Science.gov

Sample records for impact interim storage

  1. Interim storage study report

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  2. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage.

  3. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,`` of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues.

  4. Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  5. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.L.

    1995-01-03

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location.

  6. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards.

  7. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  8. Cost Implications of an Interim Storage Facility in the Waste Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Joshua J.; Joseph, III, Robert Anthony; Howard, Rob L; Petersen, Gordon M.; Nutt, Mark; Carter, Joe; Cotton, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the cost implications of incorporating a consolidated interim storage facility (ISF) into the waste management system (WMS). Specifically, the impacts of the timing of opening an ISF relative to opening a repository were analyzed to understand the potential effects on total system costs.

  9. REACTOR REFUELING - INTERIM DECAY STORAGE (FFTF)

    SciTech Connect

    MCFADDEN NR; OMBERG RP

    1990-06-18

    . The guard tank is supported by a skirt which rests on a ledge at elevation 527 ft 2 inches. The skirt is an extension of the upper cylinder of the guard tank. The storage basket is supported by a gear-driven, mechanically indexed, ball bearing that rests on the bearing support, which in turn rests on the vessel support structure. The interior of the primary vessel above the sodium level is blanketed with argon at 6 inches of water gage pressure. The vessel is designed to allow the pressure to be increased to 3 psig to assist drainage of the sodium from the vessel. The structure which supports the primary vessel also serves as the cover to the IDS cell. The support structure rests on a shelf cast into the cell wall at the 544 ft 6 inch level. In addition to supporting the primary vessel and the storage basket bearing, this structure also provides support for the top shield which is a 16 inch thick by 15 ft 10 inch diameter laminated steel assembly, which in turn supports the impact absorber neutron shield, and the BLTC tracks where they cross the IDS. Storage position access ports are provided on the centerline of the IDS facility between the BLTC rails. Basket rotation and indexing allows any storage position to be located in alignment with its proper access port. Double buffered seals are provided for the removable plugs and removable lids for all components and access ports where necessary to seal between the vessel cover gas and the FFTF containment atmosphere. Buffering gas for these seals is argon. Capability of a 10 cfm argon purge rate is provided although normal argon flow into the cover gas cavity will be less than 1 cfm. Argon cover gas exits through a vapor trap located in the southwest corner of the support structure and then to the Cell Atmosphere Processing System. Vessel overpressure protection is provided by rupture discs on the inlet and outlet argon piping. Rupture discs vent to the IDS cell. Biological shielding is provided to maintain the radiation

  10. Safety of interim storage solutions of used nuclear fuel during extended term

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, C.; Bader, S.; Issard, H.; Arslan, M.

    2013-07-01

    In 2013, the total amount of stored used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the world will reach 225,000 T HM. The UNF inventory in wet storage will take up over 80% of the available total spent fuel pool (SFP) capacity. Interim storage solutions are needed. They give flexibility to the nuclear operators and ensure that nuclear reactors continue to operate. However, we need to keep in mind that they are also an easy way to differ final decision and implementation of a UNF management approach (recycling or final disposal). In term of public perception, they can have a negative impact overtime as it may appear that nuclear industry may have significant issues to resolve. In countries lacking an integrated UNF management approach, the UNF are being discharged from the SFPs to interim storage (mostly to dry storage) at the same rate as UNF is being discharged from reactors, as the SFPs at the reactor sites are becoming full. This is now the case in USA, Taiwan, Switzerland, Spain, South Africa and Germany. For interim storage, AREVA has developed different solutions in order to allow the continued operation of reactors while meeting the current requirements of Safety Authorities: -) Dry storage canisters on pads, -) Dual-purpose casks (dry storage and transportation), -) Vault dry storage, and -) Centralized pool storage.

  11. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Ison

    2008-11-08

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D&D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  12. Interim Storage of Hanford Spent Fuel & Associated Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    2002-07-01

    The Hanford site is currently dealing with a number of types of Spent Nuclear Fuel. The route to interim dry storage for the various fuel types branches along two different paths. Fuel types such as metallic N reactor fuel and Shippingport Core 2 Blanket assemblies are being placed in approximately 4 m long canisters which are then stored in tubes below grade in a new canister storage building. Other fuels such as TRIGA{trademark} and Light Water Reactor fuel will be relocated and stored in stand-alone casks on a concrete pad. Varying degrees of sophistication are being applied with respect to the drying and/or evacuation of the fuel interim storage canisters depending on the reactivity of the fuel, the degree of damaged fuel and the previous storage environment. The characterization of sludge from the Hanford K Basins is nearly complete and canisters are being designed to store the sludge (including uranium particles from fuel element cleaning) on an interim basis.

  13. Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage

    DOEpatents

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Galvin, Thomas M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

  14. US PRACTICE FOR INTERIM WET STORAGE OF RRSNF

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.

    2010-08-05

    Aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the United States and stored at Department of Energy storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper summarizes the current practices to provide for continued safe interim wet storage in the U.S. Aluminum fuel stored in poor quality water is subject to aggressive corrosion attack and therefore water chemistry control systems are essential to maintain water quality. Fuel with minor breaches are safely stored directly in the basin. Fuel pieces and heavily damaged fuel is safely stored in isolation canisters.

  15. 78 FR 40199 - Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulatory Commission (NRC) requests public comment on Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim... Integrity for Continued Storage of High Burnup Fuel Beyond 20 Years.'' The draft SFST-ISG provides...

  16. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  17. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  18. Realization of the German Concept for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel - Current Situation and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Thomauske, B. R.

    2003-02-25

    The German government has determined a phase out of nuclear power. With respect to the management of spent fuel it was decided to terminate transports to reprocessing plants by 2005 and to set up interim storage facilities on power plant sites. This paper gives an overview of the German concept for spent fuel management focused on the new on-site interim storage concept and the applied interim storage facilities. Since the end of the year 1998, the utilities have applied for permission of on-site interim storage in 13 storage facilities and 5 storage areas; one application for the interim storage facility Stade was withdrawn due to the planned final shut down of Stade nuclear power plant in autumn 2003. In 2001 and 2002, 3 on-site storage areas and 2 on-site storage facilities for spent fuel were licensed by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). A main task in 2002 and 2003 has been the examination of the safety and security of the planned interim storage facilities and the verification of the licensing prerequisites. In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, BfS has also examined the attack with a big passenger airplane. Up to now, these aircraft crash analyses have been performed for three on-site interim storage facilities; the fundamental results will be presented. It is the objective of BfS to conclude the licensing procedures for the applied on-site interim storage facilities in 2003. With an assumed construction period for the storage buildings of about two years, the on-site interim storage facilities could then be available in the year 2005.

  19. Cost Sensitivity Analysis for Consolidated Interim Storage of Spent Fuel: Evaluating the Effect of Economic Environment Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Cumberland, Riley M.; Williams, Kent Alan; Jarrell, Joshua J.; Joseph, III, Robert Anthony

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates how the economic environment (i.e., discount rate, inflation rate, escalation rate) can impact previously estimated differences in lifecycle costs between an integrated waste management system with an interim storage facility (ISF) and a similar system without an ISF.

  20. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David G.

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  1. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Interim Status Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-12-01

    This document describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). WESF is located within the 225B Facility in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Although this document is prepared based on Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G requirements, closure of the storage unit will comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 regulations pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Action Plan (Ecology et al. 1996). Because the intention is to clean close WESF, postclosure activities are not applicable to this interim status closure plan. To clean close the storage unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left onsite at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or environmentally is impracticable, the interim status closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. WESF stores cesium and strontium encapsulated salts. The encapsulated salts are stored in the pool cells or process cells located within 225B Facility. The dangerous waste is contained within a double containment system to preclude spills to the environment. In the unlikely event that a waste spill does occur outside the capsules, operating methods and administrative controls require that waste spills be cleaned up promptly and completely, and a notation made in the operating record. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  2. OVERVIEW OF CRITERIA FOR INTERIM WET & DRY STORAGE OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Vinson, D.; Iyer, N.; Fisher, D.

    2010-11-03

    Following discharge from research reactors, spent nuclear fuel may be stored 'wet' in water pools or basins, or it may be stored 'dry' in various configurations including non-sealed or sealed containers until retrieved for ultimate disposition. Interim safe storage practices are based on avoiding degradation to the fuel that would impact functions related to safety. Recommended practices including environmental controls with technical bases, are outlined for wet storage and dry storage of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based research reactor fuel. For wet storage, water quality must be maintained to minimize corrosion degradation of aluminum fuel. For dry storage, vented canister storage of aluminum fuel readily provides a safe storage configuration. For sealed dry storage, drying must be performed so as to minimize water that would cause additional corrosion and hydrogen generation. Consideration must also be given to the potential for radiolytically-generated hydrogen from the bound water in the attendant oxyhydroxides on aluminum fuel from reactor operation for dry storage systems.

  3. Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium Production Reactors at the US DOE Hanford Site - 13438

    SciTech Connect

    Schilperoort, Daryl L.; Faulk, Darrin

    2013-07-01

    Nine plutonium production reactors located on DOE's Hanford Site are being placed into an Interim Safe Storage (ISS) period that extends to 2068. The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for ISS [1] was completed in 1993 and proposed a 75-year storage period that began when the EIS was finalized. Remote electronic monitoring of the temperature and water level alarms inside the safe storage enclosure (SSE) with visual inspection inside the SSE every 5 years are the only planned operational activities during this ISS period. At the end of the ISS period, the reactor cores will be removed intact and buried in a landfill on the Hanford Site. The ISS period allows for radioactive decay of isotopes, primarily Co-60 and Cs-137, to reduce the dose exposure during disposal of the reactor cores. Six of the nine reactors have been placed into ISS by having an SSE constructed around the reactor core. (authors)

  4. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule.

  5. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  6. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Lee

    2005-09-15

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  7. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1983-02-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom; organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel (clad with a zirconium alloy) in silos in Canada; and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel (clad with Zircaloy) in a metal storage cask in Germany. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from BWRs, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions. 110 refs., 22 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. 1984 Federal Interim Storage fee study: a technical and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc

    1984-07-01

    JAI examined alternative methods for structuring charges for Federal Interim Storage (FIS) services were examined and the conclusion reached that the combined interests of the Department and the users would be best served, and costs most appropriately recovered, by a two-part fee involving an Initial Payment upon execution of a contract for FIS services followed by a Final Payment upon delivery of the spent fuel to the Department. The Initial Payment would be an advance payment covering the pro rata share of preoperational costs, including (1) the capital costs of the required transfer facilities and storage area, (2) development costs, (3) government administrative costs including storage fund management, and (4) impact aid payments made in accordance with section 136(e) of the Act. The Final Payment would be made at the time of delivery of the spent fuel to the Department and would be calculated to cover the sum of the following: (1) any under-or over-estimation in the costs used to calculate the Initial Payment of the fee including savings due to rod consolidation), (2) module costs (i.e., storage casks, drywells, or silos), and (3) the total estimated cost of operation and decommissioning of the FIS facilities (including government administrative costs, storage fund management and impact aid). Charges for the transport of spent fuel from the reactor site to FIS facilities would be separately assessed at cost since these will be specific to each reactor site and destination.

  9. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions.

  10. Transuranic waste storage and assay facility (TRUSAF) interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, K.D.

    1995-09-01

    The TRUSAF ISB is based upon current facility configuration and procedures. The purpose of the document is to provide the basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and the authorization basis for the TRUSAF at the Hanford Site. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1977) is superseded by this document.

  11. Wayne Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Wayne, New Jersey. [Wayne Interim Storage Site

    SciTech Connect

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the envirormental monitoring program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of WISS and surrounding area began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. WISS is a National Priorities List site. The environmental monitoring program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several nonradiological parameters are also measured in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides, dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  12. Maywood Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Maywood, New Jersey. [Maywood Interim Storage Site

    SciTech Connect

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984 when congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation-exposure; and total uranium, radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and thorium-230 concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  13. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  14. 1986 Federal Interim Storage fee study: a technical and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    JAI examined alternative methods for structuring charges for federal interim storage (FIS) services and concluded that the combined interests of the Department and the users would be best served, and costs most appropriately recovered, by a two-part fee involving an Initial Payment upon execution of a contract for FIS services followed by a Final Payment upon delivery of the spent fuel to the Department. The Initial Payment would be an advance payment covering the pro rata share of preoperational costs, including (1) the capital costs of the required transfer facilities and storage area, (2) development costs, (3) government administrative costs including storage fund management, (4) impact aid payments made in accordance with Section 136(e) of the Act, and (5) module costs (i.e., storage casks, drywells or silos). The Final Payment would be made at the time of delivery of the spent fuel to the Department and would be calculated to cover the sum of the following: (1) any under- or over-estimation in the costs used to calculate the Initial Payment of the fee (including savings due to rod consolidation), and (2) the total estimated cost of operation and decommissioning of the FIS facilities (including government administrative costs, storage fund management and impact aid). The module costs were included in the Initial Payment to preclude the possible need to obtain appropriations for federal funds to support the purchase of the modules in advance of receipt of the Final Payment. Charges for the transport of spent fuel from the reactor site to FIS facilities would be separately assessed at actual cost since these will be specific to each reactor site and destination.

  15. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  16. 1987 Federal interim storage fee study: A technical and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This document is the latest in a series of reports that are published annually by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This information in the report, which was prepared by E.R. Johnson Associates under subcontract to PNL, will be used by the DOE to establish a payment schedule for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel under the Federal Interim Storage (FIS) Program, which was mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The information in this report will be used to establish the schedule of charges for FIS services for the year commencing January 1, 1988. 13 tabs.

  17. REVIEW OF FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY (FFTF) FUEL EXPERIMENTS FOR STORAGE IN INTERIM STORAGE CASKS (ISC)

    SciTech Connect

    CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2005-10-24

    Appendix H, Section H.3.3.10.11 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), provides the limits to be observed for fueled components authorized for storage in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) spent fuel storage system. Currently, the authorization basis allows standard driver fuel assemblies (DFA), as described in the FSAR Chapter 17, Section 17.5.3.1, to be stored provided decay power per assembly is {le} 250 watts, post-irradiation time is four years minimum, average assembly burn-up is 150,000 MWD/MTHM maximum and the pre-irradiation enrichment is 29.3% maximum (per H.3.3.10.11). In addition, driver evaluation (DE), core characterizer assemblies (CCA), and run-to-cladding-breach (RTCB) assemblies are included based on their similarities to a standard DFA. Ident-69 pin containers with fuel pins from these DFAs can also be stored. Section H.3.3.10.11 states that fuel types outside the specification criteria above will be addressed on a case-by-case basis. There are many different types of fuel and blanket experiments that were irradiated in the FFTF which now require offload to the spent fuel storage system. Two reviews were completed for a portion of these special type fuel components to determine if placement into the Core Component Container (CCC)/Interim Storage Cask (ISC) would require any special considerations or changes to the authorization basis. Project mission priorities coupled with availability of resources and analysts prevented these evaluations from being completed as a single effort. Areas of review have included radiological accident release consequences, radiological shielding adequacy, criticality safety, thermal limits, confinement, and stress. The results of these reviews are available in WHC-SD-FF-RPT-005, Rev. 0 and 1, ''Review of FFTF Fuel Experiments for Storage at ISA'', (Reference I), which subsequently allowed a large portion of these components to be included in the authorization basis (Table H.3.3-21). The report also identified

  18. The Time Needed to Implement the Blue Ribbon Commission Recommendation on Interim Storage - 13124

    SciTech Connect

    Voegele, Michael D.; Vieth, Donald

    2013-07-01

    The report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future [1] makes a number of important recommendations to be considered if Congress elects to redirect U.S. high-level radioactive waste disposal policy. Setting aside for the purposes of this discussion any issues related to political forces leading to stopping progress on the Yucca Mountain project and driving the creation of the Commission, an important recommendation of the Commission was to institute prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities. The Blue Ribbon Commission noted that this recommended strategy for future storage and disposal facilities and operations should be implemented regardless of what happens with Yucca Mountain. It is too easy, however, to focus on interim storage as an alternative to geologic disposal. The Blue Ribbon Commission report does not go far enough in addressing the magnitude of the contentious problems associated with reopening the issues of relative authorities of the states and federal government with which Congress wrestled in crafting the Nuclear Waste Policy Act [2]. The Blue Ribbon Commission recommendation for prompt adoption of an interim storage program does not appear to be fully informed about the actions that must be taken, the relative cost of the effort, or the realistic time line that would be involved. In essence, the recommendation leaves to others the details of the systems engineering analyses needed to understand the nature and details of all the operations required to reach an operational interim storage facility without derailing forever the true end goal of geologic disposal. The material presented identifies a number of impediments that must be overcome before the country could develop a centralized federal interim storage facility. In summary, and in the order presented, they are: 1. Change the law, HJR 87, PL 107-200, designating Yucca Mountain for the development of a repository. 2. Bring new nuclear waste

  19. Interim UFD Storage and Transportation - Transportation Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-03-30

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Transportation Task commenced in October 2010. As its first task, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compiled a draft list of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of transportation systems and their possible degradation mechanisms during very long term storage (VLTS). The list of SSCs and the associated degradation mechanisms [known as features, events, and processes (FEPs)] were based on the list of SSCs and degradation mechanisms developed by the UFD Storage Task (Stockman et al. 2010)

  20. Operations and Maintenance Concept Plan for the Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JANIN, L.F.

    2000-08-30

    This O&M Concept looks at the future operations and maintenance of the IHLW/CSB interim storage facility. It defines the overall strategy, objectives, and functional requirements for the portion of the building to be utilized by Project W-464. The concept supports the tasks of safety basis planning, risk mitigation, alternative analysis, decision making, etc. and will be updated as required to support the evolving design.

  1. Adaptive Trellis Using Interim Maximum-Likelihood Detector Output for a Holographic Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gukhui; Kim, Jinyoung; Lee, Jaejin

    2011-09-01

    The performance of partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) for holographic data storage can be reduced by asymmetric channel characteristics such as radial/tangential tilts. Therefore, we proposed the adaptive trellis scheme to improve performance. The proposed algorithm updates the reference branch values through using interim maximum-likelihood detector output, using the changed channel condition. Thus, this system guarantees better bit error rate performance than conventional PRML detection.

  2. INTERIM STORAGE AND LONG TERM DISPOSAL OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D

    2006-08-22

    Aluminum clad research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is currently being consolidated in wet storage basins (pools). Approximately 20 metric tons (heavy metal) of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) is being consolidated for treatment, packaging, interim storage, and preparation for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. The storage and disposal of Al-SNF are subject to requirements that provide for safety and acceptable radionuclide release. The options studied for interim storage of SNF include wet storage and dry storage. Two options have also been studied to develop the technical basis for the qualification and repository disposal of aluminum spent fuel. The two options studied include Direct Disposal and Melt-Dilute treatment. The implementation of these options present relative benefits and challenges. Both the Direct Disposal and the Melt-Dilute treatment options have been developed and their technical viability assessed. Adaptation of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of spent fuel offers the benefits of converting the spent fuel into a proliferation resistant form and/or significantly reducing the volume of the spent fuel. A Mobile Melt-Dilute system concept has emerged to realize these benefits and a prototype system developed. The application of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of legacy nuclear materials has been evaluated and also offers the promise for the safe disposal of these materials.

  3. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    SciTech Connect

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell

    2012-07-01

    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  4. The public response to Monitored Retrievable Storage: An interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-22

    This report describes public opinion concerning the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility to be located in the vicinity of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The majority of individuals who did express an opinion opposed the facility due to transport/safety concerns and environmental/health concerns. (CBS)

  5. Dedicated-site, interim storage of high-level nuclear waste as part of the management system

    PubMed Central

    Zen, E-an

    1980-01-01

    Dedicated-site interim storage of high-level reprocessed nuclear waste and of spent fuel rods is proposed as a long-term integral part of the systems approach of the national nuclear waste isolation program. Separation of interim sites for retrievable storage from permanent-disposal repositories should enhance ensurance of the performance of the latter; maintenance of retrievability at separate sites also has many advantages in both safety and possible use of waste as resources. Interim storage sites probably will not be needed beyond about 100 years from now, so the institutional and technical considerations involved in their choice should be much less stringent than those for the selection of permanent sites. Development of interim sites must be concurrent with unabated effort to identify and to develop permanent repositories. PMID:16592904

  6. COMPLETION OF THE FIRST INTEGRATED SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL TRANSSHIPMENT/INTERIM STORAGE FACILITY IN NW RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Hoeibraaten, S.; Gran, H.C.; Foshaug, E.; Godunov, V.

    2003-02-27

    Northwest and Far East Russia contain large quantities of unsecured spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from decommissioned submarines that potentially threaten the fragile environments of the surrounding Arctic and North Pacific regions. The majority of the SNF from the Russian Navy, including that from decommissioned nuclear submarines, is currently stored in on-shore and floating storage facilities. Some of the SNF is damaged and stored in an unstable condition. Existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing this amount of fuel. Additional interim storage capacity is required. Most of the existing storage facilities being used in Northwest Russia do not meet health and safety, and physical security requirements. The United States and Norway are currently providing assistance to the Russian Federation (RF) in developing systems for managing these wastes. If these wastes are not properly managed, they could release significant concentrations of radioactivity to these sensitive environments and could become serious global environmental and physical security issues. There are currently three closely-linked trilateral cooperative projects: development of a prototype dual-purpose transport and storage cask for SNF, a cask transshipment interim storage facility, and a fuel drying and cask de-watering system. The prototype cask has been fabricated, successfully tested, and certified. Serial production is now underway in Russia. In addition, the U.S. and Russia are working together to improve the management strategy for nuclear submarine reactor compartments after SNF removal.

  7. Developing a concept for a national used fuel interim storage facility in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Donald Wayne

    2013-07-01

    In the United States (U.S.) the nuclear waste issue has plagued the nuclear industry for decades. Originally, spent fuel was to be reprocessed but with the threat of nuclear proliferation, spent fuel reprocessing has been eliminated, at least for now. In 1983, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 [1] was established, authorizing development of one or more spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste geological repositories and a consolidated national storage facility, called a 'Monitored Retrievable Storage' facility, that could store the spent nuclear fuel until it could be placed into the geological repository. Plans were under way to build a geological repository, Yucca Mountain, but with the decision by President Obama to terminate the development of Yucca Mountain, a consolidated national storage facility that can store spent fuel for an interim period until a new repository is established has become very important. Since reactor sites have not been able to wait for the government to come up with a storage or disposal location, spent fuel remains in wet or dry storage at each nuclear plant. The purpose of this paper is to present a concept developed to address the DOE's goals stated above. This concept was developed over the past few months by collaboration between the DOE and industry experts that have experience in designing spent nuclear fuel facilities. The paper examines the current spent fuel storage conditions at shutdown reactor sites, operating reactor sites, and the type of storage systems (transportable versus non-transportable, welded or bolted). The concept lays out the basis for a pilot storage facility to house spent fuel from shutdown reactor sites and then how the pilot facility can be enlarged to a larger full scale consolidated interim storage facility. (authors)

  8. Classification methodology for tritiated waste requiring interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cana, D.; Dall'ava, D.

    2015-03-15

    Fusion machines like the ITER experimental research facility will use tritium as fuel. Therefore, most of the solid radioactive waste will result not only from activation by 14 MeV neutrons, but also from contamination by tritium. As a consequence, optimizing the treatment process for waste containing tritium (tritiated waste) is a major challenge. This paper summarizes the studies conducted in France within the framework of the French national plan for the management of radioactive materials and waste. The paper recommends a reference program for managing this waste based on its sorting, treatment and packaging by the producer. It also recommends setting up a 50-year temporary storage facility to allow for tritium decay and designing future disposal facilities using tritiated radwaste characteristics as input data. This paper first describes this waste program and then details an optimized classification methodology which takes into account tritium decay over a 50-year storage period. The paper also describes a specific application for purely tritiated waste and discusses the set-up expected to be implemented for ITER decommissioning waste (current assumption). Comparison between this optimized approach and other viable detritiation techniques will be drawn. (authors)

  9. The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia Rafiullah; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Interim assessments are increasingly common in U.S. schools. We use high-quality data from a large-scale school-level cluster randomized experiment to examine the impact of two well-known commercial interim assessment programs on mathematics and reading achievement in Indiana. Results indicate that the treatment effects are positive but not…

  10. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Maywood, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1984, was continued in 1989 at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Borough of Maywood and the Township of Rochelle Park, New Jersey. MISS is currently used for storage of soils contaminated with low-level radioactivity. MISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials are present. The monitoring program at MISS measures thoron and radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and thorium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. The radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual to verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effects on public health. This report presents the results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) during calendar year 1989. Environmental monitoring began at MISS in 1984. 19 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Benchmarking of MCNP for calculating dose rates at an interim storage facility for nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hille, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    During the operation of research facilities at Research Centre Jülich, Germany, nuclear waste is stored in drums and other vessels in an interim storage building on-site, which has a concrete shielding at the side walls. Owing to the lack of a well-defined source, measured gamma spectra were unfolded to determine the photon flux on the surface of the containers. The dose rate simulation, including the effects of skyshine, using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP is compared with the measured dosimetric data at some locations in the vicinity of the interim storage building. The MCNP data for direct radiation confirm the data calculated using a point-kernel method. However, a comparison of the modelled dose rates for direct radiation and skyshine with the measured data demonstrate the need for a more precise definition of the source. Both the measured and the modelled dose rates verified the fact that the legal limits (<1 mSv a(-1)) are met in the area outside the perimeter fence of the storage building to which members of the public have access. Using container surface data (gamma spectra) to define the source may be a useful tool for practical calculations and additionally for benchmarking of computer codes if the discussed critical aspects with respect to the source can be addressed adequately.

  12. Interim storage technology of spent fuel and high-level waste in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Geiser, H.; Schroder, J.

    2007-07-01

    The idea of using casks for interim storage of spent fuel arose at GNS after a very controversial political discussion in 1978, when total passive safety features (including aircraft crash conditions) were required for an above ground spent fuel storage facility. In the meantime, GNS has loaded more than 1000 casks at 25 different storage sites in Germany. GNS cask technology is used in 13 countries. Spent fuel assemblies of PWR, BWR, VVER, RBMK, MTR and THTR as well as vitrified high level waste containers are stored in full metal casks of the CASTOR{sup R} type. Also MOX fuel of PWR and BWR has been stored. More than two decades of storage have shown that the basic requirements (safe confinement, criticality safety, sufficient shielding and appropriate heat transfer) have been fulfilled in any case - during normal operation and in case of severe accidents, including aircraft crash. There is no indication of problems arising in the future. Of course, the experience of more than 20 years has resulted in improvements of the cask design. The CASTOR{sup R} casks have been thoroughly investigated by many experiments. There have been approx. 50 full and half scale drop tests and a significant number of fire tests, simulations of aircraft crash, investigations with anti tank weapons, and an explosion of a railway tank with liquid gas neighbouring a loaded CASTOR{sup R} cask. According to customer and site specific demands, different types of storage facilities are realized in Germany. Firstly, there are facilities for long-term storage, such as large ventilated central storage buildings away from reactor or ventilated storage buildings at the reactor site, ventilated underground tunnels or concrete platforms outside a building. Secondly, there are facilities for temporary storage, where casks have been positioned in horizontal orientation under a ventilated shielding cover outside a building. (authors)

  13. The design of a Phase I non site-specific Centralized Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.; Kane, D.

    1997-10-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) recently completed a Topical Safety Analysis Report (TSAR) for a Phase 1 non site specific Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF). The TSAR will be used in licensing the CISF when and if a site is designated. The combined Phase 1 and Phase 2 CISF will provide federal storage capability for 40,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) under the oversight of the DOE. The Phase 1 TSAR was submitted to the NRC on May 1, 1997 and is currently under review having been docketed on June 10, 1997. This paper generally describes the Phase 1 CISF design and its operations as presented in the CISF TSAR.

  14. A security vulnerabilities assessment tool for interim storage facilities of low-level radioactive wastes.

    PubMed

    Bible, J; Emery, R J; Williams, T; Wang, S

    2006-11-01

    Limited permanent low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal capacity and correspondingly high disposal costs have resulted in the creation of numerous interim storage facilities for either decay-in-storage operations or longer term accumulation efforts. These facilities, which may be near the site of waste generation or in distal locations, often were not originally designed for the purpose of LLRW storage, particularly with regard to security. Facility security has become particularly important in light of the domestic terrorist acts of 2001, wherein LLRW, along with many other sources of radioactivity, became recognized commodities to those wishing to create disruption through the purposeful dissemination of radioactive materials. Since some LLRW materials may be in facilities that may exhibit varying degrees of security control sophistication, a security vulnerabilities assessment tool grounded in accepted criminal justice theory and security practice has been developed. The tool, which includes dedicated sections on general security, target hardening, criminalization benefits, and the presence of guardians, can be used by those not formally schooled in the security profession to assess the level of protection afforded to their respective facilities. The tool equips radiation safety practitioners with the ability to methodically and systematically assess the presence or relative status of various facility security aspects, many of which may not be considered by individuals from outside the security profession. For example, radiation safety professionals might not ordinarily consider facility lighting aspects, which is a staple for the security profession since it is widely known that crime disproportionately occurs more frequently at night or in poorly lit circumstances. Likewise, the means and associated time dimensions for detecting inventory discrepancies may not be commonly considered. The tool provides a simple means for radiation safety professionals to

  15. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Mertyurek, Ugur; Belles, Randy; Scaglione, John M.

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  16. Design requirements document for Project W-465, immobilized low-activity waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-05-19

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the TWRS ILAW Interim Storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity. Technical and programmatic risk associated with the TWRS planning basis are discussed in the Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data documented by the project.

  17. Performance testing of aged hydrogen getters against criteria for interim safe storage of plutonium bearing materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Nissen, April; Buffleben, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen getters were tested for use in storage of plutonium-bearing materials in accordance with DOE's Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials. The hydrogen getter HITOP was aged for 3 months at 70 C and tested under both recombination and hydrogenation conditions at 20 and 70 C; partially saturated and irradiated aged getter samples were also tested. The recombination reaction was found to be very fast and well above the required rate of 45 std. cc H2h. The gettering reaction, which is planned as the backup reaction in this deployment, is slower and may not meet the requirements alone. Pressure drop measurements and {sup 1}H NMR analyses support these conclusions. Although the experimental conditions do not exactly replicate the deployment conditions, the results of our conservative experiments are clear: the aged getter shows sufficient reactivity to maintain hydrogen concentrations below the flammability limit, between the minimum and maximum deployment temperatures, for three months. The flammability risk is further reduced by the removal of oxygen through the recombination reaction. Neither radiation exposure nor thermal aging sufficiently degrades the getter to be a concern. Future testing to evaluate performance for longer aging periods is in progress.

  18. Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-19

    Brookings Review, vol. 6 (summer 1988), p . 30. GAO also has discussed how incentives for policymakers “to negotiate seriously and reach agreement” may be...the Budget Enforcement Act, GAO-01-991T, July 19, 2001, p . 12. For further analysis, see CRS Report RL30339, Preventing Federal Government Shutdowns...05, p . 4 (attachment, Section 6). OMB might apportion funds at, essentially, greater than a daily rate, as the period of time covered by an interim

  19. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 9200 Latty Avenue, Hazelwood, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Hazelwood Interim storage Site (HISS) and surrounding area, provides the results for 1992, and discusses applicable environmental standards and requirements with which the results were compared. HISS is located in eastern Missouri in the City of Hazelwood (St. Louis County) and occupies approximately 2.2 ha (5.5 acres). Environmental monitoring of HISS began in 1984 when the site was assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. DOE placed responsibility for HISS under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), which was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or unplanned contaminant releases as defined in DOE requirements and in the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III of CERCLA.

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.S.; Murray, M.E.; Rodriguez, R.E.

    1998-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes the methodology to perform an independent radiological verification survey and chemical characterization of a remediated area of the subpile at the Wayne Interim Storage Site, Wayne, New Jersey.Data obtained from collection and analysis of systematic and biased soil samples will be used to assess the status of remediation at the site and verify the final radiological status. The objective of this plan is to describe the methods for obtaining sufficient and valid measurements and analytical data to supplement and verify a radiological profile already established by the Project Remediation Management Contractor (PMC). The plan describes the procedure for obtaining sufficient and valid analytical data on soil samples following remediation of the first layer of the subpile. Samples will be taken from an area of the subpile measuring approximately 30 m by 80 m from which soil has been excavated to a depth of approximately 20 feet to confirm that the soil beneath the excavated area does not exceed radiological guidelines established for the site or chemical regulatory limits for inorganic metals. After the WISS has been fully remediated, the Department of Energy will release it for industrial/commercial land use in accordance with the Record of Decision. This plan provides supplemental instructions to guidelines and procedures established for sampling and analysis activities. Procedures will be referenced throughout this plan as applicable, and are available for review if necessary.

  1. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for radiological and nonradiological monitoring, dose to the offsite population, and summaries of environmental programs at CISS. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Appendix A contains a discussion of the nature of radiation, the way it is measured, and common sources of it. The primary environmental guidelines and limits applicable to CISS are given in US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and mandated by six federal acts: the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); the Toxic Substances Control Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). DOE began environmental monitoring of CISS in 1984 when DOE was authorized by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to conduct a decontamination research and development program at the site. The site was subsequently assigned to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP).

  2. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for monitoring for radioactive and non-radioactive parameters, summaries of environmental program at HISS, a summary of the results, and the calculated hypothetical radiation dose to the offsite population. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. The US Department of Energy (DOE) began environmental monitoring of HISS in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and subsequent to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remediation Action Program (FUSRAP). Contamination at HISS originated from uranium processing work conducted at Mallinckrodt Chemical Works at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) from 1942 through 1957.

  3. Operational Implementation of the MARSSIM Process at the Wayne Interim Storage Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, D. C. Jr.; Trujillo, P. A. IV.; Zoller, S. G.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the methodologies behind the operational implementation of the Multi Agency Radiation Site Survey and Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) process at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and Environmental Chemical Corporation (ECC) have implemented the MARSSIM process using various surveys producing raw data. The final remedial status of a survey unit is derived through data reduction, while maintaining a high degree of efficiency in the construction aspects of the remedial action. Data reduction of field measurements is accomplished by merging the data outputs of a Digital Global Positioning System, an exposure rate meter, and laboratory analyses to produce maps which present exposure rates, elevations, survey unit boundaries, direct measurement locations, and sampling locations on a single map. The map serves as a data-posting plot and allows the project team to easily judge the survey unit's remedial status. The operational implementation of the MARSSIM process has been successful in determining the eligibility of survey units for final status surveys at the WISS and also in demonstrating final status radiological and chemical conditions while maintaining an efficient remedial action effort.

  4. The SpringBoard Bursary Foundation Impact Assessment: Year 1. Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Emily; Stevens, Eleanor; Straw, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The SpringBoard Bursary Foundation (SpringBoard) commissioned the National Foundation for Education Research (NFER) to undertake an evaluation of its activities and impacts between 2013 and 2018. This interim and summary report presents the findings of the first year of the evaluation. SpringBoard was established in 2012 to transform the lives of…

  5. Characterization of the radiation environment for a large-area interim spent-nuclear-fuel storage facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortkamp, Jonathan C.

    Current needs in the nuclear industry and movements in the political arena indicate that authorization may soon be given for development of a federal interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel. The initial stages of the design work have already begun within the Department of Energy and are being reviewed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This dissertation addresses the radiation environment around an interim spent nuclear fuel storage facility. Specifically the dissertation characterizes the radiation dose rates around the facility based on a design basis source term, evaluates the changes in dose due to varying cask spacing configurations, and uses these results to define some applicable health physics principles for the storage facility. Results indicate that dose rates from the facility are due primarily from photons from the spent fuel and Co-60 activation in the fuel assemblies. In the modeled cask system, skyshine was a significant contribution to dose rates at distances from the cask array, but this contribution can be reduced with an alternate cask venting system. With the application of appropriate health physics principles, occupation doses can be easily maintained far below regulatory limits and maintained ALARA.

  6. Impact of storage on fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vast majority of cotton produced in the United States is exported for processing. The exporting of the crop results in long storage and shipping times which introduces a new challenge for cotton quality. The duration and environmental conditions of cotton storage and shipping can impact cotton...

  7. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  8. Interim storage of spent and disused sealed sources: optimisation of external dose distribution in waste grids using the MCNPX code.

    PubMed

    Paiva, I; Oliveira, C; Trindade, R; Portugal, L

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources are in use worldwide in different fields of application. When no further use is foreseen for these sources, they become spent or disused sealed sources and are subject to a specific waste management scheme. Portugal does have a Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility where spent or disused sealed sources are conditioned in a cement matrix inside concrete drums and following the geometrical disposition of a grid. The gamma dose values around each grid depend on the drum's enclosed activity and radionuclides considered, as well as on the drums distribution in the various layers of the grid. This work proposes a method based on the Monte Carlo simulation using the MCNPX code to estimate the best drum arrangement through the optimisation of dose distribution in a grid. Measured dose rate values at 1 m distance from the surface of the chosen optimised grid were used to validate the corresponding computational grid model.

  9. Technical Competencies for the Safe Interim Storage and Management of 233U at U.S. Department of Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Krichinsky, A.M.; Laughlin, S.S.; Van Essen, D.C.; Yong, L.K.

    1999-02-17

    Uranium-233 (with concomitant {sup 232}U) is a man-made fissile isotope of uranium with unique nuclear characteristics which require high-integrity alpha containment biological shielding, and remote handling. The special handling considerations and the fact that much of the {sup 233}U processing and large-scale handling was performed over a decade ago underscore the importance of identifying the people within the DOE complex who are currently working with or have worked with {sup 233}U. The availability of these key personnel is important in ensuring safe interim storage, management and ultimate disposition of {sup 233}U at DOE facilities. Significant programs are ongoing at several DOE sites with actinides. The properties of these actinide materials require many of the same types of facilities and handling expertise as does {sup 233}U.

  10. Interim Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2003-01-01

    An interim principal can buy a school district time to land a permanent successor. Also lists where to find an interim principal; the interim's steadying influence; Bob Wallace's wild ride as an interim principal in post-retirement; and Roger Prosise's rationale for turning to an interim appointment. (MLF)

  11. Environmental permits and approvals plan for high-level waste interim storage, Project W-464

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1998-05-28

    This report discusses the Permitting Plan regarding NEPA, SEPA, RCRA, and other regulatory standards and alternatives, for planning the environmental permitting of the Canister Storage Building, Project W-464.

  12. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, and [sup 233]U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak.

  13. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 233}U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak.

  14. WWC Review of the Report "The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The study, "The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading," examined the effects of using Diagnostic Assessment Tools (DAT) on mathematics and reading outcomes for students in 59 Indiana schools during the 2009-10 academic year. DAT consists of interim assessment tools--Wireless Generation's mCLASS for…

  15. 76 FR 9381 - Notice of Availability of Interim Staff Guidance Documents for Spent Fuel Storage Casks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Gordon, Structural Mechanics and Materials Branch, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation... ISG-23 should be directed to Matthew Gordon, Structural Mechanics and Materials Branch, Division of.... Michele Sampson, Acting Chief, Structural Mechanics and Materials Branch, Division of Spent Fuel...

  16. An Information Storage and Retrieval System for Biological and Geological Data. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Donald F.

    A project is being conducted to test the feasibility of an information storage and retrieval system for museum specimen data, particularly for natural history museums. A pilot data processing system has been developed, with the specimen records from the national collections of birds, marine crustaceans, and rocks used as sample data. The research…

  17. Report on the performance monitoring system for the interim waste containment at the Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) is an interim storage site for low-level radioactive waste, established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Lewiston, New York. The waste containment structure for encapsulating low-level radioactive waste at the NFSS has been designed to minimize infiltration of rainfall, prevent pollution of groundwater, preclude formation of leachate, and prevent radon emanation. Accurately determining the performance of the main engineered elements of the containment structure will be important in establishing confidence in the ability of the structure to retain the wastes. For this purpose, a waste containment performance monitoring system has been developed to verify that these elements are functioning as intended. The key objective of the performance monitoring system is the early detection of trends that could be indicative of weaknesses developing in the containment structure so that corrective action can be taken before the integrity of the structure is compromised. Consequently, subsurface as well as surface monitoring techniques will be used. After evaluating several types of subsurface instrumentation, it was determined that vibrating wire pressure transducers, in combination with surface monitoring techniques, would satisfactorily monitor the parameters of concern, such as water accumulation inside the containment facility, waste settlement, and shrinkage of the clay cover. Surface monitoring will consist of topographic surveys based on predetermined gridlines, walkover surveys, and aerial photography to detect vegetative stress or other changes not evident at ground level. This report details the objectives of the performance monitoring system, identifies the elements of the containment design whose performance will be monitored, describes the monitoring system recommended, and outlines the costs associated with the monitoring system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Maywood Interim Storage Site: Annual site environmental report, Maywood, New Jersey, Calendar year 1986: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Borough of Maywood and the Township of Rochelle Park, New Jersey. The MISS is presently used for the storage of low-level radioactively contaminated soils. The MISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). As part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act, remedial action and environmental monitoring programs are being conducted at this site and at vicinity properties by Bechtel National, Inc., Project Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The monitoring program at the MISS measures thoron and radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and thorium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/y) and to assess the potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, the maximally exposed individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 1% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/y. This exposure is less than the exposure a person would receive during a round-trip flight from New York to Los Angeles (due to greater amounts of cosmic radiation at higher altitudes). The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the MISS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the MISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 16 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Basis for Interim Operation (BIO)

    SciTech Connect

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-11-28

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) is located in the 200 East Area adjacent to B Plant on the Hanford Site north of Richland, Washington. The current WESF mission is to receive and store the cesium and strontium capsules that were manufactured at WESF in a safe manner and in compliance with all applicable rules and regulations. The scope of WESF operations is currently limited to receipt, inspection, decontamination, storage, and surveillance of capsules in addition to facility maintenance activities. The capsules are expected to be stored at WESF until the year 2017, at which time they will have been transferred for ultimate disposition. The WESF facility was designed and constructed to process, encapsulate, and store the extracted long-lived radionuclides, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, from wastes generated during the chemical processing of defense fuel on the Hanford Site thus ensuring isolation of hazardous radioisotopes from the environment. The construction of WESF started in 1971 and was completed in 1973. Some of the {sup 137}Cs capsules were leased by private irradiators or transferred to other programs. All leased capsules have been returned to WESF. Capsules transferred to other programs will not be returned except for the seven powder and pellet Type W overpacks already stored at WESF.

  20. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir

  1. Construction of an interim storage field using recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Field performance study.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Kolisoja, Pauli

    2017-03-18

    The leaching of hazardous substances from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) has been studied in many different scales for several years. Less attention has been given to the mechanical performance of MSWI BA in actual civil engineering structures. The durability of structures built with this waste derived material can have major influence on the functional properties of such structures and also the potential leaching of hazardous substances in the long term. Hence, it is necessary to properly evaluate in which type of structures MSWI BA can be safely used in a similar way as natural and crushed rock aggregates. In the current study, MSWI BA treated with ADR (Advance Dry Recovery) technology was used in the structural layers of an interim storage field built within a waste treatment centre. During and half a year after the construction, the development of technical and mechanical properties of BA materials and the built structures were investigated. The aim was to compare these results with the findings of laboratory studies in which the same material was previously investigated. The field results showed that the mechanical performance of recovered BA corresponds to the performance of natural aggregates in the lower structural layers of field structures. Conversely, the recovered MSWI BA cannot be recommended to be used in the base layers as such, even though its stiffness properties increased over time due to material aging and changes in moisture content. The main reason for this is that BA particles are prone for crushing and therefore inadequate to resist the higher stresses occurring in the upper parts of road and field structures. These results were in accordance with the previous laboratory findings. It can thus be concluded that the recovered MSWI BA is durable to be used as a replacement of natural aggregates especially in the lower structural layers of road and field structures, whereas if used in the base layers, an additional base

  2. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lumin; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised of boron trioxide and sassolite (H3BO3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.

  3. CO2 Storage related Groundwater Impacts and Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Knopf, Stefan; May, Franz; Rebscher, Dorothee

    2016-03-01

    Injection of CO2 into the deep subsurface will affect physical and chemical conditions in the storage environment. Hence, geological CO2 storage can have potential impacts on groundwater resources. Shallow freshwater can only be affected if leakage pathways facilitate the ascent of CO2 or saline formation water. Leakage associated with CO2 storage cannot be excluded, but potential environmental impacts could be reduced by selecting suitable storage locations. In the framework of risk assessment, testing of models and scenarios against operational data has to be performed repeatedly in order to predict the long-term fate of CO2. Monitoring of a storage site should reveal any deviations from expected storage performance, so that corrective measures can be taken. Comprehensive R & D activities and experience from several storage projects will enhance the state of knowledge on geological CO2 storage, thus enabling safe storage operations at well-characterised and carefully selected storage sites while meeting the requirements of groundwater protection.

  4. Interim Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd

    2009-01-01

    The Registry for College and University Presidents places former executives in interim presidential and other senior-level posts and is familiar with the challenges interim executives and institutions encounter in times of leadership transitions. However, the one big advantage interims bring to institutions, says Registry Vice President Kevin J.…

  5. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  6. Partial Defect Verification of Spent Fuel Assemblies by PDET: Principle and Field Testing in Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Y.S.; Kerr, P.; Sitaraman, S.; Swan, R.; Rossa, R.; Liljenfeldt, H.

    2015-07-01

    The need for the development of a credible method and instrument for partial defect verification of spent fuel has been emphasized over a few decades in the safeguards communities as the diverted spent fuel pins can be the source of nuclear terrorism or devices. The need is increasingly more important and even urgent as many countries have started to transfer spent fuel to so called 'difficult-to-access' areas such as dry storage casks, reprocessing or geological repositories. Partial defect verification is required by IAEA before spent fuel is placed into 'difficult-to-access' areas. Earlier, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has reported the successful development of a new, credible partial defect verification method for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies without use of operator data, and further reported the validation experiments using commercial spent fuel assemblies with some missing fuel pins. The method was found to be robust as the method is relatively invariant to the characteristic variations of spent fuel assemblies such as initial fuel enrichment, cooling time, and burn-up. Since then, the PDET system has been designed and prototyped for 17x17 PWR spent fuel assemblies, complete with data acquisition software and acquisition electronics. In this paper, a summary description of the PDET development followed by results of the first successful field testing using the integrated PDET system and actual spent fuel assemblies performed in a commercial spent fuel storage site, known as Central Interim Spent fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden will be presented. In addition to partial defect detection initial studies have determined that the tool can be used to verify the operator declared average burnup of the assembly as well as intra-assembly burnup levels. (authors)

  7. License Amendment Request for Storing Exelon Sister Nuclear Stations Class B/C LLRW in the LaSalle Station Interim Radwaste Storage Facility - 13620

    SciTech Connect

    Azar, Miguel; Gardner, Donald A.; Taylor, Edward R.

    2013-07-01

    Exelon Nuclear (Exelon) designed and constructed an Interim Radwaste Storage Facility (IRSF) in the mid-1980's at LaSalle County Nuclear Station (LaSalle). The facility was designed to store low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) on an interim basis, i.e., up to five years. The primary reason for the IRSF was to offset lack of disposal in case existing disposal facilities, such as the Southeast Compact's Barnwell Disposal Facility in Barnwell, South Carolina, ceased accepting radioactive waste from utilities not in the Southeast Compact. Approximately ninety percent of the Radwaste projected to be stored in the LaSalle IRSF in that period of time was Class A, with the balance being Class B/C waste. On July 1, 2008 the Barnwell Disposal Facility in the Southeast Compact closed its doors to out of- compact Radwaste, which precluded LaSalle from shipping Class B/C Radwaste to an outside disposal facility. Class A waste generated by LaSalle is still able to be disposed at the 'Envirocare of Utah LLRW Disposal Complex' in Clive, Utah. Thus the need for utilizing the LaSalle IRSF for storing Class B/C Radwaste for an extended period, perhaps life-of-plant or more became apparent. Additionally, other Exelon Midwest nuclear stations located in Illinois that did not build an IRSF heretofore also needed extended Radwaste storage. In early 2009, Exelon made a decision to forward Radwaste from the Byron Nuclear Station (Byron), Braidwood Nuclear Station (Braidwood), and Clinton Nuclear Station (Clinton) to LaSalle's IRSF. As only Class B/C Radwaste would need to be forwarded to LaSalle, the original volumetric capacity of the LaSalle IRSF was capable of handling the small number of additional expected shipments annually from the Exelon sister nuclear stations in Illinois. Forwarding Class B/C Radwaste from the Exelon sister nuclear stations in Illinois to LaSalle would require an amendment to the LaSalle Station operating license. Exelon submitted the License Amendment Request

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  9. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation.

  10. Wayne Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 868 Black Oak Ridge Road, Wayne, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and provides the results for 1992. The fenced, site, 32 km (20 mi) northwest of Newark, New Jersey, was used between 1948 and 1971 for commercial processing of monazite sand to separate natural radioisotopes - predominantly thorium. Environmental surveillance of WISS began in 1984 in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 when Congress added the site to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The environmental surveillance program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, total uranium, and several chemicals in surface water and sediment; and total uranium, radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and organic and inorganic chemicals in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. This monitoring program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results for environmental surveillance in 1992 show that the concentrations of all radioactive and most chemical contaminants were below applicable standards.

  11. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and provides the results for 1992. The site is located in eastern New York State, approximately 6.4 km (4.0 mi) northwest of downtown Albany. From 1958 to 1984, National Lead (NL) Industries used the facility to manufacture various components from depleted and enriched uranium natural thorium. Environmental monitoring of CISS began in 1984 when Congress added, the site to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental surveillance program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for thorium-232 and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters are also measured in groundwater, including total metals, volatile organics, and water quality parameters. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements.

  12. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David George

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  13. Do Heat Waves have an Impact on Terrestrial Water Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, A.; Teuling, R.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent works have investigated the impact of heat waves on the surface energy and carbon balance. However, less attention has been given to the impacts on terrestrial hydrology. During the summer of 2010, the occurrence of an exceptional heat wave affected severely the Northern Hemisphere. The extension (more than 2 million km2) and severity of this extreme event caused substantial ecosystem damage (more than 1 million ha of forest fires), economic and human losses (~500 billion USD and more than 17 million of indirect deaths, respectively). This work investigates for the first time the impacts of the 2010 summer heat wave on terrestrial water storage. Our study area comprises three different regions where air temperature records were established or almost established during the summer: Western Russia, the Middle East and Eastern Sahel. Anomalies of terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were used to infer water storage deficits during the 2003-2013 period. Our analysis shows that Russia experienced the most severe water storage decline, followed by the Middle East, whereas Eastern Sahel was not significantly affected. The impact of the heat wave was spatially uniform in Russia but highly variable in the Middle East, with the Northern part substantially more affected than the Southern region. Lag times between maxima air temperatures and lower water storage deficits for Russia and the Middle East were approximately two and seven months, respectively. The results suggest that the response of terrestrial water storage to heat waves is stronger in energy-limited environments than in water-limited regions. Such differences in the magnitude and timing between meteorological and hydrological extremes can be explained by the propagation time between atmospheric water demand and natural or anthropogenic sources of water storage.

  14. Impact of free standing water on interim storage and disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Free standing water (FSW) is water or waste liquids which are not bound by the solidified waste form matrix. As a result, free standing water has the potential for the removal and dispersion of activity. Dependig upon the nature of its chemistry, FSW may also promite waste container corrosion, interact with other waste forms and packages in shallow land burial or degrade the retention capabilities of the disposal geology. The origin of FSW in the following waste forms is discussed: hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, bitumen, and vinyl ester-styrene (thermositting polymers).

  15. Locating Interim Assessments within Teachers' Assessment Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggan, Matthew; Olah, Leslie Nabors

    2011-01-01

    Promising research on the teaching and learning impact of classroom-embedded formative assessment has spawned interest in a broader array of assessment tools and practices, including interim assessment. Although researchers have begun to explore the impact of interim assessments in the classroom, like other assessment tools and practices, they…

  16. Impact of storage condition on fiber quality and color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of cotton produced in the United States is exported. Baled lint is stored for an average of approximately 18 months before processing in textile mills. The duration and environmental conditions of cotton storage and shipping can impact cotton quality in terms of color and possibly pro...

  17. Full-scale system impact analysis: Digital document storage project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Digital Document Storage Full Scale System can provide cost effective electronic document storage, retrieval, hard copy reproduction, and remote access for users of NASA Technical Reports. The desired functionality of the DDS system is highly dependent on the assumed requirements for remote access used in this Impact Analysis. It is highly recommended that NASA proceed with a phased, communications requirement analysis to ensure that adequate communications service can be supplied at a reasonable cost in order to validate recent working assumptions upon which the success of the DDS Full Scale System is dependent.

  18. Impact of ICT and PE on Disaffected Pupils: Interim Report March 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Andre; Needham, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Over a three month period in spring 2004, The British Association of Advisers and Lecturers in Physical Education (BAALPE) and New Media (a PLATO Learning Company) researched and evaluated models for harnessing ICT in physical education (PE). The project developed a unique ICT infrastructure for two PE departments to evaluate the impact of ICT on…

  19. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an Unused Spent Nuclear Fuel Interim Storage Container at Hope Creek, Delaware.

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David

    2015-03-01

    In July, 2014, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners sampled dust on the surface of an unused canister that had been stored in an overpack at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for approximately one year. The foreign material exclusion (FME) cover that had been on the top of the canister during storage, and a second recently - removed FME cover, were also sampled. This report summarizes the results of analyses of dust samples collected from the unused Hope Creek canister and the FME covers. Both wet and dry samples of the dust/salts were collected, using SaltSmart(TM) sensors and Scotch - Brite(TM) abrasive pads, respectively. The SaltSmart(TM) samples were leached and the leachate analyzed chemically to determine the composition and surface load per unit area of soluble salts present on the canister surface. The dry pad samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy to determine dust texture and mineralogy; and by leaching and chemical analysis to deter mine soluble salt compositions. The analyses showed that the dominant particles on the canister surface were stainless steel particles, generated during manufacturing of the canister. Sparse environmentally - derived silicates and aluminosilicates were also present. Salt phases were sparse, and consisted of mostly of sulfates with rare nitrates and chlorides. On the FME covers, the dusts were mostly silicates/aluminosilicates; the soluble salts were consistent with those on the canister surface, and were dominantly sulfates. It should be noted that the FME covers were w ashed by rain prior to sampling, which had an unknown effect of the measured salt loads and compositions. Sulfate salts dominated the assemblages on the canister and FME surfaces, and in cluded Ca - SO4 , but also Na - SO4 , K - SO4 , and Na - Al - SO4 . It is likely that these salts were formed by particle - gas conversion reactions, either

  20. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Sold residue treatment, repackaging, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    From its founding in 1952 through the cessation of production in 1989, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (now the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site [the Site]) produced components for nuclear weapons. Some of those components were made of plutonium. As a result of the processes used to recover and purify plutonium and manufacture the components, a variety of materials became contaminated with plutonium. If the level of contamination were low, the material was considered waste. However, if the concentration of plutonium in the material exceeded the {open_quotes}economic discard limit,{close_quotes} the materials were classified as {open_quotes}residue{close_quotes} rather than{open_quotes}Waste{close_quotes} and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. While large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, accumulated at the Site in storage. Two important events regarding residues have occurred at the Site since production activities ceased. One event was the end of the Cold War in 1991, which made the return to production of nuclear weapons, with their Rocky Flats-made components, unnecessary. This event led to DOE`s decision to permanently cease production at the Site, clean up and remove radioactive and chemical contamination at the Site, and find alternative uses for the Site. This document describes methods for processing of the wastes for safe interim storage. Environmental impacts from the processing and storage are discussed.

  1. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Sacit M; Howard, Rob L; Liu, Cheng; Mueller, Don; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Peterson, Steven K; Scaglione, John M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  2. Nuclear Safety of RBMK Storage Pool under Seismic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear safety of RBMK storage pool of spent fuel during of the maximum design earthquake is evaluated. The lower ends of the fuel assemblies are not fixed and they can deviate from the vertical position. The seismic action may be one of the reasons for such deviations. 3D model of fuel assemblies movements caused by seismic impact is used. The simulation of the dynamics of a fuel assemblies group under seismic impacts allows to find the dangerous configuration of closest approach of the fuel assemblies. Three-dimensional neutron program STEPAN calculates the Keff of the most dangerous systems. The maximum design earthquake is the design basis accident. In this case according to the regulatory documents the fuel is considered with zero burn-up. Nuclear safety of RBMK storage pool under considered conditions is provided.

  3. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  4. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the release of tritium from

  5. Storage Ring Measurements of Electron Impact Ionization for Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael; Becker, A.; Bernhardt, D.; Grieser, M.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Müller, A.; Novotný, O.; Repnow, R.; Schippers, S.; Spruck, K.; Wolf, A.; Savin, D. W.

    2013-07-01

    The interpretation of astrophysical spectra requires knowledge of the charge state distribution (CSD) of the plasma. The CSD is determined by the rates of ionization and recombination. Thus, accurate electron impact ionization (EII) data are needed to calculate the CSD of the solar atmosphere as well as for other electron-ionized astrophysical objects, such as stars, supernovae, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. We are studying EII for astrophysically important ions using the TSR storage ring located at the Max Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Storage ring measurements are largely free of the metastable contamination found in other experimental geometries, resulting in unambiguous EII data. We have found discrepancies of about 10% - 30% between our measured cross sections and those commonly used in CSD models. Because it is impractical to perform experimental measurements for every astrophysically relevant ion, theory must provide the bulk of the necessary EII data. These experimental results provide an essential benchmark for such EII calculations.

  6. Interim measure conceptual design for remediation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Centralia, Kansas : pilot test and remedy implementation.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-09

    This document presents an Interim Measure Work Plan/Design for the short-term, field-scale pilot testing and subsequent implementation of a non-emergency Interim Measure (IM) at the site of the former grain storage facility operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Centralia, Kansas. The IM is recommended to mitigate both (1) localized carbon tetrachloride contamination in the vadose zone soils beneath the former facility and (2) present (and potentially future) carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the shallow groundwater beneath and in the immediate vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory have demonstrated that groundwater at the Centralia site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at levels that exceed the Kansas Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. Groundwater sampling and analyses conducted by Argonne under a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) indicated that the carbon tetrachloride levels at several locations in the groundwater plume have increased since twice yearly monitoring of the site began in September 2005. The identified groundwater contamination currently poses no unacceptable health risks, in view of the absence of potential human receptors in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride contamination has also been identified at Centralia in subsurface soils at concentrations on the order of the Kansas Tier 2 RBSL of 200 {micro}g/kg in soil for the soil-to-groundwater protection pathway. Soils contaminated at this level might pose some risk as a potential source of carbon tetrachloride contamination to groundwater. To mitigate the existing contaminant levels and decrease the potential future concentrations of

  7. Impact of storage conditions on the urinary metabolomics fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Laparre, Jérôme; Kaabia, Zied; Mooney, Mark; Buckley, Tom; Sherry, Mark; Le Bizec, Bruno; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud

    2017-01-25

    Urine stability during storage is essential in metabolomics to avoid misleading conclusions or erroneous interpretations. Facing the lack of comprehensive studies on urine metabolome stability, the present work performed a follow-up of potential modifications in urinary chemical profile using LC-HRMS on the basis of two parameters: the storage temperature (+4 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C and freeze-dried stored at -80 °C) and the storage duration (5-144 days). Both HILIC and RP chromatographies have been implemented in order to globally monitor the urinary metabolome. Using an original data processing associated to univariate and multivariate data analysis, our study confirms that chemical profiles of urine samples stored at +4 °C are very rapidly modified, as observed for instance for compounds such as:N-acetyl Glycine, Adenosine, 4-Amino benzoic acid, N-Amino diglycine, creatine, glucuronic acid, 3-hydroxy-benzoic acid, pyridoxal, l-pyroglutamic acid, shikimic acid, succinic acid, thymidine, trigonelline and valeryl-carnitine, while it also demonstrates that urine samples stored at -20 °C exhibit a global stability over a long period with no major modifications compared to -80 °C condition. This study is the first to investigate long term stability of urine samples and report potential modifications in the urinary metabolome, using both targeted approach monitoring individually a large number (n > 200) of urinary metabolites and an untargeted strategy enabling assessing for global impact of storage conditions.

  8. The interim regulated legal market for NPS ('legal high') products in New Zealand: The impact of new retail restrictions and product licensing.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand has recently established the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive products (NPS) (i.e. 'legal highs'). While the new regime is currently in a transitional phase, a range of retail restrictions and an interim licensing regime for NPS products and operators has been introduced. A product safety assessment framework has been developed to determine if a product should receive an interim licence. As a result of the licensing requirements, the number of NPS retail outlets fell from 3000- 4000 largely convenience stores to 156 specialty stores, and the number of legally available NPS products fell from 200 to fewer than 46. Some of the licensed products contain potent cannabinoid compounds. The licensing system provided, for the first time, information on all the products and operators involved in the sector, and this will assist future monitoring. The effectiveness of the new product safety assessment framework will depend on the quality of the data available on adverse cases. This is a challenge as self-reported information from users is often unreliable, and some emergency department cases do not have all the information required to make an accurate assessment. These data limitations indicate the need for retrospective studies of NPS adverse cases and additional test data. While the new legislation initially reduced the number of NPS retailers by prohibiting convenience outlets, new specialized NPS retail outlets may emerge as the new sector expands. Empirical research is required to measure the impact of the reduction in retail outlets and products on NPS availability.

  9. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    1985-06-01

    This Interim Report summarizes the research and development activities of the Superconducting Super Collider project carried out from the completion of the Reference Designs Study (May 1984) to June 1985. It was prepared by the SSC Central Design Group in draft form on the occasion of the DOE Annual Review, June 19--21, 1985. Now largely organized by CDG Divisions, the bulk of each chapter documents the progress and accomplishments to date, while the final section(s) describe plans for future work. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides a basic brief description of the SSC, its physics justification, its origins, and the R&D organization set up to carry out the work. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the main results of the R&D program, the tasks assigned to the four magnet R&D centers, and an overview of the future plans. The reader wishing a quick look at the SSC Phase I effort can skim Chapter 1 and read Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters discuss in more detail the activities on accelerator physics, accelerator systems, magnets and cryostats, injector, detector R&D, conventional facilities, and project planning and management. The magnet chapter (5) documents in text and photographs the impressive progress in successful construction of many model magnets, the development of cryostats with low heat leaks, and the improvement in current-carrying capacity of superconducting strand. Chapter 9 contains the budgets and schedules of the COG Divisions, the overall R&D program, including the laboratories, and also preliminary projections for construction. Appendices provide information on the various panels, task forces and workshops held by the CDG in FY 1985, a bibliography of COG and Laboratory reports on SSC and SSC-related work, and on private industrial involvement in the project.

  10. Nuclide Importance to Criticality Safety, Decay Heating, and Source Terms Related to Transport and Interim Storage of High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I. C.; Ryman, J. C.

    2000-12-11

    This report investigates trends in the radiological decay properties and changes in relative nuclide importance associated with increasing enrichments and burnup for spent LWR fuel as they affect the areas of criticality safety, thermal analysis (decay heat), and shielding analysis of spent fuel transport and storage casks. To facilitate identifying the changes in the spent fuel compositions that most directly impact these application areas, the dominant nuclides in each area have been identified and ranked by importance. The importance is investigated as a function of increasing burnup to assist in identifying the key changes in spent fuel characteristics between conventional- and extended-burnup regimes. Studies involving both pressurized water-reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies and boiling-water-reactor (BWR) assemblies are included. This study is seen to be a necessary first step in identifying the high-burnup spent fuel characteristics that may adversely affect the accuracy of current computational methods and data, assess the potential impact on previous guidance on isotopic source terms and decay-heat values, and thus help identify areas for methods and data improvement. Finally, several recommendations on the direction of possible future code validation efforts for high-burnup spent fuel predictions are presented.

  11. Groundwater Impact Assessment of Tailings Storage Facility, Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peksezer-Sayit, A.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A tailings storage facility (TSF) is a fundamental part of the mining process and should be carefully designed and managed to prevent any adverse environmental effects. TSF is site-specific and its design criteria are determined by regulations. The new mine waste regulation for the deposition of hazardous waste in a tailings storage facility in Turkey enforces, from bottom to top, 0.5 m thick compacted clay layer with K less than or equal to 1X10-9 m/s , 2 mm thick HDPE geomembrane, and a protective natural material or geotextile. Although these criteria seem to be enough to prevent leakage from the base, in practice, manufacturing and application errors may cause leakage and subsequent contamination of groundwater. The purpose of this study is to assess potential impacts of leakage from the base of TSF on groundwater quality both in operational and post-closure period of a mine site in western Turkey. For this purpose, analytical and 2-D and 3-D numerical models are used together. The potential leakage rate of sulphate-bearing solution from the base of TSF is determined from analytical model. 2-D finite element models (SEEP/W and CTRAN/W) are used to simulate unsaturated flow conditions and advective-dispersive contaminant transport below the TSF under steady-state and transient conditions for the operating period. The long-term impacts of leakage from the base of TSF on groundwater resources are evaluated by 3-D numerical groundwater flow (MODFLOW) and contaminant transport models (MT3DMS). The model results suggest that sulphate-bearing solution leaking from the base of TSF can reach water table in about 290 years. Hence, during the operational period (i.e. 21 years), no interaction is expected between the solution and groundwater. Moreover, long-term simulation results show that about 500 years later, the sulphate concentration in groundwater will be below the maximum allowable limits (i.e. 250 mg/L).

  12. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  13. Impact of storage solution formulation during refrigerated storage upon chondrocyte viability and cartilage matrix.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gregory J; Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Rahn, Eliza; Halwani, Dina O; Chen, Zhen; Yao, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Various preservation solutions have been evaluated for longer hypothermic cartilage storage for tissue transplantation; however, the results are mixed. This research was carried out to determine whether phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or organ preservation solutions would preserve both the extracellular matrix and chondrocytes of articular cartilage better than culture medium during refrigerated storage in the time frame that cartilage is stored for clinical use. Porcine cartilage plugs were stored, without the underlying bone, in culture medium with and without fetal bovine serum (FBS), PBS, Belzer's and Unisol solutions for 1 month at 4°C. Metabolic activity was tested using a resazurin reduction method, and matrix permeability was evaluated by measuring electrical conductivity. Storage in culture medium with 10% FBS was shown to provide good cartilage metabolic function for 7 days, decreasing to about 36% after 1 month of storage. There was no significant difference between samples stored in culture medium with and without FBS after 1 month of storage (p = 0.5005). Refrigerated storage of cartilage in PBS and two different solutions (Belzer's and Unisol) designed for optimal refrigerated tissue and organ storage results in loss of chondrocyte function and retention of matrix permeability. In contrast, the opposite, namely significantly better retention of chondrocyte function and loss of matrix permeability, was observed with culture medium. Future research should be focused on combining retention of chondrocyte function and matrix permeability by storage solution formulation.

  14. Estimated economic impacts on the timber, range, and recreation programs on NFS and BLM public lands from adopting the proposed interim pacfish strategy. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolan, N.A.; Hansen-Murray, C.S.; Haynes, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    Implications of the interim comprehensive strategy for improved Pacific salmon and steelhead habitat management (PACFISH) were estimated for those Bureau of Land Management (BLM) districts and National Forest System (NFS) lands west of the Rocky Mountains that have anadromous fish. The physical impacts and associated mitigation costs from implementing the PACFISH strategy over the next decade in Pacific Northwest, Intermountain, Northern, Pacific Southwest, and Alaska Region National Forest and BLM district recreation, range, and timber programs were analyzed with the actual current output as the base. Economic considerations were added to evaluate any change in the perceived ranking of severity among the impacts. Two cases were considered in the analyses: a derived worst case, where a total reduction of the actual current output of the programs in anadromous fishbearing drainages occurs (giving a minimum value for the programs in those drainages), and a mitigated case where all or part of the loss is mitigated and the cost of doing so is evaluated with two phases, one without economics and the other with it.

  15. Impact of bioenergy production on carbon storage and soil functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prays, Nadia; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An important renewable energy source is methane produced in biogas plants (BGPs) that convert plant material and animal excrements to biogas and a residue (BGR). If the plant material stems from crops produced specifically for that purpose, a BGP have a 'footprint' that is defined by the area of arable land needed for the production of these energy crops and the area for distributing the BGRs. The BGR can be used to fertilize these lands (reducing the need for carbon and nitrogen fertilizers), and the crop land can be managed to serve as a carbon sink, capturing atmospheric CO2. We focus on the ecological impact of different BGPs in Central Germany, with a specific interest in the long-term effect of BGR-fertilization on carbon storage within the footprint of a BGP. We therefore studied nutrient fluxes using the CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamics) model, which processes site-specific information on soils, crops, weather, and land management to compute stocks and fluxes of carbon and nitrogen for agricultural fields. We used CANDY to calculated matter fluxes within the footprints of BGPs of different sizes, and studied the effect of the substrate mix for the BGP on the carbon dynamics of the soil. This included the land requirement of the BGR recycling when used as a fertilizer: the footprint of a BGP required for the production of the energy crop generally differs from its footprint required to take up its BGR. We demonstrate how these findings can be used to find optimal cropping choices and land management for sustainable soil use, maintaining soil fertility and other soil functions. Furthermore, site specific potentials and limitations for agricultural biogas production can be identified and applied in land-use planning.

  16. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed decontamination of properties in the vicinity of the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site, Hazelwood, Missouri -- environment assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Picel, M H; Peterson, J M; Williams, M J

    1991-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), is implementing a cleanup program for three groups of properties in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. None of the properties is owned by DOE, but each property contains radioactive residues from federal uranium-processing activities conducted at the SLDS during and after World War II. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the interim cleanup measures for the contaminated properties in the Hazelwood and Berkeley, Missouri area. The near-term cleanup measures that may be necessary at the vicinity properties are evaluated in the main body of this report. Because of the range of active land uses in the Hazelwood and Berkeley areas and because of the extent of contamination on public and private properties, the potential exists for disturbance and spreading of soil contamination. Specifically, implementation of the proposed action would allow DOE to remove, transport, and safely store contaminated soils from properties where other activities (not involving DOE) are likely to result in either spreading contamination or otherwise complicating ultimate cleanup measures. 25 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis-environmental assessment for the proposed decontamination of properties in the vicinity of the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site, Hazelwood, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Picel, M H; Peterson, J M; Williams, M J

    1992-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), is implementing a cleanup program for three groups of properties in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. None of the properties is owned by DOE, but each property contains radioactive residues from federal uranium-processing activities conducted at the SLDS during and after World War II. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the interim cleanup measures for the contaminated properties in the Hazelwood and Berkeley, Missouri area. The near-term cleanup measures that may be necessary at the vicinity properties are evaluated in the main body of this report. Because of the range of active land uses in the Hazelwood and Berkeley areas and because of the extent of contamination on public and private properties, the potential exists for disturbance and spreading of soil contamination. Specifically, implementation of the proposed action would allow DOE to remove, transport, and safely store contaminated soils from properties where other activities (not involving DOE) are likely to result in either spreading contamination or otherwise complicating ultimate cleanup measures.

  18. The Intentional Interim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The author spent years in central-office administration, most recently in an interim position. Some interim administrators simply see themselves as placeholders until the real deal is hired, giving the organization the opportunity to coast. There are others who see themselves as change agents and cannot wait to undo or redo what their predecessor…

  19. Impact of storage conditions and variety on quality attributes and aroma volatiles of pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pitahaya are increasing in popularity but knowledge on the effects of storage and the potential impact of variety on subsequent quality following storage is incomplete, particularly in terms of the potential effects on sensory acceptability. In this study six varieties of pitahaya, having white, pin...

  20. Impact of storage temperature duration, and harvest date on sugarbeet raffinoise metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raffinose negatively impacts sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing by decreasing extractable sucrose yield and altering sucrose crystal morphology which reduces filtration rates and slows processing. Although increased raffinose concentrations have been observed during cold storage, the physiolog...

  1. Cognitive Memory; A Computer Oriented Epistemological Approach to Information Storage and Retrieval. Interim Report, Phase I, 1 September 1967-28 February 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coordinated Science Lab.

    In contrast to conventional information storage and retrieval systems in which a body of knowledge is thought of as an indexed codex of documents to which access is obtained by an appropriately indexed query, this interdisciplinary study aims at an understanding of what is "knowledge" as distinct from a "data file," how this knowledge is acquired,…

  2. Bioventing Test Work Plan and Interim Test Results Report for Underground Storage Tanks Located at Building 7705, Westover Air Force Base, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    storage tanks (USTs) at Building 7705 (Pump House) at Westover AFB, Massachusetts. The pilot test has three primary objectives: 1) to assess the...This test work plan presents the scope of an in situ bioventing pilot test for treatment of fuel contaminated soils associated with the underground

  3. Electromagnetic interference impact of the proposed emitters for the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP). Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertshaw, G.A.; Snyder, A.L.; Weiner, M.M.

    1993-05-14

    The proposed HAARP emitters at the Gakona (Alaska) preferred site and at the Clear AFS (Alaska) alternative site are the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR), and the Vertical Incidence Sounder(VIS). The electromagnetic interference (EMI) impact of those emitters on receiving systems in the vicinity of the sites is estimated in this study. The results are intended for use as an input to the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement as part of the Environmental Impact Analysis Process.

  4. 78 FR 23548 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Long-Term Management and Storage of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Long- Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury... (DOE) announces the availability of the Draft Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Mercury Storage SEIS, DOE/ EIS-0423-S1) for public comment....

  5. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  6. 76 FR 8383 - Office of New Reactors; Interim Staff Guidance on Impacts of Construction of New Nuclear Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Staff Guidance (ISG) COL-ISG-022 entitled ``Impacts of Construction of ] New Nuclear Power Plants on... construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to provide an evaluation of the..., Revision 0, ``Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (LWR Edition).'' In addition, this...

  7. UNESCO Science Programs: Impacts of U.S. Withdrawal and Suggestions for Alternative Interim Arrangements. A Preliminary Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of International Affairs.

    This study was conducted to provide the U.S. Department of State with an assessment of the potential impacts on science of a United States withdrawal from UNESCO and to suggest possible alternative arrangements to maintain essential U.S. scientific contacts with UNESCO-sponsored programs in case the United States were no longer a member of UNESCO…

  8. Emissions impacts of wind and energy storage in a market environment.

    PubMed

    Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2011-12-15

    This study examines the emissions impacts of adding wind and energy storage to a market-based electric power system. Using Texas as a case study, we demonstrate that market power can greatly effect the emissions benefits of wind, due to most of the coal-fired generation being owned by the two dominant firms. Wind tends to have less emissions benefits when generators exercise market power, since coal-fired generation is withheld from the market and wind displaces natural gas-fired generators. We also show that storage can have greater negative emissions impacts in the presence of wind than if only storage is added to the system. This is due to wind increasing on- and off-peak electricity price differences, which increases the amount that storage and coal-fired generation are used. We demonstrate that this effect is exacerbated by market power.

  9. Environmental and Economic Impact of Underground Storage Tanks in the United States and Territories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    0 AD-A262 042 ABSTRACT ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS IN THE UNITED STATES AND TERRITORIES By DTIC ELECTE Clet:.Heiey...age, material, product, corrosion, location and quantity. All of these parameters have a direct inf-luence on the environmental and economic impact of...leaking USTs; product, location and quantity are major factors associated with the impacts of those leaks. This paper discusses the number of existing

  10. Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian; BryanJr., Larry; Mathews, Teresa J; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Jett, Robert T; Smith, John G

    2012-03-01

    A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level

  11. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Favalli, Andrea; Vo, D.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Jansson, Peter; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Mozin, Vladimir; Schwalbach, P.; Sjoland, A.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Trellue, Holly; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-02-26

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. Furthermore, the results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  12. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  13. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    DOE PAGES

    Favalli, Andrea; Vo, D.; Grogan, Brandon R.; ...

    2016-02-26

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuelmore » assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. Furthermore, the results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.« less

  14. Commercial Impact and Optimum Capacity Determination of Pumped Storage Hydro Plant for a Practical Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, P. G.; Anand, S. R.; Imthias, Ahamed T. P.; Sreejith, P. S., Dr.

    2013-06-01

    This paper attempts to study the commercial impact of pumped storage hydro plant on the operation of a stressed power system. The paper further attempts to compute the optimum capacity of the pumped storage scheme that can be provided on commercial basis for a practical power system. Unlike the analysis of commercial aspects of pumped storage scheme attempted in several papers, this paper is presented from the point of view of power system management of a practical system considering the impact of the scheme on the economic operation of the system. A realistic case study is presented as the many factors that influence the pumped storage operation vary widely from one system to another. The suitability of pumped storage for the particular generation mix of a system is well explored in the paper. To substantiate the economic impact of pumped storage on the system, the problem is formulated as a short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem involving power purchase which optimizes the quantum of power to be scheduled and the duration of operation. The optimization model is formulated using an algebraic modeling language, AMPL, which is then solved using the advanced MILP solver CPLEX.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 265, App. III Appendix III to Part 265—EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards Parameter Maximum level (mg/l) Arsenic 0.05 Barium 1.0 Cadmium 0.01 Chromium...

  16. 40 CFR 265.383 - Interim status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interim status thermal treatment... OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.383 Interim status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste. (a) Owners or operators of...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards III Appendix III to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 265, App. III Appendix III to Part 265—EPA Interim Primary...

  18. WWC Review of the Report "The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading Achievement." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The study authors examined the effects of using "Diagnostic Assessment Tools" ("DAT") on mathematics and reading outcomes for students in Indiana schools during the 2009-10 academic year. "DAT" consists of interim assessment tools--Wireless Generation's mCLASS for students in grades K-2 and CTB/ McGraw-Hill's Acuity…

  19. Impact of drum storage on criticality accident alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Finfrock, S.; Watson, T.; Byrd, J.; Miles, B.; Wilkinson, A.

    1997-12-01

    The changing mission from production to decommissioning that is taking place at many U.S. Department of Energy sites is producing an ever-increasing inventory of waste drums. These drums typically contain low-level radioactive waste and, in some cases, significant amounts of fissile materials. Such drums must be handled with all of the care necessary for radioactive materials and, where fissile materials are present, criticality safety controls. As the number of drums increases, the question inevitably arises as to where to store them. Old process buildings present one solution to that question. These buildings are typically large, designed to handle radioactive and fissile materials, and largely unused under the current mission and, as such, would seem ideal candidates for at least short-term storage of waste drums. When undergoing such a major change in mission, however, the building`s nuclear safety systems need to be reevaluated to ensure that they are appropriate for the new activity. One such system that must be evaluated is the building`s criticality accident alarm system (AAS). This system is designed to detect criticality accidents and is generally required anywhere that a criticality accident is credible. If drums are to be stored in a facility where a CAAS is required (either because of other activities in the building or because of the contents of the drums themselves), then those drums must be shown not to prevent the CAAS from functioning as designed.

  20. Impact of medication storage cabinets on efficient delivery of medication and employee frustration.

    PubMed

    Hull, Tina; Czirr, Linda; Wilson, Marian

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study examined the impact of medication cabinets installed outside patient rooms on nursing and pharmacy workflow. Storing medications and supplies outside patient rooms decreased nursing visits to the automated medication dispensing system, and nurses also reported fewer episodes waiting to access the system when it was busy. Benefits of this study include the ability to demonstrate the impact of medication cabinets on the medication storage and delivery process, prior to housewide implementation.

  1. The Future of Hydropower: Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change, Energy Prices and New Storage Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudard, Ludovic; Madani, Kaveh; Romerio, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The future of hydropower depends on various drivers, and in particular on climate change, electricity market evolution and innovation in new storage technologies. Their impacts on the power plants' profitability can widely differ in regards of scale, timing, and probability of occurrence. In this respect, the risk should not be expressed only in terms of expected revenue, but also of uncertainty. These two aspects must be considered to assess the future of hydropower. This presentation discusses the impacts of climate change, electricity market volatility and competing energy storage's technologies and quantifies them in terms of annual revenue. Our simulations integrate a glacio-hydrological model (GERM) with various electricity market data and models (mean reversion and jump diffusion). The medium (2020-50) and long-term (2070-2100) are considered thanks to various greenhouse gas scenarios (A1B, A2 and RCP3PD) and the stochastic approach for the electricity prices. An algorithm named "threshold acceptance" is used to optimize the reservoir operations. The impacts' scale, and the related uncertainties are presented for Mauvoisin, which is a storage-hydropower plant situated in the Swiss Alps, and two generic pure pumped-storage installations, which are assessed with the prices of 17 European electricity markets. The discussion will highlight the key differences between the impacts brought about by the drivers.

  2. Online Education Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopsaltis, Spiros, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This interim report produced by the Colorado State Board of Education Online Education Task Force examines key issues related to online education. Task force members agree that: (1) online education has become a viable element of Colorado's public education system; (2) the role of technology in educating our children will continue to grow; and (3)…

  3. Interim Budget Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report provides the interim budget plan of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Student Financial Assistance (OSFA) for fiscal year 2000. It reviews factors influencing OSFA's budget request, including legislative requirements, recent accomplishments, the need to maintain both the Direct Loan and Federal Family Education Loan…

  4. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  5. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  6. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  7. Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sharp, Richard P.; Mandle, Lisa; Sim, Sarah; Johnson, Justin; Butnar, Isabela; Milà i Canals, Llorenç; Eichelberger, Bradley A.; Ramler, Ivan; Mueller, Carina; McLachlan, Nikolaus; Yousefi, Anahita; King, Henry; Kareiva, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural expansion and intensification required to meet growing food and agri-based product demand present important challenges to future levels and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Influential actors such as corporations, governments, and multilateral organizations have made commitments to meeting future agricultural demand sustainably and preserving critical ecosystems. Current approaches to predicting the impacts of agricultural expansion involve calculation of total land conversion and assessment of the impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem services on a per-area basis, generally assuming a linear relationship between impact and land area. However, the impacts of continuing land development are often not linear and can vary considerably with spatial configuration. We demonstrate what could be gained by spatially explicit analysis of agricultural expansion at a large scale compared with the simple measure of total area converted, with a focus on the impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage. Using simple modeling approaches for two regions of Brazil, we find that for the same amount of land conversion, the declines in biodiversity and carbon storage can vary two- to fourfold depending on the spatial pattern of conversion. Impacts increase most rapidly in the earliest stages of agricultural expansion and are more pronounced in scenarios where conversion occurs in forest interiors compared with expansion into forests from their edges. This study reveals the importance of spatially explicit information in the assessment of land-use change impacts and for future land management and conservation. PMID:26082547

  8. Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sharp, Richard P; Mandle, Lisa; Sim, Sarah; Johnson, Justin; Butnar, Isabela; Milà I Canals, Llorenç; Eichelberger, Bradley A; Ramler, Ivan; Mueller, Carina; McLachlan, Nikolaus; Yousefi, Anahita; King, Henry; Kareiva, Peter M

    2015-06-16

    The agricultural expansion and intensification required to meet growing food and agri-based product demand present important challenges to future levels and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Influential actors such as corporations, governments, and multilateral organizations have made commitments to meeting future agricultural demand sustainably and preserving critical ecosystems. Current approaches to predicting the impacts of agricultural expansion involve calculation of total land conversion and assessment of the impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem services on a per-area basis, generally assuming a linear relationship between impact and land area. However, the impacts of continuing land development are often not linear and can vary considerably with spatial configuration. We demonstrate what could be gained by spatially explicit analysis of agricultural expansion at a large scale compared with the simple measure of total area converted, with a focus on the impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage. Using simple modeling approaches for two regions of Brazil, we find that for the same amount of land conversion, the declines in biodiversity and carbon storage can vary two- to fourfold depending on the spatial pattern of conversion. Impacts increase most rapidly in the earliest stages of agricultural expansion and are more pronounced in scenarios where conversion occurs in forest interiors compared with expansion into forests from their edges. This study reveals the importance of spatially explicit information in the assessment of land-use change impacts and for future land management and conservation.

  9. Storage ring cross section measurements for electron impact ionization of Fe8+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, M.; Becker, A.; Bernhardt, D.; Grieser, M.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Müller, A.; Novotný, O.; Pindzola, M. S.; Repnow, R.; Schippers, S.; Spruck, K.; Wolf, A.; Savin, D. W.

    2016-04-01

    We have measured electron impact ionization (EII) for Fe8+ forming Fe9+ from below the ionization threshold to 1200 eV. These measurements were carried out at the TSR heavy ion storage ring. The objective of using a storage ring is to store the ion beam initially so that metastable levels decay, thereby allowing for measurements on a well-defined ground-level ion beam. In this case, however, some metastable levels were too long lived to be removed. We discuss several methods for quantifying the metastable fraction, which we estimate to be ˜30%-40%. Although metastables remain problematic, the present storage ring work improves upon other experimental geometries by limiting the metastable contamination to only a few long-lived excited levels. We discuss some future prospects for obtaining improved measurements of Fe8+ and other ions with long-lived metastable levels.

  10. The impact of baking time and bread storage temperature on bread crumb properties.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    Two baking times (9 and 24 min) and storage temperatures (4 and 25 °C) were used to explore the impact of heat exposure during bread baking and subsequent storage on amylopectin retrogradation, water mobility, and bread crumb firming. Shorter baking resulted in less retrogradation, a less extended starch network and smaller changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. A lower storage temperature resulted in faster retrogradation, a more rigid starch network with more water inclusion and larger changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. Crumb to crust moisture migration was lower for breads baked shorter and stored at lower temperature, resulting in better plasticized biopolymer networks in crumb. Network stiffening, therefore, contributed less to crumb firmness. A negative relation was found between proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb gel network and crumb firmness. The slope of this linear function was indicative for the strength of the starch network.

  11. Tensor Invariant Processing for Munitions/Clutter Classifications Interim Report on SNR and Background Leveling Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    INTERIM REPORT Tensor Invariant Processing for Munitions/Clutter Classifications Interim Report on SNR and Background Leveling Requirements...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tensor Invariant Processing for Munitions/Clutter Classifications Interim Report on SNR and...Camp Beale in 2011 and found no impact due to signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ) and background leveling effects. However, the minimum polarizability

  12. Impact of Brine Extraction and Well Placement Optimization on Geologic Carbon Storage Capacity Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjdanesh, R.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Capacity of carbon dioxide storage aquifers depends on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational designs. The injection well numbers, well spacing and location, open versus closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without extraction of brine are of the parameters that impact the capacity of a storage site. Brine extraction from storage formations has been introduced as an effective strategy for enhancing the storage capacity and mitigating the risk of rapid pressure buildup. It is proposed that extracted brine can be disposed within an overlying formation or will be desalinated at surface facilities. Optimal well placement and rate of CO2 injection/brine extraction control achieving a predefined pressure constraint at the end of a specific period of storage operation. Reservoir simulation study is required to solve the two-phase flow of gas/brine and pressure buildup in the aquifer. Numerical simulation of geological storage using multiple injectors and extractors is costly and time consuming. Instead, analytical simulation can provide the results with a very good accuracy in a fraction of time compared to the numerical simulation. In this study, an analytical solution was implemented for pressure buildup calculation. The analytical model includes the effects of two-phase relative permeability, CO2 dissolution into reservoir brine and formation of a dry-out zone around the wellbore. Through the optimization algorithm coupled with analytical model, the optimal rates and locations of CO2 injectors and brine extractors were estimated, while simultaneously satisfying the pressure constraint to avoid fracture pressure in all injectors. The optimized results of analytical model was verified with a numerical simulator for several reservoir conditions, well configurations and operating constraints. The comparison of the results shows that the analytical model is a reliable tool for preliminary capacity estimation of saline aquifers and

  13. Impacts of Centimetre-scale Landscape Roughness on Depression Storage, Runoff and Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. E.; Valeo, C.; Tait, M.; Johnson, E.

    2008-12-01

    Laser scanning was utilized to examine hillslope microtopography in a wildfire burn site in the Canadian Rockies, Canada. DTMs were created at scales of 0.75 cm, 10 cm, 25 cm, 50 cm, 75 cm and 1 metre; for each scale, bare surface (vegetation removed) and vegetated surfaces were analyzed. Several roughness indices, including Random Roughness, Tortuosity and Mean Upslope Depression, were calculated for bare and vegetated surfaces at the various scalinsg. Values of the roughness parameters and depression storage were found to be similar for the vegetated and bare surface DTMs, and do not change significantly as DTM grid cell resolution increases. In addition, a GIS-based approach was used to calculate depression storage for comparison with values based on roughness parameters. Mean depression storage based on the GIS approach decreases notably as DTM grid cell size increases. In contrast, values of depression storage based on the Random Roughness parameter remain stable with increasing size of grid cell. Hortonian overland flow generation was found to be affected by the values of depression storage for the various DTM scalings. The scale of the DTM was found to impact the proportion of water going into depression storage and that contributing to overland flow as time progresses. Furthermore, greater amounts of water are retained as depression storage for a particular value of rainfall excess after infiltration for the finer resolution DTMs. A modelling exercise was undertaken to examine the initiation and behaviour of overland flow from a rising groundwater table. Initially, water depths are lower than the main topographic roughness elements on the landscape, and water present on the landscape is relatively disconnected. Water flow becomes more integrated as channel flow increases.

  14. CMM Interim Check (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Montano, Joshua Daniel

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  15. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  16. Impact of high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT for positive interim [18F] FDG-PET diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Roland, V; Bodet-Milin, C; Moreau, A; Gastinne, T; Mahé, B; Dubruille, V; Maisonneuve, H; Juge-Morineau, N; Moreau, P; Jardel, H; Planche, L; Mohty, M; Moreau, P; Harousseau, J-L; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Le Gouill, S

    2011-03-01

    [(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is increasingly used for response assessment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A positive interim FDG-PET was shown to be associated with an unfavorable outcome in high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. For positive interim FDG-PET patients, the question of increasing the intensity of treatment using high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT (HDC-ASCT) remains unanswered. We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic value of FDG-PET in 42 DLBCL patients who were systematically evaluated at time of diagnosis, before and after HDC-ASCT. Of note, HDC-ASCT was part of the initial treatment strategy, while FDG-PET results did not influence the treatment approach. Results and outcome were analyzed according to FDG-PET results before and after HDC-ASCT. Patients were classified into three groups according to FDG-PET results before and after HDC-ASCT: those who were negative before and after (-/-; n=25), positive before and negative after (+/-; n=9) or positive before and after (+/+; n=8). The median follow-up was 34.5 (range, 19-74) months. The median EFS was significantly lower for the +/+ group (27.4 months) as compared with other groups (median not reached; P=0.0001). More importantly, there was no difference in term of EFS between the -/- group compared with the +/- group. These results suggest that HDC-ASCT can significantly improve the bad prognosis, otherwise indicated by a positive interim FDG-PET.

  17. Evaluation of the impacts of urban development on groundwater storage at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, A. S.; Welty, C.; Maxwell, R. M.; Miller, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Urban development results in a myriad of changes to the natural environment; these changes can give rise to a range of effects on the groundwater system. We have used the integrated subsurface - surface - land surface hydrologic model ParFlow.CLM to evaluate and isolate the impacts of urban development on groundwater storage at the regional scale. We have applied the model to the 13,216 sq km Baltimore metropolitan area at a 500 m horizontal and 5 m vertical discretization, incorporating realistic estimates of anthropogenic fluxes (lawn watering, leakage from water supply pipes, infiltration into sewer pipes, withdrawals for water supply) as well as any available hydrogeologic data. We developed a base-case model, where all urban fluxes and features are incorporated, followed by model scenarios in which urban features were modified one-at-a time to evaluate the effects of each feature. The scenarios presented are: (1) the vegetated city, in which urban land is represented as natural vegetation mosaic in the land surface model; (2) the pervious city, in which low hydraulic conductivity values representing impervious surfaces are replaced with higher soil hydraulic conductivities; (3) the intact-sewer scenario, in which infiltration and inflow (I/I) of groundwater and stormwater into wastewater sewer pipes is removed; and (4) the no-anthropogenic- discharge-and-recharge scenario, in which all anthropogenic input and output fluxes are removed. We compared the subsurface storage of these scenarios to the base case model. We found that the pervious city subsurface storage was slightly greater than the subsurface storage in the base case, which is expected due to additional infiltration associated higher hydraulic conductivity values. The magnitude of this increase in subsurface storage was surprisingly small compared to changes found in other scenarios. The intact-sewer scenario eliminated the large quantity of groundwater infiltrating into wastewater pipes in the

  18. Basin-Scale Hydrologic Impacts of CO2 Storage: Regulatory and Capacity Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Zhou, Q.

    2009-04-02

    Industrial-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into saline sedimentary basins will cause large-scale fluid pressurization and migration of native brines, which may affect valuable groundwater resources overlying the deep sequestration reservoirs. In this paper, we discuss how such basin-scale hydrologic impacts can (1) affect regulation of CO{sub 2} storage projects and (2) may reduce current storage capacity estimates. Our assessment arises from a hypothetical future carbon sequestration scenario in the Illinois Basin, which involves twenty individual CO{sub 2} storage projects in a core injection area suitable for long-term storage. Each project is assumed to inject five million tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year for 50 years. A regional-scale three-dimensional simulation model was developed for the Illinois Basin that captures both the local-scale CO{sub 2}-brine flow processes and the large-scale groundwater flow patterns in response to CO{sub 2} storage. The far-field pressure buildup predicted for this selected sequestration scenario suggests that (1) the area that needs to be characterized in a permitting process may comprise a very large region within the basin if reservoir pressurization is considered, and (2) permits cannot be granted on a single-site basis alone because the near- and far-field hydrologic response may be affected by interference between individual sites. Our results also support recent studies in that environmental concerns related to near-field and far-field pressure buildup may be a limiting factor on CO{sub 2} storage capacity. In other words, estimates of storage capacity, if solely based on the effective pore volume available for safe trapping of CO{sub 2}, may have to be revised based on assessments of pressure perturbations and their potential impact on caprock integrity and groundwater resources, respectively. We finally discuss some of the challenges in making reliable predictions of large-scale hydrologic impacts related to CO{sub 2

  19. Drought Impacts on Reservoir Storage and Hydro-electricity Production in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Melo, D. D.; Yin, L.; Wendland, E.

    2015-12-01

    Brazilian hydroelectric plants (HP) generate ~85% of the total electricity in the country (138 GW). More than half of the number largest reservoirs are located in the Southeast/Midwest region, where ~50% of the population (~100 million) lives. The 2014 drought raised several questions about the resilience of the water sources when several urban centers, including Brazilian's largest metropolis (São Paulo, 20 million people), had their water supply threatened. Such drought also affected reservoirs of hydroelectric plants. This study assesses how the storage and, thus the electricity generation, in 14 of the largest reservoirs were affected by drought events within the past 20 years. We computed the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to identify rainfall anomalies throughout the analyzed period. To evaluate the impacts on surface water, we assessed the changes in total (surface+ subsurface) runoff and soil moisture from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and in Total Water Storage (TWS) from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data. We evaluated the anomalies and significance of the changes in reservoir storage (RS) and electricity generation. The results show that severe dry years (-1.5 < SPI <-2.0) reduce reservoir storage (RS) by up to ~60% of its total capacity. Both electricity generation and reservoir storage showed strong negative trends between 2011 and 2014. Our results also indicate that within the past 20 years, two major depletions in reservoir storage occurred: 2001 and 2014. However, due to lower soil moisture in 2013 compared to that in 2000, distinct impacts were observed on the reservoirs with much stronger impacts on reservoir storage in 2014 relative to those in 2001. No meaningful changes in runoff were shown by GLDAS during the 2014 drought. The observed depletion in the RS in 2014 was similar to that in the TWS, as shown by GRACE data. In 2014, the electricity production by the HP declined by ~20%. As a

  20. Simulating impacts of Woody Biomass Harvesting on North Temperate Forest Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, D.; Desai, A. R.; Bolstad, P.; Cook, B. D.; Scheller, R.

    2012-12-01

    Woody biomass harvesting is a common feature of forest management given its importance to society for acquisition of pulp and paper, lumber, and wood-based biofuel. Harvest affects many aspects of the forest environment such as biodiversity, soil nutrient quality, physical properties of soil, water quality, wildlife habitat, and climate feedbacks. In this study, we applied a modified CENTURY model to the Willow Creek, Wisconsin Ameriflux site for simulation of the impacts of woody biomass removal on forest carbon and nitrogen storage. Woody biomass harvesting scenarios with different harvesting types, interval, tree species, and soil properties were designed and tested in the model to explore the impact of harvesting on forest productivity, soil and biomass carbon and nitrogen storage, and net carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. Comparisons of the impacts among harvesting scenarios indicate that woody biomass harvesting significantly alters long-term net soil carbon and nitrogen storage as well as carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. The simulation results also provide a framework for incorporating carbon management into sustainable forest management practices.

  1. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypta, C.; Calvet, J.-C.; Albergel, C.; Balsamo, G.; Boussetta, S.; Carrer, D.; Lafont, S.; Meurey, C.

    2011-02-01

    An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid) is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km) SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR), air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-Interim over France correlate very well with SAFRAN. However, the values are underestimated by 27%. A GPCP-corrected version of ERA-Interim is less biased (13%). The ERA-Interim estimates of ISR correlate very well with SAFRAN and with in situ observations on a daily basis. Whereas SAFRAN underestimates the ISR by 6 Wm-2, ERA-Interim overestimates the ISR by 10 Wm-2. In order to assess the impact of the ERA-Interim errors, simulations of the ISBA-A-gs land surface model are performed over the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France using ERA-Interim (with and without GPCP rescaling) and SAFRAN. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are simulated, together with carbon dioxide fluxes. The rescaled ERA-Interim performs better than the original ERA-Interim and permits to achieve flux scores similar to those obtained with SAFRAN.

  2. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypta, C.; Calvet, J.-C.; Albergel, C.; Balsamo, G.; Boussetta, S.; Carrer, D.; Lafont, S.; Meurey, C.

    2010-09-01

    An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid) is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km) SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR), air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-Interim over France correlate very well with SAFRAN. However, the values are underestimated by 26%. A GPCP-corrected version of ERA-Interim is less biased (10-15%). The ERA-Interim estimates of ISR correlate very well with SAFRAN and with in situ observations on a daily basis. Whereas SAFRAN underestimates the ISR by 6-8 W m-2, ERA-Interim overestimates the ISR by 9-10 W m-2. In order to assess the impact of the ERA-Interim errors, simulations of the ISBA-A-gs land surface model are performed over the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France using ERA-Interim (with and without GPCP rescaling) and SAFRAN. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are simulated, together with carbon dioxide fluxes. The rescaled ERA-Interim performs better than the original ERA-Interim and permits to achieve flux scores similar to those obtained with SAFRAN.

  3. Finding of no significant impact for the interim action for cleanup of Pit 9 at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0854, for an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The proposed action would be conducted at Pit 9, Operable Unit 7--10, located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The proposed action consists of construction of retrieval and processing buildings, excavation and retrieval of wastes from Pit 9, selective physical separation and chemical extraction, and stabilization of wastes either through thermal processing or by forming a stabilized concentrate. The proposed action would involve limited waste treatment process testing and full-scale waste treatment processing for cleaning up pre-1970 Transuranic (TRU) wastes in Pit 9. The purpose of this interim action is to expedite the overall cleanup at the RWMC and to reduce the risks associated with potential migration of Pit 9 wastes to the Snake River Plain Aquifer.

  4. Impact of water abstraction on storage and breakdown of coarse organic matter in mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Arroita, Maite; Aristi, Ibon; Díez, Joserra; Martinez, Miren; Oyarzun, Gorka; Elosegi, Arturo

    2015-01-15

    Water abstraction is a prevalent impact in streams and rivers, which is likely to increase in the near future. Because abstraction reduces discharge, the dimensions of the wetted channel and water depth and velocity, it can have strong influence on stream ecosystem functioning. Although the impacts of large dams on stream and river ecosystems are pretty well known, the effects of diversion schemes associated with low dams are still poorly understood. Furthermore, the remote location of many diversion schemes and the lack of collaboration by power companies often make it difficult to know the volume of water diverted and its environmental consequences. To assess the impact of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of coarse particulate organic matter in streams we compared reaches upstream and downstream from five low dams that divert water to hydropower plants in mountain streams in N Spain. We measured the storage of organic matter and the breakdown of alder leaves in winter and spring, and calculated the results at the patch (i.e., per square meter of bed) and at the reach scale (i.e., per lineal meter of channel). Water diversion significantly reduced discharge, and the width and depth of the wetted channel, but did not affect water quality. Diversion significantly reduced the storage and breakdown of organic matter in winter but not in spring. The number of shredders colonizing litter bags was also significantly reduced. The results point to an important effect of water abstraction on the storage and breakdown of organic matter in streams at least in some periods, which could affect downstream reaches, global carbon fluxes, and associated ecosystem services.

  5. Interim Assessments: A User's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Interim assessments are hot in American schools. Also called benchmark or periodic tests, these assessments are given every four to nine weeks to check on students' progress. Although interim assessments are an important tool for school improvement, they are easy to misuse. In the author's work coaching principals in a number of districts, he has…

  6. Guidance: Interim Municipal Settlement Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Interim guidance and fact sheets regarding settlements involving municipalities or municipal waste under Section 122 CERCLA as amended by SARA. Interim policy sets forth the criteria by which EPA generally determines whether to exercise enforcement discretion to pursue MSW generators and transporters as PRPs.

  7. Impact of storage conditions on metabolite profiles of sputum samples from persons with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiangchao; Evans, Charles R.; Carmody, Lisa A.; LiPuma, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although recent studies have begun to elucidate how airway microbial community structure relates to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), microbial community activity and the host’s response to changes in this activity are poorly understood. Metabolomic profiling provides a means to investigate microbial and human cell activity within diseased airways. However, variables in sample storage and shipping likely affect downstream analyses and standards for sample handling are lacking. Methods We assessed the impact of sample storage conditions on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of CF sputum samples. Results Significant changes in global metabolomic profiles occurred in samples stored at room temperature or at 4°C for longer than one day. Untargeted metabolomic profiles were stable in sputum samples stored at −20°C or −80°C for at least 28 days. Quorum sensing molecules and phenazines, both considered important to the in vivo activity of Pseudomonas during airway infection, were detected after sample storage at room temperature for five days. Conclusions Sputum samples can be stored at −20°C or −80°C for weeks with minimal effect on global metabolomic profiles. This observation provides guidance in designing metabolomic studies that have the potential to deepen our understanding of how airway microbial communities impact lung disease progression in CF. PMID:25725986

  8. A meta-analysis on the impacts of partial cutting on forest structure and carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Zhao, S. Q.; Liu, S.; Oeding, J.

    2013-01-01

    Partial cutting, which removes some individual trees from a forest, is one of the major and widespread forest management practices that can significantly alter both forest structure and carbon (C) storage. Using 746 observations from 82 publications, we synthesized the impacts of partial cutting on three variables associated with forest structure (i.e. mean annual growth of diameter at breast height (DBH), basal area (BA), and volume) and four variables related to various C stock components (i.e. aboveground biomass C (AGBC), understory C, forest floor C, and mineral soil C). Results shows that the growth of DBH elevated by 112% after partial cutting, compared to the uncut control, while stand BA and volume reduced immediately by 34% and 29%, respectively. On average, partial cutting reduced AGBC by 43%, increased understory C storage by 392%, but did not show significant effects on C storages on forest floor and in mineral soil. All the effects on DBH growth, stand BA, volume, and AGBC intensified linearly with cutting intensity (CI) and decreased linearly with the number of recovery years (RY). In addition to the strong impacts of CI and RY, other factors such as climate zone and forest type also affected forest responses to partial cutting. The data assembled in this synthesis were not sufficient to determine how long it would take for a complete recovery after cutting because long-term experiments were rare. Future efforts should be tailored to increase the duration of the experiments and balance geographic locations of field studies.

  9. Effects of Interim Assessments on the Achievement Gap: Evidence from an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, all states operate accountability systems that measure and report school and student performance annually. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of interim assessments on the achievement gap. The authors examine the impact of interim assessments throughout the…

  10. Effects of Interim Assessments across the Achievement Distribution: Evidence From an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a large-scale experiment conducted in Indiana in 2009-2010 to examine the impact of two interim assessment programs (mCLASS and Acuity) across the mathematics and reading achievement distributions. Specifically, we focus on whether the use of interim assessments has a particularly strong effect on improving outcomes for low…

  11. Impacts of Soil Organic Stability on Carbon Storage in Coastal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. K.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal wetlands store vast amounts of organic carbon, globally, and are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of anthropogenic sea level rise. Recently, we used ramped pyrolysis/oxidation decomposition characteristics as proxies for soil organic carbon (SOC) stability to understand the fate of carbon storage in coastal wetlands (fresh, brackish, and salt marshes) comprising the Mississippi River deltaic plain, undergoing rapid rates of local sea level rise. At equivalent soil depths, we observed that fresh marsh SOC was more thermochemically stable than brackish and salt marsh SOC. The differences in stability imply stronger carbon sequestration potential of fresh marsh soil carbon, compared to that of salt and brackish marshes. Here, we expand upon these results of differential organic carbon stability/reactivity and model how projected changes in salinity due to sea-level rise and other environmental changes will impact carbon storage in this region with implications globally.

  12. Pumps, germs and storage: the impact of improved water containers on water quality and health.

    PubMed

    Günther, Isabel; Schipper, Youdi

    2013-07-01

    Applying a randomized controlled trial, we study the impact of improved water transport and storage containers on the water quality and health of poor rural households. The results indicate that improved household water infrastructure improves water quality and health outcomes in an environment where point-of-source water quality is good but where recontamination is widespread, leading to unsafe point-of-use drinking water. Moreover, usage rates of 88% after 7 months are encouraging with regard to sustainable adoption. Our estimates suggest that the provision of improved household water infrastructure could 'keep clean water clean' at a cost of only 5% of the costs of providing households with improved public water supply. Given the general consensus in the literature that recontamination of water from improved public sources is a severe public health problem, improved transport and storage technologies appear to be an effective low-cost supplement to the current standard of financing public water supply for poor rural communities.

  13. 76 FR 4369 - Interim Deputation Agreements; Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Interim Deputation Agreements; Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines... publication of the Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines and the Interim Model Deputation Agreements... of 2010. Three Interim Model Deputation Agreements will be used: one agreement for tribes in...

  14. Sub-seabed CO2 Storage: Impact on Marine Ecosystems (ECO2) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmann, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The European collaborative project ECO2 sets out to assess the environmental risks associated with storage of CO2 below the seabed (http://www.eco2-project.eu). It includes 28 partners from 7 European nations assessing the likelihood of leakage and impact of leakage on marine ecosystems. ECO2 studies the sedimentary cover and the overlying water column at active CO2 storage sites (Sleipner, Snøhvit) to look for any leakage pathways through the overburden and locate any seep sites at the seabed. High-resolution seismic data have been interpreted to feature a large number of vertical pipes and chimney structure cutting through parts of the sedimentary overburden at both storage sites. Formation waters are released through a 3 km long fracture 25 km north to the Sleipner platform while both natural gas and formation water are seeping through three abandoned wells located in the Sleipner area, as through many other old wells in the North Sea. The currently available data indicate that gases and fluids seeping at the seabed in the vicinity of the storage complex originate from the shallow overburden while CO2 stored at Sleipner and Snøhvit is fully retained in the storage formation. However, the observed geological features pose a number of important questions that are currently addressed by ECO2 via field work, data evaluation and numerical modelling: Are there any high permeability pathways for gas and fluid flow cutting through the overburden and linking the storage formation to the seep sites discovered at the seabed? Are seepage rates amplified by the ongoing storage operation at Sleipner? May CO2 stored at Sleipner and elsewhere ultimately leak through the overburden via seismic pipe and chimney structures, fractures and abandoned wells? CO2 release at the seabed was studied at three natural seep sites (Salt Dome Juist, Jan Mayen vent fields, Panarea) and via deliberate CO2 release experiments conducted in the vicinity of the Sleipner storage complex. The field

  15. 49 CFR 1182.7 - Interim approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim approval. 1182.7 Section 1182.7....7 Interim approval. (a) A party may request interim approval of the operation of the properties... additional filing fee is required, whether the request for interim approval is included in the application...

  16. 24 CFR 35.820 - Interim controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim controls. 35.820 Section 35...-Possession Multifamily Property § 35.820 Interim controls. HUD shall conduct interim controls in accordance... accordance with § 35.815. Interim controls are considered completed when clearance is achieved in...

  17. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Rick E.; Frederickson, James R.; Criddle, James; Hamilton, Dennis; Johnson, Mike W.

    2012-10-18

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

  18. The Impact of Handling and Storage of Human Fecal Material on Bacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Karatza, Eleni; Vertzoni, Maria; Muenster, Uwe; Reppas, Christos

    2016-11-01

    Fecal material prepared from human stools is frequently used for the assessment of bacterial degradation of active pharmaceutical ingredients as relevant data are useful for evaluating the potential for colonic drug delivery. The impact of handling and storage of human fecal material on bacterial activity was assessed by evaluating the degradation characteristics of metronidazole and olsalazine. Multiple freeze (-70°C)-thaw cycles should be avoided. Incubation of frozen material for about 2 h in the anaerobic workstation ensures regeneration of the highest possible bacterial activity. Material could be stored at -70°C for at least 12 months.

  19. The Impact of Enzyme Characteristics on Corn Stover Fiber Degradation and Acid Production During Ensiled Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L.; Moore, Kenneth J.

    Ensilage can be used to store lignocellulosic biomass before industrial bioprocessing. This study investigated the impacts of seven commerical enzyme mixtures derived from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, and T. longibrachiatum. Treatments included three size grades of corn stover, two enzyme levels (1.67 and 5 IU/g dry matter based on hemicellulase), and various ratios of cellulase to hemicellulase (C ∶ H). The highest C ∶ H ratio tested, 2.38, derived from T. reesei, resulted in the most effective fermentation, with lactic acid as the dominant product. Enzymatic activity during storage may complement industrial pretreatment; creating synergies that could reduce total bioconversion costs.

  20. The impact of enzyme characteristics on corn stover fiber degradation and acid production during ensiled storage.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L; Moore, Kenneth J

    2007-04-01

    Ensilage can be used to store lignocellulosic biomass before industrial bioprocessing. This study investigated the impacts of seven commercial enzyme mixtures derived from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, and T. longibrachiatum. Treatments included three size grades of corn stover, two enzyme levels (1.67 and 5 IU/g dry matter based on hemicellulase), and various ratios of cellulase to hemicellulase (C:H). The highest C:H ratio tested, 2.38, derived from T. reesei, resulted in the most effective fermentation, with lactic acid as the dominant product. Enzymatic activity during storage may complement industrial pretreatment; creating synergies that could reduce total bioconversion costs.

  1. Model estimates of sea-level change due to anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Yamada, Tomohito J.; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2012-06-01

    Global sea level has been rising over the past half century, according to tide-gauge data. Thermal expansion of oceans, melting of glaciers and loss of the ice masses in Greenland and Antarctica are commonly considered as the largest contributors, but these contributions do not entirely explain the observed sea-level rise. Changes in terrestrial water storage are also likely to affect sea level, but comprehensive and reliable estimates of this contribution, particularly through human water use, are scarce. Here, we estimate sea-level change in response to human impacts on terrestrial water storage by using an integrated model that simulates global terrestrial water stocks and flows (exclusive to Greenland and Antarctica) and especially accounts for human activities such as reservoir operation and irrigation. We find that, together, unsustainable groundwater use, artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in terrestrial water storage and the loss of water from closed basins have contributed a sea-level rise of about 0.77mmyr-1 between 1961 and 2003, about 42% of the observed sea-level rise. We note that, of these components, the unsustainable use of groundwater represents the largest contribution.

  2. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting.

  3. Soft cheese supplemented with black cumin oil: Impact on food borne pathogens and quality during storage

    PubMed Central

    Hassanien, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Mahgoub, Samir A.; El-Zahar, Kahled M.

    2013-01-01

    Black cumin seed oil (BCSO) was tested for its inhibitory effect against some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella enteritidis PT4) in Domiati cheese during cold storage. Physical, chemical and sensorial changes in cheese during storage were recorded. Pasteurized milk was inoculated before renneting with a mixed culture of bacteria at ca. 4 log CFU mL−1. In vitro and in situ supplementation with BCSO showed antimicrobial impact on the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis inoculated into media and cheese samples. Supplementing of cheese with BCSO (0.1% or 0.2%, w/w) significantly reduced the counts of the inoculated pathogens by ca. 1.3 log and 1.5 log CFU g−1 after 21 days of storage. In addition, BCSO controlled the development of titratable acidity, limited the changes in ripening indices, flavor components and kept considerable physicochemical and sensorial properties of cheese. PMID:24955014

  4. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    SciTech Connect

    J. H. Wolfram; R. E. Mizia; R. Jex; L. Nelson; K. M. Garcia

    1996-10-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination.

  5. Soft cheese supplemented with black cumin oil: Impact on food borne pathogens and quality during storage.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Mahgoub, Samir A; El-Zahar, Kahled M

    2014-07-01

    Black cumin seed oil (BCSO) was tested for its inhibitory effect against some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella enteritidis PT4) in Domiati cheese during cold storage. Physical, chemical and sensorial changes in cheese during storage were recorded. Pasteurized milk was inoculated before renneting with a mixed culture of bacteria at ca. 4 log CFU mL(-1). In vitro and in situ supplementation with BCSO showed antimicrobial impact on the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis inoculated into media and cheese samples. Supplementing of cheese with BCSO (0.1% or 0.2%, w/w) significantly reduced the counts of the inoculated pathogens by ca. 1.3 log and 1.5 log CFU g(-1) after 21 days of storage. In addition, BCSO controlled the development of titratable acidity, limited the changes in ripening indices, flavor components and kept considerable physicochemical and sensorial properties of cheese.

  6. Water impact studies. [impact of remote sensing techniques on management storage, flow, and delivery of California water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has begun into the potential impact of using modern remote sensing techniques as an aid in managing, even on a day-to-day basis, the storage, flow, and delivery of water made available through the California Water Project. It is obvious that the amount of this impact depends upon the extent to which remote sensing is proven to be useful in improving predictions of both the amount of water that will be available and the amount that will be needed. It is also proposed to investigate the potential impact of remote sensing techniques as an aid in monitoring, and perhaps even in directing, changes in land use and life style being brought about through the increased availability of water in central and southern California as a result of the California Water Project. The impact of remote sensing can be of appreciable significance only if: (1) the induced changes are very substantial ones; (2) remote sensing is found, in this context, to be very useful and potentially very cost effective; and (3) resource managers adopt this new technology. Analyses will be conducted of the changing economic bases and the new land use demands resulting from increased water availability in central and southern California.

  7. Impacts of convection on high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Christof; Hintze, Meike; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal subsurface heat storage is increasingly used in order to overcome the temporal disparities between heat production from renewable sources like solar thermal installations or from industrial surplus heat and the heat demand for building climatisation or hot water supply. In this context, high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is a technology to efficiently store and retrieve large amounts of heat using groundwater wells in an aquifer to inject or withdraw hot or cold water. Depending on the local hydrogeology and temperature amplitudes during high-temperature ATES, density differences between the injected hot water and the ambient groundwater may induce significant convective flow components in the groundwater flow field. As a consequence, stored heat may accumulate at the top of the storage aquifer which reduces the heat recovery efficiency of the ATES system. Also, an accumulation of heat at the aquifer top will induce increased emissions of heat to overlying formations with potential impacts on groundwater quality outside of the storage. This work investigates the impacts of convective heat transport on the storage efficiency of a hypothetical high-temperature ATES system for seasonal heat storage as well as heat emissions to neighboring formations by numerical scenario simulations. The coupled groundwater flow and heat transport code OpenGeoSys is used to simulate a medium scale ATES system operating in a sandy aquifer of 20 m thickness with an average groundwater temperature of 10°C and confining aquicludes at top and bottom. Seasonal heat storage by a well doublet (i.e. one fully screened "hot" and "cold" well, respectively) is simulated over a period of 10 years with biannual injection / withdrawal cycles at pumping rates of 15 m³/h and for different scenarios of the temperature of the injected water (20, 35, 60 and 90 °C). Simulation results show, that for the simulated system significant convective heat transport sets in when

  8. Efficiency and impacts of hythane (CH4+H2) underground storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Grandia, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The foreseen increase share of renewable energy production requires energy storage to mitigate shortage periods of energy supply. Hydrogen is an efficient energy carrier that can be transported and storage. A very promising way to store large amounts of hydrogen is underground geological reservoirs. Hydrogen can be stored, among other options, as a mixture of natural gas and less than 20% of hydrogen (hythane) to avoid damages on the existing infrastructure for gas transport. This technology is known as power-to-gas and is being considered by a number of European countries (Simon et al., 2015). In this study, the feasibility of a deep aquifer to store CH4-H2 mixtures in the Lower Triassic of the Paris Basin is numerically analyzed. The solubility of gas mixture in the groundwater is extremely low (Panfilov, 2015) and, therefore, gas and water are considered immiscible and non-reactive. An immiscible multiphase flow model is developed using the coefficient-form PDE interface of the finite element method code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The modelled domain is a 2D section of 2500 x 290 m resembling the Lower Triassic aquifer of the Paris basin, consisting of 2 layers of sandstone separated by a layer of conglomerates. The domain dips 0.5% from east to west. The top of the aquifer is 500 m-deep and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be open. This case is considered conservative compared to a dome-like geological trap, which could be more favorable to retain higher gas concentration. A number of cycles of gas production and injection were modelled. An automatic shut-down of the pump is implemented in case pressure on the well exceeds an upper or lower threshold. The influence of the position of the well, the uncertain residual gas saturation and the regional flow are studied. The model shows that both gas and aquifer properties have a significant impact on storage. Due to its low viscosity, the mobility of the hythane is quite high and gas expands significantly, reducing

  9. Capturing the Impact of Storage and Other Flexible Technologies on Electric System Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Elaine; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu

    2016-05-01

    Power systems of the future are likely to require additional flexibility. This has been well studied from an operational perspective, but has been more difficult to incorporate into capacity expansion models (CEMs) that study investment decisions on the decadal scale. There are two primary reasons for this. First, the necessary input data, including cost and resource projections, for flexibility options like demand response and storage are significantly uncertain. Second, it is computationally difficult to represent both investment and operational decisions in detail, the latter being necessary to properly value system flexibility, in CEMs for realistically sized systems. In this work, we extend a particular CEM, NREL's Resource Planning Model (RPM), to address the latter issue by better representing variable generation impacts on operations, and then adding two flexible technologies to RPM's suite of investment decisions: interruptible load and utility-scale storage. This work does not develop full suites of input data for these technologies, but is rather methodological and exploratory in nature. We thus exercise these new investment decisions in the context of exploring price points and value streams needed for significant deployment in the Western Interconnection by 2030. Our study of interruptible load finds significant variation by location, year, and overall system conditions. Some locations find no system need for interruptible load even with low costs, while others build the most expensive resources offered. System needs can include planning reserve capacity needs to ensure resource adequacy, but there are also particular cases in which spinning reserve requirements drive deployment. Utility-scale storage is found to require deep cost reductions to achieve wide deployment and is found to be more valuable in some locations with greater renewable deployment. Differences between more solar- and wind-reliant regions are also found: Storage technologies with

  10. Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.

    1996-07-01

    The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to DOT 7A Type A requirements. The controlling qualification test is a 4 ft drop onto a rigid surface. During and after this test, the container contents must remain within the container and shielding must not be reduced. The container is also designed to withstand stacking, internal pressure, lifting loads, tiedown failure, penetration, and a range of temperatures. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were performed using a range of material properties. Loads in the major connections and strains in the stainless steel and lead were monitored as a function of time during impact analyses for three simulated drop orientations. Initial results were used to develop the final design. For the final design, the stainless steel and lead have maximum strains well below ultimate levels except at an impact corner where additional deformation is acceptable. The predicted loads in the connections indicate that some yielding will occur but the containment and shielding will remain intact. The results presented here provide assurance that the container will pass the DOT 7A Type A drop tests as well as the other structural requirements.

  11. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage using GRACE Satellites and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Faunt, C. C.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concerns about drought impacts on water resources in California underscores the need to better understand effects of drought on water storage and coping strategies. Here we use a new GRACE mascons solution with high spatial resolution (1 degree) developed at the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) and output from the most recent regional groundwater model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate changes in water storage in response to recent droughts. We also extend the analysis of drought impacts on water storage back to the 1980s using modeling and monitoring data. The drought has been intensifying since 2012 with almost 50% of the state and 100% of the Central Valley under exceptional drought in 2015. Total water storage from GRACE data declined sharply during the current drought, similar to the rate of depletion during the previous drought in 2007 - 2009. However, only 45% average recovery between the two droughts results in a much greater cumulative impact of both droughts. The CSR GRACE Mascons data offer unprecedented spatial resolution with no leakage to the oceans and no requirement for signal restoration. Snow and reservoir storage declines contribute to the total water storage depletion estimated by GRACE with the residuals attributed to groundwater storage. Rates of groundwater storage depletion are consistent with the results of regional groundwater modeling in the Central Valley. Traditional approaches to coping with these climate extremes has focused on surface water reservoir storage; however, increasing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and storing excess water from wet periods in depleted aquifers is increasing in the Central Valley.

  12. Illustrative national scale scenarios of environmental and human health impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage.

    PubMed

    Tzanidakis, Konstantinos; Oxley, Tim; Cockerill, Tim; ApSimon, Helen

    2013-06-01

    Integrated Assessment, and the development of strategies to reduce the impacts of air pollution, has tended to focus only upon the direct emissions from different sources, with the indirect emissions associated with the full life-cycle of a technology often overlooked. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) reflects a number of new technologies designed to reduce CO2 emissions, but which may have much broader environmental implications than greenhouse gas emissions. This paper considers a wider range of pollutants from a full life-cycle perspective, illustrating a methodology for assessing environmental impacts using source-apportioned effects based impact factors calculated by the national scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM). Contrasting illustrative scenarios for the deployment of CCS towards 2050 are presented which compare the life-cycle effects of air pollutant emissions upon human health and ecosystems of business-as-usual, deployment of CCS and widespread uptake of IGCC for power generation. Together with estimation of the transboundary impacts we discuss the benefits of an effects based approach to such assessments in relation to emissions based techniques.

  13. Impact of small-scale storage systems on the photovoltaic penetration potential at the municipal scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Camargo, Luis; Dorner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    municipality using a series of indicators. These indicators include: a) the total photovoltaic installed capacity, b) the total storage installed capacity, c) the output variability, d) the total unfulfilled demand, e) total excess energy, f) total properly supplied energy, g) the loss of power supply probability, h) the amount of hours of supply higher than the highest demand in a year, i) the number of hours, when supply is 1.5. times higher than the highest demand in a year, and j) the additional storage energy capacity and power required to store all excess energy generated by the photovoltaic installations. The comparison of the proposed indicators serves to quantify the contribution that household-sized small-scale storage systems would make to the energy balance of the studied municipality. Increased installed energy storage capacity allows a higher roof-top photovoltaic share and improves energy utilization, variability and reliability indicators. The proposed methodology serves also to determine the amount of storage capacity with the highest positive impact on the local energy balance.

  14. Interim dentures and treatment dentures.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E

    1984-04-01

    Improvement in the interim denture procedure in the past decade has been one of the significant advancements in prosthodontic practice. The interim denture approach is only slightly more time-consuming and expensive than the conventional immediate denture approach, yet it has many advantages. Among those advantages are the following: (1) allows rapid results; (2) results in a higher quality definitive denture; (3) allows the surgical treatment to be performed during one appointment; (4) permits duplication of the natural tooth position; and (5) provides the patient with a spare denture after the definitive denture is completed. An interim denture technique was described that utilized a flexible layered silicone mold to form the replaced teeth. The interim denture procedure is flexible and lends itself to many variations in technique to meet unusual clinical situations. An interim removable partial denture technique was described that involves block-out of undesirable undercuts and duplication of the master cast for fabrication of the partial denture. This technique results in an interim partial denture that can be placed with little or no adjustment and that will provide better service for those who require it. Three simple procedures for fabricating treatment dentures were described and the indications for each were discussed. Although treatment dentures are not often used, they are essential for the dentist who is treating difficult patients who require complete dentures.

  15. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs.

  16. Impact-Driven Pressure Management for Leaky CO2 Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholzer, J. T.; Cihan, A.; Zhou, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Large-scale pressure buildup in response to carbon dioxide injection in the subsurface may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization can impact caprock integrity, induce micro-seismicity in critically stressed faults, drive CO2 and/or brine up conductive features into shallow groundwater resources, and affect existing subsurface activities such as oil and gas production. It has recently been suggested that pressure management schemes involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations may be used to control subsurface pressure increases caused by CO2 injection, thereby limiting the possibility of unwanted effects such as brine leakage to shallow freshwater aquifers and also reducing the potentially large Areas of Review, which in the U.S. EPA's regulation for CO2 sequestration projects are the subsurface domains that need to be characterized for local conductive features in order to obtain a permit. Our study presents application of a newly developed analytical solution to evaluate the effectiveness of fluid extraction in managing pressure buildup caused by CO2 injection and storage. We use a hypothetical yet complex example case with multiple leaky wells and a critically stressed fault. Different pressure management schemes involving (passive) pressure relief wells, active extraction wells, combinations of both, disposal of brine, and/or re-injection of brine were tested with respect to predefined performance criteria, such as the maximum allowable pressure near the conductive fault. Options for optimal well placement were also evaluated, comparing near-field arrays of extraction wells (i.e., near the injection wells) with far-field arrays (e.g., near the fault). Far-field well placement allows for a significant reduction in the brine extraction rates needed to keep pressure increase below the target performance criterion. Based on these findings, we developed the concept of "impact-driven pressure

  17. Environmental Assessment for Potential Impacts of Ocean CO2 Storage on Marine Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, N.; Tsurushima, N.; Suzumura, M.; Shibamoto, Y.; Harada, K.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean CO2 storage that actively utilizes the ocean potential to dissolve extremely large amounts of CO2 is a useful option with the intent of diminishing atmospheric CO2 concentration. CO2 storage into sub-seabed geological formations is also considered as the option which has been already put to practical reconnaissance in some projects. Direct release of CO2 in the ocean storage and potential CO2 leakage from geological formations into the bottom water can alter carbonate system as well as pH of seawater. It is essential to examine to what direction and extent chemistry change of seawater induced by CO2 can affect the marine environments. Previous studies have shown direct and acute effects by increasing CO2 concentrations on physiology of marine organisms. It is also a serious concern that chemistry change can affect the rates of chemical, biochemical and microbial processes in seawater resulting in significant influences on marine biogeochemical cycles of the bioelements including carbon, nutrients and trace metals. We, AIST, have conducted a series of basic researches to assess the potential impacts of ocean CO2 storage on marine biogeochemical processes including CaCO3 dissolution, and bacterial and enzymatic decomposition of organic matter. By laboratory experiments using a special high pressure apparatus, the improved empirical equation was obtained for CaCO3 dissolution rate in the high CO2 concentrations. Based on the experimentally obtained kinetics with a numerical simulation for a practical scenario of oceanic CO2 sequestration where 50 Mton CO2 per year is continuously injected to 1,000-2,500 m depth within 100 x 333 km area for 30 years, we could illustrate precise 3-D maps for the predicted distributions of the saturation depth of CaCO3, in situ Ω value and CaCO3 dissolution rate in the western North Pacific. The result showed no significant change in the bathypelagic CaCO3 flux due to chemistry change induced by ocean CO2 sequestration. Both

  18. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, Geoffrey Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco Strømman, Anders H.

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily − 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of − 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of

  19. Impact of Storage at −80°C on Encapsulated Liver Spheroids After Liquid Nitrogen Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Peter; Gonzalez-Molina, Jordi; Maurmann, Natasha; Mendonça da Silva, Joana; Gibbons, Stephanie; Selden, Clare; Fuller, Barry; Morris, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For many bioengineered tissues to have practical clinical application, cryopreservation for use on demand is essential. This study examined different thermal histories on warming and short holding periods at different subzero temperatures on subsequent functional recoveries of alginate encapsulated liver spheroids (ELS) for use in a bioartificial liver device. This mimicked transport at liquid nitrogen (−196°C) or dry ice (∼−80°C) temperatures. Holding at −80°C on warming after −196°C storage resulted in ELS expressing significant (p < 0.001) damage compared with direct thaw from liquid nitrogen, with viable cell number falling from 74.0 ± 8.4 million viable cells/mL without −80°C storage to 1.9 ± 0.6 million viable cells/mL 72 h post-thaw after 8 days storage at −80°C. Even 1 day at −80°C after −196°C storage resulted in lower viability (down 21% 24 h post-thaw), viable cell count (down 29% 24 h post-thaw), glucose, and alpha-1-fetoprotein production (reduced by 59% and 95% 24 h from 1 day post-thaw, respectively). Storage at −80°C was determined to be harmful only during the warming cycle. Chemical measurements of the alginate component of ELS were unchanged by cryogenic exposure in either condition. PMID:27298755

  20. Impact of CO2 Impure stream on a CO2 Storage Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segev, R.; Bear, J.; Bensabat, J.

    2013-12-01

    In a CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology, a stream of CO2, extracted from the gas stream emitted from an industrial plant, is transported to a storage site where it is injected into a deep brine-containing geological reservoir for storage for very long time periods. The injected CO2 may contain various compositions of residual O2, SOx , NOx, and inert gases. In this work, we focus on the impact of the SO2 and its potential to acidify the reservoir brine. The amount of dissolved SO2 is determined by adjusting the Henry coefficient and fugacity coefficient for the mixture that contains CO2 as a major component and SO2. The models show the spreading of the pH level over time in the entire reservoir when different CO2-SO2 mixture compositions are injected. The minimum pH level achieved is 0.35 when 4% SO2 is injected, 1.8 when 2% SO2 is injected and 3.8 when a pure CO2 stream is injected. The model may serve as a tool to predict the influence of SO2 on the initial brine composition and on the initial rock properties. For example, a model result for the pH spreading in the reservoir, in the case of 2%SO2-CO2 injected mixture, is shown below. Fig.1. The pH level at the reservoir bedrock and caprock after 5 years for a 2%SO2-CO2 stream.

  1. Impact of opening hermetic storage bags on grain quality, fungal growth and aflatoxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, Timothy; Baributsa, Dieudonne; Woloshuk, Charles

    2016-10-01

    Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags are used by farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa for pest management of stored grains and products, including maize. These bags hermetically seal the products, preventing exchange with external moisture and gases. Biological respiration within the bags create an environment that is unsuitable for insect development and fungal growth. This study was conducted to determine the impact of routine opening of the storage bags for maize consumption on fungal growth and aflatoxin contamination. Maize with moisture contents (MC) high enough to support fungal growth (15%, 16%, 18% and 20%) was stored in PICS bags, which were opened weekly and exposed to humid conditions (85% RH) for 30 min over a period of 8 weeks and 24 weeks. Monitors indicated that oxygen defused into the open bags but did not reach equilibrium with the bottom layers of grain during the 30-min exposure period. Fungal colony forming units obtained from the grain surface increased 3-fold (at 15% MC) to 10,000-fold (at 20% MC) after 8 weeks. At both 8 weeks and 24 weeks, aflatoxin was detected in at least one bag at each grain moisture, suggesting that aflatoxin contamination spread from a planted source of A. flavus-colonized grain to non-inoculated grain. The results indicate that repeatedly breaking the hermetic seal of the PICS bags will increase fungal growth and the risk of aflatoxin contamination, especially in maize stored at high moisture content. This work also further demonstrates that maize should be properly dried prior to storage in PICS bags.

  2. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  3. Climate change impacts on soil carbon storage in global croplands: 1901-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, W.; Tian, H.

    2015-12-01

    New global data finds 12% of earth's surface in cropland at present. Croplands will take on the responsibility to support approximate 60% increase in food production by 2050 as FAO estimates. In addition to nutrient supply to plants, cropland soils also play a major source and sink of greenhouse gases regulating global climate system. It is a big challenge to understand how soils function under global changes, but it is also a great opportunity for agricultural sector to manage soils to assure sustainability of agroecosystems and mitigate climate change. Previous studies have attempted to investigate the impacts of different land uses and climates on cropland soil carbon storage. However, large uncertainty still exists in magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of global cropland soil organic carbon, due to the lack of reliable environmental databases and relatively poorly understanding of multiple controlling factors involved climate change and land use etc. Here, we use a process-based agroecosystem model (DLEM-Ag) in combination with diverse data sources to quantify magnitude and tempo-spatial patterns of soil carbon storage in global croplands during 1901-2010. We also analyze the relative contributions of major environmental variables (climate change, land use and management etc.). Our results indicate that intensive land use management may hidden the vulnerability of cropland soils to climate change in some regions, which may greatly weaken soil carbon sequestration under future climate change.

  4. Impact of layer thickness and well orientation on caprock integrity for geologic carbon storage

    DOE PAGES

    Newell, P.; Martinez, M. J.; Eichhubl, P.

    2016-07-29

    Economic feasibility of geologic carbon storage demands sustaining large storage rates without damaging caprock seals. Reactivation of pre-existing or newly formed fractures may provide a leakage pathway across caprock layers. In this paper, we apply an equivalent continuum approach within a finite element framework to model the fluid-pressure-induced reactivation of pre-existing fractures within the caprock, during high-rate injection of super-critical CO2 into a brine-saturated reservoir in a hypothetical system, using realistic geomechanical and fluid properties. We investigate the impact of reservoir to caprock layer thickness, wellbore orientation, and injection rate on overall performance of the system with respect to caprockmore » failure and leakage. We find that vertical wells result in locally higher reservoir pressures relative to horizontal injection wells for the same injection rate, with high pressure inducing caprock leakage along reactivated opening-mode fractures in the caprock. After prolonged injection, leakage along reactivated fractures in the caprock is always higher for vertical than horizontal injection wells. Furthermore, we find that low ratios of reservoir to caprock thickness favor high excess pressure and thus fracture reactivation in the caprock. Finally, injection into thick reservoir units thus lowers the risk associated with CO2 leakage.« less

  5. Impact of layer thickness and well orientation on caprock integrity for geologic carbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, P.; Martinez, M. J.; Eichhubl, P.

    2016-07-29

    Economic feasibility of geologic carbon storage demands sustaining large storage rates without damaging caprock seals. Reactivation of pre-existing or newly formed fractures may provide a leakage pathway across caprock layers. In this paper, we apply an equivalent continuum approach within a finite element framework to model the fluid-pressure-induced reactivation of pre-existing fractures within the caprock, during high-rate injection of super-critical CO2 into a brine-saturated reservoir in a hypothetical system, using realistic geomechanical and fluid properties. We investigate the impact of reservoir to caprock layer thickness, wellbore orientation, and injection rate on overall performance of the system with respect to caprock failure and leakage. We find that vertical wells result in locally higher reservoir pressures relative to horizontal injection wells for the same injection rate, with high pressure inducing caprock leakage along reactivated opening-mode fractures in the caprock. After prolonged injection, leakage along reactivated fractures in the caprock is always higher for vertical than horizontal injection wells. Furthermore, we find that low ratios of reservoir to caprock thickness favor high excess pressure and thus fracture reactivation in the caprock. Finally, injection into thick reservoir units thus lowers the risk associated with CO2 leakage.

  6. STORAGE RING CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR ELECTRON IMPACT IONIZATION OF Fe{sup 7+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Novotný, O.; Savin, D. W.; Becker, A.; Grieser, M.; Krantz, C.; Repnow, R.; Wolf, A.; Bernhardt, D.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.; Spruck, K.; Lestinsky, M.

    2015-11-01

    We have measured electron impact ionization for Fe{sup 7+} from the ionization threshold up to 1200 eV. The measurements were performed using the TSR heavy ion storage ring. The ions were stored long enough prior to measurements to remove most metastables, resulting in a beam of 94% ground-level ions. Comparing with the previously recommended atomic data, we find that the Arnaud and Raymond cross section is up to about 40% larger than our measurement, with the largest discrepancies below about 400 eV. The cross section of Dere agrees to within 10%, which is about the magnitude of the experimental uncertainties. The remaining discrepancies between our measurement and the Dere calculations are likely due to shortcomings in the theoretical treatment of the excitation-autoionization contribution.

  7. Avocado waste for finishing pigs: Impact on muscle composition and oxidative stability during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Grageola-Nuñez, Fernando; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of agricultural waste materials for pig feeding may be an interesting option for reducing production costs and contributing to sustainability and environmental welfare. In the present study, a mixed diet enriched with avocado waste (TREATED) is used for finishing industrial genotype pigs. The muscle longissimus thoracis et lomborum (LTL) from TREATED pigs was analyzed for composition and oxidative and color stability and compared with muscles obtained from pigs fed a CONTROL diet. Dietary avocado had significant impact on the content and composition of intramuscular fat (IMF), reducing the lipid content in LTL muscles and increasing the degree of unsaturation. This did not increase the oxidative instability of samples. On the contrary, muscles from TREATED pigs had significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation rates during chilled storage. The color of the muscles from TREATED pigs was also preserved from oxidation.

  8. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  9. 7 CFR 15a.71 - Interim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interim procedures. 15a.71 Section 15a.71 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures (Interim) § 15a.71 Interim procedures. For the purposes...

  10. 7 CFR 15a.71 - Interim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interim procedures. 15a.71 Section 15a.71 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures (Interim) § 15a.71 Interim procedures. For the purposes...

  11. 7 CFR 15a.71 - Interim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interim procedures. 15a.71 Section 15a.71 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures (Interim) § 15a.71 Interim procedures. For the purposes...

  12. 7 CFR 15a.71 - Interim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interim procedures. 15a.71 Section 15a.71 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures (Interim) § 15a.71 Interim procedures. For the purposes...

  13. 7 CFR 1735.75 - Interim financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim financing. 1735.75 Section 1735.75... Involving Loan Funds § 1735.75 Interim financing. (a) A borrower may submit a written request for RUS approval of interim financing if it is necessary to close an acquisition before the loan to finance...

  14. 20 CFR 801.202 - Interim appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim appointments. 801.202 Section 801.202... Members of the Board § 801.202 Interim appointments. (a) Acting Chairman. In the event that the Chairman... such time as the Secretary of Labor designates an Acting Chairman. (b) Interim members. In the...

  15. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44... § 7.44 Interim relief. (a) When the Department appeals and the case involves removal, separation, or... outcome of the Department appeal. The employee may decline the offer of interim relief. (b) Service...

  16. 7 CFR 15a.71 - Interim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim procedures. 15a.71 Section 15a.71 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures (Interim) § 15a.71 Interim procedures. For the purposes...

  17. 7 CFR 1738.21 - Interim financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim financing. 1738.21 Section 1738.21... Interim financing. (a) Upon notification by RUS that an applicant's application is considered complete, the applicant may enter into an interim financing agreement with a lender other than RUS or use...

  18. 15 CFR 904.322 - Interim action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim action. 904.322 Section 904... Sanctions and Denials Permit Sanction for Violations § 904.322 Interim action. (a) To protect marine...) The Judge will order interim action under paragraph (a) of this section, only after finding that...

  19. 15 CFR 908.5 - Interim reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim reports. 908.5 Section 908.5... SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.5 Interim reports. (a) Any person engaged in a... Administrator, not later than 45 days thereafter, an interim report setting forth as of such date...

  20. 19 CFR 207.106 - Interim measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim measures. 207.106 Section 207.106 Customs... and Committee Proceedings § 207.106 Interim measures. (a) At any time after proceedings are initiated... that would otherwise be kept confidential, or to take other appropriate interim measures. (b)...

  1. 12 CFR 268.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim relief. 268.505 Section 268.505 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 268.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the Board appeals... offer of interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions...

  2. 42 CFR 417.574 - Interim settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim settlement. 417.574 Section 417.574 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.574 Interim settlement. (a) Determination. Within 30 days following the receipt of the HMO's or CMP's final interim cost and enrollment reports, CMS will make...

  3. 19 CFR 354.8 - Interim sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim sanctions. 354.8 Section 354.8 Customs... VIOLATION OF AN ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.8 Interim sanctions... a final decision is rendered, that interim sanctions are necessary to protect the interests of...

  4. 19 CFR 356.18 - Interim sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim sanctions. 356.18 Section 356.18 Customs... Undertaking § 356.18 Interim sanctions. (a) If the Deputy Under Secretary concludes, after issuing a charging letter under § 356.16 and before a final decision is rendered, that interim sanctions are necessary...

  5. An Interim President Sets the Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardo, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    An interim president often plays a crucial role in leading a college or university. In some instances, the interim can address and resolve troublesome issues and thus clear the way for the new president to generate progress. In others, the interim stays the course so that the institution maintains its momentum and seizes strategic opportunities to…

  6. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim relief. 1614.505 Section 1614.505 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the agency appeals and the case... interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions of paragraph...

  7. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension...

  8. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The...

  9. Introducing Barium in Transition Metal Oxide Frameworks: Impact upon Superconductivity, Magnetism, Multiferroism and Oxygen Diffusion and Storage.

    PubMed

    Raveau, Bernard

    2016-11-25

    The role of barium in the structural chemistry of some transition metal oxides of the series "Cu, Mn, Fe,Co" is reviewed, based on its size effect and its particular chemical bonding. Its impact upon various properties, superconductivity, magnetism, multiferroism, oxygen storage is emphasized.

  10. A review of proposed Glen Canyon Dam interim operating criteria

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Tomasko, D.; Hayse, J.; Durham, L.

    1992-04-01

    Three sets of interim operating criteria for Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River have been proposed for the period of November 1991, to the completion of the record of decision for the Glen Canyon Dam environmental impact statement (about 1993). These criteria set specific limits on dam releases, including maximum and minimum flows, up-ramp and down-ramp rates, and maximum daily fluctuation. Under the proposed interim criteria, all of these parameters would be reduced relative to historical operating criteria to protect downstream natural resources, including sediment deposits, threatened and endangered fishes, trout, the aquatic food base, and riparian plant communities. The scientific bases of the three sets of proposed operating criteria are evaluated in the present report:(1) criteria proposed by the Research/Scientific Group, associated with the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES); (2) criteria proposed state and federal officials charged with managing downstream resources; and (3) test criteria imposed from July 1991, to November 1991. Data from Phase 1 of the GCES and other sources established that the targeted natural resources are affected by dam operations, but the specific interim criteria chosen were not supported by any existing studies. It is unlikely that irreversible changes to any of the resources would occur over the interim period if historical operating criteria remained in place. It is likely that adoption of any of the sets of proposed interim operating criteria would reduce the levels of sediment transport and erosion below Glen Canyon Dam; however, these interim criteria could result in some adverse effects, including the accumulation of debris at tributary mouths, a shift of new high-water-zone vegetation into more flood-prone areas, and further declines in vegetation in the old high water zone.

  11. How CO2 Leakage May Impact the Role of Geologic Carbon Storage in Climate Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Deng, H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Fitts, J. P.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Among CCUS technologies (Carbon Capture Utilization and Sequestration), geological storage of CO2 has a large potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but confidence in its deployment is often clouded by the possibility and cost of leakage. In this study, we took the Michigan sedimentary basin as an example to investigate the monetized risks associated with leakage, using the Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage (RISCS) model. The model accounts for spatial heterogeneity and variability of hydraulic properties of the subsurface system and permeability of potential leaking wells. In terms of costs, the model quantifies the financial consequences of CO2 escaping back to the atmosphere as well as the costs incurred if CO2 or brine leaks into overlying formations and interferes with other subsurface activities or resources. The monetized leakage risks derived from the RISCS model were then used to modify existing cost curves by shifting them upwards and changing their curvatures. The modified cost curves were used in the integrated assessment model - GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model), which provides policy-relevant results to help inform the potential role of CCUS in future energy systems when carbon mitigation targets and incentives are in place. The results showed that the extent of leakage risks has a significant effect on the extent of CCUS deployment. Under more stringent carbon mitigation policies such as a high carbon tax, higher leakage risks can be afforded and incorporating leakage risks will have a smaller impact on CCUS deployment. Alternatively, if the leakage risks were accounted for by charging a fixed premium, similar to how the risk of nuclear waste disposal is treated, the contribution of CCUS in mitigating climate change varies, depending on the value of the premium.

  12. Charging a renewable future: The impact of electric vehicle charging intelligence on energy storage requirements to meet renewable portfolio standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Kate E.; Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-12-01

    Increased usage of renewable energy resources is key for energy system evolution to address environmental concerns. Capturing variable renewable power requires the use of energy storage to shift generation and load demand. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles, however, impacts the load demand profile and therefore the capacity of energy storage required to meet renewable utilization targets. This study examines how the intelligence of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) integration impacts the required capacity of energy storage systems to meet renewable utilization targets for a large-scale energy system, using California as an example for meeting a 50% and 80% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2030 and 2050. For an 80% RPS in 2050, immediate charging of PEVs requires the installation of an aggregate energy storage system with a power capacity of 60% of the installed renewable capacity and an energy capacity of 2.3% of annual renewable generation. With smart charging of PEVs, required power capacity drops to 16% and required energy capacity drops to 0.6%, and with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) charging, non-vehicle energy storage systems are no longer required. Overall, this study highlights the importance of intelligent PEV charging for minimizing the scale of infrastructure required to meet renewable utilization targets.

  13. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Summary and Guide for Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  14. Collection Analysis Project. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Carol; And Others

    This interim report of the University of Wyoming's Collection Analysis Project, whose purpose is to examine the university library's collection development process and make workable recommendations for process improvement, consists of a brief history of the library's collection, including a review of the evolution of the collection development…

  15. Data breaches. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-06-22

    This document establishes regulations to address data breaches regarding sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The regulations implement certain provisions of Title IX of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006, which require promulgation of these regulations as an interim final rule.

  16. Primer for the Interim Chair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltys, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Being successful in the role of an Interim Chair requires an approach to transitional leadership that is different from that of individuals filling the Chair role permanently. This article reviews pertinent literature on the topic. Method: The author reviewed the literature, cited pertinent articles, and supplemented with personal…

  17. Project Canada West. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This first interim report of project Canada West, initiated in April, 1970, includes three papers. "Curriculum Development in Urbanization," by Dr. R. H. Sabey, Acting Executive Director, is an overview of the Project's history, purpose, and the 5 year plan for phases of research development. (See SO 000 283 for complete abstract.) Two…

  18. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  19. Impact of amylases on biopolymer dynamics during storage of straight-dough wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-07-03

    When Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase (BStA), Pseudomonas saccharophila α-amylase (PSA), or Bacillus subtilis α-amylase (BSuA) was added to a bread recipe to impact bread firming, amylose crystal formation was facilitated, leading to lower initial crumb resilience. Bread loaves that best retained their quality were those obtained when BStA was used. The enzyme hindered formation of an extended starch network, resulting in less water immobilization and smaller changes in crumb firmness and resilience. BSuA led to extensive degradation of the starch network during bread storage with release of immobilized water, eventually resulting in partial structure collapse and poor crumb resilience. The most important effect of PSA was an increased bread volume, resulting in smaller changes in crumb firmness and resilience. A negative linear relation was found between NMR proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb and crumb firmness. The slope of that relation gave an indication of the strength of the starch network.

  20. Impact of Irrigated Agriculture on Soil C Storage and Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, D. L.; Water Reuse; Remediation Unit

    2011-12-01

    In arid regions inorganic C (IC) can comprise more than 90% of the total C in the soil. The link of this C pool to atmospheric CO2 and climate change relates primarily to the precipitation/dissolution of the carbonate minerals in the near surface environment. The impact of changes in soil IC on atmospheric CO2 depends on local environmental and hydrological conditions. Under most environmental conditions, dissolution of these minerals leads to net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Practices favoring dissolution of carbonates include irrigation with surface waters, and irrigation with water in large excess of plant transpiration. Accumulation of IC in the soil is favored by lower irrigation water applications relative to transpiration (leaching < 30% of applied water), irrigation with ground waters at elevated CO2 concentrations, application of gypsum, and use of nitrate fertilizer. The net effect of irrigation on a global scale, neglecting the effect of fertilizer addition, is to increase soil IC by 30 Tg C/y as well as to release an almost equal amount of C to the atmosphere. Addition of acidifying fertilizers (NH4) reduce IC accumulation and increase CO2 emissions above 30 Tg C/y.There is conflicting evidence regarding actual changes in C storage as a result of irrigation. Liming practices in humid regions throughout the world are estimated to have no net effect on inorganic soil C but release up to 85 Tg C/y to the atmosphere.

  1. Increasing forest disturbances in Europe and their impact on carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Rupert; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Rammer, Werner; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances from wind, bark beetles, and wildfires have increased in Europe’s forests throughout the 20th century 1. Climatic changes were identified as a main driver behind this increase 2, yet how the expected continuation of climate change will affect Europe’s forest disturbance regime remains unresolved. Increasing disturbances could strongly impact the forest carbon budget 3,4, and are hypothesized to contribute to the recently observed carbon sink saturation in Europe’s forests 5. Here we show that forest disturbance damage in Europe has continued to increase in the first decade of the 21st century. Based on an ensemble of climate change scenarios we find that damage from wind, bark beetles, and forest fires is likely to increase further in coming decades, and estimate the rate of increase to +0.91·106 m3 of timber per year until 2030. We show that this intensification can offset the effect of management strategies aiming to increase the forest carbon sink, and calculate the disturbance-related reduction of the carbon storage potential in Europe’s forests to be 503.4 Tg C in 2021-2030. Our results highlight the considerable carbon cycle feedbacks of changing disturbance regimes, and underline that future forest policy and management will require a stronger focus on disturbance risk and resilience. PMID:25737744

  2. The impact of bacteriospermia on boar sperm storage and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Kuster, C E; Althouse, G C

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriospermia is a documented risk to reproductive performance when using extended boar semen for artificial insemination. A substantial list of bacteria have been recovered from boar semen attributed to fecal, preputial, skin, and hair microorganisms, with these and other environmental bacteria from processing areas identified in doses prepared for artificial insemination. Gram-negative bacteria are most commonly recovered from extended doses, including both Enterobacteriaceae and environmental contaminants, such as those that inhabit water purification systems. The method of processing, distributing, and storing fresh liquid boar semen before insemination plays a role in bacterial growth dynamics and the degree to which the bacteria may damage the sperm or affect the sow. Not all bacterial isolates or contamination levels have the same impact on sperm, with multiple factors governing if and when storage longevity will be reduced through sperm-to-sperm agglutination, impaired motility, acrosome disruption, or loss of membrane viability. Suboptimal reproductive performance can occur because of reduced fertilizing capacity of the sperm or induction of a uterine environment hostile to sperm and/or embryonic survival. Effective bacterial control strategies are necessary to minimize the risk of bacteria contaminating extended semen doses, including monitoring programs designed for quick detection and intervention, should the need arise.

  3. 41 CFR 101-29.204 - Interim Federal specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interim Federal... PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.204 Interim Federal specification. An interim Federal... agencies. Interim amendments to Federal Specifications and amendments to interim Federal specifications...

  4. Human impact and colluvial sediment storages in Central Europe since the Neolithic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlummer, Manuela; Hoffmann, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    history and climate delivered by other researchers of the CRC. The index will be evaluated by local sedimentation rates quantified in local case studies. DEMs, digital geological maps and soil maps are used to identify the importance of other parameters to develop a model of colluvial sediment storage on a regional scale. Currently the colluvial data base is being compiled. Over 100 study sites with information on the onset of colluviation could be identified so far. Furthermore 48 catchments with known colluvial volumes have been analysed concerning the impact of loess on the colluviation magnitude. According to this analysis loess covered catchments show only slightly higher volumes than catchments dominated by other substrates. This is true for different orders of magnitude from 0,001 - 1000 km² despite longer land use duration in loess regions and higher erosion susceptibility of loess originated soils.

  5. Natural tooth as an interim prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Dhariwal, Neha S.; Gokhale, Niraj S.; Patel, Punit; Hugar, Shivayogi M.

    2016-01-01

    A traumatic injury to primary maxillary anterior tooth is one of the common causes for problems with the succedaneous tooth leading to it noneruption. A missing anterior tooth can be psychologically and socially damaging to the patient. Despite a wide range of treatment options available, sometimes, it is inevitable to save the natural tooth. This paper describes the immediate replacement of a right central incisor using a fiber-composite resin splint with the natural tooth crown as a pontic following surgical extraction of the dilacerated impacted permanent maxillary central incisor. The abutment teeth can be conserved with minimal or no preparation, thus keeping the technique reversible and can be completed at chair side thereby avoiding laboratory costs. It can be used as an interim measure until a definitive prosthesis can be fabricated as the growth is still incomplete. PMID:27433074

  6. Impact of broiler egg storage on relative expression of blastoderm genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of hatching eggs by commercial broiler hatcheries is a common practice. However, continued storage beyond 7 days leads to an increase in early embryonic mortality due to the progressive increase in embryonic cell death. The cellular and molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. A ...

  7. 75 FR 81031 - Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After Cessation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... release from stored SNF. Multiple studies of the safety and security of spent fuel storage, including the... facilities, the studies of the safety and security of spent fuel storage (conducted both before and after the... are not publicly available; these are reports concerning the safety and security of spent fuel...

  8. Recommended alternative for interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelow, G.T.; Turner, D.A.; Grigsby, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    The waste in tank 241-C-103 poses several health and safety risks and potential soil contamination caused by tank leaks. To minimize the risk of contaminating the soil beneath the tank, the pumpable waste liquids are planned to be removed by salt well pumping. In addition to aqueous liquids, this tank is unique because it also contains a layer of degraded PUREX solvent floating on the aqueous liquid. The following three options for removing and storing this separable phase organic solvent have been proposed and studied: transferring the organic solvent and pumpable aqueous liquids using existing salt well pumping equipment and procedures to a double-shell tank (DST) for storage; removing most of the organic solvent using a skimmer pump, then salt well pumping the remaining pumpable liquids to a different DST for storage; removing most of the organic solvent to an aboveground storage tank for eventual treatment or offsite transfer, and then salt well pumping the remaining pumpable liquids to a DST for interim storage. As a result of evaluating these three options and a no pumping option, the recommended action is to transfer both the organic solvent and pumpable aqueous liquid to a DST for storage using existing salt well pumping equipment. The evaluation considers the following criteria: public health and safety, worker safety, environmental compliance, engineering feasibility, and cost. The options compared these factors. Two key areas drove the selection of the recommended approach: the minimization of potential soil contamination from tank leaks caused the (interim stabilization by salt well pumping) options to be rated more highly than the no pumping option; and cost and implementation factors caused the transfer and storage to DST using existing tank farm salt well pumping equipment option to rate higher than the skimming options. Other factors have only a second order effect on the selection process. Evaluation results are described in this report.

  9. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  10. Numerical simulations of the impact of seasonal heat storage on source zone emission in a TCE contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    In urban regions, with high population densities and heat demand, seasonal high temperature heat storage in the shallow subsurface represents an attractive and efficient option for a sustainable heat supply. In fact, the major fraction of energy consumed in German households is used for room heating and hot water production. Especially in urbanized areas, however, the installation of high temperature heat storage systems is currently restricted due to concerns on negative influences on groundwater quality caused e.g. by possible interactions between heat storages and subsurface contaminants, which are a common problem in the urban subsurface. Detailed studies on the overall impact of the operation of high temperature heat storages on groundwater quality are scarce. Therefore, this work investigates possible interactions between groundwater temperature changes induced by heat storage via borehole heat exchangers and subsurface contaminations by numerical scenario analysis. For the simulation of non-isothermal groundwater flow, and reactive transport processes the OpenGeoSys code is used. A 2D horizontal cross section of a shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed in the simulated scenario, consisting of a sandy sediment typical for Northern Germany. Within the aquifer a residual trichloroethene (TCE) contaminant source zone is present. Temperature changes are induced by a seasonal heat storage placed within the aquifer with scenarios of maximum temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C, respectively, during heat injection and minimum temperatures of 2°C during heat extraction. In the scenario analysis also the location of the heat storage relative to the TCE source zone and plume was modified. Simulations were performed in a homogeneous aquifer as well as in a set of heterogeneous aquifers with hydraulic conductivity as spatially correlated random fields. In both cases, results show that the temperature increase in the heat plume and the consequential reduction of water

  11. INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

    2012-03-30

    Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., < 0.3 {mu}g/g fillet) is considered to be a more consistent indicator of exposure and risk (EPA, 2001). Effective mercury remediation at point-source contaminated sites requires an understanding of the nature and magnitude of mercury inputs, and also knowledge of how these inputs must be controlled in order to achieve the desired reduction of mercury contamination in biota necessary for compliance with AWQC targets. One of the challenges to remediation is that mercury body burdens in fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of source

  12. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, Jonathan L.; Hall, Kevin A.

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  13. Impact of Frozen Storage on the Anthocyanin and Polyphenol Contents of American Elderberry Fruit Juice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mitch C; Thomas, Andrew L; Greenlief, C Michael

    2015-06-17

    The effects of frozen storage on the anthocyanin and polyphenol content of elderberry fruit juice are investigated. Juice from three genotypes of American elderberry (Adams II, Bob Gordon, and Wyldewood) was screened for total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents with spectrophotometric methods. The individual anthocyanin content (IAC) of the juice was tested by coupling solid phase extraction with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Juice samples were tested initially upon harvest and then again after 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage. Juice from the three different genotypes had significantly different TP, TMA, and IAC profiles initially (p < 0.05). The TP, TMA, and IAC contents of the juice from different genotypes were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the frozen storage time, suggesting that both genotype and length of frozen storage time can affect the anthocyanin content of elderberry fruit juice.

  14. Impact of Wind and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Hummon, Marissa; Palchak, David; Kirby, Brendan; Ma, Ookie; O'Malley, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This analysis evaluates how the value of energy storage changes when adding variable generation (VG) renewable energy resources to the grid. A series of VG energy penetration scenarios from 16% to 55% were generated for a utility system in the western United States. This operational value of storage (measured by its ability to reduce system production costs) was estimated in each VG scenario, considering provision of different services and with several sensitivities to fuel price and generation mix. Overall, the results found that the presence of VG increases the value of energy storage by lowering off-peak energy prices more than on-peak prices, leading to a greater opportunity to arbitrage this price difference. However, significant charging from renewables, and consequently a net reduction in carbon emissions, did not occur until VG penetration was in the range of 40%-50%. Increased penetration of VG also increases the potential value of storage when providing reserves, mainly by increasing the amount of reserves required by the system. Despite this increase in value, storage may face challenges in capturing the full benefits it provides. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials, reserve prices, and incomplete capture of certain system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit (reduction in production costs) provided to the system. Furthermore, it is unclear how storage will actually incentivize large-scale deployment of renewables needed to substantially increase VG penetration. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  15. The impact of tunnel oxide nitridation to reliability performance of charge storage non-volatile memory devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng Chuan; Wong, Hin Yong

    2014-02-01

    This paper is written to review the development of critical research on the overall impact of tunnel oxide nitridation (TON) with the aim to mitigate reliability issues due to incessant technology scaling of charge storage NVM devices. For more than 30 years, charge storage non-volatile memory (NVM) has been critical in the evolution of intelligent electronic devices and continuous development of integrated technologies. Technology scaling is the primary strategy implemented throughout the semiconductor industry to increase NVM density and drive down average cost per bit. In this paper, critical reliability challenges and key innovative technical mitigation methods are reviewed. TON is one of the major candidates to replace conventional oxide layer for its superior quality and reliability performance. Major advantages and caveats of key TON process techniques are discussed. The impact of TON on quality and reliability performance of charge storage NVM devices is carefully reviewed with emphasis on major advantages and drawbacks of top and bottom nitridation. Physical mechanisms attributed to charge retention and V(t) instability phenomenon are also reviewed in this paper.

  16. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to an Unconfined Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guohui; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Harvey, Omar; Sullivan, E. C.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-15

    A series of batch and column experiments combined with solid phase characterization studies (i.e., quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions) were conducted to address a variety of scientific issues and evaluate the impacts of the potential leakage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from deep subsurface storage reservoirs. The main objective was to gain an understanding of how CO2 gas influences: 1) the aqueous phase pH; and 2) mobilization of major, minor, and trace elements from minerals present in an aquifer overlying potential CO2 sequestration subsurface repositories. Rocks and slightly weathered rocks representative of an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer within the continental US, i.e., the Edwards aquifer in Texas, were used in these studies. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream or were leached with a CO2-saturated influent solution to simulate different CO2 gas leakage scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in the liquid samples collected at pre-determined experimental times (batch experiments) or continuously (column experiments). The results from the strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the Edward aquifer samples contain As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which may potentially be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. The results from the batch and column experiments confirmed the release of major chemical elements into the contacting aqueous phase (such as Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Si, Na, and K); the mobilization and possible rapid immobilization of minor elements (such as Fe, Al, and Mn), which are able to form highly reactive secondary phases; and sporadic mobilization of only low concentrations of trace elements (such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mo, etc.). The results from this experimental research effort will help in developing a systematic understanding of how CO2

  17. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  18. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwaterresources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact ongroundwater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan,Preston; Zhang,K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-10-24

    If carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies areimplemented on a large scale, the amounts of CO2 injected and sequesteredunderground could be extremely large. The stored CO2 then replaces largevolumes of native brine, which can cause considerable pressureperturbation and brine migration in the deep saline formations. Ifhydraulically communicating, either directly via updipping formations orthrough interlayer pathways such as faults or imperfect seals, theseperturbations may impact shallow groundwater or even surface waterresources used for domestic or commercial water supply. Possibleenvironmental concerns include changes in pressure and water table,changes in discharge and recharge zones, as well as changes in waterquality. In compartmentalized formations, issues related to large-scalepressure buildup and brine displacement may also cause storage capacityproblems, because significant pressure buildup can be produced. Toaddress these issues, a three-year research project was initiated inOctober 2006, the first part of which is summarized in this annualreport.

  19. The combined evaluation of interim contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) and FDG-PET/CT predicts the clinical outcomes and may impact on the therapeutic plans in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deok-Hwan; Min, Jung-Joon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Cho, Sang-Hee; Chung, Ik-Joo; Bom, Hee-Seung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the concomitant interim response of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using multi-detector row computerized tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D: -glucose-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT for prediction of clinical outcomes. One hundred six newly diagnosed patients with aggressive NHL were enrolled. Both the CT and PET/CT were serially performed at the time of diagnosis and after three to four cycles of chemotherapy (interim). The patients were categorized into four different responsive groups according to the interim PET/CT and CT: (1) complete metabolic response (CMR)-complete response unconfirmed (CRu), (2) CMR-partial response (PR), (3) partial metabolic response (PMR)-Cru, and (4) PMR-PR. Fifty-five patients with CMR-CRu, 20 patients with CMR-PR, seven patients with PMR-Cru, and 23 patients with PMR-PR were distributed. In addition, one patient experienced a disease progression. There was a significant difference in relapse rates between PET/CT-positive (67.3%) and PET/CT-negative patients (17.3%; P < 0.01). Also, there was a significant difference between patients with PMR-PR (32.0% and 26.1%) and CMR-CRu (89.3% and 80.0%) for 3-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS), respectively. A multivariate analysis revealed that high international prognostic index (> or =3) at diagnosis, T-cell phenotype, and PMR-PR in interim PET/CT and CT were independent prognostic significances for OS. Moreover, bulky disease (>10 cm), T-cell phenotype, and PMR-PR showed significant associations for EFS. PMR-PR in interim response was the predictive prognostic determinant for both OS and EFS, with a hazard ratio of 3.93 (1.61-9.60) and 3.60 (1.62-7.98), respectively. The combined evaluation of interim PET/CT and CT was found to be a significant predictor of disease progression, OS, and EFS.

  20. The Impact of Sperm Metabolism during In Vitro Storage: The Stallion as a Model.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Zamira; Aitken, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    In vitro sperm storage is a necessary part of many artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization regimes for many species, including the human and the horse. In many situations spermatozoa are chilled to temperatures between 4 and 10°C for the purpose of restricting the metabolic rate during storage, in turn, reducing the depletion of ATP and the production of detrimental by-products such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Another result of lowering the temperature is that spermatozoa may be "cold shocked" due to lipid membrane phase separation, resulting in reduced fertility. To overcome this, a method of sperm storage must be developed that will preclude the need to chill spermatozoa. If a thermally induced restriction-of-metabolic-rate strategy is not employed, ATP production must be supported while ameliorating the deleterious effects of ROS. To achieve this end, an understanding of the nature of energy production by the spermatozoa of the species of interest is essential. Human spermatozoa depend predominantly on glycolytic ATP production, producing significantly less ROS than oxidative phosphorylation, with the more efficient pathway predominantly employed by stallion spermatozoa. This review provides an overview of the implications of sperm metabolism for in vitro sperm storage, with a focus on ambient temperature storage in the stallion.

  1. The Impact of Sperm Metabolism during In Vitro Storage: The Stallion as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Zamira; Aitken, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro sperm storage is a necessary part of many artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization regimes for many species, including the human and the horse. In many situations spermatozoa are chilled to temperatures between 4 and 10°C for the purpose of restricting the metabolic rate during storage, in turn, reducing the depletion of ATP and the production of detrimental by-products such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Another result of lowering the temperature is that spermatozoa may be “cold shocked” due to lipid membrane phase separation, resulting in reduced fertility. To overcome this, a method of sperm storage must be developed that will preclude the need to chill spermatozoa. If a thermally induced restriction-of-metabolic-rate strategy is not employed, ATP production must be supported while ameliorating the deleterious effects of ROS. To achieve this end, an understanding of the nature of energy production by the spermatozoa of the species of interest is essential. Human spermatozoa depend predominantly on glycolytic ATP production, producing significantly less ROS than oxidative phosphorylation, with the more efficient pathway predominantly employed by stallion spermatozoa. This review provides an overview of the implications of sperm metabolism for in vitro sperm storage, with a focus on ambient temperature storage in the stallion. PMID:26881234

  2. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions.

  3. Assessing the impact of long term frozen storage of faecal samples on protein concentration and protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Laura S.; Marchesi, Julian R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The proteome is the second axis of the microbiome:host interactome and proteases are a significant aspect in this interaction. They interact with a large variety of host proteins and structures and in many situations are implicated in pathogenesis. Furthermore faecal samples are commonly collected and stored frozen so they can be analysed at a later date. So we were interested to know whether long term storage affected the integrity of proteases and total protein and whether historical native faecal samples were still a viable option for answering research questions around the functional proteome. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 3 healthy volunteers (3 biological replicates) and processed in order to be stored at both − 20 °C and − 80 °C and in a variety of storage buffers. Protein extraction, protein content and protease activity were assessed at the time of collection, after 24 h, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months 6 months and finally 1 year. Results Beadbeating impacted the quantity of protein extracted, while sodium azide did not impact protease assays. Long term storage of extracted proteins showed that both total protein and protease activity were affected when they were stored as extracted protein. Intact faecal samples were shown to maintain both protein levels and protease activity regardless of time and temperature. Conclusions Beadbeating increases the protein and protease activity when extracting from a faecal sample, however, the extracted protein is not stable and activity is lost, even with a suitable storage buffer. The most robust solution is to store the proteins in an intact frozen native faecal matrix and extract at the time of assay or analysis, this approach was shown to be suitable for samples in which, there are low levels of protease activity and which had been frozen for a year. PMID:26853125

  4. 45 CFR 1623.6 - Interim funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interim funding. 1623.6 Section 1623.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION SUSPENSION PROCEDURES § 1623.6 Interim funding. (a) Pending the completion of suspension proceedings under this...

  5. 45 CFR 1623.6 - Interim funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interim funding. 1623.6 Section 1623.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION SUSPENSION PROCEDURES § 1623.6 Interim funding. (a) Pending the completion of suspension proceedings under this...

  6. 45 CFR 1623.6 - Interim funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interim funding. 1623.6 Section 1623.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION SUSPENSION PROCEDURES § 1623.6 Interim funding. (a) Pending the completion of suspension proceedings under this...

  7. 45 CFR 1623.6 - Interim funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interim funding. 1623.6 Section 1623.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION SUSPENSION PROCEDURES § 1623.6 Interim funding. (a) Pending the completion of suspension proceedings under this...

  8. 40 CFR 94.12 - Interim provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim provisions. 94.12 Section 94.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... for Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94.12 Interim provisions. This section contains...

  9. 45 CFR 1623.6 - Interim funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim funding. 1623.6 Section 1623.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION SUSPENSION PROCEDURES § 1623.6 Interim funding. (a) Pending the completion of suspension proceedings under this...

  10. 40 CFR 1042.145 - Interim provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim provisions. 1042.145 Section... Standards and Related Requirements § 1042.145 Interim provisions. (a) General. The provisions in this section apply instead of other provisions in this part. This section describes when these...

  11. 39 CFR 952.6 - Interim impounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim impounding. 952.6 Section 952.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.6 Interim impounding. In preparation for or during the pendency of...

  12. 20 CFR 410.234 - Interim provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim provisions. 410.234 Section 410.234 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV... Evidence § 410.234 Interim provisions. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart, a...

  13. 24 CFR 35.820 - Interim controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... completion of the risk assessment. In units in which a child of less than 6 years of age moves in after the completion of the risk assessment, interim controls shall be completed no later than 90 days after the move... property, interim controls shall be completed no later than 12 months after completion of the...

  14. 24 CFR 35.820 - Interim controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... completion of the risk assessment. In units in which a child of less than 6 years of age moves in after the completion of the risk assessment, interim controls shall be completed no later than 90 days after the move... property, interim controls shall be completed no later than 12 months after completion of the...

  15. 24 CFR 35.820 - Interim controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... completion of the risk assessment. In units in which a child of less than 6 years of age moves in after the completion of the risk assessment, interim controls shall be completed no later than 90 days after the move... property, interim controls shall be completed no later than 12 months after completion of the...

  16. 24 CFR 35.820 - Interim controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... completion of the risk assessment. In units in which a child of less than 6 years of age moves in after the completion of the risk assessment, interim controls shall be completed no later than 90 days after the move... property, interim controls shall be completed no later than 12 months after completion of the...

  17. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1330 Interim controls. Interim controls of lead-based paint hazards identified in a risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance...

  18. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1330 Interim controls. Interim controls of lead-based paint hazards identified in a risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance...

  19. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1330 Interim controls. Interim controls of lead-based paint hazards identified in a risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance...

  20. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1330 Interim controls. Interim controls of lead-based paint hazards identified in a risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance...

  1. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1330 Interim controls. Interim controls of lead-based paint hazards identified in a risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance...

  2. The Yami`s opposition to the Lanyu LLW storage installation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.K.; Chang, S.Y.

    1993-12-31

    Since 1982, the solidified low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in Taiwan, regardless of the origins, have been sent to Lanyu for interim storage. Lanyu is a small island located 80 kilometers southeast of Taiwan. Its unique Polynesian cultural characteristics make it an attractive tourist spot. Dissatisfaction of being the commonly neglected powerless minority, in addition to the political claims from the outside environmental activists made the majority of the Lanyu residents oppose the operation of the storage facility. Approximately 80,000 drums of these wastes have been sent to Lanyu. Although the radiological monitoring results demonstrated that the current operation causes negligible impact on the environment. Accounting for the fast changing social and political situations in Taiwan today, without a good public acceptance program for both sides, the continuous operation of the Lanyu LLW storage facility until the year 2002, at which time the LLW disposal facility will be commissioned, could be in limbo.

  3. The impact of image storage organization on the effectiveness of PACS.

    PubMed

    Hindel, R

    1990-11-01

    Picture archiving communication system (PACS) requires efficient handling of large amounts of data. Mass storage systems are cost effective but slow, while very fast systems, like frame buffers and parallel transfer disks, are expensive. The image traffic can be divided into inbound traffic generated by diagnostic modalities and outbound traffic into workstations. At the contact points with medical professionals, the responses must be fast. Archiving, on the other hand, can employ slower but less expensive storage systems, provided that the primary activities are not impeded. This article illustrates a segmentation architecture meeting these requirements based on a clearly defined PACS concept.

  4. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  5. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-06-11

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83.

  6. Vet Centers. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-08-04

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This interim final rule amends regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  7. Modeling of Hurricane Impacts, Interim Report 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    time intervals. • Improvement of avalanching mechanism, with separate criteria for critical slope at wet or dry points . A first series of (mainly 1D...Improvement of avalanching mechanism, with separate criteria for critical slope at wet or dry points . 3.3 General setup (update) The program XBeach...first term on the RHS) and current refraction (last two terms on the RHS). The wave number k is obtained from the eikonal equations: 0 0 x y k t x

  8. STORAGE RING MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRON IMPACT IONIZATION FOR Mg{sup 7+} FORMING Mg{sup 8+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Lestinsky, M.; Novotny, O.; Savin, D. W.; Bernhardt, D.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Wolf, A.

    2010-04-01

    We report electron impact ionization cross section measurements for Mg{sup 7+} forming Mg{sup 8+} at center of mass energies from approximately 200 eV to 2000 eV. The experimental work was performed using the heavy-ion storage ring TSR located at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. We find good agreement with distorted wave calculations using both the GIPPER code of the Los Alamos Atomic Physics Code suite and using the Flexible Atomic Code.

  9. Analyzing the impact of storage shortage on data availability in decentralized online social networks.

    PubMed

    Fu, Songling; He, Ligang; Liao, Xiangke; Li, Kenli; Huang, Chenlin

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining data availability is one of the biggest challenges in decentralized online social networks (DOSNs). The existing work often assumes that the friends of a user can always contribute to the sufficient storage capacity to store all data. However, this assumption is not always true in today's online social networks (OSNs) due to the fact that nowadays the users often use the smart mobile devices to access the OSNs. The limitation of the storage capacity in mobile devices may jeopardize the data availability. Therefore, it is desired to know the relation between the storage capacity contributed by the OSN users and the level of data availability that the OSNs can achieve. This paper addresses this issue. In this paper, the data availability model over storage capacity is established. Further, a novel method is proposed to predict the data availability on the fly. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the data availability model and the on-the-fly prediction.

  10. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... the headwaters of Fort Peck Reservoir, Ft. Peck, MT to St. Louis, MO. Project Scope. The demand for M... to St. Louis, MO. In contemplating an allocation of storage to M&I to meet needs in the basin, the... 22, 2012--St. Louis, MO: Marriott West, 660 Maryville Centre Drive. August 23, 2012--Sioux City,...

  11. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    SciTech Connect

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Batiy, Valiriy; Sizov, Andriy; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  12. Transportation impacts on the Tennessee highway system proposed monitored retrievable storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cobble, C.

    1985-12-12

    The issue of the transport of spent fuels to the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility in Tennessee is discussed. Relevant issues include the ability of the roads and bridges on the transport routes to handle the weight of the trucks. (CBS)

  13. Transportation impacts on the Tennessee highway system proposed monitored retrievable storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cobble, C.

    1985-12-12

    The issue of the transport of spent fuels to the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility in Tennessee is discussed. Relevant issues include the ability of the roads and bridges on the transport routes to handle the weight of the trucks. (CBS)

  14. Atmospheric Effects of Subsonic Aircraft: Interim Assessment Report of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedl, Randall R. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This first interim assessment of the subsonic assessment (SASS) project attempts to summarize concisely the status of our knowledge concerning the impacts of present and future subsonic aircraft fleets. It also highlights the major areas of scientific uncertainty, through review of existing data bases and model-based sensitivity studies. In view of the need for substantial improvements in both model formulations and experimental databases, this interim assessment cannot provide confident numerical predictions of aviation impacts. However, a number of quantitative estimates are presented, which provide some guidance to policy makers.

  15. 40 CFR 270.73 - Termination of interim status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination of interim status. 270.73... (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Interim Status § 270.73 Termination of interim status. Interim status terminates when: (a) Final administrative disposition of...

  16. 46 CFR 309.101 - Amendment of interim binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment of interim binders. 309.101 Section 309.101... INSURANCE § 309.101 Amendment of interim binders. The interim binder for a vessel whose stated valuation is... after the attachment of the insurance under the interim binder to which such valuation...

  17. 40 CFR 270.71 - Operation during interim status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation during interim status. 270... (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Interim Status § 270.71 Operation during interim status. (a) During the interim status period the facility shall not: (1)...

  18. 49 CFR 106.35 - Interim final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim final rule. 106.35 Section 106.35... PHMSA Rulemaking Documents § 106.35 Interim final rule. An interim final rule is issued without first... requirements and their effective date. PHMSA may issue an interim final rule if it finds, for good cause,...

  19. 13 CFR 120.890 - Source of interim financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Source of interim financing. 120... Development Company Loan Program (504) Interim Financing § 120.890 Source of interim financing. A Project may use interim financing for all Project costs except the Borrower's contribution. Any source...

  20. 5 CFR 772.102 - Interim personnel actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim personnel actions. 772.102... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) INTERIM RELIEF General § 772.102 Interim personnel actions. When an employee or... administrative judge granting interim relief under 5 U.S.C. 7701(b)(2)(A) and a petition for review of...

  1. 33 CFR 1.05-45 - Interim rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim rule. 1.05-45 Section 1... PROVISIONS Rulemaking § 1.05-45 Interim rule. (a) An interim rule may be issued when it is in the public... example, an interim rule may be issued in instances when normal procedures for notice and comment prior...

  2. The impact of changing land use, nitrate deposition and CO sub 2 fertilization on soil carbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.; Broecker, W.

    1992-05-21

    This research strives to assess the impact of changing land use, nitrate deposition and CO{sub 2} fertilization on soil carbon storage. Our motivation is that this reservoir is the most likely candidate for the so-called missing carbon sink. We are working on several aspects of this problem by measuring carbon content, nitrogen content and radiocarbon ratios in paired soil samples from neighboring sites, to determine the impact of land use on soil carbon inventories and turnover times. We are also gathering information on how the C/N ratios in soils vary with climate and changing land use, in an effort to estimate how much carbon has been sequestered as a result of atmospheric fallout of NH{sub 4}OH and HNO{sub 3}. Finally, we are developing a soil greening model that uses CO{sub 2} growth-enhancement results and bomb radiocarbon-based estimates of soil carbon inventory response times.

  3. Impact testing of the H1224A shipping/storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D.C.; Bobbe, J.G.; Stenberg, D.R.; Arviso, M.

    1994-05-01

    H1224A weapons containers have been used for years by the Department of Energy and Department of Defense to transport and store W78 warhead midsections. Although designed to protect these midsections only in low-energy handling drop and impact accidents, a recent transportation risk assessment effort has identified a need to evaluate the container`s ability to protect weapons in higher-energy environments. Four impact tests were performed on H1224A containers with W78 Mod 6c mass mockup midsections inside, onto an essentially unyielding target. Dynamic acceleration and strain levels were recorded during the side-on and end-on impacts, each at 12.2 m/s (40 ft/s) and 38.1 m/s (125 ft/s). Measured peak accelerations experienced by the midsections during lower velocity impacts ranged from 250 to 600 Gs for the end-on impact and 350 to 600 Gs for the side-on impact. Measured peak accelerations of the midsections during the higher velocity impacts ranged from 3,000 to 10,000 Gs for the end-on impact and 8,000 to 10,000 Gs for the side-on impact. Deformations in the H1224A container ranged from minimal to severe buckling and weld tearing. At higher impact velocities, the H1224A container may not provide significant energy absorption for the re-entry vehicle midsection but can provide some confinement of potentially damaged components.

  4. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

  5. The Impact of Central Obesity on Storage Luts and Urinary Incontinence After Prostatic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gacci, Mauro; Sebastianelli, Arcangelo; Salvi, Matteo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Moncada, Ignacio; Serni, Sergio; Maggi, Mario; Vignozzi, Linda

    2016-09-01

    In the developed and developing countries, the overall prevalence of central obesity in the elderly men is growing. In addition, the progressive aging of male population increased the possibilities of coexisting morbidities associated with obesity such as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or to prostate cancer (PCa) needing primary treatment, including radical prostatectomy (RP), which can further adversely affect the quality of life. Simple and radical prostatectomy are the most common surgical procedures in urologic unit all over the world for BPE and PCa, respectively. After both interventions, patients can present bothering storage LUTS that can worsen all the other clinical outcomes. Preset study will review the role of central obesity as a risk factor for storage LUTS or urinary incontinence, after prostatic surgery for BPE or PCa.

  6. Final Finding of No Significant Impact Munitions Storage Area at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-11

    Munitions Storage Area 6 •Jack Siegel • Deborah Tharp •MSgt Randy Russell • Romru1 Alvarez • Mike Faldowski •Carl T. Hoffman AETC/CE AETC/CE AFSC/SEW...office about project. Additional documentalion/research is required. Comments attached. SIGNEO "{)\\ a ~~~ w.RaAL~ "" Duncan Jay Cairns Chief, Bur

  7. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  8. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior.

  9. Impact of carbon storage through restoration of drylands on the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    The authors evaluate the potential for global carbon storage in drylands as one of several policy options to reduce buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They use the GLOCO model, a global carbon cycle model with eight terrestrial biomes that are described mechanistically in detail in terms of the biological processes that involve carbon and nitrogen cycling and the effect of temperature on these processes. GLOCO also considers low-latitude and high-latitude oceans, each divided further into a surface layer and several deeper layers, with an explicit description of biogeochemical processes occurring in each layer, and exchanges among ocean reservoirs and the atmosphere. GLOCO is used to study the transient response of actual vegetation, which is more realistic than looking at equilibrium conditions of potential vegetation. Using estimates of land suitable for restoration in woodlands, grasslands, and deserts, as well as estimates of the rate at which restoration can proceed, the authors estimate that carbon storage in these biomes can range up to 0.8 billion tons of carbon per year for a combination of land management strategies. A global strategy for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will require the implementation of multiple options. The advantage of carbon storage in restored drylands is that it comes as a side benefit to programs that are also justifiable in terms of land management.

  10. Impact of chemical changes on the sensory characteristics of coffee beans during storage.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Mery Yovana; de Jesus Garcia Salva, Terezinha; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2014-03-15

    Sensory changes during the storage of coffee beans occur mainly due to lipid oxidation and are responsible for the loss of commercial value. This work aimed to verify how sensory changes of natural coffee and pulped natural coffee are related to the oxidative processes during 15 months of storage. During this period, changes in the content of free fatty acids (1.4-3.8 mg/g oil), TBARS values (8.8-10.2 nmol MDA/g), and carbonyl groups (2.6-3.5 nmol/mg of protein) occurred. The intensity of "rested coffee flavour" in the coffee brew increased (2.1-6.7) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid concentration decreased (5.2-4.6g/100g). Losses were also observed in seed viability, colour of the beans and cellular structure. All the results of the chemical analyses are coherent with the oxidative process that occurred in the grains during storage. Therefore, oxidation would be also responsible for the loss of cellular structure, seed viability and sensory changes.

  11. Microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances from laboratories and impact of clinical storage.

    PubMed

    Williams, D W; Chamary, N; Lewis, M A O; Milward, P J; McAndrew, R

    2011-08-26

    Decontamination of dental instruments has recently been the subject of considerable debate. However, little information is available on the potential bacterial colonisation of dental appliances returning from dental laboratories and their need for decontamination. This study investigated the extent and nature of microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances produced at different dental laboratories and stored in two clinical teaching units (CTU 1 and CTU 2) of a dental hospital and school. Forty consecutive dental prosthodontic appliances that were being stored under varying conditions in the two clinical teaching units were selected for study; the appliances having been produced 'in-house' (hospital laboratory) or 'out-of-house' (external commercial laboratory). Two appliances, that were known to have undergone decontamination before storage, were used as controls. Swabs were taken according to a standard protocol and transferred to the microbiological laboratory with bacterial growth expressed as colony forming units (cfu) per cm(2). Microbial sampling yielded growth from 23 (58%) of the 40 appliances studied (CTU 1, n = 22; CTU 2, n = 18), with 38% of these having a high level of contamination (>42,000 cfu/cm(2)). The predominant bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. (57%), pseudomonads (22%) and staphylococci (13%). Fungi of the genus Candida were detected in 38% of the samples. There was no significant difference in contamination of the appliances in relation to either their place of production or the CTU (p >0.05). However, the level of contamination was significantly higher (p = 0.035) for those appliances stored in plastic bag with fluid (n = 16) compared to those stored on models (n = 19). No growth was recovered from the two appliances that had undergone decontamination before storage. The research showed that appliances received from laboratories are often contaminated and therefore there is a need for routine disinfection of such items

  12. Impact of grain storage into silo bags on soil penetration resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan Pablo; Alé, Daniel; Sabattini, Rafael; Díaz, Eduardo; Lado, Marcos; González, Antonio Paz

    2015-04-01

    Big silo sacks or bags ("silo bolsas", in Spanish) are nowadays widely used in Argentina as an innovative technology for grain storage and conservation on the farm. Following the last harvest campaigns, 40.000.000 Toms of grains were stored in silo sacks. A standard silo sack, or silo bag, has a length of about 75 m and is 2.7 m in diameter; when laden with cereal grains, a pressure of 9.8 MPa is applied on the soil surface. Silo sacks are currently installed within agricultural fields, and, after the storage period has finished, the plot they occupied most commonly again is cultivated. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of silo sacks on soil penetration resistance (PR). Two field experiments were performed in sites located at the departments of Paraná and Nogoyá, Entre Ríos province, Argentina. The soils in both sites were classified as Vertisols and contained expansible smectite minerals, mainly montmorillonite. Soil PR was continuously recorded until 80 cm depth. The first experiment, conducted in Paraná department, involved three different treatments with five RP replicated measurements per treatment: a) a plot under a silo bag with regular machinery transit for grain uploading and downloading, and previously used as pasture for livestock, b) a plot under grassland used for mowing and without livestock transit, and c) a plot under woody native vegetation, locally called "Espinal". The second experiment, conducted at Nogoyá department consisted of two treatments, each with for PR replications: a) a plot under silo sack with machinery transit, and b) a control plot located in the neighbouring field. n the first site a significant increase in soil PR (P<0,05) under silo bag was recorded at the 0-20cm depth. In the second site soil PR was not significantly different between treatments at the 0-5 cm depth, while significant differences in PR were recorded at the 5-10 cm depth (P<0.05). We concluded that soil PR measurements under silo bag provide

  13. Space shuttle SRM interim contract, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Essential studies and analyses required to integrate the SRM into the booster and overall space shuttle system. Emphasis was placed on the case, nozzle, insulation, and propellant components with resulting performance, weight, and structural load characteristics being generated. Effort conducted during the time period of this contract included studies, analyses, planning, and preliminary design activities. Technical requirements identified in the SRM Project Request for Proposal No. 8-1-4-94-98401 and Thiokol's proposed SRM design (designated Configuration 0) established the basis for this effort. The requirements were evaluated jointly with MSFC and altered where necessary to incorporate new information that evolved after issuance of the RFP and during the course of this interim contract. Revised water impact loads and load distributions were provided based on additional model test data and analytical effort conducted by NASA subsequent to the RFP release. Launch pad peaking loads into the SRM aft skirt were provided which also represented a change from RFP requirements. A modified SRM/External Tank (ET) attachment configuration with new structural load data was supplied by NASA, and direction was received to include a 2 percent inert weight contingency.

  14. Interim Policy for Evaluation of Stereoisomeric Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An interim approach for determining data requirements for non-racemic mixtures of stereoisomeric pesticides. These data are needed in order to assess the risk posed to ecosystems and drinking water sources by these mixtures.

  15. 40 CFR 180.319 - Interim tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.319 Interim... pesticide chemicals in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: Substances Uses Tolerance in...

  16. Interim Prosthesis Options for Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh

    2016-01-24

    Dental implants have become a popular treatment modality for replacing missing teeth. In this regard, the importance of restoring patients with function during the implant healing period has grown in recent decades. Esthetic concerns, especially in the anterior region of the maxilla, should also be considered until the definitive restoration is delivered. Another indication for such restorations is maintenance of the space required for esthetic and functional definitive restorations in cases where the implant site is surrounded by natural teeth. Numerous articles have described different types of interim prostheses and their fabrication techniques. This article aims to briefly discuss all types of implant-related interim prostheses by different classification including provisional timing (before implant placement, after implant placement in unloading and loading periods), materials, and techniques used for making the restorations, the type of interim prosthesis retention, and definitive restoration. Furthermore, the abutment torque for such restorations and methods for transferring the soft tissue from interim to definitive prostheses are addressed.

  17. Impacts of Climate Changes on the Future Groundwater Storage in the High Plains Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, M. H.; Wu, W. Y.; Wada, Y.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yeh, P. J. F.; Ducharne, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contributes approximately 40% of global freshwater use, and it is critical for water supply and associated food production in arid or semi-arid areas during dry seasons. The increasing demand for water and finite water sources have led to long-term groundwater depletion, creating an obstacle to sustainability in several regions of the world under the pressures of population growth and climate change. The High Plains Aquifer System has an area of 450,000 km2, and is the most pumped aquifer and one of the most important agricultural areas in the United States. In this study, we use coupled climate-hydrological model simulations from the NCAR Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project to investigate the groundwater storage changes in the High Plains Aquifer under future climate changes and also to explore how such groundwater storage changes might in turn affect the climate through land-atmosphere coupling. Preliminary results indicate that not only the amount of groundwater recharge declines, but the seasonal variations of groundwater recharge also become smaller, resulting in widespread water table decline in a future warmer climate. We will explore how such variations associate to projected changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration, and feedback to the climate.

  18. Storage Conditions of Conjugated Reagents Can Impact Results of Immunogenicity Assays.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Robert J; Lee, Nancy; Zhu, Yuan; Franch, William R; Levitskaya, Sophia V; Krishnan, Surekha R; Abraham, Varghese; Akufongwe, Peter F; Larkin, Christopher J; White, Wendy I

    2016-01-01

    Consistent performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA) assays through all stages of clinical development is critical for the assessment of immunogenicity and interpretation of PK, PD, safety, and efficacy. The electrochemiluminescent assays commonly employed for ADA measurement use drug conjugated with ruthenium and biotin to bind ADA in samples. Here we report an association between high nonspecific ADA responses in certain drug-naïve individuals and the storage buffer of the conjugated reagents used in a monoclonal antibody ADA assay. Ruthenylated reagents stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer had increased levels of aggregate and produced variable and high baseline responses in some subjects. Reagents stored in a histidine-sucrose buffer (HSB) had lower aggregate levels and produced low sample responses. In contrast to PBS, conjugated reagents formulated in HSB remained low in aggregate content and in sample response variability after 5 freeze/thaw cycles. A reagent monitoring control (RMC) serum was prepared for the real-time evaluation of conjugated reagent quality. Using appropriate buffers for storage of conjugated reagents together with RMCs capable of monitoring of reagent aggregation status can help ensure consistent, long-term performance of ADA methods.

  19. Storage Conditions of Conjugated Reagents Can Impact Results of Immunogenicity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy; Zhu, Yuan; Franch, William R.; Levitskaya, Sophia V.; Krishnan, Surekha R.; Abraham, Varghese; Akufongwe, Peter F.; Larkin, Christopher J.; White, Wendy I.

    2016-01-01

    Consistent performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA) assays through all stages of clinical development is critical for the assessment of immunogenicity and interpretation of PK, PD, safety, and efficacy. The electrochemiluminescent assays commonly employed for ADA measurement use drug conjugated with ruthenium and biotin to bind ADA in samples. Here we report an association between high nonspecific ADA responses in certain drug-naïve individuals and the storage buffer of the conjugated reagents used in a monoclonal antibody ADA assay. Ruthenylated reagents stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer had increased levels of aggregate and produced variable and high baseline responses in some subjects. Reagents stored in a histidine-sucrose buffer (HSB) had lower aggregate levels and produced low sample responses. In contrast to PBS, conjugated reagents formulated in HSB remained low in aggregate content and in sample response variability after 5 freeze/thaw cycles. A reagent monitoring control (RMC) serum was prepared for the real-time evaluation of conjugated reagent quality. Using appropriate buffers for storage of conjugated reagents together with RMCs capable of monitoring of reagent aggregation status can help ensure consistent, long-term performance of ADA methods. PMID:27478855

  20. Geochemical Impact on the Caprock Porous Structure during CO2 Geological Storage : A Laboratory and Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhenals Garrido, D. R.; Lafortune, S.; Souli, H.; Dubujet, P.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 storage is envisioned as a technique which reduces large quantities of CO2 rejected in the atmosphere because of many human activities. The effectiveness of this technique is mainly related to the storage capacity as well as its safety. The safety of this operation is primarily based on the conservation of petro-physical properties of the caprock, which prevents the transport of CO2 towards the surface. However when CO2 reaches the reservoir/caprock interface due to buoyancy effects, the interaction between interstitial fluid and injected fluid creates a serie of dissolution/precipitation reactions affecting the properties of containment of the caprock, which is generally characterized by low transport properties. This study aims to assess the impact caused by CO2/interstitial fluid interaction on the nanostructure of a caprock under geological storage conditions. In order to do this, degradation experiments at high pressure of CO2 (88 bar) and isothermal (55°C) conditions have been conducted using batch reactors for 3.5 months. The sample used for these experiments is a well characterized shale, from the Tournemire formation (Aveyron-France). Porosity evolution has been followed by using volumetric adsorption at low pressure, from advanced NLFDT and classical theories based on the micropores filling, and capillary condensation phenomena. Results showed a slight variation in both mesopores and micropores size distributions, as a result of dissolution processes, which dominated at laboratoty time scale. Furthermore, chemical analysis from the water sampled showed an overall increase in Ca,Mg,K,Si,Na. The results obtained by physical adsorption and water chemistry analysis were consistent, with geochemical modeling, which suggested reaction paths with calcite dissolution as the main mineral, by producing porosity at short term and (clays, feldspars) dissolution of aluminosilicates dominating at long term.

  1. Impact of variable bed morphology on transient storage, hyporhic exchange and nutrient uptake in a field-scale flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, C. H.; Clark, J. J.; Wilcock, P. R.; Finlay, J. C.; Doyle, M. W.

    2006-12-01

    As part of an ongoing, multidisciplinary experimental effort coordinated by the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics we investigated reach-scale interactions between, bed morphology, transient storage, nutrient cycling in a field-scale flume supplied with water from the Mississippi River. A combination of conservative salt tracer and soluble reactive phosphorous and nitrate additions was used to study the effects on these parameters of two bed morphologies (plane bed and alternate bar) and two sediment mixtures (clean gravel and sandy gravel) to determine how differences in sediment size and between plane-bed and laterally variable morphologies influence spatial heterogeneity in transport and uptake of nutrients. The goal was to partitioning reach-scale transient storage values between surface storage and hyporheic flow, determine how these values and their relative importance changed as we varied bed texture (or permeability) and added or removed surface features, and to then measure uptake of biologically available nitrogen and phosphorus individually and together along these surface and subsurface flow paths. In a final phase of the experiment, lights were added to the flume to determine how benthic algal abundance may change bed permeability and solute exchange with the bed as well as nutrient uptake rates. Initial results show that while mean water residence time varied by a factor of 2 across treatments (14 - 30 min) phosphorus uptake rates varied widely (5.5-2500 μg * m-2 * min-1 and the addition of light had a stronger impact on uptake rates than changes in geomorphic form.

  2. Assessing land take by urban development and its impact on carbon storage: Findings from two case studies in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sallustio, L.; Quatrini, V.; Geneletti, D.; Corona, P.; Marchetti, M.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We tested a new methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on C storage. • The ecological impact of urban growth derives from the previous land use. • C loss increases with the naturalness of the territory. • Different urban assets may imply different forms of land take containment. Land take due to urbanization triggers a series of negative environmental impacts with direct effects on quality of life for people living in cities. Changes in ecosystem services are associated with land take, among which is the immediate C loss due to land use conversion. Land use change monitoring represents the first step in quantifying land take and its drivers and impacts. To this end, we propose an innovative methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on ecosystem services (in particular, C loss) under multi-scale contexts. The devised approach was tested in two areas with similar sizes, but different land take levels during the time-span 1990–2008 in Central Italy (the Province of Rome and the Molise Region). The estimates of total coverage of built up areas were calculated using point sampling. The area of the urban patches including each sampling point classified as built up areas in the year 1990 and/or in the year 2008 is used to estimate total abundance and average area of built up areas. Biophysical and economic values for carbon loss associated with land take were calculated using InVEST. Although land take was 7–8 times higher in the Province of Rome (from 15.1% in 1990 to 20.4% in 2008) than in Molise region, our findings show that its relative impact on C storage is higher in the latter, where the urban growth consistently affects not only croplands but also semi-natural land uses such as grasslands and other wooded lands. The total C loss due to land take has been estimated in 1.6 million Mg C, corresponding to almost 355 million €. Finally, the paper discusses the main characteristics of urban growth and their

  3. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally... federally obligated airports to construct solar energy systems on airport property. FAA is adopting an... for measuring ocular impact of proposed solar energy systems which are effective upon publication....

  4. Do Interim Assessments Influence Instructional Practice in Year One? Evidence from Indiana Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chojnacki, Gregory; Eno, Jared; Liu, Feng; Meyers, Coby; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Recent work that has examined the impact of what are variously called periodic, interim, benchmark, or diagnostic assessments, typically administered three or four times during a school year, has produced mixed findings. For instance, one study reported small significant effects in mathematics in grades 3-8, but not in reading (Carlson et al.,…

  5. 32 CFR 643.36 - Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facilitate economic readjustment. 643.36 Section 643.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... properties to facilitate economic readjustment. Interim outleasing of excess real property is authorized to lessen the economic impact on the local community, caused by an installation inactivation, closure...

  6. 75 FR 12217 - Notice of Availability for Comments Regarding the Planned Environmental Assessment Interim Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Assessment. The Corps is directed to conduct a study of technologies that may enhance the efficacy of the... reports. Interim Report IIIa, limited to the impacts of implementing additional in- stream barrier/deterrent technologies at key locations in the Illinois and Chicago Area Waterways is the focus of...

  7. Quantifying impacts of coupled chemical and physical heterogeneity on water quality evolution during Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H.; Descourvieres, C.; Seibert, S.; Harris, B.; Atteia, O.; Siade, A. J.; Prommer, H.

    2014-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an important water management option in water-scarce regions. During wet periods surplus water is injected into suitable aquifers for storage and later recovery. ASR sites are, however, also ideal natural laboratories that provide opportunities for studying coupled physical and geochemical processes and water quality evolution at field-scale under well-controlled hydrological conditions. In this study, we use reactive transport modelling to assess the impacts of physical and chemical heterogeneities on the water quality evolution during the injection of oxic surface water into the anoxic, pyrite-bearing Leederville aquifer in Perth, Western Australia. Physical heterogeneity was identified from geophysical well logs and time lapse temperature logs. Those data were used to define the spatial, depth-varying alternation of three lithofacies (sandstone, siltstone and clay). Chemical heterogeneity was incorporated through distinct chemical zones, based on data derived from a comprehensive pre-trial geochemical characterization and from dedicated laboratory respirometer experiments. Calibration of flow and conservative transport parameters was constrained by the spatially varying measured chloride breakthrough behavior. Subsequent reactive transport modeling discerned the key geochemical processes that affected the water quality evolution during ASR. Clearly identified processes included oxidation of pyrite, mineralization of sedimentary organic carbon, ion exchange, dissolution of calcite and precipitation of ferrihydrite and siderite. We use the calibrated model to analyze the individual and the combined effects of the physical and chemical heterogeneities on the chemical composition of the recovered water during ASR.

  8. Criteria for the management of disposal sites for ocean dumping extension of interim designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-16

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated amendments to its regulations on ocean dumping which extend the interim designation of certain ocean dumping sites pending completion of Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) and formal rulemaking procedures. Other sites, mainly those for dredged material disposal, will be extended pending completion of site designation studies and formal designation. The schedule for availability of draft EIS on 25 dumping sites and extension dates for the affected interim sites are discussed. This rule is effective as of 1/16/80. Comments must be received by 2/15/80.

  9. 78 FR 56752 - Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors Reviews AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft Interim Staff Guidance; request for comment... comment on, draft Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) ESP/COL-ISG-027, ``Interim Staff Guidance...

  10. Thermal energy storage material thermophysical property measurement and heat transfer impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tye, R. P.; Bourne, J. G.; Destarlais, A. O.

    1976-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of salts having potential for thermal energy storage to provide peaking energy in conventional electric utility power plants were investigated. The power plants studied were the pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, supercritical steam reactor, and high temperature gas reactor. The salts considered were LiNO3, 63LiOH/37 LiCl eutectic, LiOH, and Na2B4O7. The thermal conductivity, specific heat (including latent heat of fusion), and density of each salt were measured for a temperature range of at least + or - 100 K of the measured melting point. Measurements were made with both reagent and commercial grades of each salt.

  11. Processing Satellite Images on Tertiary Storage: A Study of the Impact of Tile Size on Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, JieBing; DeWitt, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Before raw data from a satellite can be used by an Earth scientist, it must first undergo a number of processing steps including basic processing, cleansing, and geo-registration. Processing actually expands the volume of data collected by a factor of 2 or 3 and the original data is never deleted. Thus processing and storage requirements can exceed 2 terrabytes/day. Once processed data is ready for analysis, a series of algorithms (typically developed by the Earth scientists) is applied to a large number of images in a data set. The focus of this paper is how best to handle such images stored on tape using the following assumptions: (1) all images of interest to a scientist are stored on a single tape, (2) images are accessed and processed in the order that they are stored on tape, and (3) the analysis requires access to only a portion of each image and not the entire image.

  12. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Wang, Guohui; Sullivan, E. C.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Harvey, Omar R.; Bowden, Mark

    2013-04-15

    Experimental research work has been conducted and is undergoing at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to address a variety of scientific issues related with the potential leaks of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from deep storage reservoirs. The main objectives of this work are as follows: • Develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and redox reactions) in the aquifer sediments. • Identify prevailing environmental conditions that would dictate one geochemical outcome over another. • Gather useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geological carbon sequestration. In this report, we present results from experiments conducted at PNNL to address research issues related to the main objectives of this effort. A series of batch and column experiments and solid phase characterization studies (quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions with a concentrated acid) were conducted with representative rocks and sediments from an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer, i.e., Edwards aquifer in Texas, and a confined aquifer, i.e., the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream simulating CO2 gas leaking scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in liquid and effluent samples collected at pre-determined experimental times. Additional research to be conducted during the current fiscal year will further validate these results and will address other important remaining issues. Results from these experimental efforts will provide valuable insights for the development of site-specific, generation III reduced order models. In addition, results will initially serve as input parameters during model calibration runs and, ultimately, will be used to test model predictive capability and

  13. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage.

    PubMed

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-11-06

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life.

  14. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424

  15. Hydrazine Blending and Storage Facility, Interim Response Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-07

    Ozonation 1 3. Evaporation pond 4. Off’site incineration 5. UV light/ozone 3 6. UV light/hydrogen peroxide Because the technical feasibility and... kinetics of chemical oxidation by ozone for hydrazine solutions, identify the partial oxidation products from the oxidation process, and establish the...experimental results, IITRI concluded that the reaction rate for destruction of hydrazine fuel compounds is kinetically controlled and is proportional to 5

  16. The impact of agglomeration and storage on flavor and flavor stability of whey protein concentrate 80% and whey protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Wright, B J; Zevchak, S E; Wright, J M; Drake, M A

    2009-01-01

    The impact of agglomeration on flavor and flavor stability of whey protein concentrates 80% (WPC80) and whey protein isolates (WPI) has not been widely addressed. This study examined the impact of agglomeration on the flavor and flavor stability of commercial WPC80 and WPI across 18 mo of storage. Duplicate agglomerated and nonagglomerated WPC80 and WPI were collected from 4 facilities and stored at 21 degrees C, 50% relative humidity. Volatile analysis using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis were conducted every 2 mo. Solubility index, bulk volume, dispersibility, moisture, and color (L, a, b) were tested every 3 or 6 mo. Consumer acceptance testing with protein beverages was conducted with fresh and stored whey proteins. Higher intensities and more rapid development of lipid oxidation flavors (cardboard, raisin/brothy, cucumber, and fatty) were noted in agglomerated powders compared to nonagglomerated powders (P < 0.05). Volatile analysis results confirmed sensory results, which indicated increased formation of aldehydes and ketones in agglomerated products compared to nonagglomerated powders (P < 0.05). Consumer acceptance scores for protein beverages were lower for beverages made with agglomerated WPC80 stored for 12 mo and agglomerated or nonagglomerated WPI stored for 18 mo compared to fresh products while trained panelists detected differences among beverages and rehydrated proteins earlier. Agglomeration with or without lecithin decreased the storage stability of whey proteins. These results indicate that the optimum shelf life at 21 degrees C for nonagglomerated whey proteins is 12 to 15 mo and 8 to 12 mo for agglomerated whey proteins.

  17. The screening and scoping of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment of Carbon Capture and Storage in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Koornneef, J.; Faaij, A.; Turkenburg, W.

    2008-08-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are procedural tools which have as goal to assess and evaluate possible environmental effects of, respectively, a proposed project or policy plan. The goal of this article is to explore possible bottlenecks in applying both the EIA and SEA procedures on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) activities in the Netherlands, as experience is currently minimal or lacking. In this study we focus mainly on the institutional and procedural aspects of the screening and scoping phases of both procedures. This is achieved by reviewing EIA and SEA procedures for analogue projects for the three distinctive process steps of a CCS project, namely the power plant with capture, the transport and finally the underground storage of the CO{sub 2}. Additionally, EIA and SEA or similar procedures on CCS in other countries are reviewed and the legal framework for the Dutch EIA and SEA is studied. This article shows a concise overview of the EIA and SEA procedure in the Netherlands and the relation between both procedures. Based on our findings we have constructed a conceptual taxonomy for the scope of both procedures for CCS in the Netherlands. This taxonomy conceptualizes the possible integration of assessing the environmental impacts for tiered levels of decision making. This integration might be needed for first CCS projects as decisions on the strategic (spatial planning) level are currently absent for CCS in the Netherlands. Perpendicular to such integration is the integration of linked activities in the CCS chain and their alternatives, into one procedure. We argue that it would be beneficial to combine the separate EIA procedures for CCS activities into one procedure or at least provide close linkage between them.

  18. Anthropogenic and geomorphic controls on peatland dynamics in contrasting floodplain environments during the Holocene and its impact on carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Notebaert, Bastiaan

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are an important store of carbon in terrestrial environments, and scientific interest in peatlands has increased strongly in the light of the recent global climatic changes. Much attention has been paid to peatland dynamics in extensive arctic and boreal wetlands or to blanket peat in temperate regions. Nevertheless, long-term dynamics of peat in alluvial wetlands in temperate regions remains largely underresearched. In this study, data from three contrasting environments were used to provide more insights in the anthropogenic and geomorphic controls on peatland dynamics. The results show a high variability in alluvial peatland dynamics between the different study sites. In the central Belgian Loess Belt, alluvial peatlands developed during the early Holocene but gradually disappeared from the Mid-Holocene onwards due to the gradual intensification of agricultural activities in the catchment and consequent higher sedimentation rates in the floodplain system. The end of peat growth is shown to be diachronous at catchment scale, ranging between 6500 and 500 cal a BP. The disappearance of the alluvial peatlands has important implications since it potentially reduces the storage of locally produced C. Nevertheless, it was shown that this reduced production of local C but was outbalanced by the burial of hillslope derived C. Also within the sandy catchments of the Belgian Campine region alluvial peatlands initiated in the early Holocene but, here, they abruptly disappeared in the Mid-Holocene before the onset of intense agricultural activities in the catchment. This suggests that for the sandy regions, anthropogenic impact on peatland dynamics is less important compared to natural factors. For these regions, the disappearance of alluvial peatland formation resulted in a sharp decline in alluvial carbon storage as there is no compensation through hillslope derived C input. For the upper Dee catchment in NE Scotland, Holocene carbon floodplain storage varies

  19. 77 FR 65137 - Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After Cessation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION. 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AJ20 Consideration of Environmental Impacts of... ensure consideration only for comments received on or before this date. There will be no extensions to... meetings at different locations throughout the country. After receipt and consideration of comments on...

  20. Impact of commercial housing system on egg quality during extended storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. egg producers are utilizing a variety of commercial egg production systems to provide consumer choice and meet legislative requirements. U.S. consumer egg grades were developed for conventional cage production and it is unclear what impact alternative production systems might have on egg quali...

  1. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    NASA has developed a set of 14 draft roadmaps to guide the development of space technologies under the leadership of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Each of these roadmaps focuses on a particular technology area (TA). The roadmaps are intended to foster the development of advanced technologies and concepts that address NASA's needs and contribute to other aerospace and national needs. OCT requested that the National Research Council conduct a study to review the draft roadmaps, gather and assess relevant community input, and make recommendations and suggest priorities to inform NASA's decisions as it finalizes its roadmaps. The statement of task states that "based on the results of the community input and its own deliberations, the steering committee will prepare a brief interim report that addresses high-level issues associated with the roadmaps, such as the advisability of modifying the number or technical focus of the draft NASA roadmaps." This interim report, which does not include formal recommendations, addresses that one element of the study charge. NASA requested this interim report so that it would have the opportunity to make an early start in modifying the draft roadmaps based on feedback from the panels and steering committee. The final report will address all other tasks in the statement of task. In particular, the final report will include a prioritization of technologies, will describe in detail the prioritization process and criteria, and will include specific recommendations on a variety of topics, including many of the topics mentioned in this interim report. In developing both this interim report and the final report to come, the steering committee draws on the work of six study panels organized by technical area, loosely following the organization of the 14 roadmaps, as follows: A Panel 1: Propulsion and Power TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage Systems TA13

  2. Post-fire stand structure impacts carbon storage within Siberian larch forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Mack, M. C.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.

    2015-12-01

    Increased fire severity within boreal forests of the Siberian Arctic has the potential to alter forest stand development thereby altering carbon (C) accumulation rates and storage during the post-fire successional interval. One potential change is increased stand density, which may result from fire consumption of the soil organic layer and changes to the seedbed that favor germination and establishment of larch trees during early succession. In this study, we evaluated above- and belowground C pools across 12 stands of varying tree density within a single 75-year old fire scar located near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, Russia. In each stand, we inventoried the size and density of larch trees and large shrubs (Salix and Betula spp.), and in combination with with allometric equations, estimated aboveground contribution to C pools. We quantified woody debris C pools using the line intercept method. We sampled belowground C pools in the soil organic layer + upper (0-10 cm) mineral soil and coarse roots (> 2 mm diameter) using sediment cores and 0.25 x 0.25-m trenches, respectively. We found that high density stands store ~ 20% more C (~7,500 g C m-2) than low density stands (~5,800 g C m-2). In high density stands, about 35% more C is stored aboveground within live larch trees (1650 g C m-2) compared to low density stands (940 g C m-2), and about 15% more C is stored in the soil organic layer and upper mineral soil. Coarse root C was 20% higher in high density stands (~475 g C m-2) compared to those with low density (~350 g C m-2). Less C was stored in large shrubs in high density stands, both in aboveground portions and coarse roots, but these amounts were relatively small (< 10% of total C pools). A fire-driven shift to denser larch stands could increase C storage, leading to a negative feedback to climate, but the combined effects of density on C dynamics, summer and winter albedo, and future fire regimes will interact to determine the magnitude of any vegetation

  3. Composites in energy generation and storage systems - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulmer, R. W.

    Applications of glass-fiber reinforced composites (GER) in renewable and high-efficiency energy systems which are being developed to replace interim, long-term unacceptable energy sources such as foreign oil are reviewed. GFR are noted to have design flexibility, high strength, and low cost, as well as featuring a choice of fiber orientation and type of reinforcement. Blades, hub covers, nacelles, and towers for large and small WECS are being fabricated and tested and are displaying satisfactory strength, resistance to corrosion and catastrophic failure, impact tolerance, and light weight. Promising results have also been shown in the use of GFR as flywheel material for kinetic energy storage in conjunction with solar and wind electric systems, in electric cars, and as load levellers. Other applications are for heliostats, geothermal power plant pipes, dam-atoll tidal wave energy systems, and intake pipes for OTECs.

  4. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overall system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1800 kg/cu m).

  5. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overalll system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1880 kg/cu m.

  6. Global Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen enrichment on carbon fluxes and storage in terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Yang, J.; Tao, B.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C. R.; Wei, Y.; Michalak, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) enrichment has been recognized as one of most important global changes and largely affected terrestrial carbon (C) dynamics over the past century. A wide range of scientific studies have focused on estimation of carbon sink resulting from N deposition at global scale, and confirmed that atmospheric N input has substantially stimulated terrestrial CO2 uptake, particularly in part of North America, western Europe, and East and Southeast Asia. However, ecosystem models have distinct strategies in partitioning and describing the pools/fluxes and C-N interactions, as well as in simulating 'N-saturated status'. Whether a model's representation of C-N coupling can truly reflect the C and N cycling in the real world is a hard nut to crack for most models involving C-N interactions. Little is known on how various C-N coupling processes represented by models have led to divergence in the estimated magnitude of N-induced C sink. Here we combine field observations and model ensembles from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) to examine how enhanced N deposition affected global C fluxes and storage during the period 1860-2010, and what explore the major sources of uncertainty responsible for various modeling estimates. Model behavior in simulating key C-N coupling processes has been evaluated through data-model and model-model intercomparison. Future research needs for filling our knowledge gaps and for reducing uncertainties are discussed as well.

  7. Impact of bottled water storage duration and location on bacteriological quality.

    PubMed

    Duranceau, Steven J; Emerson, Hilary P; Wilder, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    An investigation studying the effects of storage duration and location on the persistence of heterotrophic microorganisms in oligotrophic bottled water environments has been completed. One-gallon high-density polyethylene water containers stored for up to 16 weeks at temperatures ranging from 2°C to >49°C in a refrigerator, indoor cabinet, covered porch, and car trunk were evaluated for microbiological quality. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) of up to 4 × 10(3) cfu/mL were detected in containers stored on a porch and car trunk; whereas, HPCs were found not to exceed 400 cfu/mL and 100 cfu/mL for bottles stored in indoor cabinets and refrigerators, respectively. Containers stored on an enclosed porch for up to seven years contained HPC of up to 4 × 10(4) cfu/mL. Logistic and Gompertz growth models predicted microbial growth rates for bottled water stored on a protected porch environment for long (R(2) 0.99) and short-term (R(2) 0.86) durations.

  8. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  9. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath

    2010-09-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  10. Impact Of Three-Phase Relative Permeability and Hysteresis Models On Forecasts of Storage Associated with CO2-EOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, W.; Pan, F.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the presence of multiple phases in a given system, CO2 sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) includes complex multiphase flow processes compared to CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers (no hydrocarbons). Two of the most important factors are three-phase relative permeability and hysteresis effects, both of which are difficult to measure and are usually represented by numerical interpolation models. The purposes of this study included quantification of impacts of different three-phase relative permeability models and hysteresis models on CO2 sequestration simulation results, and associated quantitative estimation of uncertainty. Four three-phase relative permeability models and three hysteresis models were applied to a model of an active CO2-EOR site, the SACROC unit located in western Texas. To eliminate possible bias of deterministic parameters on the evaluation, a sequential Gaussian simulation technique was utilized to generate 50 realizations to describe heterogeneity of porosity and permeability, initially obtained from well logs and seismic survey data. Simulation results of forecasted pressure distributions and CO2 storage suggest that (1) the choice of three-phase relative permeability model and hysteresis model have noticeable impacts on CO2 sequestration simulation results; (2) influences of both factors are observed in all 50 realizations; and (3) the specific choice of hysteresis model appears to be somewhat more important relative to the choice of three-phase relative permeability model in terms of model uncertainty.

  11. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit on quality and active components over postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...

  12. Impact of land consolidation and field borders on soil erosion and storage within agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Olivier, Evrard; Van Oost, Kristof; Hinschberger, Florent; Macaire, Jean-Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion plays an important role in sediment and carbon storage within, and exports from, catchments. In cultivated landscapes, field borders can improve the temporary storage of eroded soil particles and associated carbon, by impeding lateral soil fluxes. These local soil accumulations can lead to the development of linear landforms (such as headlands and lynchets) which will keep evolving after field border removal. A recent study performed in a representative cultivated hillslope of the SW Parisian Basin showed that 39% of the area corresponds to landforms resulting from soil accumulation induced by former and present field borders. This study demonstrated that field borders influence greatly the landscape morphology, but also the spatial distribution of soil thickness, and locally the A-horizon thickness, which are essential parameters for the prediction of SOC stocks. This study aims at characterizing and quantifying the effect of field borders and their removal on medium term topsoil erosion and deposition rates in a cultivated hillslope of the SW Parisian Basin, consolidated in 1967. Here, we used the Cs-137 technique to assess recent patterns of soil redistribution. We measured the Cs-137 inventories of 68 soil cores sampled along transects covering the area and, more specifically, linear landforms identified along present and past field borders (i.e., lynchet and undulation landforms, respectively). Then, we used a spatially-distributed Cs-137 conversion model that simulates and discriminates soil redistribution induced by water and tillage erosion processes over the last fifty years. Finally, observations and model outputs were confronted. Our results show that tillage erosion dominate the soil redistribution in the study area for the 1954-2009 period and generated about 95% (i.e., 4.50 Mg.ha-1.yr-1) of the total gross erosion. Soil redistribution was largely affected by the presence of current and former field borders, where hotspots areas of

  13. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    DOE PAGES

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; ...

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) andmore » associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural gas production.« less

  14. Crystallization of amorphous solid dispersions of resveratrol during preparation and storage-Impact of different polymers.

    PubMed

    Wegiel, Lindsay A; Mauer, Lisa J; Edgar, Kevin J; Taylor, Lynne S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate intermolecular interactions between resveratrol and polymers in amorphous blends and to study the potential correlations between compound-polymer interactions, manufacturability, and stability of the amorphous system to crystallization during storage. Polymers included two grades of poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), Eudragit E100 (E100), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate, and poly (acrylic acid) (PAA). Amorphous blends ("solid dispersions") were prepared by dissolving both resveratrol and polymer in a solvent followed by rotary evaporation. Crystallinity was evaluated using X-ray powder diffraction and was studied as a function of time. Mid-infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to investigate resveratrol-polymer interactions. Polymer influence on the crystallization behavior of resveratrol varied and could be correlated to the polymer structure, whereby polymers with good hydrogen bond acceptor groups performed better as crystallization inhibitors. Resveratrol-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions could be inferred from the IR spectra. Somewhat surprisingly, E100 and resveratrol showed evidence of an acid-base reaction, in addition to intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. PVP K29/32 appeared to form stronger hydrogen bond interactions with resveratrol relative to HPMC, HPMCAS, and PAA, consistent with acceptor group chemistry. Long-term stability of the systems against crystallization suggested that stability is linked to the type and strength of intermolecular interactions present. whereby resveratrol blended with E100 and PVP K29/32 showed the greatest stability to crystallization. In conclusion, amorphous resveratrol is unstable and difficult to form, requiring the assistance of a polymeric crystallization inhibitor to facilitate the formation of an amorphous solid dispersion. Polymers effective at inhibiting

  15. Coupled Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 and Contaminants from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs on Groundwater Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Hongbo; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-07

    The leakage of CO2 and the concomitant saline solutions from deep storage reservoirs to overlying groundwater aquifers is considered one of the major potential risks associated with geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS). Batch and column experiments were conducted to determine the fate of trace metals in groundwater in the scenarios of CO2 and metal contaminated brine leakage. The sediments used in this work were collected from an unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer in Kansas, and contained 0-4 wt% carbonates. Cd and As were spiked into the reaction system to represent potential contaminants from the reservoir brine that could intrude into groundwater aquifers with leaking CO2 at initial concentrations of 114 and 40 ppb, respectively. Through this research we demonstrated that Cd and As were adsorbed on the sediments, in spite of the lowered pH due to CO2 dissolution in the groundwater. Cd concentrations were well below its MCL in both batch and column studies, even for sediment samples without detectable carbonate to buffer the pH. Arsenic concentrations in the effluent were also significantly lower than influent concentration, suggesting that the sediments tested have the capacity to mitigate the coupled adverse effects of CO2 leakage and brine intrusion. However, the mitigation capacity of sediment is a function of its geochemical properties [e.g., the calcite content; the presence of adsorbed As(III); and the presence of P in the natural sediment]. The competitive adsorption between phosphate and arsenate may result in higher concentrations of As in the aqueous phase.

  16. Capturing the Impact of Storage and Other Flexible Technologies on Electric System Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Elaine; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu

    2016-05-01

    Power systems of the future are likely to require additional flexibility due to the operating characteristics of many clean energy technologies, particularly those relying on renewable energy sources. This subject has been well studied from an operational perspective, but it has been more difficult to incorporate into capacity expansion models (CEMs) that study investment decisions on the decadal scale. The primary purpose of this report is to present new capabilities that were developed for a particular CEM, NREL's Resource Planning Model (RPM), to better reflect the impact of variable wind and solar generation on system operations and resource adequacy, and, complementarily, to model energy-constrained flexibility resources.

  17. Woody debris along an upland chronosequence in boreal Manitoba and its impact on long-term carbon storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; O'Neill, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the role of fire-killed woody debris as a source of soil carbon in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) stands in Manitoba, Canada. We measured the amount of standing dead and downed woody debris along an upland chronosequence, including wood partially and completely covered by moss growth. Such woody debris is rarely included in measurement protocols and composed up to 26% of the total amount of woody debris in older stands, suggesting that it is important to measure all types of woody debris in ecosystems where burial by organic matter is possible. Based on these data and existing net primary production (NPP) values, we used a mass-balance model to assess the potential impact of fire-killed wood on long-term carbon storage at this site. The amount of carbon stored in deeper soil organic layers, which persists over millennia, was used to represent this long-term carbon. We estimate that between 10% and 60% of the deep-soil carbon is derived from wood biomass. Sensitivity analyses suggest that this estimate is most affected by the fire return interval, decay rate of wood, amount of NPP, and decay rate of the char (postfire) carbon pool. Landscape variations in these terms could account for large differences in deep-soil carbon. The model was less sensitive to fire consumption rates and to rates at which standing dead becomes woody debris. All model runs, however, suggest that woody debris plays an important role in long-term carbon storage for this area. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  18. Impact of Added Encapsulated Phosphate Level on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition during the Storage of Cooked Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Bilecen, D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of added encapsulated (e) phosphate (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation inhibition during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) was evaluated. The use of eSTP and eSPP resulted in lower and higher cooking loss (CL) compared to eHMP, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing encapsulated phosphate level (PL) enhanced the impact of phosphates on CL in both chicken and beef samples (P < 0.05). Encapsulated STP increased pH, whereas eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). pH was not affected by PL. The highest orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with eSTP, followed by eSPP and eHMP (P < 0.05). The level of OP determined in both chicken and beef samples increased (P < 0.05) during storage. Increasing PL caused an increase in OP (P < 0.05). The highest reduction rate in the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LPO for both meat species were obtained with eSPP, followed by eSTP and eHMP (P < 0.05). Increasing PL resulted in lower TBARS and LPO (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for the meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by increasing PL.

  19. 46 CFR 309.101 - Amendment of interim binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amendment of interim binders. 309.101 Section 309.101... INSURANCE § 309.101 Amendment of interim binders. The interim binder for a vessel whose stated valuation is established pursuant to this part shall be deemed to have been amended on the first day of the...

  20. 46 CFR 309.101 - Amendment of interim binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amendment of interim binders. 309.101 Section 309.101... INSURANCE § 309.101 Amendment of interim binders. The interim binder for a vessel whose stated valuation is established pursuant to this part shall be deemed to have been amended on the first day of the...

  1. 18 CFR 385.1113 - Interim relief (Rule 1113).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim relief (Rule... Under the NGPA § 385.1113 Interim relief (Rule 1113). (a) The petitioner may at any time file a request for interim relief in a proceeding under this subpart, setting forth the legal and factual basis...

  2. 24 CFR 115.203 - Interim certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim certification procedures... Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.203 Interim certification procedures. (a) Upon receipt of a request for interim certification filed under § 115.202, the Assistant Secretary may...

  3. 48 CFR 801.690-8 - Interim appointment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim appointment... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.690-8 Interim appointment provisions. (a) To ensure availability of procurement support, an interim appointment may be granted for a limited period of time when a candidate...

  4. 10 CFR 205.288 - Interim and ancillary orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim and ancillary orders. 205.288 Section 205.288... Distribution of Refunds § 205.288 Interim and ancillary orders. The Director of the Office of Hearings and Appeals or his designee may issue any interim or ancillary orders, or make any rulings or...

  5. 78 FR 49782 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing this notice for use of, and to solicit public comment on the draft Interim...

  6. 47 CFR 51.611 - Interim wholesale rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim wholesale rates. 51.611 Section 51.611... Resale § 51.611 Interim wholesale rates. (a) If a state commission cannot, based on the information... commission may elect to establish an interim wholesale rate as described in paragraph (b) of this section....

  7. An Approach for Evaluating the Technical Quality of Interim Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Marion, Scott; Perie, Marianne; Gong, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of schools and districts have expressed interest in interim assessment systems to prepare for summative assessments and to improve teaching and learning. However, with so many commercial interim assessments available, schools and districts are struggling to determine which interim assessment is most appropriate to their needs.…

  8. 5 CFR 1209.11 - Duration of stay; interim compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of stay; interim compliance... WHISTLEBLOWING Stay Requests § 1209.11 Duration of stay; interim compliance. (a) Duration of stay. A stay becomes...) Interim compliance. An agency must immediately comply with an order granting a stay request. Although...

  9. 40 CFR 270.70 - Qualifying for interim status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifying for interim status. 270.70... (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Interim Status § 270.70 Qualifying for interim status. (a) Any person who owns or operates an “existing HWM facility” or a...

  10. 40 CFR 66.23 - Interim recalculation of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim recalculation of penalty. 66... Penalties § 66.23 Interim recalculation of penalty. (a) The Administrator, upon concluding that a previously... respond in accordance with the provisions of § 66.51. The decision to accept the interim calculation or...

  11. 12 CFR 541.18 - Interim Federal savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim Federal savings association. 541.18... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.18 Interim Federal savings association. The term interim Federal savings association means a Federal savings association chartered by the Office...

  12. 12 CFR 541.19 - Interim state savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim state savings association. 541.19... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.19 Interim state savings association. The term interim state savings association means a savings association, other than a Federal savings...

  13. 48 CFR 301.603-3 - Interim appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim appointments. 301... Interim appointments. If it is essential to appoint an individual as a Contracting Officer who does not... HCA (non-delegable) may make an interim appointment for up to 2 years. If an extension of time...

  14. 42 CFR 417.570 - Interim per capita payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim per capita payments. 417.570 Section 417... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.570 Interim per capita payments. (a) Principle of payment. (1) CMS makes monthly advance payments equivalent to the HMO's or CMP's interim per capita rate...

  15. 5 CFR 531.414 - Interim within-grade increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim within-grade increase. 531.414... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.414 Interim within-grade increase. (a) An interim within-grade increase shall be granted to an employee who has: (1) Appealed a negative...

  16. 49 CFR 37.193 - Interim service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim service requirements. 37.193 Section 37... WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.193 Interim service requirements. (a) Until... of accessible OTRBs, the operator shall meet the following interim service requirements:...

  17. 28 CFR 94.41 - Interim emergency payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim emergency payment. 94.41 Section... Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Payment of Claims § 94.41 Interim emergency payment. Claimants may apply for an interim emergency payment, prior to a determination under § 94.21(a). If...

  18. 41 CFR 101-29.206 - Interim Federal standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interim Federal standard. 101-29.206 Section 101-29.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.206 Interim Federal standard. An interim Federal standard is a...

  19. 24 CFR 115.202 - Request for interim certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for interim certification... Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.202 Request for interim certification. (a) A request for interim certification under this subpart shall be filed with the Assistant Secretary by the...

  20. 40 CFR 270.72 - Changes during interim status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes during interim status. 270.72... (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Interim Status § 270.72 Changes during interim status. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the owner or operator of...

  1. 7 CFR 900.70 - Applications for interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for interim relief. 900.70 Section 900.70... Applications for interim relief. (a) Filing the application. A person who has filed a petition pursuant to... statement of the objections, if any, of the Administrator to the application for interim relief, and may...

  2. 40 CFR 264.3 - Relationship to interim status standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to interim status... FACILITIES General § 264.3 Relationship to interim status standards. A facility owner or operator who has fully complied with the requirements for interim status—as defined in section 3005(e) of RCRA...

  3. 5 CFR 772.102 - Interim personnel actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interim personnel actions. 772.102 Section 772.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) INTERIM RELIEF General § 772.102 Interim personnel actions. When an employee...

  4. 5 CFR 772.102 - Interim personnel actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interim personnel actions. 772.102 Section 772.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) INTERIM RELIEF General § 772.102 Interim personnel actions. When an employee...

  5. 5 CFR 772.102 - Interim personnel actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interim personnel actions. 772.102 Section 772.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) INTERIM RELIEF General § 772.102 Interim personnel actions. When an employee...

  6. Potential health and safety impacts from distribution and storage of alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.E.; Gasper, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment includes three major sections. Section 1 is a synopsis of literature on the health and safety aspects of neat alcohols, alcohol-gasoline blends, and typical gasoline. Section 2 identifies the toxic properties of each fuel type and describes existing standards and regulations and suggests provisions for establishing others. Section 3 analyzes the major safety and health risks that would result from the increased use of each type of alcohol fuel. Potential accidents are described and their probable impacts on occupational and public populations are determined. An attempt was made to distill the important health and safety issues and to define gaps in our knowledge regarding alcohol fuels to highlight the further research needed to circumvent potential helth and safety problems.

  7. A systematic review of the reporting of Data Monitoring Committees' roles, interim analysis and early termination in pediatric clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Decisions about interim analysis and early stopping of clinical trials, as based on recommendations of Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs), have far reaching consequences for the scientific validity and clinical impact of a trial. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency and quality of the reporting on DMC composition and roles, interim analysis and early termination in pediatric trials. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials published from 2005 to 2007 in a sample of four general and four pediatric journals. We used full-text databases to identify trials which reported on DMCs, interim analysis or early termination, and included children or adolescents. Information was extracted on general trial characteristics, risk of bias, and a set of parameters regarding DMC composition and roles, interim analysis and early termination. Results 110 of the 648 pediatric trials in this sample (17%) reported on DMC or interim analysis or early stopping, and were included; 68 from general and 42 from pediatric journals. The presence of DMCs was reported in 89 of the 110 included trials (81%); 62 papers, including 46 of the 89 that reported on DMCs (52%), also presented information about interim analysis. No paper adequately reported all DMC parameters, and nine (15%) reported all interim analysis details. Of 32 trials which terminated early, 22 (69%) did not report predefined stopping guidelines and 15 (47%) did not provide information on statistical monitoring methods. Conclusions Reporting on DMC composition and roles, on interim analysis results and on early termination of pediatric trials is incomplete and heterogeneous. We propose a minimal set of reporting parameters that will allow the reader to assess the validity of trial results. PMID:20003383

  8. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Montano, Joshua Daniel

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  9. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  10. Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Slurry Storage: Impacts of Temperature and Potential Mitigation through Covering (Pig Slurry) or Acidification (Cattle Slurry).

    PubMed

    Misselbrook, Tom; Hunt, John; Perazzolo, Francesca; Provolo, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Storage of livestock slurries is a significant source of methane (CH) and ammonia (NH) emissions to the atmosphere, for which accurate quantification and potential mitigation methods are required. Methane and NH emissions were measured from pilot-scale cattle slurry (CS) and pig slurry (PS) stores under cool, temperate, and warm conditions (approximately 8, 11, and 17°C, respectively) and including two potential mitigation practices: (i) a clay granule floating cover (PS) and (ii) slurry acidification (CS). Cumulative emissions of both gases were influenced by mean temperature over the storage period. Methane emissions from the control treatments over the 2-mo storage periods for the cool, temperate, and warm periods were 0.3, 0.1, and 34.3 g CH kg slurry volatile solids for CS and 4.4, 20.1, and 27.7 g CH kg slurry volatile solids for PS. Respective NH emissions for each period were 4, 7, and 12% of initial slurry N content for CS and 12, 18, and 28% of initial slurry N content for PS. Covering PS with clay granules reduced NH emissions by 77% across the three storage periods but had no impact on CH emissions. Acidification of CS reduced CH and NH emissions by 61 and 75%, respectively, across the three storage periods. Nitrous oxide emissions were also monitored but were insignificant. The development of approaches that take into account the influence of storage timing (temperature) and duration on emission estimates for national emission inventory purposes is recommended.

  11. How cloudy is your radwaste crystal ball and how can you minimize the impact of extended storage on the future disposal of radwaste?

    SciTech Connect

    Harnal, R.S.; McGrath, R.N.; Wheeler, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    With denial of access to the disposal sites, Connecticut Yankee (CY) and Millstone (MP) as part of Northeast Utilities (NU) have started on-site storage of radwaste. The NRC recommends storing radwaste in a manner that will allow maximum flexibility in meeting future radwaste form and container criteria. Separately, the State of Connecticut has not selected the disposal facility design and has provided no guidance on acceptable radwaste form and containers. As the goal at NU is to provide safe extended on-site storage, limit building additional storage space and minimize future reprocessing of stored radwaste, concerns that the current radwaste form and containers may not endure storage and be acceptable for future disposal were raised. For DAW, the radwaste form (compacted, ash or bound ash) and containers resistance to corrosion are a concern. For resin, the impact of the freeze/thaw cycle on the resin and HIC internals, high cumulative dose effect on poly-HICs and dewatering internals/check leg, gelling of resin, gas generation and corrosion of carbon steel lifting mechanisms were reviewed. Given the lack of storage experience in the industry, NU will store its radwaste to meet current disposal criteria but has modified some container features to enhance corrosion resistance. In conclusion, as the future of disposal looks very cloudy, NU will continue to perform cost-beneficial analysis on existing and evolving volume reduction processes and services to meet its storage needs.

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DOE INTERIM ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, H. C.; Di Massa, F. V.; Lucas, R. G.; Shankle, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    system to develop a design which would comply with the standards. PNL conducted extensive interviews with the federal agencies and design contractors to determine what impacts the standards would have on the existing agency procurement process as well as on designers. Overall, PNL found that the interim standards met the basic intent of the law. Specific actions were identified, however, that DOE could take to improve the standards and encourage the agencies to implement them. Agency personnel found the minimum efficiency levels established by the standards to be lower than expected, and lower than their existing requirements. Generally, this was because the standards factor in fuel costs, as well as energy savings due to various conservation measures such as insulation, when they determine the minimum efficiency levels required. The demonstration showed that federal agencies often pay low prices for heating fuel and electricity; these lower costs "tipped the scales," allowing designers to meet the efficiency target with designs that were relatively inefficient. It appeared, however, that the low prices paid by agencies directly to suppliers did not capture the agencies' full costs of providing energy, such as the costs of distribution and storage. Agency personnel expressed some concern about the standards' ability to incorporate new energy-efficient technologies and renewable resource technologies like solar heating systems. An alternative compliance procedure was developed to incorporate new technologies; however, demonstration participants said the procedure was not well documented and was difficult and time consuming to use. Despite these concerns, most agency personnel thought that the standards would fit into current procurement procedures with no big changes or cost increases. Many said use of the standards would decrease the time and effort they now spend to establish energy-efficiency requirements and to confirm that proposed designs comply. Personnel praised

  13. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  14. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site.

  15. Interim Control Module Extraction Strut Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris

    1999-01-01

    The Interim Control Module is a propulsion and attitude control module for the International Space Station developed to serve as a replacement for the Russian Service Module in the event that Russia does not deliver the hardware as expected. The hardware was developed through a joint NASA/Naval Research Laboratory program and is based on a Department of Defense payload. This paper discusses the development and testing of the Extraction Strut hardware that will be used to assist in removing the Interim Control Module from the Shuttle's payload bay.

  16. Interim Land Use Control Implementation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    This Interim Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Contractors Road Heavy Equipment (CRHE) Area (SWMU 055; "the Site") of institutional controls that have been implemented at the Site1. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with the CRHE Area, an interim institutional land use control (LUC) is necessary to prevent human health exposure to volatile organic compound (VOC)-affected groundwater at the Site. Controls will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  17. Functions and requirements document for interim store solidified high-level and transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Fewell, M.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-17

    The functions, requirements, interfaces, and architectures contained within the Functions and Requirements (F{ampersand}R) Document are based on the information currently contained within the TWRS Functions and Requirements database. The database also documents the set of technically defensible functions and requirements associated with the solidified waste interim storage mission.The F{ampersand}R Document provides a snapshot in time of the technical baseline for the project. The F{ampersand}R document is the product of functional analysis, requirements allocation and architectural structure definition. The technical baseline described in this document is traceable to the TWRS function 4.2.4.1, Interim Store Solidified Waste, and its related requirements, architecture, and interfaces.

  18. Negative impact of prolonged cold storage time before machine perfusion preservation in donation after circulatory death kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Paloyo, Siegfredo; Sageshima, Junichiro; Gaynor, Jeffrey J; Chen, Linda; Ciancio, Gaetano; Burke, George W

    2016-10-01

    Kidney grafts are often preserved initially in static cold storage (CS) and subsequently on hypothermic machine perfusion (MP). However, the impact of CS/MP time on transplant outcome remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of prolonged CS/MP time in a single-center retrospective cohort of 59 donation after circulatory death (DCD) and 177 matched donation after brain death (DBD) kidney-alone transplant recipients. With mean overall CS/MP times of 6.0 h/30.0 h, overall incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) was higher in DCD transplants (30.5%) than DBD transplants (7.3%, P < 0.0001). In logistic regression, DCD recipient (P < 0.0001), longer CS time (P = 0.0002), male recipient (P = 0.02), and longer MP time (P = 0.08) were associated with higher DGF incidence. In evaluating the joint effects of donor type (DBD vs. DCD), CS time (<6 vs. ≥6 h), and MP time (<36 vs. ≥36 h) on DGF incidence, one clearly sees an unfavorable effect of MP time ≥36 h (P = 0.003) across each donor type and CS time stratum, whereas the unfavorable effect of CS time ≥6 h (P = 0.01) is primarily seen among DCD recipients. Prolonged cold ischemia time had no unfavorable effect on renal function or graft survival at 12mo post-transplant. Long CS/MP time detrimentally affects early DCD/DBD kidney transplant outcome when grafts were mainly preserved by MP; prolonged CS time before MP has a particularly negative impact in DCD kidney transplantation.

  19. Information retrieval system: impacts of water-level changes on uses of federal storage reservoirs of the Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Cowley, P.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    A project undertaken to provide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with information needed to conduct environmental assessments and meet requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act) is described. Access to information on environmental effects would help BPA fulfill its responsibilities to coordinate power generation on the Columbia River system, protect uses of the river system (e.g., irrigation, recreation, navigation), and enhance fish and wildlife production. Staff members at BPA identified the need to compile and index information resources that would help answer environmental impact questions. A computer retrieval system that would provide ready access to the information was envisioned. This project was supported by BPA to provide an initial step toward a compilation of environmental impact information. Scientists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) identified, gathered, and evaluated information related to environmental effects of water level on uses of five study reservoirs and developed and implemented and environmental data retrieval system, which provides for automated storage and retrieval of annotated citations to published and unpublished information. The data retrieval system is operating on BPA's computer facility and includes the reservoir water-level environmental data. This project was divided into several tasks, some of which were conducted simultaneously to meet project deadlines. The tasks were to identify uses of the five study reservoirs, compile and evaluate reservoir information, develop a data entry and retrieval system, identify and analyze research needs, and document the data retrieval system and train users. Additional details of the project are described in several appendixes.

  20. Probing free radical processes during storage of extracts from whole roasted coffee beans: impact of O2 exposure during extraction and storage.

    PubMed

    Yeretzian, Chahan; Pascual, Ederlinda C; Goodman, Bernard A

    2013-04-03

    Development of liquid coffee products of good quality with extended shelf lives is hampered by their rapid quality degradation as a result of both physical and flavor instability. One approach that is being considered for extending the shelf lives of liquid coffees is that of supplementing the beverage with a very mild and slow continuous extraction from intact roasted beans that are held within an aluminum can. This paper reports the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the effects of key parameters that affect the stability of liquid coffee prepared from aqueous extracts from whole roasted coffee beans, namely, the O2 content of the water and headspace during extraction and the temperature during storage. It was found that the magnitude of the free radical signal was sensitive to the O2 content of the water used for extraction and storage time and temperature, whereas the intensity of the Fe(III) (g = 4.3) signal was affected only by the O2 content of the water and the Mn signal was insensitive to the experimental parameters. The most critical factor was the O2 content of the water used for extraction, and careful control of O2 exposure at the extraction stage could be a crucial factor for generating products with resistance to oxidative processes during storage.

  1. Reactive transport modeling of thermal column experiments to investigate the impacts of aquifer thermal energy storage on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Matthijs; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; Breukelen, Boris M van

    2014-10-21

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems are increasingly being used to acclimatize buildings and are often constructed in aquifers used for drinking water supply. This raises the question of potential groundwater quality impact. Here, we use laboratory column experiments to develop and calibrate a reactive transport model (PHREEQC) simulating the thermally induced (5-60 °C) water quality changes in anoxic sandy sediments. Temperature-dependent surface complexation, cation-exchange, and kinetic dissolution of K-feldspar were included in the model. Optimization results combined with an extensive literature survey showed surface complexation of (oxy)anions (As, B, and PO4) is consistently exothermic, whereas surface complexation of cations (Ca and Mg) and cationic heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) is endothermic. The calibrated model was applied to simulate arsenic mobility in an ATES system using a simple yet powerful mirrored axi-symmetrical grid. Results showed that ATES mobilizes arsenic toward the fringe of the warm water bubble and the center of the cold water bubble. This transient redistribution of arsenic causes its aqueous concentrations in the cold and warm groundwater bubbles to become similar through multiple heating cycles, with a final concentration depending on the average injection temperature of the warm and cold ATES wells.

  2. Impact of a simulated pathogen attack (Sudden Oak Death) on soil carbon storage in a northern temperate deciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J.; Schuster, W. S.; Griffin, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the short-term impact of a mimicked pathogen attack (Sudden Oak Death) on soil carbon stocks in a northeastern forest. Tree girdling was used to simulate the attack and trees were girdled according to five treatments: control (C), girdling all non-oaks on a plot (NO), girdling half of the oak trees on a plot (O50), girdling all the oaks on the plot (OG), and girdling all trees on a plot (ALL). Forest floor litter and soil organic carbon (SOC) at depth intervals of 0-3, 3-6, 6-9, 9-15 and 15-30cm were measured three years after girdling. We found no changes across treatments in the forest floor litter carbon, total soil organic carbon, or carbon concentration through the profile. Contrary to a recently proposed hypothesis, our study does not support a short- term decline in the belowground carbon storage following a pest or pathogen attack. We propose that shifts in the source components of carbon within the belowground carbon pool could offset carbon losses resulting from altered decomposition rates.

  3. A web-based survey assessing the impact of storage flexibility on the daily life of patients and caregivers administering growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Metzinger, Catherine P; Schnabel, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Many growth hormone (GH) products require refrigeration after first use or reconstitution. This may reduce adherence by affecting patients' daily activities. Persistent treatment adherence is essential for effective GH therapy. A web-based survey was used to compare the impact of storage-flexible GH products (stable at room temperature [<25°C] for up to 21 days after first use) with refrigeration-only GH products on patients' and caregivers' daily lives. Compared with refrigeration-only GH products, storage-flexible GH products were associated with shorter injection times, greater adherence, less GH wastage and fewer missed activities due to difficulties with injection, and were the preferred type of GH product. When offered a choice of GH product, the majority of patients chose a storage-flexible product.

  4. Impact of Storage Time on the Needed Capture Efficiency for Volatile Radionuclides - 13369

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.; Ilas, G.; Soelberg, N.R.; Strachan, D.M.

    2013-07-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel (UNF), volatile radionuclides will be discharged from the facility stack if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I. There are three key regulations that address the release of these radionuclides to the environment- 40 CFR 61, 40 CFR 190, and 10 CFR 20. These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and establish dose limits for the maximum exposed individual (MEI) in the public both in terms of whole body dose and dose to specific organs such as the thyroid. Each radionuclide released to the environment contributes to the total dose to some degree. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the efficiency requirements for the capture processes to limit the doses to the MEI to regulatory levels. Since the total amount of each volatile radionuclide present in the UNF changes with the age of the fuel, the respective capture requirements also change with time. Specifically, we are interested in the impact of the decreasing contribution of {sup 3}H and {sup 85}Kr, which have relatively short half-lives, 12.32 y and 10.76 y, respectively, with the increasing age of the fuel (i.e., time between when the UNF is removed from the reactor and the time it is processed) on the capture requirements. In this paper we examine the capture requirements for these four radionuclides for three fuel types (pressurized water reactor [PWR] with uranium oxide fuel [UOX], PWR with mixed oxide fuel [MOX], and an advanced high temperature gas-cooled reactor [AHTGR]), several burnup values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculate doses to the MEI with the EPA code CAP-88 and look at two dose contribution cases. In the first case, we assume that the total allowable dose is attributed to only the four volatile radionuclides. This establishes the lowest capture efficiency value possible. Since this is unrealistic, because

  5. Compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Low, J.M.

    1992-05-19

    The purpose of Project S-4257, USF-UNH 150,000 Gallon Storage Tank, is to provide interim storage for the liquid uranyl nitrate (UNH) product from H-Canyon until the UNH can be processed in the new Uranium Solidification Facility (Project S-2052). NPSR was requested by Project Management and DOE-SR to perform a design compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank to support the Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and the Operational Readiness Evaluation (ORE), respectively. The project was reviewed against the design criteria contained in the DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. This report documents the results of the compliance review.

  6. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  7. The Interim Superintendent: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigham, Gary; Nix, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the vitally important role that the superintendent plays in the overall functioning and wellbeing of any school district, the filling of that position should never be done in haste. Due to the importance of this process and the time it requires, school districts often employ an interim superintendent. In this single case study, one…

  8. 45 CFR 83.20 - Interim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim procedures. 83.20 Section 83.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION REGULATION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Procedures § 83.20...

  9. 19 CFR 356.18 - Interim sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interim sanctions. 356.18 Section 356.18 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a...

  10. 19 CFR 356.18 - Interim sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interim sanctions. 356.18 Section 356.18 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a...

  11. 15 CFR 908.5 - Interim reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.5 Interim reports. (a) Any person engaged in a weather modification project or activity in the United States on January 1 in any year shall submit to the... actual modification activities took place; (2) Number of days on which weather modification...

  12. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    SciTech Connect

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 {times} 2 {times} 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs.

  13. 19 CFR 207.106 - Interim measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interim measures. 207.106 Section 207.106 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  14. 19 CFR 207.106 - Interim measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interim measures. 207.106 Section 207.106 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  15. 19 CFR 207.106 - Interim measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interim measures. 207.106 Section 207.106 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  16. 19 CFR 207.106 - Interim measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interim measures. 207.106 Section 207.106 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  17. Diversified Satellite Occupations Program. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, John Reed

    This interim report, covering the period of September 1970 to June 1971, describes a program conducted for elementary, junior high, and senior high grades. The elementary program was designed to help students develop an understanding of occupational competence. The prevention of dropouts and individualizing instruction were concerns of the junior…

  18. Interim Report - Grant AFOSR-85-0065.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-30

    Option 065 Drafting Plotter 1 7475A 6 Pen Graphics Plotter Vendor: Imagen Corporation $ 11,266 1 Model 8/300 Laser Printer System, 512Kbytes memory 1... Imagen 8/300 Laser Printer 3 Interim Report Grant No. AFOSR-85-0065 was equivalent to the Versatec plotter for small plots and better for text output

  19. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  20. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  1. Hanford Single-Pass Reactor Fuel Storage Basin Demolition.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jason A.

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT The Environmental Restoration Contractor at the Hanford Site is tasked with removing auxiliary reactor structures and leaving the remaining concrete structure surrounding each reactor core. This is referred to as Interim Safe Storage. Part of placing the F Reactor into Interim Safe Storage is the demolition of the fuel storage basin, which was deactivated in 1970 by placing debris material into the basin prior to back filling with soil. Besides the debris material (wooden floor decking, handrails, and monorail pieces), the fuel storage basin contents included the possibility of spent nuclear fuel, fuel buckets, fuel spacers, process tubes, and tongs. Demolition of the fuel storage basin offered many unique radiological control challenges and innovative approaches to demolition. This paper describes how the total effective dose equivalent and contamination were controlled, how the use of a remote operated excavator was employed to remove high-dose-rate material, and how wireless technology was used to monitor changing radiological conditions.

  2. Hanford single-pass reactor fuel storage basin demolition.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jason A

    2003-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Contractor at the Hanford Site is tasked with removing auxiliary reactor structures and leaving the remaining concrete structure surrounding each reactor core. This is referred to as Interim Safe Storage. Part of placing the F Reactor into Interim Safe Storage is the demolition of the fuel storage basin, which was deactivated in 1970 by placing debris material into the basin prior to back filling with soil. Besides the debris material (wooden floor decking, handrails, and monorail pieces), the fuel storage basin contents included the possibility of spent nuclear fuel, fuel buckets, fuel spacers, process tubes, and tongs. Demolition of the fuel storage basin offered many unique radiological control challenges and innovative approaches to demolition. This paper describes how the total effective dose equivalent and contamination were controlled, how the use of a remote operated excavator was employed to remove high-dose-rate material, and how wireless technology was used to monitor changing radiological conditions.

  3. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

  4. Phytochemical changes in phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids associated with sweetpotato storage and impacts on bioactive properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato phytochemical content was evaluated in four genotypes (NCPUR06-020, Covington, Yellow Covington, and NC07-847) at harvest and after curing/storage for 4 or 8 months. Curing and storage for up to 8 months did not significantly affect total phenolic content in Covington, Yellow Covington, ...

  5. Effects of Interim Assessments on Student Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a large-scale, school-level randomized experiment conducted in 2010-2011 in public schools in Indiana. Our sample includes more than 30,000 students in 70 schools. We examine the impact of two interim assessment programs (i.e., mCLASS in Grades K-2 and Acuity in Grades 3--8) on mathematics and reading achievement. Two-level models…

  6. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  7. High-level nuclear waste transport and storage assessment of potential impacts on tourism in the Las Vegas area. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    SciTech Connect

    1985-12-01

    The literature review and empirical analyses presented in this report were undertaken, for the most part, between August and October 1983. They are not comprehensive. No primary data were gathered, nor were any formal surveys conducted. Additionally, because construction of a repository at Yucca Mountain, if that site is selected for a repository, is not scheduled to begin until 1993, engineering design and planned physical appearance of the repository are very preliminary. Therefore, specific design features or visual appearance were not addressed in the analyses. Finally, because actual transportation routes have not been designated, impacts on tourism generated specifically by transportation activities are not considered separately. Chapter 2 briefly discusses possible means by which a repository could impact tourism in the Las Vegas area. Chapter 3 presents a review of previous research on alternative methods for predicting the response of people to potential hazards. A review of several published studies where these methods have been applied to facilities and activities associated with radioactive materials is included in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 contains five case studies of tourism impacts associated with past events that were perceived by the public to represent safety hazards. These perceptions of safety hazards were evidenced by news media coverage. These case studies were conducted specifically for this report. Conclusions of this preliminary analysis regarding the potential impact on tourism in the Las Vegas area of a repository at Yucca Mountain are in Chapter 5. Recommendations for further research are contained in Chapter 6.

  8. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the impacts of removable storage media and antivirus software on viral spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chenquan; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a new computer virus propagation model, which incorporates the effects of removable storage media and antivirus software, is proposed and analyzed. The global stability of the unique equilibrium of the model is independent of system parameters. Numerical simulations not only verify this result, but also illustrate the influences of removable storage media and antivirus software on viral spread. On this basis, some applicable measures for suppressing virus prevalence are suggested.

  9. 78 FR 67442 - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance... Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program (Interim Guidance). The Interim Guidance revises CMAQ....gov/environment/air_quality/cmaq/policy_and_guidance/2008_guidance/ guidance/. DATES: This...

  10. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACTION: Interim policy; amendment to sponsor grant assurance 5. SUMMARY: This action adopts an interim policy amending...

  11. Impact of radiation processing on quality during storage and post-refrigeration decay of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santaroza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M.

    2013-04-01

    Gamma irradiation treatment was tested for maintaining storage quality and extending the shelf life of plum fruit. Matured green plums were irradiated in the dose range of 0.2-1.5 kGy and stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. Studies revealed that irradiation treatment significantly (p≤0.05) maintained the storage quality of plum fruit under ambient as well as refrigerated conditions. Positive correlations (r=0.88) existed between the irradiation doses and firmness retention under both the storage conditions. In samples irradiated at 1.0 kGy, 1.2 kGy and 1.5 kGy, no microbial load was detected up to 8 and 12 days of ambient storage. Dose range of 1.2-1.5 kGy significantly inhibited the decaying of plums up to 16 days of ambient storage. Irradiation in combination with refrigeration prevented the decaying of plums up to 35 days as against the 12.5% decay in un-irradiated control samples. Irradiation dose of 1.2-1.5 kGy also gave an extension of 8 days during additional ambient storage of the plums at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 35 days of refrigeration.

  12. Biocides for the Battlefield - Interim Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-24

    for public release; distribution is unlimited. James H . Wynne Materials Chemistry Branch Chemistry Division Preston a. Fulmer Chemical Dynamics and...b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Biocides for the Battlefield—Interim Report James H . Wynne and Preston A...distribution is unlimited. Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified SAR 25 James H . Wynne (202) 404-4010 The ability to disinfect surfaces and manufacture self

  13. Physico-chemical characteristics and methanogen communities in swine and dairy manure storage tanks: spatio-temporal variations and impact on methanogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Barret, Maialen; Gagnon, Nathalie; Topp, Edward; Masse, Lucie; Massé, Daniel I; Talbot, Guylaine

    2013-02-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions represent a major environmental problem associated with the management of manure from the livestock industry. Methane is the primary GHG emitted during manure outdoor storage. In this paper, the variability of two swine and two dairy manure storage tanks was surveyed, in terms of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The impact of the inter-tank and spatio-temporal variations of these parameters on the methanogenic activity of manure was ascertained. A Partial Least Square regression was carried out, which demonstrated that physico-chemical as well as microbiological parameters had a major influence on the methanogenic activity. Among the 19 parameters included in the regression, the concentrations of VFAs had the strongest negative influence on the methane emission rate of manure, resulting from their well-known inhibitory effect. The relative abundance of two amplicons in archaeal fingerprints was found to positively influence the methanogenic activity, suggesting that Methanoculleus spp. and possibly Methanosarcina spp. are major contributors to methanogenesis in storage tanks. This work gave insights into the mechanisms, which drive methanogenesis in swine and dairy manure storage tanks.

  14. 40 CFR 792.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and....190 Storage and retrieval of records and data. (a) All raw data, documentation, records, protocols... retrieval of all raw data, documentation, protocols, specimens, and interim and final reports. Conditions...

  15. 40 CFR 792.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and....190 Storage and retrieval of records and data. (a) All raw data, documentation, records, protocols... retrieval of all raw data, documentation, protocols, specimens, and interim and final reports. Conditions...

  16. 40 CFR 792.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Storage and retrieval of records and....190 Storage and retrieval of records and data. (a) All raw data, documentation, records, protocols... retrieval of all raw data, documentation, protocols, specimens, and interim and final reports. Conditions...

  17. 40 CFR 792.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and....190 Storage and retrieval of records and data. (a) All raw data, documentation, records, protocols... retrieval of all raw data, documentation, protocols, specimens, and interim and final reports. Conditions...

  18. 40 CFR 792.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and....190 Storage and retrieval of records and data. (a) All raw data, documentation, records, protocols... retrieval of all raw data, documentation, protocols, specimens, and interim and final reports. Conditions...

  19. Compilation of interim technical research memoranda. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, W.R.

    1984-04-01

    Four interim technical research memoranda are presented that describe the results of numerical simulations designed to investigate the dynamics of energetic plasma beams propagating across magnetic fields.

  20. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis

  1. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles.

    PubMed

    Greifenstein, Michael; White, Duvel W; Stubner, Alex; Hout, Joseph; Whelton, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0mg/L and <0.05 μg/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 μg/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 μg/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 μg/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 μg/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 μg/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 μg/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine.

  2. Synchrotron-based Infrared-microspectroscopy reveals the impact of land management on carbon storage in soil micro-aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Dalal, Ram C.; Menzies, Neal W.; Kopittke, Peter M.

    2015-04-01

    responsible for carbon stabilization. A substantial decrease in carboxylic compounds was observed for agricultural soils. Clays were mostly co-localized with alkenes and polysaccharides, particularly in agricultural soils, likely due to enhanced microbial activity in those spots. Results will be linked to currently ongoing analysis of soil enzymes activities and characterization of dissolved organic carbon components. This novel methodological approach combines biological and chemical information on organic carbon dynamics in soil at a molecular level and will constitute a substantial advance towards understanding carbon storage in soil and the long term impact of land management.

  3. Spent fuel behavior in dry storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. B., Jr.; Pankaskie, P. J.; Gilbert, E. R.

    1982-02-01

    Dry storage is emerging as an attractive and timely alternative to complement wet storage, and assist utilities to meet interim storage needs. Spent fuel is handled and stored under dry conditions. Dry storage of irradiated Zircaloy clad fuel in metal casks, drywells, silos and vaults is demonstrated. Hot cell and laboratory studies also are underway to investigate specific phenomena related to cladding behavior in dry storage. A substantial fraction of the LWR spent fuel inventory has aged for relatively long times and has relatively low decay heats. This suggests that much of the fuel inventory can be stored at relatively low temperatures. Alternatively, rod consolidation of the older can be considered without exceeding maximum cladding temperatures.

  4. Impact of broiler egg storage on the relative expression of selected blastoderm genes associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bakst, M R; Welch, G R; Fetterer, R; Miska, K

    2016-06-01

    Cool temperature storage of eggs prior to incubation is a frequent practice by commercial broiler hatcheries. However, continued storage beyond 7 d leads to a progressive increase in the rate of early embryonic mortality. In this study, we examined the relative expression of 31 genes associated with fatty acid metabolism (8), apoptosis (7), and oxidative stress (16) pathways to better understand the basis of embryo mortality during egg storage. A total of 642 broiler eggs in 2 separate trials were subjected to the following egg treatments: stored 4 d (Control 1, C1); stored 21 d but subjected to short periods of incubation during egg storage (SPIDES); stored un-manipulated 21 d (NonSPIDES, NS); and stored 4 d then incubated for 10 h to advance the embryos to the same developmental stages as the SPIDES embryos (Control 2, C2). Hatchability trials (277 eggs) confirmed the efficacy of SPIDES compared to NS treatments in both trials. To determine relative expression of 31 selected genes, 365 blastoderms were isolated, staged, and flash frozen in batches of 5 to 10 blastoderms per vial (7 vials per egg treatment) prior to RNA extractions. Analysis of gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR and the results presented as relative expression normalized to C1. The relative expression of genes in which the SPIDES and C2 treatments were significantly up- or down-regulated in tandem indicated that the stage-specific expression of those genes was maintained by the SPIDES treatment. This study provides the relative gene expressions of blastodermal cells before and after prolonged egg storage as well as insight as to how SPIDES impacts blastodermal cell gene expression.

  5. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  6. Evaluation of impact limiter performance during end-on and slapdown drop tests of a one-third scale model storage/transport cask system

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Bronowski, D.R.; Uncapher, W.L.; Attaway, S.W.; Bateman, V.I.; Carne, T.G.; Gregory, D.L. ); Huerta, M. )

    1990-12-01

    This report describes drop testing of a one-third scale model shipping cask system. Two casks were designed and fabricated by Transnuclear, Inc., to ship spent fuel from the former Nuclear Fuel Services West Valley reprocessing facility in New York to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for a long-term spent fuel dry storage demonstration project. As part of the NRC's regulatory certification process, one-third scale model tests were performed to obtain experimental data on impact limiter performance during impact testing. The objectives of the testing program were to (1) obtain deceleration and displacement information for the cask and impact limiter system, (2) obtain dynamic force-displacement data for the impact limiters, (3) verify the integrity of the impact limiter retention system, and (4) examine the crush behavior of the limiters. Two 30-ft (9-m) drop tests were conducted on a mass model of the cask body and scaled balsa and redwood-filled impact limiters. This report describes the results of both tests in terms of measured decelerations, posttest deformation measurements, and the general structural response of the system. 3 refs., 32 figs.

  7. Impact of maturity and peel characteristics on the response of mandarin varieties to wax application and storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mandarins are prone to the development of off-flavors during storage that can make them less desirable to consumers. Prior research by our group has demonstrated the existence of varietal differences in the propensity for postharvest off-flavor formation in mandarins, although the factors that deter...

  8. The Impact of Increased Bladder Blood Flow on Storage Symptoms after Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Hisamitsu; Aoki, Hiroaki; Muto, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Raizo; Tsujimura, Akira; Horie, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate how holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) improves urinary storage symptoms, we assessed blood flow in the urinary bladder mucosa of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after laser surgery. Seventy-four consecutive patients with BPH (median age 69 years, range; 53–88) underwent HoLEP at our institution and are included in this study. We prospectively assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-QOL Score, the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), uroflowmetry, and blood flow in the urinary bladder, before and after surgery. Blood flow in the bladder mucosa was measured using the OMEGA FLOW (OMEGAWAVE, Tokyo, Japan) laser Doppler flowmeter. The median volume of the enucleated adenomas was 45.0 g (range: 25.0 to 83.2). The median IPSS improved significantly from 20 (range: 6–35) to 3 (0–22) (p<0.001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test), as did the storage symptoms score, which decreased from 13 (2–20) to 3 (1–8) (p<0.001). Median bladder blood flow increased at the trigone from 9.57±0.83 ml/sec to 17.60±1.08 ml/sec. Multiple regression analysis for the improved storage symptom score eliminated all explanatory variables except increased bladder perfusion. The data suggest that HoLEP improves blood flow in the bladder mucosa, which independently leads to the improvement of storage symptoms. PMID:26090819

  9. The dynamic behavior of storage organelles in developing cereal seeds and its impact on the production of recombinant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Arcalis, Elsa; Ibl, Verena; Peters, Jenny; Melnik, Stanislav; Stoger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Cereal endosperm is a highly differentiated tissue containing specialized organelles for the accumulation of storage proteins, which are ultimately deposited either within protein bodies derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, or in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs). During seed maturation endosperm cells undergo a rapid sequence of developmental changes, including extensive reorganization and rearrangement of the endomembrane system and protein transport via several developmentally regulated trafficking routes. Storage organelles have been characterized in great detail by the histochemical analysis of fixed immature tissue samples. More recently, in vivo imaging and the use of tonoplast markers and fluorescent organelle tracers have provided further insight into the dynamic morphology of PSVs in different cell layers of the developing endosperm. This is relevant for biotechnological applications in the area of molecular farming because seed storage organelles in different cereal crops offer alternative subcellular destinations for the deposition of recombinant proteins that can reduce proteolytic degradation, allow control over glycan structures and increase the efficacy of oral delivery. We discuss how the specialized architecture and developmental changes of the endomembrane system in endosperm cells may influence the subcellular fate and post-translational modification of recombinant glycoproteins in different cereal species. PMID:25232360

  10. Impacts of chronic N input on the carbon and nitrogen storage of a postfire Mediterranean-type shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, George L.; Hentz, Cloe S.

    2016-02-01

    Mediterranean-type shrublands are subject to periodic fire and high levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, but little is known how chronic N deposition affects carbon (C) and N storage during succession. We conducted a long-term experiment in Californian chaparral to test the hypothesis that chronic N enrichment would increase postfire C and N accumulation. The experimental layout consisted of a randomized design where four 10 × 10 m plots received 5 g N m-2 annually since 2003 and four 10 × 10 m plots served as controls. Aboveground and belowground C and N pools and fluxes were measured seasonally (every 3 months) for a period of 10 years. Added N rapidly increased soil extractable N pools and decreased soil pH; however, total soil C and N storage were not affected. Added N plots initially had significantly lower C and N storage than control plots, presumably because of nutrient losses from leaching and/or higher belowground C allocation. However, rates of aboveground N and C storage became significantly higher in added N plots after 4-5 years of exposure, thus increasing fuel buildup, which has implications for future fire intensity. This recovering chaparral stand is not yet "N saturated" after 10 years of chronic N input. However, N leaching continues to be higher in added N plots, indicating that postfire chaparral stands in high-N deposition areas can be important sources of N to groundwater/aquatic systems even if productivity is stimulated by N input.

  11. Off-Site Storage and Special Collections: A Study in Use and Impact in ARL Libraries in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddle, Charlotte; McCann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special collections libraries collect and preserve materials of intellectual and cultural heritage, providing access to unique research resources. As their holdings continue to expand, special collections in research libraries confront increased space pressures. Off-site storage facilities, used frequently by research libraries for general…

  12. The impact of cold storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'Hort16A' kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Günther, Catrin S; Marsh, Ken B; Winz, Robert A; Harker, Roger F; Wohlers, Mark W; White, Anne; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-02-15

    Fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. In this study, the effects of cold storage on volatile ester levels of 'Hort16A' (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. Cold storage (1.5°C) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl hexanoate. Levels of these esters, however, were restored by ethylene treatment (100ppm, 24h) before ripening. A sensory panel found that "tropical" and "fruit candy" aroma was stronger and "green" odour notes less intensively perceived in kiwifruit which were ethylene-treated after cold storage compared to untreated fruit. The key findings presented in this study may lead to further work on the ethylene pathway, and innovative storage and marketing solutions for current and novel fruit cultivars.

  13. Impact of pilling and long-term topsoil storage on the potential soil microbial activity in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptobiotic soil crusts in arid regions contribute to ecosystem stability through increased water infiltration, soil aggregate stability, and nutrient cycling between the soil community and vascular plants. Natural gas mining involves removal of the topsoil, including surface crust, and storage of ...

  14. Cold storage of the adult stage of Gonatocerus ashmeadi girault: the impact on maternal and progeny quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of storage of adult G. ashmeadi at 2, 5 and 10°C on maternal and the unstored progeny fitness qualities was examined. The maternal generation did not survive 5 d exposure to 2°C and those stored at 10°C survived longer than those held at 5°C. Oviposition of the maternal generation conti...

  15. A new approach for evaluating the impact of fluvial type heterogeneity in CO2 storage reservoir modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issautier, Benoît; Viseur, Sophie; Audigane, Pascal; Chiaberge, Christophe; Le Nindre, Yves-Michel

    2016-09-01

    In this sensitivity analysis on a 3D model of a heterogeneous fluvial reservoir, two scenario orders have been considered. The first one focuses on the first-order heterogeneity (i.e. a fluvial belt with a 100% sand content), and the other one on the second-order heterogeneity accounting for the internal sedimentary fill within the fluvial belt (oxbow lakes). CO2 injections were simulated using THOUGH2, and the dynamic simulations show large variations of reservoir performances. The first-order heterogeneity generates a large spectrum of storage capacities ranging from 30 to 50 Mt, to be related to the natural connectivity variability between fluvial belts induced by the avulsion process. Considering second-order heterogeneity reduces the storage capacities by 30%, highlighting the importance of representing such objects in complex heterogeneous systems. Moreover, it increases the dissolution process, increasing by the way the storage efficiency. The CO2 plume extension and geometry is also estimated to be strongly dependent on the level of heterogeneity. Finally, trapping into poorly connected fluvial point bars affects strongly the storage capacity of the mobile CO2 as well as the pressure field.

  16. The Impact of Increased Bladder Blood Flow on Storage Symptoms after Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keisuke; Hisasue, Shin-ichi; Ide, Hisamitsu; Aoki, Hiroaki; Muto, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Raizo; Tsujimura, Akira; Horie, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate how holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) improves urinary storage symptoms, we assessed blood flow in the urinary bladder mucosa of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after laser surgery. Seventy-four consecutive patients with BPH (median age 69 years, range; 53-88) underwent HoLEP at our institution and are included in this study. We prospectively assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-QOL Score, the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), uroflowmetry, and blood flow in the urinary bladder, before and after surgery. Blood flow in the bladder mucosa was measured using the OMEGA FLOW (OMEGAWAVE, Tokyo, Japan) laser Doppler flowmeter. The median volume of the enucleated adenomas was 45.0 g (range: 25.0 to 83.2). The median IPSS improved significantly from 20 (range: 6-35) to 3 (0-22) (p < 0.001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test), as did the storage symptoms score, which decreased from 13 (2-20) to 3 (1-8) (p < 0.001). Median bladder blood flow increased at the trigone from 9.57 ± 0.83 ml/sec to 17.60 ± 1.08 ml/sec. Multiple regression analysis for the improved storage symptom score eliminated all explanatory variables except increased bladder perfusion. The data suggest that HoLEP improves blood flow in the bladder mucosa, which independently leads to the improvement of storage symptoms.

  17. Long term storage of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor isolates using different cryopreservation techniques and its impact on laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Tomšovský, Michal; Lisá, Ludmila

    2015-12-01

    The strain Pleurotus ostreatus Florida f6, its 45 basidiospore-derived isolates (both monokaryons and dikaryons prepared in our laboratory), Trametes versicolor strain CCBAS 614 and 22 other T. versicolor isolates obtained from the sporocarps collected in distant localities were successfully preserved for 12 y using perlite and straw cryopreservation protocols. All tested isolates survived a 12-year storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) and their laccase production and Poly B411 decolorization capacity was preserved. Also mycelium extension rate and the types of colony appearance of individual isolates remained unchanged. Different cryopreservation techniques were also tested for the short time (24 h) and the long time (6 m) storage of the culture liquid with extracellular laccase produced by T. versicolor strain CCBAS 614. The results showed that 10 % glycerol was the most suitable cryopreservant. The absence of the cryopreservant did not cause high loss of laccase activity in the samples; the presence of DMSO (5 or 10 %) in LN-stored samples caused mostly a decrease of laccase activity. For the preservation of laccase activity in the liquid culture the storage in the freezer at -80 °C is more convenient than the storage in liquid nitrogen.

  18. 47 CFR 73.404 - Interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.404 Interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation. (a) The... test operation pursuant to § 73.1620, may commence interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation with digital... Report and Order in MM Docket No. 99-325, as revised in the Media Bureau's subsequent Order in MM...

  19. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§...

  20. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§...

  1. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§...

  2. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§...

  3. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§...

  4. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder....

  5. 45 CFR 1606.13 - Interim and termination funding; reprogramming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim and termination funding; reprogramming. 1606.13 Section 1606.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION TERMINATION AND DEBARMENT PROCEDURES; RECOMPETITION § 1606.13 Interim and...

  6. Presidential Transition: The Experience of Two Community College Interim Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the experiences of two community college interim presidents, their characteristics, and how they led institutions following an abrupt presidential departure. There were two fundamental questions framing this research study, 1. How do two interim community college presidents lead…

  7. 16 CFR 1203.53 - Interim safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim safety standards. 1203.53 Section 1203.53 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS..., Through March 10, 1999 § 1203.53 Interim safety standards. (a) Bicycle helmets must comply with one...

  8. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts insured under interim binder. 308.303 Section 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The...

  9. Optimal timing for interim analyses in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Togo, Kanae; Iwasaki, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    In clinical trials, interim analyses are often performed before the completion of the trial. The intention is to possibly terminate the trial early or adjust the sample size. The time of conducting an interim analysis affects the probability of the early termination and the number of subjects enrolled until the interim analysis. This influences the expected total number of subjects. In this study, we examine the optimal time for conducting interim analyses with a view to minimizing the expected total sample size. It is found that regardless of the effect size, the optimal time of one interim analysis for the early termination is approximately two-thirds of the planned observations for the O'Brien-Fleming type of spending function and approximately half of the planned observations for the Pocock type when the subject enrollment is halted for the interim analysis. When the subject enrollment is continuous throughout the trial, the optimal time for the interim analysis varies according to the follow-up duration. We also consider the time for one interim analysis including the sample size adjustment in terms of minimizing the expected total sample size.

  10. Staff Reactions to Interim Leadership in a Student Affairs Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robin D.

    2011-01-01

    Interim leadership appointments in higher education are a common strategy used to fill leadership gaps in executive positions. Because student affairs executives are particularly vulnerable to high turnover rates, interim appointments are becoming more widespread. Even with the prevalence of this trend, little attention has been given to the…

  11. 7 CFR 280.1 - Interim disaster procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim disaster procedures. 280.1 Section 280.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....1 Interim disaster procedures. The Secretary shall, after consultation with the official...

  12. 40 CFR 281.23 - Schedule for interim approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule for interim approval. 281.23 Section 281.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Schedule for interim approval. For a state program that must modify its statutory or...

  13. 47 CFR 51.715 - Interim transport and termination pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim transport and termination pricing. 51... Telecommunications Traffic § 51.715 Interim transport and termination pricing. (a) Upon request from a... shall provide transport and termination of telecommunications traffic immediately under an...

  14. Presidential Transition: The Experience of Two Community College Interim Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Matthew; Cooper, Robyn; Ebbers, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to understand the experiences of two community college interim presidents, their characteristics, and how they led institutions following an abrupt presidential departure. There were two fundamental questions framing this study: 1. How do two interim community college presidents lead community colleges during a…

  15. The Predictive and Instructional Value of Interim Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This mixed design study investigated the predictive and instructional uses of two different types of interim mathematics assessments given in two different districts. One district administered the same summative type of assessment three times a year, while the other district administered a different interim assessment after six-week intervals of…

  16. 40 CFR 270.64 - Interim permits for UIC wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim permits for UIC wells. 270.64 Section 270.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 270.64 Interim permits for UIC wells. The Director may issue a permit under this part to any Class...

  17. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts under interim binder. 308.103 Section 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder....

  18. 42 CFR 418.307 - Periodic interim payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic interim payments. 418.307 Section 418.307... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.307 Periodic interim payments. Subject to the provisions of § 413.64(h) of this chapter, a hospice may elect to receive periodic...

  19. 40 CFR 155.56 - Interim registration review decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim registration review decision... PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.56 Interim registration review decision. The Agency may issue, when it determines it to be appropriate, an...

  20. 39 CFR 211.4 - Interim personnel regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim personnel regulations. 211.4 Section 211.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION APPLICATION OF REGULATIONS § 211.4 Interim personnel regulations. (a) Continuation of Personnel Regulations of the Post...

  1. Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Kabul (Afghanistan).

    This interim report is an updating of the 1977 Statistical Profile of Children and Mothers in Afghanistan. The interim report reflects the significant changes in policies brought about by the Saur Revolution establishing the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in 1978. A comprehensive revision of the report is expected when the new government's…

  2. 28 CFR 94.41 - Interim emergency payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interim emergency payment. 94.41 Section 94.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Payment of Claims § 94.41 Interim emergency...

  3. 28 CFR 94.41 - Interim emergency payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim emergency payment. 94.41 Section 94.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Payment of Claims § 94.41 Interim emergency...

  4. 28 CFR 94.41 - Interim emergency payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interim emergency payment. 94.41 Section 94.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Payment of Claims § 94.41 Interim emergency...

  5. 28 CFR 94.41 - Interim emergency payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interim emergency payment. 94.41 Section 94.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Payment of Claims § 94.41 Interim emergency...

  6. 49 CFR 37.193 - Interim service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.193 Interim service requirements. (a) Until... accessible bus, the operator has met this requirement. (2) Interim service under this paragraph (a) is not... percent of which consists of accessible buses (e.g., a small fixed-route operator who exclusively...

  7. 49 CFR 37.193 - Interim service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.193 Interim service requirements. (a) Until... accessible bus, the operator has met this requirement. (2) Interim service under this paragraph (a) is not... percent of which consists of accessible buses (e.g., a small fixed-route operator who exclusively...

  8. 49 CFR 37.193 - Interim service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.193 Interim service requirements. (a) Until... accessible bus, the operator has met this requirement. (2) Interim service under this paragraph (a) is not... percent of which consists of accessible buses (e.g., a small fixed-route operator who exclusively...

  9. 49 CFR 106.35 - Interim final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... requirements and their effective date. PHMSA may issue an interim final rule if it finds, for good cause, that... comments, as well as any other relevant documents, PHMSA may revise the interim final rule and then issue...

  10. 49 CFR 106.35 - Interim final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... requirements and their effective date. PHMSA may issue an interim final rule if it finds, for good cause, that... comments, as well as any other relevant documents, PHMSA may revise the interim final rule and then issue...

  11. 49 CFR 106.35 - Interim final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... requirements and their effective date. PHMSA may issue an interim final rule if it finds, for good cause, that... comments, as well as any other relevant documents, PHMSA may revise the interim final rule and then issue...

  12. 49 CFR 106.35 - Interim final rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... requirements and their effective date. PHMSA may issue an interim final rule if it finds, for good cause, that... comments, as well as any other relevant documents, PHMSA may revise the interim final rule and then issue...

  13. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... ultimate consumer; (ii) All additized post-refinery component (PRC); and (iii) All detergent additives...

  14. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... ultimate consumer; (ii) All additized post-refinery component (PRC); and (iii) All detergent additives...

  15. Augmented Reality Mentor for Training Maintenance Procedures: Interim Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    ARI Research Note 2014-04 Augmented Reality Mentor for Training Maintenance Procedures: Interim Assessment Louise...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Augmented Reality Mentor for Training Maintenance Procedures: Interim Assessment 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Representative and Subject Matter POC: Dr. William R. Bickley 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words): The Augmented Reality Mentor is a 2-yr advanced

  16. 10 CFR 590.403 - Emergency interim orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.403 Emergency interim... and issue an emergency interim order authorizing the import or export of natural gas. After...

  17. 10 CFR 590.403 - Emergency interim orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.403 Emergency interim... and issue an emergency interim order authorizing the import or export of natural gas. After...

  18. 42 CFR 418.307 - Periodic interim payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.307 Periodic interim payments. Subject to the provisions of § 413.64(h) of this chapter, a hospice may elect to receive periodic interim... PIP method unless the hospice requests a longer fixed interval (not to exceed one month)...

  19. 47 CFR 73.404 - Interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.404 Interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation. (a) The... test operation pursuant to § 73.1620, may commence interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation with digital... No. 99-325. FM stations are permitted to operate with hybrid digital effective radiated power...

  20. 47 CFR 73.404 - Interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.404 Interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation. (a) The... test operation pursuant to § 73.1620, may commence interim hybrid IBOC DAB operation with digital... No. 99-325. FM stations are permitted to operate with hybrid digital effective radiated power...