0XY"><span>Design and realization of photoelectric <span class="hlt">instrument</span> binocular optical axis parallelism <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ying, Jia-ju; Chen, Yu-dan; Liu, Jie; Wu, Dong-sheng; Lu, Jun</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The maladjustment of photoelectric <span class="hlt">instrument</span> binocular optical axis parallelism will affect the observe effect directly. A binocular optical axis parallelism digital <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system is designed. On the basis of the principle of optical axis binocular photoelectric <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, the scheme of system is designed, and the binocular optical axis parallelism digital <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system is realized, which include four modules: multiband parallel light tube, optical axis translation, image acquisition system and software system. According to the different characteristics of thermal infrared imager and low-light-level night viewer, different algorithms is used to localize the center of the cross reticle. And the binocular optical axis parallelism <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is realized for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> low-light-level night viewer and thermal infrared imager.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930080997','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930080997"><span>An Altitude Chamber for the Study and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Aeronautical <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reid, J E; Kirchner, Otto E</p> <p>1925-01-01</p> <p>The design and construction of an altitude chamber, in which both pressure and temperature can be varied independently, was carried out by the NACA at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of studying the effects of temperature and pressure on aeronautical research <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Temperatures from +20c to -50c are obtained by the expansion of CO2from standard containers. The chamber can be used for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of research <span class="hlt">instruments</span> under altitude conditions simulating those up to 45,000 feet. Results obtained with this chamber have a direct application in the design and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used in free flight research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..19G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..19G"><span>Preparation of a new autonomous <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> site: Gobabeb, Namib Desert</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greenwell, Claire; Bialek, Agnieszka; Marks, Amelia; Woolliams, Emma; Berthelot, Béatrice; Meygret, Aimé; Marcq, Sébastien; Bouvet, Marc; Fox, Nigel</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A new permanently <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> site for high/medium resolution imaging satellite sensors is currently under development, focussing on the visible and near infra-red parts of the spectrum. The site will become a European contribution to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) initiative RadCalNet (Radiometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Network). The exact location of the permanent monitoring <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> will be defined following the initial site characterisation. The new ESA/CNES RadCalNet site will have a robust uncertainty budget and its data fully SI traceable through detailed characterisation and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> by NPL of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and artefacts to be used on the site. This includes a CIMEL sun photometer (the permanent <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>) an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, Gonio Radiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS), and reference reflectance standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1066-130.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1066-130.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1066.130 - Measurement <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> and verifications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... air flow; the linearity verification described in § 1066.135 applies for the following measurements... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment, Measurement <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>, Fuel, and... apply for engine speed, torque, fuel rate, or intake air flow. (b) The linearity verification...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9607E..1LS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9607E..1LS"><span>S-NPP VIIRS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> telemetry and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data trend study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, ZiPing; De Luccia, Frank J.; Cardema, Jason C.; Moy, Gabriel</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) employs a large number of temperature and voltage sensors (telemetry points) to monitor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> health and performance. We have collected data and built tools to study telemetry and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters trends. The telemetry points are organized into groups based on locations and functionalities. Examples of the groups are: telescope motor, focal plane array (FPA), scan cavity bulkhead, radiators, solar diffuser and Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM). We have performed daily monitoring and long-term trending studies. Daily monitoring processes are automated with alarms built into the software to indicate if pre-defined limits are exceeded. Long-term trending studies focus on <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance and sensitivities of Sensor Data Record (SDR) products and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> look-up tables (LUTs) to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> temperature and voltage variations. VIIRS uses a DC Restore (DCR) process to periodically correct the analog offsets of each detector of each spectral band to ensure that the FPA output signals are always within the dynamic range of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The offset values are updated based on observations of the On-Board <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> Blackbody source. We have performed a long-term trend study of DCR offsets and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters to explore connections of the DCR offsets with onboard <span class="hlt">calibrators</span>. The study also shows how the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters respond to the VIIRS Petulant Mode, spacecraft (SC) anomalies and flight software (FSW) updates. We have also shown that trending studies of telemetry and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters may help to improve the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> processes and SDR Quality Flags.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22923828M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22923828M"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Advancements for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monsalve, Raul A.; Burns, Jack O.; Bradley, Richard F.; Tauscher, Keith; Nhan, Bang; Bowman, Judd D.; Purcell, William R.; Newell, David; Draper, David</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) is a space mission concept proposed to NASA to measure with high precision the monopole component of the redshifted 21-cm signal from neutral hydrogen originated during cosmic dawn at redshifts 35 > z > 11. For the 21-cm line, these high redshifts correspond to the frequency range 40-120 MHz. Through its spectral features, this signal will provide a wealth of information about the large-scale physics of the first stars, galaxies and black holes. The signal is expected to have an absolute amplitude below 200 mK, which is five orders of magnitude smaller than the diffuse foregrounds dominated by Galactic synchrotron radiation. In order to avoid the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the Earth’s ionosphere, which corrupts low-frequency radio waves through refraction, absorption, and emission, this measurement is conducted from orbit above the far side of the Moon. This location is ideal because it enables the Moon to shield the spacecraft from Solar radiation and terrestrial radio-frequency interference. The DARE <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is designed around a dual-polarization, widefield, wideband, biconical antenna, which provides full-Stokes capabilities in order to measure and remove the low-level polarized component of the foregrounds. The spacecraft is rotated about its boresight axis at 1 RPM to modulate the foregrounds and separate them from the spatially uniform cosmological signal. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> requires exquisite <span class="hlt">calibration</span> to reach a sensitivity of a few mK in the presence of strong foregrounds. For this purpose, the frequency-dependent antenna beam is characterized to 20 ppm. This is accomplished through a combination of electromagnetic simulations, anechoic chamber measurements, and on-orbit mapping using a <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> high-power ground-based source. The DARE front-end receiver is characterized on the ground in terms of its input impedance, gain, noise properties, and stability. Its performance is verified when operating on-orbit at a fixed temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009995','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009995"><span>CheMin <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Performance and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Morookian, J. M.; Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Achilles, C. N.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Morrison, S. M.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20130009995'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20130009995_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20130009995_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20130009995_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20130009995_hide"></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode X-ray tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pattern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A key component of the CheMin <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is the ability to move grains within sample cells during analysis, providing multiple, random grain orientations that disperse diffracted X-ray photons along Debye rings rather than producing discrete Laue spots. This movement is accomplished by piezoelectric vibration of the sample cells. A cryocooler is used to maintain the CCD at a temperature at about -50 C in order to obtain energy resolution better than 250 eV, allowing discrimination of diffracted Co K X-rays from Fe K and other fluorescent X-rays. A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. The CheMin flight model (FM) is mounted within the body of Curiosity and has been operating on Mars since August 6, 2012. An essentially identical sister <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, the CheMin demonstration model (DM), is operated in a Mars environment chamber at JPL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SoPh..289.2377B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SoPh..289.2377B"><span>Photometric and Thermal Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Solar EUV <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boerner, P. F.; Testa, P.; Warren, H.; Weber, M. A.; Schrijver, C. J.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>We present an assessment of the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurements and atomic physics models that go into calculating the SDO/AIA response as a function of wavelength and temperature. The wavelength response is tested by convolving SDO/EVE and Hinode/EIS spectral data with the AIA effective area functions and by comparing the predictions with AIA observations. For most channels, the AIA intensities summed over the disk agree with the corresponding measurements derived from the current version (V2) of the EVE data to within the estimated 25 % <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error. This agreement indicates that the AIA effective areas are generally stable in time. The AIA 304 Å channel, however, does show degradation by a factor of almost 3 from May 2010 through September 2011, when the throughput apparently reached a minimum. We also found some inconsistencies in the 335 Å passband, possibly due to higher-order contamination of the EVE data. The intensities in the AIA 193 Å channel agree to within the uncertainties with the corresponding measurements from EIS full CCD observations. Analysis of high-resolution X-ray spectra of the solar-like corona of Procyon and of EVE spectra allowed us to investigate the accuracy and completeness of the CHIANTI database in the AIA shorter wavelength passbands. We found that in the 94 Å channel, the spectral model significantly underestimates the plasma emission owing to a multitude of missing lines. We derived an empirical correction for the AIA temperature responses by performing differential emission measure (DEM) inversion on a broad set of EVE spectra and adjusting the AIA response functions so that the count rates predicted by the full-disk DEMs match the observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPA.852...62E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPA.852...62E"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the GNU and HSREM neutron survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eakins, J. S.; Hager, L. G.; Leake, J. W.; Mason, R. S.; Tanner, R. J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Two innovative designs of neutron survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> have recently been developed to estimate ambient dose equivalent in the workplace: the GNU has an improved energy-independence of response in the meV to TeV range; the HSREM is a comparatively lightweight device covering the meV to 10 MeV range. Both designs offer good detection sensitivity, allowing measurements to be made efficiently and thereby minimizing the exposure to their users. Prototypes of both devices have been constructed and exposed to sets of well-characterized reference fields: the resulting measured responses are presented and discussed here, compared against comprehensive Monte Carlo data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..854..154G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..854..154G"><span>Software System for the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of X-Ray Measuring <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaytán-Gallardo, E.; Tovar-Muñoz, V. M.; Cruz-Estrada, P.; Vergara-Martínez, F. J.; Rivero-Gutiérrez, T.</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>A software system that facilities the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of X-ray measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used in medical applications is presented. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Nuclear Research National Institute in México (ININ in Spanish), supports activities concerning with ionizing radiations in medical area. One of these activities is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of X-ray measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, in terms of air kerma or exposure by substitution method in an X-ray beam at a point where the rate has been determined by means of a standard ionization chamber. To automatize this process, a software system has been developed, the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system is composed by an X-ray unit, a Dynalizer IIIU X-ray meter by RADCAL, a commercial data acquisition card, the software system and the units to be tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>. A quality control plan has been applied in the development of the software system, ensuring that quality assurance procedures and standards are being followed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18784780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18784780"><span>Long-term analysis of GOME in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> degradation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Slijkhuis, Sander; Aberle, Bernd; Loyola, Diego</p> <p>2008-09-10</p> <p>Since 1995, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) has measured solar and backscattered spectra in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength range. Now, the extensive data set of the most important <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters has been investigated thoroughly in order to analyze the long-term stability and performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. This study focuses on GOME in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and degradation for the solar path. Monitoring the sensor degradation yields an intensity decrease of 70% to 90% in 240-316 nm and 35% to 65% in 311-415 nm. The spectral <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is very stable over the whole period, although a very complex interaction between predisperser temperature and wavelength was found. The leakage current and the pixel-to-pixel gain increased significantly during the mission, which requires an accurate correction of the measured radiance and irradiance signals using proper <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters. Finally, several outliers in the data sets can be directly assigned to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and satellite anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20888199','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20888199"><span>Software System for the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of X-Ray Measuring <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gaytan-Gallardo, E.; Tovar-Munoz, V. M.; Cruz-Estrada, P.; Vergara-Martinez, F. J.; Rivero-Gutierrez, T.</p> <p>2006-09-08</p> <p>A software system that facilities the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of X-ray measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used in medical applications is presented. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Nuclear Research National Institute in Mexico (ININ in Spanish), supports activities concerning with ionizing radiations in medical area. One of these activities is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of X-ray measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, in terms of air kerma or exposure by substitution method in an X-ray beam at a point where the rate has been determined by means of a standard ionization chamber. To automatize this process, a software system has been developed, the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system is composed by an X-ray unit, a Dynalizer IIIU X-ray meter by RADCAL, a commercial data acquisition card, the software system and the units to be tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>. A quality control plan has been applied in the development of the software system, ensuring that quality assurance procedures and standards are being followed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150004556&hterms=visible+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dvisible%2Bspectroscopy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150004556&hterms=visible+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dvisible%2Bspectroscopy"><span>Design Through Integration of On-Board <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Device with Imaging Spectroscopy <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stange, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The main purpose of the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) project is to "identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures." The project designs, builds, and tests various imaging spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that use On-Board <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> devices (OBC) to check the accuracy of the data collected by the spectrometers. The imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span> records the spectral signatures of light collected during flight. To verify the data is correct, the OBC shines light which is collected by the imaging spectrometer and compared against previous <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data to track spectral response changes in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The spectral data has the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> applied to it based on the readings from the OBC data in order to ensure accuracy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150004556&hterms=spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dspectroscopy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150004556&hterms=spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dspectroscopy"><span>Design Through Integration of On-Board <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Device with Imaging Spectroscopy <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stange, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The main purpose of the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) project is to "identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures." The project designs, builds, and tests various imaging spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that use On-Board <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> devices (OBC) to check the accuracy of the data collected by the spectrometers. The imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span> records the spectral signatures of light collected during flight. To verify the data is correct, the OBC shines light which is collected by the imaging spectrometer and compared against previous <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data to track spectral response changes in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The spectral data has the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> applied to it based on the readings from the OBC data in order to ensure accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900002683','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900002683"><span>Droplet sizing <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> used for icing research: Operation, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hovenac, Edward A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The accuracy of the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) is determined using laboratory tests, wind tunnel comparisons, and computer simulations. Operation in an icing environment is discussed and a new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device for the FSSP (the rotating pinhole) is demonstrated to be a valuable tool. Operation of the Optical Array Probe is also presented along with a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device (the rotating reticle) which is suitable for performing detailed analysis of that <span class="hlt">instrument</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21352655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21352655"><span>Multivariate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> standardization for the rapid detection of diethylene glycol in glycerin by Raman spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gryniewicz-Ruzicka, Connie M; Arzhantsev, Sergey; Pelster, Lindsey N; Westenberger, Benjamin J; Buhse, Lucinda F; Kauffman, John F</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The transfer of a multivariate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> model for quantitative determination of diethylene glycol (DEG) contaminant in pharmaceutical-grade glycerin between five portable Raman spectrometers was accomplished using piecewise direct standardization (PDS). The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set was developed using a multi-range ternary mixture design with successively reduced impurity concentration ranges. It was found that optimal selection of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer standards using the Kennard-Stone algorithm also required application of the algorithm to multiple successively reduced impurity concentration ranges. Partial least squares (PLS) <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models were developed using the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set measured independently on each of the five spectrometers. The performance of the models was evaluated based on the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), calculated using independent validation samples. An F-test showed that no statistical differences in the variances were observed between models developed on different <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Direct cross-<span class="hlt">instrument</span> prediction without standardization was performed between a single primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and each of the four secondary <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to evaluate the robustness of the primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> model. Significant increases in the RMSEP values for the secondary <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were observed due to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> variability. Application of piecewise direct standardization using the optimal <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer subset resulted in the lowest values of RMSEP for the secondary <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Using the optimal <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer subset, an optimized <span class="hlt">calibration</span> model was developed using a subset of the original <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set, resulting in a DEG detection limit of 0.32% across all five <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH53B4218P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH53B4218P"><span>Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> Ground Based and Satellite <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papadopoulos, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and be used as a basis to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to <span class="hlt">calibration</span> drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. A <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> reference <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Lynx can make collocated observations as another <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A21B0441K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A21B0441K"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and intercomparison of water vapor <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> used on the NSF/NCAR HIAPER aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kraemer, D.; Campos, T.; Flocke, F.; Jensen, J.; Wang, J.; Cole, H.; Korn, E.; Lauritsen, D.; Kraemer, M.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Subject of the study is the characterization of a Kahn DCS-80 water vapor <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system and the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of two water vapor sensors used on research aircraft, namely a Buck <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> B-1001 chilled mirror sensor and a MayComm Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Hygrometer. A series of Vaisala drop sondes were also characterized and compared to the aircraft <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. In an effort to assess the precision of the water vapor sensors that are being used on board the NSF/NACR GV aircraft (HIAPER), the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were tested at ambient pressure (800 mbar) inside an environmental chamber to simulate temperature conditions during flight. Tested dewpoints ranged from -70 to +20 degrees Celsius. The TDL - hygrometer was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> in preparation for an international water vapor measurement intercomparison campaign at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. We will present the detailed <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization procedure, the laboratory setup for the different sensors, results from the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of all <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, assess their precision and useful operating range, and present some preliminary results from the international intercomparison campaign.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33E0228M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33E0228M"><span>Inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation of observations from SAPHIR and ATMS <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moradi, I.; Ferraro, R. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present the results of evaluating observations from microwave <span class="hlt">instruments</span> aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP, ATMS <span class="hlt">instrument</span>) and Megha-Tropiques (SAPHIR <span class="hlt">instrument</span>) satellites. The study includes inter-comparison and inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of observations of similar channels from the two <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, evaluation of the satellite data using high-quality radiosonde data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and GPS Radio Occultaion Observations from COSMIC mission, as well as geolocation error correction. The results of this study are valuable for generating climate data records from these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> as well as for extending current climate data records from similar <span class="hlt">instruments</span> such as AMSU-B and MHS to the ATMS and SAPHIR <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Reference: Moradi et al., Intercalibration and Validation of Observations From ATMS and SAPHIR Microwave Sounders. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 01/2015; DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2427165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790030752&hterms=insolation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dinsolation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790030752&hterms=insolation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dinsolation"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> standards and field <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for the precision measurement of insolation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reid, M. S.; Berdahl, C. M.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The paper describes the development of an absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard for irradiance measurements. This field <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, designated the Kendall Radiometer System Mark 3, is identical to the PACRAD (Primary Absolute Cavity Radiometer) except for a modification to ensure all weather operation. Two Mark 3 radiometers have been in operation at the JPL's Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex for over two years and are continuing to provide data which are within plus or minus 1% of the absolute value. A <span class="hlt">calibration</span> stability analysis is presented for the two <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA21A4042S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA21A4042S"><span>Updated Global Data from the Guvi <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>: New Products, Updated <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, and a New Web Interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Romeo, G.; Wolven, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Comberiate, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>With it's high inclination orbit, GUVI provides global coverage of the ionosphere/thermosphere system, revisiting each polar region 15 times a day. The GUVI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has long been a resource for the ITM community with a panoply of data products available from the GUVI website (http://guvi.jhuapl.edu). GUVI is in a high inclination orbit and so provides coverage of both hemispheres. With the release last year of the data products from the DMSO/SSUSI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, particularly more detailed auroral zone products (Q, E0, Hemispheric Power, discrete auroral arcs, proton precipitation regions), new equatorial ionospheric products (3D electron densities, bubbles), a whole new set of UV data products has become available. SSUSI are available from http://ssusi.jhuapl.edu. To leverage the experience and knowledge gained from running all of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> we have adapted the SSUSI products so they can be made from GUVI telemetry. There are now updated versions of GUVI legacy products as well as brand new products. In addition, better on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques developed for SSUSI have now been applied to the GUVI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> - there is now a common set of software for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> both <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. With a common data format, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and product definition, the data from all SSUSI and GUVI <span class="hlt">instruments</span> can now be easily combined to get multiple <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to cover the hemispheres to do a variety of global studies. In addition, the GUVI spectrographic mode data provides great detail about spectrographic features (e.g. O/N2 ratios, NO band emission) that are important for understanding dynamical processes in the thermosphere. A new version of the GUVI website (with the same interface as the SSUSI website) has been launched from guvi.jhuapl.edu to showcase the legacy products made with the new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and also highlight the newly developed products for the GUVI imaging and spectrographic modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050147486&hterms=datasets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddatasets','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050147486&hterms=datasets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddatasets"><span>Development of Long-term Datasets from Satellite BUV <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>: The "Soft" <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bhartia, Pawan K.; Taylor, Steven; Jaross, Glen</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The first BUV <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was launched in April 1970 on NASA's Nimbus4 satellite. More than a dozen <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, broadly based on the same principle, but using very different technologies, have been launched in the last 35 years on NASA, NOAA, Japanese and European satellites. In this paper we describe the basic principles of the "soft" <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach that we have successfully applied to the data from many of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to produce a consistent long-term record of total ozone, ozone profile and aerosols. This approach is based on using accurate radiative transfer models and assumed/known properties of the atmosphere in ultraviolet to derive <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters. Although the accuracy of the results inevitably depends upon how well the assumed atmospheric properties are known, the technique has several built-in cross- checks that improve the robustness of the method. To develop further confidence in the data the soft <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technique can be combined with data collected from few well- <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> ground-based <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. We will use examples from past and present BUV <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to show how the method works.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176469','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176469"><span>Neutron monitoring systems including gamma thermometers and methods of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> nuclear <span class="hlt">instruments</span> using gamma thermometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Moen, Stephan Craig; Meyers, Craig Glenn; Petzen, John Alexander; Foard, Adam Muhling</p> <p>2012-08-07</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> a nuclear <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using a gamma thermometer may include: measuring, in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, local neutron flux; generating, from the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, a first signal proportional to the neutron flux; measuring, in the gamma thermometer, local gamma flux; generating, from the gamma thermometer, a second signal proportional to the gamma flux; compensating the second signal; and <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> a gain of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> based on the compensated second signal. Compensating the second signal may include: calculating selected yield fractions for specific groups of delayed gamma sources; calculating time constants for the specific groups; calculating a third signal that corresponds to delayed local gamma flux based on the selected yield fractions and time constants; and calculating the compensated second signal by subtracting the third signal from the second signal. The specific groups may have decay time constants greater than 5.times.10.sup.-1 seconds and less than 5.times.10.sup.5 seconds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612277S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612277S"><span>Development and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Space Flight <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> at the University of Bern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scheer, Jürgen A.; Wurz, Peter</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Since more than 40 years the division for Space Research and Planetary Sciences of the Physical Institute of the University of Bern develops space flight <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, such as mass spectrometers, pressure gauges, laser altimeters, and more. Consequently, space flight <span class="hlt">instruments</span> developed in Bern or with Bernese participation were flown on multiple space missions, for example GEOS, GIOTTO, ULYSSES, SOHO, ROSETTA, and IBEX. All these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> need to be tested for functionality upon their different development stages (prototypes and engineering units) and the flight units need to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>. Furthermore, these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> do also need to be tested for survival regarding vibration, shock and thermal loads. Over the years different facilities have been set up at the Physical Institute of the University of Bern to do such work. This report will present these facilities with special respect to the aspect of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003721','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003721"><span>Status of Aqua MODIS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> On-Orbit Operation and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Jack; Angal, Amit; Madhaven, Sri; Choi, Jason; Wenny, Brian; Sun, Junqiang; Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Hongda; Salomonson, Vincent; Barnes, William</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Aqua MOderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has successfully operated for nearly a decade, since its launch in May 2002. MODIS was developed and designed with improvements over its heritage sensors in terms of its overall spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics, and with more stringent <span class="hlt">calibration</span> requirements. MODIS carries a set of on-board <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> that can be used to track and monitor its on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. Since launch, extensive <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization activities have been scheduled and executed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST). These efforts are made to assure the quality of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and L 1B data products, as well as support all science disciplines (land, ocean, and atmospheric) for continuous improvements of science data product quality. MODIS observations from both Terra and Aqua have significantly contributed to the science and user community over a wide range of research activities and applications. This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> activities, <span class="hlt">instrument</span> health status, and on-board <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> (OBC) performance. On-orbit changes of key sensor parameters, such as spectral band radiometric responses, center wavelengths, and bandwidth, are illustrated and compared with those derived from its predecessor, Terra MODIS. Lessons and challenges identified from Aqua MODIS performance are also discussed in this paper. These lessons are not only critical to future improvements of Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> but also beneficial to its follow-on <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to be launched on NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319320"><span>A new automatic system for angular measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in radiometric <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in radiometric <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274241','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274241"><span>A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> in Radiometric <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in radiometric <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements. PMID:22319320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28024426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28024426"><span>Across-subject <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> glove to measure hand movement for clinical purposes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gracia-Ibáñez, Verónica; Vergara, Margarita; Buffi, James H; Murray, Wendy M; Sancho-Bru, Joaquín L</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Motion capture of all degrees of freedom of the hand collected during performance of daily living activities remains challenging. <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> gloves are an attractive option because of their higher ease of use. However, subject-specific <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of gloves is lengthy and has limitations for individuals with disabilities. Here, a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure is presented, consisting in the recording of just a simple hand position so as to allow capture of the kinematics of 16 hand joints during daily life activities even in case of severe injured hands. 'across-subject gains' were obtained by averaging the gains obtained from a detailed subject-specific <span class="hlt">calibration</span> involving 44 registrations that was repeated three times on multiple days to 6 subjects. In additional 4 subjects, joint angles that resulted from applying the 'across-subject <span class="hlt">calibration</span>' or the subject-specific <span class="hlt">calibration</span> were compared. Global errors associated with the 'across-subject <span class="hlt">calibration</span>' relative to the detailed, subject-specific protocol were small (bias: 0.49°; precision: 4.45°) and comparable to those that resulted from repeating the detailed protocol with the same subject on multiple days (0.36°; 3.50°). Furthermore, in one subject, performance of the 'across-subject <span class="hlt">calibration</span>' was directly compared to another fast <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method, expressed relative to a videogrammetric protocol as a gold-standard, yielding better results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AAS...201.8211F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AAS...201.8211F"><span>Windowless Far-Ultraviolet Electron <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Lamp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>France, K.; McCandliss, S. R.; Pelton, R.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>We present preliminary results from a windowless <span class="hlt">calibration</span> lamp for determining wavelength solutions and detector flat-fielding at far-ultraviolet wavelengths. This lamp produces free electrons from a filament, accelerating them toward a tungsten target by an applied voltage ( 200 - 2000 V). An emission line spectrum is produced by electrons <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the residual gas molecules present and continuous emission is produced by bremsstrahlung as the electrons collide with the target. The emission line spectrum can be modified to provide a rich wavelength coverage by introducing different species, and spectra of H2, N2, O2, CO2, HD, and Ar have been measured at modest spectral resolution (1 Å) across the far-UV bandpass (900 - 1400 Å). The long wavelength tail of the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum falling in this bandpass can be used to make detector flat-field measurements. The lamp is robust and compact, housed in a mini-conflat cube and operates at the ambient vacuum compatible with microchannel plate operation. It is scheduled to be tested on an upcoming sounding rocket flight. We present initial results of both electron <span class="hlt">impact</span> and bremsstrahlung spectra and adaptability to space-based <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. This work is supported by NASA grant NAG5-5315 to The Johns Hopkins University.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss026e029180.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss026e029180.html"><span>Coleman performs VO2 Max PFS Software <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> and <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Check</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-02-24</p> <p>ISS026-E-029180 (24 Feb. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, performs VO2max portable Pulmonary Function System (PFS) software <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> check while using the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008360','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008360"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Suite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mahaffy, P. R.; Trainer, M. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Stern, J. C.; Harpold, D.; Conrad, P. G.; Raaen, E.; Lyness, E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The SAM suite of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on the "Curiosity" Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is designed to provide chemical and isotopic analysis of organic and inorganic volatiles for both atmospheric and solid samples. The mission of the MSL investigations is to advance beyond the successful search for aqueous transformation in surface environments at Mars toward a quantitative assessment of habitability and preservation through a series of chemical and geological measurements. The SAM suite was delivered in December 2010 (Figure 1) to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for integration into the Curiosity Rover. We previously outlined the range of SAM solid and gas <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> implemented or planned and here we discuss a specific set of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> experiments to establish the response of the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) to the four most abundant gases in the Martian atmosphere CO2, N2, Ar, and O2, A full SAM <span class="hlt">instrument</span> description and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> report is presently in preparation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31H..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31H..04S"><span>Inter-<span class="hlt">calibrating</span>, Multi-<span class="hlt">instrument</span> Microwave Ocean Data Records over Three Decades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, D. K.; Wentz, F. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Satellite microwave radiometers have been in continuous operation since 1987. When inter-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> and consistently processed, the data from a series of DMSP SSM/I and SSMIS sensors, TRMM TMI, Coriolis WindSat, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W1 AMSR2, and GPM GMI collectively result in a long-term high-quality ocean data set of surface winds, atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water content, rain rate, and for some <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, sea surface temperature and wind direction. Slight variations in frequencies, design and satellite orbits stress the need for carefully implementing an inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> method, so as not to introduce trends or jumps when new <span class="hlt">instruments</span> begin or when old <span class="hlt">instruments</span> drift and/or die. The authors have developed a robust inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> method using a published, well-developed and validated radiative transfer model (RTM) as the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard. Most of the sensor data for this nearly 30-year period are available as the Version-7 RTM standard. The GMI sensor, recently launched in 2014, has strict <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracy requirements and was built to have greater precision than any previous microwave sensor. We have utilized the dual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and non-linearity-measurement systems built into GMI to improve the RTM, which is now Version-8. In this talk we will present an overview of our <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedures and outline the steps required to produce climate quality earth data records. We also intend to present the latest validation results and provide information on recent changes in distribution, format, and availability for these already-popular data products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780050608&hterms=insolation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dinsolation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780050608&hterms=insolation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dinsolation"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> standards and field <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for the precision measurement of insolation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reid, M. S.; Berdahl, C. M.; Kendall, J. M., Sr.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The design of a fieldworthy survey <span class="hlt">instrument</span> based on a developed radiation <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standard is discussed. The radiometer system, a fieldworthy modification of Pacrad, is an all-weather solar radiometer, and a field test is described which demonstrates the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s stability in severe environments over an extended period of time. It is suggested that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> may be considered a transfer standard as well as a radiometer. It is hoped that future modifications might reduce the 15-deg view angle and improve the tracking system to eliminate weekly manual declination adjustments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015245','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015245"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Reflected Solar <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurtis; Barnes, Robert; Baize, Rosemary; O'Connell, Joseph; Hair, Jason</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar <span class="hlt">instrument</span> retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is predicated on heritage hardware, reduction of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory <span class="hlt">calibration</span> including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22048713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22048713"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on estimates of central blood pressures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soender, T K; Van Bortel, L M; Møller, J E; Lambrechtsen, J; Hangaard, J; Egstrup, K</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Using the Sphygmocor device it is recommended that the radial pressure wave is <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). However it has been suggested that brachial-to-radial pressure amplification causes underestimation of central blood pressures (BPs) using this <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. In the present study we examined if different <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> had an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on estimates of central BPs and on the clinical interpretation of our results. On the basis of ambulatory BP measurements, patients were categorized into patients with controlled, uncontrolled or resistant hypertension. We first <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> the radial pressure wave as recommended and afterwards recalibrated the same pressure wave using brachial DBP and calculated mean arterial pressure. Recalibration of the pressure wave generated significantly higher estimates of central SBP (P=0.0003 and P<0.0001 at baseline and P=0.0001 and P=0.0002 after 6 months). Using recommended <span class="hlt">calibration</span> we found a significant change in central SBP in both treatment groups (P=0.05 and P=0.01), however, after recalibrating significance was lost in patients with resistant hypertension (P=0.15). We conclude that <span class="hlt">calibration</span> with DBP and mean arterial pressure produces higher estimates of central BPs than recommended <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The present study also shows that this difference between the two <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods can produce more than a systematic error and has an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on interpretation of clinical results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=267337','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=267337"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> for quantitative microfluorometry for immunofluorescence tests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaplan, D S; Picciolo, G L</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The current method for measuring reagents for immunofluorescence microscopy involves a subjective evaluation of the endpoint (titer) with a negative or positive (1+ to 4+) scale. Variability is due to the biological constituents of the reagent, the observer, and the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. To have reliable methods for evaluation of performance of these products, we are developing a quantitative method that uses photometric measurements of microscopically observed epifluorescence of slide preparations. A computer-controlled microscope-photometer converts the light intensity into a voltage measurement. Our goal is to replace the subjective endpoint determination with an objective, quantitative method. The <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and its operating characteristics are presented in this paper. Selected commercially available fluorescent materials were evaluated as <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> for the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. These materials showed consistency in measurement and thus demonstrated their suitability for various levels of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. It is possible that they will prove useful as a reference standard for interlaboratory comparisons. PMID:2654179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9143E..4VC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9143E..4VC"><span>Polarimetric <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> and astronomical polarimetry in the V-band with Solar Orbiter/METIS <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capobianco, Gerardo; Fineschi, Silvano; Focardi, Mauro; Andretta, Vincenzo; Massone, Giuseppe; Bemporad, Alessandro; Romoli, Marco; Antonucci, Ester; Naletto, Giampiero; Nicolini, Gianalfredo; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Spadaro, Daniele</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>METIS is one of the remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on board the ESA- Solar Orbiter mission, that will be launched in July 2017. The Visible Light Channel (VLC) of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is composed by an achromatic LC-based polarimeter for the study of the linearly polarized solar K-corona in the 580-640 nm bandpass. The laboratory <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> with spectropolarimetric techniques and the in-flight <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of this channel, using some well knows linearly polarized stars in the FoV of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with a degree of linear polarization DOLP > 10% are here discussed. The selection of the stars and the use of other astronomical targets (i.e. planets, comets,…) and the opportunity of measurements of the degree of linear polarization in the visible bandpass of some astronomical objects (i.e. Earth, comets,…) are also objects of this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910025765&hterms=range+sidelobe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drange%2Bsidelobe','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910025765&hterms=range+sidelobe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drange%2Bsidelobe"><span>Millipol, a millimeter/submillimeter wavelength polarimeter - <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>, operation, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clemens, Dan P.; Kane, Brian D.; Leach, Robert W.; Barvainis, Richard</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> capable of measuring the polarization characteristics of weakly polarized, cold dust at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths is presented in detail. The operation and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of this polarimeter at a wavelength of 1300 microns, configured for the NRAO 12-meter telescope, are discussed. Deep observations of Jupiter using this <span class="hlt">instrument</span> revealed a main-beam <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> polarization at, or below, the 0.2 percent level. Lunar limb observations revealed a sidelobe polarization sensitivity, in the range 0.25 percent - 1.0 percent. Further, through these efforts the nonthermal polarized flux from Jupiter at a level of about 0.04 percent of the thermal flux has been detected. Astronomical polarization measurements to 0.03 percent are possible, limited by the uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> polarization. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has been primarily employed to measure and map magnetic-field directions in the very optically opaque cores of massive molecular clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.2060 Section 35.2060 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2060 Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.2060 Section 35.2060 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2060 Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.60 Section 35.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. (a) For...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec35-2060.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.2060 Section 35.2060 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2060 Records of <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AdSpR..19.1325S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AdSpR..19.1325S"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of high resolution remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the visible and near infrared</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schüller, L.; Fischer, J.; Armbruster, W.; Bartsch, B.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>Measurements of the reflected solar radiation with high spectral resolution airborne <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are usually used to develop new remote sensing techniques. The observed spectral features in the signals provide the possibility to define useful band settings for future satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. A precise wavelength and radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is a prerequisite for such tasks. In this paper, a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure for the airborne spectrometer OVID is presented. The Optical Visible and near Infrared Detector consists of two similar detector systems, (600 - 1100 nm = VIS and 900 - 1700 nm = NIR). The spectral resolution is ~1.7 nm for the VIS-system and ~6 nm for the IR-system. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is applied for the retrieval of water vapour content, aerosol and cloud properties. Besides the spectral and intensity <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, also corrections for the dark current signals and for defective pixels have been performed. An indirect verification of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure by the comparison of OVID measurements in cloudy and cloud free atmospheres with radiative transfer simulations is discussed in this paper. The used radiation transfer model MOMO is based on the matrix operator method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995STIN...9533206R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995STIN...9533206R"><span>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for gravimetric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of flow devices with corrosive gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Remenyik, Carl J.; Hylton, James O.</p> <p></p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of mass flow controllers primarily used in the production of semiconductor wafers. Almost all other types of such <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> require measurement of temperature, pressure, and volume. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> measures the weight of gas collected in a container and makes measuring those thermodynamic variables unnecessary. The need to measure the weight of the gas container is eliminated by submerging it in a liquid (presently water) and balancing its weight with the force of buoyancy. The accuracy of this gravimetric <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> is unaffected by the pressure and temperature of the gas. The <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> can also measure reactive, corrosive, and nonideal gases. The container remains connected to the process by a torsion capillary, and a load cell measures the changing gas weight continuously throughout the measuring process. A prototype was designed for gas flows ranging from 1 sccm of hydrogen to 10,000 sccm of tungsten hexafluoride, constructed, tested, and used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> flow devices. Experience with the prototype and results are presented, and plans for further developments are discussed. Design of a version for the flow range from 0.1 sccm to 100 sccm is in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/52825','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/52825"><span>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for gravimetric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of flow devices with corrosive gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Remenyik, C.J.; Hylton, J.O.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of mass flow controllers primarily used in the production of semiconductor wafers. Almost all other types of such <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> require measurement of temperature, pressure and volume. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> measures the weight of gas collected in a container and makes measuring those thermodynamic variables unnecessary. The need to measure the weight of the gas container is eliminated by submerging it in a liquid (presently water) and balancing its weight with the force of buoyancy. The accuracy of this Gravimetric <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> is unaffected by the pressure and temperature of the gas. The <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> can also measure reactive, corrosive, and non-ideal gases. The container remains connected to the process by a torsion capillary, and a load cell measures the changing gas weight continuously throughout the measuring process. A prototype was designed for gas flows ranging from 1 sccm of hydrogen to 10,000 sccm of tungsten hexafluoride, constructed, tested, and used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> flow devices. Experience with the prototype and results are presented, and plans for further developments are discussed. Design of a version for the flow range from 0.1 sccm to 100 sccm is in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.8645M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.8645M"><span>The GOME-2 <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Metop series of satellites: <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and level 1 data processing - an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Munro, R.; Lang, R.; Klaes, D.; Poli, G.; Retscher, C.; Lindstrot, R.; Huckle, R.; Lacan, A.; Grzegorski, M.; Holdak, A.; Kokhanovsky, A.; Livschitz, J.; Eisinger, M.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, the on-ground <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterisation activities, in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The quality of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarises a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages (http://www.eumetsat.int) and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.1279M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.1279M"><span>The GOME-2 <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Metop series of satellites: <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and level 1 data processing - an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Klaes, Dieter; Poli, Gabriele; Retscher, Christian; Lindstrot, Rasmus; Huckle, Roger; Lacan, Antoine; Grzegorski, Michael; Holdak, Andriy; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Livschitz, Jakob; Eisinger, Michael</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, the on-ground <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization activities, in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The current status of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarizes a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.126..205D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.126..205D"><span>GIADA - Grain <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Analyzer and Dust Accumulator - Onboard Rosetta spacecraft: Extended <span class="hlt">calibrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Della Corte, V.; Sordini, R.; Accolla, M.; Ferrari, M.; Ivanovski, S.; Rotundi, A.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Fulle, M.; Mazzotta-Epifani, E.; Palumbo, P.; Colangeli, L.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez, J.; Morales, R.; Cosi, M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Despite a long tradition of dust <span class="hlt">instruments</span> flown on-board space mission, the largest number of these can be considered unique as they used different detection techniques. GIADA (Grain <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Analyzer and Dust Accumulator), is one of the dust <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on-board the Rosetta spacecraft and is devoted to measure the dust dynamical parameters in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It couples two different techniques to measure the mass and speed of individual dust particles. We report here the results of an extended <span class="hlt">calibration</span> activity carried-out, during the hibernation phase of the Rosetta mission, on the GIADA Proto Flight Model (PFM) operative in a clean room in our laboratory. The main aims of an additional <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign are: to verify the algorithms and procedures for data <span class="hlt">calibration</span> developed before Rosetta launch; to improve the comprehension of GIADA response after the increased knowledge on cometary dust, e.g. the composition of dust particles after Stardust mission. These <span class="hlt">calibration</span> improvements implied a final step, which consisted in defining transfer functions to correlate the new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curves obtained for the GIADA PFM to those to be used for GIADA onboard the Rosetta spacecraft. The extended <span class="hlt">calibration</span> activity allowed us to analyze GIADA data acquired in the 67P/C-G coma permitting to infer additional information on cometary dust particles, e.g. density and tensile strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/481897','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/481897"><span>Preparation of high purity plutonium oxide for radiochemistry <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards and working standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wong, A.S.; Stalnaker, N.D.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>Due to the lack of suitable high level National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable plutonium solution standards from the NIST or commercial vendors, the CST-8 Radiochemistry team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has prepared <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards and working standards from a well-characterized plutonium oxide. All the aliquoting steps were performed gravimetrically. When a {sup 241}Am standardized solution obtained from a commercial vendor was compared to these <span class="hlt">calibration</span> solutions, the results agreed to within 0.04% for the total alpha activity. The aliquots of the plutonium standard solutions and dilutions were sealed in glass ampules for long term storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137413"><span>On-line testing of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hashemian, H.M.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>The nuclear industry is interested in automating the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of process <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine <span class="hlt">calibration</span> drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests involving calculating the deviation of each <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any <span class="hlt">instrument</span> channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides <span class="hlt">calibration</span> test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, although the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of some <span class="hlt">instruments</span> can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/59241','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/59241"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> report 1: specification, design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and installation of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and current performance of the entire <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> package.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26193139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26193139"><span><span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> system errors of large scale three-dimensional profile measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span> by subaperture stitching method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Su, Jingshi; Wu, Hengyu; Tam, Hon-Yuen</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>This study presents a subaperture stitching method to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> system errors of several ∼2  m large scale 3D profile measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (PMIs). The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process was carried out by measuring a Φ460  mm standard flat sample multiple times at different sites of the PMI with a length gauge; then the subaperture data were stitched together using a sequential or simultaneous stitching algorithm that minimizes the inconsistency (i.e., difference) of the discrete data in the overlapped areas. The system error can be used to compensate the measurement results of not only large flats, but also spheres and aspheres. The feasibility of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was validated by measuring a Φ1070  mm aspheric mirror, which can raise the measurement accuracy of PMIs and provide more reliable 3D surface profiles for guiding grinding, lapping, and even initial polishing processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010048749&hterms=Optical+Engineering&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DOptical%2BEngineering','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010048749&hterms=Optical+Engineering&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DOptical%2BEngineering"><span>A Simple Approach of CCD Camera <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> for Optical Diagnostics <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Leslie, Fred W.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Solid State array sensors are ubiquitous nowadays for obtaining gross field images in numerous scientific and engineering applications including optical diagnostics and <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. Linear responses of these sensors are often required as in interferometry, light scattering and attenuation measurements, and photometry. In most applications, the linearity is usually taken to be granted without thorough quantitative assessment or correction through <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Upper-grade CCD cameras of high price may offer better linearity: however, they also require linearity checking and correction if necessary. Intermediate- or low-grade CCD cameras are more likely to need <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for linearity . Here, we present two very simple approaches: one for quickly checking camera linearity without any additional setup and one for precisely correcting nonlinear sensor responses. It is believed that after <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, those sensors of intermediate or low grade can function as effectively as their expensive counterpart.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPD....4811104L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPD....4811104L"><span>Solar Spectral Lines with Special Polarization Properties for the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Polarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Wenxian; Casini, Roberto; Judge, Phil; del Pino Alemná, Tanausú</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>We investigate atomic transitions that have previously been identified as having zero polarization from the Zeeman effect. Our goal is to identify spectral lines that can be used for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> polarization of large astronomical and solar telescopes, such as the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, which is currently under construction on Haleakala. We use a numerical model that takes into account the generation of scattering polarization and its modification by the presence of a magnetic field (Hanle effect, Zeeman effect, and incomplete Paschen-Back effect). We adopt values for the Landé factors from spectroscopic measurements or semi-empirical results, thus relaxing the common assumption of LS-coupling previously used in the literature. The mechanisms dominating the polarization of particular transitions are identified, and we summarize groups of various spectral lines useful for the polarization <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of spectro-polarimetric <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, classified according to their polarization properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Metro..54..674W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Metro..54..674W"><span>The CLARA/NORSAT-1 solar absolute radiometer: <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design, characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walter, Benjamin; Levesque, Pierre-Luc; Kopp, Greg; Andersen, Bo; Beck, Ivo; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Gyo, Manfred; Heuerman, Karl; Koller, Silvio; Mingard, Nathan; Remesal Oliva, Alberto; Pfiffner, Daniel; Soder, Ricco; Spescha, Marcel; Suter, Markus; Schmutz, Werner</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The compact lightweight absolute radiometer (CLARA) experiment aims at measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI) in space and is scheduled to fly on the Norwegian NORSAT-1 micro satellite. The CLARA experiment will contribute to the long term monitoring of the TSI variability to support the analysis of potential long term trends in the Sun’s variability. CLARA is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology radiometric scale and will provide further evidence for the TSI value on an absolute scale. In this paper we present the design, characterization, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> details of the CLARA <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The combined measurement uncertainty for the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> SI-traceable CLARA flight <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is 567-912 ppm (k  =  1) depending on the measuring channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/250251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/250251"><span>A method for automating <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and records management for <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and dosimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O`Brien, J.M. Jr.; Rushton, R.O.; Burns, R.E. Jr.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Current industry requirements are becoming more stringent on quality assurance records and documentation for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and dosimetry. A novel method is presented here that will allow a progressive automation scheme to be used in pursuit of that goal. This concept is based on computer-controlled irradiators that can act as stand-alone devices or be interfaced to other components via a computer local area network. In this way, complete systems can be built with modules to create a records management system to meet the needs of small laboratories or large multi-building <span class="hlt">calibration</span> groups. Different database engines or formats can be used simply by replacing a module. Modules for temperature and pressure monitoring or shipping and receiving can be added, as well as equipment modules for direct IEEE-488 interface to electrometers and other <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007821&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007821&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange"><span>Inter-<span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Concatenation of Climate Quality Infrared Cloudy Radiances from Multiple <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Behrangi, Ali; Aumann, Hartmut H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A change in climate is not likely captured from any single <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, since no single <span class="hlt">instrument</span> can span decades of time. Therefore, to detect signals of global climate change, observations from many <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on different platforms have to be concatenated. This requires careful and detailed consideration of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> differences such as footprint size, diurnal cycle of observations, and relative biases in the spectral brightness temperatures. Furthermore, a common basic assumption is that the data quality is independent of the observed scene and therefore can be determined using clear scene data. However, as will be demonstrated, this is not necessarily a valid assumption as the globe is mostly cloudy. In this study we highlight challenges in inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> and concatenation of infrared radiances from multiple <span class="hlt">instruments</span> by focusing on the analysis of deep convective or anvil clouds. TRMM/VIRS is potentially useful <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to make correction for observational differences in the local time and foot print sizes, and thus could be applied retroactively to vintage <span class="hlt">instruments</span> such as AIRS, IASI, IRIS, AVHRR, and HIRS. As the first step, in this study, we investigate and discuss to what extent AIRS and VIRS agree in capturing deep cloudy radiances at the same local time. The analysis also includes comparisons with one year observations from CrIS. It was found that the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> show <span class="hlt">calibration</span> differences of about 1K under deep cloudy scenes that can vary as a function of land type and local time of observation. The sensitivity of footprint size, view angle, and spectral band-pass differences cannot fully explain the observed differences. The observed discrepancies can be considered as a measure of the magnitude of issues which will arise in the comparison of legacy data with current data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007821&hterms=climate+change+over+time&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange%2Bover%2Btime','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007821&hterms=climate+change+over+time&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange%2Bover%2Btime"><span>Inter-<span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Concatenation of Climate Quality Infrared Cloudy Radiances from Multiple <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Behrangi, Ali; Aumann, Hartmut H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A change in climate is not likely captured from any single <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, since no single <span class="hlt">instrument</span> can span decades of time. Therefore, to detect signals of global climate change, observations from many <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on different platforms have to be concatenated. This requires careful and detailed consideration of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> differences such as footprint size, diurnal cycle of observations, and relative biases in the spectral brightness temperatures. Furthermore, a common basic assumption is that the data quality is independent of the observed scene and therefore can be determined using clear scene data. However, as will be demonstrated, this is not necessarily a valid assumption as the globe is mostly cloudy. In this study we highlight challenges in inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> and concatenation of infrared radiances from multiple <span class="hlt">instruments</span> by focusing on the analysis of deep convective or anvil clouds. TRMM/VIRS is potentially useful <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to make correction for observational differences in the local time and foot print sizes, and thus could be applied retroactively to vintage <span class="hlt">instruments</span> such as AIRS, IASI, IRIS, AVHRR, and HIRS. As the first step, in this study, we investigate and discuss to what extent AIRS and VIRS agree in capturing deep cloudy radiances at the same local time. The analysis also includes comparisons with one year observations from CrIS. It was found that the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> show <span class="hlt">calibration</span> differences of about 1K under deep cloudy scenes that can vary as a function of land type and local time of observation. The sensitivity of footprint size, view angle, and spectral band-pass differences cannot fully explain the observed differences. The observed discrepancies can be considered as a measure of the magnitude of issues which will arise in the comparison of legacy data with current data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040040125&hterms=moon+phases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bphases','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040040125&hterms=moon+phases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bphases"><span>On-Orbit Cross-<span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of AM Satellite Remote Sensing <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> using the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, James J.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Barnes, Robert A.; Stone, Thomas C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>On April 14,2003, three Earth remote sensing spacecraft were maneuvered enabling six satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> operating in the visible through shortwave infrared wavelength region to view the Moon for purposes of on-orbit cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span>. These <span class="hlt">instruments</span> included the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on the SeaStar spacecraft. Observations of the Moon were compared using a spectral photometric mode for lunar irradiance developed by the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project located at the United States Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona. The ROLO model effectively accounts for variations in lunar irradiance corresponding to lunar phase and libration angles, allowing intercomparison of observations made by <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on different spacecraft under different time and location conditions. The spacecraft maneuvers necessary to view the Moon are briefly described and results of using the lunar irradiance model in comparing the radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> scales of the six satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are presented here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040040125&hterms=moon+phases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bphases','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040040125&hterms=moon+phases&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bphases"><span>On-Orbit Cross-<span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of AM Satellite Remote Sensing <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> using the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, James J.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Barnes, Robert A.; Stone, Thomas C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>On April 14,2003, three Earth remote sensing spacecraft were maneuvered enabling six satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> operating in the visible through shortwave infrared wavelength region to view the Moon for purposes of on-orbit cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span>. These <span class="hlt">instruments</span> included the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on the SeaStar spacecraft. Observations of the Moon were compared using a spectral photometric mode for lunar irradiance developed by the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project located at the United States Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona. The ROLO model effectively accounts for variations in lunar irradiance corresponding to lunar phase and libration angles, allowing intercomparison of observations made by <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on different spacecraft under different time and location conditions. The spacecraft maneuvers necessary to view the Moon are briefly described and results of using the lunar irradiance model in comparing the radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> scales of the six satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are presented here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980202026','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980202026"><span>The 1997 HST <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Workshop with a New Generation of <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Casertano, S. (Editor); Jedrzejewski, R. (Editor); Keyes, T. (Editor); Stevens, M. (Editor)</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The Second Servicing mission in early 1997 has brought major changes to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Two of the original <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) and Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), were taken out, and replaced by completely new <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrograph (NICMOS). Two new types of detectors were installed, and for the first time, HST gained infrared capabilities. A new Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) was installed, with an alignment mechanism that could improve substantially both guiding and astrometric capabilities. With all these changes come new challenges. The characterization of the new <span class="hlt">instruments</span> has required a major effort, both by their respective Investigation Definition Teams and at the Space Telescope Science Institute. All necessary final <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for the retired spectrographs needed to be carried out, and their properties definitively characterized. At the same time, work has continued to improve our understanding of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that have remained on board. The results of these activities were discussed in the 1997 HST (Hubble Space Telescope) <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Workshop. The main focus of the Workshop was to provide users with the tools and the understanding they need to use HST's <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and archival data to the best of their possibilities. This book contains the written record of the Workshop. As such, it should provide a valuable tool to all interested in using existing HST data or in proposing for new observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AMT....10...59C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AMT....10...59C"><span>The on-orbit performance of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and its radiometrically <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crisp, David; Pollock, Harold R.; Rosenberg, Robert; Chapsky, Lars; Lee, Richard A. M.; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Frankenberg, Christian; O'Dell, Christopher W.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Doran, Gary B.; Eldering, Annmarie; Fisher, Brendan M.; Fu, Dejian; Gunson, Michael R.; Mandrake, Lukas; Osterman, Gregory B.; Schwandner, Florian M.; Sun, Kang; Taylor, Tommy E.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Wunch, Debra</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p> the yield and quality of the OCO-2 data products. These issues include increased numbers of bad pixels, transient artifacts introduced by cosmic rays, radiance discontinuities for spatially non-uniform scenes, a misunderstanding of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> polarization orientation, and time-dependent changes in the throughput of the oxygen A-band channel. Here, we describe the OCO-2 <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, its data products, and its on-orbit performance. We then summarize <span class="hlt">calibration</span> challenges encountered during its first 18 months in orbit and the methods used to mitigate their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> radiance spectra distributed to the science community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...534A..45S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...534A..45S"><span>Stokes imaging polarimetry using image restoration: a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategy for Fabry-Pérot based <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schnerr, R. S.; de La Cruz Rodríguez, J.; van Noort, M.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Context. The combination of image restoration and a Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) based <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in solar observations results in specific <span class="hlt">calibration</span> issues. FPIs generally show variations over the field-of-view, while in the image restoration process, the 1-to-1 relation between pixel space and image space is lost, thus complicating any correcting for such variations. Aims: We develop a data reduction method that takes these issues into account and minimizes the resulting errors. Methods: By accounting for the time variations in the telescope's Mueller matrix and using separate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data optimized for the wavefront sensing in the MOMFBD image restoration process and for the final deconvolution of the data, we have removed most of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> artifacts from the resulting data. Results: Using this method to reduce full Stokes data from CRISP at the SST, we find that it drastically reduces the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> and image restoration artifacts resulting from cavity errors, reflectivity variations, and the polarization dependence of flatfields. The results allow for useful scientific interpretation. Inversions of restored data from the δ sunspot AR11029 using the Nicole inversion code, reveal strong (~10 km s-1) downflows near the disk center side of the umbra. Conclusions: The use of image restoration in combination with an FPI-based <span class="hlt">instrument</span> leads to complications in the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> and intrinsic limitations to the accuracy that can be achieved. We find that for CRISP, the resulting errors can be kept mostly below the polarimetric accuracy of ~10-3. Similar <span class="hlt">instruments</span> aiming for higher polarimetric and high spectroscopic accuracy, will, however, need to take these problems into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA587276','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA587276"><span>The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response Functions, and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENT</span> RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span>...dimensional ( 3D ) imaging calorimeter. This is achieved by arranging the CsI crystals in each tower module in 8 layers, each with 12 crystal logs (with...Thus, the CAL provides a 3D image of the energy deposition for each event. Since the CAL is only 8.6 radiation lengths thick at normal incidence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007485','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007485"><span>Optical Comb from a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator for Spectroscopy and Astronomy <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nam; Thompson, Robert J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The most accurate astronomical data is available from space-based observations that are not impeded by the Earth's atmosphere. Such measurements may require spectral samples taken as long as decades apart, with the 1 cm/s velocity precision integrated over a broad wavelength range. This raises the requirements specifically for <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used in astrophysics research missions -- their stringent wavelength resolution and accuracy must be maintained over years and possibly decades. Therefore, a stable and broadband optical <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technique compatible with spaceflights becomes essential. The space-based spectroscopic <span class="hlt">instruments</span> need to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> in situ, which puts forth specific requirements to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources, mainly concerned with their mass, power consumption, and reliability. A high-precision, high-resolution reference wavelength comb source for astronomical and astrophysics spectroscopic observations has been developed that is deployable in space. The optical comb will be used for wavelength <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of spectrographs and will enable Doppler measurements to better than 10 cm/s precision, one hundred times better than the current state-of-the- art.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7631','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7631"><span>An <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for Gravimetric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Flow Devices with Corrosive Gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hylton, J.O.; Remenyik, C.J.</p> <p>1999-06-27</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was developed for the direct mass flow <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of gas flowmeters that does not require measurement of temperature, pressure, or specific volume. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> measures the weight of gas collected in a container and makes measuring those thermodynamic variables unnecessary. The need to measure the weight of the gas container is eliminated by submerging it in a liquid (presently water) and balancing its weight with the force of buoyancy. The accuracy of this Gravimetric <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> is unaffected by the pressure and temperature of the gas. The <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> can also measure reactive, corrosive, and non-ideal gases. The container remains connected to the process by a torsion capillary, and a load cell measures the changing gas weight continuously throughout the measuring process. A prototype was designed for gas flows ranging from 1 sccm of hydrogen to 10,000 sccm of tungsten hexafluoride, constructed, tested, and used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> flow devices. Experience with the prototype and results are presented, and plans for further developments are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7082E..0VD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7082E..0VD"><span>Best practice for pre-launch characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for remote sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Datla, Raju</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>The pre-launch characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> should be planned and carried out in conjunction with their design and development to meet the mission requirements. In the case of infrared <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, the onboard <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> such as blackbodies and the sensors such as spectral radiometers should be characterized and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using SI traceable standards. In the case of earth remote sensing, this allows intercomparison and intercalibration of different sensors in space to create global time series of climate records of high accuracy where some inevitable data gaps can be easily bridged. In the case of ballistic missile defense, this provides sensor quality assurance based on SI traceable measurements. The recommended best practice for this pre-launch effort is presented based on experience gained at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) working with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Department of Defense (DoD) programs in the past two decades. Examples of infrared standards and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facilities at NIST for serving the remote sensing community will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039578&hterms=spectralon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspectralon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039578&hterms=spectralon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspectralon"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of passive remote observing optical and microwave <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guenther, Bruce W. (Editor)</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Various papers on the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of passive remote observing optical and microwave <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> are presented. Individual topics addressed include: on-board <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device for a wide field-of-view <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer, cryogenic radiometers and intensity-stabilized lasers for EOS radiometric <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, radiometric stability of the Shuttle-borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer, ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser, requirements of a solar diffuser and measurements of some candidate materials, reflectance stability analysis of Spectralon diffuse <span class="hlt">calibration</span> panels, stray light effects on <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> using a solar diffuser, radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of SPOT 23 HRVs, surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. Also addressed are: <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of an airborne multispectral scanner, in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner, technique for improving the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of large-area sphere sources, remote colorimetry and its applications, spatial sampling errors for a satellite-borne scanning radiometer, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980237452','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980237452"><span>Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Aircraft Results Obtained by LIULIN-3M <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dachev, T. P.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Matviichuk, Y. N.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Petrov, V. M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The LIULIN-3M <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, which has been used on the NffR space station in the 1988-1994 time period, The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm(exp 2) area is used in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Pulse high analysis technique is used for measurement of the energy losses in the detector. The final data sets from the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> are the flux and the dose rate for the exposition time and 256 channels of LET spectra if a non-nal coincidence of the particles to the detector is considered. The LIULIN-3M <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and was used for space radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. Obtained <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and flight results are analyzed in the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10000E..0UT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10000E..0UT"><span>Application of new techniques in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the TROPOMI-SWIR <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (Conference Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tol, Paul; van Hees, Richard; van Kempen, Tim; Krijger, Matthijs; Cadot, Sidney; Aben, Ilse; Ludewig, Antje; Dingjan, Jos; Persijn, Stefan; Hoogeveen, Ruud</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The Tropospheric Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (TROPOMI) on-board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite is an Earth-observing spectrometer with bands in the ultraviolet, visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared (SWIR). It provides daily global coverage of atmospheric trace gases relevant for tropospheric air quality and climate research. Three new techniques will be presented that are unique for the TROPOMI-SWIR spectrometer. The retrieval of methane and CO columns from the data of the SWIR band requires for each detector pixel an accurate <span class="hlt">instrument</span> spectral response function (ISRF), i.e. the normalized signal as a function of wavelength. A new determination method for Earth-observing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> has been used in the on-ground <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, based on measurements with a SWIR optical parametric oscillator (OPO) that was scanned over the whole TROPOMI-SWIR spectral range. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> algorithm derives the ISRF without needing the absolute wavelength during the measurement. The same OPO has also been used to determine the two-dimensional stray-light distribution for each SWIR pixel with a dynamic range of 7 orders. This was achieved by combining measurements at several exposure times and taking saturation into account. The correction algorithm and data are designed to remove the mean stray-light distribution and a reflection that moves relative to the direct image, within the strict constraints of the available time for the L01b processing. A third new technique is an alternative <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the SWIR absolute radiance and irradiance using a black body at the temperature of melting silver. Unlike a standard FEL lamp, this source does not have to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> itself, because the temperature is very stable and well known. Measurement methods, data analyses, correction algorithms and limitations of the new techniques will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105435','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105435"><span>Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Facility at the Savannah River Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6327S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6327S"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of data quality and quantity and the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure on crop growth model <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seidel, Sabine J.; Werisch, Stefan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Crop growth models are a commonly used tool for <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of climate variability and climate change on crop yields and water use. Process-based crop models rely on algorithms that approximate the main physiological plant processes by a set of equations containing several <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters as well as basic underlying assumptions. It is well recognized that model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is essential to improve the accuracy and reliability of model predictions. However, model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation is often hindered by a limited quantity and quality of available data. Recent studies suggest that crop model parameters can only be derived from field experiments in which plant growth and development processes have been measured. To be able to achieve a reliable prediction of crop growth under irrigation or drought stress, the correct characterization of the whole soil-plant-atmosphere system is essential. In this context is the accurate simulation of crop development, yield and the soil water dynamics plays an important role. In this study we aim to investigate the importance of a site and cultivar-specific model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> based on experimental data using the SVAT model Daisy. We investigate to which extent different data sets and different parameter estimation procedures affect particularly yield estimates, irrigation water demand and the soil water dynamics. The comprehensive experimental data has been derived from an experiment conducted in Germany where five irrigation regimes were imposed on cabbage. Data collection included continuous measurements of soil tension and soil water content in two plots at three depths, weekly measurements of LAI, plant heights, leaf-N-content, stomatal conductivity, biomass partitioning, rooting depth as well as harvested yields and duration of growing period. Three crop growth <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategies were compared: (1) manual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> based on yield and duration of growing period, (2) manual <span class="hlt">calibration</span> based on yield</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511603S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511603S"><span>Development and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Space Flight <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> at the University of Bern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scheer, Jürgen; Wurz, Peter</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>For more than 40 years the Physical Institute of the University of Bern is active in space flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. What started in the late 60ies with foil experiments to collect solar wind particles on Apollo missions grew quickly into development of mass spectrometers for different space missions, such as GEOS (1976), GIOTTO (1985), and more. Nowadays, the division for Space Research and Planetary Sciences of the Physical Institute develops in addition to mass spectrometers as well other <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, such as pressure gauges, laser altimeters, etc. All these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> need to be tested and eventually <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>. Over the years different facilities have been set up at the Physical Institute to do such work. This report will present these facilities with special respect to their unique properties and previous, current and future use.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013hsa7.conf..945F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013hsa7.conf..945F"><span>TES-based microcalorimeter for future X-ray astronomy missions. Software development for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fraga-Encinas, R.; Cobo, B.; Ceballos, M.; Schuurmans, J.; van der Kuur, J.; Carrera, F.; Barcons, X.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The XMS (X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer) is an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> prototype with imaging capability in X-rays and high-spectral resolution. This <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is a microcalorimeter based on transition edge sensors. As part of the Spanish contribution to the advancement of the XMS, we present the work carried out by the X-ray astronomy group at the Instituto de Física de Cantabria in collaboration with The Netherlands Institute for Space Research. The main work hereby presented includes the development and testing of software for this prototype with the purpose of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization, X-ray pulse detection and energy resolution calculations (Bergmann 2004, Tekst. Proefschrift Universiteit Utrecht; Boyce et al. 1999, Proc SPIE 3765; Den Herder et al. 2011, SRON-XMS-RP-2011-033; ATHENA Assessment Study Report, ESA/SRE(2011)17)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22096771','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22096771"><span>Assessment of variation in Elekta plastic spherical-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> phantom and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the Leksell Gamma Knife <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Novotny, Josef Jr.; Bhatnagar, Jagdish P.; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Johansson, Jonas; Bednarz, Greg; Ma, Lijun; Saiful Huq, M.</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>Purpose: Traditionally, the dose-rate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> (output) of the Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) unit is performed using a 160 mm diameter plastic spherical phantom provided by the vendor of the LGK, Elekta <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> AB. The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations in the Elekta spherical phantom and to assess its <span class="hlt">impact</span> and use for the LGK <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Methods: Altogether, 13 phantoms from six different centers were acquired, 10 of these phantoms were manufactured within the past 10 years and the last 3 approximately 15-20 years ago. To assess variation in phantoms, the diameter and mass densities were measured. To assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on LGK <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, the output of two models of LGK (LGK Perfexion and LGK 4C) were measured under identical irradiation conditions using all 13 phantoms for each LGK model. Results: The mean measured deviation in diameter from expected nominal 160 mm for 13 phantoms was 0.51 mm (range of 0.09-1.51 mm). The mean measured phantom mass density for 13 phantoms was 1.066{+-}0.019 g/cm{sup 3} (range of 1.046-1.102 g/cm{sup 3}). The percentage deviation of output for individual phantom from mean of 13 phantom outputs ranged from -0.37% to 0.55% for LGK Perfexion. Similarly, the percentage deviation of output for individual phantom from mean of 13 phantom outputs ranged from -0.72% to 0.47% for LGK 4C. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that small variations in terms of phantom size and mass density of the phantom material do not have a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on dose-rate measurements of the Leksell Gamma Knife. Also, date of manufacture of the phantom did not show up to be a significant factor in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011299','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011299"><span>Multi-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Dynamic Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Annett, Martin S.; Jackson, Karen E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>NASA Langley, under the Subsonic Rotary Wing Program, recently completed two helicopter tests in support of an in-house effort to study crashworthiness. As part of this effort, work is on-going to investigate model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> metrics for <span class="hlt">impact</span> dynamics models. Model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span> dynamics problems has traditionally assessed model adequacy by comparing time histories from analytical predictions to test at only a few critical locations. Although this approach provides for a direct measure of the model predictive capability, overall system behavior is only qualitatively assessed using full vehicle animations. In order to understand the spatial and temporal relationships of <span class="hlt">impact</span> loads as they migrate throughout the structure, a more quantitative approach is needed. In this work <span class="hlt">impact</span> shapes derived from simulated time history data are used to recommend sensor placement and to assess model adequacy using time based metrics and orthogonality multi-dimensional metrics. An approach for model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is presented that includes metric definitions, uncertainty bounds, parameter sensitivity, and numerical optimization to estimate parameters to reconcile test with analysis. The process is illustrated using simulated experiment data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780011450','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780011450"><span>Preparation of <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> test packages for particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> noise detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A standard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method for any particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> noise detection (PIND) test system used to detect loose particles responsible for failures in hybrid circuits was developed along with a procedure for preparing PIND standard test devices. Hybrid packages were seeded with a single gold ball, hermetically sealed, leak tested, and PIND tested. Conclusions are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170005484&hterms=Images&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DImages','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170005484&hterms=Images&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DImages"><span>Band-to-Band Misregistration of the Images of MODIS Onboard <span class="hlt">Calibrators</span> and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> aboard Terra and Aqua satellites are radiometrically <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> on-orbit with a set of onboard <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> (OBCs), including a solar diffuser, a blackbody, and a space view port through which the detectors can view the dark space. As a whisk-broom scanning spectroradiometer, thirty-six MODIS spectral bands are assembled in the along-scan direction on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs). These bands capture images of the same target sequentially with the motion of a scan mirror. Then the images are coregistered onboard by delaying the appropriate band-dependent amount of time, depending on the band locations on the FPA. While this coregistration mechanismis functioning well for the far-field remote targets such as earth view scenes or the moon, noticeable band-to-band misregistration in the along-scan direction has been observed for near field targets, particularly in OBCs. In this paper, the misregistration phenomenon is presented and analyzed. It is concluded that the root cause of the misregistration is that the rotating element of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, the scan mirror, is displaced from the focus of the telescope primary mirror. The amount of the misregistrationis proportional to the band location on the FPA and is inversely proportional to the distance between the target and the scan mirror. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of this misregistration on the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of MODIS bands is discussed. In particular, the calculation of the detector gain coefficient m1of bands 8-16 (412 nm 870 nm) is improved by up to 1.5% for Aqua MODIS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...594A...8P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...594A...8P"><span>Planck 2015 results. VIII. High Frequency <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> data processing: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper describes the processing applied to the cleaned, time-ordered information obtained from the Planck High Frequency <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (HFI) with the aim of producing photometrically <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> maps in temperature and (for the first time) in polarization. The data from the entire 2.5-year HFI mission include almost five full-sky surveys. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To obtain the best accuracy on the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> over such a large range, two different photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> schemes have been used. The 545 and 857 GHz data are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using models of planetary atmospheric emission. The lower frequencies (from 100 to 353 GHz) are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the time-variable cosmological microwave background dipole, which we call the orbital dipole. This source of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> only depends on the satellite velocity with respect to the solar system. Using a CMB temperature of TCMB = 2.7255 ± 0.0006 K, it permits an independent measurement of the amplitude of the CMB solar dipole (3364.3 ± 1.5 μK), which is approximatively 1σ higher than the WMAP measurement with a direction that is consistent between the two experiments. We describe the pipeline used to produce the maps ofintensity and linear polarization from the HFI timelines, and the scheme used to set the zero level of the maps a posteriori. We also summarize the noise characteristics of the HFI maps in the 2015 Planck data release and present some null tests to assess their quality. Finally, we discuss the major systematic effects and in particular the leakage induced by flux mismatch between the detectors that leads to spurious polarization signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MeScT..23i4017U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MeScT..23i4017U"><span>Interferometric 30 m bench for <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of 1D scales and optical distance measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> optical distance measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> is 2.6 µm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015mgm..conf.1679L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015mgm..conf.1679L"><span>The Microscope Space Mission and the In-Orbit <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Plan for its <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levy, Agnès Touboul, Pierre; Rodrigues, Manuel; Onera, Émilie Hardy; Métris, Gilles; Robert, Alain</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The MICROSCOPE space mission aims at testing the Equivalence Principle (EP) with an accuracy of 10-15. This principle is one of the basis of the General Relativity theory; it states the equivalence between gravitational and inertial mass. The test is based on the precise measurement of a gravitational signal by a differential electrostatic accelerometer which includes two cylindrical test masses made of different materials. The accelerometers constitute the payload accommodated on board a drag-free micro-satellite which is controlled inertial or rotating about the normal to the orbital plane. The acceleration estimates used for the EP test are disturbed by the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> physical parameters and by the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> environment conditions on-board the satellite. These parameters are partially measured with ground tests or during the integration of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the satellite (alignment). Nevertheless, the ground evaluations are not sufficient with respect to the EP test accuracy objectives. An in-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is therefore needed to characterize them finely. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process for each parameter has been defined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPSC....8..657H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPSC....8..657H"><span>Laboratory <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the PP-SESAME <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Philae for measuring the cometary surface permittivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamelin, M.; Le Gall, A.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.; Laasko, H.; Ciarletti, V.; Seidensticker, K.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The complex permittivity of terrestrial and planetary grounds can be derived from Mutual Impedance (MI) measurements using a four-electrode array [1]; the system is working at a fixed frequency with the electrodes not necessarily in contact with the ground and with a dedicated electronic system. This concept was used to build the Permittivity Probe (PP) as part of the SESAME experiment of the Philae Rosetta cometary lander. However severe constraints due to the payload facilities and to the particular environment lead to the actual design of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Unfortunately it was not possible to perform <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the full system before lauch and the ground model consists of several parts used by various <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Here we report the results of basic <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests performed with a model of the Philae Landing Gear built in DLR. These tests involve only the three feet electrodes and a mockup of the the Philae body with very simple and well defined targets for characterizing the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Further measurements on natural targets would be the next step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..tmp...35E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..tmp...35E"><span>Michelson Interferometer for Global High-Resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Design and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Englert, Christoph R.; Harlander, John M.; Brown, Charles M.; Marr, Kenneth D.; Miller, Ian J.; Stump, J. Eloise; Hancock, Jed; Peterson, James Q.; Kumler, Jay; Morrow, William H.; Mooney, Thomas A.; Ellis, Scott; Mende, Stephen B.; Harris, Stewart E.; Stevens, Michael H.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian J.; Immel, Thomas J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was built for launch and operation on the NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was designed to measure thermospheric horizontal wind velocity profiles and thermospheric temperature in altitude regions between 90 km and 300 km, during day and night. For the wind measurements it uses two perpendicular fields of view pointed at the Earth's limb, observing the Doppler shift of the atomic oxygen red and green lines at 630.0 nm and 557.7 nm wavelength. The wavelength shift is measured using field-widened, temperature compensated Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectrometers, employing low order échelle gratings operating at two different orders for the different atmospheric lines. The temperature measurement is accomplished by a multichannel photometric measurement of the spectral shape of the molecular oxygen A-band around 762 nm wavelength. For each field of view, the signals of the two oxygen lines and the A-band are detected on different regions of a single, cooled, frame transfer charge coupled device (CCD) detector. On-board <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources are used to periodically quantify thermal drifts, simultaneously with observing the atmosphere. The MIGHTI requirements, the resulting <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design and the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870003395','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870003395"><span>The Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS): <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> description, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and data quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jedlovec, G. J.; Menzel, W. P.; Atkinson, R.; Wilson, G. S.; Arvesen, J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has been developed to produce high resolution imagery in eight visible and three infared spectral bands from an aircraft platform. An analysis of the data and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedures has shown that useful data can be obtained at up to 50 m resolution with a 2.5 milliradian aperture. Single sample standard errors for the measurements are 0.5, 0.2, and 0.9 K for the 6.5, 11.1, and 12.3 micron spectral bands, respectively. These errors are halved when a 5.0 milliradian aperture is used to obtain 100 m resolution data. Intercomparisons with VAS and AVHRR measurements show good relative <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. MAMS development is part of a larger program to develop multispectral Earth imaging capabilities from space platforms during the 1990s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51E0474S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51E0474S"><span>Improvements in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Products Based on <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, N. M.; Priestley, K.; Loeb, N. G.; Thomas, S.; Shankar, M.; Walikainen, D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) mission is <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> in providing highly accurate radiance measurements that are critical for monitoring the Earth's radiation budget. Two identical CERES <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are deployed aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites Terra and Aqua. Each CERES <span class="hlt">instrument</span> consists of scanning thermistor bolometer sensors that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5 micron), total (0.3 to < 100 micron) and water vapor window (8 to 12 micron) regions. CERES <span class="hlt">instruments</span> have the capability of scanning in either the cross-track or rotating azimuth plane (RAP) scan mode. Cross-track scanning, the primary mode of CERES operation, allows for the geographical mapping of the radiation fields while RAP scanning enables the acquisition of data over a more extensive combination of viewing configurations, needed for developing vastly improved angular distribution models used in radiance to flux conversion. To evaluate, achieve and maintain radiometric stability, a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation protocol is implemented. <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> and validation studies have indicated spectral changes in the reflected solar spectral regions of the shortwave and total sensors. Spectral darkening is detected in the shortwave channel optics, which is more prominent while the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> operates in RAP mode. In the absence of a climatological explanation for this darkening, this likely occurs during part of the RAP scan cycle when the scan plane is aligned with the direction of motion, making the optics more susceptible to increased UV exposure and molecular contamination. Additionally, systematic daytime-nighttime longwave top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux inconsistency was also detected during validation, which highlights the changes in the shortwave region of the total sensor. This paper briefly describes the strategy to correct for the sensor response changes and presents the improvements in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A51J..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A51J..06K"><span>Lessons Learned from GOSAT; <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Design, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, Operation, Data Processing, and International Collaboration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Shiomi, K.; Nakajima, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Advantage of satellite observation is its ability to monitor long term and global distribution with a single <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Ozone observation from space has been successful for long term monitoring purposes. Monitoring gradual increase and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere with sub-percent accuracy has become a challenging subject. Interference of cloud and aerosol in radiative transfer has to be corrected for troposphere measurement. Accurate O2-A band measurement can retrieve surface pressure and aerosol distribution property. We have selected a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) to achieve high throughput and wide spectral coverage with uniform spectral resolution. On the other hand, it is difficult to modulate short wave such as 0.76μm and avoid micro vibration interference. Prelaunch, we took special care to select optical components of excellent surface quality and isolate vibration. Design parameters such as IFOV, spectral resolution, observation interval within limited satellite resources must be carefully optimized. Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global high spectral resolution data for almost 4 years. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> performance, radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, radiative transfer calculation and laboratory spectroscopy are all important. The first step was to reduce bias of column-averaged dry air mole fractions (the Level 2 product) of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) and validate using well <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> data such as TCCON. After 2 years of operation, latitudinal distribution of zonal mean and seasonal variation at these sites can be measured with better than 2ppm accuracy. However, validations are limited to ideal conditions. Next step is to evaluate consistency of measured values from long periods since launch, different surface types, and various input radiance with different <span class="hlt">instrument</span> gain. For long term radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, we have uses vicarious, onboard solar diffuser, and lunar <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data. Over the ocean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860013443','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860013443"><span>An integrated development facility for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of low-energy charged particle flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biddle, A. P.; Reynolds, J. M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A system was developed for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and development of thermal ion <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>. The system provides an extended beam with usable current rates, approx. 1 pA/sq cm, at beam energies as low as 1 eV, with much higher values available with increasing energy. A tandem electrostatic and variable geometry magnetic mirror configuration within the ion source optimizes the use of the ionizing electrons. The system is integrated under microcomputer control to allow automatic control and monitoring of the beam energy and composition and the mass and angle-dependent response of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> under test. The system is pumped by a combination of carbon vane and cryogenic sorption roughing pumps and ion and liquid helium operating pumps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12665091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12665091"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> procedures and correction of detector signal relaxations for the CRISTA infrared satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ern, Manfred; Offermann, Dirk; Preusse, Peter; Grossmann, Klaus-Ulrich; Oberheide, Jens</p> <p>2003-03-20</p> <p>Remote sensing from space has become a common method for deriving geophysical parameters such as atmospheric temperature and composition. The Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was designed to sound the middle and the upper atmosphere (10-180 km) with high spatial resolution. Atmospheric IR emissions were measured with Si:Ga bulk or Si:As blocked impurity band detectors for a wavelength interval of 4-17 microm and Ge:Ga bulk detectors for 56-71 microm. An overview of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and the correction of detector signal relaxations for the Si:Ga detectors are given, both of which are necessary to provide high-quality IR radiance data as input for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and trace gas mixing ratios. Laboratory and flight data are shown to demonstrate the quality of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730052306&hterms=harvard&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dharvard','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730052306&hterms=harvard&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dharvard"><span>The Harvard experiment on OSO-6 - <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span>, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, operation, and description of observations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huber, M. C. E.; Dupree, A. K.; Goldberg, L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Reeves, E. M.; Withbroe, G. L.; Noyes, R. W.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The Harvard experiment carried by OSO-6 was an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer-spectroheliometer with a wavelength range of 285 to 1385 A, a spatial and spectral bandwidth of 35 x 35(arc sec) squared and 3 A, respectively. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> acquired data that have been deposited with the National Space Science Data Center and World Data Center A at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and are now available in their entirety to the scientific community. Aspects of the experiment that are relevant to potential users of the data are described - namely, <span class="hlt">instrument</span> configuration and parameters, laboratory and inflight <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, as well as operational capabilities and procedures. The observations obtained are reported, and the nature, number, and dates of observation, where relevant, are listed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA43A4103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA43A4103S"><span>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of a Large Number of Scientific <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for the Auroral Spatial Structures Probe Sub-Orbital Mission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swenson, A.; Miller, J.; Neilsen, T. L.; Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe (ASSP) is a NASA sounding rocket mission to be launched in the early January 2015 time frame from the Poker Flat Research Range. The primary scientific objective of this mission is to determine the contribution of small spatial and temporal scale fluctuations of the electric fields to the larger-scale processes during active aurora. This will be accomplished through the use of a constellation of six small payloads ejected at high velocity from a sounding rocket. The multiple baseline observations of the electric and magnetic fields will be used to observe variability of both the E-field and the Poynting flux. These observations will be placed in the context of available data, including winds, large scale E-fields, and proxy conductivity (airglow images) observations.Each sub-payload will carry a crossed pair of electric field double-probe sensors, a three-axis magnetometer, and a Langmuir probe. In total there are eight of each <span class="hlt">instrument</span> type requireing <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Since the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> need to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> over temperature a full <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a single <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is very time-consuming. The decision was made to automate the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process. Measurements were taken using a relay switch-box connecting the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to test sources. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> data were saved into a database. Using post-processing scripts on these databases a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for each <span class="hlt">instrument</span> at each temperature point was made. This approach is a prototype process that might be used for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> a large constellation of CubeSats with similar <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. In this poster we review the ASSP science and mission, and the results of the pre-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the science <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015P%26SS..117...82P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015P%26SS..117...82P"><span>The pre-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> setup of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> SIMBIO-SYS onboard the mission BepiColombo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poulet, F.; Rodriguez-Ferreira, J.; Arondel, A.; Dassas, K.; Eng, P.; Lami, P.; Langevin, Y.; Longval, Y.; Pradel, P.; Dami, M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>BepiColombo, an European Space Agency (ESA) mission being conducted in cooperation with the Japan space agency, will explore Mercury with a set of eleven <span class="hlt">instruments</span> onboard the spacecraft Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Among them, SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex <span class="hlt">instrument</span> that will provide images and spectra in the 400-2000 nm wavelength range of the entire surface of Mercury. Pre-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the SYMBIO-SYS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is mandatory for reliable scientific interpretation of images and spectra returned from the planet Mercury. This paper presents the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device designed and implemented for the specific requirements of this <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. It mainly consists of a thermal vacuum chamber simulating the space environment, an optical bench collecting <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources and optical elements that simulate the conditions of Mercury observations, mechanical interfaces used for positioning the three channels inside the vacuum chamber, thermal interfaces to explore the operating temperatures, computer interfaces that allow to communicate with both the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> elements and synchronize the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> sequences with the status of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device. As the major goal is the characterization of the radiometric performances of the three channels of SIMBIO-SYS, radiometric performances of the test setup evaluated by simulations and measurements are emphasized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032896&hterms=rio+tinto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drio%2Btinto','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032896&hterms=rio+tinto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drio%2Btinto"><span>Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> Development and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and for the development of advanced <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer <span class="hlt">instruments</span> under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> current spaceflight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SSRv..170..341B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SSRv..170..341B"><span>Characterization and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the CheMin Mineralogical <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on Mars Science Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Bish, David; Bristow, Tom; Chen, Curtis; Chipera, Steve; Crisp, Joy; Des Marais, David; Downs, Robert T.; Farmer, Jack; Feldman, Sabrina; Fonda, Mark; Gailhanou, Marc; Ma, Hongwei; Ming, Doug W.; Morris, Richard V.; Sarrazin, Philippe; Stolper, Ed; Treiman, Allan; Yen, Albert</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A principal goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity is to identify and characterize past habitable environments on Mars. Determination of the mineralogical and chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils constrains their formation and alteration pathways, providing information on climate and habitability through time. The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on MSL will return accurate mineralogical identifications and quantitative phase abundances for scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale Crater during Curiosity's 1-Mars-year nominal mission. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has a Co X-ray source and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) detector arranged in transmission geometry with the sample. CheMin's angular range of 5∘ to 50∘ 2 θ with <0.35∘ 2 θ resolution is sufficient to identify and quantify virtually all minerals. CheMin's XRF requirement was descoped for technical and budgetary reasons. However, X-ray energy discrimination is still required to separate Co K α from Co K β and Fe K α photons. The X-ray energy-dispersive histograms (EDH) returned along with XRD for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> evaluation should be useful in identifying elements Z>13 that are contained in the sample. The CheMin XRD is equipped with internal chemical and mineralogical standards and 27 reusable sample cells with either Mylar® or Kapton® windows to accommodate acidic-to-basic environmental conditions. The CheMin flight model (FM) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> will be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> utilizing analyses of common samples against a demonstration-model (DM) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and CheMin-like laboratory <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The samples include phyllosilicate and sulfate minerals that are expected at Gale crater on the basis of remote sensing observations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032896&hterms=gypsum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgypsum','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032896&hterms=gypsum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgypsum"><span>Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> Development and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20080032896'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20080032896_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20080032896_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20080032896_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20080032896_hide"></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and for the development of advanced <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer <span class="hlt">instruments</span> under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> current spaceflight <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006584&hterms=beamforming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbeamforming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006584&hterms=beamforming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbeamforming"><span>Digitally <span class="hlt">Calibrated</span> TR Modules Enabling Real-Time Beamforming SweepSAR Architectures for DESDynI-Class Radar <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, James Patrick; Peral, Eva; Veilluex, Louise; Perkovic, Dragana; Shaffer, Scott</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Real-time digital beamforming, combined with lightweight, large aperture reflectors, enable SweepSAR architectures such as that of the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (or DSI). SweepSAR promises significant increases in <span class="hlt">instrument</span> capability for solid earth and biomass remote sensing, while reducing mission mass and cost. This new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> concept requires new methods for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the multiple channels, which must be combined on-board, in real-time. We are developing new methods for digitally <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> digital beamforming arrays to reduce development time, risk and cost of precision <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> TR modules for array architectures by accurately tracking modules' characteristics through closed-loop Digital <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, thus tracking systematic changes regardless of temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol18/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol18-sec86-120-94.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol18/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol18-sec86-120-94.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol19-sec86-120-94.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol18/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol18-sec86-120-94.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol18/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol18-sec86-120-94.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039376&hterms=instruments+Description&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dinstruments%2BDescription','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039376&hterms=instruments+Description&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dinstruments%2BDescription"><span>TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR): 1. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Description and Antenna Temperature <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruf, C. S.; Keihm, S. J.; Janssen, M. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR) is a 3-frequency radiometer flown on the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) satellite in low Earth orbit. It operates at 18, 21 and 37 GHz in a nadir only viewing direction which is co-aligned with the T/P radar altimeters. TMR monitors and corrects for the electrical path delay of the altimeter radar signal due to water vapor and non-precipitating liquid water in the atmosphere. This paper describes the TMR <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and the radiometric <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> required to derive antenna temperature (T_A) from the raw digital data. T_A precision of 0.4 K is predicted on orbit in all expected thermal environments. T_A accuracy of 0.5-0.6 K is expected following a post-launch field <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign. When uncertainties related to antenna sidelobe corrections are included, this T_A accuracy yields a brightness temperature accuracy of 0.7- 0.8 K...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2017F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.772a2017F"><span>Evaluation applications of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> research findings in psychology for very small samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Petry, P.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Many published research studies document item <span class="hlt">calibration</span> invariance across samples using Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement. A new approach to outcomes evaluation for very small samples was employed for two workshop series focused on stress reduction and joyful living conducted for health system employees and caregivers since 2012. Rasch-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> self-report <span class="hlt">instruments</span> measuring depression, anxiety and stress, and the joyful living effects of mindfulness behaviors were identified in peer-reviewed journal articles. Items from one <span class="hlt">instrument</span> were modified for use with a US population, other items were simplified, and some new items were written. Participants provided ratings of their depression, anxiety and stress, and the effects of their mindfulness behaviors before and after each workshop series. The numbers of participants providing both pre- and post-workshop data were low (16 and 14). Analysis of these small data sets produce results showing that, with some exceptions, the item hierarchies defining the constructs retained the same invariant profiles they had exhibited in the published research (correlations (not disattenuated) range from 0.85 to 0.96). In addition, comparisons of the pre- and post-workshop measures for the three constructs showed substantively and statistically significant changes. Implications for program evaluation comparisons, quality improvement efforts, and the organization of communications concerning outcomes in clinical fields are explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039376&hterms=digital+microwave&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddigital%2Bmicrowave','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039376&hterms=digital+microwave&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddigital%2Bmicrowave"><span>TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR): 1. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Description and Antenna Temperature <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruf, C. S.; Keihm, S. J.; Janssen, M. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR) is a 3-frequency radiometer flown on the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) satellite in low Earth orbit. It operates at 18, 21 and 37 GHz in a nadir only viewing direction which is co-aligned with the T/P radar altimeters. TMR monitors and corrects for the electrical path delay of the altimeter radar signal due to water vapor and non-precipitating liquid water in the atmosphere. This paper describes the TMR <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and the radiometric <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> required to derive antenna temperature (T_A) from the raw digital data. T_A precision of 0.4 K is predicted on orbit in all expected thermal environments. T_A accuracy of 0.5-0.6 K is expected following a post-launch field <span class="hlt">calibration</span> campaign. When uncertainties related to antenna sidelobe corrections are included, this T_A accuracy yields a brightness temperature accuracy of 0.7- 0.8 K...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185442-impact-nuclear-data-uncertainties-calculated-spent-fuel-nuclide-inventories-advanced-nda-instrument-response','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185442-impact-nuclear-data-uncertainties-calculated-spent-fuel-nuclide-inventories-advanced-nda-instrument-response"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> several of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> responses in order to inform the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried outmore » to assess the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. This work studies the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was selected to illustrate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these uncertainties on NDA <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185442','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185442"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> several of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> responses in order to inform the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried out to assess the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. This work studies the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was selected to illustrate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these uncertainties on NDA <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160008888','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160008888"><span>A Comparison of Radiometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Techniques for Lunar <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Flashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Suggs, R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Video observations of lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> flashes have been made by a number of researchers since the late 1990's and the problem of determination of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energies has been approached in different ways (Bellot Rubio, et al., 2000 [1], Bouley, et al., 2012.[2], Suggs, et al. 2014 [3], Rembold and Ryan 2015 [4], Ortiz, et al. 2015 [5]). The wide spectral response of the unfiltered video cameras in use for all published measurements necessitates color correction for the standard filter magnitudes available for the comparison stars. An estimate of the color of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> flash is also needed to correct it to the chosen passband. Magnitudes corrected to standard filters are then used to determine the luminous energy in the filter passband according to the stellar atmosphere <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of Bessell et al., 1998 [6]. Figure 1 illustrates the problem. The camera pass band is the wide black curve and the blue, green, red, and magenta curves show the band passes of the Johnson-Cousins B, V, R, and I filters for which we have <span class="hlt">calibration</span> star magnitudes. The blackbody curve of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> flash of temperature 2800K (Nemtchinov, et al., 1998 [7]) is the dashed line. This paper compares the various photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques and how they address the color corrections necessary for the calculation of luminous energy (radiometry) of <span class="hlt">impact</span> flashes. This issue has significant implications for determination of luminous efficiency, predictions of <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater sizes for observed flashes, and the flux of meteoroids in the 10s of grams to kilogram size range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370432','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370432"><span>A fully Bayesian method for jointly fitting <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and X-ray spectral models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xu, Jin; Yu, Yaming; Van Dyk, David A.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Drake, Jeremy; Ratzlaff, Pete; Connors, Alanna; Meng, Xiao-Li E-mail: yamingy@ics.uci.edu E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: meng@stat.harvard.edu</p> <p>2014-10-20</p> <p>Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is 'pragmatic' in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017P%26SS..143..225S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017P%26SS..143..225S"><span>A comparison of radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques for lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> flashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suggs, R. M.; Ehlert, S. R.; Moser, D. E.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Video observations of lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> flashes have been made by a number of researchers since the late 1990's and the problem of determination of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energies has been approached in different ways Bellot Rubio et al. (2000a, b), Yanagisawa et al. (2008), Bouley et al. (2012), Suggs et al. (2014), Rembold and Ryan (2015), Ortiz et al. (2015), Madiedo et al. (2015). The wide spectral response of the unfiltered video cameras in use for all published measurements necessitates color correction for the standard filter magnitudes available for the comparison stars but this is not typically considered. In our approach, the published color of the comparison star and an estimate of the color of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> flash is used to correct it to the chosen filter bandpass. Magnitudes corrected to standard filters are then used to determine the luminous energy in the filter bandpass according to the stellar atmosphere <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of Bessell et al. (1998). In this paper we compare the various photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques and calculation of luminous energy (radiometry) of <span class="hlt">impact</span> flashes. This issue has significant implications for determination of luminous efficiency, predictions of <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater sizes for observed flashes, and the determination of the flux of meteoroids in the 10 s of grams to kilograms mass range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA625301','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA625301"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Initiation of Reactive Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">impact</span> initiation of reactive materials <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> was acquired that allowed for acquisition of emission...spectra with high time and wavelength resolution. The acquired <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were fabricated into a time-resolved spectroscopy system. This system...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 energetic materials, shock initiation, optical spectroscopy REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+technology+AND+education&pg=4&id=EJ770252','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+technology+AND+education&pg=4&id=EJ770252"><span><span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Technology in Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Ten years of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> development are summarized and placed within a framework for assessing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of technology in education. Seven well-validated <span class="hlt">instruments</span> spanning the areas of attitudes, beliefs, skills, competencies, and technology integration proficiencies are presented, along with data analysis examples. These <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615823J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615823J"><span>Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>, and Optimizing <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Schemes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Technological advancement of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different <span class="hlt">calibration</span> schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6405E..01R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6405E..01R"><span>Infrared <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for climate: a perspective on present and future high-spectral resolution <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Revercomb, Henry E.; Anderson, James G.; Best, Fred A.; Tobin, David C.; Knuteson, Robert O.; LaPorte, Daniel D.; Taylor, Joe K.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The new era of high spectral resolution infrared <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for atmospheric sounding offers great opportunities for climate change applications. A major issue with most of our existing IR observations from space is spectral sampling uncertainty and the lack of standardization in spectral sampling. The new ultra resolution observing capabilities from the AIRS grating spectrometer on the NASA Aqua platform and from new operational FTS <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (IASI on Metop, CrIS for NPP/NPOESS, and the GIFTS for a GOES demonstration) will go a long way toward improving this situation. These new observations offer the following improvements: 1. Absolute accuracy, moving from issues of order 1 K to <0.2-0.4 K brightness temperature, 2. More complete spectral coverage, with Nyquist sampling for scale standardization, and 3. Capabilities for unifying IR <span class="hlt">calibration</span> among different <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and platforms. However, more needs to be done to meet the immediate needs for climate and to effectively leverage these new operational weather systems, including 1. Place special emphasis on making new <span class="hlt">instruments</span> as accurate as they can be to realize the potential of technological investments already made, 2. Maintain a careful validation program for establishing the best possible direct radiance check of long-term accuracy--specifically, continuing to use aircraft-or balloon-borne <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that are periodically checked directly with NIST, and 3. Commit to a simple, new IR mission that will provide an ongoing backbone for the climate observing system. The new mission would make use of Fourier Transform Spectrometer measurements to fill in spectral and diurnal sampling gaps of the operational systems and provide a benchmark with better than 0.1K 3-sigma accuracy based on standards that are verifiable in-flight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9904E..42S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9904E..42S"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> results using highly aberrated images for aligning the JWST <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to the telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Koby Z.; Acton, D. Scott; Gallagher, Ben B.; Knight, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce H.; Jurling, Alden S.; Zielinski, Thomas P.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p> mostly of 3rd-order astigmatism and coma. This is because the elliptical tertiary mirror of the AOS is used off of its ideal foci locations without the compensating wavefront effects of the JWST primary and secondary mirrors. Therefore, the PSFs created are highly asymmetric with relatively complex structure and the centroid and encircled energy analyses traditionally used to locate images are not sufficient for ensuring the AOS to ISIM alignment. A novel approach combining phase retrieval and spatial metrology was developed to both locate the images with respect to the AOS and provide <span class="hlt">calibration</span> information for eventual AOS to ISIM alignment verification. During final JWST OTE and ISIM (OTIS) testing, only a single thru-focus image will be collected by the <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Therefore, tools and processes were developed to perform single-image phase retrieval on these highly aberrated images such that any single image of the ASPA source can provide <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> knowledge of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span>' position relative to the AOS. This paper discusses the results of the methodology, hardware, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> performed to ensure that the AOS and ISIM are aligned within their respective tolerances at JWST OTIS testing.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23314644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23314644"><span>Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere: <span class="hlt">instrument</span> description and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Latvakoski, Harri; Mlynczak, Martin G; Johnson, David G; Cageao, Richard P; Kratz, David P; Johnson, Kendall</p> <p>2013-01-10</p> <p>The far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed to measure the Earth's thermal emission spectrum with a particular emphasis on far-infrared (far-IR) wavelengths greater than 15 μm. FIRST was developed under NASA's <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Incubator Program to demonstrate technology for providing measurements from 10 to 100 μm (1000 to 100 cm(-1)) on a single focal plane with a spectral resolution finer than 1 cm(-1). Presently no spectrometers in orbit are capable of directly observing the Earth's far-IR spectrum. This fact, coupled with the fundamental importance of the far-IR to Earth's climate system, provided the impetus for the development of FIRST. In this paper the FIRST <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is described and results of a detailed absolute laboratory <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are presented. Specific channels in FIRST are shown to be accurate in the far-IR to better than 0.3 K at 270 K scene temperature, 0.5 K at 247 K, and 1 K at 225 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7154E..0AB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7154E..0AB"><span>On-orbit radiometric validation and field-of-view <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of spaceborne microwave sounding <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blackwell, William J.; Bickmeier, Laura J.; Jairam, Laura G.; Leslie, R. Vincent</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">calibration</span>/validation efforts planned for current and future spaceborne microwave sounding <span class="hlt">instruments</span> will be presented. First, the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed-Microwave (NAST-M) airborne sensor is used to directly validate the microwave radiometers (AMSU and MHS) on several operational satellites. Comparison results for underflights of the Aqua, NOAA, and MetOp-A satellites will be shown. Second, a potential approach will be presented for on-orbit field-of-view (FOV) <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). A variety of proposed spacecraft maneuvers that could facilitate the characterization of the radiometric boresight of all 22 ATMS channels will be discussed. Radiance observations from the NAST-M airborne sensor can be used to directly validate the radiometric performance of spaceborne sensors. NAST-M includes a total of four spectrometers, with three operating near the oxygen lines at 50-57, 118.75, and 424.76 GHz, and a fourth spectrometer centered on the water vapor absorption line at 183.31 GHz. All four feedhorns are co-located, have 3-dB (full-width at half-maximum) beamwidths of 7.5° (translating to 2.5-km nominal pixel diameter at nadir incidence), and are directed at a single mirror that scans cross-track beneath the aircraft with a nominal swath width of 100 km. We will present results for two recent validation efforts: 1) the Pacific THORpex (THe Observing-system Research and predictability experiment) Observing System Test (PTOST 2003, Honolulu, HI) and 2) the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx 2007, Houston, TX). Radiance differences between the NAST-M sensor and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Microwave Humidity Sensor (MHS) were found to be less than 1K for most channels. Comparison results for ocean underflights of the Aqua, NOAA, and MetOp-A satellites are shown. We also present an approach for on-orbit FOV <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the ATMS satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using vicarious</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150013968','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150013968"><span>Using Lunar Observations to Validate In-Flight <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> of Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Daniels, Janet L.; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The validation of in-orbit <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance requires stability in both <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> source. This paper describes a method of validation using lunar observations scanning near full moon by the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Unlike internal <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, the Moon offers an external source whose signal variance is predictable and non-degrading. From 2006 to present, in-orbit observations have become standardized and compiled for the Flight Models-1 and -2 aboard the Terra satellite, for Flight Models-3 and -4 aboard the Aqua satellite, and beginning 2012, for Flight Model-5 aboard Suomi-NPP. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> performance parameters which can be gleaned are detector gain, pointing accuracy and static detector point response function validation. Lunar observations are used to examine the stability of all three detectors on each of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> from 2006 to present. This validation method has yielded results showing trends per CERES data channel of 1.2% per decade or less.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950044660&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dplot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950044660&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dplot"><span>Application of the Langley plot method to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the solar backscattered ultraviolet <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Nimbus 7 satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bhartia, P. K.; Taylor, S.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Wellemeyer, C.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The concept of the well-known Langley plot technique, used for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of ground-based <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, has been generalized for application to satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. In polar regions, near summer solstice, the solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Nimbus 7 satellite samples the same ozone field at widely different solar zenith angles. These measurements are compared to assess the long-term drift in the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Although the technique provides only a relative wavelength-to-wavelength <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, it can be combined with existing techniques to determine the drift of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> at any wavelength. Using this technique, we have generated a 12-year data set of ozone vertical profiles from SBUV with an estimated accuracy of +/- 5% at 1 mbar and +/- 2% at 10 mbar (95% confidence) over 12 years. Since the method is insensitive to true changes in the atmospheric ozone profile, it can also be used to compare the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of similar SBUV <span class="hlt">instruments</span> launched without temporal overlap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750003216','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750003216"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for one-way satellite PTTI applications. [<span class="hlt">calibration</span> and synchronization of clocks from navigation satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Osborne, A. E.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A review of general principles and operational procedures illustrates how the typical passive user and omni receiving antenna can recover Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) information from a low altitude navigation satellite system for clock <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and synchronization. Detailed discussions of concepts and theory of the receiver design are presented. The importance of RF correlation of the received and local PN encoded sequences is emphasized as a means of reducing delay uncertainties of the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to values compatible with nanosecond to submicrosecond PTTI objectives. Two receiver configurations were fabricated for use in satellite-to-laboratory experiments. In one receiver the delay-locked loop for PN signals synchronization used a dithered amplitude detection process while the second receiver used a complex sums phase detection method for measurement of delay error. The necessity for compensation of Doppler shift is discussed. Differences in theoretical signal acquisition and tracking performance of the design concepts are noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911408"><span>Development of a primary thoron activity standard for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of thoron measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sabot, B; Pierre, S; Cassette, P; Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The LNHB and IRSN are working on a reference atmosphere for thoron ((220)Rn) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The LNHB, as the national metrology institute for activity measurement in France, has to create a new thoron reference standard in order to estimate with accuracy the thoron concentration of a reference atmosphere. The measurement system presented in this paper is based on a reference volume using an alpha detector, which is able to measure thoron and its decay products to define the thoron concentration of a thoron reference atmosphere. This paper presents the first results with this new system using a well-known radon ((222)Rn) atmosphere and a thoron ((220)Rn) atmosphere. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900017248','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900017248"><span>An automated <span class="hlt">calibration</span> laboratory for flight research <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>: Requirements and a proposed design approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated <span class="hlt">calibration</span> (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN33C1056F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN33C1056F"><span>Contributions of the SDR Task Network tool to <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Validation of the NPOESS Preparatory Project <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feeley, J.; Zajic, J.; Metcalf, A.; Baucom, T.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Validation (Cal/Val) team is planning post-launch activities to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the NPP sensors and validate Sensor Data Records (SDRs). The IPO has developed a web-based data collection and visualization tool in order to effectively collect, coordinate, and manage the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation tasks for the OMPS, ATMS, CrIS, and VIIRS <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This tool is accessible to the multi-institutional Cal/Val teams consisting of the Prime Contractor and Government Cal/Val leads along with the NASA NPP Mission team, and is used for mission planning and identification/resolution of conflicts between sensor activities. Visualization techniques aid in displaying task dependencies, including prerequisites and exit criteria, allowing for the identification of a critical path. This presentation will highlight how the information is collected, displayed, and used to coordinate the diverse <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>/validation teams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880031282&hterms=Internal+Combustion+Engine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DInternal%2BCombustion%2BEngine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880031282&hterms=Internal+Combustion+Engine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DInternal%2BCombustion%2BEngine"><span>Design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and error analysis of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/820870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/820870"><span>ON-LINE SELF-<span class="hlt">CALIBRATING</span> SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENTATION</span> FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that <span class="hlt">impact</span> performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..497R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..497R"><span>Scientific <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and analysis of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data for the CaSSIS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roloff, V.; Gambicorti, L.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is a camera, the development of which is led by the University of Bern (CH), with hardware contributions from the University of Padova (I) and the Space Research Center of Warsaw (Pl). It will take high resolution stereo images in 4 colours of the Martian surface, from on board the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Our <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facility stands ready to perform the required measurements. We are currently testing the procedures on a dummy system and we will report on <span class="hlt">calibration</span> results of the CaSSIS <span class="hlt">instrument</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87a3506C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87a3506C"><span>Post <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with electron temperature characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, M. J.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y. B.; Choe, G. H.; Lee, W.; Jardin, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is widely used to study the local electron temperature (Te) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity IECE ∝ Te in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the flat Te assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> electron temperature (Te,rel) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31H..01W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31H..01W"><span>Overview of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weng, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite carries five <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on board including ATMS, CrIS, VIIRS, OMPS and CERES. During the SNPP intensive calval, ATMS was pitched over to observe the cold space radiation. This unique data set was used for diagnostics of the ATMS scan-angle dependent bias and a scan-to-scan variation. A new algorithm is proposed to correct the ATMS scan angle dependent bias related to the reflector emission. ATMS radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is also revised in IDPS with the full radiance processing (FRP). CrIS is the first Fourier transform Michelson interferometer and measures three infrared spectral bands from 650 to 1095, 1210 to 1750 and 2155 to 2550 cm-1 with spectral resolutions of 0.625 cm-1, respectively. Its spectral <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is with an accuracy of better than 2 ppm and its noise is also well characterized with the Allan variance. Since CrIS was switched to the transmission of full spectral resolution (FSR) of RDR data to the ground in January 2015. The CrIS FSR SDR data are also produced offline at NOAA STAR. VIIRS has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 μm and 12.01 μm, including 16 moderate resolution bands (M-bands) with a spatial resolution of 750 m at nadir, five imaging resolution bands (I-bands) with a spatial resolution of 375 m at nadir, and one day-night band (DNB) with a nearly-constant 750 m spatial resolution throughout the scan. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) requires a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). Using the SNPP yaw maneuver data, SDSM screen transmission function can be updated to better capture the fine structures of the vignetting function. For OMPS nadir mapper (NM) and nadir profiler (NP), the detector signal-to-noise ratio, and sensor signal-to-noise ratio meet the system requirement. Detector gain and bias performance trends are generally stable. System linearity performance is stable and highly consistent with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19044452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19044452"><span>SI traceable <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation sensor spring constant using electrostatic force.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chung, Koo-Hyun; Scholz, Stefan; Shaw, Gordon A; Kramar, John A; Pratt, Jon R</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>We present a measurement scheme for creating reference electrostatic forces that are traceable to the International System of Units. This scheme yields reference forces suitable for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the force sensitivity of <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation machines and atomic force microscopes. Forces between 10 and 200 muN were created and expressed in terms of the voltage, length, and capacitance between a pair of interacting electrodes. The electrodes comprised an electrically conductive sphere mounted as a tip on an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation sensor, and a planar counterelectrode fixed to a sample stage in close proximity to the sphere. For comparison, we applied mechanical forces of similar magnitudes, first using deadweights and then using a reference force sensor. The deflection of the sensor due to the various applied forces was measured using an interferometer. A spring constant for the sensor was computed from the observed records of force versus displacement. Each procedure yielded a relative standard uncertainty of approximately 1%; however, the electrostatic technique is scalable and could provide traceable reference forces as small as a few hundred piconewtons, a range far below anything yet achieved using deadweights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21266443','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21266443"><span>SI traceable <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation sensor spring constant using electrostatic force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chung, Koo-Hyun; Scholz, Stefan; Shaw, Gordon A.; Kramar, John A.; Pratt, Jon R.</p> <p>2008-09-15</p> <p>We present a measurement scheme for creating reference electrostatic forces that are traceable to the International System of Units. This scheme yields reference forces suitable for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the force sensitivity of <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation machines and atomic force microscopes. Forces between 10 and 200 {mu}N were created and expressed in terms of the voltage, length, and capacitance between a pair of interacting electrodes. The electrodes comprised an electrically conductive sphere mounted as a tip on an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> indentation sensor, and a planar counterelectrode fixed to a sample stage in close proximity to the sphere. For comparison, we applied mechanical forces of similar magnitudes, first using deadweights and then using a reference force sensor. The deflection of the sensor due to the various applied forces was measured using an interferometer. A spring constant for the sensor was computed from the observed records of force versus displacement. Each procedure yielded a relative standard uncertainty of approximately 1%; however, the electrostatic technique is scalable and could provide traceable reference forces as small as a few hundred piconewtons, a range far below anything yet achieved using deadweights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28402488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28402488"><span>Evaluation of the 24-Hour Recall as a Reference <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for <span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Other Self-Report <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> in Nutritional Cohort Studies: Evidence From the Validation Studies Pooling Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freedman, Laurence S; Commins, John M; Willett, Walter; Tinker, Lesley F; Spiegelman, Donna; Rhodes, Donna; Potischman, Nancy; Neuhouser, Marian L; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Kipnis, Victor; Baer, David J; Arab, Lenore; Prentice, Ross L; Subar, Amy F</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> dietary self-report <span class="hlt">instruments</span> is recommended as a way to adjust for measurement error when estimating diet-disease associations. Because biomarkers available for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are limited, most investigators use self-reports (e.g., 24-hour recalls (24HRs)) as the reference <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. We evaluated the performance of 24HRs as reference <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), using data from the Validation Studies Pooling Project, comprising 5 large validation studies using recovery biomarkers. Using 24HRs as reference <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, we estimated attenuation factors, correlations with truth, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> equations for FFQ-reported intakes of energy and for protein, potassium, and sodium and their densities, and we compared them with values derived using biomarkers. Based on 24HRs, FFQ attenuation factors were substantially overestimated for energy and sodium intakes, less for protein and potassium, and minimally for nutrient densities. FFQ correlations with truth, based on 24HRs, were substantially overestimated for all dietary components. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> equations did not capture dependencies on body mass index. We also compared predicted bias in estimated relative risks adjusted using 24HRs as reference <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with bias when making no adjustment. In disease models with energy and 1 or more nutrient intakes, predicted bias in estimated nutrient relative risks was reduced on average, but bias in the energy risk coefficient was unchanged. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987ApOpt..26.1264D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987ApOpt..26.1264D"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of radiance variations on satellite sensor <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duggin, Michael J.</p> <p>1987-04-01</p> <p>The intercalibration of digital data from different sensors depends on systematic and random variations in factors controlling recorded radiance. Theoretical expressions are presented which describe the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of random variations in those factors which control radiance incident on the sensor. Means of measuring or estimating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of random variations on intercalibration factors are discussed. Means of detecting and <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> for systematic effects are also discussed. The optical-reflective, middle-infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum are considered. An example is presented whereby NOAA-7 and NOAA-8 advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) radiance data, obtained over the same test fields, are shown to depend on the differences in view angles used by the two satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170003372','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170003372"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of MODIS SWIR Band <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Improvements on Level-3 Atmospheric Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wald, Andrew; Levy, Robert; Angal, Amit; Geng, Xu; Xiong, Jack; Hoffman, Kurt</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The spectral reflectance measured by the MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) is used for retrieving many atmospheric science products. The accuracy of these products depends on the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the RSB. To this end, the RSB of the MODIS <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are primarily <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> on-orbit using regular solar diffuser (SD) observations. For lambda < 0.94 microns the SDs on-orbit bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) change is tracked using solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) observations. For lambda > 0.94 microns, the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) developed, in MODIS Collection 6 (C6), a time-dependent correction using observations from pseudo-invariant earth-scene targets. This correction has been implemented in C6 for the Terra MODIS 1.24 micron band over the entire mission, and for the 1.375 micron band in the forward processing. As the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> continue to operate beyond their design lifetime of six years, a similar correction is planned for other short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands as well. MODIS SWIR bands are used in deriving atmosphere products, including aerosol optical thickness, atmospheric total column water vapor, cloud fraction and cloud optical depth. The SD degradation correction in Terra bands 5 and 26 <span class="hlt">impact</span> the spectral radiance and therefore the retrieval of these atmosphere products. Here, we describe the corrections to Bands 5 (1.24 microns) and 26 (1.375 microns), and produce three sets (B5, B26 correction on/on, on/off, and off/off) of Terra-MODIS Level 1B (<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> radiance product) data. By comparing products derived from these corrected and uncorrected Terra MODIS Level 1B (L1B) <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, dozens of L3 atmosphere products are surveyed for changes caused by the corrections, and representative results are presented. Aerosol and water vapor products show only small local changes, while some cloud products can change locally by > 10%, which is a large change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160011149','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160011149"><span>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the DSCOVR EPIC Multiple Visible Channel <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Using MODIS and VIIRS as a Reference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haney, Conor; Doeling, David; Minnis, Patrick; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin; Gopalan, Arun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched on 11 February 2015, is a satellite positioned near the Lagrange-1 (L1) point, carrying several <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that monitor space weather, and Earth-view sensors designed for climate studies. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard DSCOVR continuously views the sun-illuminated portion of the Earth with spectral coverage in the UV, VIS, and NIR bands. Although the EPIC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> does not have any onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> abilities, its constant view of the sunlit Earth disk provides a unique opportunity for simultaneous viewing with several other satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This arrangement allows the EPIC sensor to be inter-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using other well-characterized satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> reference standards. Two such <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are MODIS, flown on Aqua and Terra, and VIIRS, onboard Suomi-NPP. The MODIS and VIIRS reference <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> will be transferred to the EPIC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using both all-sky ocean and deep convective clouds (DCC) ray-matched EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. An automated navigation correction routine was developed to more accurately align the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS granules. The automated navigation correction routine dramatically reduced the uncertainty of the resulting <span class="hlt">calibration</span> gain based on the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. The SCIAMACHY-based spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) applied to the MODIS/ VIIRS radiances were found to successfully adjust the reference radiances to the spectral response of the specific EPIC channel for over-lapping spectral channels. The SBAF was also found to be effective for the non-overlapping EPIC channel 10. Lastly, both ray-matching techniques found no discernable trends for EPIC channel 7 over the year of publically released EPIC data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22721851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22721851"><span>Roller compaction process development and scale up using Johanson model <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> roll data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nesarikar, Vishwas V; Patel, Chandrakant; Early, William; Vatsaraj, Nipa; Sprockel, Omar; Jerzweski, Robert</p> <p>2012-10-15</p> <p> and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using a subset of placebo run data obtained on WP120. The roll force values were calculated using vendor supplied equation. The nip angle was expressed as a function of gap and RFU. The nip angle, gap and RFU were used in a new roll force equation to estimate normal stress P2 at the center of the ribbon. Using ratios P1/P2 and P3/P2 from the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data set, P1 and P2 were estimated. The ribbon width over which P1, P2, and P3 are effective was determined by minimizing sum square error between the model predicted vs. experimental ribbon densities of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set. The model predicted ribbon densities of the placebo runs compared well with the experimental data. The placebo model also predicted with reasonable accuracy the ribbon densities of active A, B, and C blends prepared at various combinations of process parameters. The placebo model was then used to calculate scale up parameters from WP120 to WP200 roller compactor. While WP120 has a single screw speed, WP200 is equipped with a twin feed screw system. A limited number of roller compaction runs on WP200 was used as a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set to determine normal stress profile across ribbon width. The nip angle equation derived from <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> roll data collected on WP120 was applied to estimate nip angles on WP200 at various processing conditions. The roll force values calculated from vendor supplied equation and the nip angle values were used in roll force equation to estimate normal stress P2 at the tip of the feed screws. Based on feed screw design, it was assumed that the normal stress at the center of the ribbon was equal to those calculated at the tip of the feed screws. The ratio of normal stress at the edge of the ribbon Pe to the normal stress P2 at the feed screw tip was optimized to minimize sum square error between model predicted vs. experimental ribbon densities of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> set. The model predicted ribbon densities of the batches prepared on WP200 compared well with the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.718E..18T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.718E..18T"><span>Design, Building and Testing of a Sun <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Mechanism for the MSI-VNS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on EarthCARE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tabak, Erik; de Goeij, Bryan; van Riel, Luud; Meijer, Ellart; van der Knaap, Frits; Doornink, Jan; de Graaf, Harm-Jan</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>TNO has developed a mechanism to perform sun and dark <span class="hlt">calibration</span> as a module of the Visible-NIR-SWIR Optical Unit (VNS) in the context of the ESA EarthCARE mission. This paper will address the conceptual and detailed design and modelling approach of the mechanism. Finally the production and testing of the Life Test Model (LTM) will be presented.The rotating part of the mechanism (<span class="hlt">calibration</span> carousel) is the supporting structure of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> diffusers. By rotating the carousel either the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> nominal, sun <span class="hlt">calibration</span> or dark <span class="hlt">calibration</span>/safe modes can be selected. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> carousel is suspended in (a.o.) hard preloaded angular contact bearings and driven by a Phytron stepper motor. FE Modelling has been used to derive the bearing- and motor forces and accelerations. These analysis results were used as input to the CABARET analyses performed by ESTL (UK). Using the analysis results the bearing stress, stiffness, gapping and friction torque were predicted.A flight representative Life Test Model (LTM) has been manufactured assembled and was successfully subjected to ground cycles testing, vibration-, thermal vacuum- and life cycle testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4550341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4550341"><span>Best Practice Guidelines for Pre-Launch Characterization and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for Passive Optical Remote Sensing1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Datla, R. U.; Rice, J. P.; Lykke, K. R.; Johnson, B. C.; Butler, J. J.; Xiong, X.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The pre-launch characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> should be planned and carried out in conjunction with their design and development to meet the mission requirements. The onboard <span class="hlt">calibrators</span> such as blackbodies and the sensors such as spectral radiometers should be characterized and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using SI traceable standards. In the case of earth remote sensing, this allows inter-comparison and intercalibration of different sensors in space to create global time series of climate records of high accuracy where some inevitable data gaps can be easily bridged. The recommended best practice guidelines for this pre-launch effort is presented based on experience gained at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) programs over the past two decades. The currently available radiometric standards and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facilities at NIST serving the remote sensing community are described. Examples of best practice <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> and intercomparisons to build SI (international System of Units) traceable uncertainty budget in the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> used for preflight satellite sensor <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation are presented. PMID:26989588</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008153','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008153"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS Remote Sensing Composition <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wiens, R. C.; Maurice S.; Bender, S.; Barraclough, B. L.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H.; Vaniman, D.; Clegg, S.; Lasue, J. A.; Blaney, D.; DeFlores, L.; Morris, R. V.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The ChemCam <span class="hlt">instrument</span> suite on board the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, will provide remote-sensing composition information for rock and soil samples within seven meters of the rover using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system, and will provide context imaging with a resolution of 0.10 mradians using the remote micro-imager (RMI) camera. The high resolution is needed to image the small analysis footprint of the LIBS system, at 0.2-0.6 mm diameter. This fine scale analytical capability will enable remote probing of stratigraphic layers or other small features the size of "blueberries" or smaller. ChemCam is intended for rapid survey analyses within 7 m of the rover, with each measurement taking less than 6 minutes. Repeated laser pulses remove dust coatings and provide depth profiles through weathering layers, allowing detailed investigation of rock varnish features as well as analysis of the underlying pristine rock composition. The LIBS technique uses brief laser pulses greater than 10 MW/square mm to ablate and electrically excite material from the sample of interest. The plasma emits photons with wavelengths characteristic of the elements present in the material, permitting detection and quantification of nearly all elements, including the light elements H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O. ChemCam LIBS projects 14 mJ of 1067 nm photons on target and covers a spectral range of 240-850 nm with resolutions between 0.15 and 0.60 nm FWHM. The Nd:KGW laser is passively cooled and is tuned to provide maximum power output from -10 to 0 C, though it can operate at 20% degraded energy output at room temperature. Preliminary <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> were carried out on the flight model (FM) in 2008. However, the detectors were replaced in 2009, and final <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> occurred in April-June, 2010. This presentation describes the LIBS <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization procedures and results, and details plans for final analyses during rover system thermal testing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.60 Section 35.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.60 Possession, use,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.60 Section 35.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.60 Possession, use,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.60 Section 35.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.60 Possession, use,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec35-60.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Possession, use, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material. 35.60 Section 35.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.60 Possession, use,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASPC..503...37S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASPC..503...37S"><span>Addressing the Photometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Challenge: Explicit Determination of the <span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Photometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this <span class="hlt">calibration</span> challenge by performing measurements of both the <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9144E..4UG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9144E..4UG"><span>The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of flight mirror modules for the ART-XC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on board the SRG mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>MSFC is fabricating x-ray optics for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope - X-Ray Concentrator (ART-XC or ART for short) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> under agreements with the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI). ART-XC is one of two <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that will be launched on the Russian-German Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) Mission to be launched in 20161. Delivery of the flight optics for ART-XC (7 mirror modules) is currently scheduled for summer/fall of 20142. MSFC has to date completed assembly of four modules and has performed extensive <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on two of these. These <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> show that the modules meet effective area requirements and greatly exceed the angular resolution requirements. Details of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure and an overview of the results obtained to date are presented here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27951470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27951470"><span>Portable near-infrared <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: Application for quality control of polymorphs in pharmaceutical raw materials and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>da Silva, Vitor Hugo; da Silva, Jailson José; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes</p> <p>2017-02-05</p> <p>This work presents an evaluation of the analytical performance of three different portable near-infrared (NIR) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (denominated Port.1, Port.2 and Port.3) for quantifying mebendazole polymorphs (A, B and C) in pharmaceutical raw materials using multivariate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models. The performance of the portable <span class="hlt">instruments</span> was compared with a benchtop one (FT-NIR Frontier spectrometer). In addition, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer between the benchtop and one of the portable <span class="hlt">instruments</span> was also performed. For polymorph A, the Port.1 presented the lowest RMSEP value (1.01% w/w) even when compared to the FT-NIR <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. For polymorphs B and C, the same Port.1 <span class="hlt">instrument</span> presented RMSEP values of 2.09% w/w and 2.41% w/w, respectively, which were statistically similar to those obtained with the benchtop <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The LOD ranges (3.9-5.5 for polymorph A, 3.6-5.1 for polymorph B and 5.7-7.7 for polymorph C) obtained with the Port.1 was higher than those achieved with the benchtop NIR <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, with high spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and better wavelength reproducibility. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> transfer was performed between the benchtop NIR and Port.1 <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. According to the results, the transferability of models is possible. The results obtained for complete recalibration of the portable <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and those for the benchtop are comparable. The methods developed demonstrated a flexible, easy, cheap and fast way for quality control of MBZ polymorphs in incoming material, mainly in pharmaceutical laboratory chains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017117','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017117"><span>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Target for the Mars 2020 SHERLOC <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>: Multiple Science Roles for Future Manned and Unmanned Mars Exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fries, M.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L.; Burton, A.; Ross, A.; Shahar, A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman/fluorescence <span class="hlt">instrument</span> selected as part of the Mars 2020 rover <span class="hlt">instrument</span> suite. SHERLOC will be mounted on the rover arm and its primary role is to identify carbonaceous species in martian samples, which may be selected for inclusion into a returnable sample cache. The SHERLOC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> will require the use of a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> target, and by design, multiple science roles will be addressed in the design of the target. Samples of materials used in NASA Extravehicular Mobility unit (EMU, or "space suit") manufacture have been included in the target to serve as both solid polymer <span class="hlt">calibration</span> targets for SHERLOC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> function, as well as for testing the resiliency of those materials under martian ambient conditions. A martian meteorite will also be included in the target to serve as a well-characterized example of a martian rock that contains trace carbonaceous material. This rock will be the first rock that we know of that has completed a round trip between planets and will therefore serve an EPO role to attract public attention to science and planetary exploration. The SHERLOC <span class="hlt">calibration</span> target will address a wide range of NASA goals to include basic science of interest to both the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433815"><span>Design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and pre-clinical testing of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> tibial tray.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heinlein, Bernd; Graichen, Friedmar; Bender, Alwina; Rohlmann, Antonius; Bergmann, Georg</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> tibial tray was developed that enables the measurement of six load components in a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The design is fully compatible with a commonly available knee arthroplasty product since it uses the original tibial insert and femoral component. Two plates with hollow stems made from titanium alloy are separated by a small gap. Six semiconductor strain gages are used for measuring the load-dependent deformation of the inner hollow stem. A 9-channel telemetry unit with a radio-frequency transmitter is encapsulated hermetically in the cavity of the prosthesis. The telemetry is powered inductively and strain gage signals are transmitted via a small antenna at the tip of the implant. The mean sampling rate is 125Hz. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the prosthesis resulted in an accuracy better than 2% mean measuring error. Fatigue testing of the implant was performed up to 10 million loading cycles and showed no failure. The pending in vivo application will give further insight into the kinetics of TKA. The measured values will enhance the quality of future pre-clinical testing, numerical modeling in knee biomechanics and the patients' physiotherapy and rehabilitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983049','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983049"><span>RADBALL TECHNOLOGY TESTING IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HEALTH PHYSICS <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENT</span> <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span> LABORATORY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Farfan, E.</p> <p>2010-07-08</p> <p>The United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBall{trademark}, consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBallTM technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Laboratory (HPICL).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011243','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011243"><span>A New Radiometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Paradigm for the OMPS Nadir Total Column and Profile <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heath, Donald; Georgiew, Georgi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A fused silica Mie Scattering Diffuser (MSD) has been developed at Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. that has measured characteristics which could be used to increase the accuracy of the spectral albedo <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir ozone total column and profile <span class="hlt">instrument</span> by almost an order of magnitude. Measurements have been made of the optical characteristics on both natural and synthetic forms of fused silica MSDs. Preliminary measurements suggest that MSDs are useable in the solar reflective wavelength region from 250 nm to 3.7 m. To date synthetic and natural MSDs have been irradiated for 60 hours of UV radiation from a solar simulator, and synthetic MSDs have been irradiated with increasing doses of Co-60 gamma rays at 30, 500 krads up to 1.5 Mrads, and 30 krads of 200 MeV protons. The principal effects have been small loses in transmittance at wavelengths < 350 nm. The high energy particle irradiation measurements were provided by Neal Nickles and Dean Spieth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013486','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013486"><span>James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Module <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Verification of High-Accuracy <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight <span class="hlt">instruments</span> at the Integrated Science <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9972E..0PH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9972E..0PH"><span>The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the DSCOVR EPIC multiple visible channel <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using MODIS and VIIRS as a reference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haney, Conor; Doelling, David; Minnis, Patrick; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin; Gopalan, Arun</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched on 11 February 2015, is a satellite positioned near the Lagrange-1 (L1) point, carrying several <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that monitor space weather, and Earth-view sensors designed for climate studies. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard DSCOVR continuously views the sun illuminated portion of the Earth with spectral coverage in the UV, VIS, and NIR bands. Although the EPIC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> does not have any onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> abilities, its constant view of the sunlit Earth disk provides a unique opportunity for simultaneous viewing with several other satellite <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This arrangement allows the EPIC sensor to be intercalibrated using other well-characterized satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> reference standards. Two such <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are MODIS, flown on Aqua and Terra, and VIIRS, onboard Suomi-NPP. The MODIS and VIIRS reference <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> will be transferred to the EPIC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using both all-sky ocean and deep convective clouds (DCC) ray-matched EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. An automated navigation correction routine was developed to more accurately align the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS granules. The automated navigation correction routine dramatically reduced the uncertainty of the resulting <span class="hlt">calibration</span> gain based on the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. The SCIAMACHY-based spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) applied to the MODIS/ VIIRS radiances were found to successfully adjust the reference radiances to the spectral response of the specific EPIC channel for over-lapping spectral channels. The SBAF was also found to be effective for the non overlapping EPIC channel 10. Lastly, both ray-matching techniques found no discernable trends for EPIC channel 7 over the year of publically released EPIC data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002787','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002787"><span>Debris <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Detection <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for Crewed Modules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Opiela, J.; Corsaro, R.; Giovanes, F.; Lio, J.-C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>When micrometeoroid or debris <span class="hlt">impacts</span> occur on a space habitat, crew members need to be quickly informed of the likely extent of damage, and be directed to the <span class="hlt">impact</span> location for possible repairs. This is especially important because the outer walls of pressurized volumes are often not easily accessible, blocked by racks or cabinets. The goal of the Habitat Particle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Monitoring System (HIMS) is to develop a fully automated, end-to-end particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> detection system for crewed space exploration modules. The HIMS uses multiple passive, thin film piezo-polymer vibration sensors to detect <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on a surface, and computer processing of the acoustical signals to characterize the <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Development and demonstration of the HIMS is proceeding in concert with NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Project. The HDU Project is designed to develop and test various technologies, configurations, and operational concepts for exploration habitats. This paper describes the HIMS development, initial testing, and HDU integration efforts. Initial tests of the system on the HDU were conducted at NASA s 2010 and 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (Desert-RATS or D-RATS). The HDU lab module, as seen from above, has an open circular floorplan divided into eight wedge-shaped Segments. The side wall of the module -- the surface used for this technology demonstration -- is a hard fiberglass composite covered with a layer of sprayed-on foam insulation. Four sensor locations were assigned near the corners of a rectangular pattern on the wall of one segment of the HDU lab module. The flat, self-adhesive sensors were applied to the module during its initial outfitting. To study the influence of the wall s construction (thickness and materials), three sets of four sensors were installed at different layer depths: on the interior of the module s wall, on the exterior of the same wall, and on the exterior of the foam insulation. The signal produced when a vibration passes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9880E..2JB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9880E..2JB"><span>On accuracy of radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of hyperspectral visible/NIR satellite remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> using test sites of different altitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borovski, Alexander; Ivanov, Victor; Pankratova, Natalia; Postylyakov, Oleg</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>To provide accurate data the regular on-board absolute radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a satellite hyperspectral <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is required. Together with the internal <span class="hlt">calibration</span> the external <span class="hlt">calibration</span> using comparison of radiance measurements above special ground test sites and calculated radiances is performed. The top of the atmosphere radiances are calculated using a radiative transfer model basing on atmospheric and surface characteristics measured at the test sites. The paper presents preliminary results of the comparative theoretical analysis of the errors of a satellite hyperspectral <span class="hlt">instrument</span> radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> using test sites located at 200 m.a.s.l. and 2000 m.a.s.l. with the atmospheric composition and surface reflectance measurements. The analysis is performed for an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with the spectral resolution of 1-8 nm which is typical for special regime of payload GSA of Russian satellite Resurs-P. The errors related with the atmospheric composition and albedo measurement errors and scenarios of the aerosol vertical distribution were theoretically examined. The error is less than 4% in all the cases at all the wavelengths between 400 nm and 1000 nm with the exception of the absorption bands of water vapor. In the absorption bands of water vapor about 720 nm and 820 nm the errors reach 5% at the mountain site and 10% at the downcountry site. In the absorption band of 950 nm the errors reach 15% in mountains and 35% in downcountry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40204900','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40204900"><span>Nitrogen dioxide and kerosene-flame soot <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of photoacoustic <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for measurement of light absorption by aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmu''ller, Hans; Walker, John W.</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>A nitrogen dioxide <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method is developed to evaluate the theoretical <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for a photoacoustic <span class="hlt">instrument</span> used to measure light absorption by atmospheric aerosols at a laser wavelength of 532.0 nm. This method uses high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide so that both a simple extinction and the photoacoustically obtained absorption measurement may be performed simultaneously. Since Rayleigh scattering is much less than absorption for the gas, the agreement between the extinction and absorption coefficients can be used to evaluate the theoretical <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, so that the laser gas spectra are not needed. Photoacoustic theory is developed to account for strong absorption of the laser beam power in passage through the resonator. Findings are that the photoacoustic absorption based on heat-balance theory for the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> compares well with absorption inferred from the extinction measurement, and that both are well within values represented by published spectra of nitrogen dioxide. Photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide limits the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method to wavelengths longer than 398 nm. Extinction and absorption at 532 and 1047 nm were measured for kerosene-flame soot to evaluate the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method, and the single scattering albedo was found to be 0.31 and 0.20 at these wavelengths, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26979909','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26979909"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> treadmill using a precision-controlled device with artificial neural network-based error corrections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Hong-Jung; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Chen, Ting-Yi; Lu, Tung-Wu</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> treadmills (ITs) are used to measure reaction forces (RF) and center of pressure (COP) movements for gait and balance assessment. Regular in situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is essential to ensure their accuracy and to identify conditions when a factory re-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> is needed. The current study aimed to develop and <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> in situ an IT using a portable, precision-controlled <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device with an artificial neural network (ANN)-based correction method. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device was used to apply static and dynamic <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> loads to the surface of the IT at 189 and 25 grid-points, respectively, at four belt speeds (0, 4, 6 and 8 km/h) without the need of a preset template. Part of the applied and measured RF and COP were used to train a threelayered, back-propagation ANN model while the rest of the data were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN. The percent errors of Fz and errors of the Px and Py were significantly decreased from a maximum of -1.15%, -1.64 mm and -0.73 mm to 0.02%, 0.02 mm and 0.03 mm during static <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, respectively. During dynamic <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, the corresponding values were decreasing from -3.65%, 2.58 mm and -4.92 mm to 0.30%, -0.14 mm and -0.47 mm, respectively. The results suggest that the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device and associated ANN will be useful for correcting measurement errors in vertical loads and COP for ITs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9607E..0UL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9607E..0UL"><span>Evaluating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of cold focal plane temperature on Aqua MODIS thermal emissive band <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yonghong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian; Xiong, Xiaoxiong</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Aqua MODIS, the second MODIS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> of the NASA Earth Observation System, has operated for over thirteen years since launch in 2002. MODIS has sixteen thermal emissive bands (TEB) located on two separate cold focal plane assemblies (CFPA). The TEB are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using onboard blackbody and space view observations. MODIS CFPA temperature is controlled by a radiative cooler and heaters in order to maintain detector gain stability. Beginning in 2006, the CFPA temperature gradually varies from its designed operating temperature with increasing orbital and seasonal fluctuations, with the largest observed <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the TEB photoconductive (PC) bands. In Aqua Collection 6 (C6), a correction to the detector gain due to the CFPA temperature variation is applied for data after mid-2012. This paper evaluates the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the CFPA temperature variation on the TEB PC band <span class="hlt">calibration</span> through comparisons with simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO) measurements from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Our analysis shows that the current L1B product from mid-2011 to mid-2012 is affected by the CFPA temperature fluctuation. The MODIS-IASI comparison results show that no drift is observed in PC bands over the CFPA temperature variation range. Similarly, in the MODIS-AIRS comparison, bands 31-34 show nearly no trend over the range of CFPA temperature while a slight drift in bands 35-36 are seen from the comparison results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5179731','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5179731"><span>Apparatus for in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure fluid depth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Campbell, M.D.</p> <p>1994-01-11</p> <p>The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position. 8 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869116','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869116"><span>Apparatus for in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure fluid depth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Campbell, Melvin D.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/539248','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/539248"><span>Mathematical <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Ge detectors, and the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that use them</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bronson, F.L.; Young, B.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Efficiency <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for Ge detectors are typically done with the use of multiple energy <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> sources which are added to a bulk matrix intended to simulate the measurement sample, and then deposited in the sample container. This is rather easy for common laboratory samples. Bu, even there, for many environmental samples, waste assay samples, and operational health physics samples, accurate <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> are difficult. For these situations, various mathematical corrections or direct <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques are used at Canberra. EML has pioneered the use of mathematical <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> following source-based detector characterization measurements for in situ measurements of environmental fallout. Canberra has expanded this by the use of MCNP for the source measurements required in EML. For other <span class="hlt">calibration</span> situations, MCNP was used directly, as the primary <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method. This is demonstrated to be at least as accurate as source based measurements, and probably better. Recently, a new method [ISOCS] has been developed and is nearing completion. This promises to be an easy to use <span class="hlt">calibration</span> software that can be used by the customer for in situ gamma spectroscopy to accurately measure many large sized samples, such as boxes, drums, pipes, or to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> small laboratory-type samples. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080026200','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080026200"><span>Laboratory Simulation of <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> upon Aluminum Foils of the Stardust Spacecraft: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Dust Particle Size from Comet Wild 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kearsley, A. T.; Burchell, M. J.; Horz, F.; Cole, M. J.; Schwandt, C. S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Metallic aluminium alloy foils exposed on the forward, comet-facing surface of the aerogel tray on the Stardust spacecraft are likely to have been <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by the same cometary particle population as the dedicated <span class="hlt">impact</span> sensors and the aerogel collector. The ability of soft aluminium alloy to record hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> as bowl-shaped craters offers an opportunistic substrate for recognition of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by particles of a wide potential size range. In contrast to <span class="hlt">impact</span> surveys conducted on samples from low Earth orbit, the simple encounter geometry for Stardust and Wild 2, with a known and constant spacecraft-particle relative velocity and effective surface-perpendicular <span class="hlt">impact</span> trajectories, permits closely comparable simulation in laboratory experiments. For a detailed <span class="hlt">calibration</span> programme we have selected a suite of spherical glass projectiles of uniform density and hardness characteristics, with well-documented particle size range from 10 microns to nearly 100 microns. Light gas gun buckshot firings of these particles at approximately 6km s)exp -1) onto samples of the same foil as employed on Stardust have yielded large numbers of craters. Scanning electron microscopy of both projectiles and <span class="hlt">impact</span> features has allowed construction of a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> plot, showing a linear relationship between <span class="hlt">impacting</span> particle size and <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater diameter. The close match between our experimental conditions and the Stardust mission encounter parameters should provide another opportunity to measure particle size distributions and fluxes close to the nucleus of Wild 2, independent of the active <span class="hlt">impact</span> detector <span class="hlt">instruments</span> aboard the Stardust spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150016960','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150016960"><span>Capabilities, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the ISS-RAD Fast Neutron Detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leitgab, Martin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the current NASA crew radiation health risk assessment framework, estimates for the neutron contributions to crew radiation exposure largely rely on simulated data with sizeable uncertainties due to the lack of experimental measurements inside the ISS. Integrated in the ISS-RAD <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, the ISS-RAD Fast Neutron Detector (FND) will deploy to the ISS on one of the next cargo supply missions. Together with the ISS-RAD Charged Particle Detector, the FND will perform, for the first time, routine and precise direct neutron measurements inside the ISS between 0.5 and 80 MeV. The measurements will close the NASA Medical Operations Requirement to monitor neutrons inside the ISS and <span class="hlt">impact</span> crew radiation health risk assessments by reducing uncertainties on the neutron contribution to crew exposure, enabling more efficient mission planning. The presentation will focus on the FND detection mechanism, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> results and expectations about the FND's interaction with the mixed radiation field inside the ISS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014254','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014254"><span>Test Plan for a <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or <span class="hlt">instrument</span> vendor capabilities for future spaceborne <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches , alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> suitable for climate-quality data collections. The CLARREO mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The current work describes the test plan for the SOLARIS which is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482820','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482820"><span>Post <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with electron temperature characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Choi, M. J.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y. B.; Choe, G. H.; Lee, W.; Jardin, S.</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is widely used to study the local electron temperature (T{sub e}) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity I{sub ECE} ∝ T{sub e} in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the flat T{sub e} assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> electron temperature (T{sub e,rel}) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SoPh..257..185T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SoPh..257..185T"><span>SOLAR/SOLSPEC: Scientific Objectives, <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Performance and Its Absolute <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Using a Blackbody as Primary Standard Source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thuillier, G.; Foujols, T.; Bolsée, D.; Gillotay, D.; Hersé, M.; Peetermans, W.; Decuyper, W.; Mandel, H.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>SOLAR is a set of three solar <span class="hlt">instruments</span> measuring the total and spectral absolute irradiance from 16 nm to 3080 nm for solar, atmospheric and climatology physics. It is an external payload for the COLUMBUS laboratory launched on 7 February 2008. The mission’s primary objective is the measurement of the solar irradiance with the highest possible accuracy, and its variability using the following <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: SOL-ACES (SOLar Auto-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> EUV/UV Spectrophotometers) consists of four grazing incidence planar gratings measuring from 16 nm to 220 nm; SOLSPEC (SOLar SPECtrum) consists of three double gratings spectrometers, covering the range 165 nm to 3080 nm; and SOVIM (SOlar Variability Irradiance Monitor) is combining two types of absolute radiometers and three-channel filter - radiometers. SOLSPEC and SOL-ACES have been <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> by primary standard radiation sources of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Below we describe SOLSPEC, and its performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8870E..08T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8870E..08T"><span>Error budget for a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system for the reflected solar <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the climate absolute radiance and refractivity observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or <span class="hlt">instrument</span> vendor capabilities for spaceborne <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The current work describes the radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023302','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023302"><span>Error Budget for a <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or <span class="hlt">instrument</span> vendor capabilities for spaceborne <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The current work describes the radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MSAIS..14..226B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MSAIS..14..226B"><span>Micro-Arcsec mission: implications of the monitoring, diagnostic and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response in the data reduction chain. .</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Busonero, D.; Gai, M.</p> <p></p> <p>The goals of 21st century high angular precision experiments rely on the limiting performance associated to the selected <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> configuration and observational strategy. Both global and narrow angle micro-arcsec space astrometry require that the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> contributions to the overall error budget has to be less than the desired micro-arcsec level precision. Appropriate modelling of the astrometric response is required for optimal definition of the data reduction and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> algorithms, in order to ensure high sensitivity to the astrophysical source parameters and in general high accuracy. We will refer to the framework of the SIM-Lite and the Gaia mission, the most challenging space missions of the next decade in the narrow angle and global astrometry field, respectively. We will focus our dissertation on the Gaia data reduction issues and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> implications. We describe selected topics in the framework of the Astrometric <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Modelling for the Gaia mission, evidencing their role in the data reduction chain and we give a brief overview of the Astrometric <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Model Data Analysis Software System, a Java-based pipeline under development by our team.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118566','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118566"><span>The extended wedge method: Atomic force microscope friction <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for improved tolerance to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khare, H. S.; Burris, D. L.</p> <p>2013-05-15</p> <p>One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force <span class="hlt">calibration</span> which: (1) allows simultaneous <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS{sub 2} to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS{sub 2} had friction coefficients of {mu}= 0.20 {+-} 0.04 and {mu}= 0.006 {+-} 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS{sub 2} had a friction coefficient of {mu}= 0.005 {+-} 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> rather than <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031298','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031298"><span>Prime candidate earth targets for the post-launch radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of space-based optical imaging <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Teillet, P.M.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Thome, K.J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides a comprehensive list of prime candidate terrestrial targets for consideration as benchmark sites for the post-launch radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of space-based <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The key characteristics of suitable sites are outlined primarily with respect to selection criteria, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability. The establishment and utilization of such benchmark sites is considered an important element of the radiometric traceability of satellite image data products for use in the accurate monitoring of environmental change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA138301','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA138301"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Landing System DDM (Difference in Depth of Modulation) <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Accuracies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>provided invaluable help in the development and completion of this thesis project. Sincere appreciation is expressed to Mr. William E. Herod , Chief of...0.01728 :I ; Fig. IV-13. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Hierarchy & Accuracies. IV-18 L Ley ’ ! It is clear that if the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracies of figure IV-13 can be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...139..151M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...139..151M"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of speleothem δ18O records against hydroclimate <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> records in Central Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moquet, J. S.; Cruz, F. W.; Novello, V. F.; Stríkis, N. M.; Deininger, M.; Karmann, I.; Santos, R. Ventura; Millo, C.; Apaestegui, J.; Guyot, J.-L.; Siffedine, A.; Vuille, M.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Santini, W.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>δ18O in speleothems is a powerful proxy for reconstruction of precipitation patterns in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The aim of this study is to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the δ18O record of speleothems against historical precipitation and river discharge data in central Brazil, a region directly influenced by the Southern Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), a major feature of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS). The present work is based on a sub-annual resolution speleothem record covering the last 141 years (the period between the years 1870 and 2011) from a cave in central Brazil. The comparison of this record with <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> hydroclimate records since 1921 allows defining a strong relationship between precipitation variability and stable oxygen isotope ratios from speleothems. The results from a monitoring program of climatic parameters and isotopic composition of rainfall and cave seepage waters performed in the same cave, show that the rain δ18O variability is dominated by the amount effect in this region, while δ18O drip water remains almost constant over the monitored period (1.5 years). The δ18O of modern calcite, on the other hand, shows clear seasonal variations, with more negative values observed during the rainy season, which implies that other factors also influence the isotopic composition of carbonate. However, the relationship between δ18O of carbonate deposits and rainwater is supported by the results from the comparison between speleothem δ18O records and historical hydroclimate records. A significant correlation between speleothem δ18O and monsoon rainfall variability is observed on sub-decadal time scales, especially for the monsoon period (DJFM and NDJFM), once the rainfall record have been smoothed with a 7-9 years running mean. This study confirms that speleothem δ18O is directly associated with monsoon rainfall variability in central Brazil. The relationship between speleothem δ18O records and hydroclimatic historical records allows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510134Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510134Z"><span>A new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system for lightweight, compact and mobile Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zielcke, Johannes; Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Absorption Spectroscopy has been employed for several decades now to study the earth's atmosphere. While the focus has been on remote sensing for a long time, lately there has been a renewed interest in in-situ methods, as point measurements allow an easier interpretation for highly inhomogeneous distributions of gases of interest compared to the integration approach of most remote sensing methods. One comparatively new method offering both advantages of in-situ measurements as well as being contactless is open-path Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS). Broadband open-path CE-DOAS <span class="hlt">instruments</span> have been used for ten years now, and in the meantime allow the measurement of numerous atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, NO3, IO, CHOCHO, HCHO). While those <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were bulky and not very mobile at first, recent developments resulted in relatively lightweight (< 30 kg) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with a relatively low power consumption allowing mobile open-path measurements at remote field locations. An important operational issue has been the path length <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in the field, necessary for the determination of the concentration of measured gases. Until now, often <span class="hlt">calibration</span> gases were used with different scattering properties than air or known concentrations. However this methods has several major shortcomings, being rather inconvenient and cumbersome in the field with the need for compressed gas cylinders, as well as time consuming, preventing a quick check of the state of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the field after changing measurement locations. Here we present a new wavelength-resolved method for broadband CE-DOAS path length <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. A small, custom made ring-down system is employed with a pulsed LED as light source. The wavelength is then resolved by tilting a narrow band interference filter. The system not only allows quick, automated path length <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> without physical interaction on the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, but also saves weight, space and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050139066&hterms=instruments+Description&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dinstruments%2BDescription','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050139066&hterms=instruments+Description&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dinstruments%2BDescription"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> and Their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Earth Science Missions (I)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hartley, Jonathan; Komar, George; Lemmerman, Loren; Gerber, Andrew</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A past paper (IAA-B4-1004) analyzed the costs associated with developing, launching and operating a constellation of small satellites for earth observations. That study provided examples of measurements that could be made with such a system, per-unit cost goals and an overview of technologies that might be applied to spacecraft (s/c) subsystems to minimize power, mass and volume. However, that paper largely ignored <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> size, mass, and power reductions on future mission feasibility. This paper reviews <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that have been or are being funded by NASA to reduce power consumption, mass, volume; to lower downlink demands; and/or lower unit costs. The <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in question could be used in single spacecraft missions or implemented in spacecraft constellations to increase temporal or spatial coverage. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> descriptions describe measurements enabled and/or enhanced, concluding with descriptions of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> chosen consist primarily of those with low s/c system resource demands, e.g., power or communications bandwidth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9827E..0YW','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9827E..0YW"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of MODIS SWIR band <span class="hlt">calibration</span> improvements on Level-3 atmospheric products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wald, Andrew; Levy, Robert C.; Angal, Amit; Geng, Xu; Xiong, Jack; Hoffman, Kurt</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The spectral reflectance measured by the MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) is used for retrieving many atmospheric science products. The accuracy of these products depends on the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the RSB. To this end, the RSB of the MODIS <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are primarily <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> on-orbit using regular solar diffuser (SD) observations. For λ <0.94 μm the SD's on-orbit bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) change is tracked using solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) observations. For λ <0.94 μm, the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) developed, in MODIS Collection 6 (C6), a time-dependent correction using observations from pseudo-invariant earth-scene targets. This correction has been implemented in C6 for the Terra MODIS 1.24 μm band over the entire mission, and for the 1.38 μm band in the forward processing. As the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> continue to operate beyond their design lifetime of six years, a similar correction is planned for other short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands as well. MODIS SWIR bands are used in deriving atmosphere products, including aerosol optical thickness, atmospheric total column water vapor, cloud fraction and cloud optical depth. The SD degradation correction in Terra bands 5 and 26 <span class="hlt">impact</span> the spectral radiance and therefore the retrieval of these atmosphere products. Here, we describe the corrections to Bands 5 (1.24 μm) and 26 (1.38 μm), and produce three sets (B5, B26 correction = on/on, on/off, and off/off) of Terra-MODIS Level 1B (<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> radiance product) data. By comparing products derived from these corrected and uncorrected Terra MODIS Level 1B (L1B) <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, dozens of L3 atmosphere products are surveyed for changes caused by the corrections, and representative results are presented. Aerosol and water vapor products show only small local changes, while some cloud products can change locally by >10%, which is a large change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3355425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3355425"><span>An <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> for In Situ Measuring the Volume Scattering Function of Water: Design, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Primary Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Cai; Cao, Wenxi; Yu, Jing; Ke, Tiancun; Lu, Guixin; Yang, Yuezhong; Guo, Chaoying</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The optical volume scattering function (VSF) of seawater is a fundamental property used in the calculation of radiative transfer for applications in the study of the upper-ocean heat balance, the photosynthetic productivity of the ocean, and the chemical transformation of photoreactive compounds. A new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to simultaneously measure the VSF in seven directions between 20° to 160°, the attenuation coefficient, and the depth of water is presented. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is self-contained and can be automatically controlled by the depth under water. The self-contained data can be easily downloaded by an ultra-short-wave communication system. A <span class="hlt">calibration</span> test was performed in the laboratory based on precise estimation of the scattering volume and optical radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the detectors. The measurement error of the VSF measurement <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has been estimated in the laboratory based on the Mie theory, and the average error is less than 12%. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> was used to measure and analyze the variation characteristics of the VSF with angle, depth and water quality in Daya Bay for the first time. From these in situ data, we have found that the phase functions proposed by Fournier-Forand, measured by Petzold in San Diego Harbor and Sokolov in Black Sea do not fit with our measurements in Daya. These discrepancies could manly due to high proportion of suspended calcium carbonate mineral-like particles with high refractive index in Daya Bay. PMID:22666043</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SoPh..275..229S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SoPh..275..229S"><span>Design and Ground <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bush, R. I.; Wachter, R.; Couvidat, S.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Bogart, R. S.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Duvall, T. L.; Akin, D. J.; Allard, B. A.; Miles, J. W.; Rairden, R.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Wolfson, C. J.; Elmore, D. F.; Norton, A. A.; Tomczyk, S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation ( Solar Phys. doi:10.1007/s11207-011-9834-2, 2011) will study the solar interior using helioseismic techniques as well as the magnetic field near the solar surface. The HMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is part of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that was launched on 11 February 2010. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is designed to measure the Doppler shift, intensity, and vector magnetic field at the solar photosphere using the 6173 Å Fe i absorption line. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> consists of a front-window filter, a telescope, a set of waveplates for polarimetry, an image-stabilization system, a blocking filter, a five-stage Lyot filter with one tunable element, two wide-field tunable Michelson interferometers, a pair of 40962 pixel cameras with independent shutters, and associated electronics. Each camera takes a full-disk image roughly every 3.75 seconds giving an overall cadence of 45 seconds for the Doppler, intensity, and line-of-sight magnetic-field measurements and a slower cadence for the full vector magnetic field. This article describes the design of the HMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and provides an overview of the pre-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> efforts. Overviews of the investigation, details of the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, data handling, and the science analysis are provided in accompanying articles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007405','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007405"><span>Design and Ground <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bush, R. I.; Wachter, R.; Couvidat, S.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Bogart, R. S.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20140007405'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20140007405_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20140007405_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20140007405_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20140007405_hide"></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation will study the solar interior using helioseismic techniques as well as the magnetic field near the solar surface. The HMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is part of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that was launched on 11 February 2010. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is designed to measure the Doppler shift, intensity, and vector magnetic field at the solar photosphere using the 6173 Fe I absorption line. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> consists of a front-window filter, a telescope, a set of wave plates for polarimetry, an image-stabilization system, a blocking filter, a five-stage Lyot filter with one tunable element, two wide-field tunable Michelson interferometers, a pair of 4096(exo 2) pixel cameras with independent shutters, and associated electronics. Each camera takes a full-disk image roughly every 3.75 seconds giving an overall cadence of 45 seconds for the Doppler, intensity, and line-of-sight magnetic-field measurements and a slower cadence for the full vector magnetic field. This article describes the design of the HMI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> and provides an overview of the pre-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> efforts. Overviews of the investigation, details of the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, data handling, and the science analysis are provided in accompanying articles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118496','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118496"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of erythemally weighted broadband <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: A comparison between PMOD/WRC and MSL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Swift, Neil; Nield, Kathryn; Hamlin, John; Huelsen, Gregor; Groebner, Julian</p> <p>2013-05-10</p> <p>A Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 ultraviolet pyranometer, designed to measure erythemally weighted total solar irradiance, was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> by the Measurement Standards Laboratory (MSL) in Lower Hutt, New Zealand during August 2010. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was then repeated during July and August 2011 by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Obervatorium Davos, World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) located in Davos, Switzerland. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> results show that measurements of the relative spectral and angular response functions at the two institutes are in excellent agreement, thus providing a good degree of confidence in these measurement facilities. However, measurements to convert the relative spectral response into an absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> disagree significantly depending on whether an FEL lamp or solar spectra are used to perform this scaling. This is the first serious comparison of these scaling methods to formally explore the potential systematic errors which could explain the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8516E..02T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8516E..02T"><span>Test plan for a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system for the reflected solar <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the climate absolute radiance and refractivity observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or <span class="hlt">instrument</span> vendor capabilities for future spaceborne <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft <span class="hlt">instrument</span> design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> suitable for climate-quality data collections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ASPC...61..395D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ASPC...61..395D"><span>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Data Archive and Analysis system for PDS, the high energy <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on board the SAX satellite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>dal Fiume, Daniele; Frontera, Filippo; Orlandini, Mauro; Trifoglio, Massimo</p> <p></p> <p>The PDS (Phoswich Detection System) is an array of four phoswich scintillation detectors (800 cm geometric area) to be flown on board the Italian astronomical satellite SAX (Frontera et al., Advances in Space Research , 11 , 281 ). On ground tests and <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> on the assembled <span class="hlt">instrument</span> are scheduled to start by the end of this year and to continue, with various steps, up to the pre--launch phase. Tests on electronics were already performed (Frontera et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. , in press). During the operational phase the PDS group at TeSRE will continue to monitor the in flight performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, and will mantain an archive containing in flight data and <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> to be used for this monitoring. In this paper we report the architectural design of the data analysis and archival system for PDS <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data. The data will be obtained both from ground <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, and during the operative phase of SAX. The system is based on a network of workstations, with one of them (a HP9000/735 workstation) acting as a database server, and the others as clients. The system includes ~ 3 GB of magnetic disc space (current figure; to be upgraded in the next phases), magnetooptical rewritable disks, CD-ROMs. The data archival is based on a commercial relational database. Data hierarchy will be described and data retrieval will be outlined. Data analysis will be based on both home--made tools and on IDL. Even if PDS is a non--imaging <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, moderate capability to manipulate pseudo--images (matrices of counts versus Pulse Height Amplitude versus Pulse Shape) is required. Some of the required functionalities are non--standard image manipulations. A scheme of data reduction and of data manipulation will be presented. Current status of the realization will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...575A..30S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...575A..30S"><span>XMM-Newton and Chandra cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> using HIFLUGCS galaxy clusters . Systematic temperature differences and cosmological <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.; Lovisari, L.; Nevalainen, J.; David, L.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Context. Robust X-ray temperature measurements of the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters require an accurate energy-dependent effective area <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Since the hot gas X-ray emission of galaxy clusters does not vary on relevant timescales, they are excellent cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> targets. Moreover, cosmological constraints from clusters rely on accurate gravitational mass estimates, which in X-rays strongly depend on cluster gas temperature measurements. Therefore, systematic <span class="hlt">calibration</span> differences may result in biased, <span class="hlt">instrument</span>-dependent cosmological constraints. This is of special interest in light of the tension between the Planck results of the primary temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-plus-X-ray cluster-count analyses. Aims: We quantify in detail the systematics and uncertainties of the cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the effective area between five X-ray <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, EPIC-MOS1/MOS2/PN onboard XMM-Newton and ACIS-I/S onboard Chandra, and the influence on temperature measurements. Furthermore, we assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainties on cosmology. Methods: Using the HIFLUGCS sample, consisting of the 64 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters, we constrain the ICM temperatures through spectral fitting in the same, mostly isothermal regions and compare the different <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. We use the stacked residual ratio method to evaluate the cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainties between the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> as a function of energy. Our work is an extension to a previous one using X-ray clusters by the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IACHEC) and is carried out in the context of IACHEC. Results: Performing spectral fitting in the full energy band, (0.7-7) keV, as is typical of the analysis of cluster spectra, we find that best-fit temperatures determined with XMM-Newton/EPIC are significantly lower than Chandra/ACIS temperatures. This confirms the previous IACHEC results obtained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489056"><span>MERITXELL: The Multifrequency Experimental Radiometer with Interference Tracking for Experiments over Land and Littoral-<span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Description, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Querol, Jorge; Tarongí, José Miguel; Forte, Giuseppe; Gómez, José Javier; Camps, Adriano</p> <p>2017-05-10</p> <p>MERITXELL is a ground-based multisensor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> that includes a multiband dual-polarization radiometer, a GNSS reflectometer, and several optical sensors. Its main goals are twofold: to test data fusion techniques, and to develop Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) detection, localization and mitigation techniques. The former is necessary to retrieve complementary data useful to develop geophysical models with improved accuracy, whereas the latter aims at solving one of the most important problems of microwave radiometry. This paper describes the hardware design, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> control architecture, the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the radiometer, and several captures of RFI signals taken with MERITXELL in urban environment. The multiband radiometer has a dual linear polarization total-power radiometer topology, and it covers the L-, S-, C-, X-, K-, Ka-, and W-band. Its back-end stage is based on a spectrum analyzer structure which allows to perform real-time signal processing, while the rest of the sensors are controlled by a host computer where the off-line processing takes place. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the radiometer is performed using the hot-cold load procedure, together with the tipping curves technique in the case of the five upper frequency bands. Finally, some captures of RFI signals are shown for most of the radiometric bands under analysis, which evidence the problem of RFI in microwave radiometry, and the limitations they impose in external <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5470471','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5470471"><span>MERITXELL: The Multifrequency Experimental Radiometer with Interference Tracking for Experiments over Land and Littoral—<span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Description, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Querol, Jorge; Tarongí, José Miguel; Forte, Giuseppe; Gómez, José Javier; Camps, Adriano</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>MERITXELL is a ground-based multisensor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> that includes a multiband dual-polarization radiometer, a GNSS reflectometer, and several optical sensors. Its main goals are twofold: to test data fusion techniques, and to develop Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) detection, localization and mitigation techniques. The former is necessary to retrieve complementary data useful to develop geophysical models with improved accuracy, whereas the latter aims at solving one of the most important problems of microwave radiometry. This paper describes the hardware design, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> control architecture, the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the radiometer, and several captures of RFI signals taken with MERITXELL in urban environment. The multiband radiometer has a dual linear polarization total-power radiometer topology, and it covers the L-, S-, C-, X-, K-, Ka-, and W-band. Its back-end stage is based on a spectrum analyzer structure which allows to perform real-time signal processing, while the rest of the sensors are controlled by a host computer where the off-line processing takes place. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the radiometer is performed using the hot-cold load procedure, together with the tipping curves technique in the case of the five upper frequency bands. Finally, some captures of RFI signals are shown for most of the radiometric bands under analysis, which evidence the problem of RFI in microwave radiometry, and the limitations they impose in external <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. PMID:28489056</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034303','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034303"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Nu-<span class="hlt">Instruments</span> Noblesse multicollector mass spectrometers for argon isotopic measurements using a newly developed reference gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Coble, M.A.; Grove, M.; Calvert, A.T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The greatest challenge limiting 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements is the availability of appropriate standard gasses to intercalibrate detectors. In particular, use of zoom lens ion-optics to steer and focus ion beams into a fixed detector array (i.e., Nu <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> Noblesse) makes intercalibration of multiple detectors challenging because different ion-optic tuning conditions are required for optimal peak shape and sensitivity at different mass stations. We have found that detector efficiency and mass discrimination are affected by changes in ion-optic tuning parameters. Reliance upon an atmospheric Ar standard to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the Noblesse is problematic because there is no straightforward way to relate atmospheric 40Ar and 36Ar to measurements of 40Ar and 39Ar if they are measured on separate detectors. After exploring alternative <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches, we have concluded that <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Noblesse is best performed using exactly the same source, detector, and ion-optic tuning settings as those used in routine 40Ar/39Ar analysis. To accomplish this, we have developed synthetic reference gasses containing 40Ar, 39Ar and 38Ar produced by mixing gasses derived from neutron-irradiated sanidine with an enriched 38Ar spike. We present a new method for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the Noblesse based on use of both atmospheric Ar and the synthetic reference gasses. By combining atmospheric Ar and synthetic reference gas in different ways, we can directly measure 40Ar/39Ar, 38Ar/39Ar, and 36Ar/39Ar correction factors over ratios that vary from 0.5 to 460. These correction factors are reproducible to better than ??0.5??? (2?? standard error) over intervals spanning ~24h but can vary systematically by ~4% over 2weeks of continuous use when electron multiplier settings are held constant. Monitoring this variation requires daily <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Application of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method to 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements of widely used sanidine reference materials</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003995','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003995"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> between Color Camera and 3D LIDAR <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> with a Polygonal Planar Board</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Yoonsu; Yun, Seokmin; Won, Chee Sun; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun; Sim, Sungdae</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> between color camera and 3D Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) equipment is an essential process for data fusion. The goal of this paper is to improve the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracy between a camera and a 3D LIDAR. In particular, we are interested in <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> a low resolution 3D LIDAR with a relatively small number of vertical sensors. Our goal is achieved by employing a new methodology for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> board, which exploits 2D-3D correspondences. The 3D corresponding points are estimated from the scanned laser points on the polygonal planar board with adjacent sides. Since the lengths of adjacent sides are known, we can estimate the vertices of the board as a meeting point of two projected sides of the polygonal board. The estimated vertices from the range data and those detected from the color image serve as the corresponding points for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Experiments using a low-resolution LIDAR with 32 sensors show robust results. PMID:24643005</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAG...140...84S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAG...140...84S"><span>System stability and <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for hand-held electromagnetic frequency domain <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saksa, Pauli J.; Sorsa, Joona</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>There are a few multiple-frequency domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) hand-held rigid boom systems available for shallow geophysical resistivity investigations. They basically measure secondary field real and imaginary components after the system <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. One multiple-frequency system, the EMP-400 Profiler from Geophysical Survey Systems Inc., was tested for system <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, stability and various effects present in normal measurements like height variation, tilting, signal stacking and time stability. Results indicated that in test conditions, repeatable high-accuracy imaginary component values can be recorded for near-surface frequency soundings. In test conditions, real components are also stable but vary strongly in normal surveying measurements. However, certain <span class="hlt">calibration</span> issues related to the combination of user influence and measurement system height were recognised as an important factor in reducing for data errors and for further processing like static offset corrections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=329896','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=329896"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of length of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> period on the APEX model water quantity and quality simulation performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Availability of continuous long-term measured data for model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation is limited due to time and resources constraints. As a result, hydrologic and water quality models are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> and, if possible, validated when measured data is available. Past work reported on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=334516','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=334516"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of length of dataset on streamflow <span class="hlt">calibration</span> parameters and performance of APEX model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Due to resource constraints, long-term monitoring data for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation of hydrologic and water quality models are rare. As a result, most models are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> and, if possible, validated using limited measured data. However, little research has been done to determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of le...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/52655','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/52655"><span>Hydrological processes and model representation: <span class="hlt">impact</span> of soft data on <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>J.G. Arnold; M.A. Youssef; H. Yen; M.J. White; A.Y. Sheshukov; A.M. Sadeghi; D.N. Moriasi; J.L. Steiner; Devendra Amatya; R.W. Skaggs; E.B. Haney; J. Jeong; M. Arabi; P.H. Gowda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hydrologic and water quality models are increasingly used to determine the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variability and land management. Due to differing model objectives and differences in monitored data, there are currently no universally accepted procedures for model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation in the literature. In an effort to develop accepted model <span class="hlt">calibration</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007A%26A...472.1041D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007A%26A...472.1041D"><span>Theoretical model atmosphere spectra used for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of infrared <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Decin, L.; Eriksson, K.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Context: One of the key ingredients in establishing the relation between input signal and output flux from a spectrometer is accurate determination of the spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. In the case of spectrometers onboard satellites, the accuracy of this part of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> pedigree is ultimately linked to the accuracy of the set of reference spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that the spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is built on. Aims: In this paper, we deal with the spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of infrared (IR) spectrometers onboard satellites in the 2 to 200 μm wavelength range. We aim at comparing the different reference SEDs used for the IR spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The emphasis is on the reference SEDs of stellar standards with spectral type later than A0, with special focus on the theoretical model atmosphere spectra. Methods: Using the MARCS model atmosphere code, spectral reference SEDs were constructed for a set of IR stellar standards (A dwarfs, solar analogs, G9-M0 giants). A detailed error analysis was performed to estimate proper uncertainties on the predicted flux values. Results: It is shown that the uncertainty on the predicted fluxes can be as high as 10%, but in case high-resolution observational optical or near-IR data are available, and IR excess can be excluded, the uncertainty on medium-resolution SEDs can be reduced to 1-2% in the near-IR, to ~3% in the mid-IR, and to ~5% in the far-IR. Moreover, it is argued that theoretical stellar atmosphere spectra are at the moment the best representations for the IR fluxes of cool stellar standards. Conclusions: When aiming at a determination of the spectrophotometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of IR spectrometers better than 3%, effort should be put into constructing an appropriate set of stellar reference SEDs based on theoretical atmosphere spectra for some 15 standard stars with spectral types between A0 V and M0 III.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8442E..35T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8442E..35T"><span>Design concept of the electrical ground support equipment for the AIV and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Euclid NISP <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trifoglio, Massimo; Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Butler, Chris. R.; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Conforti, Vito; Corcione, Leonardo; Franceschi, Enrico; Gianotti, Fulvio; Ligori, Sebastiano; Maciaszek, Thierry; Morgante, Gianluca; Muñoz, Jacinto; Nicastro, Luciano; Prieto, Eric; Rebolo-López, Rafael; Riva, Mario; Spano, Paolo; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Valenziano, Luca; Villó, Isidro; Zerbi, Filippo Maria</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer (NISP) on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at various levels of integration using various test equipment which shall be designed and procured through a collaborative and coordinated effort. In this paper we describe the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) which shall be required to support the assembly, integration, verification and testing (AIV/AIT) and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> activities at <span class="hlt">instrument</span> level before delivery to ESA, and at satellite level, when the NISP <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is mounted on the spacecraft. We present the EGSE conceptual design as defined in order to be compliant with the AIV/AIT and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> requirements. The proposed concept is aimed at maximizing the re-use in the EGSE configuration of the Test Equipment developed for subsystem level activities, as well as, at allowing a smooth transition from <span class="hlt">instrument</span> level to satellite level, and, possibly, at Ground Segment level. This paper mainly reports the technical status at the end of the Definition phase and it is presented on behalf of the Euclid Consortium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJS..231...10A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJS..231...10A"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Large Area X-Ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on board AstroSat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Antia, H. M.; Yadav, J. S.; Agrawal, P. C.; Verdhan Chauhan, Jai; Manchanda, R. K.; Chitnis, Varsha; Paul, Biswajit; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Shah, Parag; Gujar, V. M.; Katoch, Tilak; Kurhade, V. N.; Madhwani, Pankaj; Manojkumar, T. K.; Nikam, V. A.; Pandya, A. S.; Parmar, J. V.; Pawar, D. M.; Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev; Navalgund, K. H.; Pandiyan, R.; Sharma, K. S.; Subbarao, K.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We present the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and background model for the Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) detectors on board AstroSat. The LAXPC <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has three nominally identical detectors to achieve a large collecting area. These detectors are independent of each other, and in the event analysis mode they record the arrival time and energy of each photon that is detected. The detectors have a time resolution of 10 μs and a dead-time of about 42 μs. This makes LAXPC ideal for timing studies. The energy resolution and peak channel-to-energy mapping were obtained from <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on the ground using radioactive sources coupled with GEANT4 simulations of the detectors. The response matrix was further refined from observations of the Crab after launch. At around 20 keV the energy resolution of the detectors is 10%-15%, while the combined effective area of the three detectors is about 6000 cm2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156829','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156829"><span>Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014, Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Langbein, John O.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts-per-billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and better modeling of the strain fit from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in-situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain-tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measure the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point-source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=332080','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=332080"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of model development, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation decisions on hydrological simulations in West Lake Erie Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Watershed simulation models are used extensively to investigate hydrologic processes, landuse and climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, pollutant load assessments and best management practices (BMPs). Developing, <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> and validating these models require a number of critical decisions that will influence t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920065606&hterms=refraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drefraction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920065606&hterms=refraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drefraction"><span>The slant path atmospheric refraction <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> - An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to measure the microwave propagation delays induced by atmospheric water vapor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walter, Steven J.; Bender, Peter L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The water vapor-induced propagation delay experienced by a radio signal traversing the atmosphere is characterized by the Slant Path Atmospheric Refraction <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> (SPARC), which measures the difference in the travel times between an optical and a microwave signal propagating along the same atmospheric path with an accuracy of 15 picosec or better. Attention is given to the theoretical and experimental issues involved in measuring the delay induced by water vapor; SPARC measurements conducted along a 13.35-km ground-based path are presented, illustrating the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s stability, precision, and accuracy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003NewA....8..727S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003NewA....8..727S"><span>Absolute <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and beam reconstruction of MITO(a ground-based <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the millimetric region)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savini, G.; Orlando, A.; Battistelli, E. S.; De Petris, M.; Lamagna, L.; Luzzi, G.; Palladino, E.</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>An efficient sky data reconstruction derives from a precise characterization of the observing <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Here we describe the reconstruction of performances of a single-pixel 4-band photometer installed at MITO (Millimeter and Infrared Testagrigia Observatory) focal plane. The strategy of differential sky observations at millimeter wavelengths, by scanning the field of view at constant elevation wobbling the subreflector, induces a good knowledge of beam profile and beam-throw amplitude, allowing efficient data recovery. The problems that arise estimating the detectors throughput by drift scanning on planets are shown. Atmospheric transmission, monitored by skydip technique, is considered for deriving final responsivities for the 4 channels using planets as primary <span class="hlt">calibrators</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920065606&hterms=Refraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DRefraction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920065606&hterms=Refraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DRefraction"><span>The slant path atmospheric refraction <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> - An <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to measure the microwave propagation delays induced by atmospheric water vapor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walter, Steven J.; Bender, Peter L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The water vapor-induced propagation delay experienced by a radio signal traversing the atmosphere is characterized by the Slant Path Atmospheric Refraction <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> (SPARC), which measures the difference in the travel times between an optical and a microwave signal propagating along the same atmospheric path with an accuracy of 15 picosec or better. Attention is given to the theoretical and experimental issues involved in measuring the delay induced by water vapor; SPARC measurements conducted along a 13.35-km ground-based path are presented, illustrating the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s stability, precision, and accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1343074','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1343074"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Indoor and Outdoor Radiometer <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> on Solar Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin</p> <p>2016-06-02</p> <p>This study addresses the effect of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methodologies on <span class="hlt">calibration</span> responsivities and the resulting <span class="hlt">impact</span> on radiometric measurements. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> responsivities used in this study are provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer <span class="hlt">calibration</span> (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The BORCAL method provides outdoor <span class="hlt">calibration</span> responsivity of pyranometers and pyrheliometers at a 45 degree solar zenith angle and responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle determined by clear-sky comparisons to reference irradiance. The BORCAL method also employs a thermal offset correction to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> responsivity of single-black thermopile detectors used in pyranometers. Indoor <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of radiometers by their manufacturers are performed using a stable artificial light source in a side-by-side comparison of the test radiometer under <span class="hlt">calibration</span> to a reference radiometer of the same type. These different methods of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> demonstrated 1percent to 2 percent differences in solar irradiance measurement. Analyzing these values will ultimately enable a reduction in radiometric measurement uncertainties and assist in developing consensus on a standard for <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039666&hterms=klein&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dklein','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039666&hterms=klein&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dklein"><span>Precision DSN Radiometer Systems: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Microwave <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stelzried, C. T.; Klein, M. J.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has a long history of providing large parabolic dish antennas with precision surfaces, low-loss feeds and ultra-low noise amplifiers for deep space telecommunications. To realize the benefits of high sensitivity, it is important that receiving systems are accurately <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> and monitored to maintain peak performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS41C1749T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS41C1749T"><span><span class="hlt">Instrument</span> development and field application of the in situ pH <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> at the Ocean Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, C.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A novel, self-<span class="hlt">calibrating</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for in-situ measurement of pH in deep sea environments up to 4000 m has recently been developed. The device utilizes a compact fluid delivery system to perform measurement and two-point <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the solid state pH sensor array (Ir|IrOx| Ag|AgCl), which is sealed in a flow cell to enhance response time. The fluid delivery system is composed of a metering pump and valves, which periodically deliver seawater samples into the flow cell to perform measurements. Similarly, pH buffer solutions can be delivered into the flow cell to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the electrodes under operational conditions. Sensor signals are acquired and processed by a high resolution (0.25 mV) datalogger circuit with a size of 114 mm×31 mm×25 mm. Eight input channels are available: two high impedance sensor input channels, two low impedance sensor input channel, two thermocouple input channels and two thermistor input channels. These eight channels provide adequate measurement flexibility to enhance applications in deep sea environments. The two high impedance channels of the datalogger are especially designed with the input impedance of 1016 Ω for YSZ (yittria-stabilized zirconia) ceramic electrodes characterized by the extremely low input bias current and high resistance. Field tests have been performed in 2008 by ROV at the depth up to 3200 m. Using the continuous power supply and TCP/IP network capability of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) ocean observatory, the so-called "pH <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span>" has the capability of long term operation up to six months. In the observatory mode, the electronics are configured with DC-DC power converter modules and Ethernet to serial module to gain access to the science port of seafloor junction box. The pH <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> will be deployed at the ocean observatory in October and the in situ data will be on line on the internet. The pH <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> presents real time pH data at high pressures and variable temperatures, while</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21464835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21464835"><span><span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF CHANDRA <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span> UNCERTAINTIES ON GALAXY CLUSTER TEMPERATURES: APPLICATION TO THE HUBBLE CONSTANT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reese, Erik D.; Kawahara, Hajime; Suto, Yasushi; Kitayama, Tetsu; Ota, Naomi; Sasaki, Shin</p> <p>2010-09-20</p> <p>We perform a uniform, systematic X-ray spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 38 galaxy clusters with three different Chandra <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. The temperatures change systematically between <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. Cluster temperatures change on average by roughly {approx}6% for the smallest changes and roughly {approx}13% for the more extreme changes between <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. We explore the effects of the Chandra <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on cluster spectral properties and the implications on Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and X-ray determinations of the Hubble constant. The Hubble parameter changes by +10% and -13% between the current <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and two previous Chandra <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, indicating that changes in the cluster temperature basically explain the entire change in H{sub 0}. Although this work focuses on the difference in spectral properties and resultant Hubble parameters between the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>, it is intriguing to note that the newer <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> favor a lower value of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0} {approx} 60 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, typical of results from SZE/X-ray distances. Both galaxy clusters themselves and the details of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> must be known precisely to enable reliable precision cosmology with clusters, which will be feasible with combined efforts from ongoing observations and planned missions and observatories covering a wide range of wavelengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004710','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004710"><span>Procedures to validate/correct <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error in solar backscattered ultraviolet <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, Steven L.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The Nimbus 7 SBUV measures the same latitude ozone at widely different sun angle conditions at the ascent and descent part of the orbit during the summer solstice. This situation is used in a particular procedure (Ascent/Descent) to obtain the relative channel-to-channel <span class="hlt">calibration</span> error for channels 273 nm to 306 nm. These estimated errors are combined with results from the Pair Justification procedure to correct the sun-view diffuser drift in <span class="hlt">calibration</span> from November 1978 to February 1987 for the shorter wavelength channels that measure upper stratospheric ozone. Some preliminary re-calirated Nimbus 7 SBUV data in 1989 is compared with the first set of SBUV measurements flown on the Space Shuttle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51M0601M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51M0601M"><span>Detecting trends in regional ecosystem functioning: the importance of field data for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> and validating NEON airborne remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and science data products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCorkel, J.; Kuester, M. A.; Johnson, B. R.; Krause, K.; Kampe, T. U.; Moore, D. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research facility under development by the National Science Foundation to improve our understanding of and ability to forecast the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. The infrastructure, designed to operate over 30 years or more, includes site-based flux tower and field measurements, coordinated with airborne remote sensing observations to observe key ecological processes over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. NEON airborne data on vegetation biochemical, biophysical, and structural properties and on land use and land cover will be captured at 1 to 2 meter resolution by an imaging spectrometer, a small-footprint waveform-LiDAR and a high-resolution digital camera. Annual coverage of the 60 NEON sites and capacity to support directed research flights or respond to unexpected events will require three airborne observation platforms (AOP). The integration of field and airborne data with satellite observations and other national geospatial data for analysis, monitoring and input to ecosystem models will extend NEON observations to regions across the United States not directly sampled by the observatory. The different spatial scales and measurement methods make quantitative comparisons between remote sensing and field data, typically collected over small sample plots (e.g. < 0.2 ha), difficult. New approaches to developing temporal and spatial scaling relationships between these data are necessary to enable validation of airborne and satellite remote sensing data and for incorporation of these data into continental or global scale ecological models. In addition to consideration of the methods used to collect ground-based measurements, careful <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the remote sensing <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and an assessment of the accuracy of algorithms used to derive higher-level science data products are needed. Furthermore, long-term consistency of the data collected by all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3606378','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3606378"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error on the estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in population-based surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background The basis for this study is the fact that <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error increases the variance of the distribution of body mass index (BMI). Combined with a defined cut-off value this may <span class="hlt">impact</span> upon the estimated proportion of overweight and obesity. It is important to ensure high quality surveillance data in order to follow trends of estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity. The purpose of the study was to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error, due to uncalibrated scales and stadiometers, on prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity. Methods Anthropometric measurements from a nationally representative sample were used; the Norwegian Child Growth study (NCG) of 3474 children. Each of the 127 participating schools received a reference weight and a reference length to determine the correction value. Correction value corresponds to <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error and is the difference between the true value and the measured, uncorrected weight and height at local scales and stadiometers. Simulations were used to determine the expected implications of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> errors. To systematically investigate this, the coefficient of variation (CV) of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error was used in the simulations and was increased successively. Results Simulations showed that the estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity increased systematically with the size of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error when the mean <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error was zero. The estimated prevalence was 16.4% with no <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error and was, on average, overestimated by 0.5 percentage points based on observed variance of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error from the NCG-study. Further, the estimated prevalence was 16.7% with 1% CV of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error, and increased to 17.8%, 19.5% and 21.6% with 2%, 3% and 4% CV of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> error, respectively. Conclusions Failure to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> is likely to lead to overestimation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in population-based surveys. PMID:23413839</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5230393','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5230393"><span>Guide for establishing and maintaining a <span class="hlt">calibration</span>-constancy intercomparison system for microwave-oven-compliance survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (revised)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>Public Law 90-602, the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968 (the Act), directs the Department of Health and Human Services to evaluate production-testing and quality-control programs carried out by the industry to assure adequacy of safeguards against hazardous electronic-product radiation and to assure that the products comply with performance standards. Under the Act, manufacturers of microwave ovens, a product listed under 21 CFR 1002.61, are required to certify that their microwave ovens are in compliance with all of the applicable provisions of the Federal Performance Standard for Microwave Ovens, 21 CFR 1030.10. In order to comply with microwave-emission-level provisions of the performance standard, manufacturers must use properly <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> microwave-leakage measurement <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in their production and quality control testing programs. This document was prepared in order to assist the microwave oven manufacturers in establishing and maintaining a <span class="hlt">calibration</span>-constancy intercomparison system for compliance survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and replaces guidance previously issued by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (the Center).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V31A2298C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V31A2298C"><span>New gas standard for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Nu-<span class="hlt">instruments</span> Noblesse multi-collector mass spectrometers for argon-isotopic measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coble, M. A.; Grove, M.; Calvert, A. T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A new generation of noble gas multi-collector mass spectrometers with fixed collector arrays has been designed by Nu <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for improved precision, sensitivity, dynamic range, and high analysis throughput. The natural mass dispersion of the most flexible configuration (one Faraday and three electron multipliers) allows simultaneous measurement of 40Ar, 38Ar, and 36Ar on the high, axial, and low mass stations. Peak hopping is thus required to measure 39Ar and 37Ar. While mechanically simple, use of zoom lens ion-optics to steer and focus ion beams into a fixed collector array makes intercalibration of multiple collectors challenging because different ion-optic tuning conditions are required for optimal peak shape and sensitivity at different axial mass stations. Detector gain and mass discrimination are sensitive functions of tuning parameters. While <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of detector gain and mass discrimination can be combined into a single correction factor, reliance upon an atmospheric gas standard to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is problematic because there is no straightforward way to relate 40Ar-38Ar-36Ar measurements to 39Ar and 37Ar. After exploring alternative <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches, we have concluded that <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Noblesse is best performed using exactly the same source, multi-collector, and ion-optic tuning settings as those used in routine 40Ar/39Ar analysis. We have thus developed methods for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the Noblesse that are based upon combined use of both atmospheric and synthetic gas standards. Our current synthetic gas standard was produced by mixing neutron-irradiated sanidine with an enriched 38Ar spike to yield a 40Ar/39Ar and 38Ar/39Ar of 2.995 and 3.801 respectively. By combining the atmospheric and synthetic gas standards in different ways, we can directly measure 40Ar/39Ar, 38Ar/39Ar, and 36Ar/39Ar correction factors over ratios that vary from unity to 475. We have found that these correction factors are generally reproducible within error</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036477','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036477"><span><span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for carbonate minerals on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lanza, Nina L.; Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Humphries, Seth D.; Newsom, Horton E.; Barefield, James E.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The ChemCam <span class="hlt">instrument</span> suite onboard the NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover includes the first laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment to better understand the LIBS signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between different types of carbonate materials on Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28749809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28749809"><span>Beyond Californium-A Neutron Generator Alternative for Dosimetry and <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> in the U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piper, Roman K; Mozhayev, Andrey V; Murphy, Mark K; Thompson, Alan K</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Evaluations of neutron survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, area monitors, and personal dosimeters rely on reference neutron radiations, which have evolved from the heavy reliance on (α,n) sources to a shared reliance on (α,n) and the spontaneous fission neutrons of californium-252 (Cf). Capable of producing high dose equivalent rates from an almost point source geometry, the characteristics of Cf are generally more favorable when compared to the use of (α,n) and (γ,n) sources or reactor-produced reference neutron radiations. Californium-252 is typically used in two standardized configurations: unmoderated, to yield a fission energy spectrum; or with the capsule placed within a heavy-water moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum that is generally considered more appropriate for evaluating devices used in nuclear power plant work environments. The U.S. Department of Energy Cf Loan/Lease Program, a longtime origin of affordable Cf sources for research, testing and <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, was terminated in 2009. Since then, high-activity sources have become increasingly cost-prohibitive for laboratories that formerly benefited from that program. Neutron generators, based on the D-T and D-D fusion reactions, have become economically competitive with Cf and are recognized internationally as important <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and test standards. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are jointly considering the practicality and technical challenges of implementing neutron generators as <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards in the U.S. This article reviews the characteristics of isotope-based neutron sources, possible isotope alternatives to Cf, and the rationale behind the increasing favor of electronically generated neutron options. The evaluation of a D-T system at PNNL has revealed characteristics that must be considered in adapting generators to the task of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and testing where accurate determination of a dosimetric quantity is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA529205','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA529205"><span>Design and <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> of a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System for an Acoustic Telemetry System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-31</p> <p>a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System for an Acoustic Telemetry System Zhiqun Deng 1,*, Mark Weiland 1, Thomas Carlson 1 and M. Brad Eppard 2 1...of Engineers, Portland District. References 1. McMichael, G.A.; Eppard, M.B.; Carlson, T.J.; Carter, J.A.; Ebberts, B.D.; Brown, R.S.; Weiland , M.A...Ploskey, G.R.; Harnish, R.A.; Deng, Z.D. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System: a new tool. Fisheries 2010, 35, 9-22. 2. Weiland , M.A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1356610-fermi-large-area-telescope-orbit-event-classification-instrument-response-functions-calibration','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1356610-fermi-large-area-telescope-orbit-event-classification-instrument-response-functions-calibration"><span>The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response Functions, and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; ...</p> <p>2012-10-12</p> <p>The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response functions (IRFs), the description of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance provided for data analysis. In this study, we describe the effects thatmore » motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. In conclusion, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089819','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089819"><span>THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENT</span> RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Bouvier, A.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E. E-mail: luca.baldini@pi.infn.it; and others</p> <p>2012-11-15</p> <p>The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response functions (IRFs), the description of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance provided for data analysis. In this paper, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015699','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015699"><span>The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response Functions, and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20120015699'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120015699_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120015699_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20120015699_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20120015699_hide"></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy -ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response Functions (IRFs), the description of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance provided for data analysis. In this paper we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.727E.133V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.727E.133V"><span>Mechanical Testing on the Sun <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Mechanism for the MSI-VNS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> on EarthCARE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van der Knaap, Frits; de Goeij, Bryan; van Riel, Luud; Tabak, Erik</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>TNO has developed a mechanism to perform sun and dark <span class="hlt">calibration</span> as a module of the Visible-NIR-SWIR <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (VNS) in the context of EarthCARE. The EarthCARE mission objective is the observation of clouds and aerosols from low Earth orbit. The VNS is a subassembly of the Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) being one of four <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on EarthCARE.This paper will address the mechanism Design, Development & Verification (DD&V) aspects.This contains setup design, execution of mechanical testing and verification.Results of the successful qualification campaign are presented including the obtained lessons learned.The VNS mechanism is equipped with MoS2 coated bearings mounted in a 440C bush.The mechanism is driven by a stepper motor; the 4 functional positions are indicated by opto-couplers, the safe position additionally with a micro switch.The verification of the VNS mechanism has been performed by two models; Life Test Model (LTM) and a flight representative Engineering Confidence Model (ECM). These models have been subjected to a mechanical qualification test program. In this test program the motorization margin has been verified prior and after the mechanical testing, including operational use with the qualification margins, of the mechanism.In preparation of the mechanical tests of both LTM and ECM, Finite Element Modelling has been used to derive the bearing- and motor forces and accelerations. The FE modelling also supported the suitability of the designed setups.The ECM has been used to build the confidence for the entire <span class="hlt">instrument</span> including the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> mechanism. After exposure to vibration and thermal vacuum test the ECM was still in perfect working order.The method of verification by testing is presented in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390618','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390618"><span>Nanobeacon: A low cost time <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p>The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time <span class="hlt">calibration</span> between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price <span class="hlt">calibration</span> device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/978933','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/978933"><span>Design and <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> of a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System for an Acoustic Telemetry System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, M. B.</p> <p>2010-03-31</p> <p>The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) is an active sensing technology developed by Portland District, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used at hydroelectric projects and in the laboratory for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system for evaluating the JSATS component, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The system consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated system has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. It provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/806854','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/806854"><span>Development of a Pattern Recognition Methodology for Determining Operationally Optimal Heat Balance <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Schedules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kurt Beran; John Christenson; Dragos Nica; Kenny Gross</p> <p>2002-12-15</p> <p>The goal of the project is to enable plant operators to detect with high sensitivity and reliability the onset of decalibration drifts in all of the <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> used as input to the reactor heat balance calculations. To achieve this objective, the collaborators developed and implemented at DBNPS an extension of the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) pattern recognition methodology pioneered by ANAL. The extension was implemented during the second phase of the project and fully achieved the project goal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001219','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001219"><span>Comparison and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of NCAR electra <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: July 5 and 7, 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Austin, Philip H.; Boers, Reinout</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of temperature, water vapor, cloud liquid water, and lidar cloud height taken by the National Center for Aeronautical Research (NCAR) Electra are analyzed for two days of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) stratocumulus field program. Examination of <span class="hlt">instrument</span> time series, correlations between sensors, soundings through the layer, and lidar measurements of cloud base height are used to correct sensor offset problems, check for probe wetting, and choose the most accurate measurements of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913169S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913169S"><span>Use of multiple in situ <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and remote sensed satellite data for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> tests at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei volcanic area)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Doumaz, Fawzi; Andres Diaz, Jorge</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Monitoring natural hazards such as active volcanoes requires specific <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to measure many parameters (gas emissions, surface temperatures, surface deformation etc.) to determine the activity level of a volcano. Volcanoes in most cases present difficult and dangerous environment for scientists who need to take in situ measurements. Remote Sensing systems on board of satellite permit to measure a large number of parameters especially during the eruptive events but still show large limits to monitor volcanic precursors and phenomena at local scale (gas species emitted by fumarole or summit craters degassing plumes and surface thermal changes of few degrees) for their specific risk. For such reason unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) mounting a variety of multigas sensors <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (such as miniature mass spectrometer) or single specie sensors (such as electrochemical and IR sensors) allow a safe monitoring of volcanic activities. With this technology, it is possible to perform monitoring measurements of volcanic activity without risking the lives of scientists and personnel performing analysis during the field campaigns in areas of high volcanic activity and supporting the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation of satellite data measurements. These systems allowed the acquisition of real-time information such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, SO2, H2S, CO2 contained in degassing plume and fumaroles, with GPS geolocation. The acquired data are both stored in the sensor and transmitted to a computer for real time viewing information. Information in the form of 3D concentration maps can be returned. The equipment used during the campaigns at Solfatara Volcano (in 2014, 2015 and 2016) was miniaturized <span class="hlt">instruments</span> allowed measurements conducted either by flying drones over the fumarolic sites and by hand carrying into the fumaroles. We present the results of the field campaign held in different years at the Solfatara of Pozzuoli, near Naples, concerning measurements</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975990','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975990"><span>Shielding calculations and verifications for the new Radiation <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>George, G. L.; Olsher, R. H.; Seagraves, D. T.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>MCNP-4C1 was used to perform the shielding design for the new Central Health Physics <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Facility (CHPCF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The problem of shielding the facility was subdivided into three separate components: (1) Transmission; (2) Skyshine; and (3) Maze Streaming/ Transmission. When possible, actual measurements were taken to verify calculation results. The comparison of calculation versus measurement results shows excellent agreement for neutron calculations. For photon comparisons, calculations resulted in conservative estimates of the Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) compared to measured results. This disagreement in the photon measurements versus calculations is most likely due to several conservative assumptions regarding shield density and composition. For example, reinforcing steel bars (Rebar) in the concrete shield walls were not included in the shield model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110006350','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110006350"><span>Overview of NASA Earth Observing Systems Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Algorithms and On-Orbit Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Barnes, William L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Since launch, the Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> have successfully operated on-orbit for more than 9 and 6.5 years, respectively. Iv1ODIS, a key <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) missions, was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage earth-observing sensors. In addition to frequent global coverage, MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering both solar reflective and thermal emissive spectral regions. Nearly 40 data products are routinely generated from MODIS' observations and publicly distributed for a broad range of applications. Both <span class="hlt">instruments</span> have produced an unprecedented amount of data in support of the science community. As a general reference for understanding sensor operation and <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and thus science data quality, we ;provide an overview of the MODIS <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and their pre-launch <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization, and describe their on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> algorithms and performance. On-orbit results from both Terra and Aqua MODIS radiometric, spectral, and "spatial <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are discussed. Currently, both <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, including their on-board <span class="hlt">calibration</span> devices, are healthy and are expected to continue operation for several }rears to come.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20646479','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20646479"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods for the multichannel measurement of phase and amplitude in optical tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nissilae, Ilkka; Noponen, Tommi; Kotilahti, Kalle; Katila, Toivo; Lipiaeinen, Lauri; Tarvainen, Tanja; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>In this article, we describe the multichannel implementation of an intensity modulated optical tomography system developed at Helsinki University of Technology. The system has two time-multiplexed wavelengths, 16 time-multiplexed source fibers and 16 parallel detection channels. The gain of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) is individually adjusted during the measurement sequence to increase the dynamic range of the system by 10{sup 4}. The PMT used has a high quantum efficiency in the near infrared (8% at 800 nm), a fast settling time, and low hysteresis. The gain of the PMT is set so that the dc anode current is below 80 nA, which allows the measurement of phase independently of the intensity. The system allows measurements of amplitude at detected intensities down to 1 fW, which is sufficient for transmittance measurements of the female breast, the forearm, and the brain of early pre-term infants. The mean repeatability of phase and the logarithm of amplitude (ln A) at 100 MHz were found to be 0.08 deg. and 0.004, respectively, in a measurement of a 7 cm phantom with an imaging time of 5 s per source and source optical power of 8 mW. We describe a three-step method of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the phase and amplitude measurements so that the absolute absorption and scatter in tissue may be measured. A phantom with two small cylindrical targets and a second phantom with three rods are measured and reconstructions made from the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> data are shown and compared with reconstructions from simulated data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005RScI...76d4302N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005RScI...76d4302N"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods for the multichannel measurement of phase and amplitude in optical tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nissilä, Ilkka; Noponen, Tommi; Kotilahti, Kalle; Katila, Toivo; Lipiäinen, Lauri; Tarvainen, Tanja; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>In this article, we describe the multichannel implementation of an intensity modulated optical tomography system developed at Helsinki University of Technology. The system has two time-multiplexed wavelengths, 16 time-multiplexed source fibers and 16 parallel detection channels. The gain of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) is individually adjusted during the measurement sequence to increase the dynamic range of the system by 104. The PMT used has a high quantum efficiency in the near infrared (8% at 800nm), a fast settling time, and low hysteresis. The gain of the PMT is set so that the dc anode current is below 80nA, which allows the measurement of phase independently of the intensity. The system allows measurements of amplitude at detected intensities down to 1fW, which is sufficient for transmittance measurements of the female breast, the forearm, and the brain of early pre-term infants. The mean repeatability of phase and the logarithm of amplitude (lnA) at 100MHz were found to be 0.08° and 0.004, respectively, in a measurement of a 7cm phantom with an imaging time of 5s per source and source optical power of 8mW. We describe a three-step method of <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the phase and amplitude measurements so that the absolute absorption and scatter in tissue may be measured. A phantom with two small cylindrical targets and a second phantom with three rods are measured and reconstructions made from the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> data are shown and compared with reconstructions from simulated data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1888780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1888780"><span>Readily synthesized <span class="hlt">calibration</span> compounds for quadrupole and magnetic <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for use over the mass range to 2000 daltons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, F F; Tyler, A N; Sherman, W R</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>Volatile mass <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards have been prepared by esterifying beta-cellobiose (4-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose) with a mixture of heptafluorobutyric (HFB) anhydride and pentafluoropropionic (PFP) anhydride. The mixed esters produce spectra that are useful for mass spectrometer <span class="hlt">calibration</span> with positive or negative ion methane chemical ionization and electron <span class="hlt">impact</span> over the mass range 300-2000. The spectra contain prominent ions spaced at m/z 20 and m/z 50 intervals. Using the mixed ester with direct insertion probe introduction gives intense spectra that persist for tens of minutes. All signals above m/z 194 derived from these substances disappear rapidly upon withdrawal of the probe. The composition and exact masses are given for the positive and negative ion spectra of a mixed HFB/PFP ester of beta-cellobiose. Two other <span class="hlt">calibrants</span> are described: one made from beta-cellobiose using a mixture of HFB, PFP and trifluoroacetic anhydrides, and another the HFB/PFP mixed ester of perseitol. These are examples of the flexibility of this approach with respect to mass range and ion composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4662860','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4662860"><span>Regression <span class="hlt">calibration</span> with <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> variables for longitudinal models with interaction terms, and application to air pollution studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Strand, M; Sillau, S; Grunwald, G K; Rabinovitch, N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we derive forms of estimators and associated variances for regression <span class="hlt">calibration</span> with <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> variables in longitudinal models that include interaction terms between two unobservable predictors and interactions between these predictors and covariates not measured with error; the inclusion of the latter interactions generalize results we previously reported. The methods are applied to air pollution and health data collected on children with asthma. The new methods allow for the examination of how the relationship between health outcome leukotriene E4 (LTE4, a biomarker of inflammation) and two unobservable pollutant exposures and their interaction are modified by the presence or absence of upper respiratory infections. The pollutant variables include secondhand smoke and ambient (outdoor) fine particulate matter. Simulations verify the accuracy of the proposed methods under various conditions. PMID:26640396</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11923005S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11923005S"><span>The System of the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> for Visibility Measurement <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Under the Atmospheric Aerosol Simulation Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shu, Zhifeng; Yang, ShaoChen; Xu, Wenjing</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Visibility is one of the most important parameters for meteorological observation and numerical weather prediction (NWP).It is also an important factor in everyday life, mainly for surface and air traffic especially in the Aeronautical Meteorology. The visibility decides the taking off and landing of aircraft. If the airport visibility is lower than requirement for aircraft taking off stipulated by International Civil Aviation Administration, then the aircraft must be parked at the airport. So the accurate measurement of visibility is very important. Nowadays, many devices can be measured the visibility or meteorological optical range (MOR) such as Scatterometers, Transmissometers and visibility lidar. But there is not effective way to verify the accuracy of these devices expect the artificial visual method. We have developed a visibility testing system that can be <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and verification these devices. The system consists of laser transmitter, optical chopper, phase-locking amplifier, the moving optic receiving system, signal detection and data acquisition system, atmospheric aerosol simulation chamber. All of them were placed in the atmosphere aerosol simulation chamber with uniform aerosol concentration. The Continuous wave laser, wavelength 550nm, has been transmitted into the collimation system then the laser beam expanded into 40mm diameter for compressing the laser divergence angle before modulated by optical chopper. The expanding beam transmitting in the atmosphere aerosol cabin received by the optic receiving system moving in the 50m length precision guide with 100mm optical aperture. The data of laser signal has been acquired by phase-locking amplifier every 5 meter range. So the 10 data points can be detected in the 50 meters guide once. The slope of the fitting curve can be obtained by linear fitting these data using the least square method. The laser extinction coefficient was calculated from the slope using the Koschmieder formula, then it been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PASP..124.1295N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PASP..124.1295N"><span>Lifetime and Failure Characteristics of Pt/Ne Hollow Cathode Lamps Used as <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Sources for UV Space <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Penton, Steven V.; Cunningham, Nathaniel; Beasley, Matthew; Osterman, Steven; Kerber, Florian; (Tony Keyes, Charles D.; Rosa, Michael R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We report accelerated aging tests on three Pt/Ne lamps from the same manufacturing run as lamps installed on the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). One lamp was aged in air at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) at a current of 10 mA and 50% duty cycle (30 s on, 30 s off) until failure. Two other lamps were aged by the COS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> development team in a vacuum chamber. Initial radiometrically <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> spectra were taken of all three lamps at NIST. <span class="hlt">Calibrated</span> spectra of the air-aged lamp were taken after 206, 500, 778, 783 and 897 hr of operation. Spectra of the vacuum-aged lamps were taken after 500 hr for both lamps, and after 1000 hr for one of the lamps. During vacuum aging, the lamp voltage, photometric stability and temperature were monitored. All three lamps lasted for over 900 hr (100,000 cycles) when run at 10 mA, sufficient for 10–12 years of operation on COS. The total output dropped by less than 15% over 500 hr, with short-term repeatability within a few percent. We recommend that future space operation of these lamps include the lamp voltage in the telemetry as a diagnostic for the lamp aging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70189061','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70189061"><span>The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometerfor lunar science: <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> description, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, on‐orbit measurements, science data <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and on‐orbit validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>C. Pieters,; P. Mouroulis,; M. Eastwood,; J. Boardman,; Green, R.O.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Barr, D.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036293','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036293"><span>The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> description, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, on-orbit measurements, science data <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and on-orbit validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A24C..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A24C..02W"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of spectral solar irradiance on inter-sensor radiometric <span class="hlt">calibrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, D. L.; Marshak, A.; Lee, J. N.; Yang, Y.; Marchenko, S. V.; DeLand, M. T.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T. N.; Harder, J. W.; Richard, E. C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Spectral solar irradiance (SSI) is often used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the radiances of UV-VIS-SWIR bands in Earth remote sensing. Although reflectance factor measurements (upwelling radiance normalized by SSI) are less affected by the SSI accuracy, radiance measurements and inter-sensor <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are very sensitive to errors in the irradiance spectrum used. Modern reflective solar sensors are able to detect 1-2% errors in radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and demand a better (<1%) accuracy of SSI measurements. In this study we analyzed 9 widely used SSI spectra for radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> evaluation. We found that differences in the so-called "<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> radiances" could reach as large as +/-2% in VIS-SWIR bands and +/-7% in UV bands, depending on what SSI spectrum is used. In addition, uncertainty also arises from convolution of a higher resolution SSI reference spectrum to an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> bandwidth. Such a large uncertainty has been a major challenge not only for inter-sensor <span class="hlt">calibration</span> but also for the SSI measurements themselves. NASA's SORCE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment, 2003-present) and future TSIS (Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor) missions has an objective to provide accurate SSI measurements. While the SORCE SSI accuracy is 2% at present, TSIS-1 (to be launched to International Space Station in late 2017 or early 2018) is tasked to improve the SSI accuracy to 1% or better.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274180','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274180"><span>Design and <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> of a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System for an Acoustic Telemetry System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark; Carlson, Thomas; Eppard, M. Brad</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) is an active sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used primarily for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System (MCS) for evaluating the JSATS components, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The MCS consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated MCS has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. The MCS provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The MCS has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS. PMID:22319288</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319288"><span>Design and <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> of a measurement and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> system for an acoustic telemetry system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark; Carlson, Thomas; Eppard, M Brad</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) is an active sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used primarily for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more "fish-friendly" hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a Measurement and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> System (MCS) for evaluating the JSATS components, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The MCS consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated MCS has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. The MCS provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The MCS has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20864314','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20864314"><span>Construction and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for three-dimensional ion imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koszinowski, Konrad; Goldberg, Noah T.; Pomerantz, Andrew E.; Zare, Richard N.</p> <p>2006-10-07</p> <p>We describe a new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> based on a delay-line detector for imaging the complete three-dimensional velocity distribution of photoionized products from photoinitiated reactions. Doppler-free [2+1] resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of H and D atoms formed upon photolysis of HBr and DBr in the range 203 nm{<=}{lambda}{sub photolysis}{<=}243 nm yields radial speeds measured to be accurate within 1% of those calculated. The relative speed resolution is about 5% and limited by photoionization recoil broadening. A relative speed resolution of 3.4% is obtained for [3+1] REMPI, which minimizes the ionization recoil. We also determine the branching ratio between ground-state and spin-orbit-excited product channels and their associated anisotropies. We find that DBr photolysis dynamics differs slightly from its HBr counterpart.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909851"><span>On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang</p> <p>2007-03-31</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840478','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840478"><span>ON-LINE SELF-<span class="hlt">CALIBRATING</span> SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENTATION</span> FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822308','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822308"><span>ON-LINE SELF-<span class="hlt">CALIBRATING</span> SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENTATION</span> FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/825291','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/825291"><span>ON-LINE SELF-<span class="hlt">CALIBRATING</span> SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENTATION</span> FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/860180','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/860180"><span>On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050180314','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050180314"><span>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Characterization of Earth Remote Sensing and Environmental Monitoring <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>. Chapter 10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Barnes, Robert A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The use of remote sensing <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on orbiting satellite platforms in the study of Earth Science and environmental monitoring was officially inaugurated with the April 1, 1960 launch of the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) [1]. The first TIROS accommodated two television cameras and operated for only 78 days. However, the TIROS program, in providing in excess of 22,000 pictures of the Earth, achieved its primary goal of providing Earth images from a satellite platform to aid in identifying and monitoring meteorological processes. This marked the beginning of what is now over four decades of Earth observations from satellite platforms. reflected and emitted radiation from the Earth using <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on satellite platforms. These measurements are input to climate models, and the model results are analyzed in an effort to detect short and long-term changes and trends in the Earth's climate and environment, to identify the cause of those changes, and to predict or influence future changes. Examples of short-term climate change events include the periodic appearance of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean [2] and the spectacular eruption of Mount Pinatubo on the Philippine island of Luzon in 1991. Examples of long term climate change events, which are more subtle to detect, include the destruction of coral reefs, the disappearance of glaciers, and global warming. Climatic variability can be both large and small scale and can be caused by natural or anthropogenic processes. The periodic El Nino event is an example of a natural process which induces significant climatic variability over a wide range of the Earth. A classic example of a large scale anthropogenic influence on climate is the well-documented rapid increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide occurring since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution [3]. An example of the study of a small-scale anthropogenic influence in climate variability is the Atlanta Land</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7821E..25I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7821E..25I"><span>High accuracy laser based machine vision for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of linear encoders and dial <span class="hlt">instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iordache, Iuliana; Schiopu, Paul; Apostol, Dan; Damian, Victor</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>A laser interferometer, a vision system, and 1-D precision translation stage are used to develop a high precision measuring station with a working range of 12 mm. The object inspected by the laser-and-vision system is moved using a linear translation stage (LUMINOS INDUSTRIES I1000 - 1-Axis Stage) so that the camera can take images of the feature points of the object at two (or more) different positions. Meanwhile, the displacement of the table is measured using a laser interferometer. Putting these two feature points successively in focus the distance between them can be evaluated and adding the displacement measured by the laser interferometer, the real distance between these two feature points is obtained. The developed 1-D laser-and-vision measuring system is used to measure the geometric size (pitch) of grating type linear encoders or industrial line scales. Software counts automatically the number of lines and the laser interferometer produces the corresponding length. For dial <span class="hlt">instruments</span> the vision machine observes the coincidence of the moving needle with divisions representing (sub) units of length. The displacements measured by laser interferometer are compared with dial indicator and the measuring errors are observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9607E..17L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9607E..17L"><span>JPSS-1 VIIRS DNB nonlinearity and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on SDR <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Shihyan; Wang, Wenhui; Cao, Changyong</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>During JPSS-1 VIIRS testing at Raytheon El Segundo, a larger than expected radiometric response nonlinearity was discovered in Day-Nigh Band (DNB). In addition, the DNB nonlinearity is aggregation mode dependent, where the most severe non-linear behavior are the aggregation modes used at high scan angles (<~50 degree). The DNB aggregation strategy was subsequently modified to remove modes with the most significant non-linearity. We characterized the DNB radiometric response using pre-launch tests with the modified aggregation strategy. The test data show the DNB non-linearity varies at each gain stages, detectors and aggregation modes. The non-linearity is most significant in the Low Gain Stage (LGS) and could vary from sample-to-sample. The non-linearity is also more significant in EV than in <span class="hlt">calibration</span> view samples. The HGS nonlinearity is difficult to quantify due to the higher uncertainty in determining source radiance. Since the radiometric response non-linearity is most significant at low dn ranges, it presents challenge in DNB cross-stage <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, an critical path to <span class="hlt">calibration</span> DNB's High Gain Stage (HGS) for nighttime imagery. Based on the radiometric characterization, we estimated the DNB on-orbit <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracy and compared the expected DNB <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracy using operational <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approaches. The analysis showed the non-linearity will result in cross-stage gain ratio bias, and have the most significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on HGS. The HGS <span class="hlt">calibration</span> accuracy can be improved when either SD data or only the more linearly behaved EV pixels are used in cross-stage <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Due to constrain in test data, we were not able to achieve a satisfactory accuracy and uniformity for the JPSS-1 DNB nighttime imagery quality. The JPSS-1 DNB nonlinearity is a challenging <span class="hlt">calibration</span> issue which will likely require special attention after JPSS-1 launch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309649','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309649"><span>Hydrological processes and model representation: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of soft data on <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Hydrologic and water quality models are increasingly used to determine the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate variability and land management. Due to differing model objectives and differences in monitored data, there are currently no universally accepted procedures for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation in ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030032364','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030032364"><span>The Use of Transfer Radiometers in Validating the Visible through Shortwave Infrared <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> of Radiance Sources Used by <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> in NASA's Earth Observing System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, James J.; Barnes, Robert A.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The detection and study of climate change over a time frame of decades requires successive generations of satellite, airborne, and ground-based <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> carefully <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> against a common radiance scale. In NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) program, the pre-launch radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the wavelength region from 400 nm to 2500 nm is accomplished using internally illuminated integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance panels illuminated by irradiance standard lamps. Since 1995, the EOS <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Program operating within the EOS Project Science Office (PSO) has enlisted the expertise of national standards laboratories and government and university metrology laboratories in an effort to validate the radiance scales assigned to sphere and panel radiance sources by EOS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> facilities. This state-of-the-art program has been accomplished using ultra-stable transfer radiometers independently <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> by the above participating institutions. In ten comparisons since February 1995, the agreement between the radiance measurements of the transfer radiometers is plus or minus 1.80% at 411 nm, plus or minus 1.31% at 552.5 nm, plus or minus 1.32% at 868.0 nm, plus or minus 2.54% at 1622nm, and plus or minus 2.81% at 2200nm (sigma =1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6154225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6154225"><span>Explosive reaction of cased charges generated by <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of. 30 <span class="hlt">calibre</span> bullets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Honodel, C A</p> <p>1981-07-22</p> <p>Several high explosive formulations have recently been compared in a series of <span class="hlt">impact</span> tests where samples of each composition were encased in a test fixture designed in flat geometry mocking an HE loaded artillery projectile. The purpose of the ongoing test series is to determine the relative rate of chemical energy release or explosiveness of several standard and research insensitive high explosive (IHE) main charge compositions. The triggering stimulus is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of .30 <span class="hlt">calibre</span> ball bullets fired at normal muzzle velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31D1432H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31D1432H"><span>Evaluating the <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Unexpected Forest Disturbances on Paired Catchment <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> of Sediment Yield and Turbidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herlein, K.; Silins, U.; Williams, C.; Wagner, M. J.; Martens, A. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The paired catchment approach of studying the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of disturbance on catchment hydrology remains as perhaps the most powerful approach for direct verification of catchment scale <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from disturbance. However, paired catchment studies are also dependent on the stability of the relationships between treated and reference catchments during <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and evaluation periods. A long-term paired catchment study of forest harvest <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on sediment yield and turbidity in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, Canada has a robust 11-year pre-treatment data record. The study intends to evaluate three alternative logging practices: clear-cutting, strip-shelterwood, and partial cutting. 3 sub-catchments in Star Creek (1035 ha) underwent harvest treatments while North York Creek (865 Ha) serves as the reference. The objective of this particular study was to explore the potential effects of unplanned and unanticipated watershed changes in two watersheds during an 11-year <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Sediment yield (kg ha-1 d-1) and turbidity (NTU) were monitored throughout the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> period (2004-2014) prior to the 2015 harvest in Star Creek. Two unanticipated disturbances including backcountry trail rehabilitation in North York (2010) followed by a >100 year storm event in both watersheds in June 2013 may have affected the sediment yield and turbidity <span class="hlt">calibration</span> relationships. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the effects of this trail rehabilitation and flooding by comparing the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> relationships before and after these disturbances. Despite qualitative field observations of periodically affected sediment regimes, no <span class="hlt">impact</span> on pre- or post- <span class="hlt">calibration</span> relationships was observed. Backcountry trail rehabilitation in North York (p=0.904 and 0.416 for sediment yield and turbidity, respectively) or flooding in both watersheds (p=0.364 and 0.204 for sediment yield and turbidity, respectively) did not produce significant changes to the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31F..03W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31F..03W"><span>Pressure and temperature dependence of OH and HO2 detection sensitivities for an LIF based FAGE <span class="hlt">instrument</span> - a comparison of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winiberg, F.; Bejan, I.; Brumby, C.; Farrugia, L. N.; Malkin, T. L.; Smith, S. C.; Orr, S. C.; Heard, D. E.; Seakins, P. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Instruments</span> based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) of OH radicals have been widely applied to fieldwork measurements - on the ground and in aircraft - as well as in atmospheric simulation chambers. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> used to measure concentrations of HOx worldwide have traditionally relied on a single method of generating known concentrations of HOx from H2O vapour photolysis in a turbulent flow tube impinging just outside the sample inlet. The FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gaseous Expansion) apparatus designed for HOx measurements in the Highly <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC) has been <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the conventional method over a range of internal cell pressures (1.8 - 3.8 mbar) and external cell temperatures (270 - 340 K). Two alternative <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques for OH and HO2 were developed using the HIRAC chamber over the same pressure and temperature range to verify the observations. The alternative methods, agreement and disagreement with the conventional <span class="hlt">calibration</span> methods will be discussed. The outcome of these studies will enable future operation of the FAGE <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the HIRAC chamber away from STP conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ATsir1635....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ATsir1635....1M"><span>Mars Albedo Measurement in the Near IR Range for Additional <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the TIRVIM <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> of the ExoMars-2016 Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maslov, I. A.; Shenavrin, V. I.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Moshkin, B. E.; Shakun, A. V.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Results of ground-based measurements of the Mars albedo in the spectral range 1-5 μm, which were held in the days close to the session of measurements from the Mars orbit by the Russian device TIRVIM, are presented. The obtained data can be used to refine the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM41A2470G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM41A2470G"><span>Design, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>, and Expected On-Orbit Performance of the GOES-R MPS-LO Suprathermal Plasma Analyzer <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Golightly, M. J.; McGarity, J. O.; Dichter, B. K.; Galica, G. E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The next generation U.S. geosynchronous weather satellite—GOES series R-U—will include for the first time a suprathermal plasma analyzer. The Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-Low (MPS-LO), an electrostatic analyzer utilizing triquadrispheric geometry (270° turn)deflection electrodes, will measure the flux of electrons and ions with energies between 30 eV - 30 keV in fifteen logarithmically-spaced differential energy channels and arrival direction in twelve angular bins. MPS-LO consists of two sensor heads mounted in a common electronics box. Each sensor head contains a set of deflection electrodes, microchannel plates, and segmented detector anodes. The common electronics box provides the power and I/O interface with a data processing unit, voltage supplies for all of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s electronics, high voltage for the deflection electrodes, in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> pulsers, and the digital electronics to process signals from sensor heads' detector anodes. Great care was taken in the manufacture and mounting of the triquadrisphere deflection electrodes; each electrode was machined from a single piece of aluminum and specific electrode combinations were mounted with precision machined spacers and matched drilling. The precise fabrication and assembly resulted in near perfect spherical electric fields between the electrodes. The triquadrispheric electrode shape also prevents photons from reaching the detection elements-as a result, MPS-LO is solar blind. The combined field-of-view for the two sensor heads is 180° x 5°, with the larger angle in a plane perpendicular to the spacecraft's orbit and its central axis oriented anti-Earthward. An incident particle's arrival direction is determined in one of twelve 15° x 5° angular zones. A set of shielded anodes is used to measure the background caused by penetrating charged particles that reach the MCPs; this background data is used to correct the MPS-LO data. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s energy resolution ΔE/E is 5.8%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324561','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324561"><span>Field and laboratory <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span> plates for measuring coarse bed load transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>During 2008-2009, an array of <span class="hlt">impact</span> plates <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> with either accelerometers or geophones was installed over a channel spanning weir in the Elwha River in Washington, USA. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> system is the first permanent installation of its kind in North America. The system was deployed to measure th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HEAD...12.3609P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HEAD...12.3609P"><span>Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> Of The X-ray <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> Onboard The Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, And XMM-Newton Observatories Using 1E 0102.2-7219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, A. P.; DePasquale, J. M.; Dewey, D.; Foster, A. R.; Haberl, F.; Miller, E.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Sembay, S.; Smith, R. K.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the spectral response of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> below 1.5 keV is difficult in general because of the lack of strong lines in the on-board <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources. This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is also a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and/or the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas of the current generation of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in the 0.5-1.0 keV range, specifically: Chandra ACIS, XMM-Newton EPIC (MOS and pn), Suzaku XIS, and Swift XRT. We have been using 1E 0102.2-7219 (hereafter E0102) since it has strong lines of O, Ne, and Mg below 1.5 keV and little or no Fe emission. The spectrum of E0102 has been well-characterized using the RGS grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on XMM-Newton and the HETG grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Chandra. We have developed an empirical model for E0102 that includes Gaussians for the identified lines, two absorption components (one for the Galaxy and one for the SMC), and two continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest line complexes (the O VII triplet, the O VIII Ly-α line, the Ne IX triplet, and the Ne X Ly-α line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary. In our previous study in 2008, we found that most of the fitted line normalizations agreed to within +/- 10% (28 of 32 line normalizations). We have now expanded this study to include more recent data from these missions using the latest <span class="hlt">calibration</span> updates and we will report on the current level of agreement amongst these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This work is based on the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IACHEC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=ECN-28307&hterms=drone+problem&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddrone%2Bproblem','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=ECN-28307&hterms=drone+problem&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddrone%2Bproblem"><span>Controlled <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Demonstration <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> test dummies installed in plane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>In this photograph are seen some of dummies in the passenger cabin of the B-720 aircraft. NASA Langley Research Center <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> a large portion of the aircraft and the dummies for loads in a crashworthiness research program. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Adimistration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive called Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK) designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> dummies filling the seats in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=ECN-28307&hterms=dry+test&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ddry%2Btest','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=ECN-28307&hterms=dry+test&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ddry%2Btest"><span>Controlled <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Demonstration <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> test dummies installed in plane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>In this photograph are seen some of dummies in the passenger cabin of the B-720 aircraft. NASA Langley Research Center <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> a large portion of the aircraft and the dummies for loads in a crashworthiness research program. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Adimistration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive called Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK) designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> dummies filling the seats in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=up+AND+date&pg=7&id=EJ1108417','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=up+AND+date&pg=7&id=EJ1108417"><span>Laboratory <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span>: An Exploration of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> on Student Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Warner, Don L.; Brown, Eric C.; Shadle, Susan E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Academic programs generally work to make their laboratory curriculum both as <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> rich and up to date as possible. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> in the curriculum and student learning. As part of our department's ongoing assessment efforts, a project was designed to probe this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=up+AND+date&pg=7&id=EJ1108417','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=up+AND+date&pg=7&id=EJ1108417"><span>Laboratory <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span>: An Exploration of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> on Student Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Warner, Don L.; Brown, Eric C.; Shadle, Susan E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Academic programs generally work to make their laboratory curriculum both as <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> rich and up to date as possible. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> in the curriculum and student learning. As part of our department's ongoing assessment efforts, a project was designed to probe this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4852104J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4852104J"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization cosmic dust detectors: first tests to investigate how the dust density influences the signal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jasmin Sterken, Veerle; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Hillier, Jon; Fielding, Lee; Lovett, Joseph; Armes, Steven; Fechler, Nina; Srama, Ralf; Bugiel, Sebastian; Hornung, Klaus</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> ionization experiments have been performed since more than 40 years for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> cosmic dust detectors. A linear Van de Graaff dust accelerator was used to accelerate the cosmic dust analogues of submicron to micron-size to speeds up to 80 km s^-1. Different materials have been used for <span class="hlt">calibration</span>: iron, carbon, metal-coated minerals and most recently, minerals coated with conductive polymers. While different materials with different densities have been used for <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, a comparative analysis of dust <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of equal material but different density is necessary: porous or aggregate-like particles are increasingly found to be present in the solar system: e.g. dust from comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko [Fulle et al 2015], aggregate particles from the plumes of Enceladus [Gao et al 2016], and low-density interstellar dust [Westphal 2014 et al, Sterken et al 2015]. These recalibrations are relevant for measuring the size distributions of interplanetary and interstellar dust and thus mass budgets like the gas-to-dust mass ratio in the local interstellar cloud.We report about the <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> that have been performed at the Heidelberg dust accelerator facility for investigating the influence of particle density on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization charge. We used the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer for the target, and compared hollow versus compact silica particles in our study as a first attempt to investigate experimentally the influence of dust density on the signals obtained. Also, preliminary tests with carbon aerogel were performed, and (unsuccessful) attempts to accelerate silica aerogel. In this talk we explain the motivation of the study, the experiment set-up, the preparation of — and the materials used, the results and plans and recommendations for future tests.Fulle, M. et al 2015, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 802, Issue 1, article id. L12, 5 pp. (2015)Gao, P. et al 2016, Icarus, Volume 264, p. 227-238Westphal, A. et al 2014, Science</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250376"><span>High precision tilt stage as a key element to a universal test mirror for characterization and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of slope measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Artemiev, Nikolay A; Centers, Gary; Chaubard, Arthur; Geckeler, Ralf D; Lacey, Ian; Marth, Harry; McKinney, Wayne R; Noll, Tino; Siewert, Frank; Winter, Mathias; Zeschke, Thomas</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The ultimate performance of surface slope metrology <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>, such as long trace profilers and auto-collimator based deflectometers, is limited by systematic errors that are increased when the entire angular range is used for metrology of significantly curved optics. At the ALS X-Ray Optics Laboratory, in collaboration with the HZB/BESSY-II and PTB (Germany) metrology teams, we are working on a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method for deflectometers, based on a concept of a universal test mirror (UTM) [V. V. Yashchuk et al., Proc. SPIE 6704, 67040A (2007)]. Potentially, the UTM method provides high performance <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and accounts for peculiarities of the optics under test (e.g., slope distribution) and the experimental arrangement (e.g., the distance between the sensor and the optic under test). At the same time, the UTM <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method is inherently universal, applicable to a variety of optics and experimental arrangements. In this work, we present the results of tests with a key component of the UTM system, a custom high precision tilt stage, which has been recently developed in collaboration with Physik <span class="hlt">Instrumente</span>, GmbH. The tests have demonstrated high performance of the stage and its capability (after additional <span class="hlt">calibration</span>) to provide angular <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of surface slope measuring profilers over the entire <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> dynamic range with absolute accuracy better than 30 nrad. The details of the stage design and tests are presented. We also discuss the foundation of the UTM method and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> algorithm, as well as the possible design of a full scale UTM system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000512','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000512"><span>Anemometer <span class="hlt">calibrator</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28843552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28843552"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> transfer of a Raman spectroscopic quantification method for the assessment of liquid detergent compositions between two at-line <span class="hlt">instruments</span> installed at two liquid detergent production plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brouckaert, D; Uyttersprot, J-S; Broeckx, W; De Beer, T</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> transfer of partial least squares (PLS) quantification models is established between two Raman spectrometers located at two liquid detergent production plants. As full recalibration of existing <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly, it is investigated whether the use of mathematical correction methods requiring only a handful of standardization samples can overcome the dissimilarities in spectral response observed between both measurement systems. Univariate and multivariate standardization approaches are investigated, ranging from simple slope/bias correction (SBC), local centring (LC) and single wavelength standardization (SWS) to more complex direct standardization (DS) and piecewise direct standardization (PDS). The results of these five <span class="hlt">calibration</span> transfer methods are compared reciprocally, as well as with regard to a full recalibration. Four PLS quantification models, each predicting the concentration of one of the four main ingredients in the studied liquid detergent composition, are aimed at transferring. Accuracy profiles are established from the original and transferred quantification models for validation purposes. A reliable representation of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models performance before and after transfer is thus established, based on β-expectation tolerance intervals. For each transferred model, it is investigated whether every future measurement that will be performed in routine will be close enough to the unknown true value of the sample. From this validation, it is concluded that <span class="hlt">instrument</span> standardization is successful for three out of four investigated <span class="hlt">calibration</span> models using multivariate (DS and PDS) transfer approaches. The fourth transferred PLS model could not be validated over the investigated concentration range, due to a lack of precision of the slave <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Comparing these transfer results to a full recalibration on the slave <span class="hlt">instrument</span> allows comparison of the predictive power of both Raman</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/878274','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/878274"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Systems Final Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based <span class="hlt">calibration</span> systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">instrument</span> size and weight while improving the quality of <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3772546','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3772546"><span>Estimating the Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Climate Change with <span class="hlt">Calibrated</span> Climate Model Output</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jingwen; Chang, Howard H.; Fuentes, Montserrat</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Studies on the health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change routinely use climate model output as future exposure projection. Uncertainty quantification, usually in the form of sensitivity analysis, has focused predominantly on the variability arise from different emission scenarios or multi-model ensembles. This paper describes a Bayesian spatial quantile regression approach to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> climate model output for examining to the risks of future temperature on adverse health outcomes. Specifically, we first estimate the spatial quantile process for climate model output using nonlinear monotonic regression during a historical period. The quantile process is then <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the quantile functions estimated from the observed monitoring data. Our model also down-scales the gridded climate model output to the point-level for projecting future exposure over a specific geographical region. The quantile regression approach is motivated by the need to better characterize the tails of future temperature distribution where the greatest health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are likely to occur. We applied the methodology to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> temperature projections from a regional climate model for the period 2041 to 2050. Accounting for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainty, we calculated the number of of excess deaths attributed to future temperature for three cities in the US state of Alabama. PMID:24039385</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24039385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24039385"><span>Estimating the Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Climate Change with <span class="hlt">Calibrated</span> Climate Model Output.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jingwen; Chang, Howard H; Fuentes, Montserrat</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Studies on the health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change routinely use climate model output as future exposure projection. Uncertainty quantification, usually in the form of sensitivity analysis, has focused predominantly on the variability arise from different emission scenarios or multi-model ensembles. This paper describes a Bayesian spatial quantile regression approach to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> climate model output for examining to the risks of future temperature on adverse health outcomes. Specifically, we first estimate the spatial quantile process for climate model output using nonlinear monotonic regression during a historical period. The quantile process is then <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using the quantile functions estimated from the observed monitoring data. Our model also down-scales the gridded climate model output to the point-level for projecting future exposure over a specific geographical region. The quantile regression approach is motivated by the need to better characterize the tails of future temperature distribution where the greatest health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are likely to occur. We applied the methodology to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> temperature projections from a regional climate model for the period 2041 to 2050. Accounting for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> uncertainty, we calculated the number of of excess deaths attributed to future temperature for three cities in the US state of Alabama.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017sgvi.confE..36R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017sgvi.confE..36R"><span>GPI <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>"The Gemini Planet Imager requires a large set of <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span>. These can be split into two major sets, one set associated with each observation and one set related to biweekly <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. The observation set is to optimize the correction of miscroshifts in the IFU spectra and the latter set is for correction of detector and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> cosmetics."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP31C0836M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP31C0836M"><span>Field observations of particle <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by debris flows and debris floods on <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> rock samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McArdell, B. W.; Hsu, L.; Fritschi, B.; Dietrich, W. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Bedrock incision and sediment entrainment by debris flows are important processes in torrent channels. As part of our effort to gain a better understanding of these processes, we installed <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> rock samples in the bed of the Illgraben channel. Three rock samples, 0.4 m long (in the flow direction), 0.3 m wide, and 0.2 m thick, were installed in steel frames which were mounted on the upslope side of a concrete check dam, with the surface of the stones flush with the channel bed. Accelerometer sensors were installed on the bottom of one rock sample, with a range of up to 500 g (vertical) and 200 g (horizontal, parallel to the channel axis), where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Elastomer elements, typically used in the field as overload protection for load sensors, were placed between the rock samples and the steel frames. Data were sampled at 2 kHz and stored on a computer outside of the channel. The sensors provided data for 4 debris floods and part of one debris flow. For all of the events, the vertical acceleration data indicate a large background noise in the range of ±10 g, punctuated by very short duration impulses of up to several hundred g. The large accelerations are interpreted to represent hard <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of cobbles or boulders in the flow with the rock tablet. Using a value of >20 g to define the occurrence of a large particle <span class="hlt">impact</span>, it is possible to differentiate between debris floods (which have on the order of 0.1 <span class="hlt">impact</span> per second) and the debris flow (on the order of 1 <span class="hlt">impact</span> per second). The frequency of the sampling is too small to resolve details about the <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, so it is not possible to precisely determine the maximum accelerations. However the peak recorded values are larger for debris flows, with values up to the measurement limit of the sensors, whereas for floods the maximum accelerations are typically less than 100 g. The results for the accelerometer which measures accelerations in the downstream direction generally mirror</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003503','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003503"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Fluorine, Chlorine and Hydrogen Content of Apatites With the ChemCam LIBS <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meslin, P.-Y.; Cicutto, L.; Forni, O.; Drouet, C.; Rapin, W.; Nachon, M.; Cousin, A.; Blank, J. G.; McCubbin, F. M.; Gasnault, O.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20160003503'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20160003503_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20160003503_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20160003503_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20160003503_hide"></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Determining the composition of apatites is important to understand the behavior of volatiles during planetary differentiation. Apatite is an ubiquitous magmatic mineral in the SNC meteorites. It is a significant reservoir of halogens in these meteorites and has been used to estimate the halogen budget of Mars. Apatites have been identified in sandstones and pebbles at Gale crater by ChemCam, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscometer (LIBS) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> onboard the Curiosity rover. Their presence was inferred from correlations between calcium, fluorine (using the CaF molecular band centered near 603 nm, whose detection limit is much lower that atomic or ionic lines and, in some cases, phosphorus (whose detection limit is much larger). An initial quantification of fluorine, based on fluorite (CaF2)/basalt mixtures and obtained at the LANL laboratory, indicated that the excess of F/Ca (compared to the stoichiometry of pure fluorapatites) found on Mars in some cases could be explained by the presence of fluorite. Chlorine was not detected in these targets, at least above a detection limit of 0.6 wt% estimated from. Fluorapatite was later also detected by X-ray diffraction (with CheMin) at a level of approx.1wt% in the Windjana drill sample (Kimberley area), and several points analyzed by ChemCam in this area also revealed a correlation between Ca and F. The in situ detection of F-rich, Cl-poor apatites contrasts with the Cl-rich, F-poor compositions of apatites found in basaltic shergottites and in gabbroic clasts from the martian meteorite NWA 7034, which were also found to be more Cl-rich than apatites from basalts on Earth, the Moon, or Vesta. The in situ observations could call into question one of the few possible explanations brought forward to explain the SNC results, namely that Mars may be highly depleted in fluorine. The purpose of the present study is to refine the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the F, Cl, OH and P signals measured by the ChemCam LIBS <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, initiated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=218667','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=218667"><span><span class="hlt">INSTRUMENTAL</span> and OPERATIONAL <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> on SPECTROPHOTOMETER COLOR MEASUREMENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Color measurements for the classing of U.S. cottons have been performed on the Uster® High Volume <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> (HVI) <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for several years. Two color parameters specific to cotton—Rd (reflectance) and +b (yellowness)—are used to express the color of cotton. Since Rd and +b do not readily...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26109515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26109515"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Lean on surgical <span class="hlt">instrument</span> reduction: Less is more.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wannemuehler, Todd J; Elghouche, Alhasan N; Kokoska, Mimi S; Deig, Christopher R; Matt, Bruce H</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To determine whether <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sets that are frequently used by multiple surgeons can be substantially reduced in size with consensus. Prospective quality improvement study using Lean Six Sigma for purposeful and consensual reduction of non-value-added <span class="hlt">instruments</span> in adenotonsillectomy <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sets. Value stream mapping was utilized to determine <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> usage and reprocessing workflow. Preintervention <span class="hlt">instrument</span> utilization surveys allowed consensual and intelligent set reduction. Non-value-added <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were targeted for waste elimination by placement in a supplemental set. Times for pre- and postintervention <span class="hlt">instrument</span> assembly, Mayo setup, and surgery were collected for adenotonsillectomies. Postintervention satisfaction surveys of surgeons and staff were conducted. Adenotonsillectomy sets were reduced from 52 to 24 <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Median assembly times were significantly reduced from 8.4 to 4.7 minutes (P < .0001) with a set assembly cost reduction of 44%. Following natural log transformations, mean Mayo setup times were significantly reduced from 97.6 to 76.1 seconds (P < .0001), and mean operative times were not significantly affected (1,773 vs. 1,631 seconds, P > .05). The supplemental set was opened in only 3.6% of cases. Satisfaction was >90% regarding the intervention. Set build cost was reduced by $1,468.99 per set. Lean Six Sigma improves efficiency and reduces waste by empowering team members to improve their environment. <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> set reduction is ideal for waste elimination because of tool accumulation over time and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> obsolescence as newer technologies are adopted. Similar interventions could easily be applied to larger sinus, mastoidectomy, and spine sets. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ISSIR...7..117W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ISSIR...7..117W"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wurz, Peter; Balogh, Andre; Coffey, Victoria; Dichter, Bronislaw K.; Kasprzak, Wayne T.; Lazarus, Alan J.; Lennartsson, Walter; McFadden, James P.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and characterization of particle <span class="hlt">instruments</span> with supporting flight electronics is necessary for the correct interpretation of the returned data. Generally speaking, the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> will always return a measurement value (typically in form of a digital number), for example a count rate, for the measurement of an external quantity, which could be an ambient neutral gas density, an ion composition (species measured and amount), or electron density. The returned values are used then to derive parameters associated with the distribution such as temperature, bulk flow speed, differential energy flux and others. With the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> the direct relationship between the external quantity and the returned measurement value has to be established so that the data recorded during flight can be correctly interpreted. While <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and characterization of an <span class="hlt">instrument</span> are usually done in ground-based laboratories prior to integration of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the spacecraft, it can also be done in space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..968T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..968T"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> period on the conceptual rainfall-runoff model parameter estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Todorovic, Andrijana; Plavsic, Jasna</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>. Correlation coefficients among optimised model parameters and total precipitation P, mean temperature T and mean flow Q are calculated to give an insight into parameter dependence on the hydrometeorological drivers. The results reveal high sensitivity of almost all model parameters towards <span class="hlt">calibration</span> period. The highest variability is displayed by the refreezing coefficient, water holding capacity, and temperature gradient. The only statistically significant (decreasing) trend is detected in the evapotranspiration reduction threshold. Statistically significant correlation is detected between the precipitation gradient and precipitation depth, and between the time-area histogram base and flows. All other correlations are not statistically significant, implying that changes in optimised parameters cannot generally be linked to the changes in P, T or Q. As for the model performance, the model reproduces the observed runoff satisfactorily, though the runoff is slightly overestimated in wet periods. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) ranges from 0.44 to 0.79. Higher NSE values are obtained over wetter periods, what is supported by statistically significant correlation between NSE and flows. Overall, no systematic variations in parameters or in model performance are detected. Parameter variability may therefore rather be attributed to errors in data or inadequacies in the model structure. Further research is required to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategy or model structure on the variability in optimised parameters in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015684','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015684"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Land Model <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> on Coupled Land-Atmosphere Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Ken; Zhou, Shujia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface heat and moisture budgets, as well as controlling feedbacks with clouds and precipitation that lead to the persistence of dry and wet regimes. Recent efforts to quantify the strength of L-A coupling in prediction models have produced diagnostics that integrate across both the land and PBL components of the system. In this study, we examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of improved specification of land surface states, anomalies, and fluxes on coupled WRF forecasts during the summers of extreme dry and wet land surface conditions in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. The improved land initialization and surface flux parameterizations are obtained through <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Noah land surface model using the new optimization and uncertainty estimation subsystem in NASA's Land Information System (LIS-OPT/UE). The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on the a) spinup of the land surface used as initial conditions, and b) the simulated heat and moisture states and fluxes of the coupled WRF simulations is then assessed. Changes in ambient weather and land-atmosphere coupling are evaluated along with measures of uncertainty propagation into the forecasts. In addition, the sensitivity of this approach to the period of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> (dry, wet, average) is investigated. Results indicate that the offline <span class="hlt">calibration</span> leads to systematic improvements in land-PBL fluxes and near-surface temperature and humidity, and in the process provide guidance on the questions of what, how, and when to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> land surface models for coupled model prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMM%26M..16b4003D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMM%26M..16b4003D"><span>Multiple-<span class="hlt">instrument</span> evaluation of the consistency and long-term stability of tip width <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for critical dimension atomic force microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dixson, Ronald G.; Orji, Ndubuisi G.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Since 2004, standards for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) tip width have been available both commercially and through the National Metrology Institutes, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the United States. There have been interlaboratory and intermethod comparisons performed on such samples, but less attention has been paid to the long-term stability of standards and monitoring for damage, wear, or contamination. Using three different CD-AFM <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, we have tested the consistency and long-term stability of two independent reference <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> for CD-AFM tip width. Both of these tip width <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> were based on independently implemented transmission electron microscope reference measurements. There were circumstances in which damage occurred or samples needed to be cleaned. Nevertheless, our results show agreement within the uncertainties and stability over a period exceeding 10 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20837773','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20837773"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Smoke Exposure on Digital <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> and Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Tina J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Korsah, Kofi; Wood, Richard T.; Antonescu, Christina E.</p> <p>2003-08-15</p> <p>Smoke can cause interruptions and upsets in active electronics. Because nuclear power plants are replacing analog with digital <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and control systems, qualification guidelines for new systems are being reviewed for severe environments such as smoke and electromagnetic interference. Active digital systems, individual components, and active circuits have been exposed to smoke in a program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The circuits and systems were all monitored during the smoke exposure, indicating any immediate effects of the smoke. The results of previous smoke exposure studies have been reported in various publications. The major immediate effect of smoke has been to increase leakage currents and to cause momentary upsets and failures in digital systems. This paper presents new results from conformal coatings, memory chips, and hard drive tests.The best conformal coatings were found to be polyurethane, parylene, and acrylic (when applied by dipping). Conformal coatings can reduce smoke-induced leakage currents and protect against metal loss through corrosion. However conformal coatings are typically flammable, so they do increase material flammability. Some of the low-voltage biased memory chips failed during a combination of high smoke and high humidity. Typically, smoke along with heat and humidity is expected during fire, rather than smoke alone. Thus, due to high sensitivity of digital circuits to heat and humidity, it is hypothesized that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of smoke may be secondary.Low-voltage (3.3-V) static random-access memory (SRAMs) were found to be the most vulnerable to smoke. Higher bias voltages decrease the likelihood of failure. Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROMs) and nonvolatile SRAMs were very smoke tolerant. Failures of the SRAMs occurred when two conditions were present: high density of smoke and high humidity. As the high humidity was present for only part of the test, the failures were intermittent. All</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HEAD...1312321P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HEAD...1312321P"><span>Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> Onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton Observatories Using 1E 0102.2-7219: An IACHEC Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, A. P.; DePasquale, J. M.; Dewey, D.; Foster, A.; Haberl, F.; Miller, E. D.; Pollock, A.; Posson-Brown, J.; Sembay, S.; Smith, R. K.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We report on our continuing efforts to compare the time-dependent <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the current generation of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories using the brightest supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, 1E0102.2-7219 (hereafter E0102). This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas in the 0.5-1.0 keV bandpass. The spectrum of E0102 has been well-characterized using the RGS grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on XMM-Newton and the HETG grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Chandra. We have developed an empirical model for E0102 that includes Gaussians for the identified lines, two absorption components, and two continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest line complexes (the O VII triplet, the O VIII Ly-alpha line, the Ne IX triplet, and the Ne X Ly-alpha line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary. In our previous study, we found that based on observations early in the missions, most of the fitted line normalizations agreed to within +/- 10%. We have now expanded this study to include more recent data from these missions using the latest <span class="hlt">calibration</span> updates and we will report on the current level of agreement amongst these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This work is based on the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IACHEC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HEAD...1511611P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HEAD...1511611P"><span>Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the CCD <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton Observatories using 1E 0102.2-7219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Foster, Adam; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haberl, Frank; Miller, Eric; Pollock, Andrew; Sembay, Steve; Stuhlinger, Martin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We report on our continuing efforts to compare the time-dependent <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the current generation of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories using the brightest supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, 1E 0102.2-7219 (hereafter E0102). This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas in the 0.5-1.0 keV bandpass. The spectrum of E0102 has been well-characterized using the RGS grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on XMM-Newton and the HETG grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Chandra. We have developed an empirical model for E0102 that includes Gaussians for the identified lines, two absorption components, and two continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest line complexes (the O VII triplet, the O VIII Ly-alpha line, the Ne IX triplet, and the Ne X Ly-alpha line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary. In our previous study, we found that based on observations early in the missions, most of the fitted line normalizations agreed to within +/- 10%. We have now expanded this study to include more recent data from these missions using the latest <span class="hlt">calibration</span> updates and we will report on the current level of agreement amongst these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This work is based on the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IACHEC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HEAD...1411608P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HEAD...1411608P"><span>Cross-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the X-ray <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, & XMM-Newton Observatories using 1E 0102.2-7219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plucinsky, Paul P.; Beardmore, Andrew P; Dewey, Daniel; Foster, Adam; Haberl, Frank; Miller, Eric D.; Pollock, Andrew; Sembay, Steve; Smith, Randall K.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We report on our continuing efforts to compare the time-dependent <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> of the current generation of CCD <span class="hlt">instruments</span> onboard the Chandra, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories using the brightest supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud, 1E 0102.2-7219 (hereafter E0102). This <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is a function of time due to the effects of radiation damage on the CCDs and the accumulation of a contamination layer on the filters or CCDs. We desire a simple comparison of the absolute effective areas in the 0.5-1.0 keV bandpass. The spectrum of E0102 has been well-characterized using the RGS grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on XMM-Newton and the HETG grating <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Chandra. We have developed an empirical model for E0102 that includes Gaussians for the identified lines, two absorption components, and two continuum components with different temperatures. In our fits, the model is highly constrained in that only the normalizations of the four brightest line complexes (the O VII triplet, the O VIII Ly-alpha line, the Ne IX triplet, and the Ne X Ly-alpha line) and an overall normalization are allowed to vary. In our previous study, we found that based on observations early in the missions, most of the fitted line normalizations agreed to within +/- 10%. We have now expanded this study to include more recent data from these missions using the latest <span class="hlt">calibration</span> updates and we will report on the current level of agreement amongst these <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. This work is based on the activities of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> (IACHEC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798478"><span>Use of Transportable Radiation Detection <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Factors and ICAT Computer Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> factors for four <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> factors enable these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These <span class="hlt">calibration</span> factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These <span class="hlt">calibration</span> factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H11G0978P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H11G0978P"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Spatial Scale on <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Model Output for a Grid-based SWAT Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pignotti, G.; Vema, V. K.; Rathjens, H.; Raj, C.; Her, Y.; Chaubey, I.; Crawford, M. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The traditional implementation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model utilizes common landscape characteristics known as hydrologic response units (HRUs). Discretization into HRUs provides a simple, computationally efficient framework for simulation, but also represents a significant limitation of the model as spatial connectivity between HRUs is ignored. SWATgrid, a newly developed, distributed version of SWAT, provides modified landscape routing via a grid, overcoming these limitations. However, the current implementation of SWATgrid has significant computational overhead, which effectively precludes traditional <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and limits the total number of grid cells in a given modeling scenario. Moreover, as SWATgrid is a relatively new modeling approach, it remains largely untested with little understanding of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of spatial resolution on model output. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of user-defined input resolution on SWATgrid predictions in the Upper Cedar Creek Watershed (near Auburn, IN, USA). Original input data, nominally at 30 m resolution, was rescaled for a range of resolutions between 30 and 4,000 m. A 30 m traditional SWAT model was developed as the baseline for model comparison. Monthly <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was performed, and the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> parameter set was then transferred to all other SWAT and SWATgrid models to focus the effects of resolution on prediction uncertainty relative to the baseline. Model output was evaluated with respect to stream flow at the outlet and water quality parameters. Additionally, output of SWATgrid models were compared to output of traditional SWAT models at each resolution, utilizing the same scaled input data. A secondary objective considered the effect of scale on <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> parameter values, where each standard SWAT model was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> independently, and parameters were transferred to SWATgrid models at equivalent scales. For each model, computational requirements were evaluated</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009897"><span>Radio metric errors due to mismatch and offset between a DSN antenna beam and the beam of a troposphere <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Linfield, R. P.; Wilcox, J. Z.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Two components of the error of a troposphere <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurement were quantified by theoretical calculations. The first component is a beam mismatch error, which occurs when the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> senses a conical volume different from the cylindrical volume sampled by a Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna. The second component is a beam offset error, which occurs if the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is not mounted on the axis of the DSN antenna. These two error sources were calculated for both delay (e.g., VLBI) and delay rate (e.g., Doppler) measurements. The beam mismatch error for both delay and delay rate drops rapidly as the beamwidth of the troposphere <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (e.g., a water vapor radiometer or an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer) is reduced. At a 10-deg elevation angle, the instantaneous beam mismatch error is 1.0 mm for a 6-deg beamwidth and 0.09 mm for a 0.5-deg beam (these are the full angular widths of a circular beam with uniform gain out to a sharp cutoff). Time averaging for 60-100 sec will reduce these errors by factors of 1.2-2.2. At a 20-deg elevation angle, the lower limit for current Doppler observations, the beam-mismatch delay rate error is an Allan standard deviation over 100 sec of 1.1 x 10(exp -14) with a 4-deg beam and 1.3 x 10(exp -l5) for a 0.5-deg beam. A 50-m beam offset would result in a fairly modest (compared to other expected error sources) delay error (less than or equal to 0.3 mm for 60-sec integrations at any elevation angle is greater than or equal to 6 deg). However, the same offset would cause a large error in delay rate measurements (e.g., an Allan standard deviation of 1.2 x 10(exp -14) over 100 sec at a 20-deg elevation angle), which would dominate over other known error sources if the beamwidth is 2 deg or smaller. An on-axis location is essential for accurate troposphere <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of delay rate measurements. A half-power beamwidth (for a beam with a tapered gain profile) of 1.2 deg or smaller is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHyd..547..280S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHyd..547..280S"><span>Influence of three common <span class="hlt">calibration</span> metrics on the diagnosis of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on water resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seiller, G.; Roy, R.; Anctil, F.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Uncertainties associated to the evaluation of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on water resources are broad, from multiple sources, and lead to diagnoses sometimes difficult to interpret. Quantification of these uncertainties is a key element to yield confidence in the analyses and to provide water managers with valuable information. This work specifically evaluates the influence of hydrological modeling <span class="hlt">calibration</span> metrics on future water resources projections, on thirty-seven watersheds in the Province of Québec, Canada. Twelve lumped hydrologic models, representing a wide range of operational options, are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with three common objective functions derived from the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. The hydrologic models are forced with climate simulations corresponding to two RCP, twenty-nine GCM from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) and two post-treatment techniques, leading to future projections in the 2041-2070 period. Results show that the diagnosis of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on water resources are quite affected by the hydrologic models selection and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> metrics. Indeed, for the four selected hydrological indicators, dedicated to water management, parameters from the three objective functions can provide different interpretations in terms of absolute and relative changes, as well as projected changes direction and climatic ensemble consensus. The GR4J model and a multimodel approach offer the best modeling options, based on <span class="hlt">calibration</span> performance and robustness. Overall, these results illustrate the need to provide water managers with detailed information on relative changes analysis, but also absolute change values, especially for hydrological indicators acting as security policy thresholds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5037023','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5037023"><span>ORNL <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berger, C.D.; Gupton, E.D.; Lane, B.H.; Miller, J.H.; Nichols, S.W.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p>The ORNL <span class="hlt">Calibrations</span> Facility is operated by the <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span> Group of the Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division. Its primary purpose is to maintain radiation <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of ORNL health physics <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and personnel dosimeters. This report includes a discussion of the radioactive sources and ancillary equipment in use and a step-by-step procedure for <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of those survey <span class="hlt">instruments</span> and personnel dosimeters in routine use at ORNL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006874','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006874"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of new <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> on advanced turbine research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graham, R. W.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A description is presented of an orderly test program that progresses from the simplest stationary geometry to the more complex, three dimensional, rotating turbine stage. The <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> requirements for this evolution of testing are described. The heat transfer <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> is emphasized. Recent progress made in devising new measurement techniques has greatly improved the development and confirmation of more accurate analytical methods for the prediction of turbine performance and heat transfer. However, there remain challenging requirements for novel measurement techniques that could advance the future research to be done in rotating blade rows of turbomachines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016541','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016541"><span>Development and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of a System-Integrated Rotorcraft Finite Element Model for <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Jackson, Karen E.; Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber (DEA) under combined <span class="hlt">impact</span> conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. The presence of this energy absorbing device reduced the peak <span class="hlt">impact</span> acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system-integrated finite element model of the test article developed in parallel with the test program. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests were conducted to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> performances of various components and subsystems, including new crush tubes and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined for the system-integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, <span class="hlt">impact</span> shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> model results for the full-scale crash test without the DEA. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods identified modeling deficiencies, evaluated parameter importance, and proposed required model changes. The multidimensional <span class="hlt">calibration</span> techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> model were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987414"><span>[Reliability of plural measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> for quantitative PET measurement -performance of dose-<span class="hlt">calibrator</span>, auto well gamma counter, continuous blood sampling system, and PET scanner].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsumoto, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Keiji; Murase, Kenya; Senda, Michio</p> <p>2008-10-20</p> <p>Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful tool for measuring in vivo functions such as blood flow, metabolism, enzyme activity, receptors, and transporters. However, plural measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (i.e., the dose-<span class="hlt">calibrator</span>, the auto well gamma counter, the continuous blood sampling system) are necessary for the quantitative PET measurement as well as the PET scanner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of plural measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span> from the maintenance data for 6 years. Four kinds of measuring <span class="hlt">instrument</span> were evaluated: a dose-<span class="hlt">calibrator</span> (CAPINTEC, CRC-15R), an auto well gamma counter (ALOKA, ARC-400), a continuous blood sampling system (ESPEC Techno, PH type), and a dedicated PET scanner (Siemens, ECAT EXACT HR+). We examined whether the initial performance for system sensitivity is maintained. The reliability of the PET scanner was evaluated from the value of mean time between failures (MTBF) for each part of the system obtained from the maintenance data for 6 years. The sensitivity of a dose-<span class="hlt">calibrator</span> and an auto well gamma counter were maintained virtually constant during the 6 years, but the sensitivity of a continuous blood sampling system was 0.1+/-3.2%. The sensitivity of a PET scanner was decreased to 92.3% of the initial value. Fifty-one percent of the problems with the PET scanner were for detector block (DB) and analog processor (AP) board. The MTBF of DB and AP board module were 199 and 244 days, respectively. The MTBF of the PET scanner was 56 days. The performance of three measuring <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, excepting the PET scanner, was relatively stable. The reliability of the PET scanner strongly depends on the MTBF of the DB and AP board. For quantitative PET measurement, it is effective to evaluate the reliability of the system and to make it known to the users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064860"><span>Design, <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation of a novel 3D printed <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> spatial linkage that measures changes in the rotational axes of the tibiofemoral joint.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonny, Daniel P; Hull, M L; Howell, S M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An accurate axis-finding technique is required to measure any changes from normal caused by total knee arthroplasty in the flexion-extension (F-E) and longitudinal rotation (LR) axes of the tibiofemoral joint. In a previous paper, we computationally determined how best to design and use an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> spatial linkage (ISL) to locate the F-E and LR axes such that rotational and translational errors were minimized. However, the ISL was not built and consequently was not <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>; thus the errors in locating these axes were not quantified on an actual ISL. Moreover, previous methods to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> an ISL used <span class="hlt">calibration</span> devices with accuracies that were either undocumented or insufficient for the device to serve as a gold-standard. Accordingly, the objectives were to (1) construct an ISL using the previously established guidelines,(2) <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the ISL using an improved method, and (3) quantify the error in measuring changes in the F-E and LR axes. A 3D printed ISL was constructed and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using a coordinate measuring machine, which served as a gold standard. Validation was performed using a fixture that represented the tibiofemoral joint with an adjustable F-E axis and the errors in measuring changes to the positions and orientations of the F-E and LR axes were quantified. The resulting root mean squared errors (RMSEs) of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> residuals using the new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method were 0.24, 0.33, and 0.15 mm for the anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal positions, respectively, and 0.11, 0.10, and 0.09 deg for varus-valgus, flexion-extension, and internal-external orientations, respectively. All RMSEs were below 0.29% of the respective full-scale range. When measuring changes to the F-E or LR axes, each orientation error was below 0.5 deg; when measuring changes in the F-E axis, each position error was below 1.0 mm. The largest position RMSE was when measuring a medial-lateral change in the LR axis (1.2 mm). Despite the large size</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9885312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9885312"><span>The tabletting machine as an analytical <span class="hlt">instrument</span>: qualification of the measurement devices for punch forces and validation of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belda, P M; Mielck, J B</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The quality of force measurement in an eccentric tabletting machine equipped with piezo-electric load washers mounted under pre-stress at the upper and lower punches, and the reliability of their <span class="hlt">calibration</span> in situ and under working conditions were carefully investigated, since this tabletting machine is used as an 'analytical <span class="hlt">instrument</span>' for the evaluation of the compression behaviour of pharmaceutical materials. For a quasistatic <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure the repeatability under standard conditions and the robustness against variations in machine settings, installation conditions, equipment and handling were evaluated. Two differently constructed reference load cells equipped with strain gauges were used for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the upper punch sensor. The lower punch sensor was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> against the upper one. Except for a mechanical hysteresis, owing to uneven stress distribution over the piezo-electric sensors, the results of the quasistatic measurements are assessed to be satisfactory. In addition, dynamic <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> were performed. One of the strain-gauged load cells was used in addition to two piezo-electric load washers installed without pre-stress. The dynamic behaviour of all the transducers used is deficient. While for the piezo-electric sensors a significant change in the slope of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> function with respect to the quasistatic behaviour was observed, for the strain-gauged load cell a pronounced hysteresis must be noted. Comparing the dynamic behaviour at different profiles of rates of force development generated by variations in machine speed and by maximum force setting, the variability in the sensitivity of the upper and lower punch piezo-electric load washers is comparatively small.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170008463&hterms=Ocean&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DOcean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170008463&hterms=Ocean&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DOcean"><span>MODIS Aqua Optical Throughput Degradation <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Relative Spectral Response and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> on Ocean Color Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Shihyan; Meister, Gerhard</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Since Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua's launch in 2002, the radiometric system gains of the reflective solar bands have been degrading, indicating changes in the systems optical throughput. To estimate the optical throughput degradation, the electronic gain changes were estimated and removed from the measured system gain. The derived optical throughput degradation shows a rate that is much faster in the shorter wavelengths than the longer wavelengths. The wavelength-dependent optical throughput degradation modulated the relative spectral response (RSR) of the bands. In addition, the optical degradation is also scan angle-dependent due to large changes in response versus the scan angle over time. We estimated the modulated RSR as a function of time and scan angles and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on sensor radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for the ocean science. Our results show that the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> bias could be up to 1.8 % for band 8 (412 nm) due to its larger out-of-band response. For the other ocean bands, the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> biases are much smaller with magnitudes at least one order smaller.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4993933','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4993933"><span>A Review of <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> Equipment to Investigate Head <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> in Sport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Contact, collision, and combat sports have more head <span class="hlt">impacts</span> as compared to noncontact sports; therefore, such sports are uniquely suited to the investigation of head <span class="hlt">impact</span> biomechanics. Recent advances in technology have enabled the development of <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> equipment, which can estimate the head <span class="hlt">impact</span> kinematics of human subjects in vivo. Literature pertaining to head <span class="hlt">impact</span> measurement devices was reviewed and usage, in terms of validation and field studies, of such devices was discussed. Over the past decade, <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> equipment has recorded millions of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the laboratory, on the field, in the ring, and on the ice. <span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> equipment is not without limitations; however, in vivo head <span class="hlt">impact</span> data is crucial to investigate head injury mechanisms and further the understanding of concussion. PMID:27594780</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=musical&pg=5&id=EJ1123058','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=musical&pg=5&id=EJ1123058"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Instrumental</span> Music Learning on Attainment at Age 16: A Pilot Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Kevin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There is increasing international evidence that playing a musical <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has a positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on attainment at school but little research has been undertaken in the UK. This study addresses this drawing on data on attainment at age 11 and 16 relating to 608 students, 115 of whom played a musical <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The fndings showed that the young…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21583130','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21583130"><span>ABSOLUTE FLUX <span class="hlt">CALIBRATION</span> OF THE IRAC <span class="hlt">INSTRUMENT</span> ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE FLUX STANDARDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bohlin, R. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Deustua, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Flanagan, K.; Kalirai, J.; Meixner, M.; Rieke, G. H.; Engelbracht, C.; Su, K. Y. L.; Ardila, D.; Tremblay, P.-E.</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>The absolute flux <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be based on a set of stars observed by the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. In order to cross-<span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the two facilities, several A, G, and white dwarf stars are observed with both Spitzer and Hubble and are the prototypes for a set of JWST <span class="hlt">calibration</span> standards. The flux <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constants for the four Spitzer IRAC bands 1-4 are derived from these stars and are 2.3%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 0.5% lower than the official cold-mission IRAC <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Reach et al., i.e., in agreement within their estimated errors of {approx}2%. The causes of these differences lie primarily in the IRAC data reduction and secondarily in the spectral energy distributions of our standard stars. The independent IRAC 8 {mu}m band-4 fluxes of Rieke et al. are about 1.5% {+-} 2% higher than those of Reach et al. and are also in agreement with our 8 {mu}m result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..986K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..986K"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Dust <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Monitor DIM onboard Rosetta/Philae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krueger, Harald; Seidensticker, Klaus; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Hirn, Attila; Loose, Alexander; Peter, Attila; Ossowski, Thomas; Flandes, Alberto; Herwig, Alexander; Apathy, Istvan; Arnold, Walter; Sperl, Mathias</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The Rosetta lander spacecraft Philae will land on the nucleus surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in late 2014. It is equipped with the Dust <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Monitor <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (DIM). DIM is part of the SESAME <span class="hlt">instrument</span> package onboard Philae [Seidensticker et al., 2007] and consists of three piezoelectric PZT sensors. Each sensor is mounted on the outer side of a cube, facing in orthogonal directions, this way allowing for the detection of grains approaching normal to the nucleus surface and from two horizontal directions. DIM's total sensitive area is approximately 70 cm^2. It will measure <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of sub-millimeter and millimeter sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma by the escaping gas flow. A grain-size dependent fraction of the emitted grains is expected to fall back to the nucleus surface due to gravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265176"><span>Characterization of thermal desorption <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> with a direct liquid deposition <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method for trace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene quantitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Field, Christopher R; Giordano, Braden C; Rogers, Duane A; Lubrano, Adam L; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L</p> <p>2012-03-02</p> <p>The use of thermal desorption systems for the analysis of trace vapors typically requires establishing a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curve from vapors generated with a permeation tube. The slow equilibration time of permeation tubes causes such an approach to become laborious when covering a wide dynamic range. Furthermore, many analytes of interest, such as explosives, are not available as permeation tubes. A method for easily and effectively establishing <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curves for explosive vapor samples via direct deposition of standard solutions on thermal desorption tubes was investigated. The various components of the thermal desorption system were compared to a standard split/splitless inlet. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> curves using the direct liquid deposition method with a thermal desorption unit coupled to a cryo-focusing inlet were compared to a standard split/splitless inlet, and a statistical difference was observed but does not eliminate or deter the use of the direct liquid deposition method for obtaining quantitative results for explosive vapors. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol19-sec86-1320-90.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol19-sec86-1320-90.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol19-sec86-1320-90.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol19/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol19-sec86-1320-90.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol20-sec86-1320-90.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol20-sec86-1320-90.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol20-sec86-1320-90.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol20-sec86-1320-90.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span>... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17578138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17578138"><span>New <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for tribocharge measurement due to single particle <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding, Yu Long; Pitt, Kendal G</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to <span class="hlt">impact</span> between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the <span class="hlt">impact</span>, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as approximately 100 microm <span class="hlt">impacting</span> on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to <span class="hlt">impact</span> for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007RScI...78b4706W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007RScI...78b4706W"><span>New <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for tribocharge measurement due to single particle <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Long Ding, Yu; Pitt, Kendal G.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to <span class="hlt">impact</span> between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10fC have been achieved before and after the <span class="hlt">impact</span>, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ˜100μm <span class="hlt">impacting</span> on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to <span class="hlt">impact</span> for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20953265','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20953265"><span>New <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for tribocharge measurement due to single particle <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G.</p> <p>2007-02-15</p> <p>During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to <span class="hlt">impact</span> between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the <span class="hlt">impact</span>, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as {approx}100 {mu}m <span class="hlt">impacting</span> on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to <span class="hlt">impact</span> for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3231514','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3231514"><span>Geometric <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Radiometric Correction of LiDAR Data and Their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Quality of Derived Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Habib, Ayman F.; Kersting, Ana P.; Shaker, Ahmed; Yan, Wai-Yeung</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) systems are capable of providing 3D positional and spectral information (in the utilized spectrum range) of the mapped surface. Due to systematic errors in the system parameters and measurements, LiDAR systems require geometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and radiometric correction of the intensity data in order to maximize the benefit from the collected positional and spectral information. This paper presents a practical approach for the geometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of LiDAR systems and radiometric correction of collected intensity data while investigating their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the quality of the derived products. The proposed approach includes the use of a quasi-rigorous geometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and the radar equation for the radiometric correction of intensity data. The proposed quasi-rigorous <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure requires time-tagged point cloud and trajectory position data, which are available to most of the data users. The paper presents a methodology for evaluating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the geometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on the relative and absolute accuracy of the LiDAR point cloud. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the geometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and radiometric correction on land cover classification accuracy is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed methods and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the derived products are demonstrated through experimental results using real data. PMID:22164121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM31A4162D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM31A4162D"><span>Design, <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and Specifications of the Space Environment in-Situ Suite (SEISSS) Space Weather <span class="hlt">Instruments</span> for the GOES-R Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dichter, B.; Galica, G. E.; McGarity, J. O.; Mullen, E. G.; Hanser, F. A.; Tsui, S.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The next generation GOES spacecraft will continue the long-term operational measurement of the charged particle environment in geosynchronous orbit with the SEISS space environment monitors. The suite comprises five <span class="hlt">instruments</span> that measure electrons and ions in multiple energy ranges and a data processing unit. Two of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, MPS-LO and EHIS provide new measurement capabilities compared with previous GOES environmental monitors. The MPS-LO (new to GOES) is an electrostatic <span class="hlt">instrument</span> that measures electrons and ions from 30 eV to 30 keV in 15 logarithmically spaced energy bins. Its twelve 15ox5o angular channels provide a 180o FOV oriented north to south. The MPS-HI <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, using solid state Si detector telescopes, covers the energy range of 50 keV to 4 MeV for electrons and 80 keV to 10 MeV for protons each along five 15o half angle look angles spaced 35o apart. High energy solar and galactic protons in the range of 1 to 500 MeV are measured by the SGPS, which also has an integral channel above 500 MeV. This broad energy range is divided into three sub-ranges, 1-25, 25-80 and 80-500 MeV, each measured by a separate Si detector telescope. The opening half-angles of the telescopes are 30o, 30o and 45o respectively. There are east and west oriented SGPS <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. Energetic heavy ions are detected by EHIS, also consisting of solid state detectors, in thirty individual species from H to Ni and in five logarithmically spaced energy bands from 10 MeV/n to 200 MeV/n. The FOV is a 30oopening half-angle cone. Extensive <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> at accelerator facilities have been performed to verify the 25% accuracy of each <span class="hlt">instrument</span>'s geometric factor. In addition, performances of the solid state detector <span class="hlt">instruments</span> have been modeled using the GEANT and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes and the results compared to <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measurements. Energy overlap regions of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> will be used to improve the quality and self-consistency of the data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046539&hterms=repose+angle&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drepose%2Bangle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046539&hterms=repose+angle&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drepose%2Bangle"><span>The SNOOPY Angle of Repose Experiment: <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of an <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> to Determine the Angle of Repose of Martian Dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moeller, L. E.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Marshall, J. R.; Towner, M. C.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The present work <span class="hlt">calibrates</span> the Student Nanoexperiments for Outreach and Observational Planetary Inquiry (SNOOPY) Angle of Repose experiment. Using particulate collection on small marbles, the measured angles of repose compare well to experimental data and theoretical predictions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LPI....40.2296V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LPI....40.2296V"><span>Fabrication of Sulfate-bearing Ceramic <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Targets for the ChemCam Laser Spectroscopy <span class="hlt">Instrument</span>, Mars Science Lander</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vaniman, D. T.; Clegg, S.; Lanza, N.; Newsom, H.; Wiens, R. C.; Chemcam Team</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>A need for sulfur-bearing <span class="hlt">calibration</span> targets for LIBS analysis by ChemCam on the Mars Science Lander required development of low-fire ceramics. A range of sulfur contents can be obtained that mimic soil or rock at the potential landing sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rating&pg=2&id=EJ1129349','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rating&pg=2&id=EJ1129349"><span>Direct Behavior Rating <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span>: Evaluating the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Scale Formats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miller, Faith G.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Schardt, Alyssa A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of two different Direct Behavior Rating--Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS) formats on rating accuracy. A total of 119 undergraduate students participated in one of two study conditions, each utilizing a different DBR-SIS scale format: one that included percentage of time anchors on the DBR-SIS…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/965656','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/965656"><span>Transient Inverse <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Model to Hanford Operational <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> - 1943 to 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Thorne, Paul D.; Orr, Samuel; Mckinley, Mathew I.</p> <p>2001-05-31</p> <p>This report describes a new initiative to strengthen the technical defensibility of predictions made with the Hanford site-wide groundwater flow and transport model. The focus is on characterizing major uncertainties in the current model. PNNL will develop and implement a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> approach and methodology that can be used to evaluate alternative conceptual models of the Hanford aquifer system. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process will involve a three-dimensional transient inverse <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of each numerical model to historical observations of hydraulic and water quality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to the unconfined aquifer system from Hanford operations since the mid-1940s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040045333','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040045333"><span>Ice Particle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Cloud Water Content <span class="hlt">Instrumentation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle <span class="hlt">impact</span> on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3715253','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3715253"><span>A New Self-<span class="hlt">Calibrated</span> Procedure for <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Detection and Location on Flat Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Somolinos, José A.; López, Amable; Morales, Rafael; Morón, Carlos</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Many analyses of acoustic signals processing have been proposed for different applications over the last few years. When considering a bar-based structure, if the material through which the sound waves propagate is considered to be acoustically homogeneous and the sound speed is well known, then it is possible to determine the position and time of <span class="hlt">impact</span> by a simple observation of the arrival times of the signals of all the transducers that are strategically disposed on the structure. This paper presents a generalized method for <span class="hlt">impact</span> detection and location on a flat plate, together with a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure with which to obtain the sound speed from only one set of measurements. This propagation speed is not well known as a result of either imprecise material properties or the overlapping of longitudinal and transversal waves with different propagation velocities. The use of only three piezoelectric sensors allows the position and time of <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the flat plate to be obtained when the sound speed is well known, while the use of additional sensors permits a larger detection area to be covered, helps to estimate the sound speed and/or avoids the wrong timing of difference measurements. Experimental results are presented using a robot with a specially designed knocking tool that produces <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on a metallic flat plate. PMID:23722825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23722825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23722825"><span>A new self-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> procedure for <span class="hlt">impact</span> detection and location on flat surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Somolinos, José A; López, Amable; Morales, Rafael; Morón, Carlos</p> <p>2013-05-30</p> <p>Many analyses of acoustic signals processing have been proposed for different applications over the last few years. When considering a bar-based structure, if the material through which the sound waves propagate is considered to be acoustically homogeneous and the sound speed is well known, then it is possible to determine the position and time of <span class="hlt">impact</span> by a simple observation of the arrival times of the signals of all the transducers that are strategically disposed on the structure. This paper presents a generalized method for <span class="hlt">impact</span> detection and location on a flat plate, together with a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure with which to obtain the sound speed from only one set of measurements. This propagation speed is not well known as a result of either imprecise material properties or the overlapping of longitudinal and transversal waves with different propagation velocities. The use of only three piezoelectric sensors allows the position and time of <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the flat plate to be obtained when the sound speed is well known, while the use of additional sensors permits a larger detection area to be covered, helps to estimate the sound speed and/or avoids the wrong timing of difference measurements. Experimental results are presented using a robot with a specially designed knocking tool that produces <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on a metallic flat plate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..5913019H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..5913019H"><span>In situ <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Gamma Reaction History <span class="hlt">instrument</span> using reference samples ("pucks") for areal density measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, N. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Hsu, H. H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Wilson, D. C.; Stoeffl, W. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Miller, E. K.; Grafil, E.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Duffy, T.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The introduction of a sample of carbon, for example a disk or "puck", near an imploding DT-filled capsule creates a source of 12C gamma rays that can serve as a reference for <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> the response of the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) detector [1]. Such <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is important in the measurement of ablator areal density ⟨ρR⟩abl in plastic-ablator DT-filled capsules at OMEGA [2], by allowing ⟨ρR⟩abl to be inferred as a function of ratios of signals rather than from absolute measurements of signal magnitudes. Systematic uncertainties in signal measurements and detector responses therefore cancel, permitting more accurate measurements of ⟨ρR⟩abl.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26SS....4..396B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26SS....4..396B"><span>The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover Mastcam <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: Preflight and in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, validation, and data archiving</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bell, J. F.; Godber, A.; McNair, S.; Caplinger, M. A.; Maki, J. N.; Lemmon, M. T.; Van Beek, J.; Malin, M. C.; Wellington, D.; Kinch, K. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Hardgrove, C.; Ravine, M. A.; Jensen, E.; Harker, D.; Anderson, R. B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Morris, R. V.; Cisneros, E.; Deen, R. G.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The NASA Curiosity rover Mast Camera (Mastcam) system is a pair of fixed-focal length, multispectral, color CCD imagers mounted 2 m above the surface on the rover's remote sensing mast, along with associated electronics and an onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> target. The left Mastcam (M-34) has a 34 mm focal length, an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 0.22 mrad, and a FOV of 20° × 15° over the full 1648 × 1200 pixel span of its Kodak KAI-2020 CCD. The right Mastcam (M-100) has a 100 mm focal length, an IFOV of 0.074 mrad, and a FOV of 6.8° × 5.1° using the same detector. The cameras are separated by 24.2 cm on the mast, allowing stereo images to be obtained at the resolution of the M-34 camera. Each camera has an eight-position filter wheel, enabling it to take Bayer pattern red, green, and blue (RGB) "true color" images, multispectral images in nine additional bands spanning 400-1100 nm, and images of the Sun in two colors through neutral density-coated filters. An associated Digital Electronics Assembly provides command and data interfaces to the rover, 8 Gb of image storage per camera, 11 bit to 8 bit companding, JPEG compression, and acquisition of high-definition video. Here we describe the preflight and in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Mastcam images, the ways that they are being archived in the NASA Planetary Data System, and the ways that <span class="hlt">calibration</span> refinements are being developed as the investigation progresses on Mars. We also provide some examples of data sets and analyses that help to validate the accuracy and precision of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70190518','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70190518"><span>The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover Mastcam <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: Preflight and in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, validation, and data archiving</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bell, James F.; Godber, A.; McNair, S.; Caplinger, M.A.; Maki, J.N.; Lemmon, M.T.; Van Beek, J.; Malin, M.C.; Wellington, D.; Kinch, K.M.; Madsen, M.B.; Hardgrove, C.; Ravine, M.A.; Jensen, E.; Harker, D.; Anderson, Ryan; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Morris, R.V.; Cisneros, E.; Deen, R.G.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Curiosity rover Mast Camera (Mastcam) system is a pair of fixed-focal length, multispectral, color CCD imagers mounted ~2 m above the surface on the rover's remote sensing mast, along with associated electronics and an onboard <span class="hlt">calibration</span> target. The left Mastcam (M-34) has a 34 mm focal length, an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 0.22 mrad, and a FOV of 20° × 15° over the full 1648 × 1200 pixel span of its Kodak KAI-2020 CCD. The right Mastcam (M-100) has a 100 mm focal length, an IFOV of 0.074 mrad, and a FOV of 6.8° × 5.1° using the same detector. The cameras are separated by 24.2 cm on the mast, allowing stereo images to be obtained at the resolution of the M-34 camera. Each camera has an eight-position filter wheel, enabling it to take Bayer pattern red, green, and blue (RGB) “true color” images, multispectral images in nine additional bands spanning ~400–1100 nm, and images of the Sun in two colors through neutral density-coated filters. An associated Digital Electronics Assembly provides command and data interfaces to the rover, 8 Gb of image storage per camera, 11 bit to 8 bit companding, JPEG compression, and acquisition of high-definition video. Here we describe the preflight and in-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of Mastcam images, the ways that they are being archived in the NASA Planetary Data System, and the ways that <span class="hlt">calibration</span> refinements are being developed as the investigation progresses on Mars. We also provide some examples of data sets and analyses that help to validate the accuracy and precision of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AAS...192.8106P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AAS...192.8106P"><span>Spectal Responsivity <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of the Large Format Si:As FPAs in the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) <span class="hlt">Instrument</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, J.; Sevilla, P.; Gibbons, W.; Herter, T.</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) is a small cryogenic spaceborne infrared telescope being readied for launch in September 1998 as the fifth of NASA's Small Explorers. WIRE illuminates two 128 x 128 Si:As Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) produced by Boeing North American with a 30 cm diameter Ritchey Cretien diamond turned mirror system. A dichroic beam splitter and band-pass filter define two broad pass bands for a deep pointed survey to search for protogalaxies and to study the evolution of starburst galaxies. The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University (SDL/USU) measured the spectral responsivity of the WIRE sensor using the SDL multifunction infrared <span class="hlt">calibrator</span> (MIC2) and a step- scan interferometer. The primary objective of the spectral responsivity <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was the array-average relative spectral responsivity (RSR) measurement of each WIRE FPA under nominal operating conditions. The array-average RSR measurement is composed of two parts, a high spectral resolution in-band measurement and an out-of-band measurement that extended the noise floor of the RSR measurement outside the WIRE spectral passbands to approximately 1E-5 of the in-band peak. In addition to the array average RSR at nominal operating conditions, SDL personnel also investigated the WIRE RSR sensitivity to FPA position, temperature and bias voltage. The WIRE spectral <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method is described, and the results are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028675','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028675"><span>Stacked Weak Lensing Mass <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>: Estimators, Systematics, and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Cosmological Parameter Constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rozo, Eduardo; Wu, Hao-Yi; Schmidt, Fabian; /Caltech</p> <p>2011-11-04</p> <p>When extracting the weak lensing shear signal, one may employ either locally normalized or globally normalized shear estimators. The former is the standard approach when estimating cluster masses, while the latter is the more common method among peak finding efforts. While both approaches have identical signal-to-noise in the weak lensing limit, it is possible that higher order corrections or systematic considerations make one estimator preferable over the other. In this paper, we consider the efficacy of both estimators within the context of stacked weak lensing mass estimation in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We find that the two estimators have nearly identical statistical precision, even after including higher order corrections, but that these corrections must be incorporated into the analysis to avoid observationally relevant biases in the recovered masses. We also demonstrate that finite bin-width effects may be significant if not properly accounted for, and that the two estimators exhibit different systematics, particularly with respect to contamination of the source catalog by foreground galaxies. Thus, the two estimators may be employed as a systematic cross-check of each other. Stacked weak lensing in the DES should allow for the mean mass of galaxy clusters to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> to {approx}2% precision (statistical only), which can improve the figure of merit of the DES cluster abundance experiment by a factor of {approx}3 relative to the self-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> expectation. A companion paper investigates how the two types of estimators considered here <span class="hlt">impact</span> weak lensing peak finding efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...735..118R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...735..118R"><span>Stacked Weak Lensing Mass <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>: Estimators, Systematics, and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Cosmological Parameter Constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rozo, Eduardo; Wu, Hao-Yi; Schmidt, Fabian</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>When extracting the weak lensing shear signal, one may employ either locally normalized or globally normalized shear estimators. The former is the standard approach when estimating cluster masses, while the latter is the more common method among peak finding efforts. While both approaches have identical signal-to-noise in the weak lensing limit, it is possible that higher order corrections or systematic considerations make one estimator preferable over the other. In this paper, we consider the efficacy of both estimators within the context of stacked weak lensing mass estimation in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We find that the two estimators have nearly identical statistical precision, even after including higher order corrections, but that these corrections must be incorporated into the analysis to avoid observationally relevant biases in the recovered masses. We also demonstrate that finite bin-width effects may be significant if not properly accounted for, and that the two estimators exhibit different systematics, particularly with respect to contamination of the source catalog by foreground galaxies. Thus, the two estimators may be employed as a systematic cross-check of each other. Stacked weak lensing in the DES should allow for the mean mass of galaxy clusters to be <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> to ≈2% precision (statistical only), which can improve the figure of merit of the DES cluster abundance experiment by a factor of ~3 relative to the self-<span class="hlt">calibration</span> expectation. A companion paper investigates how the two types of estimators considered here <span class="hlt">impact</span> weak lensing peak finding efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900006691','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900006691"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> and residual tensile strength testing of eight-ply carbon eopoxy specimens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nettles, A. T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> drop weight <span class="hlt">impact</span> testing was utilized to examine a puncture-type <span class="hlt">impact</span> on thin carbon-epoxy coupons. Four different material systems with various eight-ply lay-up configurations were tested. Specimens were placed over a 10.3-mm diameter hole and <span class="hlt">impacted</span> with a smaller tup (4.2-mm diameter) than those used in previous studies. Force-time plots as well as data on absorbed energy and residual tensile strength were gathered and examined. It was found that a critical <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy level existed for each material tested, at which point tensile strength began to rapidly decrease with increasing <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22233900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22233900"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of influent data frequency and model structure on the quality of WWTP model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and uncertainty.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cierkens, Katrijn; Plano, Salvatore; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Weijers, Stefan; de Jonge, Jarno; Nopens, Ingmar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Application of activated sludge models (ASMs) to full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is still hampered by the problem of model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of these over-parameterised models. This either requires expert knowledge or global methods that explore a large parameter space. However, a better balance in structure between the submodels (ASM, hydraulic, aeration, etc.) and improved quality of influent data result in much smaller <span class="hlt">calibration</span> efforts. In this contribution, a methodology is proposed that links data frequency and model structure to <span class="hlt">calibration</span> quality and output uncertainty. It is composed of defining the model structure, the input data, an automated <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, confidence interval computation and uncertainty propagation to the model output. Apart from the last step, the methodology is applied to an existing WWTP using three models differing only in the aeration submodel. A sensitivity analysis was performed on all models, allowing the ranking of the most important parameters to select in the subsequent <span class="hlt">calibration</span> step. The aeration submodel proved very important to get good NH(4) predictions. Finally, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of data frequency was explored. Lowering the frequency resulted in larger deviations of parameter estimates from their default values and larger confidence intervals. Autocorrelation due to high frequency <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data has an opposite effect on the confidence intervals. The proposed methodology opens doors to facilitate and improve <span class="hlt">calibration</span> efforts and to design measurement campaigns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MNRAS.388.1775H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MNRAS.388.1775H"><span>Radio source <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for the Very Small Array and other cosmic microwave background <span class="hlt">instruments</span> at around 30 GHz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hafez, Yaser A.; Davies, Rod D.; Davis, Richard J.; Dickinson, Clive; Battistelli, Elia S.; Blanco, Francisco; Cleary, Kieran; Franzen, Thomas; Genova-Santos, Ricardo; Grainge, Keith; Hobson, Michael P.; Jones, Michael E.; Lancaster, Katy; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Padilla-Torres, Carmen P.; Rubiño-Martin, José Alberto; Rebolo, Rafael; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Scott, Paul F.; Taylor, Angela C.; Titterington, David; Tucci, Marco; Watson, Robert A.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of data is essential for the current generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. Using data from the Very Small Array (VSA), we describe procedures which will lead to an accuracy of 1 per cent or better for experiments such as the VSA and CBI. Particular attention is paid to the stability of the receiver systems, the quality of the site and frequent observations of reference sources. At 30 GHz the careful correction for atmospheric emission and absorption is shown to be essential for achieving 1 per cent precision. The sources for which a 1 per cent relative flux density <span class="hlt">calibration</span> was achieved included Cas A, Cyg A, Tau A and NGC 7027 and the planets Venus, Jupiter and Saturn. A flux density, or brightness temperature in the case of the planets, was derived at 33 GHz relative to Jupiter which was adopted as the fundamental <span class="hlt">calibrator</span>. A spectral index at ~30 GHz is given for each. Cas A, Tau A, NGC 7027 and Venus were examined for variability. Cas A was found to be decreasing at 0.394 +/- 0.019 per cent yr-1 over the period 2001 March to 2004 August. In the same period Tau A was decreasing at 0.22 +/- 0.07 per cent yr-1. A survey of the published data showed that the planetary nebula NGC 7027 decreased at 0.16 +/- 0.04 per cent yr-1 over the period 1967-2003. Venus showed an insignificant (1.5 +/- 1.3 per cent) variation with Venusian illumination. The integrated polarization of Tau A at 33 GHz was found to be 7.8 +/- 0.6 per cent at position angle =148° +/- 3°.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720007492','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720007492"><span>Station to <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> aircraft L-band telemetry system and RF signal controller for spacecraft simulations and station <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scaffidi, C. A.; Stocklin, F. J.; Feldman, M. B.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>An L-band telemetry system designed to provide the capability of near-real-time processing of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data is described. The system also provides the capability of performing computerized spacecraft simulations, with the aircraft as a data source, and evaluating the network response. The salient characteristics of a telemetry analysis and simulation program (TASP) are discussed, together with the results of TASP testing. The results of the L-band system testing have successfully demonstrated the capability of near-real-time processing of telemetry test data, the control of the ground-received signal to within + or - 0.5 db, and the computer generation of test signals.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1356610','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1356610"><span>The <i>Fermi</i> Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Response Functions, and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; Davis, D. S.; de Angelis, A.; DeKlotz, M.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lavalley, C.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nemmen, R.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sanchez, D. A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sbarra, C.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siegal-Gaskins, J.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stephens, T. E.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Klaveren, B.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.</p> <p>2012-10-12</p> <p>The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response functions (IRFs), the description of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance provided for data analysis. In this study, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. In conclusion, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H33K1484S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H33K1484S"><span>Using NEXRAD Radar Rainfall to <span class="hlt">Calibrate</span> a Development <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Model in a Coastal Watershed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sebastian, A.; Bedient, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Low slopes and shallow, impermeable soils are characteristic of the Upper Texas Gulf Coast. These, coupled with large rainfall events, contribute to wide floodplains and ponding. Rapid, high intensity development has further exacerbated flooding in this coastal region. The Clear Creek Watershed is located in southeast Houston and empties into Galveston Bay. During the past decade, the watershed has been <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by significant historical coastal storms and rainfall events such as Tropical Storm Allison (2001), Hurricane Ike (2008), and the April 2009 Event. In this study, we employ a <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>, distributed hydrologic model and pre- and LID-development models to analyze how development characteristics have contributed to costly flooding in coastal watersheds. In 2012, Brody et al. used FEMA floodclaims collected over the 11-year period between 1999 and 2009 to examine the pattern of flood loss across the Clear Creek watershed. The results showed that the 100-year floodplain did not adequately represent overall or event-specific loss. Using a spatial cluster analysis, the Turkey Creek sub-area of the Clear Creek watershed was pin-pointed as an area of statistically significant flood loss, an area where there were a considerable number of high-value flood claims. This area is characterized by high-density, poorly constructed development and frequent flooding. In parallel with Brody's study of flood-risk indicators, our study aims to examine the behavior of the flood-wave in the coastal watershed and how it is affected by different development patterns. A distributed hydrologic VfloTM model was built for Turkey Creek using 2008 CCAP land cover data and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> using NEXRAD radar rainfall for the Hurricane Ike (2008) and April 2009 events. Once the model was <span class="hlt">calibrated</span>, both pre- and LID-development models were built using historical land cover data. These models were used to identify how development patterns have influence the flood hydrograph. Early results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24068840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24068840"><span>Complete elliptical ring geometry provides energy and <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> for synchrotron-based two-dimensional X-ray diffraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hart, Michael L; Drakopoulos, Michael; Reinhard, Christina; Connolley, Thomas</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>A complete <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method to characterize a static planar two-dimensional detector for use in X-ray diffraction at an arbitrary wavelength is described. This method is based upon geometry describing the point of intersection between a cone's axis and its elliptical conic section. This point of intersection is neither the ellipse centre nor one of the ellipse focal points, but some other point which lies in between. The presented solution is closed form, algebraic and non-iterative in its application, and gives values for the X-ray beam energy, the sample-to-detector distance, the location of the beam centre on the detector surface and the detector tilt relative to the incident beam. Previous techniques have tended to require prior knowledge of either the X-ray beam energy or the sample-to-detector distance, whilst other techniques have been iterative. The new <span class="hlt">calibration</span> procedure is performed by collecting diffraction data, in the form of diffraction rings from a powder standard, at known displacements of the detector along the beam path.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9764S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9764S"><span>Rigorous noise test and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> check of strong-motion <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> at the Conrad Observatory in Austria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steiner, R.; Costa, G.; Lenhardt, W.; Horn, N.; Suhadolc, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In the framework of the European InterregIV Italy/Austria project: "HAREIA - Historical and Recent Earthquakes in Italy and Austria" the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and Mathematic and Geosciences Department of University of Trieste (DMG) are upgrading the transfrontier seismic network of South-Eastern Alps with new 12 accelerometric stations to enhance the strong motion <span class="hlt">instrument</span> density near the Austria/Italy border. Various public institutions of the provinces Alto Adige (Bolzano Province), Veneto (ARPAV) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Regional Civil Defense) in Italy and in the Austrian province of Tyrol are involved in the project. The site selection was carried out to improve the present local network geometry thus meeting the needs of public Institutions in the involved regions. In Tyrol and Alto Adige some strategic buildings (hospitals and public buildings) have been selected, whereas in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia the sites are in the free field, mainly located near villages. The <span class="hlt">instruments</span> will be installed in an innovative box, designed by ZAMG, that provides electric and water isolation. The common choice regarding the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> selection has been the new Kinemetrics Basalt ® accelerograph to guarantee homogeneity with the already installed <span class="hlt">instrumentation</span> and compatibility with the software already in use at the different seismic institutions in the area. Prior to deployment the equipment was tested at the Conrad Observatory and a common set-up has been devised. The Conrad Observatory, seismically particularly quiet, permits to analyze both the sensor and the acquisition system noise. The <span class="hlt">instruments</span> were connected to the network and the data sent in real-time to the ZAMG data center in Vienna and the DMG data center in Trieste. The data have been collected in the database and analyzed using signal processing modules PQLX and Matlab. The data analysis of the recordings at the ultra-quiet Conrad Observatory pointed out</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499134','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499134"><span>Evaluating the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment <span class="hlt">instruments</span>: Theorising the nature and implications of their political constitution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija; Emmelin, Lars</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>The central role of <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment <span class="hlt">instruments</span> globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness in Western countries, demand has increased for evidence that these <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are effective (however defined). Resurgent interest in evaluation has not, however, been accompanied by the conceptual developments required to redress longstanding theoretical problems associated with such activities. In order to sharpen effectiveness evaluation theory for <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment <span class="hlt">instruments</span> this article critically examines the neglected issue of their political constitution. Analytical examples are used to concretely explore the nature and significance of the politicisation of <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment. It is argued that raising awareness about the political character of <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, in itself, is a vital step in advancing effectiveness evaluation theory. Broader theoretical lessons on the framing of evaluation research are also drawn from the political analysis. We conclude that, at least within the contemporary research context, learning derived from analysing the meaning and implications of plural interpretations of effectiveness represents the most constructive strategy for advancing <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment and policy integration theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23604848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23604848"><span>An <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> mouthguard for measuring linear and angular head <span class="hlt">impact</span> kinematics in American football.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Camarillo, David B; Shull, Pete B; Mattson, James; Shultz, Rebecca; Garza, Daniel</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> mouthguard as a research device for measuring head <span class="hlt">impact</span> kinematics. To evaluate kinematic accuracy, laboratory <span class="hlt">impact</span> testing was performed at sites on the helmet and facemask for determining how closely <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> mouthguard data matched data from an anthropomorphic test device. Laboratory testing results showed that peak linear acceleration (r (2) = 0.96), peak angular acceleration (r (2) = 0.89), and peak angular velocity (r (2) = 0.98) measurements were highly correlated between the <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> mouthguard and anthropomorphic test device. Normalized root-mean-square errors for <span class="hlt">impact</span> time traces were 9.9 ± 4.4% for linear acceleration, 9.7 ± 7.0% for angular acceleration, and 10.4 ± 9.9% for angular velocity. This study demonstrates the potential of an <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> mouthguard as a research tool for measuring in vivo <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, which could help uncover the link between head <span class="hlt">impact</span> kinematics and brain injury in American football.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4484T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4484T"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and validation of earthquake catastrophe models. Case study: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Forecasting Earthquake Model for Algeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trendafiloski, G.; Gaspa Rebull, O.; Ewing, C.; Podlaha, A.; Magee, B.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> and validation are crucial steps in the production of the catastrophe models for the insurance industry in order to assure the model's reliability and to quantify its uncertainty. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> is needed in all components of model development including hazard and vulnerability. Validation is required to ensure that the losses calculated by the model match those observed in past events and which could happen in future. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Forecasting, the catastrophe modelling development centre of excellence within Aon Benfield, has recently launched its earthquake model for Algeria as a part of the earthquake model for the Maghreb region. The earthquake model went through a detailed <span class="hlt">calibration</span> process including: (1) the seismic intensity attenuation model by use of macroseismic observations and maps from past earthquakes in Algeria; (2) calculation of the country-specific vulnerability modifiers by use of past damage observations in the country. The use of Benouar, 1994 ground motion prediction relationship was proven as the most appropriate for our model. Calculation of the regional vulnerability modifiers for the country led to 10% to 40% larger vulnerability indexes for different building types compared to average European indexes. The country specific damage models also included aggregate damage models for residential, commercial and industrial properties considering the description of the buildings stock given by World Housing Encyclopaedia and the local rebuilding cost factors equal to 10% for damage grade 1, 20% for damage grade 2, 35% for damage grade 3, 75% for damage grade 4 and 100% for damage grade 5. The damage grades comply with the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-1998). The model was validated by use of "as-if" historical scenario simulations of three past earthquake events in Algeria M6.8 2003 Boumerdes, M7.3 1980 El-Asnam and M7.3 1856 Djidjelli earthquake. The calculated return periods of the losses for client market portfolio align with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667391','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667391"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Model for Apnea-Hypopnea Indices: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Alternative Criteria for Hypopneas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ho, Vu; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Redline, Susan; Gottlieb, Daniel J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Study Objective: To characterize the association among apnea-hypopnea indices (AHIs) determined using three common metrics for defining hypopnea, and to develop a model to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> between these AHIs. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of Sleep Heart Health Study Data. Setting: Community-based. Participants: There were 6,441 men and women age 40 y or older. Measurement and Results: Three separate AHIs have been calculated, using all apneas (defined as a decrease in airflow greater than 90% from baseline for ≥ 10 sec) plus hypopneas (defined as a decrease in airflow or chest wall or abdominal excursion greater than 30% from baseline, but not meeting apnea definitions) associated with either: (1) a 4% or greater fall in oxyhemoglobin saturation—AHI4; (2) a 3% or greater fall in oxyhemoglobin saturation—AHI3; or (3) a 3% or greater fall in oxyhemoglobin saturation or an event-related arousal—AHI3a. Median values were 5.4, 9.7, and 13.4 for AHI4, AHI3, and AHI3a, respectively (P < 0.0001). Penalized spline regression models were used to compare AHI values across the three metrics and to calculate prediction intervals. Comparison of regression models demonstrates divergence in AHI scores among the three methods at low AHI values and gradual convergence at higher levels of AHI. Conclusions: The three methods of scoring hypopneas yielded significantly different estimates of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), although the relative difference is reduced in severe disease. The regression models presented will enable clinicians and researchers to more appropriately compare AHI values obtained using differing metrics for hypopnea. Citation: Ho V, Crainiceanu CM, Punjabi NM, Redline S, Gottlieb DJ. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> model for apnea-hypopnea indices: <span class="hlt">impact</span> of alternative criteria for hypopneas. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1887–1892. PMID:26564122</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201158"><span>Testing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on molecular divergence times using a fossil-rich group: the case of Nothofagus (Fagales).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sauquet, Hervé; Ho, Simon Y W; Gandolfo, Maria A; Jordan, Gregory J; Wilf, Peter; Cantrill, David J; Bayly, Michael J; Bromham, Lindell; Brown, Gillian K; Carpenter, Raymond J; Lee, Daphne M; Murphy, Daniel J; Sniderman, J M Kale; Udovicic, Frank</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Although temporal <span class="hlt">calibration</span> is widely recognized as critical for obtaining accurate divergence-time estimates using molecular dating methods, few studies have evaluated the variation resulting from different <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategies. Depending on the information available, researchers have often used primary <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> from the fossil record or secondary <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> from previous molecular dating studies. In analyses of flowering plants, primary <span class="hlt">calibration</span> data can be obtained from macro- and mesofossils (e.g., leaves, flowers, and fruits) or microfossils (e.g., pollen). Fossil data can vary substantially in accuracy and precision, presenting a difficult choice when selecting appropriate <span class="hlt">calibrations</span>. Here, we test the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of eight plausible <span class="hlt">calibration</span> scenarios for Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae, Fagales), a plant genus with a particularly rich and well-studied fossil record. To do so, we reviewed the phylogenetic placement and geochronology of 38 fossil taxa of Nothofagus and other Fagales, and we identified minimum age constraints for up to 18 nodes of the phylogeny of Fagales. Molecular dating analyses were conducted for each scenario using maximum likelihood (RAxML + r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) approaches on sequence data from six regions of the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Using either ingroup or outgroup constraints, or both, led to similar age estimates, except near strongly influential <span class="hlt">calibration</span> nodes. Using "early but risky" fossil constraints in addition to "safe but late" constraints, or using assumptions of vicariance instead of fossil constraints, led to older age estimates. In contrast, using secondary <span class="hlt">calibration</span> points yielded drastically younger age estimates. This empirical study highlights the critical influence of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on molecular dating analyses. Even in a best-case situation, with many thoroughly vetted fossils available, substantial uncertainties can remain in the estimates of divergence times. For example, our estimates for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731126','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731126"><span>Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Cancer: Development of a new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for long-term survivors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zebrack, Brad J.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Bernaards, Coen A.; Petersen, Laura; Abraham, Laura</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective To develop and evaluate a new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> that measures aspects of long-term survivorship not measured by existing tools. Methods In qualitative interviews, 47 long-term cancer survivors (LTS) detailed ways that cancer has <span class="hlt">impacted</span> their lives. Content analysis resulted in the creation of 325 candidate items for inclusion in a new <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Cancer (IOC) <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Following expert review, item reduction and pilot testing, 81 items were administered with other established health status and quality of life (QOL) <span class="hlt">instruments</span> to 193 LTS of breast, prostate, colorectal cancers and lymphoma. Internal consistency reliability and validity of newly-derived scales was assessed. Results Factor analysis of items using a priori QOL domains resulted in the derivation of ten new and specific subscales: health awareness, body changes, health worries, positive and negative self-evaluation, positive and negative life outlook, social life interferences, relationships, and meaning of cancer. Internal consistency measurements for these subscales ranged from 0.67 to 0.89. Expected associations within and among the IOC subscales and standardized measures of health status and QOL were observed, as were some unexpected findings. Conclusions Psychometric analysis indicated that this initial version of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Cancer <span class="hlt">instrument</span> measures distinct and relevant constructs for LTS. Future work is necessary to confirm the factor structure, responsiveness and further validation of the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. PMID:16097041</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM51A2518S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM51A2518S"><span><span class="hlt">Calibrating</span> MMS Electron Drift <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> (EDI) Ambient Electron Flux Measurements and Characterizing 3D Electric Field Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shuster, J. R.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Li, G.; Chen, L. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The electron drift <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (EDIs) onboard each MMS spacecraft are designed with large geometric factors (~0.01cm2 str) to facilitate detection of weak (~100 nA) electron beams fired and received by the two gun-detector units (GDUs) when EDI is in its "electric field mode" to determine the local electric and magnetic fields. A consequence of the large geometric factor is that "ambient mode" electron flux measurements (500 eV electrons having 0°, 90°, or 180° pitch angle) can vary depending on the orientation of the EDI <span class="hlt">instrument</span> with respect to the magnetic field, a nonphysical effect that requires a correction. Here, we present determinations of the θ- and ø-dependent correction factors for the eight EDI GDUs, where θ (ø) is the polar (azimuthal) angle between the GDU symmetry axis and the local magnetic field direction, and compare the corrected fluxes with those measured by the fast plasma <span class="hlt">instrument</span> (FPI). Using these corrected, high time resolution (~1,000 samples per second) ambient electron fluxes, combined with the unprecedentedly high resolution 3D electric field measurements taken by the spin-plane and axial double probes (SDP and ADP), we are equipped to accurately detect electron-scale current layers and electric field waves associated with the non-Maxwellian (anisotropic and agyrotropic) particle distribution functions predicted to exist in the reconnection diffusion region. We compare initial observations of the diffusion region with distributions and wave analysis from PIC simulations of asymmetric reconnection applicable for modeling reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, where MMS will begin Science Phase 1 as of September 1, 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047547','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047547"><span>Pre-flight <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on the Mars Science Laboratory rover</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R.B.; Clegg, S.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Barraclough, B.L.; Cousin, A.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dyar, M.D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.; Mazoyer, J.; Melikechi, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ChemCam <span class="hlt">instrument</span> package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, <span class="hlt">calibrating</span> for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the <span class="hlt">instrument</span> response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AMT.....3.1797T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AMT.....3.1797T"><span>Inherent <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a blue LED-CE-DOAS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first direct detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is further inherently <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> for light extinction from the cavity by observing O4 or H2O (at 477 nm and 443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7 × 10-7cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> CEAS measurement at blue wavelengths in open cavity mode, and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, i.e., keep the cavity enclosed and/or aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for applications in simulation chambers and in the open atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170001442&hterms=floods&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dfloods','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170001442&hterms=floods&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dfloods"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Timing of a SAR Image Acquisition on the <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of a Flood Inundation Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gobeyn, Sacha; Van Wesemael, Alexandra; Neal, Jeffrey; Lievens, Hans; Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; De Vleeschouwer, Niels; Vernieuwe, Hilde; Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; De Baets, Bernard; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20170001442'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170001442_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170001442_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170001442_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170001442_hide"></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data have proven to be a very useful source of information for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of flood inundation models. Previous studies have focused on assigning uncertainties to SAR images in order to improve flood forecast systems (e.g. Giustarini et al. (2015) and Stephens et al. (2012)). This paper investigates whether the timing of a SAR acquisition of a flood has an important <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a flood inundation model. As no suitable time series of SAR data exists, we generate a sequence of consistent SAR images through the use of a synthetic framework. This framework uses two available ERS-2 SAR images of the study area, one taken during the flood event of interest, the second taken during a dry reference period. The obtained synthetic observations at different points in time during the flood event are used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the flood inundation model. The results of this study indicate that the uncertainty of the roughness parameters is lower when the model is <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with an image taken before rather than during or after the flood peak. The results also show that the error on the modeled extent is much lower when the model is <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with a pre-flood peak image than when <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with a near-flood peak or a post-flood peak image. It is concluded that the timing of the SAR image acquisition of the flood has a clear <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and consequently on the precision of the predicted flood extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..100..126G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..100..126G"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the timing of a SAR image acquisition on the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a flood inundation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gobeyn, Sacha; Van Wesemael, Alexandra; Neal, Jeffrey; Lievens, Hans; Eerdenbrugh, Katrien Van; De Vleeschouwer, Niels; Vernieuwe, Hilde; Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Baets, Bernard De; Bates, Paul D.; Verhoest, Niko E. C.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data have proven to be a very useful source of information for the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of flood inundation models. Previous studies have focused on assigning uncertainties to SAR images in order to improve flood forecast systems (e.g. Giustarini et al. (2015) and Stephens et al. (2012)). This paper investigates whether the timing of a SAR acquisition of a flood has an important <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of a flood inundation model. As no suitable time series of SAR data exists, we generate a sequence of consistent SAR images through the use of a synthetic framework. This framework uses two available ERS-2 SAR images of the study area, one taken during the flood event of interest, the second taken during a dry reference period. The obtained synthetic observations at different points in time during the flood event are used to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the flood inundation model. The results of this study indicate that the uncertainty of the roughness parameters is lower when the model is <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with an image taken before rather than during or after the flood peak. The results also show that the error on the modelled extent is much lower when the model is <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with a pre-flood peak image than when <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with a near-flood peak or a post-flood peak image. It is concluded that the timing of the SAR image acquisition of the flood has a clear <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and consequently on the precision of the predicted flood extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/32710','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/32710"><span><span class="hlt">Instrumented</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> testing of kenaf fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: effects of temperature and composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Craig Merrill Clemons; Anand R. Sanadi</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> Izod test was used to investigate the effects of fiber content, coupling agent, and temperature on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> performance of kenaf fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP). Composites containing 0-60% (by weight) kenaf fiber and 0 or 2% maleated polypropylene (MAPP) and PP/wood flour composites were tested at room temperature and between -50 °C and +...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.1777L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.1777L"><span><span class="hlt">Instrument</span> study of the Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX) for a lunar lander mission II: Laboratory model <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yanwei; Strack, Heiko; Bugiel, Sebastian; Wu, Yiyong; Srama, Ralf</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A dust trajectory detector placed on the lunar surface is exposed to extend people's knowledge on the dust environment above the lunar surface. The new design of Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX) is well suited for lunar or asteroid landers with a broad range of particle charges (0.1-10 fC), speeds (few m s-1 to few km s-1) and sizes (0.1-10 μ m). The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of dust trajectory detector is important for the detector development. We do present experimental results to characterize the accuracy of the newly developed LDX laboratory model. Micron sized iron particles were accelerated to speed between 0.5 and 20 km s-1 with primary charges larger than 1 fC. The achieved accuracies of the detector are ± 5 % and ± 7 % for particle charge and speed, respectively. Dust trajectories can be determined with measurement accuracy better than ± 2°. A dust sensor of this type is suited for the exploration of the surface of small bodies without an atmosphere like the Earth's moon or asteroids in future, and the minisatellites are also suitable carriers for the study of interplanetary dust and manned debris on low Earth orbits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9820E..15L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9820E..15L"><span>Investigation of the dynamic thermal infrared signatures of a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> target <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> with a network of 1-wire temperature sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, Gareth D.; Merken, Patrick</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we describe the temperature and thermal variations from a painted geometrical target (CUBI) fitted with a network of internally mounted 1-wire temperature sensors. The sensors, which were <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> in a temperature-controlled oven, were recorded every 20 seconds over a period from May to December 2015. This amounts to an archive of approximately 180 days of near uninterrupted data. Two meteorological stations collocated with the CUBI on a roof test site, record relevant environmental parameters every few minutes. In this paper, we analyze the data for only one day, 2 October 2015, for which a wavelet analysis highlights the contribution of different temporal fluctuations to total signature. We selected this specific day since it represented simple environmental conditions, and additionally images from a 3-5 microns (MWIR) thermal imager were recorded. Finally, we demonstrate that a wavelet decomposition of the temperature signature to be a useful method to characterize dynamic temperature changes, and perhaps a method to verify prediction models for varying fluctuation scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAMES...8.1358X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAMES...8.1358X"><span><span class="hlt">Calibration</span>-induced uncertainty of the EPIC model to estimate climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on global maize yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Wei; Skalský, Rastislav; Porter, Cheryl H.; Balkovič, Juraj; Jones, James W.; Yang, Di</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Understanding the interactions between agricultural production and climate is necessary for sound decision-making in climate policy. Gridded and high-resolution crop simulation has emerged as a useful tool for building this understanding. Large uncertainty exists in this utilization, obstructing its capacity as a tool to devise adaptation strategies. Increasing focus has been given to sources of uncertainties for climate scenarios, input-data, and model, but uncertainties due to model parameter or <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are still unknown. Here, we use publicly available geographical data sets as input to the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC) for simulating global-gridded maize yield. <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of climate change are assessed up to the year 2099 under a climate scenario generated by HadEM2-ES under RCP 8.5. We apply five strategies by shifting one specific parameter in each simulation to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the model and understand the effects of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Regionalizing crop phenology or harvest index appears effective to <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> the model for the globe, but using various values of phenology generates pronounced difference in estimated climate <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, projected <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on global maize production are consistently negative regardless of the parameter being adjusted. Different values of model parameter result in a modest uncertainty at global level, with difference of the global yield change less than 30% by the 2080s. The uncertainty subjects to decrease if applying model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> or input data quality control. <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> has a larger effect at local scales, implying the possible types and locations for adaptation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA592009','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA592009"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Initial Spread <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> on the RELO Ensemble and Its Application to Lagrangian Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-11</p> <p>better support this experiment. The <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> ensemble is found to outperform the un-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> ensemble in forecasting accuracy, skill, and...spread reliability, and Talagrand rank histogram. It is also found that even the un-<span class="hlt">calibrated</span> ensemble outperforms the single forecast from the...model with the same resolution. The advantages of the ensembles are further extended to the Lagra gian framework. In contrast to a single model forecast</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008eic..work..109M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008eic..work..109M"><span>IOT Overview: IR <span class="hlt">Instruments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mason, E.</p> <p></p> <p>In this <span class="hlt">instrument</span> review chapter the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> plans of ESO IR <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR <span class="hlt">instrument</span> at VLT and whose <span class="hlt">calibration</span> plan served as prototype for the coming <span class="hlt">instruments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900015882','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900015882"><span>Low velocity <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> testing of four new damage tolerant carbon/epoxy composite systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Low velocity drop weight <span class="hlt">instrumented</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> testing was utilized to examine the damage resistance of four recently developed carbon fiber/epoxy resin systems. A fifth material, T300/934, for which a large data base exists, was also tested for comparison purposes. A 16-ply quasi-isotropic lay-up configuration was used for all the specimens. Force/absorbed energy-time plots were generated for each <span class="hlt">impact</span> test. The specimens were cross-sectionally analyzed to record the damage corresponding to each <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy level. Maximum force of <span class="hlt">impact</span> versus <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy plots were constructed to compare the various systems for <span class="hlt">impact</span> damage resistance. Results show that the four new damage tolerant fiber/resin systems far outclassed the T300/934 material. The most damage tolerant material tested was the IM7/1962 fiber/resin system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771893"><span>Measurement of driver <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of feedback on drivers' estimates of performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roberts, Shannon C; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Recent studies focused on driver <span class="hlt">calibration</span> show that drivers are often miscalibrated, either over confident or under confident, and the magnitude of this miscalibration changes under different conditions. Previous work has demonstrated behavioral and performance benefits of feedback, yet these studies have not explicitly examined the issue of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. The objective of this study was to examine driver <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, i.e., the degree to which drivers are accurately aware of their performance, and determine whether feedback alters driver <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Twenty-four drivers completed a series of driving tasks (pace clocks, traffic light, speed maintenance, and traffic cones) on a test track. Drivers drove three different blocks around the test track: (1) baseline block, where no participants received feedback; (2) feedback block, where half of the participants received performance feedback while the other half received no feedback; (3) a no feedback block, where no participants received feedback. Results indicated that across two different <span class="hlt">calibration</span> measures, drivers were sufficiently <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> to the pace clocks, traffic light, and traffic cone tasks. Drivers were not accurately aware of their performance regarding speed maintenance, though receiving feedback on this task improved <span class="hlt">calibration</span>. Proper and accurate measurements of driver <span class="hlt">calibration</span> are needed before designing performance feedback to improve <span class="hlt">calibration</span> as these feedback systems may not always yield the intended results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040075853&hterms=basics+change+state&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbasics%2Bchange%2Bstate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040075853&hterms=basics+change+state&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbasics%2Bchange%2Bstate"><span>Satellite <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and physicists working on state of the art <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> characterization, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040075853&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040075853&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange"><span>Satellite <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span> some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and physicists working on state of the art <span class="hlt">calibration</span> sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite <span class="hlt">instrument</span> characterization, <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, inter-<span class="hlt">calibration</span>, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830011810','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830011810"><span>SUMS <span class="hlt">calibration</span> test report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robertson, G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Calibration</span> was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and <span class="hlt">calibration</span> on <span class="hlt">instrument</span> gauges are included. Static <span class="hlt">calibration</span> results which include: <span class="hlt">instrument</span> sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of <span class="hlt">calibration</span>, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5840L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5840L"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategies and ensemble methods on ensemble flood forecasting over Lanjiang basin, Southeast China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Li; Xu, Yue-Ping</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Ensemble flood forecasting driven by numerical weather prediction products is becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications.In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system based on Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated.The hydrological model is optimized by parallel programmed ɛ-NSGAII multi-objective algorithm and two respectively parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows coupled with a modular approach.The results indicatethat the ɛ-NSGAII algorithm permits more efficient optimization and rational determination on parameter setting.It is demonstrated that the multimodel ensemble streamflow mean have better skills than the best singlemodel ensemble mean (ECMWF) and the multimodel ensembles weighted on members and skill scores outperform other multimodel ensembles. For typical flood event, it is proved that the flood can be predicted 3-4 days in advance, but the flows in rising limb can be captured with only 1-2 days ahead due to the flash feature. With respect to peak flows selected by Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from either singlemodel or multimodels are generally underestimated as the extreme values are smoothed out by ensemble process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24596017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24596017"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the long-term playing of musical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on the stomatognathic system - review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Głowacka, Arleta; Matthews-Kozanecka, Maja; Kawala, Maciej; Kawala, Beata</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we have made a review of the influence of playing musical <span class="hlt">instruments</span> on the formation of malocclusion and TMJ disorders in musicians. Primary attention was paid to the effects of wind and stringed <span class="hlt">instruments</span>. The aim of the article was the presentation of research and opinions about this problem in the last 25 years. It is reported that long-term and repetitive playing of musical <span class="hlt">instruments</span>, particularly stringed (violin and viola) and wind <span class="hlt">instruments</span> can cause dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of wind <span class="hlt">instruments</span> was assessed in terms of the type of mouthpiece. We studied the possibility of repositioning the front teeth and reducing the width of the upper dental arch and overbite. There were also reports on the use of a specific <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to improve the child's occlusion. Studies have also been performed on the usefulness of relaxation plates in order to improve, and even prevent, dysfunction caused by the constant stress on the same parts of the stomatognathic system. The experiments were mainly based on interviews, dental cast analyses and cephalometric analyses. Additional methods were dynamometer tests and muscle tension palpation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9905E..5TD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9905E..5TD"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of crosstalk in the X-IFU <span class="hlt">instrument</span> on Athena science cases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>den Hartog, R.; Peille, P.; Dauser, T.; Jackson, B.; Bandler, S.; Barret, D.; Brand, T.; den Herder, J.-W.; Kiviranta, M.; van der Kuur, J.; Smith, S.; Wilms, J.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this paper we present a first assessment of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of various forms of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> crosstalk on the science performance of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on the Athena X-ray mission. This assessment is made using the SIXTE end-to-end simulator in the context of one of the more technically challenging science cases for the XIFU <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. Crosstalk considerations may influence or drive various aspects of the design of the array of high-countrate Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detectors and its Frequency Domain Multiplexed (FDM) readout architecture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28632438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28632438"><span>Fair Prediction with Disparate <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: A Study of Bias in Recidivism Prediction <span class="hlt">Instruments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chouldechova, Alexandra</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Recidivism prediction <span class="hlt">instruments</span> (RPIs) provide decision-makers with an assessment of the likelihood that a criminal defendant will reoffend at a future point in time. Although such <span class="hlt">instruments</span> are gaining increasing popularity across the country, their use is attracting tremendous controversy. Much of the controversy concerns potential discriminatory bias in the risk assessments that are produced. This article discusses several fairness criteria that have recently been applied to assess the fairness of RPIs. We demonstrate that the criteria cannot all be simultaneously satisfied when recidivism prevalence differs across groups. We then show how disparate <span class="hlt">impact</span> can arise when an RPI fails to satisfy the criterion of error rate balance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22548440','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22548440"><span>SU-E-T-391: Evaluation of Image Parameters <span class="hlt">Impact</span> On the CT <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> Curve for Proton Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xiao, Z; Reyhan, M; Huang, Q; Zhang, M; Yue, N; Chen, T</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>Purpose: The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of the Hounsfield units (HU) to relative proton stopping powers (RSP) is a crucial component in assuring the accurate delivery of proton therapy dose distributions to patients. The purpose of this work is to assess the uncertainty of CT <span class="hlt">calibration</span> considering the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of CT slice thickness, position of the plug within the phantom and phantom sizes. Methods: Stoichiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> method was employed to develop the CT <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curve. Gammex 467 tissue characterization phantom was scanned in Tomotherapy Cheese phantom and Gammex 451 phantom by using a GE CT scanner. Each plug was individually inserted into the same position of inner and outer ring of phantoms at each time, respectively. 1.25 mm and 2.5 mm slice thickness were used. Other parameters were same. Results: HU of selected human tissues were calculated based on fitted coefficient (Kph, Kcoh and KKN), and RSP were calculated according to the Bethe-Bloch equation. The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curve was obtained by fitting cheese phantom data with 1.25 mm thickness. There is no significant difference if the slice thickness, phantom size, position of plug changed in soft tissue. For boney structure, RSP increases up to 1% if the phantom size and the position of plug changed but keep the slice thickness the same. However, if the slice thickness varied from the one in the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curve, 0.5%–3% deviation would be expected depending on the plug position. The Inner position shows the obvious deviation (averagely about 2.5%). Conclusion: RSP shows a clinical insignificant deviation in soft tissue region. Special attention may be required when using a different slice thickness from the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> curve for boney structure. It is clinically practical to address 3% deviation due to different thickness in the definition of clinical margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960021250','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960021250"><span>Nimbus-7 TOMS Version 7 <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wellemeyer, C. G.; Taylor, S. L.; Jaross, G.; DeLand, M. T.; Seftor, C. J.; Labow, G.; Swissler, T. J.; Cebula, R. P.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This report describes an improved <span class="hlt">instrument</span> characterization used for the Version 7 processing of the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data record. An improved internal <span class="hlt">calibration</span> technique referred to as spectral discrimination is used to provide long-term <span class="hlt">calibration</span> precision of +/- 1%/decade in total column ozone amount. A revised wavelength scale results in a day one <span class="hlt">calibration</span> that agrees with other satellite and ground-based measurements of total ozone, while a wavelength independent adjustment of the initial radiometric <span class="hlt">calibration</span> constants provides good agreement with surface reflectivity measured by other satellite-borne ultraviolet measurements. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of other aspects of the Nimbus-7 TOMS <span class="hlt">instrument</span> performance are also discussed. The Version 7 data should be used in all future studies involving the Nimbus-7 TOMS measurements of ozone. The data are available through the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Distributive Active Archive Center (DAAC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=285957','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=285957"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of asynchronicity on event-flow estimation in basin-scale hydrologic model <span class="hlt">calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of basin-scale hydrologic models consists of adjusting parameters such that simulated values closely match observed values. However, due to inevitable inaccuracies in models and model inputs, simulated response hydrographs for multi-year <span class="hlt">calibrations</span> will not be perfectly synchroniz...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=333235','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=333235"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">impact</span> of length of <span class="hlt">calibration</span> time period on the APEX model streamflow simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Due to resource constraints, continuous long-term measured data for model <span class="hlt">calibration</span> and validation (C/V) are rare. As a result, most hydrologic and water quality models are <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> and, if possible, validated using limited available measured data. However, little research has been carried out t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcSpe.114...81B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcSpe.114...81B"><span>Definition of the limit of quantification in the presence of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> and non-<span class="hlt">instrumental</span> errors. Comparison among various definitions applied to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of zinc by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Badocco, Denis; Lavagnini, Irma; Mondin, Andrea; Favaro, Gabriella; Pastore, Paolo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The limit of quantification (LOQ) in the presence of <span class="hlt">instrumental</span> and non-<span class="hlt">instrumental</span> errors was proposed. It was theoretically defined combining the two-component variance regression and LOQ schemas already present in the literature and applied to the <span class="hlt">calibration</span> of zinc by the ICP-MS technique. At low concentration levels, the two-component variance LOQ definition should be always used above all when a clean room is not available. Three LOQ definitions were accounted for. One of them in the concentration and two in the signal domain. The LOQ computed in the concentration domain, proposed by Currie, was completed by adding the third order terms in the Taylor expansion because they are of the same order of magnitude of the second ones so that they cannot be neglected. In this context, the error propagation was simplified by eliminating the correlation contributions by using independent random variables. Among the signal domain definitions, a particular attention was devoted to the recently proposed approach based on at least one significant digit in the measurement. The relative LOQ values resulted very large in preventing the quantitative analysis. It was found that the Currie schemas in the signal and concentration domains gave similar LOQ values but the former formulation is to be preferred as more easily computable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880010376','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880010376"><span>DIRBE External <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span> (DEC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the <span class="hlt">instruments</span> aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The <span class="hlt">calibration</span> <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External <span class="hlt">Calibrator</span>). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC <span class="hlt">instrument</span>, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3194951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3194951"><span>A new <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the delivery of the <span class="hlt">impacted</span> dead fetus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belfort, M A</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p>When a fetus dies during labor, it is best to deliver the dead fetus with a minimum of maternal trauma. Especially in underdeveloped countries, where obstetric facilities are limited, maternal mortality and morbidity rates associated with cesarean sections are high. The established methods of craniotomy and subsequent delivery often cause destruction of maternal tissue. Thus, a new destructive <span class="hlt">instrument</span> for the delivery of the dead <span class="hlt">impacted</span> fetus has been developed at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Capetown, South Africa. Made from stainless steel, it has been named the Groote Schuur Hospital Perforator and Bone Screw. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> has so far been used in 3 cases, in operations that caused minimal maternal discomfort and no maternal injury. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is described and instructions are given for its use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5231269','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5231269"><span>Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Retreat Mechanisms in a Simple Antarctic Ice Sheet Model Using Bayesian <span class="hlt">Calibration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shaffer, Gary; Pollard, David; Guan, Yawen; Wong, Tony E.; Forest, Chris E.; Keller, Klaus</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to changing climate forcings is an important driver of sea-level changes. Anthropogenic climate change may drive a sizeable AIS tipping point response with subsequent increases in coastal flooding risks. Many studies analyzing flood risks use simple models to project the future responses of AIS and its sea-level contributions. These analyses have provided important new insights, but they are often silent on the effects of potentially important processes such as Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI) or Marine Ice Cliff Instability (MICI). These approximations can be well justified and result in more parsimonious and transparent model structures. This raises the question of how this approximation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> hindcasts and projections. Here, we <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> a previously published and relatively simple AIS model, which neglects the effects of MICI and regional characteristics, using a combination of observational constraints and a Bayesian inversion method. Specifically, we approximate the effects of missing MICI by comparing our results to those from expert assessments with more realistic models and quantify the bias during the last interglacial when MICI may have been triggered. Our results suggest that the model can approximate the process of MISI and reproduce the projected median melt from some previous expert assessments in the year 2100. Yet, our mean hindcast is roughly 3/4 of the observed data during the last interglacial period and our mean projection is roughly 1/6 and 1/10 of the mean from a model accounting for MICI in the year 2100. These results suggest that missing MICI and/or regional characteristics can lead to a low-bias during warming period AIS melting and hence a potential low-bias in projected sea levels and flood risks. PMID:28081273</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28081273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28081273"><span>Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Retreat Mechanisms in a Simple Antarctic Ice Sheet Model Using Bayesian <span class="hlt">Calibration</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruckert, Kelsey L; Shaffer, Gary; Pollard, David; Guan, Yawen; Wong, Tony E; Forest, Chris E; Keller, Klaus</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to changing climate forcings is an important driver of sea-level changes. Anthropogenic climate change may drive a sizeable AIS tipping point response with subsequent increases in coastal flooding risks. Many studies analyzing flood risks use simple models to project the future responses of AIS and its sea-level contributions. These analyses have provided important new insights, but they are often silent on the effects of potentially important processes such as Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI) or Marine Ice Cliff Instability (MICI). These approximations can be well justified and result in more parsimonious and transparent model structures. This raises the question of how this approximation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> hindcasts and projections. Here, we <span class="hlt">calibrate</span> a previously published and relatively simple AIS model, which neglects the effects of MICI and regional characteristics, using a combination of observational constraints and a Bayesian inversion method. Specifically, we approximate the effects of missing MICI by comparing our results to those from expert assessments with more realistic models and quantify the bias during the last interglacial when MICI may have been triggered. Our results suggest that the model can approximate the process of MISI and reproduce the projected median melt from some previous expert assessments in the year 2100. Yet, our mean hindcast is roughly 3/4 of the observed data during the last interglacial period and our mean projection is roughly 1/6 and 1/10 of the mean from a model accounting for MICI in the year 2100. These results suggest that missing MICI and/or regional characteristics can lead to a low-bias during warming period AIS melting and hence a potential low-bias in projected sea levels and flood risks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006407','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006407"><span>Design and <span class="hlt">Calibration</span> of a Raman Spectrometer for use in a Laser Spectroscopy <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Intended to Analyze Martian Surface and Atmospheric Characteristics for NASA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lucas, John F.; Hornef, James</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This project's goal is the design of a Raman spectroscopy <span class="hlt">instrument</span> to be utilized by NASA in an integrated spectroscopy strategy that will include Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Induced Florescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for molecule and element identification on Mars Europa, and various asteroids. The <span class="hlt">instrument</span> is to be down scaled from a dedicated rover mounted <span class="hlt">instrument</span> into a compact unit with the same capabilities and accuracy as the larger <span class="hlt">instrument</span>. The focus for this design is a spectrometer that utilizes Raman spectroscopy. The spectrometer has a calculated range of 218 nm wavelength spectrum with a resolution of 1.23 nm. To filter out the laser source wavelength of 532 nm the spectrometer design utilizes a 532 nm wavelength dichroic mirror and a 532 nm wavelength notch filter. The remaining scatter signal is concentrated by a 20 x microscopic objective through a 25-micron vertical slit into a 5mm diameter, 1cm focal length double concave focusing lens. The light is then diffracted by a 1600 Lines per Millimeter (L/mm) dual holographic transmission grating. This spectrum signal is captured by a 1-inch diameter double convex 3 cm focal length capture lens. An Intensified Charge Couple Device (ICCD) is placed within the initial focal cone of the capture lens and the Raman signal captured is to be analyzed through spectroscopy imaging software. This combination allows for accurate Raman spectroscopy to be achieved. The components for the spectrometer have been bench tested in a series of prototype developments based on theoretical calculations, alignment, and scaling strategies. The mounting platform is 2.5 cm wide by 8.8 cm long by 7 cm height. This platform has been tested and <span class="hlt">calibrated</span> with various sources such as a neon light source and ruby crystal. This platform is intended to be enclosed in a ruggedized enclosure for mounting on a rover platform. The size and functionality of the Raman spectrometer allows for the rover to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28857154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28857154"><span>Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel <span class="hlt">Instrument</span> Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Migraine on Physical Functioning: The Migraine Physical Function <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Diary.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kawata, Ariane K; Hsieh, Ray; Bender, Randall; Shaffer, Shannon; Revicki, Dennis A; Bayliss, Martha; Buse, D