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Sample records for impacts involving porous

  1. Numerical simulations of impacts involving porous bodies. I. Implementing sub-resolution porosity in a 3D SPH hydrocode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, Martin; Benz, Willy; Michel, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we extend our Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) impact code to include the effect of porosity at a sub-resolution scale by adapting the so-called P-alpha model. Many small bodies in the different populations of asteroids and comets are believed to contain a high degree of porosity and the determination of both their collisional evolution and the outcome of their disruption requires that the effect of porosity is taken into account in the computation of those processes. Here, we present our model and show how porosity interfaces with the elastic-perfectly plastic material description and the brittle fracture model generally used to simulate the fragmentation of non-porous rocky bodies. We investigate various compaction models and discuss their suitability to simulate the compaction of (highly) porous material. Then, we perform simple test cases where we compare results of the simulations to the theoretical solutions. We also present a Deep Impact-like simulation to show the effect of porosity on the outcome of an impact. Detailed validation tests will be presented in a next paper by comparison with high-velocity laboratory experiments on porous materials [Jutzi et al., in preparation]. Once validated at small scales, our new impact code can then be used at larger scales to study impacts and collisions involving brittle solids including porosity, such as the parent bodies of C-type asteroid families or cometary materials, both in the strength- and in the gravity-dominated regime.

  2. Droplet impact on a porous substrate: a capillary tube model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hang; Theofanous, Theo

    2009-11-01

    The dynamics of impacting (spreading, penetrating) a droplet on a porous substrate, modeled by an array of capillary tubes, is studied numerically using diffuse interface methods. The absorption rate depends on the diameter ratio of the capillary tube to the droplet, wettability, and liquid properties. The flow dynamics is resolved by solving the Navier-Stokes equations and interface capturing is governed by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. Contact-angle hysteresis is included (Ding&Spelt 2008) and the stress singularity at moving contact lines is relieved using a diffuse interface model (Seppecher 1996; Jaqcmin 2000). The model is validated by studying the evolution of a droplet initially resting on a porous substrate and by comparison to drop-impact experiments involving just one capillary tube (Kogan et al 2008). Comparisons with analytical solutions and results available in the literature (e.g. Hilpert & Ben-David 2009) are presented. Through parametric simulations over relevant ranges of Reynolds and Ohnesorge numbers and contact angles, impact regime maps are derived.

  3. Impact dynamics of porous powder. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, V.M.

    1995-12-31

    The shock adiabats have been built experimentally in the range of moderate pressures for three porous materials: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} wheat flour, and their mixture. The model, which describes the behavior of porous powder materials under large-amplitude dynamic loading, has been constructed. The model applicability to describing the shock wave processes is confirmed by good agreement of the calculated shock adiabats and the data obtained in the experiments. The compressive strength of compacted samples has been determined. The possible trend of further researches is presented in conclusion. 15 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Nonlinear Behavior Of Saturated Porous Media Under External Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepechko, Y.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with nonlinear behavior of liquid saturated porous media in gravity filed under external impact. The continuum is assumed to be a two-velocity medium; it consists of a deformable porous matrix (with Maxwell's reology) and a Newtonian liquid that saturates this matrix. The energy dissipation in this model takes place due the interface friction between the solid matrix and saturating liquid, and also through relaxation of inelastic shear stress in the porous matrix. The elaborated nonisothermal mathematical model for this kind of medium is a thermodynamically consistent and closed model. Godunov's explicit difference scheme was used for computer simulation; the method implies numerical simulation for discontinuity decay in flux calculations. As an illustrative example, we consider the formation of dissipation structures in a plain layer of that medium after pulse or periodic impact on the background of liquid filtration through the porous matrix. At the process beginning, one can observe elastic behavior of the porous matrix. Deformation spreading through the saturated porous matrix occurs almost without distortions and produces a channel-shaped zone of stretching with a high porosity. Later on, dissipation processes and reology properties of porous medium causes the diffusion of this channel. We also observe a correlation between the liquid distribution (porosity for the solid matrix) and dilatancy fields; this allows us to restore the dilatancy field from the measured fluid saturation of the medium. This work was supported by the RFBR (Grant No. 04-05-64107), the Presidium of SB RAS (Grant 106), the President's Grants (NSh-2118.2003.5, NSh-1573.2003.5).

  5. Impact cratering and ejection of material on porous asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, K.; Sweet, W.

    2014-07-01

    The manner in which an impact crater and its ejecta blanket are created involves an interplay between gravity and the strength properties of the target material. Gravity is important because the overburden stress at depth in an asteroid determines the material shear strength, which affects the mechanics of crater and ejecta formation. This has important implications when attempting to use lab experiments to simulate large-crater formation on asteroids. The only way to perform small-scale experimental simulations of cratering events on asteroids is to adjust the ambient ''gravity'', g, such that the experiment has the same product of gL as the actual impact event being simulated, where L is an important length scale, such as the projectile or crater size [1]. In this way, the lab crater has the same overburden stress (and shear strength) and ejecta ballistics as a much larger cratering event on an asteroid. Even though asteroids have weak gravity fields, the overburden stress of a multiple-km crater is larger than can be reproduced in the lab at 1 G. Therefore, simulation of large impacts on asteroids requires that the ''gravity'' of the experiment is greater than 1 G. Here we report on a series of impact experiments conducted at elevated gravity on a geotechnical centrifuge. These experimental craters are subscale replicas of the much larger craters they simulate; larger G-levels simulate larger craters. Using the Boeing 600-G centrifuge, we directly simulate the formation of asteroid (g˜0.001 G) craters as large as several tens of km. The target materials are cohesionless with porosity ranging from 35 % to 95 %. Cratering experiments in soils with small or moderate porosity (<30 %) show a decrease in cratering efficiency (crater volume/impactor volume) with increasing size scale or, equivalently, increasing G in a centrifuge experiment. This well-known gravity-regime behavior is due to the fact that the shear strength of the target material goes up due to the

  6. Impact and Penetration of Nanoparticle Suspension Drops into Porous Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Rakesh; Yarin, Alexander; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam

    2014-03-01

    The impacts and dynamic penetration of drops with suspended nanoparticles into porous membranes are studied experimentally and theoretically. This type of penetration is radically different from the wettability-driven imbibition. Two types of membranes are used in the experiments: (i) glass fiber filter membrane (wettable) and (ii) PTFE depth filter (non-wettable). The nanoparticle entrainment and deposition inside the membrane bulk is used to mostly visualize the ultimate penetration fronts of the carrier fluid by observing the cut cross-sections of the filter membranes, albeit also provides an insight into potentially new applications like circuit printing on nonwovens. The experimental results demonstrate that during the dynamic focusing responsible for water penetration into micro- and nanopores, water can penetrate into a non-wettable porous medium (PTFE). Water also penetrates by the same focusing mechanism into the wettable glass fiber membrane, where it additionally spreads on a much longer time scale due to the wettability-driven flow. A theory explaining dynamic penetration of liquid into porous medium after drop impact is proposed. It is used to explain and predict water penetration into the non-wettable media after drop impact, and the results are compared with the experimental data. The work was supported by the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC).

  7. Numerical Modeling of Ink-droplet Impact on Porous Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Saman; Ashgriz, Nasser; Chandra, Sanjeev; Andrews, John; Droppel, Stephan; Xerox Corporation

    2011-11-01

    Solid ink is wax-resin based ink, which is solid at room temperature, and melts when heated. Impact of a solid ink droplet with different velocities and temperatures on paper is studied. Maximum spreading diameter of solid ink ``Colorstix8200'' on different papers has been evaluated. Increasing the temperature decreases the viscosity of the wax, which causes more spreading and penetration on the paper. Although lateral spreading is very rapid during the initial stages of impact, drop may penetrate inside the substrate too. Dynamically, wax penetration on paper is a function of inertia, surface tension and capillary pressure inside the paper. When a wax drop penetrates into the paper, it mechanically bonds to the paper through anchoring within the pores. After the impact, droplets are removed and remaining areas are measured for adhesion and cohesion characteristic. The adhesion of solid ink to paper has been studied qualitatively using scratch test and tape test techniques. The experimental setup consists of a pendent droplet generator which consists of heated cylinder for molten wax and a nozzle; imaging system, pull test system, and cutting system. Penetration, spreading and adhesion force have been studied for different temperatures and impact velocities on porous substrate.

  8. Experimental study on impact disruption of porous asteroids: Effects of oblique impact and multiple collisions on impact strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Minami; Takano, Shota; Matsue, Kazuma; Arakawa, Masahiko

    2015-08-01

    Most of asteroids would have pores and a plenty of pre-cracks in their interiors, and the pre-cracks could be formed by multiple impacts at various impact angles. Porosity and pre-cracks are important physical properties controlling the impact strength. Okamoto and Arakawa (2009) did impact experiments of porous gypsum spheres to obtain the impact strength of porous asteroids, but they carried out only single impact experiments on the same target at head-on. In this study, we conducted oblique impact and multiple impacts on porous gypsum and examined the effects of impact angle and pre-cracks on the impact strength.We carried out impact experiments by using the one-stage He gas gun and the two-stage H2 gas gun at Kobe University. The impact velocities were <200 m/s (low-vi) and >3 km/s (high-vi). Targets were porous gypsum spheres with the porosity of 55% and the diameters of 7 or 12 cm. The projectiles were a porous gypsum sphere with the diameter of 2.5 cm at low-vi or a polycarbonate sphere with the diameter of 4.7 cm at high-vi. The impact angle changed from 15° to 90°, and the projectile was impacted on the same target for 2-15 times. The impact phenomena were observed by a high-speed digital video camera to measure the fragment velocities.The oblique impact experiments showed that the impact strength did not depend on the impact angle θ between 45° and 90°, and obtained to be ~2000 J/kg, while it drastically changed at the θ from 15° to 30°. We reanalyzed our results by using the effective energy density defined as Qsin2θ, where Q is the energy density, and found that most of the results were consistent with the results of head-on impacts. The multiple impacts showed that the impact strength of pre-impacted targets was larger than that of intact targets in the case of low-vi. This might be caused by the compaction of the target surface. In the case of high-vi, the impact strength of pre-impacted targets was smaller than that of intact targets. This

  9. [The impact of socially involved films].

    PubMed

    Mimoun, M

    1979-01-01

    During the past few years studies on linguistics and particularly on semiology have considerably renewed the approach and investigation methods in artistic expression. Ideology has several languages and expression systems (photography, painting, music, speech, architecture and so on). The film does not only carry an ideological content: besides the signification systems and the signs taken from other means of films. To consider only films which have the ostensible objective to urge the public to a political action as socially involved is wrong: any movie is socially involved. One must appreciate correctly and politically the place, role and level at which it intervenes in the framework of the ideological fight. Audiovisual alphabetization is essential for the progress of new ideas in the field of picture and sound. In the Third World, when they do exist, cinematographies rarely have the political power to consider such an action. Ideological impact depends mostly on the social, political and cultural environment. A movie is 1st questioned from the standpoint of the historical place and of the problems of the public. The example of Algerian cinematography as a socially involved one is given. At its origin, film-making in this country was working at informing the outside world of the meaning of the people's fight. Its goal was to capture the political and social reality in order to change it. Therefore the social involvement role of Algerian film-producing is tightly connected to the revolutionary process in which the whole country is engaged. Algerian film-producing is often understood as a propaganda cinematography. The stagnation or progress of a cinematography cannot be measured in relation to the universal mythical culture, but in relation to the social and cultural reality of the country where it originates. The present deepening of the reflection on film and ideology is a result of a recent accentuation of the ideologic fight.

  10. Impact of pore size variability and network coupling on electrokinetic transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Shima; Bazant, Martin Z.; Mani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and validated an efficient and robust computational model to study the coupled fluid and ion transport through electrokinetic porous media, which are exposed to external gradients of pressure, electric potential, and concentration. In our approach a porous media is modeled as a network of many pores through which the transport is described by the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes equations. When the pore sizes are random, the interactions between various modes of transport may provoke complexities such as concentration polarization shocks and internal flow circulations. These phenomena impact mixing and transport in various systems including deionization and filtration systems, supercapacitors, and lab-on-a-chip devices. In this work, we present simulations of massive networks of pores and we demonstrate the impact of pore size variation, and pore-pore coupling on the overall electrokinetic transport in porous media.

  11. Involvement of fractal geometry on solute permeation through porous poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) membranes.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Fumiki; Onuki, Yoshinori; Morishita, Mariko; Takayama, Kozo

    2006-01-10

    Fractal geometry was applied to quantify the complexity of an internal structure of porous membranes prepared with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA). The porous pHEMA membranes were synthesized by means of free-radical solution polymerization. Boundary lines of the porous structures in the pHEMA membrane were taken by a scanning electron microscope as image data, and these images were fed into a computer to estimate the fractal dimension. The boundary images of porous pHEMA membranes were observed to be a typical fractal and their complexity was quantified as a non-integral fractal dimension. The permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran, molecular weight 4400 (FD-4) as a model penetrant through the porous pHEMA membrane was determined using water-jacket type two-chamber diffusion cells. A fairly good negative relationship between the permeability coefficient of FD-4 and the fractal dimension was observed, suggesting the usefulness of the fractal dimension as a novel means for evaluating solute permeation through the porous membranes.

  12. Protective Effectiveness of Porous Shields Under the Influence of High-Speed Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramshonkov, E. N.; Krainov, A. V.; Shorohov, P. V.

    2016-02-01

    The results of numerical simulations of a compact steel impactor with the aluminum porous shields under high-speed shock loading are presented. The porosity of barrier varies in wide range provided that its mass stays the same, but the impactor has always equal (identical) mass. Here presented the final assessment of the barrier perforation speed depending on its porosity and initial shock speed. The range of initial impact speed varies from 1 to 10 km/s. Physical phenomena such as: destruction, melting, vaporization of a interacting objects are taken into account. The analysis of a shield porosity estimation disclosed that the protection effectiveness of porous shield reveals at the initial impact speed grater then 1.5 km/s, and it increases when initial impact speed growth.

  13. Impact of ambient conditions on evaporation from porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Neriah, Asaf; Assouline, Shmuel; Shavit, Uri; Weisbrod, Noam

    2014-08-01

    The complexity of soil evaporation, depending on the atmospheric conditions, emphasizes the importance of its quantification under potential changes in ambient air temperature, Ta, and relative humidity, RH. Mass loss, soil matric tension, and meteorological measurements, carried out in a climate-controlled laboratory, were used to study the effect of ambient conditions on the drying rates of a porous medium. A set of evaporation experiments from initially saturated sand columns were carried out under constant Ta of 6, 15, 25, and 35°C and related RH (0.66, 0.83, 1.08, and 1.41 kPa, respectively). The results show that the expected increase of the stage 1 (S1) evaporation rate with Ta but also revealed an exponential-like reduction in the duration of S1, which decreased from 29 to 2.3 days (at Ta of 6 and 35°C, respectively). The evaporation rate, e(t), was equal to the potential evaporation, ep(t), under Ta = 6°C, while it was always smaller than ep(t) under higher Ta. The cumulative evaporation during S1 was higher under Ta = 6°C than under the higher temperatures. Evaporation rates during S2 were practically unaffected by ambient conditions. The results were analyzed using a mass transfer formulation linking e(t) with the vapor pressure deficit through a resistance coefficient r. It was shown that rS1 (the resistance during S1) is constant, indicating that the application of such an approach is straightforward during S1. However, for evaporation from a free water surface and S2, the resistances, rBL and rS2, were temperature-dependent, introducing some complexity for these cases.

  14. High Velocity Impact Interaction of Metal Particles with Porous Heterogeneous Materials with an Inorganic Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazunov, A. A.; Ishchenko, A. N.; Afanasyeva, S. A.; Belov, N. N.; Burkin, V. V.; Rogaev, K. S.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Khabibulin, M. V.; Yugov, N. T.

    2016-03-01

    A computational-experimental investigation of stress-strain state and fracture of a porous heterogeneous material with an inorganic matrix, used as a thermal barrier coating of flying vehicles, under conditions of a high-velocity impact by a spherical steel projectile imitating a meteorite particle is discussed. Ballistic tests are performed at the velocities about 2.5 km/s. Numerical modeling of the high-velocity impact is described within the framework of a porous elastoplastic model including fracture and different phase states of the materials. The calculations are performed using the Euler and Lagrange numerical techniques for the velocities up to 10 km/s in a complete-space problem statement.

  15. Collisional disruption of porous sintered glass beads at low impact velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoh, M.; Hiraoka, K.; Nakamura, A. M.; Hirata, N.; Arakawa, M.

    Porous materials are believed to be common in the asteroids and satellites of the outer planets. In order to study the relationship between the structure of small bodies and their thermal and collisional evolution, we performed impact disruption experiments on porous sintered glass bead targets using a light-gas gun. The sintered glass bead targets were prepared to have various porosity and compressive strength. The compressive strength ranges over an order of magnitude according to the various sintering conditions. Both the compressive strength and the longitudinal wave velocity were found to have good correlations with the size of the necks developed between the bead particles. In our first low-velocity impact runs with these targets, we selected the targets with roughly the same porosity but different compressive strength. We shot the targets by cylindrical polycarbonate projectiles at velocities ranging from 10 to 120 m/s. The results showed that the targets of higher compressive strength have higher impact strength as could be expected. However, compared to previous results from the impact disruption of glass bead targets at velocity of 4.9-5.5 km/s [Love, S.G., Hörz, F., Donald, E.B. Target porosity effects in impact cratering and collisional disruption. Icarus 105, 216-224, 1993], the impact strength derived in our study was found to be lower by more than an order of magnitude [Setoh, M., Nakamura, A.M., Hiraoka, K., et al. Collisional disruption of weakly sintered porous targets at Low impact velocities. Earth Planet. Space (in press)]. The differences between the two experiments were the impact velocity, target-projectile size ratio, and the projectile material and shape. In our new low-velocity impact runs, we used projectiles of glass spheres that are similar to those of Love et al. The impact strength was again found to be much smaller than those found in high-velocity runs performed by Love et al. Therefore our previous and present results show that

  16. Impact shock and penetration fragmentation in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Trucano, T.; Grady, D.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss experimental, analytical, and computational techniques for studying the high velocity interaction of solid bodies with low density media. We assume that the velocity of the interaction is such that compressible effects in the solid are important. We are particularly interested in the dynamic mechanisms of deformation, erosion, and breakup which dominate the solid response at these high velocities. This is a problem of considerable current interest. Applications include the atmospheric propagation of high velocity aerosols, such as those that might be created in certain kinds of nuclear reactor accidents and explosive weapon accidents. An even more novel application is to the study of the impact of astrophysical bodies, such as meteors, asteroids, and comet fragments into planetary atmospheres. There is significant concern over the threats posed by impacts of these kinds on the earth. We will discuss the application of our methodology to understanding these impacts. In particular, we suggest that the experimental technique we present is applicable to scaled laboratory simulations of some of the phenomena that are believed to be important in atmospheric impacts.

  17. Scaling impact and shock-compression response for porous materials: Application to planetary formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, R.

    2016-12-01

    A thermodynamic model based on the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state does a good job of describing the response of porous materials to impact, so can provide insights into the accretion and cohesion of planetesimals too small to be significantly held together by gravity (e.g., tens of km or less in average diameter). The model identifies an offset in Hugoniot pressure (∆PH) due to porosity that is found to be in agreement with experimental shock-compression measurements for samples having a wide range of initial porosities. Assuming the Grüneisen parameter (γ) is proportional to volume (γ/V = constant), the relative offset in Hugoniot pressure as a function of initial porosity (φ = 1 - V0/V0por) and compression (η = 1 - V/V0) is ∆PH/PH = γ0 φ/[2(1 - φ) - γ0 (φ + η(1 - φ))] where subscripts 0 and por represent zero-pressure (non-porous) conditions and a porous sample, respectively. This additional thermal pressure at a given volume is due to the extra internal energy and corresponding temperature increase associated with collapsing pores (Fig. 1: near-identical curves for φ = 0.001 and 0.01). This result can be interpreted as indicating that upon collapse individual pores create hot spots with temperatures of order 103-104K above the background, suggesting that impact into an initially porous target can result in cohesion due to partial melting and vaporization. Moreover, the waste heat associated with pore closure far exceeds the dissipation in shock loading of non-porous material, reflecting the ability of a porous target to absorb and dissipate impact energy. The Mie-Grüneisen model along with analysis of waste heat thus provides a scaling for planetesimal impact that might explain how rock and regolith accrete into a gravitationally bound planet. Fig. 1. Porosity-induced anomaly in Hugoniot temperature per unit of porosity, shown as a function of compression for samples with initial porosity φ = 0.001 (green), 0.01 (blue) and 0.1 (gold

  18. A 3D porous indium(III) coordination polymer involving in-situ ligand synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Han Zhengbo; Song Yongjuan; Ji Jianwei; Zhang Wei; Han Guangxi

    2009-11-15

    The hydrothermal reaction of In{sup 3+} and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid with the presence of piperazine leads to the generation of a novel 3D porous coordination polymer, [H{sub 3}O][In{sub 2}(btc)(bdc)(OH){sub 2}].5.5H{sub 2}O (1), (btc=1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylate, bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate). Compound 1 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group Pbca with a=16.216(7) A, b=13.437(6) A, c=31.277(14) A, and Z=8. It is interesting to find that the in-situ decarboxylation reaction of 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylate (btc) partially transformed into 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (bdc) occurs. The 16 indium(III) centers were linked by four btc, four bdc and two mu{sub 2}-OH ligands to form a box-girder. The adjacent box-girders are further connected by the bdc and btc ligands to generate a novel porous metal-organic framework containing nanotubular open channel with a cross-section of approximately 11.5x11.3 A{sup 2}. The micropores are occupied by lattice water molecules, and the solvent-accessible volume of the unit cell was estimated to be 3658.6 A{sup 3}, which is approximately 53.7% of the unit-cell volume (6815.4 A{sup 3}). - Graphical Abstract: The hydrothermal reaction of In{sup 3+} and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid with the presence of piperazine leads to the generation of a novel 3D porous coordination polymer, [H{sub 3}O][In{sub 2}(btc)(bdc)(OH){sub 2}].5.5H{sub 2}O, (btc=1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylate, bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate).

  19. Impact of Porous Media and NAPL Spatial Variability at the Pore Scale on Interphase Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copty, N. K.; Agaoglu, B.; Scheytt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Sherwood number expressions are often used to model NAPL dissolution in porous media. Such expressions are generally derived from meso-scale experiments and expressed in terms of fluid and porous medium properties averaged over some representative volume. In this work a pore network model is used to examine the influence of porous media and NAPL pore scale variability on interphase mass transfer. The focus was on assessing the impact of (i) NAPL saturation, (ii) interfacial area (iii) NAPL spatial distribution at the pore scale, (iv) grain size heterogeneity and (v) REV or domain size on the apparent interphase mass transfer. Variability of both the mass transfer coefficient that explicitly accounts for the interfacial area and the mass transfer coefficient that lumps the interfacial area was examined. It was shown that pore scale NAPL distribution and its orientation relative to the flow direction have significant impact on flow bypassing and the interphase mass transfer coefficient. This results in a complex non-linear relationship between interfacial area and the REV-based interphase mass transfer rate. In other words, explicitly accounting for the interfacial area does not eliminate the variability of the mass transfer coefficient. Moreover, grain size heterogeneity can also lead to a decrease in the interphase mass transfer. It was also shown that, even for explicitly defined flow patterns, changing the domain size over which the mass transfer process is average influences the extent of NAPL bypassing and dilution and, consequently, the interphase mass transfer.

  20. Hypervelocity impacts on asteroids and momentum transfer I. Numerical simulations using porous targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, Martin; Michel, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate numerically the momentum transferred by impacts of small (artificial) projectiles on asteroids. The study of the momentum transfer efficiency as a function of impact conditions and of the internal structure of an asteroid is crucial for performance assessment of the kinetic impactor concept of deflecting an asteroid from its trajectory. The momentum transfer is characterized by the so-called momentum multiplication factor β, which has been introduced to define the momentum imparted to an asteroid in terms of the momentum of the impactor. Here we present results of code calculations of the β factor for porous targets, in which porosity takes the form of microporosity and/or macroporosity. The results of our study using a large range of impact conditions indicate that the momentum multiplication factor β is small for porous targets even for very high impact velocities (β<2 for vimp⩽15 km/s), which is consistent with published scaling laws and results of laboratory experiments (Holsapple, K.A., Housen, K.R. [2012]. Icarus 221, 875-887; Holsapple, K.A., Housen, K.R. [2013]. Proceedings of the IAA Planetary Defense Conference 2013, Flagstaff, USA). It is found that both porosity and strength can have a large effect on the amount of transferred momentum and on the scaling of β with impact velocity. On the other hand, the macroporous inhomogeneities considered here do not have a significant effect on β.

  1. Hypervelocity impacts into porous graphite: experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, D.; Seisson, G.; Rullier, J.-L.; Bertron, I.; Hallo, L.; Chevalier, J.-M.; Thessieux, C.; Guillet, F.; Boustie, M.; Berthe, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present experiments and numerical simulations of hypervelocity impacts of 0.5 mm steel spheres into graphite, for velocities ranging between 1100 and 4500 m s-1. Experiments have evidenced that, after a particular striking velocity, depth of penetration no longer increases but decreases. Moreover, the projectile is observed to be trapped below the crater surface. Using numerical simulations, we show how this experimental result can be related to both materials, yield strength. A Johnson-Cook model is developed for the steel projectile, based on the literature data. A simple model is proposed for the graphite yield strength, including a piecewise pressure dependence of the Drucker-Prager form, which coefficients have been chosen to reproduce the projectile penetration depth. Comparisons between experiments and simulations are presented and discussed. The damage properties of both materials are also considered, by using a threshold on the first principal stress as a tensile failure criterion. An additional compressive failure model is also used for graphite when the equivalent strain reaches a maximum value. We show that the experimental crater diameter is directly related to the graphite spall strength. Uncertainties on the target yield stress and failure strength are estimated. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  2. Hypervelocity impacts into porous graphite: experiments and simulations.

    PubMed

    Hébert, D; Seisson, G; Rullier, J-L; Bertron, I; Hallo, L; Chevalier, J-M; Thessieux, C; Guillet, F; Boustie, M; Berthe, L

    2017-01-28

    We present experiments and numerical simulations of hypervelocity impacts of 0.5 mm steel spheres into graphite, for velocities ranging between 1100 and 4500 m s(-1) Experiments have evidenced that, after a particular striking velocity, depth of penetration no longer increases but decreases. Moreover, the projectile is observed to be trapped below the crater surface. Using numerical simulations, we show how this experimental result can be related to both materials, yield strength. A Johnson-Cook model is developed for the steel projectile, based on the literature data. A simple model is proposed for the graphite yield strength, including a piecewise pressure dependence of the Drucker-Prager form, which coefficients have been chosen to reproduce the projectile penetration depth. Comparisons between experiments and simulations are presented and discussed. The damage properties of both materials are also considered, by using a threshold on the first principal stress as a tensile failure criterion. An additional compressive failure model is also used for graphite when the equivalent strain reaches a maximum value. We show that the experimental crater diameter is directly related to the graphite spall strength. Uncertainties on the target yield stress and failure strength are estimated.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. A note on the solution of water wave scattering problem involving small deformation on a porous channel-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, S.; Sarangi, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    The solution of water wave scattering problem involving small deformation on a porous bed in a channel, where the upper surface is bounded above by an infinitely extent rigid horizontal surface, is studied here within the framework of linearized water wave theory. In such a situation, there exists only one mode of waves propagating on the porous surface. A simplified perturbation analysis, involving a small parameter ɛ ( ≪ 1), which measures the smallness of the deformation, is employed to reduce the governing Boundary Value Problem (BVP) to a simpler BVP for the first-order correction of the potential function. The first-order potential function and, hence, the first-order reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained by the method based on Fourier transform technique as well as Green's integral theorem with the introduction of appropriate Green's function. Two special examples of bottom deformation: the exponentially damped deformation and the sinusoidal ripple bed, are considered to validate the results. For the particular example of a patch of sinusoidal ripples, the resonant interaction between the bed and the upper surface of the fluid is attained in the neighborhood of a singularity, when the ripples wavenumbers of the bottom deformation become approximately twice the components of the incident field wavenumber along the positive x-direction. Also, the main advantage of the present study is that the results for the values of reflection and transmission coefficients are found to satisfy the energy-balance relation almost accurately.

  4. Impact experiments of exotic dust grain capture by highly porous primitive bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Takaya; Nakamura, Akiko M.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Ikezaki, Katsutoshi; Tsuchiyama, Akira

    2013-05-01

    Small primitive bodies were presumably highly porous when they formed and some still have low densities that are indicative of a high pore content. Therefore, after their formation, interplanetary dust impacting on their surface may have been captured because of their porous structure. The mechanism of dust penetration is thus of importance to understand the evolution of small bodies and the origin of their internal dust particles. Impact experiments of sintered glass-bead targets characterized by 80%, 87%, and 94% bulk porosity were conducted using metal and basalt projectiles at impact velocities ranging from 1.6 to 7.2 km s-1. Track morphology and penetration processes were analyzed using both X-ray tomography and a flash X-ray system. Two types of track were observed, as previously also found in the Stardust aerogel: a thin and long track (carrot-shaped track), and a "bulb" with tails (bulb-shaped track). The track shape changed with initial dynamic pressure. We found that the transition between "carrot" and "bulb" occurred at a pressure of roughly 20 times the projectile's tensile strength. The deceleration process of projectiles without severe deformation and fragmentation was reproduced by a drag equation composed of an inertia drag that was proportional to the square of the projectile's velocity and a constant drag proportional to the target's compressive strength. We applied this deceleration equation to silicate dust penetrating into hypothetical porous icy bodies which were homogeneous on much smaller scales than the impacting dust particles. The penetration depth was approximately 100 times the projectile diameter for the bodies with 90% porosity.

  5. Propagation of impact-induced shock waves in porous sandstone using mesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GÜLdemeister, Nicole; WÜNnemann, Kai; Durr, Nathanael; Hiermaier, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Generation and propagation of shock waves by meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> is significantly affected by material properties such as porosity, water content, and strength. The objective of this work was to quantify processes related to the shock-induced compaction of pore space by numerical modeling, and compare the results with data obtained in the framework of the Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research Network (MEMIN) <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments. We use mesoscale models resolving the collapse of individual pores to validate macroscopic (homogenized) approaches describing the bulk behavior of <span class="hlt">porous</span> and water-saturated materials in large-scale models of crater formation, and to quantify localized shock amplification as a result of pore space crushing. We carried out a suite of numerical models of planar shock wave propagation through a well-defined area (the "sample") of <span class="hlt">porous</span> and/or water-saturated material. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> sample is either represented by a homogeneous unit where porosity is treated as a state variable (macroscale model) and water content by an equation of state for mixed material (ANEOS) or by a defined number of individually resolved pores (mesoscale model). We varied porosity and water content and measured thermodynamic parameters such as shock wave velocity and particle velocity on meso- and macroscales in separate simulations. The mesoscale models provide additional data on the heterogeneous distribution of peak shock pressures as a consequence of the complex superposition of reflecting rarefaction waves and shock waves originating from the crushing of pores. We quantify the bulk effect of porosity, the reduction in shock pressure, in terms of Hugoniot data as a function of porosity, water content, and strength of a quartzite matrix. We find a good agreement between meso-, macroscale models and Hugoniot data from shock experiments. We also propose a combination of a porosity compaction model (ɛ-α model) that was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.1315E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.1315E"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of space-time mesh adaptation on solute transport modeling in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esfandiar, Bahman; Porta, Giovanni; Perotto, Simona; Guadagnini, Alberto</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We implement a space-time grid adaptation procedure to efficiently improve the accuracy of numerical simulations of solute transport in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media in the context of model parameter estimation. We focus on the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) for the interpretation of nonreactive transport experiments in laboratory-scale heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. When compared to a numerical approximation based on a fixed space-time discretization, our approach is grounded on a joint automatic selection of the spatial grid and the time step to capture the main (space-time) system dynamics. Spatial mesh adaptation is driven by an anisotropic recovery-based error estimator which enables us to properly select the size, shape, and orientation of the mesh elements. Adaptation of the time step is performed through an ad hoc local reconstruction of the temporal derivative of the solution via a recovery-based approach. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed adaptation strategy on the ability to provide reliable estimates of the key parameters of an ADE model is assessed on the basis of experimental solute breakthrough data measured following tracer injection in a nonuniform <span class="hlt">porous</span> system. Model calibration is performed in a Maximum Likelihood (ML) framework upon relying on the representation of the ADE solution through a generalized Polynomial Chaos Expansion (gPCE). Our results show that the proposed anisotropic space-time grid adaptation leads to ML parameter estimates and to model results of markedly improved quality when compared to classical inversion approaches based on a uniform space-time discretization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3235319','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3235319"><span>The effect of <span class="hlt">impaction</span> and a bioceramic coating on bone ingrowth in <span class="hlt">porous</span> titanium particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background and purpose <span class="hlt">Porous</span> titanium (Ti) particles can be <span class="hlt">impacted</span> like cancellous allograft bone particles, and may therefore be used as bone substitute in <span class="hlt">impaction</span> grafting. We evaluated the effect of <span class="hlt">impaction</span> and of a thin silicated biphasic calcium phosphate coating on osteoconduction by Ti particles. Methods The bone conduction chamber of Aspenberg was used in goats and filled with various groups of coated or uncoated small Ti particles (diameter 1.0–1.4 mm). <span class="hlt">Impacted</span> allograft bone particles and empty chambers were used in control groups. Fluorochromes were administered at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Maximum bone ingrowth distance was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. Results Histology of Ti particle graft cylinders showed a dense matrix with narrow inter-particle and intra-particle pores (< 100 μm), occluding the lumen of the bone chamber. Bone ingrowth distances gradually increased with time in all groups. Maximum bone ingrowth distance was higher in originally empty chambers than those with allograft bone particles (p = 0.01) and Ti particles (p < 0.001). Maximum bone ingrowth in allograft bone particles was higher than in all Ti groups (p ≤ 0.001). <span class="hlt">Impaction</span> reduced osteoconduction and the coating partially compensated for the negative effect of <span class="hlt">impaction</span>, but these differences were not statistically significant. No osteolytic reactions were found. Interpretation Osteoconduction in the bone conduction chamber was reduced more by the insertion of small Ti particles than by insertion of small allograft bone particles. The osteoconductive potential of <span class="hlt">porous</span> Ti particles should be studied further with larger-sized particles, which may allow bone ingrowth after <span class="hlt">impaction</span> through larger inter-particle pores. PMID:21504310</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H13A1061H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H13A1061H"><span>The Efficiency Analysis of Low <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Development Applied in Taiwan: A Case Study of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Pavement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Y. H.; Liu, H. J.; Hsu, N. S.; Chang, F. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Low <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Development (LID) has been developed since the end of 1990s. Lots of successful experience based on this new technology have been made. Taiwan Executive Yuan is conducting a six-year (2014~2019) program "Integrated River Basin Management Plan" applying LID to build sponge cities. Construction and Planning Agency, Ministry of the Interior is editing the manual of LID technology for Taiwan. However, since the hydrological environments, physiographic conditions, climates, the strength and frequency of disasters in Taiwan are different from that in America, this study takes the first laboratory experiment and model simulation to evaluate the efficiency of application of LID in Taiwan.LID Facilities includes <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement, rain garden, green roof, tree box filter facilities and so on, and in this study, <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement is taken as an example for discussion. In the part of laboratory experiments, the sand box experiments is designed to operate with the specified rainfall return period calculated by Horton formula and rainfall characteristics of Taipei. Then the outflow hydrograph in each designed rainfall of specified return period can be evaluated. As for model simulation, this study constructs LID simulation elements by SWMM model and tests the suitability for simulation of the outflow hydrograph obtained from experiments, and definitely quantifies the efficiency of water retention and flood reduction of <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement. The results fits well with the experimental observation data with less than 10% error of pick flow. It suggests that, with LID simulation elements constructed in this study, the efficiency of LID in actual on-site application can be evaluated.The results shows that <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement is able to delay arrival time of pick about 5% ~10% and reduce the pick flow about 5%~20%, and hold the ability of near 3~5% water retention. It proves that application of LID can retain water and reduce flood in Taiwan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=John+AND+G.+AND+Nicholls&pg=3&id=EJ356333','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=John+AND+G.+AND+Nicholls&pg=3&id=EJ356333"><span>Competence and Affect in Task <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> and Ego <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Social Comparison Information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Two studies investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of information about the effort and performance of others on students' anticipated affects and judgments of competence given success in task-<span class="hlt">involving</span> and ego-<span class="hlt">involving</span> contexts. Without social comparison information, competence and positive affects were judged higher when students were asked to imagine…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..107..405F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..107..405F"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of capillary backpressure on spontaneous counter-current imbibition in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Foley, Amir Y.; Nooruddin, Hasan A.; Blunt, Martin J.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of capillary backpressure on spontaneous counter-current imbibition. For such displacements in strongly water-wet systems, the non-wetting phase is forced out through the inlet boundary as the wetting phase imbibes into the rock, creating a finite capillary backpressure. Under the assumption that capillary backpressure depends on the water saturation applied at the inlet boundary of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium, its <span class="hlt">impact</span> is determined using the continuum modelling approach by varying the imposed inlet saturation in the analytical solution. We present analytical solutions for the one-dimensional incompressible horizontal displacement of a non-wetting phase by a wetting phase in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. There exists an inlet saturation value above which any change in capillary backpressure has a negligible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the solutions. Above this threshold value, imbibition rates and front positions are largely invariant. A method for identifying this inlet saturation is proposed using an analytical procedure and we explore how varying multiphase flow properties affects the analytical solutions and this threshold saturation. We show the value of this analytical approach through the analysis of previously published experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23367938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23367938"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">porous</span> targets: penetration, crater formation, target compaction, and ejection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ringl, Christian; Bringa, Eduardo M; Urbassek, Herbert M</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Using a granular-mechanics code, we study the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a sphere into a <span class="hlt">porous</span> adhesive granular target, consisting of monodisperse silica grains. The model includes elastic repulsive, adhesive, and dissipative forces, as well as sliding, rolling, and twisting friction. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> velocities of up to 30 m/s and target filling factors (densities) between 19% and 35% have been systematically studied. We find that the projectile is stopped by an effective drag force which is proportional to the square of its velocity. Target adhesion influences projectile stopping only below a critical velocity, which increases with adhesion. The penetration depth depends approximately logarithmically on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity and is inversely proportional to the target density. The excavated crater is of conical form and is surrounded by a compaction zone whose width increases but whose maximum value decreases with increasing target density. Grain ejection increases in proportion with impactor velocity. Grains are ejected which have originally been buried to a depth of 8R(grain) below the surface; the angular distribution favors oblique ejection with a maximum around 45°. The velocity distribution of ejected grains features a broad low-velocity maximum around 0.5-1 m/s but exhibits a high-velocity tail up to ~15% of the projectile <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474339','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474339"><span>Effectiveness of low <span class="hlt">impact</span> development practices in two urbanized watersheds: retrofitting with rain barrel/cistern and <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahiablame, Laurent M; Engel, Bernard A; Chaubey, Indrajeet</p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of urbanization on hydrology and water quality can be minimized with the use of low <span class="hlt">impact</span> development (LID) practices in urban areas. This study assessed the performance of rain barrel/cistern and <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement as retrofitting technologies in two urbanized watersheds of 70 and 40 km(2) near Indianapolis, Indiana. Six scenarios consisting of the watershed existing condition, 25% and 50% implementation of rain barrel/cistern and <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement, and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement were evaluated using a proposed LID modeling framework and the Long-Term Hydrologic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment (L-THIA)-LID model. The model was calibrated for annual runoff from 1991 to 2000, and validated from 2001 to 2010 for the two watersheds. For the calibration period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.60 and 0.50 for annual runoff and streamflow. Baseflow was not calibrated in this study. During the validation period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.50 for runoff and streamflow, and 0.30 for baseflow in the two watersheds. The various application levels of barrel/cistern and <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement resulted in 2-12% reduction in runoff and pollutant loads for the two watersheds. Baseflow loads slightly increased with increase in baseflow by more than 1%. However, reduction in runoff led to reduction in total streamflow and associated pollutant loads by 1-9% in the watersheds. The results also indicate that the application of 50% rain barrel/cistern, 50% <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% <span class="hlt">porous</span> pavement are good retrofitting options in these watersheds. The L-THIA-LID model can be used to inform management and decision-making for implementation of LID practices at the watershed scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006WRR....4210405Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006WRR....4210405Y"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of microbial growth on water flow and solute transport in unsaturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yarwood, R. R.; Rockhold, M. L.; Niemet, M. R.; Selker, J. S.; Bottomley, P. J.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>A novel analytical method was developed that permitted real-time, noninvasive measurements of microbial growth and associated changes in hydrodynamic properties in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media under unsaturated flowing conditions. Salicylate-induced, lux gene-based bioluminescence was used to quantify the temporal and spatial development of colonization over a 7-day time course. Water contents were determined daily by measuring light transmission through the system. Hydraulic flow paths were determined daily by pulsing a bromophenol blue dye solution through the colonized region of the sand. Bacterial growth and accumulation had a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the hydraulic properties of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Microbial colonization caused localized drying within the colonized zone, with decreases in saturation approaching 50% of antecedent values, and a 25% lowering of the capillary fringe height. Flow was retarded within the colonized zone and diverted around it concurrent with the expansion of the colonized zone between days 3 and 6. The location of horizontal dispersion corresponded with the cell densities of 1-3 × 109 cells g-1 dry sand. The apparent solute velocity through the colonized region was reduced from 0.41 cm min-1 (R2 = 0.99) to 0.25 cm min-1 (R2 = 0.99) by the sixth day of the experiment, associated with population densities that would occupy approximately 7% of the available pore space within the colonized region. Changes in the extent of colonization occurred over the course of the experiment, including upward migration against flow. The distribution of cells was not determined by water flow alone, but rather by a dynamic interaction between water flow and microbial growth. This experimental system provides rich data sets for the testing of conceptualizations expressed through numerical modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/894846','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/894846"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of microbial growth on water flow and solute transport in unsaturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yarwood, R. R.; Rockhold, M. L.; Niemet, M. R.; Selker, John S.; Bottomley, Peter J.</p> <p>2006-10-05</p> <p>A novel analytical method was developed that permitted real-time, noninvasive measurements of microbial growth and associated changes in hydrodynamic properties in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media under unsaturated flowing conditions. Salicylate-induced, lux gene-based bioluminescence was used to quantify the temporal and spatial development of colonization over a seven day time course. Water contents were determined daily by measuring light transmission through the system. Hydraulic flow paths were determined daily by pulsing a bromophenol blue dye solution through the colonized region of the sand. Bacterial growth and accumulation had a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the hydraulic properties of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Microbial colonization caused localized drying within the colonized zone, with decreases in saturation approaching 50% of antecedent values, and a 25% lowering of the capillary fringe height. Flow was retarded within the colonized zone and diverted around it. The apparent solute velocity through the colonized region was reduced from 0.41 cm min 1 (R2 = 0.99) to 0.25 cm min 1 (R2 = 0.99) by the sixth day of the experiment, associated with maximum population densities that would occupy about 7% of the available pore space within the colonized region. Changes in the extent of colonization occurred over the course of the experiment, including upward migration against flow. The distribution of cells was not determined by water flow alone, but rather by a dynamic interaction between water flow and microbial growth. This experimental system provides rich data sets for the testing of conceptualizations expressed through numerical modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.8973M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.8973M"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of immobile zones on the transport and retention of nanoparticles in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molnar, Ian L.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Willson, Clinton S.; O'Carroll, Denis M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Nanoparticle transport and retention within <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is treated by conceptualizing the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media as a series of independent collectors (e.g., Colloid Filtration Theory). This conceptualization assumes that flow phenomena near grain-grain contacts, such as immobile zones (areas of low flow), exert a negligible influence on nanoparticle transport and assumes that retention and release of particles depends only on surface chemistry. This study investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of immobile zones on nanoparticle transport and retention by employing synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (SXCMT) to examine pore-scale silver nanoparticle distributions during transport through three sand columns: uniform iron oxide, uniform quartz, and well-graded quartz. Extended tailing was observed during the elution phase of all experiments suggesting that hydraulic retention in immobile zones, not detachment from grains, was the source of tailing. A numerical simulation of fluid flow through an SXCMT data set predicted the presence of immobile zones near grain-grain contacts. SXCMT-determined silver nanoparticle concentrations observed that significantly lower nanoparticle concentrations existed near grain-grain contacts throughout the duration of all experiments. In addition, the SXCMT-determined pore-scale concentration gradients were found to be independent of surface chemistry and grain size distribution, suggesting that immobile zones limit the diffusive transport of nanoparticles toward the collectors. These results suggest that the well-known overprediction of nanoparticle retention by traditional CFT may be due to ignoring the influences of grain-grain contacts and immobile zones. As such, accurate prediction of nanoparticle transport requires consideration of immobile zones and their influence on both hydraulic and surface retention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..105..154S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..105..154S"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of type of salt and ambient conditions on saline water evaporation from <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shokri-Kuehni, Salomé M. S.; Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Webb, Colin; Shokri, Nima</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Saline water evaporation from <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is important in many processes such as soil salinization, CO2 sequestration, crop production and water management. This process is influenced by the transport properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media, properties of the evaporating solution and external conditions. In this work, we investigated the effects of external conditions and type of salt on the drying behaviour of sandy media and on the dynamics of surface salt precipitation. To do so, a comprehensive series of evaporation experiments were conducted using 33 columns packed with sand saturated with salt solutions. The evaporation experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber to investigate the effects of relative humidity, ambient temperature and type of salt on the evaporation process. Sodium Chloride, Calcium Chloride and Potassium Iodide with a wide range of concentration were used to saturate the sand columns mounted on digital balances. A digital camera was fixed at the surface of the sand packs to record the dynamics of salt precipitation at the surface. The results provide further confirmation that ambient conditions are the controlling factors during stage-1 evaporation of pure water. Additionally, the minor <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the presence of precipitated salt at the surface on the saline water evaporation during the early stages of the process is discussed. Strong correlations between the cumulative water losses and the precipitation at the surface were found under different ambient conditions. The results obtained from different types of salt highlight the significant influence of the relationship between the saturated vapour pressure and salt concentration on the general dynamics of the process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27142952','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27142952"><span>Assessing the organizational <span class="hlt">impact</span> of patient <span class="hlt">involvement</span>: a first STEPP.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kreindler, Sara A; Struthers, Ashley</p> <p>2016-05-09</p> <p>Purpose - Patient <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the design and improvement of health services is increasingly recognized as an essential part of patient-centred care. Yet little research, and no measurement tool, has addressed the organizational <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of such <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - The authors developed and piloted the scoresheet for tangible effects of patient participation (STEPP) to measure the instrumental use of patient input. Its items assess the magnitude of each recommendation or issue brought forward by patients, the extent of the organization's response, and the apparent degree of patient influence on this response. In collaboration with teams (staff) from five <span class="hlt">involvement</span> initiatives, the authors collected interview and documentary data and scored the STEPP, first independently then jointly. Feedback meetings and a "challenges log" supported ongoing improvement. Findings - Although researchers' and teams' initial scores often diverged, the authors quickly reached consensus as new information was shared. Composite scores appeared to credibly reflect the degree of organizational <span class="hlt">impact</span>, and were associated with salient features of the <span class="hlt">involvement</span> initiatives. Teams described the STEPP as easy to use and useful for monitoring and accountability purposes. The tool seemed most suitable for initiatives in which patients generated novel, concrete recommendations; less so for broad public consultations of which instrumental use was not a primary goal. Originality/value - The STEPP is a promising, first-in-class tool with potential usefulness to both researchers and practitioners. With further research to better establish its reliability and validity, it could make a valuable contribution to full mixed-methods evaluation of patient <span class="hlt">involvement</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998CP....239..459K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998CP....239..459K"><span>Threshold electron attachment and electron <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization <span class="hlt">involving</span> oxygen dimers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreil, J.; Ruf, M.-W.; Hotop, H.; Ettischer, I.; Buck, U.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>Using two different crossed-beams machines we have carried out the first quantitative study of threshold electron attachment and electron <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced ionization and fragmentation <span class="hlt">involving</span> oxygen dimers (O 2) 2. In the electron attachment experiment we study electron transfer from state-selected Ar **(20d) Rydberg atoms to O 2 molecules and dimers in a skimmed supersonic beam at variable nozzle temperatures ( T0) and stagnation pressures ( p0). The relative dimer density is determined through measurements of Penning ionization by metastable Ne *(3s 3P2,0) atoms and used to estimate the absolute cross-section for O 2- formation in collisions of Ar **(20d) Rydberg atoms with O 2 dimers to be nearly 10 -17 m 2, almost four orders of magnitude larger than that for O 2- formation in collisions of Ar **(20d) Rydberg atoms with O 2 monomers. The fragmentation of the oxygen cluster beam is quantitatively characterized by the transverse helium beam scattering method which allows us to spatially separate different clusters. It is shown that in 70 eV electron <span class="hlt">impact</span> of (O 2) 2 only 3.6(4)% of the dimers are detected as dimer ions (O 2) 2+. In additional experiments <span class="hlt">involving</span> SF 6 clusters we show that SF 6 dimers fragment nearly completely upon 70 eV electron <span class="hlt">impact</span>, yielding SF 5+ ions (probability for (SF 6)·SF 5+ production at most 0.3%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14827','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14827"><span>Tailored <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.</p> <p>1999-11-09</p> <p>Tailoring of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials <span class="hlt">involves</span> not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials: oxide molecular sieves, <span class="hlt">porous</span> coordination solids, <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and <span class="hlt">porous</span> heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575748','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575748"><span>Nonideal transport of contaminants in heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media: 10. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of co-solutes on sorption by <span class="hlt">porous</span> media with low organic-carbon contents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brusseau, M.L.; Schnaar, G.; Johnson, G.R.; Russo, A.E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of co-solutes on sorption of tetrachloroethene (PCE) by two <span class="hlt">porous</span> media with low organic-carbon contents was examined by conducting batch experiments. The two media (Borden and Eustis) have similar physical properties, but significantly different organic-carbon (OC) contents. Sorption of PCE was nonlinear for both media, and well-described by the Freundlich equation. For the Borden aquifer material (OC = 0.03%), the isotherms measured with a suite of co-solutes present (1,2-dichlorobenzene, bromoform, carbon tetrachloride, and hexachloroethane) were identical to the isotherms measured for PCE alone. These results indicate that there was no measurable <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the co-solutes on PCE sorption for this system. In contrast to the Borden results, there was a measureable reduction in sorption of PCE by the Eustis soil (OC = 0.38%) in the presence of the co-solutes. The organic-carbon fractions of both media contain hard-carbon components, which have been associated with the manifestation of nonideal sorption phenomena. The disparity in results observed for the two media may relate to relative differences in the magnitude and geochemical nature of these hard-carbon components. PMID:22717163</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921683"><span><span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF COMPOSITION AND HEAT TREATMENT ON PORE SIZE IN <span class="hlt">POROUS</span> WALLED HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raszewski, F; Erich Hansen, E; Ray Schumacher, R; David Peeler, D</p> <p>2007-12-04</p> <p>The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a new geometric form: hollow glass microspheres (HGMs), with unique <span class="hlt">porous</span> walls. The new geometric form combines the existing technology of HGMs with basic glass science knowledge in the realm of glass-in-glass phase separation. Conceptually, the development of a HGM with <span class="hlt">porous</span> walls (referred to as a PWHGM) provides a unique system in which various media or filling agents can be incorporated into the PWHGM (via transport through the <span class="hlt">porous</span> walls) and ultimately has the capacity to serve as a functional delivery system in various industrial applications. Applications of these types of systems could range from hydrogen storage, molecular sieves, drug and bioactive delivery systems, to environmental, chemical and biological indicators, relevant to Energy, Environmental Processing and Homeland Security fields. As a specific example, previous studies at SRNL have introduced materials capable of hydrogen storage (as well as other materials) into the interior of the PWHGMs. The goal of this project was to determine if the microstructure (i.e., pore size and pore size distribution) of a PWHGM could be altered or tailored by varying composition and/or heat treatment (time and/or temperature) conditions. The ability to tailor the microstructure through composition or heat treatments could provide the opportunity to design the PWHGM system to accommodate different additives or fill agents. To meet this objective, HGMs of various alkali borosilicate compositions were fabricated using a flame forming apparatus installed at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory (ACTL). HGMs were treated under various heat treatment conditions to induce and/or enhance glass in glass phase separation. Heat treatment temperatures ranged from 580 C to 620 C, while heat treatment times were either 8 or 24 hours. Of the two primary variables assessed in this study, heat treatment temperature was determined to be most effective in changing the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95f3108H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95f3108H"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of diffusion on transverse dispersion in two-dimensional ordered and random <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hlushkou, Dzmitry; Piatrusha, Stanislau; Tallarek, Ulrich</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Solute dispersion in fluid flow results from the interaction between advection and diffusion. The relative contributions of these two mechanisms to mass transport are characterized by the reduced velocity ν , also referred to as the Péclet number. In the absence of diffusion (i.e., when the solute diffusion coefficient Dm=0 and ν →∞ ), divergence-free laminar flow of an incompressible fluid results in a zero-transverse dispersion coefficient (DT=0 ) , both in ordered and random two-dimensional <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. We demonstrate by numerical simulations that a more realistic realization of the condition ν →∞ using Dm≠0 and letting the fluid flow velocity approach infinity leads to completely different results for ordered and random two-dimensional <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. With increasing reduced velocity, DT approaches an asymptotic value in ordered two-dimensional <span class="hlt">porous</span> media but grows linearly in disordered (random) structures depending on the geometrical disorder of a structure: a higher degree of heterogeneity results in a stronger growth of DT with ν . The obtained results reveal that disorder in the geometrical structure of a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium leads to a growth of DT with ν even in a uniform pore-scale advection field; however, lateral diffusion is a prerequisite for this growth. By contrast, in ordered two-dimensional <span class="hlt">porous</span> media the presence of lateral diffusion leads to a plateau for the transverse dispersion coefficient with increasing ν .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H54F..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H54F..03S"><span>Modeling the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Fracture Growth on Fluid Displacements in Deformable <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santillán, D.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Coupled flow and geomechanics is a critical research challenge in engineering and the geosciences. The flow of a fluid through a deformable <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is present in manyenvironmental, industrial, and biological processes,such as the removal of pollutants from underground water bodies, enhanced geothermal systems, unconventional hydrocarbon resources or enhanced oil recovery techniques. However, the injection of a fluid can generate or propagate fractures, which are preferential flow paths. Using numerical simulation, we study the interplay between injection and rock mechanics, and elucidate fracture propagation as a function of injection rate, initial crack topology and mechanical rock properties. Finally, we discuss the role of fracture growth on fluid displacements in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Figure: An example of fracture (in red) propagated in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> media (in blue)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCHyd.183..109B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCHyd.183..109B"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of biofilm on bacterial transport and deposition in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bozorg, Ali; Gates, Ian D.; Sen, Arindom</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Laboratory scale experiments were conducted to obtain insights into factors that influence bacterial transport and deposition in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. According to colloidal filtration theory, the removal efficiency of a filter medium is characterized by two main factors: collision efficiency and sticking efficiency. In the case of bacterial transport in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media, bacteria attached to a solid surface can establish a thin layer of biofilm by excreting extracellular polymeric substances which can significantly influence both of these factors in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium, and thus, affect the overall removal efficiency of the filter medium. However, such polymeric interactions in bacterial adhesion are not well understood and a method to calculate polymeric interactions is not yet available. Here, to determine how the migration of bacteria flowing within a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium is affected by the presence of surface-associated extracellular polymeric substances previously produced and deposited by the same bacterial species, a commonly used colloidal filtration model was applied to study transport and deposition of Pseudomonas fluorescens in small-scale columns packed with clean and biofilm coated glass beads. Bacterial recoveries were monitored in column effluents and used to quantify biofilm interactions and sticking efficiencies of the biofilm coated packed-beds. The results indicated that, under identical hydraulic conditions, the sticking efficiencies in packed-beds were improved consistently by 36% when covered by biofilm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..292..234O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..292..234O"><span>Scaling of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated cavity-size for highly <span class="hlt">porous</span> targets and its application to cometary surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okamoto, Takaya; Nakamura, Akiko M.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Detailed images of highly <span class="hlt">porous</span> small bodies show variety of the surface. One of the interesting findings is that the depressions on comets look shallower than the simple craters such as on the moon, that is the depth-to-diameter ratio of the depressions is smaller than ∼0.2. Although the mechanisms for the formation of the depression are controversial; such as collapse after the sublimation of the sub-surface volatile or activities after <span class="hlt">impact</span> such as sublimation and viscous relaxation, the shape of the cavity formed on the highly-<span class="hlt">porous</span> surface by <span class="hlt">impact</span> itself has not been studied much. We performed <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments of sintered glass-bead targets with porosities of ∼94% and 87%, as well as gypsum targets with a porosity of ∼50%, and pumice targets with that of 74%. The cavity formed in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> target by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> has maximum diameter at some depth from the target surface. This type of cavity is called bulb-shape cavity. In addition to the results of this study, we also compiled the results of previous <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments for cavity sizes in which the targets with porosity larger than 30% were used. Then new empirical scaling relations for the maximum diameter and the bulb depth for the wide range of target porosity were obtained. We applied the relations to comets and showed that the surface strength and the particle size of the comet 9P/Tempel 1 are estimated to be of the orders of 101-103 Pa, and, with the assumption of ice grains consisted of monodisperse spheres, to be larger than ∼90 μm, respectively. The ratio of bulb depth to the maximum diameter on a comet derived from the extrapolation of scaling relations expects that the ratio on the weak surface with the strength less than 102 Pa was 0.10 or below, which is smaller than the depth-to-diameter ratio of simple craters, ∼0.2. It suggests a possibility that shallow depressions on comets could be formed only by <span class="hlt">impact</span> without the need for subsequent activities, such as sublimation and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..96a3303S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..96a3303S"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the kinetic boundary condition on <span class="hlt">porous</span> media flow in the lattice Boltzmann formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Shiwani; Jiang, Fei; Tsuji, Takeshi</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>To emphasize the importance of the kinetic boundary condition for micro- to nanoscale flow, we present an ad hoc kinetic boundary condition suitable for torturous geological <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. We found that the kinetic boundary condition is one of the essential features which should be supplemented to the standard lattice Boltzmann scheme in order to obtain accurate continuum observables. The claim is validated using a channel flow setup by showing the agreement of mass flux with analytical value. Further, using a homogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure, the importance of the kinetic boundary condition is shown by comparing the permeability correction factor with the analytical value. Finally, the proposed alternate to the kinetic boundary condition is validated by showing its capability to capture the basic feature of the kinetic boundary condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24029538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24029538"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of patient <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in mental health research: longitudinal study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>It is deemed good practice to <span class="hlt">involve</span> patients routinely in research but no study has investigated the practical benefits, particularly to successful recruitment. To identify whether patient <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is associated with study success. All studies listed on the Mental Health Research Network (MHRN) portfolio database (n = 374) were interrogated using logistic regression, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation to identify associations with study characteristics, funding bodies and recruitment success. Patient <span class="hlt">involvement</span> increased over time although in some areas of research it was limited. Some funders, especially the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), had more associated patient <span class="hlt">involvement</span> than others. Studies that <span class="hlt">involved</span> patients to a greater extent were more likely to have achieved recruitment targets (χ(2) = 4.58, P<0.05), defined as reaching at least 90% of the target. This is the first time associations with study success have been identified for patient <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. Researchers might now consider ways to <span class="hlt">involve</span> patients more comprehensively as this is associated with study success. Further research is needed to explore this finding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31A1407W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31A1407W"><span>Free and Forced Convection in High Permeability <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Gas Flux at the Earth-atmosphere Interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weisbrod, N.; Levintal, E.; Dragila, M. I.; Kamai, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Gas movement within the earth's subsurface and its exchange with the atmosphere is one of the principal elements contributing to soil and atmospheric function. As the soil permeability increases, gas circulation by convective mechanisms becomes significantly greater than the diffusion. Two of the convective mechanisms, which can be of great importance, are being explored in this research. The first one is thermal convection venting (TCV), which develops when there are unstable density gradients. The second mechanism is wind induced convection (WIC), which develops due to surface winds that drive air movement. Here, we report the results of a study on the relationships between the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media permeability and particle size, and the development and magnitude of TCV and WIC with the development of thermal differences and surface winds. The research included large high-permeability column experiments carried out under highly controlled laboratory conditions, using well-defined single-sized spherical particles while surface winds and thermal differences were forced and monitored. CO2 enriched air, functioned as a tracer, was used to quantify the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of TCV and WIC on gas migration in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Results show that in homogenous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media a permeability range of 10-7 to 10-6 m2 is the threshold value for TCV onset under standard atmospheric conditions. Adding surface wind with an average velocity of 1.5 m s-1 resulted in WIC effect to a depth of -0.3 m in most experimental settings; however, it did not caused additional air circulation at the reference depth of -0.9 m. Furthermore, given the appropriate conditions, a combined effect of TCV and WIC did significantly increase the overall media ventilation. Simulations of temperature profiles in soil under that permeability, showed that as the thermal gradient changes with depth and is a continuous function, TCV cells can be developed in local sections of the profile, not necessarily reaching the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6365W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6365W"><span>Subsurface Deformation of Experimental Hypervelocity <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> in Non-<span class="hlt">Porous</span> Targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winkler, R.; Poelchau, M. H.; Schäfer, F.; Kenkmann, T.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Experimental hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in quartzite and marble targets under similar <span class="hlt">impact</span> conditions reveal great differences in <span class="hlt">impact</span> induced deformation mechanisms, due to the dynamic mechanical properties of the main rock-forming minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.9103K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.9103K"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of biofilm-induced heterogeneities on solute transport in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kone, T.; Golfier, F.; Orgogozo, L.; Oltéan, C.; Lefèvre, E.; Block, J. C.; Buès, M. A.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In subsurface systems, biofilm may degrade organic or organometallic pollutants contributing to natural attenuation and soil bioremediation techniques. This increase of microbial activity leads to change the hydrodynamic properties of aquifers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of biofilm-induced heterogeneities on solute transport in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media and more specifically on dispersivity. We pursued this goal by (i) monitoring both spatial concentration fields and solute breakthrough curves from conservative tracer experiments in a biofilm-supporting <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium, (ii) characterizing in situ the changes in biovolume and visualizing the dynamics of the biological material at the mesoscale. A series of experiments was carried out in a flow cell system (60 cm3) with a silica sand (Φ = 50-70 mesh) as solid carrier and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as bacterial strain. Biofilm growth was monitored by image acquisition with a digital camera. The biofilm volume fraction was estimated through tracer experiments with the Blue Dextran macromolecule as in size-exclusion chromatography, leading to a fair picture of the biocolonization within the flow cell. Biofilm growth was achieved in the whole flow cell in 29 days and up to 50% of void space volume was plugged. The influence of biofilm maturation on <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium transport properties was evaluated from tracer experiments using Brilliant Blue FCF. An experimental correlation was found between effective (i.e., nonbiocolonized) porosity and biofilm-affected dispersivity. Comparison with values given by the theoretical model of Taylor and Jaffé (1990b) yields a fair agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApSS..396..504N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApSS..396..504N"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of physicochemical properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica materials conjugated with dexamethasone via pH-responsive hydrazone bond on drug loading and release behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Numpilai, Thanapha; Witoon, Thongthai; Chareonpanich, Metta; Limtrakul, Jumras</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The conjugation of dexamethasone (DEX) onto modified-<span class="hlt">porous</span> silica materials via a pH-responsive hydrazone bond has been reported to be highly efficient method to specifically deliver the DEX to diseased sites. However, the influence of physicochemical properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica materials has not yet been fully understood. In this paper, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pore sizes, particle sizes and silanol contents on surface functionalization, drug loading and release behavior of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica materials conjugated with dexamethasone via pH-responsive hydrazone bond was investigated. The grafting density was found to relate to the number of silanol groups on the surface of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica materials. The particle size and macropores of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica materials played an vital role on the drug loading and release behavior. Although the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica materials with larger particle sizes possessed a lower grafting density, a larger amount of drug loading could be achieved. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica materials with larger particle sizes showed a slower release rate of DEX due to a longer distance for cleaved DEX diffusion out of pores. DEX release rate exhibited pH-dependent, sustained release. At pH 4.5, the amount of DEX release within 10 days could be controlled in the range of 12.74-36.41%, depending on the host material. Meanwhile, less than 1.5% of DEX was released from each of type of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica materials at pH 7.4. The results of silica dissolution suggested that the degradation of silica matrix did not significantly affect the release rate of DEX. In addition, the kinetic modeling studies revealed that the DEX releases followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model with a release exponent (n) ranged from 0.3 to 0.47, indicating a diffusion-controlled release mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2129D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2129D"><span>Experimental studies of <span class="hlt">porous</span> composites destruction under electron beam high power <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demidov, B. A.; Efremov, V. P.; Kalinin, Yu G.; Kazakov, E. D.; Kurilo, A. A.; Strizhakov, M. G.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Studies of constructional material behavior under pulse power densities are very important both for fundamental researches and different applications. Modeling of shock wave generation in <span class="hlt">porous</span> composites is complicated task because of complex structure of such materials. It is necessary to have rather detailed experimental database for verification of these models. In this paper, we present experiments that were carried out on high current electron accelerator “Calamary”. We investigated the surface plasma expansion and mechanical kick pulse dependence from different energy fluxes. Also irradiated targets were investigated by electron microscope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Food+AND+beverage&pg=7&id=EJ816872','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Food+AND+beverage&pg=7&id=EJ816872"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Campus <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on Hospitality Student Achievement and Satisfaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yin, Dean; Lei, Simon A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Campus <span class="hlt">involvement</span> affecting satisfaction and academic achievement (overall grade point average) of hospitality undergraduate students at a state university in the Midwest (University X) was investigated through a survey research. A four-part survey instrument was developed to facilitate this study. There were a number of academic, professional,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=food+AND+satisfaction&pg=5&id=EJ816872','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=food+AND+satisfaction&pg=5&id=EJ816872"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Campus <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on Hospitality Student Achievement and Satisfaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yin, Dean; Lei, Simon A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Campus <span class="hlt">involvement</span> affecting satisfaction and academic achievement (overall grade point average) of hospitality undergraduate students at a state university in the Midwest (University X) was investigated through a survey research. A four-part survey instrument was developed to facilitate this study. There were a number of academic, professional,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1144937.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1144937.pdf"><span>Service Learning Positively <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> Student <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>, Retention, and Recruitment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lucy-Bouler, Thomas; Lucy-Bouler, Tink</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Universities struggle with how to get students more <span class="hlt">involved</span> and active in the university and community. Providing projects that just collect cans or raise money for a cause, while admirable, are not teaching the students how to be active, how to conduct projects, and give them connections to the community. This paper will describe service…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22795398','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22795398"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of traffic states on freeway crash <span class="hlt">involvement</span> rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yeo, Hwasoo; Jang, Kitae; Skabardonis, Alexander; Kang, Seungmo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Freeway traffic accidents are complicated events that are influenced by multiple factors including roadway geometry, drivers' behavior, traffic conditions and environmental factors. Among the various factors, crash occurrence on freeways is supposed to be strongly influenced by the traffic states representing driving situations that are changed by road geometry and cause the change of drivers' behavior. This paper proposes a methodology to investigate the relationship between traffic states and crash <span class="hlt">involvements</span> on the freeway. First, we defined section-based traffic states: free flow (FF), back of queue (BQ), bottleneck front (BN) and congestion (CT) according to their distinctive patterns; and traffic states of each freeway section are determined based on actual measurements of traffic data from upstream and downstream ends of the section. Next, freeway crash data are integrated with the traffic states of a freeway section using upstream and downstream traffic measurements. As an illustrative study to show the applicability, we applied the proposed method on a 32-mile section of I-880 freeway. By integrating freeway crash occurrence and traffic data over a three-year period, we obtained the crash <span class="hlt">involvement</span> rate for each traffic state. The results show that crash <span class="hlt">involvement</span> rate in BN, BQ, and CT states are approximately 5 times higher than the one in FF. The proposed method shows promise to be used for various safety performance measurement including hot spot identification and prediction of the number of crash <span class="hlt">involvements</span> on freeway sections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4035M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4035M"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of multicomponent ionic transport on pH fronts propagation in saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Multicomponent ionic interactions have been increasingly recognized as important factors for the displacement of charged species in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media under both diffusion- [1,2] and advection-dominated flow regimes [3,4]. In this study we investigate the propagation of pH fronts during multicomponent ionic transport in saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media under flow-through conditions. By performing laboratory bench-scale experiments combined with numerical modeling we show the important influence of Coulombic effects on proton transport in the presence of ionic admixtures. The experiments were performed in a quasi two-dimensional flow-through setup under steady-state flow and transport conditions. Dilute solutions of hydrochloric acid with MgCl2 (1:2 strong electrolyte) were used as tracer solutions to experimentally test the effect of electrochemical cross-coupling on the migration of diffusive/dispersive pH fronts. We focus on two experimental scenarios, with different composition of tracer solutions, causing remarkably different effects on the propagation of the acidic fronts with relative differences in the penetration depth of pH fronts of 36% between the two scenarios and of 25% and 15% for each scenario with respect to the transport of ions at liberated state (i.e., without considering the charge effects). Also significant differences in the dilution of the distinct ionic plumes, quantified using the flux-related dilution index at the laboratory bench scale [5], were measured at the outflow of the flow-through system. The dilution of the pH plumes also changed considerably (26% relative difference) in the two flow-through experiments only due to the different composition of the pore water solution and to the electrostatic coupling of the ions in the flow-through setups. Numerical transport simulations were performed to interpret the laboratory experiments. The simulations were based on a multicomponent ionic formulation accurately capturing the Coulombic interactions between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4676926','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4676926"><span>Noninvasive Nanoscopy Uncovers the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Hierarchical <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Structure on the Catalytic Activity of Single Dealuminated Mordenite Crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kubarev, Alexey V; Janssen, Kris P F; Roeffaers, Maarten B J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Spatial restrictions around catalytic sites, provided by molecular-sized micropores, are beneficial to reaction selectivity but also inherently limit diffusion. The molecular transport can be enhanced by introducing meso- and macropores. However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of this extraframework porosity on the local nanoscale reactivity is relatively unexplored. Herein we show that the area of enhanced reactivity in hierarchical zeolite, examined with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, is spatially restricted to narrow zones around meso- and macropores, as observed with focused ion-beam-assisted scanning electron microscopy. This comparison indicates that reagent molecules efficiently reach catalytic active sites only in the micropores surrounding extraframework porosity and that extensive macroporosity does not warrant optimal reactivity distribution throughout a hierarchical <span class="hlt">porous</span> zeolite. PMID:26697122</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27000925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27000925"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of trainee <span class="hlt">involvement</span> with robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomas, Anil A; Derboghossians, Armen; Chang, Allen; Karia, Rajiv; Finley, David S; Slezak, Jeff; Jacobsen, Steven J; Chien, Gary W</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Robotic-assisted surgery has been rapidly adopted within urology practice. As a result, academic centers are challenged with the burden of how to effectively train residents and fellows to perform robotic-assisted surgery without compromising outcomes. We evaluated the perioperative outcomes of trainee <span class="hlt">involvement</span> with robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) within our healthcare organization. We retrospectively reviewed RARP cases performed at our institution between September 2008 and December 2010 using a single da Vinci robotic platform. Trainees consisted of urology residents and fellows who operated with staff surgeons on select operating days, whereas two staff surgeon teams performed RARP on alternate days. We compared clinicopathologic variables including operating time, estimated blood loss, surgical margin rates, and complication rates between the trainee and staff-only surgeon groups. Overall, 1,019 RARP surgeries were performed within the study period and trainees participated in 162 cases (16 %). Clinical characteristics were similar between men undergoing surgery with a trainee and those without. Positive surgical margin rates were lower for patients with pT2 disease for cases with trainee <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (11 vs. 19 %, p = 0.02), although overall margin rates and margin rates for patients with pT3 disease were similar between the groups (p = 0.34). Surgical cases <span class="hlt">involving</span> trainees were longer (241 vs. 200 min, p < 0.001) and resulted in higher estimated blood loss (190 vs. 120 mL, p < 0.001) than the two staff surgeon cases. However, transfusion rates as well as intraoperative and postoperative complication rates did not differ significantly between groups. In conclusion, surgical margin rates were lower in teaching cases for patients with pT2 disease. Importantly, trainee <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in RARP is safe, with similar perioperative outcomes to staff-only surgical cases. This information may be useful for training and surgical planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H12E..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H12E..08H"><span>Oxygen Transfer in a Fluctuating Capillary Fringe: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Medium Heterogeneity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haberer, C.; Rolle, M.; Cirpka, O. A.; Grathwohl, P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Mass transfer of oxygen from the atmosphere, across the capillary fringe, to anoxic groundwater is of primary importance for many biogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality. The controlling mechanisms for oxygen transfer across the capillary fringe are the diffusive/dispersive transport as well as mass exchange between entrapped air and groundwater. In addition, the presence of physical heterogeneity in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium may strongly affect the oxygen fluxes. We performed quasi two-dimensional flow-through experiments at the laboratory bench-scale to study the effect of a coarse-material inclusion, located in proximity of the water table, on flow and oxygen transfer in the capillary fringe. Flow and transport were monitored under both steady-state and transient flow conditions, the latter obtained by fluctuating the water table. We visually inspected the complex flow field using a dye tracer solution, measured vertical oxygen profiles across the capillary fringe at high spatial resolution, and determined oxygen fluxes in the effluent of the flow-through chamber. Our results show that the coarse-material inclusion significantly affected oxygen transfer during the different phases of the experiments. At steady state, the oxygen flux across the unsaturated/saturated interface was considerably enhanced due to flow focusing in the fully water-saturated coarse lens. During drainage, the capillary barrier effect prevented water to drain from the fine material overlying the coarse lens. The entrapped oxygen-rich aqueous phase contributed to the total amount of oxygen supplied to the system when the water table was raised back to its initial level. In case of imbibition, also pronounced entrapment of air occurred in the coarse lens, causing oxygen to partition between the aqueous and gaseous phases. Thus, we found that oxygen transfer across the capillary fringe was significantly enhanced by the coarse-material inclusion due to flow focusing, the capillary</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title18-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title18-vol1-sec33-4.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title18-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title18-vol1-sec33-4.pdf"><span>18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications <span class="hlt">involving</span> vertical competitive <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... requirements for applications <span class="hlt">involving</span> vertical competitive <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... requirements for applications <span class="hlt">involving</span> vertical competitive <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. (a)(1) The applicant must file the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2433B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2433B"><span>Sub-Surface Excavation of Transient Craters in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Targets: Explaining the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Delay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bowling, T. J.; Melosh, H. J.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We numerically investigate the subsurface excavation of the transient crater in the earliest moments after the Deep <span class="hlt">Impact</span> event. At high target porosities the crater remains hidden from observation long enough to explain the "<span class="hlt">impact</span> delay."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33D0846S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33D0846S"><span>Modeling the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Deformation on Unstable Miscible Displacements in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santillán, D.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Coupled flow and geomechanics is a critical research challenge in engineering and the geosciences. The simultaneous flow of two or more fluids with different densities or viscosities through deformable media is ubiquitous in environmental, industrial, and biological processes, including the removal of non-aqueous phase liquids from underground water bodies, the geological storage of CO2, and current challenges in energy technologies, such as enhanced geothermal systems, unconventional hydrocarbon resources or enhanced oil recovery techniques. Using numerical simulation, we study the interplay between viscous-driven flow instabilities (viscous fingering) and rock mechanics, and elucidate the structure of the displacement patterns as a function of viscosity contrast, injection rate and rock mechanical properties. Finally, we discuss the role of medium deformation on transport and mixing processes in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10224E..1XR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10224E..1XR"><span>Cellular-automata model of oxygen plasma <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">porous</span> low-K dielectric</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rezvanov, Askar; Matyushkin, Igor V.; Gutshin, Oleg P.; Gornev, Evgeny S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Cellular-automata model of oxygen plasma influence on the integral properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> low-K dielectric is studied. The present work investigates the imitative simulation of this process. In our model we consider one isolated pore, which is simulated by cylinder with length L=200 nm and radius 1 nm ignoring the curvature factor. The simulation was performed for 2 million automata steps that correspond to 2 seconds in the real process time. Extrapolating the data to the longer time shows that more and more •CH3 groups will be replaced by the •OH groups, and over time almost all methyl groups will leave the pore surface (there is not more than 20% of the initial methyl groups amount on the first low-K dielectric 40nm after 2 seconds simulation).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.6739M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.6739M"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of multicomponent ionic transport on pH fronts propagation in saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We investigate the propagation of pH fronts during multicomponent ionic transport in saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media under flow-through conditions. By performing laboratory bench-scale experiments combined with numerical modeling, we show the important influence of Coulombic effects on proton transport in the presence of ionic admixtures. The experiments were performed in a quasi two-dimensional flow-through setup under steady-state flow and transport conditions. Dilute solutions of hydrochloric acid with MgCl2 (1:2 strong electrolyte) were used as tracer solutions to experimentally test the effect of electrochemical cross coupling on the migration of diffusive/dispersive pH fronts. We focus on two experimental scenarios, with different composition of tracer solutions, causing remarkably different effects on the propagation of the acidic fronts with relative differences in the penetration depth of pH fronts of 36% between the two scenarios and of 25% and 15% for each scenario with respect to the transport of ions at liberated state (i.e., without considering the charge effects). Also differences in the dilution of the distinct ions plumes up to 28% and 45% in experiment 1 and 2, respectively, were measured at the outflow of the flow-through system. The dilution of the pH plumes also changed considerably (26% relative difference) in the two flow-through experiments only due to the different composition of the pore water solution and to the electrostatic coupling of the ions in the flow-through setups. Numerical transport simulations were performed to interpret the laboratory experiments. The simulations were based on a multicomponent ionic formulation accurately capturing the Coulombic interactions between the transported ions in the flow-through system. The results of purely forward simulations show a very good agreement with the high-resolution measurements performed at the outlet of the flow-through setup and confirms the importance of charge effects on pH transport in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Icar..197..627O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Icar..197..627O"><span>Experimental study on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> fragmentation of core mantle bodies: Implications for collisional disruption of rocky planetesimals with sintered core covered with <span class="hlt">porous</span> mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okamoto, Chisato; Arakawa, Masahiko</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> experiments of inhomogeneous targets such as layered bodies consisting of a dense core and <span class="hlt">porous</span> mantle were conducted to clarify the effect of the layered structure on <span class="hlt">impact</span> strength. The layered structure of small bodies could be the result of the thermal evolution of planetesimals in the solar nebula. So, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> disruption of thermally evolved bodies with core-mantle structure is important for the origin of small bodies such as asteroids. We investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> strength of rocky-layered bodies with <span class="hlt">porous</span> mantle-sintered cores, which could be formed at an initial stage of thermal evolution. Spherical targets composed of soda-lime glass or quartz core and <span class="hlt">porous</span> gypsum mantle were prepared as an analog of small bodies with a core-mantle structure, and the internal structure was changed. A nylon projectile was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> at the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity from 1 to 5 km/s. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> strength of the core-mantle targets decreases with the increase of the core/target mass ratio ( R) in the specific energy range from 1×10 to 4×10 J/kg. We observed two distinct destruction modes characterized by the damage to the core: one shows a damaged core and fractured mantle, and the other shows an intact core and broken mantle. The former mode was usually observed with increasing R, and the boundary condition of the core destruction ( Qt_b∗) was experimentally found to be Qt_b∗[J/kg]=Qc∗(, where Qc∗ is the specific energy required to disrupt a glass core. From this empirical equation, it might be possible to discuss the destruction conditions of a thermally evolved body with a <span class="hlt">porous</span> mantle-sintered core structure. We speculate that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> strength of the body could be significantly reduced with the progress of internal evolution at the initial stage of thermal evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4159998','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4159998"><span>Mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> in Aging Skeletal Muscle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hepple, Russell T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Atrophy is a defining feature of aging skeletal muscle that contributes to progressive weakness and an increased risk of mobility impairment, falls, and physical frailty in very advanced age. Amongst the most frequently implicated mechanisms of aging muscle atrophy is mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent studies employing methods that are well-suited to interrogating intrinsic mitochondrial function find that mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species emission changes are inconsistent between aging rat muscles undergoing atrophy and appear normal in human skeletal muscle from septuagenarian physically active subjects. On the other hand, a sensitization to permeability transition seems to be a general property of atrophying muscle with aging and this effect is even seen in atrophying muscle from physically active septuagenarian subjects. In addition to this intrinsic alteration in mitochondrial function, factors extrinsic to the mitochondria may also modulate mitochondrial function in aging muscle. In particular, recent evidence implicates oxidative stress in the aging milieu as a factor that depresses respiratory function in vivo (an effect that is not present ex vivo). Furthermore, in very advanced age, not only does muscle atrophy become more severe and clinically relevant in terms of its <span class="hlt">impact</span>, but also there is evidence that this is driven by an accumulation of severely atrophied denervated myofibers. As denervation can itself modulate mitochondrial function and recruit mitochondrial-mediated atrophy pathways, future investigations need to address the degree to which skeletal muscle mitochondrial alterations in very advanced age are a consequence of denervation, rather than a primary organelle defect, to refine our understanding of the relevance of mitochondria as a therapeutic target at this more advanced age. PMID:25309422</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NRL....12...69U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NRL....12...69U"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Water Adsorption on Nonlinear Optical Properties of Functionalized <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uklein, Andrii V.; Multian, Volodymyr V.; Oliinyk, Bogdan V.; Doroshchuk, Volodymyr V.; Alekseev, Sergei A.; Lysenko, Volodymyr V.; Brodyn, Mykhailo S.; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon (PS) surface modification diagnostics due to functionalization and water adsorption/desorption processes were provided by the self-action effects of picosecond range pulsed laser radiation at 1064 nm. It was shown that the PS surface functionalization—oxide removal, alkylation, and oxidation—resulted in a refractive nonlinear optical (NLO) response sign turn to self-focusing ( Δn>0) versus the self-defocusing ( Δn<0) observed in the aged PS. The sensitivity of the proposed technique was revealed to water adsorption/desorption from the chemically oxidized PS interface. For the dried PS, the self-defocusing effect with corresponding NLO cubic susceptibility Re( χ (3))˜-4.7·10-9 esu was observed versus the self-focusing one (˜5·10-8 esu) for the PS positioned in saturated water vapor at room temperature. The obtained results demonstrate high sensitivity and wide versatility of the proposed readout technique based on pulsed laser radiation self-action at 1064 nm to the PS surface modification monitoring/diagnostics applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25730628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25730628"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were identified, representing perceived <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("<span class="hlt">involvement</span>"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising <span class="hlt">impacts</span> concerning <span class="hlt">involvement</span> more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on both <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5060569','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5060569"><span>Service user <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in cancer care: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on service users</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cotterell, Phil; Harlow, Gwen; Morris, Carolyn; Beresford, Peter; Hanley, Bec; Sargeant, Anita; Sitzia, John; Staley, Kristina</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Background  Service user <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is embedded in the United Kingdom’s National Health Service, but knowledge about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on service users, such as the benefits and challenges of <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, is scant. Our research addresses this gap. Objective  To explore the personal <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on the lives of service users affected by cancer. Design  We conducted eight focus groups with user groups supplemented by nine face‐to‐face interviews with <span class="hlt">involved</span> individuals active at a local, regional and national level. Thematic analysis was conducted both independently and collectively. Setting and participants  Sixty‐four participants, engaged in <span class="hlt">involvement</span> activities in cancer services, palliative care and research, were recruited across Great Britain. Results  We identified three main themes: (i) ‘Expectations and motivations for involvement’– the desire to improve services and the need for user groups to have a clear purpose, (ii) ‘Positive aspects of involvement’– support provided by user groups and assistance to live well with cancer and (iii) ‘Challenging aspects of involvement’– insensitivities and undervaluing of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> by staff. Conclusions  This study identified that <span class="hlt">involvement</span> has the capacity to produce varied and significant personal <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for <span class="hlt">involved</span> people. <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> can be planned and implemented in ways that increase these <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and that mediates challenges for those <span class="hlt">involved</span>. Key aspects to increase positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> for service users include the value service providers attach to <span class="hlt">involvement</span> activities, the centrality with which <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is embedded in providers’ activities, and the capacity of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> to influence policy, planning, service delivery, research and/or practice. PMID:21029279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tectp.634..171B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tectp.634..171B"><span>Scaling of sub-surface deformation in hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments on <span class="hlt">porous</span> sandstone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buhl, Elmar; Poelchau, Michael; Dresen, Georg; Kenkmann, Thomas</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Two hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments into dry sandstone (Seeberger Sandstein, ~ 23% porosity), performed under similar <span class="hlt">impact</span> conditions but with different projectile sizes, have been analyzed to investigate the size scaling of <span class="hlt">impact</span> damage. For one experiment a 2.5 mm steel projectile was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> at 4.8 km s- 1 onto a sandstone cube of 20 cm side length. For the other experiment a 10 mm iron meteorite projectile was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> at 4.6 km s- 1 onto a sandstone cube of 50 cm side length. The resulting kinetic <span class="hlt">impact</span> energies of 773 and 42,627 J led to crater cavities of 7600 and 612,000 mm3. Investigation of thin sections along cross-sections through both craters revealed that the same deformation microstructures are present in both experiments. The occurrence of different microstructural patterns was mapped and zones of characteristic deformation were defined. This mapping was used to calculate the volumes of material deformed by specific mechanisms. Comparing the results, normalized to the size of the projectile, showed that the sub-surface damage is very similar in size, volume and geometry for both experiments. Analysis of deformation bands found in both experiments regarding their long axes orientation showed that these features are developed under shear deformation. Particle size distributions (PSD), expressed as power-law fits, were measured to quantify the <span class="hlt">impact</span> damage. Comparison showed that the decay of the power-law exponents with increasing distance from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> point source is similar for both experiments. Reconstruction of the loading path allowed to infer the stresses under which distinct deformation microstructures are developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5060623','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5060623"><span>Can the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Background  Public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its <span class="hlt">impact</span> have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of public <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. Objective  To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on health and social research. Methods  Mixed methods including a two‐round Delphi study with pre‐specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow‐up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self‐selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed. Results  Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on 5 of 16 <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to <span class="hlt">involve</span> the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of public <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. Conclusions  This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and the importance of evaluating its <span class="hlt">impact</span> were endorsed. PMID:21324054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.3637L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.3637L"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of kinetic mass transfer on free convection in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Chunhui; Shi, Liangsheng; Chen, Yiming; Xie, Yueqing; Simmons, Craig T.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We investigate kinetic mass transfer effects on unstable density-driven flow and transport processes by numerical simulations of a modified Elder problem. The first-order dual-domain mass transfer model coupled with a variable-density-flow model is employed to describe transport behavior in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Results show that in comparison to the no-mass-transfer case, a higher degree of instability and more unstable system is developed in the mass transfer case due to the reduced effective porosity and correspondingly a larger Rayleigh number (assuming permeability is independent on the mobile porosity). Given a constant total porosity, the magnitude of capacity ratio (i.e., immobile porosity/mobile porosity) controls the macroscopic plume profile in the mobile domain, while the magnitude of mass transfer timescale (i.e., the reciprocal of the mass transfer rate coefficient) dominates its evolution rate. The magnitude of capacity ratio plays an important role on the mechanism driving the mass flux into the aquifer system. Specifically, for a small capacity ratio, solute loading is dominated by the density-driven transport, while with increasing capacity ratio local mass transfer dominated solute loading may occur at later times. At significantly large times, however, both mechanisms contribute comparably to solute loading. Sherwood Number could be a nonmonotonic function of mass transfer timescale due to complicated interactions of solute between source zone, mobile zone and immobile zone in the top boundary layer, resulting in accordingly a similar behavior of the total mass. The initial assessment provides important insights into unstable density-driven flow and transport in the presence of kinetic mass transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014062','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014062"><span>Centrifuge <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering experiments: Scaling laws for non-<span class="hlt">porous</span> targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Robert M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A geotechnical centrifuge was used to investigate large body <span class="hlt">impacts</span> onto planetary surfaces. At elevated gravity, it is possible to match various dimensionless similarity parameters which were shown to govern large scale <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Observations of crater growth and target flow fields have provided detailed and critical tests of a complete and unified scaling theory for <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering. Scaling estimates were determined for nonporous targets. Scaling estimates for large scale cratering in rock proposed previously by others have assumed that the crater radius is proportional to powers of the impactor energy and gravity, with no additional dependence on <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity. The size scaling laws determined from ongoing centrifuge experiments differ from earlier ones in three respects. First, a distinct dependence of <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity is recognized, even for constant impactor energy. Second, the present energy exponent for low porosity targets, like competent rock, is lower than earlier estimates. Third, the gravity exponent is recognized here as being related to both the energy and the velocity exponents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014065','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014065"><span>Centrifuge <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering experiments: Scaling laws for non-<span class="hlt">porous</span> targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Robert M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>This research is a continuation of an ongoing program whose objective is to perform experiments and to develop scaling relationships for large body <span class="hlt">impacts</span> onto planetary surfaces. The development of the centrifuge technique has been pioneered by the present investigator and is used to provide experimental data for actual target materials of interest. With both powder and gas guns mounted on a rotor arm, it is possible to match various dimensionless similarity parameters, which have been shown to govern the behavior of large scale <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Current work is directed toward the determination of scaling estimates for nonporous targets. The results are presented in summary form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28282608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28282608"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of lignin structure on oil production via hydroprocessing with a copper-doped <span class="hlt">porous</span> metal oxide catalyst.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gillet, Sebastien; Petitjean, Laurene; Aguedo, Mario; Lam, Chun-Ho; Blecker, Christophe; Anastas, Paul T</p> <p>2017-02-23</p> <p>A copper-catalyzed depolymerization strategy was employed to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of lignin structure on the distribution of hydroprocessing products. Specifically, lignin was extracted from beech wood and miscanthus grass. The extracted lignins, as well as a commercial lignin (P1000), were then fractionated using ethyl acetate to provide three different portions for each source of lignin [total of 9 fractions]. Each fraction was structurally characterized and treated with a copper-doped <span class="hlt">porous</span> metal oxide (Cu-PMO) catalyst under 4MPa H2 and at 180°C for 12h. The reaction conditions provided notable yields of oil for each fraction of lignin. Analysis of the oils indicated phenolic monomers of commercial interest. The structure of these monomers and the yield of monomer-containing oil was dependent on the origin of the lignin. Our results indicate that hydroprocessing with a Cu-PMO catalyst can selectively provide monomers of commercial interest by careful choice of lignin starting material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=housing+AND+social&pg=5&id=ED531436','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=housing+AND+social&pg=5&id=ED531436"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Motivation to Lead on College Students' Cocurricular <span class="hlt">Involvement</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pepper, Robert C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This exploratory research examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of motivation to lead on college students' cocurricular <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. The question driving this research was: Is motivation to lead a predictor of cocurricular student <span class="hlt">involvement</span>? A 52-item questionnaire that included the Motivation to Lead Self-Report Questionnaire (Chan & Drasgow, 2001) was used to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+total&pg=7&id=ED531436','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+total&pg=7&id=ED531436"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Motivation to Lead on College Students' Cocurricular <span class="hlt">Involvement</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pepper, Robert C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This exploratory research examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of motivation to lead on college students' cocurricular <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. The question driving this research was: Is motivation to lead a predictor of cocurricular student <span class="hlt">involvement</span>? A 52-item questionnaire that included the Motivation to Lead Self-Report Questionnaire (Chan & Drasgow, 2001) was used to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26821548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26821548"><span>Decreasing Risky Behavior on Social Network Sites: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Secondary Education Interventions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Teenagers face significant risks when using increasingly popular social network sites. Prevention and intervention efforts to raise awareness about these risks and to change risky behavior (so-called "e-safety" interventions) are essential for the wellbeing of these minors. However, several studies have revealed that while school interventions often affect awareness, they have only a limited <span class="hlt">impact</span> on pupils' unsafe behavior. Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior and theories about parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, we hypothesized that <span class="hlt">involving</span> parents in an e-safety intervention would positively influence pupils' intentions and behavior. In a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-test measures <span class="hlt">involving</span> 207 pupils in secondary education, we compared the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of an intervention without parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> with one that included active parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> by means of a homework task. We found that whereas parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was not necessary to improve the intervention's <span class="hlt">impact</span> on risk awareness, it did change intentions to engage in certain unsafe behavior, such as posting personal and sexual information on the profile page of a social network site, and in reducing existing problematic behavior. This beneficial <span class="hlt">impact</span> was particularly evident for boys. These findings suggest that developing prevention campaigns with active parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is well worth the effort. Researchers and developers should therefore focus on other efficient strategies to <span class="hlt">involve</span> parents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1054940.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1054940.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Involving</span> Students in Managing the Quality of Higher Education Provision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed at exploring the power of student <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in improving quality of higher educational provision in private higher education institutions in Zimbabwe. A longitudinal approach <span class="hlt">involving</span> two separate surveys and covering a period of three years was used. A preliminary survey aimed at assessing the issues that <span class="hlt">impact</span> negatively…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840685','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840685"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Parameter Uncertainty, Variability, and Conceptual Model Errors on Predictions of Flow Through Fractured <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S. Finsterle</p> <p>2000-09-07</p> <p>Model predictions are affected by uncertainty in input parameters, stochastic variability in formation properties, computational roundoff and cancellation errors, and errors in the conceptual model. The source, nature, and relative magnitude of these errors vary considerably, depending on the physical processes <span class="hlt">involved</span>, the quality and amount of available characterization data, and the overall objective of the study. We examined various types of uncertainties and their propagation with a predictive model that simulates a water pulse flowing through an unsaturated, fractured <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. The propagation of the water pulse depends not only on the hydraulic properties of the fracture network, but also on the strength of fracture-matrix interactions and the storage capacity of the matrix. Different predicted variables (such as local saturation changes, total amount of water retarded in the matrix, or first arrival of water at a certain depth) depend on different parameters and thus show different uncertainty structures. The strong nonlinearities inherent in such a system require the use of Monte Carlo simulations. These simulations investigate the spread of model predictions as a result of changes in spatial variability and uncertainty in key input parameters. We also discuss the role of conceptual-model formulation and parameter estimation in the development of reliable prediction models. We observe that systematic errors in the conceptual model often render probabilistic uncertainty analyses meaningless if not misleading. Nevertheless, sensitivity analyses provide useful insight into the system behavior and help design experiments that eventually would reduce prediction uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1446552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1446552"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: authoritative parenting, school <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, and encouragement to succeed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Dornbusch, S M; Darling, N</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>This article examines the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of authoritative parenting, parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial <span class="hlt">impact</span> of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5013512','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5013512"><span>Psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span> and recovery after <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in a patient safety incident: a repeated measures analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Van Gerven, Eva; Bruyneel, Luk; Panella, Massimiliano; Euwema, Martin; Sermeus, Walter; Vanhaecht, Kris</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective To examine individual, situational and organisational aspects that influence psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span> and recovery of a patient safety incident on physicians, nurses and midwives. Design Cross-sectional, retrospective surveys of physicians, midwives and nurses. Setting 33 Belgian hospitals. Participants 913 clinicians (186 physicians, 682 nurses, 45 midwives) <span class="hlt">involved</span> in a patient safety incident. Main outcome measures The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Event Scale was used to retrospectively measure psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the safety incident at the time of the event and compare it with psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span> at the time of the survey. Results Individual, situational as well as organisational aspects influenced psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span> and recovery of a patient safety incident. Psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span> is higher when the degree of harm for the patient is more severe, when healthcare professionals feel responsible for the incident and among female healthcare professionals. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of degree of harm differed across clinicians. Psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span> is lower among more optimistic professionals. Overall, <span class="hlt">impact</span> decreased significantly over time. This effect was more pronounced for women and for those who feel responsible for the incident. The longer ago the incident took place, the stronger <span class="hlt">impact</span> had decreased. Also, higher psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span> is related with the use of a more active coping and planning coping strategy, and is unrelated to support seeking coping strategies. Rendered support and a support culture reduce psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span>, whereas a blame culture increases psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span>. No associations were found with job experience and resilience of the health professional, the presence of a second victim support team or guideline and working in a learning culture. Conclusions Healthcare organisations should anticipate on providing their staff appropriate and timely support structures that are tailored to the healthcare professional <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the incident and to the specific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1724244','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1724244"><span>The psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of injury: effects of prior sport and exercise <span class="hlt">involvement</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnston, L.; Carroll, D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Objectives—To test the assumption that the psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of injury varies with <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in sport and exercise, and that those who are more <span class="hlt">involved</span> in sport and exercise before injury would experience greater negative affect and retarded recovery. Method—Patients attending for physiotherapy completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of mood and perceived recovery, at the beginning, middle, and end of formal rehabilitation. Complete data were available for 93 patients. Results—Those who were more <span class="hlt">involved</span> in sport and exercise before injury registered higher levels of confusion and perceived their recovery to be less, possibly reflecting greater information needs and a greater mismatch between current status and that before injury in the athletic sample. Reported negative affect did not vary with sport and exercise <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. Conclusions—Incapacitation for those not <span class="hlt">involved</span> in sport and exercise before injury may have much the same affective <span class="hlt">impact</span> as it does for those with considerable <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. However, those with considerable <span class="hlt">involvement</span> did report higher levels of confusion and perceived their recovery to be less towards the end of rehabilitation. This suggests that it may be important to assess affective reactions and perceived recovery during the re-entry phase. Key Words: injury; psychological <span class="hlt">impact</span>; physiotherapy; rehabilitation; recovery PMID:11131231</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4154307','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4154307"><span>Proteomic Analysis of Serum Opsonins <span class="hlt">Impacting</span> Biodistribution and Cellular Association of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Silicon Microparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Serda, Rita E.; Blanco, Elvin; Mack, Aaron; Stafford, Susan J.; Amra, Sarah; Li, Qingpo; van de Ven, Anne L.; Tanaka, Takemi; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Ferrari, Mauro</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Mass transport of drug delivery vehicles is guided by particle properties, such as shape, composition and surface chemistry, as well as biomolecules and serum proteins that adsorb to the particle surface. In an attempt to identify serum proteins influencing cellular associations and biodistribution of intravascularly injected particles, we used two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins eluted from the surface of cationic and anionic silicon microparticles. Cationic microparticles displayed a 25-fold greater abundance of Ig light chain variable region, fibrinogen, and complement component 1 compared to their anionic counterparts. The anionic-surface favored equal accumulation of microparticles in the liver and spleen, while cationic-surfaces favored preferential accumulation in the spleen. Immunohistochemistry supported macrophage internalization of both anionic and cationic silicon microparticles in the liver, as well as evidence of association of cationic microparticles with hepatic endothelial cells. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs supported cellular competition for cationic microparticles by endothelial cells and macrophages. Despite high macrophage content in the lungs and tumor, microparticle uptake by these cells was minimal, supporting differences in the repertoire of surface receptors expressed by tissue-specific macrophages. In summary, particle surface chemistry drives selective binding of serum components <span class="hlt">impacting</span> cellular interactions and biodistribution. PMID:21303614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5060394','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5060394"><span>User <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the development of a research bid: barriers, enablers and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Staniszewska, Sophie; Jones, Nicola; Newburn, Mary; Marshall, Shanit</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Objective  To <span class="hlt">involve</span> users in the development of a research bid to examine parents’ experiences of having a pre‐term baby, and to examine the barriers, enablers and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of user <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. Design  A mainly collaborative approach to user <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was adopted, although different types of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> were evident at different stages of the project. Users’ experiences and perspectives provided the focus for the regular meetings which underpinned the writing of the research bid. The researcher acted as a facilitator in the development of the bid, with input from users and the wider advisory group. Main outcomes  User <span class="hlt">involvement</span> had an important <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the development of the research aims, methods and on ethical aspects. Through careful collaboration a research bid was produced which was rooted in users’ experiences, whilst also addressing key research questions. Key enablers for <span class="hlt">involvement</span> included good working relationships, funding for the lead researchers time. Barriers included lack of financial support for users, the time‐consuming nature of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and the language of research. Conclusions  If user <span class="hlt">involvement</span> remains an international policy imperative with little if any support at the vital stage of bid development, policy‐makers, service user organizations, researchers, health service providers and commissioners will need to recognize the limited nature of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> that may result and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> this would have on the evidence base. Researchers will need to recognize the resource implications of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> at this point, and user groups will need to decide whether to participate when there is the greatest chance of influencing research but little or no funding. PMID:17524010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6263S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6263S"><span>Brittle structures in <span class="hlt">porous</span> sandstones, south central Pyrenees, Spain: field characterization and <span class="hlt">impact</span> for fluid flow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saillet, Elodie; Vautier, Yannick; Proudhon, Bennoit; Guilbert, Nathanaël; Hannot, Vincent</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In order to better constrain fluids flow circulations in the continental crust, understanding evolution of fault geometry and hydromecanical properties is essential. The knowledge of faulting in analogous reservoirs is particularly important in silicoclastic context. Indeed the high value of natural porosity and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of faulting on porosity and permeability will generate potential reservoirs. Depending on the type of faults, deformation in sands and sandstones reservoirs can produces barriers or conduits for fluids. This study focused on an silicoclastic analogous reservoir localised in south central Pyrenees (Spain), named the Aren group, where deformation is recorded by different type of faults. The Aren group is located on the front of the Boixol thrust, on the southern side of the San Corneli anticline. The outcrops are localised in 3 different area, comprised between the towns of Aren, Tremp and Isona. Depending of the outcrop, we identify presence of veins, joints, deformation bands (DBs) and some few sites where both of them are recorded in the same unit. We present a complete field study, based on two different field mapping methods : (i) field photomosaiques and associated detail 2D mapping ; (ii) linear scanlines along deformed outcrops. These two different methods, applied around ten outcrops allow us to obtain : (1) 30 meters squares of 2D detailed maps of fractures and linkage information ; (2) 90 linear meters of fracture density vs. distance all along the outcrop for each type of fracture. Field measurements and quantification was completed by a systematic sampling, in order to give an access to (i) microtectonic elements and fine characterisation of the different fault types by SEM observations ; (ii) a porosity quantification of host rock and fault zones based on the SEM pictures. Field data shows a strong relationship between the different types of brittle structures. On the Aren outcrop, fine DBs (wich act as barriers) are located in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+parents+AND+socioeconomic+AND+status&pg=7&id=EJ929579','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+parents+AND+socioeconomic+AND+status&pg=7&id=EJ929579"><span>Home and School Factors <span class="hlt">Impacting</span> Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in a Title I Elementary School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bartel, Virginia B.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Before and after the interventions of summer classes for parents and an interactive homework program, parents of children in an inner-city southeastern U.S. elementary school were interviewed and teachers surveyed to determine home and school factors that <span class="hlt">impacted</span> parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in their children's education. Beliefs about roles and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Barrier+AND+effective+AND+communication&pg=4&id=ED550114','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Barrier+AND+effective+AND+communication&pg=4&id=ED550114"><span>Examining the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Teacher Perceptions of Barriers of Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Frankie V.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>One school in a Western United States was recently rated academically unacceptable by the state. That same school had an inactive Parent as Teachers organization, and teachers expressed concerns regarding low parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of teacher perceptions of barriers to parental…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=advertising+AND+effectiveness&pg=4&id=EJ506449','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=advertising+AND+effectiveness&pg=4&id=EJ506449"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Product <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>, Message Format, and Receiver Sex on the Efficacy of Comparative Advertising Messages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pfau, Michael</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Investigates the role and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of receiver <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in product class, comparative message format, and receiver sex on the relative effectiveness of comparative advertising messages. Indicates that females and males respond uniquely to comparative advertising, revealing consistent patterns regarding both circumstances and approaches. (SR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IMPROVE+AND+COMMUNICATION+AND+PARENTS+AND+CHILDREN&pg=4&id=EJ929579','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IMPROVE+AND+COMMUNICATION+AND+PARENTS+AND+CHILDREN&pg=4&id=EJ929579"><span>Home and School Factors <span class="hlt">Impacting</span> Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in a Title I Elementary School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bartel, Virginia B.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Before and after the interventions of summer classes for parents and an interactive homework program, parents of children in an inner-city southeastern U.S. elementary school were interviewed and teachers surveyed to determine home and school factors that <span class="hlt">impacted</span> parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in their children's education. Beliefs about roles and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+education+AND+parents+AND+affect+AND+children&pg=2&id=ED524414','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+education+AND+parents+AND+affect+AND+children&pg=2&id=ED524414"><span>Parent's Perception of Barriers that <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Parent <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Capital School District's Central Middle School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paylor, Raymond L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Interest in the perception of barriers that <span class="hlt">impact</span> parents' <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in Central Middle Schools' Parent Teacher Organization was a result of the low P T O membership rolls. Some educational research supports that socio-economic status, family values toward education, race, and relationship to students are factors that present barriers to parent…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marquez&pg=2&id=ED552243','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marquez&pg=2&id=ED552243"><span>Examining Parent <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> Activities in Two Immigrant-<span class="hlt">Impacted</span> Schools: A Comparative Case Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marquez, Amalia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>K-12 schools with large immigrant populations face a myriad of challenges, including low academic achievement and high dropout rates of Latino students. Parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is a practical strategy in positively influencing student outcomes along the K-12 continuum. To this end, it is essential that immigrant <span class="hlt">impacted</span> schools work together with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=parental+AND+involvement&pg=5&id=ED550114','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=parental+AND+involvement&pg=5&id=ED550114"><span>Examining the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Teacher Perceptions of Barriers of Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Frankie V.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>One school in a Western United States was recently rated academically unacceptable by the state. That same school had an inactive Parent as Teachers organization, and teachers expressed concerns regarding low parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of teacher perceptions of barriers to parental…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=advertising+AND+effectiveness&pg=4&id=EJ506449','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=advertising+AND+effectiveness&pg=4&id=EJ506449"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Product <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>, Message Format, and Receiver Sex on the Efficacy of Comparative Advertising Messages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pfau, Michael</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Investigates the role and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of receiver <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in product class, comparative message format, and receiver sex on the relative effectiveness of comparative advertising messages. Indicates that females and males respond uniquely to comparative advertising, revealing consistent patterns regarding both circumstances and approaches. (SR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-15/pdf/2010-28689.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-15/pdf/2010-28689.pdf"><span>75 FR 69630 - <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities <span class="hlt">Involving</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>... achieving the object and purpose of the Convention and the implementation of its provisions. The CWC also...-0543-02] <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities <span class="hlt">Involving</span>... Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act (CWCIA) and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5308459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5308459"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the De-Alloying Kinetics and Alloy Microstructure on the Final Morphology of De-Alloyed Meso-<span class="hlt">Porous</span> Metal Films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Bao; Kong, Lingxue; Hodgson, Peter D.; Dumée, Ludovic F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Nano-textured <span class="hlt">porous</span> metal materials present unique surface properties due to their enhanced surface energy with potential applications in sensing, molecular separation and catalysis. In this paper, commercial alloy foils, including brass (Cu85Zn15 and Cu70Zn30) and white gold (Au50Ag50) foils have been chemically de-alloyed to form nano-<span class="hlt">porous</span> thin films. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the initial alloy micro-structure and number of phases, as well as chemical de-alloying (DA) parameters, including etchant concentration, time and solution temperature on the final nano-<span class="hlt">porous</span> thin film morphology and properties were investigated by electron microscopy (EM). Furthermore, the penetration depth of the pores across the alloys were evaluated through the preparation of cross sections by focus ion beam (FIB) milling. It is demonstrated that ordered pores ranging between 100 nm and 600 nm in diameter and 2–5 μm in depth can be successfully formed for the range of materials tested. The microstructure of the foils were obtained by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and linked to development of pits across the material thickness and surface during DA. The role of selective etching of both noble and sacrificial metal phases of the alloy were discussed in light of the competitive surface etching across the range of microstructures and materials tested. PMID:28344253</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10129551','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10129551"><span>Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement. Volume 2: Public <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>United States. Bonneville Power Administration.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement (EIS) public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960957','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960957"><span>Seismic stress mobilization of natural colloids in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> rock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, Peter M; Abdel-fattah, Amr I</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Stress oscillations at 26 Hz enhanced the release of natural micro-particles (colloids) in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> rock sample. Micron-scale effects were induced by meter-scale wavelengths. The results are attributed to altering the release rate coefficient for colloids trapped in pores. The rate change did not depend on colloid size and thus is not due to altering colloid-pore-wall interactions. Enhanced colloid detachment from pore walls and flushing from dead-end pores are likely mechanisms. This phenomenon could <span class="hlt">impact</span> a broad range of physical sciences <span class="hlt">involving</span> colloid dynamics and <span class="hlt">porous</span> transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Icar..180..514W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Icar..180..514W"><span>A strain-based porosity model for use in hydrocode simulations of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and implications for transient crater growth in <span class="hlt">porous</span> targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G. S.; Melosh, H. J.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Numerical modelling of <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering has reached a high degree of sophistication; however, the treatment of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials still poses a large problem in hydrocode calculations. We present a novel approach for dealing with <span class="hlt">porous</span> compaction in numerical modelling of <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater formation. In contrast to previous attempts (e.g., P-alpha model, snowplow model), our model accounts for the collapse of pore space by assuming that the compaction function depends upon volumetric strain rather than pressure. Our new ɛ-alpha model requires only four input parameters and each has a physical meaning. The model is simple and intuitive and shows good agreement with a wide variety of experimental data, ranging from static compaction tests to highly dynamic <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments. Our major objective in developing the model is to investigate the effect of porosity and internal friction on transient crater formation. We present preliminary numerical model results that suggest that both porosity and internal friction play an important role in limiting crater growth over a large range in gravity-scaled source size.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28366651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28366651"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanoparticles on human cytochrome P450 metabolism in human liver microsomes in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ollikainen, Elisa; Liu, Dongfei; Kallio, Arttu; Mäkilä, Ermei; Zhang, Hongbo; Salonen, Jarno; Santos, Hélder A; Sikanen, Tiina M</p> <p>2017-06-15</p> <p>Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly used as drug carriers in pharmaceutical formulations. This study focuses on the hitherto unaddressed <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon (PSi) nanoparticles on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism, which is the major detoxification route of most pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics. Three different surface chemistries, including thermally carbonized PSi (TCPSi), aminopropylsilane-modified TCPSi (APTES-TCPSi) and alkyne-terminated thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (Alkyne-THCPSi), were compared for their effects on the enzyme kinetics of the major CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) in human liver microsomes (HLM) in vitro. The enzyme kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, and the intrinsic clearance (CLint) were determined using FDA-recommended, isoenzyme-specific model reactions with and without PSi nanoparticles. Data revealed statistically significant alterations of most isoenzyme activities in HLM in the presence of nanoparticles at 1mg/ml concentration, and polymorphic CYP2D6 was the most vulnerable to enzyme inhibition. However, the observed CYP2D6 inhibition was shown to be dose-dependent in case of TCPSi and Alkyne-THCPSi nanoparticles and attenuated at the concentrations below 1μg/ml. Adsorption of the probe substrates onto the hydrophobic Alkyne-THCPSi particles was also observed and taken into account in the determination of the kinetic parameters. Three polymer additives commonly used in pharmaceutical nanoformulations (Pluronics F68 and F127, and polyvinylalcohol) were also separately screened for their effects on CYP isoenzyme activities. These polymers had less effect on the enzyme kinetic parameters, and resulted in increased activity rather than enzyme inhibition, in contrast to the PSi nanoparticles. Although the chosen subcellular model (HLM) is not able to predict the cellular disposition of PSi nanoparticles in hepatocytes and thus provides limited information of probability of CYP interactions in vivo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25054173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25054173"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat and mass transfer during the transport of nitrogen in coal <span class="hlt">porous</span> media on coal mine fires.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal <span class="hlt">porous</span> media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of "gravity settling" in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4098614','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4098614"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media on Coal Mine Fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Fubao</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal <span class="hlt">porous</span> media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of “gravity settling” in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media in the field of thermal physics and engineering. PMID:25054173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1364026-impact-mineral-precipitation-flow-mixing-porous-media-determined-microcomputed-tomography-mri','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1364026-impact-mineral-precipitation-flow-mixing-porous-media-determined-microcomputed-tomography-mri"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of mineral precipitation on flow and mixing in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media determined by microcomputed tomography and MRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Bray, Joshua M.; Lauchnor, Ellen G.; Redden, George D.; ...</p> <p>2016-12-21</p> <p>Here, precipitation reactions in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media influence transport properties of the environment and can control advective and dispersive transport. In subsurface environments, mixing of saline groundwater or injected solutions for remediation with fresh groundwater can induce supersaturation of constituents and drive precipitation reactions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) were employed as complimentary techniques to evaluate advection, dispersion and formation of precipitate in a 3D <span class="hlt">porous</span> media flow cell. Two parallel fluids were flowed concentrically through the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media under two flow rate conditions with Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the inner and outer fluids, respectively. Upon mixing, calciummore » carbonate became supersaturated and formed a precipitate at the interface of the two fluids. Spatial maps of changing local velocity fields and dispersion in the flow cell were generated from MRI, while high resolution imaging of the precipitate formed in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media was achieved via µ-CT imaging. Formation of a precipitate layer minimized dispersive and advective transport between the two fluids and the shape of the precipitation was influenced by the flow rate condition.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1364026','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1364026"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of mineral precipitation on flow and mixing in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media determined by microcomputed tomography and MRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bray, Joshua M.; Lauchnor, Ellen G.; Redden, George D.; Gerlach, Robin; Fujita, Yoshiko; Codd, Sarah L.; Seymour, Joseph D.</p> <p>2016-12-21</p> <p>Here, precipitation reactions in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media influence transport properties of the environment and can control advective and dispersive transport. In subsurface environments, mixing of saline groundwater or injected solutions for remediation with fresh groundwater can induce supersaturation of constituents and drive precipitation reactions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) were employed as complimentary techniques to evaluate advection, dispersion and formation of precipitate in a 3D <span class="hlt">porous</span> media flow cell. Two parallel fluids were flowed concentrically through the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media under two flow rate conditions with Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> and CaCl<sub>2</sub> in the inner and outer fluids, respectively. Upon mixing, calcium carbonate became supersaturated and formed a precipitate at the interface of the two fluids. Spatial maps of changing local velocity fields and dispersion in the flow cell were generated from MRI, while high resolution imaging of the precipitate formed in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media was achieved via µ-CT imaging. Formation of a precipitate layer minimized dispersive and advective transport between the two fluids and the shape of the precipitation was influenced by the flow rate condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1453..141A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1453..141A"><span>Computational modeling technique for numerical simulation of immiscible two-phase flow problems <span class="hlt">involving</span> flow and transport phenomena in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media with hysteresis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abreu, Eduardo; Lambert, Wanderson</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Numerical methods are necessary, and are extremely important, in developing an understanding of the dynamics of multiphase flow of fluids in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media applications to maximize hydrocarbon recovery as well as to simulate contaminant transport of soluble or insoluble species in groundwater contamination problems. This work deals with a problem very common in water-flooding process in petroleum reservoir to motivate the proposed modeling: the flow of two immiscible and incompressible fluid phases. The system of equations which describe this type of flow is a coupled, highly nonlinear system of time-dependent partial differential equations. The equation for the invading fluid (e.g., water phase) is a convection-dominated, degenerate parabolic partial differential equation whose solutions typically exhibit sharp moving fronts (e.g., moving internal layers with strong gradients) and it is very difficult to approximate numerically. We propose a two-stage numerical method to describe the injection problem for a model of two-phase (water-oil) flow in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> rock, taking into account both gravity and hysteresis effects for solving transport flow problems in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Indeed, we also investigate the Riemann problem for the one-dimensional, purely hyperbolic system, associated to the full differential model problem at hand. Thus, the use of accurate numerical methods in conjunction with one-dimensional semi-analytical Riemann solutions might provide valuable insight into the qualitative solution behavior of the full nonlinear governing flow system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28646975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28646975"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Incredible Years® on teacher perceptions of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>: A latent transition analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Aaron M; Herman, Keith C; Stormont, Melissa A; Reinke, Wendy M; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study was to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) training on teacher perceptions of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. A cluster randomized design was used to assign 42 classroom teachers to either an IY TCM training (n=19) or a control condition (n=23). Teachers rated parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (i.e., bonding with teacher, parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> at school) for the families of 805 low income students (IY TCM=504, control=301). A latent profile transition analysis framework was used to model the effect of IY TCM on teacher perceptions of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> from pre to posttest. Four profiles consisting of various patterns of high, medium, and low teacher perceptions of bonding with and <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of parents emerged. Analyses of teacher profiles at baseline revealed teachers who felt parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and bonding was low were also likely to rate students as having more externalizing behaviors, fewer social competencies, more attention deficit symptoms, and disruptive behaviors towards adults and peers compared to teachers with more adaptive profiles. Further analysis revealed that parents of teachers randomly assigned to IY TCM were more likely to transition to a more adaptive view of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> at follow-up compared to teachers in the control condition. Because teacher perceptions of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> may adversely <span class="hlt">impact</span> teacher attitudes towards difficult students, findings from the present study support the promise of teacher training as an avenue for conferring protections for struggling students. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017WRR....53.1457J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017WRR....53.1457J"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of saturation on dispersion and mixing in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media: Photobleaching pulse injection experiments and shear-enhanced mixing model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Tabuteau, Hervé; Méheust, Yves</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The dynamics of solute dispersion and mixing in unsaturated flows is analyzed from photobleaching experiments in two-dimensional <span class="hlt">porous</span> micromodels. This technique allows producing pulse line (delta-Dirac) injections of a conservative tracer by bleaching a finite volume of fluorescent without disturbing the flow field. The temporal evolution of the concentration field and the spatial distribution of the air and water phases can be monitored at pore scale. We study the dispersion and mixing of a line of tracer under different water saturations. While dispersion in saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media follows an approximately Fickian scaling, a shift to ballistic scaling is observed as soon as saturation is lowered. Hence, at the time scale of observation, dispersion in our unsaturated flows is dominated by the ballistic separation of tracer blobs within the water phase, between trapped clusters and preferential flow paths. While diffusion plays a minor role in the longitudinal dispersion during the time scale of the experiments, its interplay with fluid deformation is apparent in the dynamics of mixing. The scalar dissipation rates show an initial stretching regime, during which mixing is enhanced by fluid deformation, followed by a dissipation regime, during which diffusion overcomes compression induced by stretching. The transition between these two regimes occurs at the mixing time, when concentration gradients are maximum. We propose a predictive analytical model, based on shear-enhanced diffusion, that captures the dynamics of mixing from basic unsaturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media parameters, suggesting that this type of model may be a useful framework at larger scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28892607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28892607"><span>Template-Free Synthesis of Highly <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Boron Nitride: Insights into Pore Network Design and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Gas Sorption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marchesini, Sofia; McGilvery, Catriona M; Bailey, Josh; Petit, Camille</p> <p>2017-09-18</p> <p>Production of biocompatible and stable <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials, e.g., boron nitride, exhibiting tunable and enhanced porosity is a prerequisite if they are to be employed to address challenges such as drug delivery, molecular separations, or catalysis. However, there is currently very limited understanding of the formation mechanisms of <span class="hlt">porous</span> boron nitride and the parameters controlling its porosity, which ultimately prevents exploiting the material's full potential. Herein, we produce boron nitride with high and tunable surface area and micro/mesoporosity via a facile template-free method using multiple readily available N-containing precursors with different thermal decomposition patterns. The gases are gradually released, creating hierarchical pores, high surface areas (>1900 m(2)/g), and micropore volumes. We use 3D tomography techniques to reconstruct the pore structure, allowing direct visualization of the mesopore network. Additional imaging and analytical tools are employed to characterize the materials from the micro- down to the nanoscale. The CO2 uptake of the materials rivals or surpasses those of commercial benchmarks or other boron nitride materials reported to date (up to 4 times higher), even after pelletizing. Overall, the approach provides a scalable route to <span class="hlt">porous</span> boron nitride production as well as fundamental insights into the material's formation, which can be used to design a variety of boron nitride structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JAP....97k3302C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JAP....97k3302C"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of reductive N2/H2 plasma on <span class="hlt">porous</span> low-dielectric constant SiCOH thin films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cui, Hao; Carter, Richard J.; Moore, Darren L.; Peng, Hua-Gen; Gidley, David W.; Burke, Peter A.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> low-dielectric constant (low-κ) SiCOH thin films deposited using a plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition have been comprehensively characterized before and after exposure to a reactive-ion-etch-type plasma of N2 and H2 chemistry. The low-κ film studied in this work is a carbon-doped silicon oxide film with a dielectric constant (κ) of 2.5. Studies show that a top dense layer is formed as a result of significant surface film densification after exposure to N2/H2 plasma while the underlying bulk layer remains largely unchanged. The top dense layer is found to seal the <span class="hlt">porous</span> bulk SiCOH film. SiCOH films experienced significant thickness reduction, κ increase, and leakage current degradation after plasma exposure, accompanied by density increase, pore collapse, carbon depletion, and moisture content increase in the top dense layer. Both film densification and removal processes during N2/H2 plasma treatment were found to play important roles in the thickness reduction and κ increase of this <span class="hlt">porous</span> low-κ SiCOH film. A model based upon mutually limiting film densification and removal processes is proposed for the continuous thickness reduction during plasma exposure. A combination of surface film densification, thickness ratio increase of top dense layer to bulk layer, and moisture content increase results in the increase in κ value of this SiCOH film.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........93H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........93H"><span>Science homework with video directions for parents: The <span class="hlt">impact</span> on parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and academic achievement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hooker, Kathy L.</p> <p></p> <p>The benefits of effective parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to <span class="hlt">involve</span> families, parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with their children on educational endeavors. However, parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> may be limited because educators do not reach out to parents, parents feel their children do not need their help, or parents are unfamiliar with the content and therefore unable to help. The purpose of this study was too develop and implement a tool to enhance parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and academic achievement of fourth grade science students. The tool used in this study was a weekly science video to be viewed by parents when it accompanied science homework assignments. To begin, the researcher created six science videos for parents to watch that supplemented weekly homework assignments. Consequently, the researcher set up treatment and comparison groups to test the effectiveness of the supplemental videos in terms of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and academic achievement. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data from parents and students throughout the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected throughout this study from both parents and students. Additionally, data was collected from a variety of sources including baseline, midpoint, and endpoint surveys; scores on homework assignments; and focus group interview sessions with parents and students. Data analysis revealed an overall positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and academic achievement when the videos were utilized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26407854','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26407854"><span>A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Family <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-<span class="hlt">involved</span> parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how <span class="hlt">involvement</span> will <span class="hlt">impact</span> outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7151716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7151716"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bullien, F.A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The unique property of a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium, the one that distinguishes it from other solid bodies on the one hand and from simple conduits on the other, is its complicated pore structure. Fluid flow, diffusion, and electrical conduction in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media take place within extremely complicated microscopic boundaries that in the past made a rigorous solution of the equations of change in the capillary network practically impossible. The past state of affairs is one of the reasons why some of the brilliant and successful practitioners in the field of flow through <span class="hlt">porous</span> media have tried, as much as possible, to stick with the continuum approach in which no attention is paid to pores or pore structure. Another reason is that the continuum approach is often adequate for the phenomenological description of macroscopic transport processes in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. This book has been written with the primary purpose of presenting in an organized manner the most pertinent information available on the role of pore structure and then putting it to use in the interpretation of experimental data and the results of model calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872975','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872975"><span>Rigid <span class="hlt">porous</span> filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas L.; Dennis, Richard A.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The present invention <span class="hlt">involves</span> a <span class="hlt">porous</span> rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also <span class="hlt">involves</span> a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further <span class="hlt">involves</span> a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072914','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072914"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of right ventricular <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on the prognosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kagiyama, Nobuyuki; Okura, Hiroyuki; Tamada, Tomoko; Imai, Koichiro; Yamada, Ryotaro; Kume, Teruyoshi; Hayashida, Akihiro; Neishi, Yoji; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Yoshida, Kiyoshi</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Previous studies showed that patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy had a higher long-term mortality rate than the general population and the incidence of in-hospital complications was higher in takotsubo cardiomyopathy with than without right ventricular (RV) <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. This study was performed to investigate the long-term prognostic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of RV <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The clinical data of 113 patients (72.7 ± 11.4 years old, 84 females) with takotsubo cardiomyopathy were studied retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (biventricular group, n = 21, 18.6%) or absence (classical group, n = 92, 81.4%) of RV <span class="hlt">involvement</span> assessed by initial echocardiography. The end point was a composite of all-cause death, re-hospitalization due to heart failure, and recurrence of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in the biventricular group than the classical group (14.3 vs. 1.1%, respectively, P = 0.02). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated a significantly lower event-free survival rate in the biventricular group than the classical group (log-rank, P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, RV <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was the only independent predictor of the end point (HR: 2.73, P = 0.026). The rates of in-hospital and long-term events were significantly higher in takotsubo cardiomyopathy with than without RV <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, and RV <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was the independent predictor of the poor prognosis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5895210','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5895210"><span>Factors <span class="hlt">involved</span> in evaluating ground water <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of deep coal mine drainage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Davis, P.R.; Walton, W.C.</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>The determination of probable ground water <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of proposed deep coal mining is required as part of permit applications in the US. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> prediction generally <span class="hlt">involves</span> well production test analysis and modeling of ground water systems associated with coal seams. Well production tests are often complicated due to the relatively low permeabilities of sandstones and shales of ground water systems. The effects of the release of water stored within finite diameter production wells must be considered. Well storage capacity appreciably affects early well production test time drawdown or time recovery data. Low pumping rates, limited cones of depression, and length of required pumping periods are important well production test design factors. Coal seam ground water system models are usually multilayered and leaky artesian. Mine drafts partially penetrate the ground water system. Simulation of coal mine drainage often <span class="hlt">involves</span> the horizontal permeability and storage coefficient of the coal seam zone, vertical permeabilities of sandstones and shales (aquitard) above and below the coal seam zone, and the hydrologic properties of the source bed above the aquitard overlying the coal seam zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24949539','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24949539"><span>Resident participation in laparoscopic hysterectomy: <span class="hlt">impact</span> of trainee <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on operative times and surgical outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Igwe, Elena; Hernandez, Enrique; Rose, Stephen; Uppal, Shitanshu</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on morbidity after total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign disease. We performed a retrospective review of a National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database of total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign disease that was performed with resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span> vs attending alone between Jan. 1, 2008, and Dec. 31, 2011. Surgical operative times and morbidity and mortality rates were compared. Binary logistic regression was used to control for covariates that were significant on univariate analysis (P < .05). A total of 3441 patients were identified as having undergone a total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign disease. The mean age of patients was 47.4 ± 11.1 years; the mean body mass index was 30.6 ± 7.9 kg/m(2). A resident participated in 1591 of cases (46.2%); 1850 of the procedures (53.8%) were done by an attending physician alone. Cases with resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span> had higher mean age, Charlson morbidity scoring, and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification and were more likely to be inpatient cases. With resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, the mean operative time was increased (179.29 vs 135.46 minutes; P < .0001). There were no differences in the rates of experiencing at least 1 complication (6.8% for resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span> vs 5.4% for attending alone; P = .5), composite severe morbidity (1.3% resident vs 1.0% attending alone), or 30-day mortality rate (0% resident vs 0.1% attending alone). Additionally, there were no differences between groups in the infectious, wound, neurorenal, thromboembolic, septic, and cardiopulmonary complications. Cases with resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span> had significantly increased rates of postoperative transfusion of packed red blood cells (2% vs 0.4%; P < .0001), reoperation (2.2% vs 1.3%; P = .048), and a 30-day readmission (5.5% vs 2.9%; P = .015). In models that were adjusted for factors that differed between the 2 groups, cases with resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span> had</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27358848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27358848"><span>Change of the airway space in mandibular prognathism after bimaxillary surgery <span class="hlt">involving</span> maxillary posterior <span class="hlt">impaction</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Woo-Young; Park, Young-Wook; Kwon, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Seong-Gon</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop a two- and three-dimensional analysis of the airway using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to determine whether the airway space would be changed in mandibular prognathism after bimaxillary surgery <span class="hlt">involving</span> maxillary posterior <span class="hlt">impaction</span>. Patients requiring orthognathic surgery from 2012 to 2014 were recruited for this study. CBCT scans were obtained at three points: preoperatively (T0), immediate postoperatively (T1), and after 6 months postoperatively (T2). The nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx were measured on the CBCT scan for each patient in a repeatable manner. With the midsagittal plane, linear measurements in the middle of each were obtained. For the CBCT, volumetric measurements of each and total airway were obtained. A total of 22 consecutive patients (11 men and 11 women) were included in the present study. The total volume was significantly reduced (p < .001). However, the change of the diameter and volume of the nasopharynx was not statistically significant (p = .160, p = .137, respectively). In the oropharynx, the change of both the diameter and volume showed statistical significance between preoperatively and immediate postoperatively (p < .001, p = .001, respectively) and also preoperatively and after 6 months postoperatively (p = .001, p = .010, respectively). In the hypopharynx, the change of both the diameter and volume showed statistical significance between preoperatively and immediate postoperatively (p = .001, p < .001, respectively) and also preoperatively and after 6 months postoperatively (p = .001, p < .001, respectively). The bimaxillary surgery <span class="hlt">involving</span> maxillary posterior <span class="hlt">impaction</span> can reduce the volume of airway in the patients of mandibular prognathism. Although total airway volume was reduced significantly, the changes in the volume and diameter of the nasopharynx were not statistically significant. The maxillary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28573356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28573356"><span>Active <span class="hlt">involved</span> community partnerships: co-creating implementation infrastructure for getting to and sustaining social <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boothroyd, Renée I; Flint, Aprille Y; Lapiz, A Mark; Lyons, Sheryl; Jarboe, Karen Lofts; Aldridge, William A</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Active <span class="hlt">involved</span> community partnerships (AICPs) are essential to co-create implementation infrastructure and translate evidence into real-world practice. Across varied forms, AICPs cultivate community and tribal members as agents of change, blending research and organizational knowledge with relationships, context, culture, and local wisdom. Unlike selective engagement, AICPs enable active <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of partners in the ongoing process of implementation and sustainability. This includes defining the problem, developing solutions, detecting practice changes, aligning organizational supports, and nurturing shared responsibility, accountability, and ownership for implementation. This paper builds on previously established active implementation and scaling functions by outlining key AICP functions to close the research-practice gap. Part of a federal initiative, California Partners for Permanency (CAPP) integrated AICP functions for implementation and system change to reduce disproportionality and disparities in long-term foster care. This paper outlines their experience defining and embedding five AICP functions: (1) relationship-building; (2) addressing system barriers; (3) establishing culturally relevant supports and services; (4) meaningful <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in implementation; and (5) ongoing communication and feedback for continuous improvement. Planning for social <span class="hlt">impact</span> requires the integration of AICP with other active implementation and scaling functions. Through concrete examples, authors bring multilevel AICP roles to life and discuss implications for implementation research and practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27030954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27030954"><span>Numerical modelling of biophysicochemical effects on multispecies reactive transport in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media <span class="hlt">involving</span> Pseudomonas putida for potential microbial enhanced oil recovery application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sivasankar, P; Rajesh Kanna, A; Suresh Kumar, G; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>pH and resident time of injected slug plays a critical role in characterizing the reservoir for potential microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) application. To investigate MEOR processes, a multispecies (microbes-nutrients) reactive transport model in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media was developed by coupling kinetic and transport model. The present work differs from earlier works by explicitly determining parametric values required for kinetic model by experimental investigations using Pseudomonas putida at different pH conditions and subsequently performing sensitivity analysis of pH, resident time and water saturation on concentrations of microbes, nutrients and biosurfactant within reservoir. The results suggest that nutrient utilization and biosurfactant production are found to be maximum at pH 8 and 7.5 respectively. It is also found that the sucrose and biosurfactant concentrations are highly sensitive to pH rather than reservoir microbial concentration, while at larger resident time and water saturation, the microbial and nutrient concentrations were lesser due to enhanced dispersion.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390595"><span>Rate coefficients for dissociative attachment and resonant electron-<span class="hlt">impact</span> dissociation <span class="hlt">involving</span> vibrationally excited O{sub 2} molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Laporta, V.; Celiberto, R.; Tennyson, J.</p> <p>2014-12-09</p> <p>Rate coefficients for dissociative electron attachment and electron-<span class="hlt">impact</span> dissociation processes, <span class="hlt">involving</span> vibrationally excited molecular oxygen, are presented. Analytical fits of the calculated numerical data, useful in the applications, are also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27829969','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27829969"><span>Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes <span class="hlt">Involved</span> with High-<span class="hlt">impact</span> Sports.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Safinia, Cyrus; Bershad, Eric M; Clark, H Brent; SantaCruz, Karen; Alakbarova, Naila; Suarez, Jose I; Divani, Afshin A</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease occurring most commonly in athletes and is caused by repeated concussive or subconcussive blows to the head. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the published literature on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in athletes participating in high-<span class="hlt">impact</span> sports. In particular, we highlight the significance of concussive and subconcussive <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in multiple sports, elucidate the differences between clinical/pathological features of CTE and related neurodegenerative diseases, and provide an explanation for the variation in clinical presentation between athletes of different sports. A review targeting relevant publications to CTE was performed. The PubMed/MEDLINE index was searched for keywords such as "chronic traumatic encephalopathy," "repetitive traumatic brain injury," "mild traumatic brain injury," and "concussion" from year 1924 through March 1, 2016. A consensus panel's recent identification of a pathognomonic pathology in CTE, characterized by an irregular distribution of phosphorylated tau deposits, is an important step in developing consensus diagnostic criteria and clinicopathological studies. After review of major clinical studies, evidence suggests that there are clear differences in neuropathological features, clinical progression, and manifestation of symptoms between CTE and other neurodegenerative diseases. The literature suggests boxers tend to have more severe symptoms than other athletes due to more frequent rotational and shearing <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Data regarding genetic predispositions of CTE have been inconsistent in part due to low subject populations. Positron emission tomography imaging <span class="hlt">involving</span> tau-binding ligands has recently proven effective in differentiating CTE from control groups and other neurodegenerative diseases. Further longitudinal studies should be conducted to correlate the number of suffered concussive/subconcussive forces to the likelihood of developing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4090752','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4090752"><span>Redefining the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of nutrition on breast cancer incidence: is epigenetics <span class="hlt">involved</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Teegarden, Dorothy; Romieu, Isabelle; Lelièvre, Sophie A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Breast cancer incidence is rising worldwide with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Possible factors <span class="hlt">involved</span> include lifestyle changes, notably diet that is known to make an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on gene transcription. However, among dietary factors, there is sufficient support for only greater body weight and alcohol consumption whereas numerous studies revealing an <span class="hlt">impact</span> of specific diets and nutrients on breast cancer risk show conflicting results. Also, little information is available from middle- and low-income countries. The diversity of gene expression profiles found in breast cancers indicates that transcription control is critical for the outcome of the disease. This suggests the need for studies on nutrients that affect epigenetic mechanisms of transcription, such as DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones. In the present review, a new examination of the relationship between diet and breast cancer based on transcription control is proposed in light of epidemiological, animal and clinical studies. The mechanisms underlying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of diets on breast cancer development and factors that impede reaching clear conclusions are discussed. Understanding the interaction between nutrition and epigenetics (gene expression control via chromatin structure) is critical in light of the influence of diet during early stages of mammary gland development on breast cancer risk, suggesting a persistent effect on gene expression as shown by the influence of certain nutrients on DNA methylation. Successful development of breast cancer prevention strategies will require appropriate models, identification of biological markers for rapid assessment of preventive interventions, and coordinated worldwide research to discern the effects of diet. PMID:22853843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25325703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25325703"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of redox-active polymer molecular weight on the electrochemical properties and transport across <span class="hlt">porous</span> separators in nonaqueous solvents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagarjuna, Gavvalapalli; Hui, Jingshu; Cheng, Kevin J; Lichtenstein, Timothy; Shen, Mei; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín</p> <p>2014-11-19</p> <p>Enhancing the ionic conductivity across the electrolyte separator in nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NRFBs) is essential for improving their performance and enabling their widespread utilization. Separating redox-active species by size exclusion without greatly impeding the transport of supporting electrolyte is a potentially powerful alternative to the use of poorly performing ion-exchange membranes. However, this strategy has not been explored possibly due to the lack of suitable redox-active species that are easily varied in size, remain highly soluble, and exhibit good electrochemical properties. Here we report the synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and transport properties of redox-active poly(vinylbenzyl ethylviologen) (RAPs) with molecular weights between 21 and 318 kDa. The RAPs reported here show very good solubility (up to at least 2.0 M) in acetonitrile and propylene carbonate. Ultramicroelectrode voltammetry reveals facile electron transfer with E1/2 ∼ -0.7 V vs Ag/Ag(+)(0.1 M) for the viologen 2+/+ reduction at concentrations as high as 1.0 M in acetonitrile. Controlled potential bulk electrolysis indicates that 94-99% of the nominal charge on different RAPs is accessible and that the electrolysis products are stable upon cycling. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on molecular weight suggests the adequacy of the Stokes-Einstein formalism to describe RAPs. The size-selective transport properties of LiBF4 and RAPs across commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) separators such as Celgard 2400 and Celgard 2325 were tested. COTS <span class="hlt">porous</span> separators show ca. 70 times higher selectivity for charge balancing ions (Li(+)BF4(-)) compared to high molecular weight RAPs. RAPs rejection across these separators showed a strong dependence on polymer molecular weight as well as the pore size; the rejection increased with both increasing polymer molecular weight and reduction in pore size. Significant rejection was observed even for rpoly/rpore (polymer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H51B1471D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H51B1471D"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the viscous-capillary force balance on geologic CO2 storage in layered <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Debbabi, Y.; Jackson, M.; Hampson, G.; Salinas, P.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Alternations of parallel, continuous layers of different lithologic and physical properties are an ubiquitous type of geologic heterogeneity observed at many length scales, including lamination, bedding, and laterally extensive genetic and stratigraphic units that correspond to flow zones in groundwater aquifers. Understanding multiphase flow in layered <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is important for accurate prediction of carbon dioxide storage in deep saline aquifers. Here we examine the efficiency with which the injected non-wetting CO2 displaces brine, under the action of viscous and capillary forces, through generic, dimensionless models of <span class="hlt">porous</span> layers oriented perpendicular or parallel to the flow direction. We define dimensionless numbers to describe flow regardless of scale. Some of these are common to flow both parallel and perpendicular layering, such as the longitudinal permeability ratio σx and the ratio Rs of the storage capacities (moveable pore volumes, MPV) in each layer, and some of these are specific to a given flow direction, such as the capillary to viscous ratio Ncv, and the effective aspect ratio RL that quantifies crossflow for layer-parallel flow. When flow is perpendicular to the layering, a larger fraction of the non-wetting CO2 is trapped if layers have contrasting capillary pressure curves. This trapped fraction increases with the capillary to viscous ratio, the frequency of layers, the permeability ratio and the storage ratio. When flow is parallel to layers, both viscous and capillary effects are important. Without capillary effects (Ncv=0), heterogeneity reduces CO2 storage efficiency when the permeability ratio differs from the storage ratio. As capillary forces become more important, CO2 storage efficiency increases in response to capillary crossflow, but reaches a maximum at a given Ncv. While most studies of capillary trapping have focused on the micro (pore-) scale, this work demonstrates that capillary heterogeneity trapping occurring at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456537"><span>Differential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of REM sleep deprivation on cytoskeletal proteins of brain regions <span class="hlt">involved</span> in sleep regulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jennifer; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is <span class="hlt">involved</span> in memory consolidation, which implies synaptic plasticity. This process requires protein synthesis and the reorganization of the neural cytoskeleton. REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) has an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on some neuronal proteins <span class="hlt">involved</span> in synaptic plasticity, such as glutamate receptors and postsynaptic density protein 95, but its effects on cytoskeletal proteins is unknown. In this study, the effects of REMSD on the content of the cytoskeletal proteins MAP2 and TAU were analyzed. Adult female rats were submitted to selective REMSD by using the multiple platform technique. After 24, 48 or 72 h of REMSD, rats were decapitated and the following brain areas were dissected: pons, preoptic area, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Protein extraction and Western blot were performed. Results showed an increase in TAU content in the pons, preoptic area and hippocampus after 24 h of REMSD, while in the frontal cortex a significant increase in TAU content was observed after 72 h of REMSD. A TAU content decrease was observed in the hippocampus after 48 h of REMSD. Interestingly, a marked increase in TAU content was observed after 72 h of REMSD. MAP2 content only increased in the preoptic area at 24 h, and in the frontal cortex after 24 and 72 h of REMSD, without significant changes in the pons and hippocampus. These results support the idea that REM sleep plays an important role in the organization of neural cytoskeleton, and that this effect is tissue-specific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=69633&keyword=cells+AND+experiment&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=69633&keyword=cells+AND+experiment&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>BIODEGRADATION DURING CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN <span class="hlt">POROUS</span> MEDIA. 4. <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF MICROBIAL LAG AND BACTERIAL CELL GROWTH. (R825415)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><h2>Abstract</h2><p>Miscible-displacement experiments were conducted to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of microbial lag and bacterial cell growth on the transport of salicylate, a model hydrocarbon compound. The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of these processes were examined separately, as well as jointly, to dete...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sss&pg=3&id=ED517488','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sss&pg=3&id=ED517488"><span>The Role of Student Support Services in Encouraging Student <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Student Perceptions and Academic Experiences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelley-Hall, Caren</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the role of Student Support Services (SSS) in encouraging student <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on student perceptions and academic experiences in three technical colleges in upstate South Carolina. By examining Alexander Astin's theory of student <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the services provided by the program, a better…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sss&pg=3&id=ED517488','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sss&pg=3&id=ED517488"><span>The Role of Student Support Services in Encouraging Student <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Student Perceptions and Academic Experiences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelley-Hall, Caren</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the role of Student Support Services (SSS) in encouraging student <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on student perceptions and academic experiences in three technical colleges in upstate South Carolina. By examining Alexander Astin's theory of student <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the services provided by the program, a better…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatSR...3E2524D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatSR...3E2524D"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, Wei; Kim, Seong Jin; Seong, Won-Kyeong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Ho-Young; Moon, Myoung-Woon</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> carbon materials with high specific surface areas and superhydrophobicity have attracted much research interest due to their potential application in the areas of water filtration, water/oil separation, and oil-spill cleanup. Most reported superhydrophobic <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbon materials are fabricated by complex processes <span class="hlt">involving</span> the use of catalysts and high temperatures but with low throughput. Here, we present a facile single-step method for fabricating <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbon nanoparticle (CNP) networks with selective absorbability for water and oils via the glow discharge of hydrocarbon plasma without a catalyst at room temperature. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> CNP networks were grown by the continuous deposition of CNPs at a relatively high deposition pressure. By varying the fluorine content, the <span class="hlt">porous</span> CNP networks exhibited tunable repellence against liquids with various degrees of surface tension. These <span class="hlt">porous</span> CNP networks could be applied for the separation of not only water/oil mixtures but also mixtures of liquids with different surface tension levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755281','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755281"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dai, Wei; Kim, Seong Jin; Seong, Won-Kyeong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Ho-Young; Moon, Myoung-Woon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> carbon materials with high specific surface areas and superhydrophobicity have attracted much research interest due to their potential application in the areas of water filtration, water/oil separation, and oil-spill cleanup. Most reported superhydrophobic <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbon materials are fabricated by complex processes <span class="hlt">involving</span> the use of catalysts and high temperatures but with low throughput. Here, we present a facile single-step method for fabricating <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbon nanoparticle (CNP) networks with selective absorbability for water and oils via the glow discharge of hydrocarbon plasma without a catalyst at room temperature. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> CNP networks were grown by the continuous deposition of CNPs at a relatively high deposition pressure. By varying the fluorine content, the <span class="hlt">porous</span> CNP networks exhibited tunable repellence against liquids with various degrees of surface tension. These <span class="hlt">porous</span> CNP networks could be applied for the separation of not only water/oil mixtures but also mixtures of liquids with different surface tension levels. PMID:23982181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5486352','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5486352"><span>The Fate of Pollutants in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Asphalt Pavements, Laboratory Experiments to Investigate Their Potential to <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Environmental Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Charlesworth, Susanne M.; Beddow, Jamie; Nnadi, Ernest O.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Pervious Paving Systems (PPS) are part of a sustainable approach to drainage in which excess surface water is encouraged to infiltrate through their structure, during which potentially toxic elements, such as metals and hydrocarbons are treated by biodegradation and physical entrapment and storage. However, it is not known where in the PPS structure these contaminants accumulate, which has implications for environmental health, particularly during maintenance, as well as consequences for the recycling of material from the PPS at the end-of-life. A 1 m3 <span class="hlt">porous</span> asphalt (PA) PPS test rig was monitored for 38 months after monthly additions of road sediment (RS) (367.5 g in total) and unused oil (430 mL in total), characteristic of urban loadings, were applied. Using a rainfall simulator, a typical UK rainfall rate of 15 mm/h was used to investigate its efficiency in dealing with contamination. Water quality of the effluent discharged from the rig was found to be suitable for discharge to most environments. On completion of the monitoring, a core was taken down through its surface, and samples of sediment and aggregate were taken. Analysis showed that most of the sediment remained in the surface course, with metal levels lower than the original RS, but higher than clean, unused aggregate or PA. However, even extrapolating these concentrations to 20 years’ worth of in-service use (the projected life of PPS) did not suggest their accumulation would present an environmental pollution risk when carrying out maintenance of the pavement and also indicates that the material could be recycled at end-of-life. PMID:28635641</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28635641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28635641"><span>The Fate of Pollutants in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Asphalt Pavements, Laboratory Experiments to Investigate Their Potential to <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Environmental Health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charlesworth, Susanne M; Beddow, Jamie; Nnadi, Ernest O</p> <p>2017-06-21</p> <p>Pervious Paving Systems (PPS) are part of a sustainable approach to drainage in which excess surface water is encouraged to infiltrate through their structure, during which potentially toxic elements, such as metals and hydrocarbons are treated by biodegradation and physical entrapment and storage. However, it is not known where in the PPS structure these contaminants accumulate, which has implications for environmental health, particularly during maintenance, as well as consequences for the recycling of material from the PPS at the end-of-life. A 1 m³ <span class="hlt">porous</span> asphalt (PA) PPS test rig was monitored for 38 months after monthly additions of road sediment (RS) (367.5 g in total) and unused oil (430 mL in total), characteristic of urban loadings, were applied. Using a rainfall simulator, a typical UK rainfall rate of 15 mm/h was used to investigate its efficiency in dealing with contamination. Water quality of the effluent discharged from the rig was found to be suitable for discharge to most environments. On completion of the monitoring, a core was taken down through its surface, and samples of sediment and aggregate were taken. Analysis showed that most of the sediment remained in the surface course, with metal levels lower than the original RS, but higher than clean, unused aggregate or PA. However, even extrapolating these concentrations to 20 years' worth of in-service use (the projected life of PPS) did not suggest their accumulation would present an environmental pollution risk when carrying out maintenance of the pavement and also indicates that the material could be recycled at end-of-life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3995719','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3995719"><span>Bacteria and Genes <span class="hlt">Involved</span> in Arsenic Speciation in Sediment <span class="hlt">Impacted</span> by Long-Term Gold Mining</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Costa, Patrícia S.; Scholte, Larissa L. S.; Reis, Mariana P.; Chaves, Anderson V.; Oliveira, Pollyanna L.; Itabayana, Luiza B.; Suhadolnik, Maria Luiza S.; Barbosa, Francisco A. R.; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M. A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The bacterial community and genes <span class="hlt">involved</span> in geobiocycling of arsenic (As) from sediment <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by long-term gold mining were characterized through culture-based analysis of As-transforming bacteria and metagenomic studies of the arsC, arrA, and aioA genes. Sediment was collected from the historically gold mining <span class="hlt">impacted</span> Mina stream, located in one of the world’s largest mining regions known as the “Iron Quadrangle”. A total of 123 As-resistant bacteria were recovered from the enrichment cultures, which were phenotypically and genotypically characterized for As-transformation. A diverse As-resistant bacteria community was found through phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial isolates were affiliated with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria and were represented by 20 genera. Most were AsV-reducing (72%), whereas AsIII-oxidizing accounted for 20%. Bacteria harboring the arsC gene predominated (85%), followed by aioA (20%) and arrA (7%). Additionally, we identified two novel As-transforming genera, Thermomonas and Pannonibacter. Metagenomic analysis of arsC, aioA, and arrA sequences confirmed the presence of these genes, with arrA sequences being more closely related to uncultured organisms. Evolutionary analyses revealed high genetic similarity between some arsC and aioA sequences obtained from isolates and clone libraries, suggesting that those isolates may represent environmentally important bacteria acting in As speciation. In addition, our findings show that the diversity of arrA genes is wider than earlier described, once none arrA-OTUs were affiliated with known reference strains. Therefore, the molecular diversity of arrA genes is far from being fully explored deserving further attention. PMID:24755825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27931252','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27931252"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of advertising patient and public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on trial recruitment: embedded cluster randomised recruitment trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Hann, Mark; Fraser, Claire; Meade, Oonagh; Lovell, Karina; Young, Bridget; Roberts, Chris; Cree, Lindsey; More, Donna; O'Leary, Neil; Callaghan, Patrick; Waheed, Waquas; Bower, Peter</p> <p>2016-12-08</p> <p>Patient and public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in research (PPIR) may improve trial recruitment rates, but it is unclear how. Where trials use PPIR to improve design and conduct, many do not communicate this clearly to potential participants. Better communication of PPIR might encourage patient enrolment, as trials may be perceived as more socially valid, relevant and trustworthy. We aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on recruitment of directly advertising PPIR to potential trial participants. This is a cluster trial, embedded within a host trial ('EQUIP') recruiting service users diagnosed with severe mental illness. The intervention was informed by a systematic review, a qualitative study, social comparison theory and a stakeholder workshop including service users and carers. Adopting Participatory Design approaches, we co-designed the recruitment intervention with PPIR partners using a leaflet to advertise the PPIR in EQUIP and sent potential participants invitations with the leaflet (intervention group) or not (control group). Primary outcome was the proportion of patients enrolled in EQUIP. Secondary outcomes included the proportions of patients who positively responded to the trial invitation. Thirty-four community mental health teams were randomised and 8182 service users invited. For the primary outcome, 4% of patients in the PPIR group were enrolled versus 5.3% of the control group. The intervention was not effective for improving recruitment rates (adjusted OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.53 to 1.07, p = 0.113). For the secondary outcome of positive response, the intervention was not effective, with 7.3% of potential participants in the intervention group responding positively versus 7.9% of the control group (adjusted OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.53 to 1.04, p = 0.082). We did not find a positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> of directly advertising PPIR on any other outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the largest ever embedded trial to evaluate a recruitment or PPIR intervention</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5094259','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5094259"><span>Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes <span class="hlt">Involved</span> with High-<span class="hlt">impact</span> Sports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Safinia, Cyrus; Bershad, Eric M.; Clark, H. Brent; SantaCruz, Karen; Alakbarova, Naila; Suarez, Jose I.; Divani, Afshin A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background and purpose Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease occurring most commonly in athletes and is caused by repeated concussive or subconcussive blows to the head. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the published literature on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in athletes participating in high-<span class="hlt">impact</span> sports. In particular, we highlight the significance of concussive and subconcussive <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in multiple sports, elucidate the differences between clinical/pathological features of CTE and related neurodegenerative diseases, and provide an explanation for the variation in clinical presentation between athletes of different sports. Methods A review targeting relevant publications to CTE was performed. The PubMed/MEDLINE index was searched for keywords such as “chronic traumatic encephalopathy,” “repetitive traumatic brain injury,” “mild traumatic brain injury,” and “concussion” from year 1924 through March 1, 2016. Results A consensus panel’s recent identification of a pathognomonic pathology in CTE, characterized by an irregular distribution of phosphorylated tau deposits, is an important step in developing consensus diagnostic criteria and clinicopathological studies. After review of major clinical studies, evidence suggests that there are clear differences in neuropathological features, clinical progression, and manifestation of symptoms between CTE and other neurodegenerative diseases. The literature suggests boxers tend to have more severe symptoms than other athletes due to more frequent rotational and shearing <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Data regarding genetic predispositions of CTE have been inconsistent in part due to low subject populations. Positron emission tomography imaging <span class="hlt">involving</span> tau-binding ligands has recently proven effective in differentiating CTE from control groups and other neurodegenerative diseases. Conclusions Further longitudinal studies should be conducted to correlate the number of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26501893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26501893"><span>Gatekeeping and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on father <span class="hlt">involvement</span> among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Makusha, Tawanda; Richter, Linda</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Involved</span> and caring fatherhood contributes to the health and wellbeing of children, women and men. The corollary is also true - men, women and children are affected when fathers are not <span class="hlt">involved</span> or supportive of their children. Many factors affect fathers' <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, including women's attitudes, the history and nature of the relationship between mother and father, and the cultural context. This study explores gatekeeping and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on father <span class="hlt">involvement</span> among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Among married couples, gatekeeping occurs with respect to childcare and housework through women's attempts to validate their maternal identity according to socially and culturally constructed gender roles. Among unmarried, non-resident parents, women control father-child contact and <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, with mothers and/or their families either facilitating or inhibiting father <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. In this context, we found that cultural gatekeeping had a huge <span class="hlt">impact</span> on father <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, with the non-payment of inhlawulo or lobola regulating father-child <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. In a country like South Africa, where there is high non-marital fertility and father-child non-residence, future research, parenting and family programmes should focus on strategies that encourage positive paternal <span class="hlt">involvement</span> as well as maternal and cultural support for father <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, regardless of parental relationship and residence status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18272450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18272450"><span>Why engineer <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, A</p> <p>2006-01-15</p> <p>A number of specific examples are briefly given for the use of pores in engineering materials: a <span class="hlt">porous</span> ceramic to produce minimum thermal conduction; thin skeleton walls in silicon to produce photoluminescence; low dielectric constant materials. The desirable nature of the pores in fuel cell electrodes and sieves is described. Further examples are given in orthopaedics, prosthetic scaffolds and sound deadening and <span class="hlt">impact</span> resistance materials. An attempt is made to describe the desirable pore size, whether open or closed, and the useful volume fraction. This short review does not deal with flexible foams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22809132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22809132"><span>Mapping the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of patient and public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on health and social care research: a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brett, Jo; Staniszewska, Sophie; Mockford, Carole; Herron-Marx, Sandra; Hughes, John; Tysall, Colin; Suleman, Rashida</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>There is an increasing international interest in patient and public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (PPI) in research, yet relatively little robust evidence exists about its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on health and social care research. To identify the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of patient and public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on health and social care research. A systematic search of electronic databases and health libraries was undertaken from 1995 to 2009. Data were extracted and quality assessed utilizing the guidelines of the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2009 and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Grey literature was assessed using the Dixon-Woods et al. (2005) checklist. All study types that reported the <span class="hlt">impact</span> PPI had on the health and/or social care research study. A total of 66 studies reporting the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of PPI on health and social care research were included. The positive <span class="hlt">impacts</span> identified enhanced the quality and appropriateness of research. <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> were reported for all stages of research, including the development of user-focused research objectives, development of user-relevant research questions, development of user-friendly information, questionnaires and interview schedules, more appropriate recruitment strategies for studies, consumer-focused interpretation of data and enhanced implementation and dissemination of study results. Some challenging <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were also identified. This study provides the first international evidence of PPI <span class="hlt">impact</span> that has emerged at all key stages of the research process. However, much of the evidence base concerning <span class="hlt">impact</span> remains weak and needs significant enhancement in the next decade. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495600','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495600"><span>Systematic Analysis of the Genetic Variability That <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> SUMO Conjugation and Their <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Human Diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Hao-Dong; Shi, Shao-Ping; Chen, Xiang; Qiu, Jian-Ding</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Protein function has been observed to rely on select essential sites instead of requiring all sites to be indispensable. Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) conjugation or sumoylation, which is a highly dynamic reversible process and its outcomes are extremely diverse, ranging from changes in localization to altered activity and, in some cases, stability of the modified, has shown to be especially valuable in cellular biology. Motivated by the significance of SUMO conjugation in biological processes, we report here on the first exploratory assessment whether sumoylation related genetic variability <span class="hlt">impacts</span> protein functions as well as the occurrence of diseases related to SUMO. Here, we defined the SUMOAMVR as sumoylation related amino acid variations that affect sumoylation sites or enzymes <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the process of connectivity, and categorized four types of potential SUMOAMVRs. We detected that 17.13% of amino acid variations are potential SUMOAMVRs and 4.83% of disease mutations could lead to SUMOAMVR with our system. More interestingly, the statistical analysis demonstrates that the amino acid variations that directly create new potential lysine sumoylation sites are more likely to cause diseases. It can be anticipated that our method can provide more instructive guidance to identify the mechanisms of genetic diseases. PMID:26154679</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9179578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9179578"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the Postponing Sexual <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> curriculum among youths in California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kirby, D; Korpi, M; Barth, R P; Cagampang, H H</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Postponing Sexual <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> (PSI) is a widely implemented middle school curriculum designed to delay the onset of sexual intercourse. In an evaluation of its effectiveness among seventh and eighth graders in California, 10,600 youths from schools and community-based organizations statewide were recruited and participated in randomly assigned intervention or control groups; the curriculum was implemented by either adult or youth leaders. Survey data were collected before the program was implemented, and at three months and 17 months afterward. At three months, small but statistically significant changes were found in fewer than half of the measured attitudes, behaviors and intentions related to sexual activity; at 17 months, none of these significant positive effects of the PSI program had been sustained. At neither follow-up were there significant positive changes in sexual behavior; Youths in treatment and control groups were equally likely to have become sexually active, and youths in treatment groups were not less likely than youths in control groups to report a pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection. The evaluation suggests that PSI may be too modest in length and scope to have an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on youths' sexual behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...510900X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...510900X"><span>Systematic Analysis of the Genetic Variability That <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> SUMO Conjugation and Their <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Human Diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Hao-Dong; Shi, Shao-Ping; Chen, Xiang; Qiu, Jian-Ding</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Protein function has been observed to rely on select essential sites instead of requiring all sites to be indispensable. Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) conjugation or sumoylation, which is a highly dynamic reversible process and its outcomes are extremely diverse, ranging from changes in localization to altered activity and, in some cases, stability of the modified, has shown to be especially valuable in cellular biology. Motivated by the significance of SUMO conjugation in biological processes, we report here on the first exploratory assessment whether sumoylation related genetic variability <span class="hlt">impacts</span> protein functions as well as the occurrence of diseases related to SUMO. Here, we defined the SUMOAMVR as sumoylation related amino acid variations that affect sumoylation sites or enzymes <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the process of connectivity, and categorized four types of potential SUMOAMVRs. We detected that 17.13% of amino acid variations are potential SUMOAMVRs and 4.83% of disease mutations could lead to SUMOAMVR with our system. More interestingly, the statistical analysis demonstrates that the amino acid variations that directly create new potential lysine sumoylation sites are more likely to cause diseases. It can be anticipated that our method can provide more instructive guidance to identify the mechanisms of genetic diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNS31A1954T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNS31A1954T"><span>A feasible research of rock porosity and water saturation <span class="hlt">impact</span> on audio-magnetotelluric propagation in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Z.; Liu, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Abstract: Although various factors have <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the resistivity of subsurface rock formation, in depth range of general electrical prospecting, the conductive actions of rocks are basically realized relying on the aqueous solutions filled in the pores. Therefore, quantitatively studying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the water level on rock resistivity is important to analyze and classify strata, investigate the underground structures. In this research, we proposed a feasible research on building electric property rock formation models with different porosity and water saturation based on theories of two-phase media. The propagation of audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) waves is simulated by using finite-difference (FD) scheme, and theoretic resistivity distribution is calculated on account of the response of AMT. According to a sequence of synthetic examples, through comparing and analyzing the simulated results with various porosity and water saturation respectively, we discuss the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on layers resistivity while porosity and water saturation of rock stratum are changing. The results shows the extent that the mentioned factors can have <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the propagation of AMT waves. Key words: audio-magnetotelluric modeling, two-phase media, porosity, water saturation, finite-difference</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..268..102M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..268..102M"><span>Survivability of copper projectiles during hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in <span class="hlt">porous</span> ice: A laboratory investigation of the survivability of projectiles <span class="hlt">impacting</span> comets or other bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McDermott, K. H.; Price, M. C.; Cole, M.; Burchell, M. J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>During hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> (>a few km s-1) the resulting cratering and/or disruption of the target body often outweighs interest on the outcome of the projectile material, with the majority of projectiles assumed to be vaporised. However, on Earth, fragments, often metallic, have been recovered from <span class="hlt">impact</span> sites, meaning that metallic projectile fragments may survive a hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> and still exist within the wall, floor and/or ejecta of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater post-<span class="hlt">impact</span>. The discovery of the remnant impactor composition within the craters of asteroids, planets and comets could provide further information regarding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> history of a body. Accordingly, we study in the laboratory the survivability of 1 and 2 mm diameter copper projectiles fired onto ice at speeds between 1.00 and 7.05 km s-1. The projectile was recovered intact at speeds up to 1.50 km s-1, with no ductile deformation, but some surface pitting was observed. At 2.39 km s-1, the projectile showed increasing ductile deformation and broke into two parts. Above velocities of 2.60 km s-1 increasing numbers of projectile fragments were identified post <span class="hlt">impact</span>, with the mean size of the fragments decreasing with increasing <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity. The decrease in size also corresponds with an increase in the number of projectile fragments recovered, as with increasing shock pressure the projectile material is more intensely disrupted, producing smaller and more numerous fragments. The damage to the projectile is divided into four classes with increasing speed and shock pressure: (1) minimal damage, (2) ductile deformation, start of break up, (3) increasing fragmentation, and (4) complete fragmentation. The implications of such behaviour is considered for specific examples of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of metallic impactors onto Solar System bodies, including LCROSS <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the Moon, iron meteorites onto Mars and NASA's ;Deep <span class="hlt">Impact</span>; mission where a spacecraft <span class="hlt">impacted</span> a comet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410629M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410629M"><span>Modeling evaporation from <span class="hlt">porous</span> media influenced by atmospheric processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mosthaf, K.; Baber, K.; Flemisch, B.; Helmig, R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Modeling evaporation processes from partially saturated soils into the ambient air is a challenging task. It <span class="hlt">involves</span> usually a variety of interacting processes and depends on the multitude of properties of the fluids and of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. Often, the ambient free-flow and the <span class="hlt">porous</span>-medium compartments are modeled separately with a specification of the evaporation rate as boundary condition. We have developed a coupling concept, which allows the combined modeling of a free-flow and a <span class="hlt">porous</span>-medium system under non-isothermal conditions with the evaporative fluxes across the soil-atmosphere interface as model output. It is based on flux continuity and local thermodynamic equilibrium at the interface. Darcy's law for multiple phases is used in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium, whereas the ambient air flow is modeled as a compositional single-phase Stokes system. The concept has been implemented in the numerical simulator DuMux. A comparison of simulated and measured data from wind tunnel experiments performed in the group of D. Or (ETH Zürich) will be shown. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of several parameters, such as a varying wind velocity, temperature or different soil properties on the evaporation process has been analyzed in a numerical parameter study. The results will be presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27654458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27654458"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Redox Reactions on Colloid Transport in Saturated <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media: An Example of Ferrihydrite Colloids Transport in the Presence of Sulfide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liao, Peng; Yuan, Songhu; Wang, Dengjun</p> <p>2016-10-18</p> <p>Transport of colloids in the subsurface is an important environmental process with most research interests centered on the transport in chemically stable conditions. While colloids can be formed under dynamic redox conditions, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of redox reactions on their transport is largely overlooked. Taking the redox reactions between ferrihydrite colloids and sulfide as an example, we investigated how and to what extent the redox reactions modulated the transport of ferrihydrite colloids in anoxic sand columns over a range of environmentally relevant conditions. Our results reveal that the presence of sulfide (7.8-46.9 μM) significantly decreased the breakthrough of ferrihydrite colloids in the sand column. The estimated travel distance of ferrihydrite colloids in the absence of sulfide was nearly 7-fold larger than that in the presence of 46.9 μM sulfide. The reduced breakthrough was primarily attributed to the reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite colloids by sulfide in parallel with formation of elemental sulfur (S(0)) particles from sulfide oxidation. Reductive dissolution decreased the total mass of ferrihydrite colloids, while the negatively charged S(0) decreased the overall zeta potential of ferrihydrite colloids by attaching onto their surfaces and thus enhanced their retention in the sand. Our findings provide novel insights into the critical role of redox reactions on the transport of redox-sensitive colloids in saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23058044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23058044"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of process variables on the micromeritic and physicochemical properties of spray-dried <span class="hlt">porous</span> microparticles, part I: introduction of a new morphology classification system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>This work investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of spray drying variables such as feed concentration, solvent composition and the drying mode, on the micromeritic properties of chlorothiazide sodium (CTZNa) and chlorothiazide potassium (CTZK). Microparticles were prepared by spray drying and characterised using thermal analysis, helium pycnometry, laser diffraction, specific surface area analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Microparticles produced under different process conditions presented several types of morphology. To systematise the description of morphology of microparticles, a novel morphology classification system was introduced. The shape of the microparticles was described as spherical (1) or irregular (2) and the surface was classified as smooth (A) or crumpled (B). Three classes of morphology of microparticles were discerned visually: class I, non-<span class="hlt">porous</span>; classes II and III, comprising differing types of porosity characteristics. The interior was categorised as solid/continuous (α), hollow (β), unknown (γ) and hollow with microparticulate content (δ). Nanoporous microparticles of CTZNa and CTZK, produced without recirculation of the drying gas, had the largest specific surface area of 72.3 and 90.2 m²/g, respectively, and presented morphology of class 1BIIIα. Alteration of spray drying process variables, particularly solvent composition and feed concentration can have a significant effect on the morphology of spray dried microparticulate products. Morphology of spray dried particles may be usefully described using the morphology classification system. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27870993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27870993"><span>DLVO, hydrophobic, capillary and hydrodynamic forces acting on bacteria at solid-air-water interfaces: Their relative <span class="hlt">impact</span> on bacteria deposition mechanisms in unsaturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bai, Hongjuan; Cochet, Nelly; Pauss, André; Lamy, Edvina</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Experimental and modeling studies were performed to investigate bacteria deposition behavior in unsaturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. The coupled effect of different forces, acting on bacteria at solid-air-water interfaces and their relative importance on bacteria deposition mechanisms was explored by calculating Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) and non-DLVO interactions such as hydrophobic, capillary and hydrodynamic forces. Negatively charged non-motile bacteria and quartz sands were used in packed column experiments. The breakthrough curves and retention profiles of bacteria were simulated using the modified Mobile-IMmobile (MIM) model, to identify physico-chemical attachment or physical straining mechanisms <span class="hlt">involved</span> in bacteria retention. These results indicated that both mechanisms might occur in both sand. However, the attachment was found to be a reversible process, because attachment coefficients were similar to those of detachment. DLVO calculations supported these results: the primary minimum did not exist, suggesting no permanent retention of bacteria to solid-water and air-water interfaces. Calculated hydrodynamic and resisting torques predicted that bacteria detachment in the secondary minimum might occur. The capillary potential energy was greater than DLVO, hydrophobic and hydrodynamic potential energies, suggesting that film straining by capillary forces might largely govern bacteria deposition under unsaturated conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.7189C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.7189C"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of transitions between two-fluid and three-fluid phases on fluid configuration and fluid-fluid interfacial area in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carroll, Kenneth C.; McDonald, Kieran; Marble, Justin; Russo, Ann E.; Brusseau, Mark L.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Multiphase-fluid distribution and flow is inherent in numerous areas of hydrology. Yet pore-scale characterization of transitions between two and three immiscible fluids is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of such transitions on the pore-scale configuration of organic liquid in a multifluid system comprising natural <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Three-dimensional images of an organic liquid (trichloroethene) in two-phase (organic-liquid/water) and three-phase (air/organic-liquid/water) systems were obtained using X-ray microtomography before and after drainage and imbibition. Upon transition from a two-phase to a three-phase system, a significant portion of the organic liquid (intermediate wetting fluid) was observed to exist as lenses and films in contact with air (nonwetting fluid). In these cases, the air was either encased by or contiguous to the organic liquid. The presence of air resulted in an increase in the surface-area-to-volume ratios for the organic-liquid blobs. Upon imbibition, the air was displaced downgradient, and concomitantly, the morphology of the organic-liquid blobs no longer in contact with air reverted to that characteristic of a two-phase distribution (i.e., more spherical blobs and ganglia). This change in morphology resulted in a reduction in the surface-area-to-volume ratio. These results illustrate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of transitions between two-phase and three-phase conditions on fluid configuration, and they demonstrate the malleable nature of fluid configuration under dynamic, multiphase-flow conditions. The results have implications for characterizing and modeling pore-scale flow and mass transfer processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4919665','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4919665"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of transitions between two-fluid and three-fluidphases on fluid configuration and fluid-fluid interfacial areain <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carroll, Kenneth C.; McDonald, Kieran; Marble, Justin; Russo, Ann E.; Brusseau, Mark L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Multiphase-fluid distribution and flow is inherent in numerous areas of hydrology. Yet, pore-scale characterization of transitions between two and three immiscible-fluids is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of such transitions on the pore-scale configuration of organic liquid in a multi-fluid system comprising natural <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Three-dimensional images of an organic liquid (trichloroethene) in two-phase (organic-liquid/water) and three-phase (air/organic-liquid/water) systems were obtained using X-ray microtomography before and after drainage and imbibition. Upon transition from a two-phase to a three-phase system, a significant portion of the organic liquid (intermediate wetting fluid) was observed to exist as lenses and films in contact with air (nonwetting fluid). In these cases, the air was either encased by or contiguous to the organic liquid. The presence of air resulted in an increase in the surface-area-to-volume ratios for the organic-liquid blobs. Upon imbibition, the air was displaced downgradient, and concomitantly, the morphology of the organic-liquid blobs no longer in contact with air reverted to that characteristic of a two-phase distribution (i.e., more spherical blobs and ganglia). This change in morphology resulted in a reduction in the surface-area-to-volume ratio. These results illustrate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of transitions between two-phase and three-phase conditions on fluid configuration, and they demonstrate the malleable nature of fluid configuration under dynamic, multiphase-flow conditions. The results have implications for characterizing and modeling pore-scale flow and mass-transfer processes. PMID:27350722</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28377852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28377852"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of schoolchildren's <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the design process on the effectiveness of healthy food promotion materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gustafson, Christopher R; Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Marketing techniques may improve children's vegetable consumption. However, student participation in the design of marketing materials may increase the material's salience, while also improving children's commitment and attitudes towards healthy eating. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of student-led design of vegetable promotional materials on choice and consumption was investigated using 1614 observations of students' vegetable choice and plate waste in four public elementary schools in Kearney, Nebraska. Data were collected on children's vegetable choice and consumption in four comparison groups: 1) control; 2) students designed materials only; 3) students were exposed to promotional materials only; and 4) students designed materials that were then posted in the lunchroom. Vegetable choice and consumption data were collected through a validated digital photography-based plate-waste method. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate average treatment effects of the conditions at various time periods. Dependent variables were vegetable choice and consumption, and independent variables included the condition, time period, and interaction terms, as well as controls for gender and grade. Relative to baseline, students in group 4 doubled their vegetable consumption (p < 0.001) when materials were posted. Vegetable consumption remained elevated at a follow-up 2-3 months later (p < 0.05). Students in group 3 initially increased the quantity of vegetables selected (p < 0.05), but did not increase consumption. In the follow-up period, however, students in group 3 increased their vegetable consumption (p < 0.01). <span class="hlt">Involving</span> elementary-aged students in the design of vegetable promotional materials that were posted in the lunchroom increased the amount of vegetables students consumed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H53N..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H53N..02P"><span>The 2D versus 3D imaging trade-off: The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of over- or under-estimating small throats for simulating permeability in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peters, C. A.; Crandell, L. E.; Um, W.; Jones, K. W.; Lindquist, W. B.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Geochemical reactions in the subsurface can alter the porosity and permeability of a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium through mineral precipitation and dissolution. While effects on porosity are relatively well understood, changes in permeability are more difficult to estimate. In this work, pore-network modeling is used to estimate the permeability of a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium using pore and throat size distributions. These distributions can be determined from 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of thin sections or from 3D X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images of small cores. Each method has unique advantages as well as unique sources of error. 3D CT imaging has the advantage of reconstructing a 3D pore network without the inherent geometry-based biases of 2D images but is limited by resolutions around 1 μm. 2D SEM imaging has the advantage of higher resolution, and the ability to examine sub-grain scale variations in porosity and mineralogy, but is limited by the small size of the sample of pores that are quantified. A pore network model was created to estimate flow permeability in a sand-packed experimental column investigating reaction of sediments with caustic radioactive tank wastes in the context of the Hanford, WA site. Before, periodically during, and after reaction, 3D images of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium in the column were produced using the X2B beam line facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Lab. These images were interpreted using 3DMA-Rock to characterize the pore and throat size distributions. After completion of the experiment, the column was sectioned and imaged using 2D SEM in backscattered electron mode. The 2D images were interpreted using erosion-dilation to estimate the pore and throat size distributions. A bias correction was determined by comparison with the 3D image data. A special image processing method was developed to infer the pore space before reaction by digitally removing the precipitate. The different sets of pore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895764','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895764"><span>Resolving the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Biological Processes on Water Transport in Unsaturated <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media Through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Micro-Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seymour, Joseph D.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>The magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) work at Montana State University has extended the imaging of a single biofilm in a 1 mm capillary reactor to correlate T2 magnetic relaxation maps displaying biofilm structure with the corresponding velocity patterns in three dimensions in a Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm fouled square capillary. A square duct geometry is chosen to provide correlation with existing experiments and simulations, as research bioreactors tend to be of square or rectangular cross section for optical or microelectrode access. The spatially resolved velocity data provide details on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of biofilm induced advection on mass transport from the bulk fluid to the biofilm and through the capillary bioreactor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+survey&pg=4&id=ED558305','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+survey&pg=4&id=ED558305"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Elementary Teachers' Perceptions and Practices to Promote Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lattimore, Myra T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, defined as the educational engagement of parents in activities such as <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in PTA, volunteering, and Science/Math night, promotes academic success. Lack of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is associated with lower academic performance. The purpose of this correlational study was to determine the relationship between parent…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=education+AND+science+AND+participation+AND+parent&pg=3&id=ED557531','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=education+AND+science+AND+participation+AND+parent&pg=3&id=ED557531"><span>Science Homework with Video Directions for Parents: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> and Academic Achievement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hooker, Kathy L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The benefits of effective parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to <span class="hlt">involve</span> families, parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=parental+AND+involvement&pg=4&id=ED557531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=parental+AND+involvement&pg=4&id=ED557531"><span>Science Homework with Video Directions for Parents: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> and Academic Achievement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hooker, Kathy L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The benefits of effective parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to <span class="hlt">involve</span> families, parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VOlunteering&pg=5&id=ED558305','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VOlunteering&pg=5&id=ED558305"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Elementary Teachers' Perceptions and Practices to Promote Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lattimore, Myra T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, defined as the educational engagement of parents in activities such as <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in PTA, volunteering, and Science/Math night, promotes academic success. Lack of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is associated with lower academic performance. The purpose of this correlational study was to determine the relationship between parent…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=senior+AND+group+AND+activity&pg=6&id=ED546183','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=senior+AND+group+AND+activity&pg=6&id=ED546183"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Mortar Board Senior Honor Society on Lifelong Views of Civic Engagement and Leadership</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Turner, Daniel James</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the <span class="hlt">impact</span> that <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in Mortar Board National Senior Honor Society has on lifelong views of civic engagement and leadership. Mortar Board Senior Honor Society is a collegiate honor society established in 1918 that recognizes students for their outstanding contributions to their college or university community in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+facilitation&pg=2&id=EJ1063771','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+facilitation&pg=2&id=EJ1063771"><span>Who Can Help Working Students? The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Graduate School <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> and Social Support on School-Work Facilitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wyland, Rebecca L.; Winkel, Doan E.; Lester, Scott W.; Hanson-Rasmussen, Nancy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A significant number of employees attend graduate school, and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the student role may be substantial and valuable to the work-life literature. In this study the authors examine whether psychological <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in graduate school increases school-work facilitation. Further, they suggest that employers and graduate schools can provide…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20969922','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20969922"><span>Approaches to mitigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dissolved organic matter on the adsorption of synthetic organic contaminants by <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbonaceous sorbents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yanping Guo; Abhishek Yadav; Tanju Karanfil</p> <p>2007-11-15</p> <p>Adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and atrazine, two synthetic organic contaminants (SOCs) having different optimum adsorption pore regions, by four activated carbons and an activated carbon fiber (ACF) was examined. Adsorbents included two coconut-shell based granular activated carbons (GACs), two coal-based GACs (F400 and HD4000) and a phenol formaldehyde-based activated carbon fiber. The selected adsorbents had a wide range of pore size distributions but similar surface acidity and hydrophobicity. Single solute and preloading (with a dissolved organic matter (DOM)) isotherms were performed. Single solute adsorption results showed that (i) the adsorbents having higher amounts of pores with sizes about the dimensions of the adsorbate molecules exhibited higher uptakes, (ii) there were some pore structure characteristics, which were not completely captured by pore size distribution analysis, that also affected the adsorption, and (iii) the BET surface area and total pore volume were not the primary factors controlling the adsorption of SOCs. The preloading isotherm results showed that for TCE adsorbing primarily in pores <10 {angstrom}, the highly microporous ACF and GACs, acting like molecular sieves, exhibited the highest uptakes. For atrazine with an optimum adsorption pore region of 10-20 {angstrom}, which overlaps with the adsorption region of some DOM components, the GACs with a broad pore size distribution and high pore volumes in the 10-20 {angstrom} region had the least <span class="hlt">impact</span> of DOM on the adsorption. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22608708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22608708"><span>Nonideal transport of contaminants in heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media: 9 - <span class="hlt">impact</span> of contact time on desorption and elution tailing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brusseau, M L; Russo, A E; Schnaar, G</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A series of miscible-displacement experiments was conducted to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sorption contact time on desorption and elution of trichloroethene from a well-characterized soil. A large number of contact times were examined, spanning 1h to 4 years (∼2 × 10(6)h). Effluent trichloroethene concentrations were monitored over a range of greater than six orders of magnitude, allowing characterization of potential asymptotic tailing. The results of the column experiments showed that trichloroethene exhibited extensive elution tailing for all experiments. Each increase in contact time resulted in a successive increase in the extent of tailing. In total, the number of pore volumes of water flushing required to reach the analytical detection limit increased from approximately 1000 for the 1-h contact time to almost 9000 for the 4-year contact time. These results indicate that a contact time of less than 1h produced a sorbed phase that is relatively resistant to desorption, and that a progressive increase in resistance to desorption occurred with increased contact time. A mathematical model incorporating nonlinear, rate-limited sorption/desorption described by a continuous-distribution reaction function was used to successfully simulate the measured data. The nonlinear sorption, the apparent rapid development of desorption resistance, and the progressive increase in resistance with increasing contact time are consistent with behavior anticipated for sorbate interactions with hard-carbon components of the soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18619707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18619707"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone architecture on mass removal mechanisms in strongly layered heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media during soil vapor extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charles J; Valocchi, Albert J; Oostrom, Mart</p> <p>2008-08-20</p> <p>An existing multiphase flow simulator was modified in order to determine the effects of four mechanisms on NAPL mass removal in a strongly layered heterogeneous vadose zone during soil vapor extraction (SVE): a) NAPL flow, b) diffusion and dispersion from low permeability zones, c) slow desorption from sediment grains, and d) rate-limited dissolution of trapped NAPL. The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of water and NAPL saturation distribution, NAPL-type (i.e., free, residual, or trapped) distribution, and spatial heterogeneity of the permeability field on these mechanisms were evaluated. Two different initial source zone architectures (one with and one without trapped NAPL) were considered and these architectures were used to evaluate seven different SVE scenarios. For all runs, slow diffusion from low permeability zones that gas flow bypassed was a dominant factor for diminished SVE effectiveness at later times. This effect was more significant at high water saturation due to the decrease of gas-phase relative permeability. Transverse dispersion contributed to fast NAPL mass removal from the low permeability layer in both source zone architectures, but longitudinal dispersion did not affect overall mass removal time. Both slow desorption from sediment grains and rate-limited mass transfer from trapped NAPL only marginally affected removal times. However, mass transfer from trapped NAPL did affect mass removal at later time, as well as the NAPL distribution. NAPL flow from low to high permeability zones contributed to faster mass removal from the low permeability layer, and this effect increased when water infiltration was eliminated. These simulations indicate that if trapped NAPL exists in heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media, mass transfer can be improved by delivering gas directly to zones with trapped NAPL and by lowering the water content, which increases the gas relative permeability and changes trapped NAPL to free NAPL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/946665','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/946665"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone architecture on mass removal mechanisms in strongly layered heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media during soil vapor extraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charlie; Valocchi, Albert J.; Oostrom, Martinus</p> <p>2008-09-26</p> <p>An existing multiphase flow simulator was modified in order to determine the effects of four mechanisms on NAPL mass removal in a strongly layered heterogeneous vadose zone during soil vapor extraction (SVE): a) NAPL flow, b) diffusion and dispersion from low permeability zones, c) slow desorption from sediment grains, and d) rate-limited dissolution of trapped NAPL. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of water and NAPL saturation distribution, NAPL type (i.e., free, residual, or trapped) distribution, and spatial heterogeneity of the permeability field on these mechanisms were evaluated. Two different initial source zone architectures (one with and one without trapped NAPL) were considered and these architectures were used to evaluate seven different SVE scenarios. For all runs, slow diffusion from low permeability zones that gas flow bypassed was a dominant factor for diminished SVE effectiveness at later times. This effect was more significant at high water saturation due to the decrease of gas-phase relative permeability. Transverse dispersion contributed to fast NAPL mass removal from the low permeability layer in both source zone architectures, but longitudinal dispersion did not affect overall mass removal time. Both slow desorption from sediment grains and rate-limited mass transfer from trapped NAPL only marginally affected removal times. However, mass transfer from trapped NAPL did affect mass removal at late time, as well as the NAPL distribution. NAPL flow from low to high permeability zones contributed to faster mass removal from the low permeability layer, and this effect increased when water infiltration was eliminated. These simulations indicate that if trapped NAPL exists in heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media, mass transfer can be improved by delivering gas directly to zones with trapped NAPL and by lowering the water content, which increases the gas relative permeability and changes trapped NAPL to free NAPL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1032271.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1032271.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Collaborative Family <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> Program on Latino Families and Children's Educational Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>O'Donnell, Julie; Kirkner, Sandra L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Latino families highly value education and are committed to their children's educational success; however, Latino students often experience educational challenges. Well-designed family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> programs can encourage Latino families, especially new immigrants or monolingual Spanish-speakers, to increase their <span class="hlt">involvement</span> resulting in positive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=early+AND+school+AND+start+AND+times&pg=5&id=ED519258','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=early+AND+school+AND+start+AND+times&pg=5&id=ED519258"><span>Factors that <span class="hlt">Impact</span> West Virginia Head Start Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Early Literacy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clausell, Arlene Midget</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The research problem is: Many parents are not <span class="hlt">involved</span> in their children's early literacy education. Some Head Start parents experience issues that keep them from teaching their children early literacy skills. The research questions were: What are the factors for parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the support of early literacy skill development for their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H53C1430R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H53C1430R"><span>Geochemical <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Caprock <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Structure during CO2 Geological Storage : A Laboratory and Modeling Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rhenals Garrido, D. R.; Lafortune, S.; Souli, H.; Dubujet, P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>CO2 storage is envisioned as a technique which reduces large quantities of CO2 rejected in the atmosphere because of many human activities. The effectiveness of this technique is mainly related to the storage capacity as well as its safety. The safety of this operation is primarily based on the conservation of petro-physical properties of the caprock, which prevents the transport of CO2 towards the surface. However when CO2 reaches the reservoir/caprock interface due to buoyancy effects, the interaction between interstitial fluid and injected fluid creates a serie of dissolution/precipitation reactions affecting the properties of containment of the caprock, which is generally characterized by low transport properties. This study aims to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> caused by CO2/interstitial fluid interaction on the nanostructure of a caprock under geological storage conditions. In order to do this, degradation experiments at high pressure of CO2 (88 bar) and isothermal (55°C) conditions have been conducted using batch reactors for 3.5 months. The sample used for these experiments is a well characterized shale, from the Tournemire formation (Aveyron-France). Porosity evolution has been followed by using volumetric adsorption at low pressure, from advanced NLFDT and classical theories based on the micropores filling, and capillary condensation phenomena. Results showed a slight variation in both mesopores and micropores size distributions, as a result of dissolution processes, which dominated at laboratoty time scale. Furthermore, chemical analysis from the water sampled showed an overall increase in Ca,Mg,K,Si,Na. The results obtained by physical adsorption and water chemistry analysis were consistent, with geochemical modeling, which suggested reaction paths with calcite dissolution as the main mineral, by producing porosity at short term and (clays, feldspars) dissolution of aluminosilicates dominating at long term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24825211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24825211"><span>Long-term <span class="hlt">impact</span> on alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes of lowering the minimum purchase age in New Zealand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huckle, Taisia; Parker, Karl</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>We assessed the long-term effect of lowering the minimum purchase age for alcohol from age 20 to age 18 years on alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes in New Zealand. We modeled ratios of drivers in alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes to drivers in non-alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes by age group in 3 time periods using logistic regression, controlling for gender and adjusting for multiple comparisons. Before the law change, drivers aged 18 to 19 and 20 to 24 years had similar odds of an alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crash (P = .1). Directly following the law change, drivers aged 18 to 19 years had a 15% higher odds of being in an alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crash than did drivers aged 20 to 24 years (P = .038). In the long term, drivers aged 18 to 19 years had 21% higher odds of an alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crash than did the age control group (P ≤ .001). We found no effects for fatal alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes alone and no trickle-down effects for the youngest group. Lowering the purchase age for alcohol was associated with a long-term <span class="hlt">impact</span> on alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes among drivers aged 18 to 19 years. Raising the minimum purchase age for alcohol would be appropriate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4061999','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4061999"><span>Long-Term <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Alcohol-<span class="hlt">Involved</span> Crashes of Lowering the Minimum Purchase Age in New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parker, Karl</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We assessed the long-term effect of lowering the minimum purchase age for alcohol from age 20 to age 18 years on alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes in New Zealand. Methods. We modeled ratios of drivers in alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes to drivers in non–alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes by age group in 3 time periods using logistic regression, controlling for gender and adjusting for multiple comparisons. Results. Before the law change, drivers aged 18 to 19 and 20 to 24 years had similar odds of an alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crash (P = .1). Directly following the law change, drivers aged 18 to 19 years had a 15% higher odds of being in an alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crash than did drivers aged 20 to 24 years (P = .038). In the long term, drivers aged 18 to 19 years had 21% higher odds of an alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crash than did the age control group (P ≤ .001). We found no effects for fatal alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes alone and no trickle-down effects for the youngest group. Conclusions. Lowering the purchase age for alcohol was associated with a long-term <span class="hlt">impact</span> on alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> crashes among drivers aged 18 to 19 years. Raising the minimum purchase age for alcohol would be appropriate. PMID:24825211</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856594"><span>The effect of recovery coaches for substance-<span class="hlt">involved</span> mothers in child welfare: <span class="hlt">impact</span> on juvenile delinquency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Douglas-Siegel, Jonah A; Ryan, Joseph P</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Despite the documented relationship between parental substance abuse and youth delinquency, the effects of parental interventions on delinquency outcomes are unknown. Such interventions are particularly vital for families in the child welfare system who are at heightened risk for both parental substance <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and youth delinquency. The current study tested the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of intensive case management in the form of a recovery coach for substance-<span class="hlt">involved</span> mothers on youth delinquency outcomes among a randomized sample of 453 families <span class="hlt">involved</span> in a Title IV-E experimental waiver demonstration in Cook County, Illinois. In comparison to control group participants, families enrolled in the Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AODA) waiver demonstration experienced a lower rate of juvenile arrest, net of factors such as demographic characteristics, primary drug of choice, and time spent in substitute care. Findings support efforts to curb delinquency among child-welfare <span class="hlt">involved</span> youth by providing recovery coaches to their substance abusing or dependent parents. © 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25894592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25894592"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of home care management on the <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of informal caregivers by formal caregivers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Wieringen, Marieke; Broese van Groenou, Marjolein I; Groenewegen, Peter</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study explores the link between management characteristics of home care agencies and the <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of informal caregivers in caregiving. Based on a study of policy documents of two agencies and semi-structured interviews with five team managers and 31 formal caregivers, we conclude that, although the importance of <span class="hlt">involving</span> informal caregivers is emphasized in official documentation, actual contact with informal caregivers is often lacking. Comparison of the work processes of the two agencies shows that contact with informal caregivers and their potential <span class="hlt">involvement</span> are enhanced by smaller teams, less task division, and clarity about the responsibilities of formal caregivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27327300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27327300"><span>Transport company safety climate-The <span class="hlt">impact</span> on truck driver behavior and crash <span class="hlt">involvement</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sullman, Mark J M; Stephens, Amanda N; Pajo, Karl</p> <p>2017-04-03</p> <p>The present study investigated the relationships between safety climate and driving behavior and crash <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. A total of 339 company-employed truck drivers completed a questionnaire that measured their perceptions of safety climate, crash record, speed choice, and aberrant driving behaviors (errors, lapses, and violations). Although there was no direct relationship between the drivers' perceptions of safety climate and crash <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, safety climate was a significant predictor of engagement in risky driving behaviors, which were in turn predictive of crash <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. This research shows that safety climate may offer an important starting point for interventions aimed at reducing risky driving behavior and thus fewer vehicle collisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22910163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22910163"><span>Surgical outcomes based on resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span>: what is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on vascular surgery patients?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jan, Azam; Riggs, Dale R; Orlando, Keri L; Khan, Fawad J</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Central to the education of future surgeons is residency which <span class="hlt">involves</span> training and learning on patients. We examined the quality of surgical outcomes of vascular patients when residents were <span class="hlt">involved</span> in their surgical case. A retrospective review was conducted using the data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from the 2010 year vascular surgery patient cases. Statistical analysis was used to compare the cases with and without residents <span class="hlt">involved</span>. There were a total of 363,431 from which we analyzed 2829 vascular surgery patients. Of those cases, 88% had a resident <span class="hlt">involved</span>. Postgraduate year (PGY) 1 or 2 residents were <span class="hlt">involved</span> in 12% and senior residents (PGY ≥ 3) were <span class="hlt">involved</span> in 88% of surgeries. Preoperative pneumonia, cerebral vascular accident, dialysis, and smoking were significantly higher preoperative risk factors in the cases without the resident. Most of the patients were an American Society of Anesthesiology class III. Twenty-six percent of the patients were diabetic. The most common postoperative occurrences included transfusion requirement, postoperative pneumonia, and surgical site infections. Surgical site infections were the most common postoperative complication (4.6%). Cases with the resident <span class="hlt">involved</span> had significantly more postoperative blood transfusions and on average took 15 more minutes to finish surgeries. A PGY 7 resident was predictive of prolonged hospital stay. The 30-day survival in the cases that had residents was 3.8% significantly higher compared with the cases that did not have residents. Resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in surgeries does not significantly worsen surgical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15519960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15519960"><span>Confidential reproductive health services for minors: the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of mandated parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> for contraception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Rachel K; Boonstra, Heather</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Recent legislative efforts to implement mandated parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> for minor adolescents seeking family planning services threaten the rights of adolescents younger than 18 to access reproductive health care. State and federal laws and policies pertaining to minor adolescents' rights to access services for contraception and sexually transmitted diseases are reviewed, and research examining issues of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> among adolescents using clinic-based reproductive health services is synthesized. Attempts to mandate parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> for reproductive health care often focus on contraceptive services and are typically linked to federal or state funding. Studies of teenagers using clinic-based family planning services suggest that slightly more than one-half would obtain contraceptives at family planning clinics even if parental notification were required. Mandated parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> for contraception would discourage few teenagers from having sex, but would likely result in more teenagers' using the least effective methods, such as withdrawal, or no method at all. Family planning clinics encourage teenagers to voluntarily talk to their parents, but relatively little information is available about the extent to which activities to promote parent-child communication have been adopted. Mandated parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> for teenagers seeking contraceptive care would likely contribute to increases in rates of teenage pregnancy. Research that will help clinics implement and improve efforts to encourage voluntary parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is urgently needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TePhL..41..974P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TePhL..41..974P"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">porous</span> composite material: Synthesis and properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peretyat'ko, P. I.; Kulikov, L. A.; Melikhov, I. V.; Perfil'ev, Yu. D.; Pal', A. F.; Timofeev, M. A.; Gudoshnikov, S. A.; Usov, N. A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A new method of obtaining magnetic <span class="hlt">porous</span> composite materials is described, which is based on the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in the form of solid-phase combustion. The SHS process <span class="hlt">involves</span> transformation of the nonmagnetic α-Fe2O3 particles (contained in the initial mixture) into magnetic Fe3O4 particles. The synthesized material comprises a <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbonaceous matrix with immobilized Fe3O4 particles. The obtained composite has been characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. The sorption capacity of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> material has been studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA023920','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA023920"><span>Handbook of Federal Appellate Decisions (through May 9, 1975) <span class="hlt">Involving</span> Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statements,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Reference to recent judicial decisions affords a useful means by which Federal agencies can arrive at or confirm their decisions on environmental ... <span class="hlt">impact</span> statements. This handbook presents the reasons of reviewing courts for their decisions, arranged into a logic of outcomes, summarized in headings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20572846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20572846"><span>Trauma-induced dentigerous cyst <span class="hlt">involving</span> an inverted <span class="hlt">impacted</span> mesiodens: case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, Deepak; Garg, Shalini; Singh, Gundeep; Swami, Shveta</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>There have been only a small number of studies on the association of dentigerous cysts with supernumerary teeth. The purpose of this article was to report the case of a dentigerous cyst associated with an <span class="hlt">impacted</span> inverted mesiodens that developed secondary to trauma to its predecessor, a non-vital permanent maxillary central incisor. As a consequence of trauma, the central incisor's root development was prematurely arrested and the open apex lay close to the follicle of the underlying inverted mesiodens. The negligent attitude of both the child and parent in seeking dental treatment was a contributing factor. The case was further complicated by <span class="hlt">impaction</span> of the adjacent permanent central incisor due to the presence of another unerupted but normally oriented mesiodens. Occlusal and Intraoral periapical radiographs revealed a well-defined radiolucent area surrounding the inverted mesiodens. Microscopic examination revealed a cystic cavity that was lined by 2-3 cell thick non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Dentigerous cysts associated with <span class="hlt">impacted</span> permanent teeth are not uncommon but the cysts which are induced by trauma are uncommon. Development of trauma-induced dentigerous cyst around an inverted <span class="hlt">impacted</span> mesiodens associated with the periapical area of a traumatized, non-vital, immature permanent central incisor is a rare occurrence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691448','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691448"><span>Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Intensive Treatment for Adolescent Panic Disorder and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Depression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pincus, Donna B.; Gallo, Kaitlin P.; Comer, Jonathan S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The present study investigated whether an 8-day intensive treatment for panic disorder in adolescents conferred a corollary benefit of ameliorating symptoms of depression. Participants included 57 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 who were randomly assigned to an intensive panic treatment for adolescents with or without parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. Paired samples t tests and hierarchical linear models (HLM) indicated that participants' total depression score and scores on depression subscales declined from baseline to the 3-month follow-up. Additional HLM analyses indicated that the interaction term between age and parent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was a significant moderator in the negative slope for adolescent depression, with younger participants benefitting more from treatment without parent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> than older participants with regard to depression symptoms. PMID:26715827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26715827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26715827"><span>Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Intensive Treatment for Adolescent Panic Disorder and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Depression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hardway, Christina L; Pincus, Donna B; Gallo, Kaitlin P; Comer, Jonathan S</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The present study investigated whether an 8-day intensive treatment for panic disorder in adolescents conferred a corollary benefit of ameliorating symptoms of depression. Participants included 57 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 who were randomly assigned to an intensive panic treatment for adolescents with or without parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. Paired samples t tests and hierarchical linear models (HLM) indicated that participants' total depression score and scores on depression subscales declined from baseline to the 3-month follow-up. Additional HLM analyses indicated that the interaction term between age and parent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was a significant moderator in the negative slope for adolescent depression, with younger participants benefitting more from treatment without parent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> than older participants with regard to depression symptoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3639501','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3639501"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Shape Memory Polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess <span class="hlt">porous</span> three-dimensional macrostructures. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in <span class="hlt">porous</span> SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents <span class="hlt">porous</span> SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use. PMID:23646038</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23646038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23646038"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Shape Memory Polymers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C; Wilson, Thomas S; Maitland, Duncan J</p> <p>2013-02-04</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess <span class="hlt">porous</span> three-dimensional macrostructures. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in <span class="hlt">porous</span> SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents <span class="hlt">porous</span> SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5182459','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5182459"><span>Constitutive model for <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weston, A.M.; Lee, E.L.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A simple pressure versus porosity compaction model is developed to calculate the response of granular <span class="hlt">porous</span> bed materials to shock <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The model provides a scheme for calculating compaction behavior when relatively limited material data are available. While the model was developed to study <span class="hlt">porous</span> explosives and propellants, it has been applied to a much wider range of materials. The early development of <span class="hlt">porous</span> material models, such as that of Hermann, required empirical dynamic compaction data. Erkman and Edwards successfully applied the early theory to unreacted <span class="hlt">porous</span> high explosives using a Gruneisen equation of state without yield behavior and without trapped gas in the pores. Butcher included viscoelastic rate dependance in pore collapse. The theoretical treatment of Carroll and Holt is centered on the collapse of a circular pore and includes radial inertia terms and a complex set of stress, strain and strain rate constitutive parameters. Unfortunately data required for these parameters are generally not available. The model described here is also centered on the collapse of a circular pore, but utilizes a simpler elastic-plastic static equilibrium pore collapse mechanism without strain rate dependence, or radial inertia terms. It does include trapped gas inside the pore, a solid material flow stress that creates both a yield point and a variation in solid material pressure with radius. The solid is described by a Mie-Gruneisen type EOS. Comparisons show that this model will accurately estimate major mechanical features which have been observed in compaction experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4420640','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4420640"><span>Family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in music <span class="hlt">impacts</span> participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L.; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool, 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's <span class="hlt">involvement</span> to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as “low” or “middle” had children (NH and CI) who were less <span class="hlt">involved</span> in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as “high” were <span class="hlt">involved</span> in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are <span class="hlt">involved</span> in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time <span class="hlt">involved</span> in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music. PMID:25431978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431978"><span>Family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in music <span class="hlt">impacts</span> participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool and 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's <span class="hlt">involvement</span> to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as 'low' or 'middle' had children (NH and CI) who were less <span class="hlt">involved</span> in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as 'high' were <span class="hlt">involved</span> in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are <span class="hlt">involved</span> in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time <span class="hlt">involved</span> in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Japanese&pg=6&id=EJ948410','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Japanese&pg=6&id=EJ948410"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Japanese Corporate Transnationalism on Men's <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Family Life and Relationships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yasuike, Akiko</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the ways in which Japanese corporate transnationalism affects husbands' <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in family life and marital relationships primarily from a perspective of wives. It is based on interviews with 22 Japanese wives and 4 husbands. Studies of Japanese corporate transnationalism treat men as mere supervisors to local workers or…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED401822.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED401822.pdf"><span>Student Input, Student <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>, and College Environment Factors <span class="hlt">Impacting</span> the Choice of Academic Major.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Coperthwaite, Corby A.; Knight, William E.</p> <p></p> <p>This study investigated the ability of student inputs, student <span class="hlt">involvements</span>, and college environments to predict seven groups of academic majors. The research was conducted using a sample of college sophomores extracted from High School and Beyond 1982 follow-up cohort, N=43,614 (weighted). Among the findings of the hierarchical discriminant…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=relationship+AND+activities+AND+academic+AND+extracurricular&pg=5&id=EJ754300','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=relationship+AND+activities+AND+academic+AND+extracurricular&pg=5&id=EJ754300"><span>Do a Little Dance: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Students when Librarians Get <span class="hlt">Involved</span> in Extracurricular Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kasperek, Sheila; Johnson, Amber; Fotta, Katie; Craig, Francis</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>One hundred fifty-two undergraduate students at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania were surveyed to determine if the <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of their liaison librarian in theater productions and orchestra had an effect on their relationship with the library. The study shows positive and statistically significant results for students who participated in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=academic+AND+performance&pg=4&id=EJ1061287','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=academic+AND+performance&pg=4&id=EJ1061287"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of Black Emerging Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>White-Johnson, Rhonda L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial <span class="hlt">involvement</span> for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ847784.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ847784.pdf"><span>The Retention of Experienced Faculty in Online Distance Education Programs: Understanding Factors that <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Their <span class="hlt">Involvement</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Green, Tim; Alejandro, Jeffery; Brown, Abbie H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The study sought to determine factors that affect faculty decisions regarding their <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in teaching online distance education courses. A survey was administered to online distance education faculty across the United States to determine those factors that encourage or discourage them from continuing to teach online courses. The factors were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED427880.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED427880.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Parent <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on Children's Development and Academic Performance: A Three-Cohort Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marcon, Rebecca A.</p> <p></p> <p>This study examined the possibility of a "threshold" of parent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> with their children's preschools, that can lead to positive child outcomes in a sample of hard-to-engage families. Three cohorts of preschool children were studied, most from low-income, single-parent families. Teachers were interviewed to determine extent of contact they…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=parenting+AND+effects&pg=4&id=EJ1061287','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=parenting+AND+effects&pg=4&id=EJ1061287"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of Black Emerging Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>White-Johnson, Rhonda L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial <span class="hlt">involvement</span> for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17717544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17717544"><span>High-<span class="hlt">impact</span> medical journals and peace: a history of <span class="hlt">involvement</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bloom, Joshua D; Sambunjak, Dario; Sondorp, Egbert</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to explore the positions of five leading general medical journals (The Lancet, British Medical Journal--BMJ, Journal of American Medical Association--JAMA, New England Journal of Medicine--NEJM, and Annals of Internal Medicine--AIM) toward the issues of collective violence. We calculated the proportion of war-related articles in the total number of articles published in these five high-<span class="hlt">impact</span> journals, and in the total number of articles indexed in PubMed during the last 60 years. The results showed a continuous increase in the proportion of war-related articles. Our findings suggest that the leading general medical journals have taken an active editorial stance toward the issues of war and peace. We conclude that high-<span class="hlt">impact</span> medical journals can make an important contribution to efforts aimed at reducing the risks and consequences of war and violence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA449878','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA449878"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Response of Composite Materials <span class="hlt">Involved</span> in Helicopter Vulnerability Assessment: Literature Review - Part 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>literature on composite and cellular material <span class="hlt">impact</span> response. It also outlines current trends in theoretical and experimental studies of material...the Terminal Effects Group of the Weapons Systems Division (DSTO) in 1998. His current research interests include constitutive modelling and material...procedures for an assessment of the capability/vulnerability of air structures. The current report provides a detailed overview of contemporary studies in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA272123','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA272123"><span>Numerical Simulations of Hypervelocity <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Experiments <span class="hlt">Involving</span> Single Whipple Bumper Shields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>laser photographs and high -speed X-ray photography. Computational results of both hydrocodes were compared to each other. * 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15...data to test the predictive capability of the hydrocodes and to compare the results of one code to the other. High -speed photographs of some of the...numerically sinmulating the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with high fidelity hydrocode calculations that incorporate the appropriate material equations of state and material models</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA246555','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA246555"><span>Encouraging Democratic Transitions: The Problematic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of United States’ <span class="hlt">Involvement</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-06-20</p> <p>OF FUNDING NUMBERS Program Element No. Project No Task No Work Unit Acceson Number 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) ENCOURAGING DEMOCRATIC...of this project is rather limited. It does not seek to explain democratic development. Instead, it focuses on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> the United States government...have implications on US policy elsewhere in the region. Also of importance is the research method for this project . This study attempts to combine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17202529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17202529"><span>Contextual empowerment: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Health Brigade <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on the women of Miraflor, Nicaragua.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jewell, Gayla</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This qualitative, descriptive study investigated how working with Health Brigades influenced a sense of empowerment and a resultant shifting of gender-power relationships for women in a rural Nicaraguan community. A convenience sample of 10 women aged 18 to 65 years who had worked with the Brigades were interviewed. Open and axial coding were used to determine core categories and theoretical concepts. From this emerged a grounded theory of contextual empowerment. Key findings included that within this collectivist culture, the concept of contextual empowerment includes psychosocial and structural dimensions. Implications for nursing practice include the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of unintentional role modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123794"><span>Intensivist perceptions of family-centered rounds and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on physician comfort, staff <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, teaching, and efficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ingram, Treva C; Kamat, Pradip; Coopersmith, Craig M; Vats, Atul</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Our goal was to examine intensivists' perception of comfort, staff satisfaction, teaching, and efficiency with family-centered rounds (FCR). Surveys were sent to intensivists at Emory University. Responses of physicians that participate in FCR were compared with those who do not. Survey questions were developed using a 5-point Likert scale with 1 representing a negative response and 5 being positive. Of 46 surveys sent, there were 31 responses (response rate, 67%). Seventeen responses were from adult intensivists and 14 from pediatric. Sixteen respondees (52%) participate in FCR, whereas 15 respondents (48%) do not. There is a significant difference in physician comfort with the practice with an average score of 4.4+1.0 for those who participate and 2.7+1.7 for those who do not (P=.002). There is also a significant difference in the perception of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of FCR on staff. Those who participate feel that it has a significantly greater positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on staff's <span class="hlt">involvement</span> during rounds with an average score of 3.6+1.2 vs an average score of 2.3+1.2 for those who do not practice FCR (P=.003). Those who participate in FCR have significantly more positive perception on its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on patient outcomes with an average score of 3.8+1.1 compared with an average score of 2.9+1.3 for those who do not participate in FCR (P=.05). There are no significant differences in perceptions on teaching and efficiency among participants and nonparticipants in FCR. Participation in FCR is associated with an increase in perceived physician comfort, positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on staff <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, and positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on patient outcome. Concerns over teaching and efficiency remain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22852528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22852528"><span>Considering the air quality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of bioenergy crop production: a case study <span class="hlt">involving</span> Arundo donax.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porter, William C; Barsanti, Kelley C; Baughman, Eowyn C; Rosenstiel, Todd N</p> <p>2012-09-04</p> <p>The expanding production of bioenergy crops may <span class="hlt">impact</span> regional air quality through the production of volatile organic compounds such as isoprene. To investigate the effects of isoprene-emitting crops on air quality, specifically ozone (O(3)) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, we performed a series of model runs using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) simulating a proposed cropland conversion to the giant cane Arundo donax for biomass production. Cultivation of A. donax in the relatively clean air of northeastern Oregon resulted in an average increase in 8 h O(3) levels of 0.52 ppb, while SOA was largely unaffected (<+0.01 μg m(-3)). Conversions in U.S. regions with reduced air quality (eastern Texas and northern Illinois) resulted in average 8 h O(3) increases of 2.46 and 3.97 ppb, respectively, with daily increases up to 15 ppb in the Illinois case, and daytime SOA increases up to 0.57 μg m(-3). While cultivation of isoprene-emitting bioenergy crops may be appropriate at some scales and in some regions, other areas may experience increased O(3) and SOA, highlighting the need to consider isoprene emissions when evaluating potential regional <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of bioenergy crop production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21871927','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21871927"><span>Cholecystokinin <span class="hlt">impact</span> on rainbow trout glucose homeostasis: possible <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of central glucosensors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Polakof, Sergio; Míguez, Jesus M; Soengas, José L</p> <p>2011-12-10</p> <p>Although the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) on fish appetite regulation has been widely studied, its <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the regulation of glucose metabolism had been little explored to date. In the present study we have carried out different experimental approaches to study CCK effects in rainbow trout (a so-called 'glucose intolerant' fish species) glucose homeostasis. We have found that for the first time in a vertebrate species, systemic or central CCK administration causes hyperglycemia, which is at least in part related to the presence of an ancestral gut-brain axis in which CCK is <span class="hlt">involved</span>. By using capsaicin we have found that part of the action of CCK on glucose homeostasis is mediated by vagal and splanchnic afferents. Changes in hepatic metabolism after systemic CCK administration suggest that the effects are not directly taking place on the liver, but probably in other tissues, while after the central CCK administration, the glycogenolytic response observed in liver could be mediated by the activation of the sympathetic system. In hypothalamus and hindbrain changes elicited by CCK-8 treatment are likely related to the glucosensor response to the increased glycemia and/or vagal/splanchnic afferences whereas in hindbrain a possible action through specific CCK-1 receptors cannot be excluded. All these processes result in changes in metabolic parameters related with glucose homeostasis control. Further studies are needed to fully understand the role of this peptide on glucose homeostasis control in fish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20929425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20929425"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of consumer <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on satisfaction with and use of assistive technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, Jay K; Martin, Liam G; Stumbo, Norma J; Morrill, Joshua H</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This exploratory study examined the relationships between consumers' <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the pre-purchase decision-making process, their perceptions of feeling informed, and their degree of being satisfied with and use of assistive technology (AT). Does consumer information and participation in decision-making process lead to improved satisfaction and use of AT? A link to an project-specific web-based survey, sent to several online disability forums and independent living centres, resulted in a sample of 145 individuals with a range of disabilities, who used a range of AT and were geographically dispersed. There is a significant relationship between being feeling informed and being satisfied with an AT device (F(13,278) = 27.79, p = 0.000). Feeling that personal needs were not assessed led to lower satisfaction (β = -0.15, p < 0.07), while feeling informed resulted from a number of different factors. Lack of consumer <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the pre-purchase decision-making process led to somewhat greater rates of abandonment in some categories of AT (some with small n's). Talking with other users, auditioning the device and searching the Internet are important ways for consumers to gather information. When consumers feel informed, they are more likely to be satisfied with the AT and retain it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28718910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28718910"><span>Permanent Housing for Child Welfare-<span class="hlt">Involved</span> Families: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Child Maltreatment Overview.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fowler, Patrick J; Schoeny, Michael</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>A longitudinal randomized controlled trial tested whether access to permanent housing reduces child maltreatment among inadequately housed families under investigation for child abuse and neglect. The study followed homeless and child welfare-<span class="hlt">involved</span> families randomly assigned to receive a referral for housing subsidies plus housing case management (n = 75, 196 children) or housing case management alone (n = 75, 186 children). Latent growth models examined change in caregiver-reported frequencies of psychological aggression, physical abuse, and neglect toward children at five time points across 2.5 years. Intent-to-treat analyses suggested treatment differences for minor assault and neglect that approached significance; families randomly assigned to permanent housing plus case management exhibited marginally greater declines compared to families referred for housing case management only. Caregiver psychological aggression remained high over time, regardless of treatment condition. No evidence indicated higher risk families benefitted more from permanent housing. Results show some promise of permanent housing and highlight the complex needs of homeless families under investigation for child maltreatment. Findings emphasize the importance of continued <span class="hlt">involvement</span> from the child welfare system to connect families with important resources. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJSEd..33.1455J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJSEd..33.1455J"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Field Trips and Family <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on Mental Models of the Desert Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Judson, Eugene</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>This study examined the mental models of the desert environment held by fourth- and seventh-grade students in the USA and whether those mental models could be affected by: (1) classroom field trips to a desert riparian preserve, and (2) interaction with family members at the same preserve. Results generally indicated that students in this study were resolute in their models and that field trips did not <span class="hlt">impact</span> the types of models students adhered to. Twenty-three seventh-grade students who self-selected to participate in a Family Science Club with their parents did demonstrate a shift in their mental models and developed significantly more sophisticated models over time. A critical implication of the study is that unless transformation of mental models of the environment is an explicit goal of instruction, simple exposure to the environment (even within the context of life science instruction) will not transform understandings of how organisms within an environment act and interact interdependently.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092267"><span>Perceptions of hospital manual handling policy and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on nursing team <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in promoting patients' mobility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kneafsey, Rosie; Clifford, Collette; Greenfield, Sheila</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To report the findings gained from interviews with hospital nurses and care assistants, regarding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of hospital manual handling policies on their role in maintaining and promoting patients' mobility. Older hospitalised adults often experience deteriorations in mobility, which are often partially caused by protective or custodial care practice and environments that promote patient dependency. Hospital-induced mobility loss may be conceptualised as a problematic source of iatrogenic patient harm, worthy of attention from a patient safety standpoint. Preventative rehabilitation nursing interventions have the potential to prevent mobility loss. Grounded theory study. Data were collected in three clinical settings: general rehabilitation, spinal injuries and stroke rehabilitation. Semi-structured interviews with 39 rehabilitation staff were completed. Perceptions of hospital manual handling policy were described via four subcategories: policy as stimulus to improved practice; policy as divorced from reality; policy as threat; and policy as hindrance to rehabilitation. Hospital manual handling policy was perceived negatively by some nursing team members both as a threat and as a barrier to patients' rehabilitation. Risk aversion, divided teamwork practices and overuse of patient handling equipment were matters of concern. Perceptions of hospital manual handling policy should be openly discussed by nursing managers and direct care providers. It is important to recognise that beliefs about and perceptions of policy will often <span class="hlt">impact</span> later on staff practices and behaviours. Unintended consequences arising from dominant interpretations of manual handling policy must be acknowledged and risks identified. It is important that practitioners balance risk assessment and prevention of falls with patients' needs for mobilisation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JLTP..185..138M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JLTP..185..138M"><span>Adsorption on Highly Ordered <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Alumina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mistura, Giampaolo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Lee, Woo</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is characterized by a regular arrangement of the pores with a narrow pore size distribution over extended areas, uniform pore depth, and solid pore walls without micropores. Thanks to significant improvements in anodization techniques, structural engineering of AAO allows to accurately tailor the pore morphology. These features make <span class="hlt">porous</span> AAO an excellent substrate to study adsorption phenomena. In this paper, we review recent experiments <span class="hlt">involving</span> the adsorption in <span class="hlt">porous</span> AAO. Particular attention will be devoted to adsorption in straight and structured pores with a closed end which shed new light on fundamental issues like the origin of hysteresis in closed end pores and the nature of evaporation from ink-bottle pores. The results will be compared to those obtained in other synthetic materials like <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon and silica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10902377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10902377"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of marketing work-place diversity on employee job <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and organizational commitment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kirby, S L; Richard, O C</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>Much of the debate about managing work-force diversity concerns the rationale for the procedures used and the outcomes produced by programs perceived to be unfair. The authors explored the role of organizational justice in diversity initiatives; they examined which of 6 diversity arguments (T. H. Cox & S. Blake, 1991) were most often used by U.S. firms and accepted by employees. They also surveyed U.S. workers about diversity issues at work; the problem-solving diversity argument was related to higher employee job <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and organizational commitment, even though the respondents ranked the resource-acquisition argument as the most acceptable. The authors also found that many organizational-justice issues still need to be resolved, even in those organizations with diversity-management programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980201262','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980201262"><span>Department of Physics' <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Testing Project of the High Speed Civil Transport Program (HSCT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>VonMeerwall, Ernst D.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The project <span class="hlt">involved</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> testing of a kevlar-like woven polymer material, PBO. The purpose was to determine whether this material showed any promise as a lightweight replacement material for jet engine fan containment. The currently used metal fan containment designs carry a high drag penalty due to their weight. Projectiles were fired at samples of PBO by means of a 0.5 inch diameter Helium powered gun. The Initial plan was to encase the samples inside a purpose-built steel "hot box" for heating and ricochet containment. The research associate's responsibility was to develop the data acquisition programs and techniques necessary to determine accurately the <span class="hlt">impacting</span> projectile's velocity. Beyond this, the Research Associate's duties include any physical computations, experimental design, and data analysis necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24378316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24378316"><span>Examining the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of opioid analgesics on crash responsibility in truck drivers <span class="hlt">involved</span> in fatal crashes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reguly, Paula; Dubois, Sacha; Bédard, Michel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers, particularly drivers of large trucks continue to be a population of concern regarding traffic safety despite the reduction in large truck crash rates over the past decade. Medication and drug use while driving is one important risk factor for large truck crashes. Work-related exposures, such as vibration, manual handling and poor ergonomics contribute to an increased risk for injuries and chronic conditions and are common reasons for opioid analgesic (OA) use by CMV truck drivers. The objectives of this study were to examine the role of OA use in CMV truck drivers <span class="hlt">involved</span> in fatal crashes by: (a) generating prevalence estimates of OA use; (b) documenting the relationship between OA use and crash responsibility. Case-control study using logistic regression to compare Fatality Analysis Reporting System (1993-2008) record of one or more crash-related unsafe driver actions (UDAs--a proxy measure of responsibility) between drivers with a positive drug test and drivers with a negative drug test for OA, controlling for age, other drug use, and driving history. The annual prevalence of OA use among all CMV drivers of large trucks <span class="hlt">involved</span> in fatal crashes did not exceed 0.46% for any year in the study period and mostly ranged between 0.1 and 0.2%. Male truck drivers using OA had greater odds of committing an UDA (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.64; 4.81). Middle-aged users had greater odds than younger or older users. The results of our study indicate that the presence of OAs is associated with greater odds of committing an UDA. This association may have implications for the commercial transport industry and traffic safety. However, the limited prevalence of OA use is encouraging and further research is needed to address the limitations of the study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NatCh...2..915H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NatCh...2..915H"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> organic molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holst, James R.; Trewin, Abbie; Cooper, Andrew I.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Most synthetic materials that show molecular-scale porosity consist of one-, two- or three-dimensional networks. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> metal-organic frameworks in particular have attracted a lot of recent attention. By contrast, discrete molecules tend to pack efficiently in the solid state, leaving as little empty space as possible, which leads to non-<span class="hlt">porous</span> materials. This Perspective discusses recent developments with discrete organic molecules that are <span class="hlt">porous</span> in the solid state. Such molecules, which may be either crystalline or amorphous, can be categorized as either intrinsically <span class="hlt">porous</span> (containing permanent covalent cavities) or extrinsically <span class="hlt">porous</span> (inefficiently packed). We focus on the possible advantages of organic molecules over inorganic or hybrid systems in terms of molecular solubility, choice of components and functionalities, and structural mobility and responsiveness in non-covalent extended solids. We also highlight the potential for 'undiscovered' <span class="hlt">porous</span> systems among the large number of cage-like organic molecules that are already known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28421298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28421298"><span>Dog rivalry <span class="hlt">impacts</span> following behavior in a decision-making task <span class="hlt">involving</span> food.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Christy L; Suchak, Malini</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Dogs learn a great deal from humans and other dogs. Previous studies of socially influenced learning between dogs have typically used a highly trained demonstrator dog who is unfamiliar to the observer. Because of this, it is unknown how dynamics between familiar dogs may influence their likelihood of learning from each other. In this study, we tested dogs living together in two-dog households on whether individual dogs' rivalry scores were associated with performance on a local enhancement task. Specifically, we wanted to know whether dog rivalry <span class="hlt">impacted</span> whether an observer dog would approach a plate from which a demonstrator dog had eaten all available food, or whether the observer dog would approach the adjacent plate that still contained food. Dog rivalry scores were calculated using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire and indicated each dog's tendency to engage aggressively with the other household dog. Low-rivalry dogs were more likely to approach the empty plate than high-rivalry dogs when the observer dog was allowed to approach the plates immediately after the demonstrator had moved out of sight. This difference between low- and high-rivalry dogs disappeared, however, when observer dogs had to wait 5 s before approaching the plates. The same pattern was observed during a control condition when a human removed the food from a plate. Compared to low-rivalry dogs, high-rivalry dogs may pay less attention to other dogs due to a low tolerance for having other dogs in close proximity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27609355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27609355"><span>Research <span class="hlt">involving</span> adults lacking capacity to consent: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of research regulation on 'evidence biased' medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shepherd, Victoria</p> <p>2016-09-08</p> <p>Society is failing in its moral obligation to improve the standard of healthcare provided to vulnerable populations, such as people who lack decision making capacity, by a misguided paternalism that seeks to protect them by excluding them from medical research. Uncertainties surround the basis on which decisions about research participation is made under dual regulatory regimes, which adds further complexity. Vulnerable individuals' exclusion from research as a result of such regulation risks condemning such populations to poor quality care as a result of 'evidence biased' medicine. This paper explores the research regulation provisions for proxy decision making for those unable to provide informed consent for themselves, and the subsequent legal and practical difficulties for decision-makers. There are two separate regulatory regimes governing research <span class="hlt">involving</span> adults who lack capacity to consent in England and Wales. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 governs how incapacitated adults can be <span class="hlt">involved</span> in research, however clinical trials of medicinal products are separately regulated by the Medicines for Human Use (Clinical Trials) Regulations 2004. There are significant differences under these dual regimes in the provisions for those lacking capacity to participate in medical research. The level of risk permitted differs, with a greater requirement for justification for participation in a clinical trial than other types of research. Who acts as proxy decision maker, how much information is provided to the person lacking capacity, and whether they retain the power of veto also significantly differs. The development of two separate regulatory regimes has resulted in significant differences between the provisions for clinical trials and other forms of research, and from usual medical practice. The resulting uncertainty has reinforced the tendency of those approving and conducting research to exclude adults lacking capacity to avoid difficult decisions about seeking</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26457370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26457370"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of emotional <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on online service buying decisions: an event-related potentials perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Meina; Wang, Jing; Han, Weiwei</p> <p>2015-12-02</p> <p>When examining a buying process, changes in human brain signals and their event-related potential (ERP) components can be considered a reflection of the consumers' emotions. In this experiment, participants were shown 12 products and related services that were available for purchase. After recording ERP components, we used a questionnaire to measure the individuals' emotional <span class="hlt">involvement</span> toward the services (i.e. the same services shown in the stimuli) of the 12 products to measure the emotional valence of the services. The emotional ERP components and the late positive potential (LPP) were elicited under the service conditions and distributed over the left frontal regions. We determined that the services may evoke an LPP and that services with a high emotional value may evoke a larger LPP, which suggests that positive emotion may be measured using the LPP amplitude in the left frontal regions. This result helps elucidate whether positive emotions are stimulated during the product-service system decision-making process and helps understand the emotional valences of different services. Our analysis of the emotional motivation of the consumer suggests that the LPP may be useful as an emotional indicator for measuring consumers' evaluation of services that provides a neural view of product-service system buying decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26213084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26213084"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of different techniques <span class="hlt">involving</span> contact with lees on the volatile composition of cider.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Antón-Díaz, María José; Suárez Valles, Belén; Mangas-Alonso, Juan José; Fernández-García, Ovidio; Picinelli-Lobo, Anna</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The effect of different treatments <span class="hlt">involving</span> contact with natural lees on the aromatic profile of cider has been evaluated. Comparing with the untreated ciders, the contact with lees brought about a significant increase of the concentrations of most of the volatile compounds analysed, in particular fatty acids, alcohols, ethyl esters and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol. The opposite was observed among fusel acetate esters and 4-vinylguaiacol. The addition of β-glucanase enhanced the increase of ethyl octanoate, but produced a decrease in the contents of decanoic acid and all of the major volatiles excepting acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetoine, whereas the application of oxygen influenced the rise of the level of 3-ethoxy-1-propanol only. The olfactometric profiles also revealed significant effects of the treatment with lees for ethyl propionate, diacetyl, cis-3-hexenol, acetic acid, benzyl alcohol, and m-cresol, while the addition of oxygen significantly influenced the perception of ethyl hexanoate, 1-octen-3-one, 3-methyl-2-butenol, t-3-hexenol and c-3-hexenol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4623853','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4623853"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of emotional <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on online service buying decisions: an event-related potentials perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Jing; Han, Weiwei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>When examining a buying process, changes in human brain signals and their event-related potential (ERP) components can be considered a reflection of the consumers’ emotions. In this experiment, participants were shown 12 products and related services that were available for purchase. After recording ERP components, we used a questionnaire to measure the individuals’ emotional <span class="hlt">involvement</span> toward the services (i.e. the same services shown in the stimuli) of the 12 products to measure the emotional valence of the services. The emotional ERP components and the late positive potential (LPP) were elicited under the service conditions and distributed over the left frontal regions. We determined that the services may evoke an LPP and that services with a high emotional value may evoke a larger LPP, which suggests that positive emotion may be measured using the LPP amplitude in the left frontal regions. This result helps elucidate whether positive emotions are stimulated during the product-service system decision-making process and helps understand the emotional valences of different services. Our analysis of the emotional motivation of the consumer suggests that the LPP may be useful as an emotional indicator for measuring consumers’ evaluation of services that provides a neural view of product-service system buying decisions. PMID:26457370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26405342','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26405342"><span>Clinical and Financial <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Pharmacist <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Discharge Medication Reconciliation at an Academic Medical Center: A Prospective Pilot Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sebaaly, Jamie; Parsons, Laura Beth; Pilch, Nicole A Weimert; Bullington, Wendy; Hayes, Genevieve L; Easterling, Heather</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Medication reconciliation is one of the more challenging aspects of inpatient care, and its accuracy is paramount to safe transitions of care. Studies have shown that pharmacists have a role in medication reconciliation through improving patient safety and avoiding costs associated with medication errors. The wide-scale use of pharmacists in this process has been limited by time constraints, cost, and lack of resources. This study evaluates the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pharmacists in resolving medication errors, decreasing readmission rates, and reducing institutional costs during the discharge medication reconciliation process. Pharmacists evaluated discharge medication reconciliation documentation for patients to determine its accuracy, the accuracy of the admission reconciliation documentation, and any potential issues unrelated to accuracy. Analysis of these data determined the time required for pharmacist <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, the number of errors identified by pharmacists, the quality of pharmacist interventions, the cost avoidance for each error, and the overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> on hospital readmission. During the 7-week study period, pharmacists performed 67 discharge medication reviews and identified 84 errors. Seventy-five percent were considered to be significant and 6% were considered to be serious. The 30-day readmission rate in the study cohort was 18% compared with 20% in the control group. Based on the clinical severity scale and pharmacist salaries, pharmacist interventions resulted in $42,300 in cost avoidance. Pharmacists <span class="hlt">involved</span> in this pilot discharge process identified and resolved significant errors on medication reconciliation orders that resulted in a financial benefit to the institution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568111','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568111"><span>Clinical and Financial <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Pharmacist <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Discharge Medication Reconciliation at an Academic Medical Center: A Prospective Pilot Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parsons, Laura Beth; Pilch, Nicole A. (Weimert); Bullington, Wendy; Hayes, Genevieve L.; Easterling, Heather</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Medication reconciliation is one of the more challenging aspects of inpatient care, and its accuracy is paramount to safe transitions of care. Studies have shown that pharmacists have a role in medication reconciliation through improving patient safety and avoiding costs associated with medication errors. The wide-scale use of pharmacists in this process has been limited by time constraints, cost, and lack of resources. Objective: This study evaluates the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pharmacists in resolving medication errors, decreasing readmission rates, and reducing institutional costs during the discharge medication reconciliation process. Methods: Pharmacists evaluated discharge medication reconciliation documentation for patients to determine its accuracy, the accuracy of the admission reconciliation documentation, and any potential issues unrelated to accuracy. Analysis of these data determined the time required for pharmacist <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, the number of errors identified by pharmacists, the quality of pharmacist interventions, the cost avoidance for each error, and the overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> on hospital readmission. Results: During the 7-week study period, pharmacists performed 67 discharge medication reviews and identified 84 errors. Seventy-five percent were considered to be significant and 6% were considered to be serious. The 30-day readmission rate in the study cohort was 18% compared with 20% in the control group. Based on the clinical severity scale and pharmacist salaries, pharmacist interventions resulted in $42,300 in cost avoidance. Conclusion: Pharmacists <span class="hlt">involved</span> in this pilot discharge process identified and resolved significant errors on medication reconciliation orders that resulted in a financial benefit to the institution. PMID:26405342</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19656243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19656243"><span>Molecular events and signalling pathways <span class="hlt">involved</span> in skeletal muscle disuse-induced atrophy and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of countermeasures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chopard, Angèle; Hillock, Steven; Jasmin, Bernard J</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy occurs following chronic periods of inactivity such as those <span class="hlt">involving</span> prolonged bed rest, trauma and microgravity environments. Deconditioning of skeletal muscle is mainly characterized by a loss of muscle mass, decreased fibre cross-sectional area, reduced force, increased fatigability, increased insulin resistance and transitions in fibre types. A description of the role of specific transcriptional mechanisms contributing to muscle atrophy by altering gene expression during muscle disuse has recently emerged and focused primarily on short period of inactivity. A better understanding of the transduction pathways <span class="hlt">involved</span> in activation of proteolytic and apoptotic pathways continues to represent a major objective, together with the study of potential cross-talks in these cellular events. In parallel, evaluation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of countermeasures at the cellular and molecular levels in short- and long-term disuse experimentations or microgravity environments should undoubtedly and synergistically increase our basic knowledge in attempts to identify new physical, pharmacological and nutritional targets to counteract muscle atrophy. These investigations are important as skeletal muscle atrophy remains an important neuromuscular challenge with <span class="hlt">impact</span> in clinical and social settings affecting a variety of conditions such as those seen in aging, cancer cachexia, muscle pathologies and long-term space exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4516463','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4516463"><span>Molecular events and signalling pathways <span class="hlt">involved</span> in skeletal muscle disuse-induced atrophy and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of countermeasures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chopard, Angèle; Hillock, Steven; Jasmin, Bernard J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy occurs following chronic periods of inactivity such as those <span class="hlt">involving</span> prolonged bed rest, trauma and microgravity environments. Deconditioning of skeletal muscle is mainly characterized by a loss of muscle mass, decreased fibre cross-sectional area, reduced force, increased fatigability, increased insulin resistance and transitions in fibre types. A description of the role of specific transcriptional mechanisms contributing to muscle atrophy by altering gene expression during muscle disuse has recently emerged and focused primarily on short period of inactivity. A better understanding of the transduction pathways <span class="hlt">involved</span> in activation of proteolytic and apoptotic pathways continues to represent a major objective, together with the study of potential cross-talks in these cellular events. In parallel, evaluation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of countermeasures at the cellular and molecular levels in short- and long-term disuse experimentations or microgravity environments should undoubtedly and synergistically increase our basic knowledge in attempts to identify new physical, pharmacological and nutritional targets to counteract muscle atrophy. These investigations are important as skeletal muscle atrophy remains an important neuromuscular challenge with <span class="hlt">impact</span> in clinical and social settings affecting a variety of conditions such as those seen in aging, cancer cachexia, muscle pathologies and long-term space exploration. PMID:19656243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27554501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27554501"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Portal Vein <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> from Pancreatic Cancer on Metastatic Pattern After Surgical Resection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mierke, Franz; Hempel, Sebastian; Distler, Marius; Aust, Daniela E; Saeger, Hans-Detlev; Weitz, Jürgen; Welsch, Thilo</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The present study aims to evaluate the long-term outcome and metastatic pattern of patients who underwent resection of a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with portal or superior mesenteric vein (PV/SMV) resection. Patients who underwent a partial pancreatoduodenectomy or total pancreatectomy for PDAC between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Three subgroups were generated, depending on PV/SMV resection (P(+)) and pathohistological PV/SMV tumor infiltration (I(+)): P(+)I(+), P(+)I(-), and P(-)I(-). Statistical analysis was performed using the R software package. The study cohort included 179 patients, 113 of whom underwent simultaneous PV/SMV resection. Thirty-six patients (31.9 %) had pathohistological tumor infiltration of the PV/SMV (P(+)I(+)), and were matched with 66 cases without PV/SMV infiltration (P(-)I(-)). The study revealed differences in overall median survival (11.9 [P(+)I(+)] vs. 16.1 [P(+)I(-)] vs. 20.1 [P(-)I(-)] months; p = 0.01). Multivariate survival analysis identified true invasion of the PV/SMV as the only significant, negative prognostic factor (p = 0.01). Whereas the incidence of local recurrence was comparable (p = 0.96), the proportion of patients with distant metastasis showed significant differences (75 % [P(+)I(+)] vs. 45.8 % [P(+)I(-)] vs. 54.7 % [P(-)I(-)], p = 0.01). Furthermore, the median time to progression was significantly shorter if the PV/SMV was <span class="hlt">involved</span> (7.4 months [P(+)I(+)] vs. 10.9 months [P(+)I(-)] vs. 11.6 months [P(-)I(-)]). Initial liver metastases occurred in 33 % of the patients. True invasion of the PV/SMV is an independent risk factor for overall survival, and is associated with a higher incidence of distant metastasis and shorter progressive-free survival. Radical vascular resection cannot compensate for aggressive tumor biology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28855346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28855346"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of time to endovascular reperfusion on outcome differs according to the <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of the proximal MCA territory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hedderich, Dennis M; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Friedrich, Benjamin; Wiestler, Benedikt; Wunderlich, Silke; Zimmer, Claus; Fischer, Urs; Kleine, Justus F; Kaesmacher, Johannes</p> <p>2017-08-30</p> <p>The time interval between symptom onset and reperfusion is a major determinant of the benefit of endovascular therapy (ET) and patients' outcome. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of time may be attenuated in patients with robust collaterals. However, not all regions in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory have access to collaterals. To evaluate if the <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of the poorly collateralized proximal MCA territory has an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the degree of time dependency of patients' outcome. Patients with MCA occlusions treated with ET and <span class="hlt">involvement</span>/sparing of the proximal striatocapsular MCA territory (SC+/SC-, each n=97) were matched according to their symptom onset to reperfusion times (SORTs). Correlation and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of time on outcome was evaluated with strata of SC+/SC- using multivariate logistic regression models (LRMs), including interaction terms. Discharge National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS-DIS) score <5 and discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS-DIS) score ≤2 were prespecified outcome measures. A stronger correlation between all outcome measures (NIHSS-DIS/ΔNIHSS/mRS-DIS) and SORTs was found for SC+ patients than for SC-patients. SORTs were significant variables in LRMs for mRS-DIS score ≤2 and NIHSS-DIS score <5 in SC+ but not in SC- patients. Interaction of SC+ and SORTs was significant in LRMs for both endpoints. Time dependency of outcome after ET is more pronounced if parts of the proximal MCA territory are affected. This may reflect the lack of collateralization in the striatocapsular region and a more stringent cell death with time. If confirmed, this finding may affect the selection of patients based on different time windows according to the territory at risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906461"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of self-concept and college <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on the first-year success of medical students in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college <span class="hlt">impact</span> with a psychological perspective to synthetically explore the causal relationship of specific types of self-concept and college <span class="hlt">involvement</span> with academic success of medical students. A longitudinal study was conducted using 519 matriculates at a medical university in mainland China. We conducted the Cooperative Institutional Research Program freshmen survey and the Your First College Year survey to collect data of the pre-college and college academic and social self-concept, college <span class="hlt">involvement</span> components, and some input characteristics. The academic success was measured by the first-year grade point average. A pathway analysis was conducted and showed the following results. Having high academic self-concept, being engaged in class and putting effort in homework or study directly contributes to increasing college achievement. Students' pre-college achievement and self-concept, faculty interaction, and homework <span class="hlt">involvement</span> positively affected students' college academic self-concept development, which indirectly improved average grade point. These findings contribute to our understanding of a student's ability to interact with his or her collegiate environment and to experience academic success.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869166','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869166"><span>Ventilation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Neeper, Donald A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Methods for distributing gases throughout the interstices of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5177290','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5177290"><span>Ventilation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Neeper, D.A.</p> <p>1994-02-22</p> <p>Methods are presented for distributing gases throughout the interstices of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction. 10 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1257114','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1257114"><span>Hierarchical <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grote, Christopher John</p> <p>2016-06-07</p> <p>Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both <span class="hlt">porous</span>, and hierarchically <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415139','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415139"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon gettering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Al-Jassim, M.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>We have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that utilizes the very large surface areas, produced by <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon etch on both front and back surfaces of the silicon wafer, as gettering sites. In this method, a simple and low-cost chemical etching is used to generate the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon layers. Then, a high-flux solar furnace (HFSF) is used to provide high-temperature annealing and the required injection of silicon interstitials. The gettering sites, along with the gettered impurities, can be easily removed at the end the process. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon removal process consists of oxidizing the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon near the end the gettering process followed by sample immersion in HF acid. Each <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon gettering process removes up to about 10 {mu}m of wafer thickness. This gettering process can be repeated so that the desired purity level is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H23D1583P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H23D1583P"><span>Imaging and Measurements of Flow Phenomena and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Soil Associated Constituents Through Unsaturated <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media in a 2D System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pales, A. R.; Li, B.; Clifford, H.; Edayilam, N.; Montgomery, D.; Dogan, M.; Tharayil, N.; Martinez, N. E.; Moysey, S. M.; Darnault, C. J. G.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This research aims to build upon past two-dimension (2D) tank light transmission methods to quantify real-time flow in unsaturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media (ASTM silica sand; US Silica, Ottawa, IL, USA) and how exudates effect unstable flow patterns. A 2D tank light transmission method was created using a transparent flow through tank coupled with a random rainfall simulator; a commercial LED light and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor digital single lens reflex (CMOS DSLR) Nikon D5500 camera were used to capture the real-time flow images. The images were broken down from red-green-blue (RGB) into hue-saturation-intensity (HVI) and analyzed in Matlab to produce quantifiable data about finger formation and water saturation distribution. Contact angle and surface tension of the chemical plant exudate solutions was measured using a Kruss EasyDrop FM40Mk2 (Kruss GmbH Germany). The exudates (oxalate, citrate, tannic acid, and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter) had an increased wettability effect compared to control rain water (0.01M NaCl). This resulted in variable finger formation and speed of finger propagation; dependent on exudate type and concentration. Water saturation along the vertical and horizontal profile (Matlab) was used to quantify the finger more objectively than by eye assessment alone. The changes in finger formation and speed of propagation between the control rain water (0.01M NaCl) and the solutions containing plant exudates illustrates that the plant exudates increased the wettability (mobility) of water moving through unsaturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. This understanding of plant exudates effect on unsaturated flow is important for future works in this study to analyze how plants, their roots and exudates, may affect the mobility of radionuclides in unsaturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........66Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........66Y"><span>Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Ningli</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Wave propagation in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is studied in a wide range of technological applications. In the manufacturing industry, determining porosity of materials in the manufacturing process is required for strict quality control. In the oil industry, acoustic signals and seismic surveys are used broadly to determine the physical properties of the reservoir rock which is a <span class="hlt">porous</span> media filled with oil or gas. In <span class="hlt">porous</span> noise control materials, a precise prediction of sound absorption with frequency and evaluation of tortuosity are necessary. Ultrasonic nondestructive methods are a very important tool for characterization of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials. The dissertation deals with two types of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media: materials with relatively low and closed porosity and materials with comparatively high and open porosity. Numerical modeling, Finite Element simulations and experimental characterization are all discussed in this dissertation. First, ultrasonic scattering is used to determine the porosity in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media with closed pores. In order get a relationship between the porosity in <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials and ultrasonic scattering independently and to increase the sensitivity to obtain scattering information, ultrasonic imaging methods are applied and acoustic waves are focused by an acoustic lens. To verify the technique, engineered <span class="hlt">porous</span> acrylic plates with varying porosity are measured by ultrasonic scanning and ultrasonic array sensors. Secondly, a laser based ultrasonic technique is explored for predicting the mechanical integrity and durability of cementitious materials. The technique used <span class="hlt">involves</span> the measurement of the phase velocity of fast and slow longitudinal waves in water saturated cement paste. The slow wave velocity is related to the specimen's tortuosity. The fast wave speed is dependent on the elastic properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> solid. Experimental results detailing the generation and detection of fast and slow wave waves in freshly prepared and aged water-saturated cement samples</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51eEC04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51eEC04K"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Hydrocarbon Control in Ultraviolet-Assisted Restoration Process for Extremely <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition SiOCH Films with k = 2.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kimura, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Dai; Nakano, Akinori; Kobayashi, Akiko; Matsushita, Kiyohiro; de Roest, David; Kobayashi, Nobuyoshi</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>We investigated the effects of UV-assisted restoration on <span class="hlt">porous</span> plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiOCH films with k = 2.0 and 2.3 having high porosities. By applying the UV-assisted restoration to O2-plasma-damaged films with k = 2.0 and 2.3, the recovery of the k-value was observed on the k = 2.3 film in proportion to -OH group reduction. However, the k = 2.0 film did not show recovery in spite of -OH group reduction. We found that hydrocarbon content in the k = 2.0 film was significantly increased by the UV-assisted restoration compared with the k = 2.3 film. According to these findings, we optimized the UV-assisted restoration to achieve improved controllability of the hydrocarbon uptake in the k = 2.0 film and confirmed the recovery of the k-value for O2-plasma-damaged film. Thus, adjusting the hydrocarbon uptake was crucial for restoring extremely <span class="hlt">porous</span> SiOCH film.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25490732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25490732"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of parent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in an effective adolescent risk reduction intervention on sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Parent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2,564 grade 10 students and their parents in the Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention that should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of adolescent HIV prevention programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4261929','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4261929"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of parent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in an effective adolescent risk reduction intervention on sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Parent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2564 grade 10 students and their parents in The Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention which should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of adolescent HIV prevention programs. PMID:25490732</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1064437','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1064437"><span>Preparation of asymmetric <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Coker, Eric N [Albuquerque, NM</p> <p>2012-08-07</p> <p>A method for preparing an asymmetric <span class="hlt">porous</span> material by depositing a <span class="hlt">porous</span> material film on a flexible substrate, and applying an anisotropic stress to the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media on the flexible substrate, where the anisotropic stress results from a stress such as an applied mechanical force, a thermal gradient, and an applied voltage, to form an asymmetric <span class="hlt">porous</span> material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080004797','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080004797"><span>Fabricating <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon carbide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The formation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> SiC occurs under electrochemical anodization. A sample of SiC is contacted electrically with nickel and placed into an electrochemical cell which cell includes a counter electrode and a reference electrode. The sample is encapsulated so that only a bare semiconductor surface is exposed. The electrochemical cell is filled with an HF electrolyte which dissolves the SiC electrochemically. A potential is applied to the semiconductor and UV light illuminates the surface of the semiconductor. By controlling the light intensity, the potential and the doping level, a <span class="hlt">porous</span> layer is formed in the semiconductor and thus one produces <span class="hlt">porous</span> SiC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1041028','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1041028"><span><span class="hlt">POROUS</span> WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sexton, W.</p> <p>2012-06-30</p> <p>Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been <span class="hlt">involved</span> in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of <span class="hlt">porous</span> glass systems for a variety of applications. These <span class="hlt">porous</span> glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013836','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013836"><span>Method to prepare nanoparticles on <span class="hlt">porous</span> mediums</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Vieth, Gabriel M [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN</p> <p>2010-08-10</p> <p>A method to prepare <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium decorated with nanoparticles <span class="hlt">involves</span> contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018059','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018059"><span>Metal filled <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.</p> <p>2011-03-22</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850235','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850235"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">involved</span> field radiotherapy in partial response after doxorubicin-based chemotherapy for advanced aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moser, Elizabeth C. . E-mail: e.c.moser@lumc.nl; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Carde, Patrice; Meerwaldt, Jacobus H.; Tirelli, Umberto; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Baars, Joke; Thomas, Jose; Glabbeke, Martine van; Noordijk, Evert M.</p> <p>2006-11-15</p> <p>Purpose: Whether salvage therapy in patients with advanced aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in partial remission (PR) should consist of radiotherapy or autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is debatable. We evaluated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of radiotherapy on outcome in PR patients treated in four successive European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trials for aggressive NHL. Patients and Methods: Records of 974 patients (1980-1999) were reviewed regarding initial response, final outcome, and type and timing of salvage treatment. After 8 cycles of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, 227 NHL patients were in PR and treated: 114 received <span class="hlt">involved</span> field radiotherapy, 16 ASCT, 93 second-line chemotherapy, and 4 were operated. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after radiotherapy were estimated (Kaplan-Meier method) and compared with other treatments (log-rank). <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on survival was evaluated by multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model). Results: The median PFS in PR patients was 4.2 years and 48% remained progression-free at 5 years. Half of the PR patients converted to a complete remission. After conversion, survival was comparable to patients directly in complete remission. Radiotherapy resulted in better OS and PFS compared with other treatments, especially in patients with low to intermediate International Prognostic Index score, bulky disease, or nodal disease only. Correction by multivariate analysis for prognostic factors such as stage, bulky disease, and number of extranodal locations showed that radiotherapy was clearly the most significant factor affecting both OS and PFS. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis demonstrates that radiotherapy can be effective for patients in PR after fully dosed chemotherapy; assessment in a randomized trial (radiotherapy vs. ASCT) is justified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9248842','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9248842"><span>Actinomyces infection in <span class="hlt">porous</span> polyethylene orbital implant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karcioglu, Z A</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>A 60-year-old patient developed actinomycotic inflammation within a <span class="hlt">porous</span> polyethylene orbital implant which she received following enucleation. She had repeated conjunctival exposures with inflammation; the primary implant was removed and replaced with another one. The anterior two-thirds of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> implant was infiltrated with numerous actinomycotic granules surrounded by polymorphonuclear cells and necrotic debris. The organisms were demonstrated with Gram stains on the histopathologic preparations and with scanning electron microscopy. Within the zones of inflammation, the polyethylene skeleton of the implant was extensively damaged. Actinomycetes have been described as causative organisms in conjunctivitis, blepharitis, canaliculitis, dacryocystitis and keratitis, but to the best of our knowledge actinomycotic <span class="hlt">involvement</span> has never been reported in an infected <span class="hlt">porous</span> orbital implant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..225a2024A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..225a2024A"><span>Fem Formulation of Heat Transfer in Cylindrical <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azeem; Khaleed, H. M. T.; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Heat transfer in <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium can be derived from the fundamental laws of flow in <span class="hlt">porous</span> region ass given by Henry Darcy. The fluid flow and energy transport inside the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium can be described with the help of momentum and energy equations. The heat transfer in cylindrical <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium differs from its counterpart in radial and axial coordinates. The present work is focused to discuss the finite element formulation of heat transfer in cylindrical <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. The basic partial differential equations are derived using Darcy law which is the converted into a set of algebraic equations with the help of finite element method. The resulting equations are solved by matrix method for two solution variables <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the coupled equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ApSS..185..108B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ApSS..185..108B"><span>Method of <span class="hlt">porous</span> diamond deposition on <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baranauskas, Vitor; Peterlevitz, Alfredo C.; Chang, Dahge C.; Durrant, Steven F.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, we discuss the experimental results of the fabrication of <span class="hlt">porous</span> diamond/<span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon and <span class="hlt">porous</span> diamond structures by chemical vapor deposition of diamond over a skeleton of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon, replicating the <span class="hlt">porous</span> surface geometry around the Si pores and also creating new <span class="hlt">porous</span> diamond structures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the diamond nuclei are deposited on the top of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon skeleton, forming isolated grains in the first nucleation stages, and then growing like the usual structure of most ceramic materials, making a self-sustained <span class="hlt">porous</span> diamond structure. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the diamond films are of good quality, close to that of diamond films grown on crystalline silicon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7204C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7204C"><span>Influence of permeability anisotropy on mixing controlled reactive transport simulations in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiogna, Gabriele; Herrera, Paulo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Several studies have demonstrated how plume deformation induced by flow heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media can enhance mixing of reactants. This enhancement can have important <span class="hlt">impact</span> on mixing controlled reactions such a biodegradation of plumes of organic compounds. On the other hand, recent studies have indicated the possibility of observing complex flow topology on groundwater flow that occurs in anisotropic yet homogenous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that those complex flow topologies can also enhance solute mixing. We study the effect of medium anisotropy on reactive solute transport for the case of a chemical reactor composed of two homogeneous anisotropic layers. We simulate different injection strategies for different chemical reactions that <span class="hlt">involve</span> two reactants. We demonstrate the effect of the medium anisotropy by analyzing the results of the simulations and identify best strategies for the operation and design of the system to maximize reaction rates. These findings could have potential application in the design of new remediation systems for contaminated groundwater, chemical reactors and other engineering problems that <span class="hlt">involve</span> flow through <span class="hlt">porous</span> media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/230563','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/230563"><span>Parametric study of boiling heat transfer in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shi, B.; Jones, B.G.; Pan, C.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>Detailed numerical modeling and parametric variation studies were conducted on boiling heat transfer processes in <span class="hlt">porous</span> deposits with emphasis on applications associated with light water nuclear power reactor systems. The processes of boiling heat transfer in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> corrosion deposits typically <span class="hlt">involve</span> phase changes in finite volumetric regions in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. The study examined such processes in two <span class="hlt">porous</span> media configurations, without chimneys (homogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures) and with chimneys (heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures). A 1-D model and a 2-D model were developed to simulate two-phase flows with phase changes, without dry-out, inside the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media for both structural configurations. For closure of the governing equations, an empirical correlation of the evaporation rate for phase changes inside the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media was introduced. In addition, numerical algorithms were developed to solve the coupled nonlinear equations of mass, momentum, energy, capillary pressure, and evaporation rate. The distributions of temperature, thermodynamic saturation, liquid pressure, vapor pressure, liquid velocity, and vapor velocity were predicted. Furthermore, the effects of heat flux, system pressure, porosity, particle diameter, chimney population density, chimney radius, and crud thickness on the all superheat, critical heat flux, and minimum saturation were examined. The predictions were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23627431','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23627431"><span>How do abused elderly persons and their adult protective services caseworkers view law enforcement <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and criminal prosecution, and what <span class="hlt">impact</span> do these views have on case processing?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jackson, Shelly L; Hafemeister, Thomas L</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study examined law enforcement and prosecution <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in 71 cases of elder abuse where pure financial exploitation (PFE), physical abuse (PA), neglect (Neglect), or hybrid financial exploitation (HFE) (financial exploitation co-occurring with physical abuse and/or neglect) occurred in a domestic setting. Victims of elder abuse and assigned Adult Protective Services (APS) caseworkers were systematically interviewed. Law enforcement officials were <span class="hlt">involved</span> in 54% of the cases, and 18% of the cases were prosecuted. PA was significantly more likely to trigger a law enforcement response and to be prosecuted than Neglect or PFE. HFE <span class="hlt">involved</span> prosecution for assault rather than financial exploitation. Generally, the victims of elder abuse were not receptive to criminal justice <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, which appears to have a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> upon the level of this <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. The reasons for this reluctance are discussed, as well as the challenges and limitations of criminal justice system <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and related implications for policy and practice.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551214','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551214"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Job <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on Emotional Labor to Customer-Oriented Behavior: An Empirical Study of Hospital Nurses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Mei-Ling; Chang, Shu-Chen</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Healthcare is a profession that requires a high level of emotional labor (EL). Nurses provide frontline services in hospitals and thus typically experience high levels of EL. The quality of services that nurses provide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on how patients evaluate the service quality of hospitals. The aim of this study is to explore the relationships among EL, job <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (JI), and customer-oriented behavior (COB) in the context of the nursing profession. The participants in this study were nurses at eight hospitals, all located in Taiwan. This study used a self-reporting questionnaire. Research data were gathered at two discrete periods (A and B). Questionnaire A collected data on EL and JI, and Questionnaire B collected data on COB. Five hundred questionnaires were sent out to qualified participants, and 472 valid questionnaires were returned. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The expression of positive emotion (EPE) and the suppression of negative emotion (SNE) were found to positively affect the patient-oriented COB. Furthermore, the EPE was found to positively affect the task-oriented COB. In terms of the moderating effect of JI, JI was found to relate positively to the EPE, patient-oriented COB, and task-oriented COB. In addition, higher values of JI were found to weaken the relationship between the SNE and the task-oriented COB. It has become an increasingly popular practice for hospital organizations to work to promote the COB of their nursing staffs. The results of this study prove empirically that a relationship exists among EL, COB, and JI in nurses. This study contributes to the related literature, enhances the knowledge of hospital and nursing administrators with regard to EL and COB, and offers a reference for hospital managers who are responsible for designing and executing multidisciplinary programs and for managing hospital-based human resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21869999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21869999"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon nanowires.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng</p> <p>2011-10-05</p> <p>In this mini-review, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures-single crystalline <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires. The growth of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion batteries, gas sensors and drug delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040878','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040878"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> material neutron detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Diawara, Yacouba [Oak Ridge, TN; Kocsis, Menyhert [Venon, FR</p> <p>2012-04-10</p> <p>A neutron detector employs a <span class="hlt">porous</span> material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the <span class="hlt">porous</span> material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the <span class="hlt">porous</span> material layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3236246','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3236246"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Silicon Nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires. The growth of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104339&keyword=fluid+AND+mechanics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78809178&CFTOKEN=29331421','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104339&keyword=fluid+AND+mechanics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78809178&CFTOKEN=29331421"><span>FLUID TRANSPORT THROUGH <span class="hlt">POROUS</span> MEDIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fluid transport through <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is a relevant topic to many scientific and engineering fields. Soil scientists, civil engineers, hydrologists and hydrogeologists are concerned with the transport of water, gases and nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants through <span class="hlt">porous</span> earth m...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104339&keyword=understanding+AND+physics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104339&keyword=understanding+AND+physics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>FLUID TRANSPORT THROUGH <span class="hlt">POROUS</span> MEDIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fluid transport through <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is a relevant topic to many scientific and engineering fields. Soil scientists, civil engineers, hydrologists and hydrogeologists are concerned with the transport of water, gases and nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants through <span class="hlt">porous</span> earth m...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1289998','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1289998"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> block nanofiber composite filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold</p> <p>2016-08-09</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary <span class="hlt">porous</span> block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a <span class="hlt">porous</span> block (100) having one or more pores (200). The <span class="hlt">porous</span> block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910000511&hterms=solid+state+microwave&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsolid%2Bstate%2Bmicrowave','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910000511&hterms=solid+state+microwave&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsolid%2Bstate%2Bmicrowave"><span>Chemically Layered <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koontz, Steve</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Aerogels and other <span class="hlt">porous</span> solids in which surfaces of pores have chemical properties varying with depth below macroscopic surfaces prepared by sequences of chemical treatments. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> glass or silica bead treated to make two depth zones having different chemical properties. Beads dropped along tube filled with flowing gas containing atomic oxygen, generated in microwave discharge. General class of materials treatable include oxides of aluminum, silicon, zirconium, tin, titanium, and nickel, and mixtures of these oxides. Potential uses of treated materials include chromatographic separations, membrane separations, controlled releases of chemicals, and catalysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416137','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416137"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon gettering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a <span class="hlt">porous</span>-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use <span class="hlt">porous</span>-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=determinants+AND+poverty&pg=3&id=EJ1016713','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=determinants+AND+poverty&pg=3&id=EJ1016713"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Socio-Economic Status on Parental <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Turkish Primary Schools: Perspective of Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Gumus, Sedat</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This exploratory qualitative study investigates the effects of socio-economic status on parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in public primary schools in Turkey. The study aims to examine how teachers in these schools present the scope of current parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, to what factors teachers ascribe the barriers to parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, and whether teachers'…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+high+AND+involvement&pg=5&id=ED547953','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+high+AND+involvement&pg=5&id=ED547953"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of African American Parents on Students' Achievement in a Middle School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lopez, Raquel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This applied dissertation was designed to provide better understanding of issues related to parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> to school officials and scholars. The parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> at the school was very low and academic achievement was also low. The school leaders were requested to increase parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and the School Improvement Plan specified…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23651639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23651639"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> rape among college women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4067891','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4067891"><span>Exploring perceived barriers, drivers, <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and the need for evaluation of public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in health and social care research: a modified Delphi study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Snape, D; Kirkham, J; Britten, N; Froggatt, K; Gradinger, F; Lobban, F; Popay, Jennie; Wyatt, K; Jacoby, Ann</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective To explore areas of consensus and conflict in relation to perceived public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (PI) barriers and drivers, perceived <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of PI and ways of evaluating PI approaches in health and social care research. Background Internationally and within the UK the recognition of potential benefits of PI in health and social care research is gathering momentum and PI is increasingly identified by organisations as a prerequisite for funding. However, there is relatively little examination of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of PI and how those <span class="hlt">impacts</span> might be measured. Design Mixed method, three-phase, modified Delphi technique, conducted as part of a larger MRC multiphase project. Sample Clinical and non-clinical academics, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and funders. Findings This study found high levels of consensus about the most important barriers and drivers to PI. There was acknowledgement that tokenism was common in relation to PI; and strong support for the view that demonstrating the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and value of PI was made more difficult by tokenistic practice. PI was seen as having intrinsic value; nonetheless, there was clear support for the importance of evaluating its <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Research team cohesion and appropriate resources were considered essential to effective PI implementation. Panellists agreed that PI can be challenging, but can be facilitated by clear guidance, together with models of good practice and measurable standards. Conclusions This study is the first to present empirical evidence of the opinions voiced by key stakeholders on areas of consensus and conflict in relation to perceived PI barriers and drivers, perceived <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of PI and the need to evaluate PI. As such it further contributes to debate around best practice in PI, the potential for tokenism and how best to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of PI. These findings have been used in the development of the Public <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment Framework (PiiAF), an online resource which offers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=career+AND+choice+AND+personality&pg=7&id=ED513677','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=career+AND+choice+AND+personality&pg=7&id=ED513677"><span>An Investigation of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Student Government <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> at One Public Historically Black University on the Career Choice of African American Student Participants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Laosebikan-Buggs, Morolake O.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate student participation in collegiate student governance, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of that <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and its influence on career choice for African-American participants, and to enlighten educators about role and value of collegiate student government participation. If participation in student government and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cbt+AND+ptsd&pg=2&id=EJ812518','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cbt+AND+ptsd&pg=2&id=EJ812518"><span>Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Social Support in Female Victims of Sexual Assault: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Spousal <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on the Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Billette, Valerie; Guay, Stephane; Marchand, Andre</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this study is to enhance the efficacy of CBT with victims of sexual assault suffering from PTSD by getting the spouse <span class="hlt">involved</span>. Thus, in addition to attempting to reduce PTSD symptoms, the therapy focuses on improving the support offered by the spouse and favors management of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the traumatic event within the couple. A…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=neubauer&pg=3&id=EJ658551','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=neubauer&pg=3&id=EJ658551"><span>The eClassroom used as a Teacher's Training Laboratory to Measure the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Group Facilitation on Attending, Participation, Interaction, and <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lobel, Mia; Swedburg, Randy; Neubauer, Mike</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Data from the log files of a synchronous, online classroom designed for experiential learning focused on interpersonal communication were analyzed to determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of effective group facilitation on attentiveness, interaction, <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, and participation. The data demonstrate a social network of interactions and suggest that people…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......180B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......180B"><span>Processing and properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> nickel titanium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bansiddhi, Ampika</p> <p></p> <p>Increasing interest in long-life bone implants with reduced mechanical properties reducing the stress-shielding effect and a structure mimicking bone <span class="hlt">porous</span> architecture has encouraged study and development of fabrication methods for <span class="hlt">porous</span> NiTi. The main objective of this work was to advance these goals by developing new processing procedures for <span class="hlt">porous</span> NiTi that offer the following advances over existing technology: (i) controllable pore characteristics (porosity, pore size/shape, connectivity) to stimulate and accommodate a high level of bone ingrowth; (ii) mechanical properties (yield strength, stiffness, recovery strain) matching those of bone, to minimize stress-shielding effects; (iii) dense metal struts and walls, to prevent crack initiation and increase ductility; (iv) simplicity and low cost of production; and (v) capability for either shape-memory or superelasticity. A new strategy to fabricate <span class="hlt">porous</span> NiTi with the above characteristics is presented. This strategy is based on densification by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of a mixture of pre-alloyed NiTi powders and salt space holders, followed by removal of the salt. Using this strategy, the porosity of the NiTi is controllable by varying the volume fraction of the salt, and the pore size and shape can be tailored in accordance with the geometry of the salt used. The effects of using different space holders, i.e. sodium fluoride (NaF) and sodium chloride (NaCl), on the final <span class="hlt">porous</span> product are examined. The influence of HIP temperature and further post-HIP sintering on foam properties is also presented. The high cost associated with HIP processing drove subsequent work towards new strategies to simplify <span class="hlt">porous</span> NiTi synthesis while maintaining high-quality microstructures and mechanical properties. The strategy followed here <span class="hlt">involves</span> combining the NaCl space holder technique with in situ transient liquid phase sintering of pre-alloyed NiTi and Nb powders, thereby integrating the densification of Ni</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6370269','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6370269"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> metallic bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Landingham, R.L.</p> <p>1984-03-13</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950065537&hterms=zinc+air+battery&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dzinc%2Bair%2Bbattery','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950065537&hterms=zinc+air+battery&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dzinc%2Bair%2Bbattery"><span>Hydrophobic, <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Battery Boxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Boxes made of <span class="hlt">porous</span>, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985NIMPB...9..317E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985NIMPB...9..317E"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Earwaker, L. G.; Farr, J. P. G.; Grzeszczyk, P. E.; Sturland, I.; Keen, J. M.</p> <p>1985-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon, suitable after oxidation for dielectric isolation, has been produced successfully by anodizing silicon in strong HF. The oxidized layer has been shown to have promise in device manufacture, providing high packing densities and radiation hardness. Anodizing has been carried out using both single and double cells, following the effects of current density. HF concentration and silicon resistivity. The resultant <span class="hlt">porous</span> layers have been characterised with respect to composition and structure. The materials produced differ considerably in lattice strain, composition and reactivities. Prompt radiation analyses 19F(p,αγ), 16O(d,α), 12C(d,p), are useful for monitoring the anodizing procedures and subsequent oxidation: currently, interest centres on the mechanistic information obtained. RBS analysis using α-particles gives a much lower Si response from <span class="hlt">porous</span> than from bulk silicon. Glancing angle proton recoil analyses reveal considerable quantities of hydrogen in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> layers. These mutually consistent findings have considerable mechanistic significance; extensive Si-H bonding occurs following a 2 equivalent Faradaic process.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013prpl.conf2S045K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013prpl.conf2S045K"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> dust grains in circumstellar disks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kirchschlager, Florian; Wolf, Sebastian</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">porous</span> dust grains on the structure and observable appearance of circumstellar disks (Kirchschlager & Wolf 2013). Our study is motivated by observations and laboratory studies which indicate that dust grains in various astrophysical environments are <span class="hlt">porous</span>. In addition, the modeling of the spatial structure and grain size distribution of debris disks reveals that under the assumption of spherical compact grains the resulting minimum grain size is often significantly larger than the blowout size, which might be a hint for porosity. Using the discrete dipole approximation, we compute the optical properties of spherical, <span class="hlt">porous</span> grains (Draine & Flatau 1994, 2010). Subsequently, we calculate the blowout sizes for various debris disk systems and grain porosities. We find that the blowout size increases with particle porosity and stellar temperature. In addition, the lower dust equilibrium temperature of <span class="hlt">porous</span> particles results in a shift of the maximum of the thermal reemission of debris disks towards longer wavelengths. For our studies of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dust grain porosity in protoplanetary disks we use the radiative transfer software MC3D, which is based on the Monte-Carlo method and solves the radiative transfer problem self-consistently (Wolf et al. 1999, Wolf 2003). We find that the spectral energy distribution of protoplanetary disks shows significant differences between the cases of <span class="hlt">porous</span> and compact grains. In particular, the flux in the optical wavelength range is increased for <span class="hlt">porous</span> grains. Furthermore, the silicate peak at ~9.8 microns exhibits a strong dependence on the degree of grain porosity. We also investigate the temperature distribution in the disk. In the midplane no influence of porosity is detectable, but in the vertical direction minor changes of a few Kelvin are found. To complete our study we outline the differences between the two grain types in maps of the linear polarization. We detect a polarization reversal in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/757583','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/757583"><span>A rigid <span class="hlt">porous</span> filter and filtration method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>The present invention <span class="hlt">involves</span> a <span class="hlt">porous</span> rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also <span class="hlt">involves</span> a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further <span class="hlt">involves</span> a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/23858','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/23858"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of diseases and other disturbances on non-timber forest resources: A case study <span class="hlt">involving</span> small mammals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>John. E. Lundquist; James. P. Jr. Ward</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Part of the diversity of a forest is the variety of agents that can kill trees. These agents differ in the nature, magnitude, and patterns of their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on forest resources. Diseases, insect pests, and other small-scale disturbances are commonly assessed on the basis of their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on timber production. Tree mortality usually means reduced volume of living stems....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5513516','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5513516"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Silicon—A Versatile Host Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Granitzer, Petra; Rumpf, Klemens</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This work reviews the use of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon (PS) as a nanomaterial which is extensively investigated and utilized for various applications, e.g., in the fields of optics, sensor technology and biomedicine. Furthermore the combination of PS with one or more materials which are also nanostructured due to their deposition within the <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix is discussed. Such nanocompounds offer a broad avenue of new and interesting properties depending on the kind of <span class="hlt">involved</span> materials as well as on their morphology. The filling of the pores performed by electroless or electrochemical deposition is described, whereas different morphologies, reaching from micro- to macro pores are utilized as host material which can be self-organized or fabricated by prestructuring. For metal-deposition within the <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures, both ferromagnetic and non-magnetic metals are used. Emphasis will be put on self-arranged mesoporous silicon, offering a quasi-regular pore arrangement, employed as template for filling with ferromagnetic metals. By varying the deposition parameters the precipitation of the metal structures within the pores can be tuned in geometry and spatial distribution leading to samples with desired magnetic properties. The correlation between morphology and magnetic behaviour of such semiconducting/magnetic systems will be determined. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon and its combination with a variety of filling materials leads to nanocomposites with specific physical properties caused by the nanometric size and give rise to a multiplicity of potential applications in spintronics, magnetic and magneto-optic devices, nutritional food additives as well as drug delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1092708.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1092708.pdf"><span>Predictors of Parent <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> and Their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Access of Postsecondary Education Facilitators among White and American Indian Parents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bardhoshi, Gerta; Duncan, Kelly; Schweinle, Amy</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study examined demographic factors as predictors of parent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (engagement with school, support of learning, support of child) among parents of children that attended a school implementing a college access program. The authors also examined whether <span class="hlt">involvement</span> predicted access of postsecondary education facilitators in parents, when…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=professional+AND+learning+AND+communities&pg=5&id=ED557858','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=professional+AND+learning+AND+communities&pg=5&id=ED557858"><span>Beginning High School Teachers' Perceptions of <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Professional Learning Communities and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Teacher Retention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lovett, Helen Tomlinson</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine beginning high school teachers' perceptions of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in Professional Learning Communities in southeastern North Carolina and to determine whether beginning teachers' perceptions of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in Professional Learning Communities influenced their decisions to move to another location, stay in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNS33A..03I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNS33A..03I"><span>In situ imaging of biofilm within opaque <span class="hlt">porous</span> media (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iltis, G.; Davit, Y.; Wood, B. D.; Wildenschild, D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Microbial biofilms are observed in both natural and engineered subsurface environments and can dramatically alter the physical properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Current understanding of biofilm formation and the associated <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to structural and hydrodynamic properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media are limited by our ability to observe changes to pore morphology in situ. Imaging biofilm within opaque <span class="hlt">porous</span> media has historically presented a significant challenge. Synchrotron-based x-ray computed microtomography has been a long standing tool for the non-destructive imaging of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media; however, traditional contrast agents used in tomography research diffuse readily into both the aqueous phase as well as the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media associated biofilm, thereby preventing easy delineation of the two phases. Two new methods for imaging biofilm within <span class="hlt">porous</span> media using x-ray microtomography will be presented. The first method utilizes silver-coated glass microspheres as a surface attached contrast agent for delineating the biofilm-aqueous phase interface within <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. The second method introduces a barium sulfate suspension to the aqueous phase which is excluded from the biofilm matrix. The use of these contrast agents allow for direct segmentation of the solid, biofilm and aqueous phases. Imaging results using both of these methods will be presented along with the respective advantages and limitations. Quantitative analysis of biofilm formation and changes to macropore morphology will be presented, along with potential applications for these methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhDT........23Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhDT........23Z"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> bioactive materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Kai</p> <p></p> <p>Bioactive materials chemically bond to tissues through the development of biologically active apatite. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> structures in biomaterials are designed to enhance bioactivity, grow artificial tissues and achieve better integration with host tissues in the body. The goal of this research is to design, fabricate and characterize novel <span class="hlt">porous</span> bioactive materials. 3D ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, pore size: 200--1000 nm) were prepared using a sol-gel process and colloidal crystal templates. 3DOM-BGs are more bioactive and degradable than mesoporous (pore size <50 nm) sol-gel BGs in simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation and 3DOM-BG degradation rates increased with the decrease of soaking ratio. Apatite induction time in SBF increased with 3DOM-BG calcination temperature (600--800°C). Apatite formation and 3DOMBG degradation were slightly enhanced for a phosphate containing composition. Large 3DOM-BG particles formed less apatite and degraded less completely as compared with small particles. An increase in macropore size slowed down 3DOM-BG degradation and apatite formation processes. After heating the converted apatite at a temperature higher than 700°C, highly crystalline hydroxyapatite and a minor tri-calcium phosphate phase formed. 3DOM-BGs have potential applications as bone/periodontal fillers, and drugs and biological factors delivery agents. Anchoring artificial soft tissues (e.g., cartilage) to native bone presents a challenge. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> polymer/bioactive glass composites are candidate materials for engineering artificial soft tissue/bone interfaces. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> composites consisting of polymer matrices (e.g., polysulfone, polylactide, and polyurethane) and bioactive glass particles were prepared by polymer phase separation techniques adapted to include ceramic particles. Composites (thickness: 200--500 mum) have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures beneath. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> structures consist of large pores (>100 mum) in a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28155033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28155033"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Criminal Justice <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> and Housing Outcomes Among Homeless Persons with Co-occurring Disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Jessica N; Clark, Colleen; Guenther, Christina C</p> <p>2017-02-02</p> <p>The relationship between criminal justice <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and housing among homeless persons with co-occurring disorders was examined. Program participants assisted in moving to stable housing were interviewed at baseline, six months, and discharge. Those who remained homeless at follow-up and discharge had significantly more time in jail in the past month than those who were housed. However, criminal justice <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was not significantly related to housing status at the six month follow-up or discharge. Findings suggest that housing people with complex behavioral health issues reduces the likelihood of further criminal justice <span class="hlt">involvement</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..107...65B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..107...65B"><span>An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann model for biofilm growth in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benioug, M.; Golfier, F.; Oltéan, C.; Buès, M. A.; Bahar, T.; Cuny, J.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a two-dimensional pore-scale numerical model to investigate the main mechanisms governing biofilm growth in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. The fluid flow and solute transport equations are coupled with a biofilm evolution model. Fluid flow is simulated with an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann model while solute transport is described with a volume-of-fluid-type approach. A cellular automaton algorithm combined with immersed boundary methods was developed to describe the spreading and distribution of biomass. Bacterial attachment and detachment mechanisms are also taken into account. The capability of this model to describe correctly the couplings <span class="hlt">involved</span> between fluid circulation, nutrient transport and bacterial growth is tested under different hydrostatic and hydrodynamic conditions (i) on a flat medium and (ii) for a complex <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. For the second case, different regimes of biofilm growth are identified and are found to be related to the dimensionless parameters of the model, Damköhler and Péclet numbers and dimensionless shear stress. Finally, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of biofilm growth on the macroscopic properties of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium is investigated and we discuss the unicity of the relationships between hydraulic conductivity and biofilm volume fraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27352035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27352035"><span>Exploring the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of factors contributing to tram-<span class="hlt">involved</span> serious injury crashes on Melbourne tram routes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Previous research is limited regarding factors influencing tram-<span class="hlt">involved</span> serious injury crashes. The aim of this study is to identify key vehicle, road, environment and driver related factors associated with tram-<span class="hlt">involved</span> serious injury crashes. Using a binary logistic regression modelling approach, the following factors were identified to be significant in influencing tram-<span class="hlt">involved</span> fatal crashes in Melbourne: tram floor height, tram age, season, traffic volume, tram lane priority and tram travel speed. Low floor trams, older trams, tram priority lanes and higher tram travelling speeds are more likely to increase tram-<span class="hlt">involved</span> fatal crashes. Higher traffic volume decreases the likelihood of serious crashes. Fatal crashes are more likely to occur during spring and summer. Findings from this study may offer ideas for future research in the area of tram safety and help to develop countermeasures to prevent specific fatality types from occurring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhD...47L5103K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhD...47L5103K"><span>Luminescent <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon prepared by reactive ion etching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karbassian, Farshid; Rajabali, Shima; Chimeh, Abbas; Mohajerzadeh, Shams; Asl-Soleimani, Ebrahim</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Realization of luminescent <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon structures by a sequential reactive ion etching is reported. The process is composed of one etching and two passivation subsequences. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of substrate resistivity, plasma power and the duration of the etching subsequence on the porosity and thickness of the fabricated <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon layer are investigated, as are the roles of two passivation subsequences. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon layer shows stable photoluminescence in the blue portion of the spectrum. Luminescence stability is due to the stable passivating oxyfluoride layer formed in the two passivation subsequences. Formation of the stable passivating layer is due to the controlled oxidation of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon surface and the passivation of the dangling bonds in the fluorination subsequence. Since the fabrication process is performed at room temperature, it can be used as a post-fabrication treatment to integrate light-emitting structures with microelectronic circuits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5510170','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5510170"><span>Graded/Gradient <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Biomaterials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miao, Xigeng; Sun, Dan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">porous</span> biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on <span class="hlt">porous</span> parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly <span class="hlt">porous</span> biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, <span class="hlt">porous</span> biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient <span class="hlt">porous</span> biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous <span class="hlt">porous</span> biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient <span class="hlt">porous</span> biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient <span class="hlt">porous</span> biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous <span class="hlt">porous</span> biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient <span class="hlt">porous</span> biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/927603','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/927603"><span>SRNL <span class="hlt">POROUS</span> WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R</p> <p>2008-04-15</p> <p>The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This <span class="hlt">involves</span> fabrication of thin, <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is <span class="hlt">involved</span> in about a half dozen different programs <span class="hlt">involving</span> these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7008502','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7008502"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> electrode preparation method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.</p> <p>1983-10-18</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">porous</span> sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864745','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864745"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> electrode preparation method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Arons, Richard M.; Dusek, Joseph T.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">porous</span> sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100011118','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100011118"><span>Strong, Lightweight, <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leventis, Nicholas; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Johnston, James C.; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Ilhan, Ulvi</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A new class of strong, lightweight, <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials has been invented as an outgrowth of an effort to develop reinforced silica aerogels. The new material, called X-Aerogel is less hygroscopic, but no less <span class="hlt">porous</span> and of similar density to the corresponding unmodified aerogels. However, the property that sets X-Aerogels apart is their mechanical strength, which can be as much as two and a half orders of magnitude stronger that the unmodified aerogels. X-Aerogels are envisioned to be useful for making extremely lightweight, thermally insulating, structural components, but they may also have applications as electrical insulators, components of laminates, catalyst supports, templates for electrode materials, fuel-cell components, and filter membranes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874843','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874843"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> polymer media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Shepodd, Timothy J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Highly crosslinked monolithic <span class="hlt">porous</span> polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a <span class="hlt">porous</span> polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4418838','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4418838"><span>Use of Recommended Search Strategies in Systematic Reviews and the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Librarian <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Recent Authors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koffel, Jonathan B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous research looking at published systematic reviews has shown that their search strategies are often suboptimal and that librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, though recommended, is low. Confidence in the results, however, is limited due to poor reporting of search strategies the published articles. Objectives To more accurately measure the use of recommended search methods in systematic reviews, the levels of librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, and whether librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span> predicts the use of recommended methods. Methods A survey was sent to all authors of English-language systematic reviews indexed in the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) from January 2012 through January 2014. The survey asked about their use of search methods recommended by the Institute of Medicine, Cochrane Collaboration, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and if and how a librarian was <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the systematic review. Rates of use of recommended methods and librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span> were summarized. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on use of recommended methods was examined using a multivariate logistic regression. Results 1560 authors completed the survey. Use of recommended search methods ranged widely from 98% for use of keywords to 9% for registration in PROSPERO and were generally higher than in previous studies. 51% of studies <span class="hlt">involved</span> a librarian, but only 64% acknowledge their assistance. Librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was significantly associated with the use of 65% of recommended search methods after controlling for other potential predictors. Odds ratios ranged from 1.36 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.75) for including multiple languages to 3.07 (95% CI 2.06 to 4.58) for using controlled vocabulary. Conclusions Use of recommended search strategies is higher than previously reported, but many methods are still under-utilized. Librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span> predicts the use of most methods, but their <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is under-reported within the published article. PMID:25938454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25938454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25938454"><span>Use of recommended search strategies in systematic reviews and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span>: a cross-sectional survey of recent authors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koffel, Jonathan B</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous research looking at published systematic reviews has shown that their search strategies are often suboptimal and that librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, though recommended, is low. Confidence in the results, however, is limited due to poor reporting of search strategies the published articles. To more accurately measure the use of recommended search methods in systematic reviews, the levels of librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, and whether librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span> predicts the use of recommended methods. A survey was sent to all authors of English-language systematic reviews indexed in the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) from January 2012 through January 2014. The survey asked about their use of search methods recommended by the Institute of Medicine, Cochrane Collaboration, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and if and how a librarian was <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the systematic review. Rates of use of recommended methods and librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span> were summarized. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on use of recommended methods was examined using a multivariate logistic regression. 1560 authors completed the survey. Use of recommended search methods ranged widely from 98% for use of keywords to 9% for registration in PROSPERO and were generally higher than in previous studies. 51% of studies <span class="hlt">involved</span> a librarian, but only 64% acknowledge their assistance. Librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was significantly associated with the use of 65% of recommended search methods after controlling for other potential predictors. Odds ratios ranged from 1.36 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.75) for including multiple languages to 3.07 (95% CI 2.06 to 4.58) for using controlled vocabulary. Use of recommended search strategies is higher than previously reported, but many methods are still under-utilized. Librarian <span class="hlt">involvement</span> predicts the use of most methods, but their <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is under-reported within the published article.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5448587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5448587"><span>Electrochemically Formed <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Silica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chazalviel, Jean-Noël; Ozanam, François</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Controlled electrochemical formation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica can be realized in dilute aqueous, neutral-pH, fluoride medium. Formation of a <span class="hlt">porous</span> film is initiated by sweeping the potential applied to silicon to values higher than 20 V. Film formation, reaching a steady state, may be pursued in a wide range of potentials, including lower potentials. The origin of a threshold potential for <span class="hlt">porous</span> film initiation has been explained quantitatively. All of the films appear mesoporous. Films grown at high potentials exhibit a variety of macrostructures superimposed on the mesoporosity. These macrostructures result from selective dissolution of silica induced by local pH lowering due to oxygen evolution. Films grown at potentials lower than 15 V appear uniform on the micrometer scale. However, all of the films also exhibit a stratified structure on the scale of a few tens of nanometres. This periodic structure can be traced back to the oscillatory behavior observed during the electrochemical dissolution of silicon in fluoride medium. It suggests that periodic breaking of the growing film may be responsible for this morphology. PMID:28879953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207673"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of practical support on parental bereavement: Reflections from a study <span class="hlt">involving</span> parents bereaved through military death.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rolls, Liz; Harper, Mairi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article, drawing on data from a wider study, describes the <span class="hlt">impact</span> that U.K. bereaved military parents ascribe to the practical support (help with home and garden maintenance) that they received following the death of their son. The type of practical support offered to parents has had a wide-ranging and significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on them. In addition to helping them find meaning and maintain continuing bonds, this form of support contributed to their capacity to engage in restoration-focused coping. As a symbolic resource, this type of practical support may be a significant moderator of distress in the psychosocial transition of bereavement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667637"><span>Complications after Total <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Implant Ear Reconstruction and Their Management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lewin, Sheryl</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Microtia reconstruction using <span class="hlt">porous</span> polyethylene implants has become an established alternative to autologous costal cartilage techniques. Few surgeons are trained in <span class="hlt">porous</span> implant ear reconstruction (PIER), leading to a relative lack of understanding of the nuances of this type of surgery. The risks of exposure, infection, and fracture of the implant have further discouraged surgeons from performing PIERs. Meticulous technique and proper management of complications are critical to the success of surgeries <span class="hlt">involving</span> <span class="hlt">porous</span> implants (Medpor, Su-Por). There are a limited number of articles in the literature that report the management of complications of <span class="hlt">porous</span> implant auricular reconstruction. The purpose of this work is to present a comprehensive review of the management of complications with PIER based on over 10 years of experience with this surgical technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/377002','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/377002"><span>Determination of the heat transfer coefficients in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, L.V.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>The process of transpiration cooling is considered. Methods are suggested for estimating the volumetric coefficient of heat transfer with the use of a two-temperature model and the surface heat transfer coefficient at entry into a <span class="hlt">porous</span> wall. The development of new technology under conditions of increasing heat loads puts the search for effective methods of heat transfer enhancement in the forefront of theoretical investigations. One of the promising trends in the solution of this problem is the use of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials (PM) in the elements of power units. For thermal protection against convective or radiative heat fluxes, the method of transpiration cooling is successfully used. The mechanism operative in the thermal protection <span class="hlt">involves</span> the injection of a coolant through a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium to produce a screen over the contour of a body in a flow for removing heat energy from the skeleton of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Treatment+AND+modalities&pg=2&id=EJ842258','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Treatment+AND+modalities&pg=2&id=EJ842258"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Residential and Nonresidential Drug Treatment on Recidivism among Drug-<span class="hlt">Involved</span> Probationers: A Survival Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krebs, Christopher P.; Strom, Kevin J.; Koetse, Willem H.; Lattimore, Pamela K.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A variety of approaches for addressing drug use and drug-related crime among the nearly 5 million offenders on community supervision in the United States has been tried and evaluated, but questions remain about which policies or programs are most effective. The authors use a large data set to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of residential and nonresidential…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+impact+AND+environment&pg=4&id=EJ1051177','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+impact+AND+environment&pg=4&id=EJ1051177"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Self-Concept and College <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on the First-Year Success of Medical Students in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college <span class="hlt">impact</span> with a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+concept&pg=6&id=EJ1051177','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+concept&pg=6&id=EJ1051177"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Self-Concept and College <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on the First-Year Success of Medical Students in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college <span class="hlt">impact</span> with a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kelly+AND+2005&pg=7&id=EJ780334','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kelly+AND+2005&pg=7&id=EJ780334"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Partner Training on the Communicative <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of Students with Multiple and Severe Disability in Special Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Foreman, Phil; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Pascoe, Sue</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background: The outcomes of a pilot program of staff development in communication support in the context of observed changes in student behaviour states and interactive abilities are reported. Participant reports about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the program on their professional practices are included. Method: Six teachers and six teacher aides in special…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=msds&pg=2&id=EJ780334','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=msds&pg=2&id=EJ780334"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Partner Training on the Communicative <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of Students with Multiple and Severe Disability in Special Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Foreman, Phil; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Pascoe, Sue</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background: The outcomes of a pilot program of staff development in communication support in the context of observed changes in student behaviour states and interactive abilities are reported. Participant reports about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the program on their professional practices are included. Method: Six teachers and six teacher aides in special…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reading+AND+writing+AND+children&pg=2&id=EJ888222','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reading+AND+writing+AND+children&pg=2&id=EJ888222"><span><span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of Parents in the Education of Children with Reading and Writing Difficulties--<span class="hlt">Impact</span> of an Intervention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Manjula, P.; Saraswathi, G.; Prakash, P.; Ashalatha, K. V.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>To know the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of intervention on the parents' participation in the education of children with reading and writing difficulties was studied in schools of Dharwad city. children studying in 6th standard were drawn from 14 schools. Total samples of 418 children were screened based on the child's previous academic performance of the class tests…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5687531','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5687531"><span>Factors <span class="hlt">involved</span> in evaluating ground water <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of deep coal mine drainage. [Pumping tests of wells drilled into the coal seam and development of mathematical models; detailed discussion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Davis, P.R.; Walton, W.C.</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>The determination of probable ground water <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of proposed deep coal mining is required as part of permit applications. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> prediction generally <span class="hlt">involves</span> well production test analysis and modeling of ground water systems associated with coal seams. Well production tests are often complicated due to the relatively low permeabilities of sandstones and shales of ground water systems. The effects of the release of water stored within finite diameter production wells must be considered. Well storage capacity appreciably affects early well production test time drawdown or time recovery data. Low pumping rates, limited cones of depression, and length of required pumping periods are important well production test design factors. Coal seam ground water system models are usually multilayered and leaky artesian. Mine shafts partially penetrate the ground water system. Simulation of coal mine drainage often <span class="hlt">involves</span> the horizontal permeability and storage coefficient of the coal seam zone, vertical permeablities of sandstones and shales (aquifer) above and below the coal seam zone, and the hydrologic properties of the source bed above the aquifer overlying the coal seam zone. Ground water level declines in both the coal seam zone and source bed near land surface are necessary factors in <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis. An example of evaluation studies in southwest Indiana will illustrate factors <span class="hlt">involved</span> in deep coal mine drainage modeling efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3600995','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3600995"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> microsphere and its applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cai, Yunpeng; Chen, Yinghui; Hong, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> microspheres have drawn great attention in the last two decades for their potential applications in many fields, such as carriers for drugs, absorption and desorption of substances, pulmonary drug delivery, and tissue regeneration. The application of <span class="hlt">porous</span> microspheres has become a feasible way to address existing problems. In this essay, we give a brief introduction of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> microsphere, its characteristics, preparation methods, applications, and a brief summary of existing problems and research tendencies. PMID:23515359</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28691065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28691065"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Molecular Solids and Liquids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cooper, Andrew I</p> <p>2017-06-28</p> <p>Until recently, <span class="hlt">porous</span> molecular solids were isolated curiosities with properties that were eclipsed by <span class="hlt">porous</span> frameworks, such as metal-organic frameworks. Now molecules have emerged as a functional materials platform that can have high levels of porosity, good chemical stability, and, uniquely, solution processability. The lack of intermolecular bonding in these materials has also led to new, counterintuitive states of matter, such as <span class="hlt">porous</span> liquids. Our ability to design these materials has improved significantly due to advances in computational prediction methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA164883','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA164883"><span>Dynamic Compaction of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Beds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-12-26</p> <p>NSWVC TR 83-246 00 00 SDYNAMIC COMPACTION OF <span class="hlt">POROUS</span> B3EDS BY H. W. SANDUSKY T. P. LIDDIARD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT D I 26 DECEMBER 1985...RIOBA4313 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication3 Dynamic Compaction of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Beds 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Sandusky, H. W., and Liddiard, T. P. 13a... <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Bed Compaction Wave Velocity Oeflaaration-to-Detonation Transition Particle Velocity ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADD018882','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADD018882"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Materials by Powder Metallurgy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-04-30</p> <p>generally determine porosity and pore size of the resulting <span class="hlt">porous</span> material. The beads can be microballoons, which are hollow inside, or they can be...proved jYi- --*;V--, - one QUALITY INSPECTED 0 Applicant: Everett Patent Application Serial Number: Navy Case Number: 78,529 5 <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Materials...By Powder Metallurgy Background of Invention Field of Invention: This invention pertains to <span class="hlt">porous</span> material fabrication by controlling pore size</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011487','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011487"><span>Selective formation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fathauer, Jones (Inventor)</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A pattern of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon is produced in the surface of a silicon substrate by forming a pattern of crystal defects in said surface, preferably by applying an ion milling beam through openings in a photoresist layer to the surface, and then exposing said surface to a stain etchant, such as HF:HNO3:H20. The defected crystal will preferentially etch to form a pattern of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon. When the amorphous content of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon exceeds 70 percent, the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon pattern emits visible light at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960009264','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960009264"><span>Selective formation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A pattern of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon is produced in the surface of a silicon substrate by forming a pattern of crystal defects in said surface, preferably by applying an ion milling beam through openings in a photoresist layer to the surface, and then exposing said surface to a stain etchant, such as HF:HNO3:H2O. The defected crystal will preferentially etch to form a pattern of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon. When the amorphous content of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon exceeds 70 percent, the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon pattern emits visible light at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diabetes&pg=3&id=EJ1028945','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diabetes&pg=3&id=EJ1028945"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme <span class="hlt">Involving</span> Health Education for Children and the Community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme <span class="hlt">involving</span> health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=diabetes&pg=3&id=EJ1028945','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=diabetes&pg=3&id=EJ1028945"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme <span class="hlt">Involving</span> Health Education for Children and the Community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme <span class="hlt">involving</span> health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=environment+AND+impact+AND+assessment&pg=7&id=EJ1032408','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=environment+AND+impact+AND+assessment&pg=7&id=EJ1032408"><span>Policy and the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Placement, <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>, and Progress in General Education: Critical Issues That Require Rectification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ryndak, Diane Lea; Taub, Debbie; Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Arndt, Katrina; Sauer, Janet; Ruppar, Andrea L.; Morningstar, Mary E.; Allcock, Heather</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Students with significant disabilities continue to be among the most segregated in schools. In this article, we argue that the principles of least restrictive environment and <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and progress in the general curriculum have been interpreted in ways that perpetuate segregation, rather than increasing students' access to meaningful curriculum…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED116298.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED116298.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Principal <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in Instructional Planning with Teacher Teams on Academic Achievement of Elemetary School Pupils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moody, Lamar; Amos, Neil G.</p> <p></p> <p>Elementary students recorded large gains in academic achievement in the two years their school was <span class="hlt">involved</span> in an intensive instructional improvement project that employed team teaching, flexible scheduling, open classrooms, and individualized instruction. A study was done to determine if the achievement gains would continue through a third year…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1113021.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1113021.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of High School Extracurricular <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on the Postsecondary Outcomes of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Youth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schoffstall, Sarah; Cawthon, Stephanie; Dickson, Duncan; Bond, Mark; Ocuto, Oscar; Ge, Jinjin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Involvement</span> in extracurricular activities provides youth with opportunities to develop important personal skills, abilities, and preferences, and to build meaningful social support networks. Historically, students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) have had limited access to opportunities for both academic and occupational development,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28147451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28147451"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Alexander technique on well-being: a randomised controlled trial <span class="hlt">involving</span> older adults with visual impairment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gleeson, Michael; Sherrington, Catherine; Lo, Serigne; Auld, Robin; Keay, Lisa</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Older adults with visual loss have high rates of depression, restricted participation and reduced quality of life. We sought to measure the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of lessons in the Alexander technique on vision-related emotional and social well-being, as secondary outcomes to a study on improving physical functioning in this population. This is a single-blind randomised controlled trial. One hundred and twenty community-dwelling adults aged 50 to 90 years with visual impairments were randomised to either 12 Alexander lessons over 12 weeks and usual care or usual care. The Perceived Visual Ability Scale, the Keele Assessment of Participation, the emotional subscale of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Vision Impairment Profile, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the five-item Geriatric Depression Scale were administered at baseline and three and 12 months. Participants were receiving services from Guide Dogs NSW/ACT. None of the validated questionnaires found statistically significant improvements after adjustment for baseline at three or 12 months, although the emotional subscale of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Vision Impairment approached significance in favour of the intervention group (4.54 points, 95 per cent CI: -0.14 to 9.21, p = 0.06). Depressive symptoms were prevalent and associated with greater <span class="hlt">impact</span> of visual impairment on emotional well-being (odds ratio: 1.12, 95 per cent CI: 1.07 to 1.17, p < 0.0001). Faster gait, an indicator of general mobility, was associated with less depressive symptoms (odds ratio: 1.27, 95 per cent CI: 1.06 to 1.54, p = 0.01). On average, there was no significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> of weekly lessons in the Alexander technique on social and emotional well-being, although the emotional <span class="hlt">impact</span> of visual impairment showed a trend toward less distress in the intervention group. Our data found that emotional distress associated with visual impairment influences depressive symptoms but contrary to expectations, the level of social support received was not significant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21607578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21607578"><span>Clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of cervical lymph node <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and central neck dissection in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 368 cases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bozec, Alexandre; Dassonville, Olivier; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Poissonnet, Gilles; Sudaka, Anne; Peyrottes, Isabelle; Ettore, Francette; Haudebourg, Juliette; Bussière, Françoise; Benisvy, Danielle; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Sadoul, Jean Louis; Hofman, Paul; Lassale, Sandra; Vallicioni, Jacques; Demard, François; Santini, José</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of cervical lymph node metastases and the optimal surgical management of the neck in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remain controversial. The objectives of this retrospective study were to determine, in patients with PTC, the predictive factors and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tumor recurrence rate of cervical lymph node <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, and to evaluate the oncologic results and the morbidity of central neck dissection (CND). We reviewed the records of patients who had undergone surgical treatment for PTC at our institution between 1990 and 2000. A total of 368 patients (86 men and 282 women) were included in this study. Young age (p = 0.02), tumor size (p = 0.001) and extrathyroidal tumor extension (p = 0.003) were significant predictive factors of cervical lymph node metastatic <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (multivariate analysis). Initial metastatic cervical lymph node <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was identified as an independent risk factor of tumor recurrence (multivariate analysis, p = 0.01). Metastatic lymph node(s) were found in prophylactic CND specimens in 31% of the patients. CND increased the risk of postoperative hypocalcemia (p = 0.008) and of permanent hypoparathyroidism (p = 0.002). In conclusion, cervical lymph node metastatic <span class="hlt">involvement</span> at the time of initial surgery is an independent risk factor of tumor recurrence. CND provided an up-staging of more than 30% of patients with a clinically N0 neck, but was associated with significant morbidity regarding parathyroid function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22122787','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22122787"><span>Amorphization and reduction of thermal conductivity in <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon by irradiation with swift heavy ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Newby, Pascal J.; Canut, Bruno; Bluet, Jean-Marie; Lysenko, Vladimir; Gomes, Severine; Isaiev, Mykola; Burbelo, Roman; Chantrenne, Patrice; Frechette, Luc G.</p> <p>2013-07-07</p> <p>In this article, we demonstrate that the thermal conductivity of nanostructured <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon is reduced by amorphization and also that this amorphous phase in <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon can be created by swift (high-energy) heavy ion irradiation. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon samples with 41%-75% porosity are irradiated with 110 MeV uranium ions at six different fluences. Structural characterisation by micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM imaging show that swift heavy ion irradiation causes the creation of an amorphous phase in <span class="hlt">porous</span> Si but without suppressing its <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure. We demonstrate that the amorphization of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon is caused by electronic-regime interactions, which is the first time such an effect is obtained in crystalline silicon with single-ion species. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the thermal conductivity of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon is studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning thermal microscopy. The creation of an amorphous phase in <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon leads to a reduction of its thermal conductivity, up to a factor of 3 compared to the non-irradiated sample. Therefore, this technique could be used to enhance the thermal insulation properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> Si. Finally, we show that this treatment can be combined with pre-oxidation at 300 Degree-Sign C, which is known to lower the thermal conductivity of <span class="hlt">porous</span> Si, in order to obtain an even greater reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24420638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24420638"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of reality therapy on self-efficacy for substance-<span class="hlt">involved</span> female offenders in Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Law, Fang Mei; Guo, Gwo Jen</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This study aimed to fulfill a twofold purpose. First, a 12-session reality therapy drug treatment program to enhance substance-<span class="hlt">involved</span> females' self-efficacy in three aspects, which have been demonstrated to be essential to recovery, was designed and implemented. Second, to test the effectiveness of the treatment program, the Index of Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale was developed and validated using Principal Component Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The participants in the drug treatment program were 40 incarcerated substance-<span class="hlt">involved</span> female offenders, who were randomly assigned to equal-sized experimental and control groups. The results of the study, obtained by ANCOVA analysis, showed significant differences in the post-test scores for sense of self-efficacy in decision making, action-planning, and coping and social skills for the members of the two groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22124892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22124892"><span>Investigating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of message format, <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, scientific literacy, and education on attitude toward reducing cancer risk through regulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silk, Kami J; Nazione, Samantha; Neuberger, Lindsay; Smith, Sandi; Atkin, Charles</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Recent research links perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to increased breast cancer risk. Efforts to inform the lay public about potential risks associated with PFOA need to be accessible in their content as many individuals, including highly educated ones, have low scientific literacy. This study investigates the role of message format, as well as personal <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, scientific literacy, and education in influencing attitudes about PFOA regulation. Participants (N = 2,078) were exposed to one of three message formats about PFOA and then responded to survey questions related to their attitude about the need for new regulation. Results revealed that issue <span class="hlt">involvement</span> was positively related to favorable attitude regarding new regulation, while education and advocacy status were negatively related; cancer experience, scientific literacy, and message format did not influence attitude about new regulation. Implications of the results are discussed as they relate to communicating uncertain risk information to inform and influence lay individuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375301','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375301"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of intrapancreatic or extrapancreatic bile duct <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on survival following pancreatoduodenectomy for common bile duct cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamposioras, K; Anthoney, A; Fernández Moro, C; Cairns, A; Smith, A M; Liaskos, C; Verbeke, C S</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The clinicopathological factors that influence survival following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) for common bile duct (CBD) cancer are not well known. This study aimed to investigate the effect of tumour <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of the intrapancreatic versus extrapancreatic CBD on margin status, overall (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survival. This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent PD for CBD cancer between 2001 and 2009. Pathological examination was performed according to a previously described standardized protocol based on axial slicing. Clinicopathological data and outcome in terms of margin status, DFS and OS were compared between cancers <span class="hlt">involving</span> exclusively the intrapancreatic CBD (CBDin) and those <span class="hlt">involving</span> the extrapancreatic CBD, in isolation or combined with invasion of the intrapancreatic part of the duct (CBDex). A total of 66 patients were enrolled. Most CBD cancers were locally advanced (97 per cent pathological (p) T3, 76 per cent pN1). Microscopic margin <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (R1) was more frequent in CBDex than in CBDin cancers (34 of 39 versus 13 of 27; P = 0.001), more often multifocal (P < 0.001) and more frequently affected the periductal margin (P = 0.005). Venous resection was more often required for CBDex cancers (P = 0.009). CBDex cancers were associated with worse OS (median 21 versus 28 months; P = 0.020) and DFS (14 versus 31 months; P = 0.015), but the rate and site of recurrence did not differ. Metastasis to more than two lymph nodes was an independent predictor of OS and DFS. CBDex cancer is associated with a higher rate of R1 resection and venous resection after PD, and has a worse outcome than CBDin cancer. © 2013 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28054204','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28054204"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Prosocial Behavioral <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on School Violence Perpetration Among African American Middle School and High School Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McDade, Rhyanne S; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L</p> <p>2017-01-04</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with school violence perpetration among African American youth. African American students in 7th through 12th grade (n = 7488) in schools within one Metropolitan area completed the Pride National Drug Survey. Chi square analyses revealed school violence perpetration significantly differed based on grade and prosocial behavioral <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. Students in 7th-8th grade (54.7%) were more likely to engage in school violence in comparison to 9th-12th grade students (48.8%). Students with low prosocial behavior (52.8%) <span class="hlt">involvement</span> were more likely than their counterparts (48.9%) to engage in school violence perpetration. Logistic regression also indicated females and 9th-12th students with low prosocial behavior <span class="hlt">involvement</span> were significantly less likely than their counterparts to engage in school violence. Findings should be considered by health educators and prevention specialists when developing programs and efforts to prevent in school violence perpetration among African American students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4459695','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4459695"><span>What Difference Does Patient and Public <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> Make and What Are Its Pathways to <span class="hlt">Impact</span>? Qualitative Study of Patients and Researchers from a Cohort of Randomised Clinical Trials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dudley, Louise; Gamble, Carrol; Preston, Jennifer; Buck, Deborah; Hanley, Bec; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Patient and public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (PPI) is advocated in clinical trials yet evidence on how to optimise its <span class="hlt">impact</span> is limited. We explored researchers' and PPI contributors' accounts of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of PPI within trials and factors likely to influence its <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews with researchers and PPI contributors accessed through a cohort of randomised clinical trials. Analysis of transcripts of audio-recorded interviews was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method, elements of content analysis and informant triangulation. Results We interviewed 21 chief investigators, 10 trial managers and 17 PPI contributors from 28 trials. The accounts of informants within the same trials were largely in agreement. Over half the informants indicted PPI had made a difference within a trial, through contributions that influenced either an aspect of a trial, or how researchers thought about a trial. According to informants, the opportunity for PPI to make a difference was influenced by two main factors: whether chief investigators had goals and plans for PPI and the quality of the relationship between the research team and the PPI contributors. Early <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of PPI contributors and including them in responsive (e.g. advisory groups) and managerial (e.g. trial management groups) roles were more likely to achieve <span class="hlt">impact</span> compared to late <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and oversight roles (e.g. trial steering committees). Conclusion Those seeking to enhance PPI in trials should develop goals for PPI at an early stage that fits the needs of the trial, plan PPI implementation in accordance with these goals, invest in developing good relationships between PPI contributors and researchers, and favour responsive and managerial roles for contributors in preference to oversight-only roles. These features could be used by research funders in judging PPI in trial grant applications and to inform policies to optimise PPI within trials. PMID:26053063</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006880','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006880"><span>Small, <span class="hlt">porous</span> polyacrylate beads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Uniformly-shaped, <span class="hlt">porous</span>, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012236','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012236"><span>Crosslinked, <span class="hlt">porous</span>, polyacrylate beads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Uniformly-shaped, <span class="hlt">porous</span>, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree. C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17979254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17979254"><span>Tortuosity of <span class="hlt">porous</span> particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barrande, M; Bouchet, R; Denoyel, R</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Tortuosity is often used as an adjustable parameter in models of transfer properties through <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. This parameter, not reducible to classical measured microstructural parameters like specific surface area, porosity, or pore size distribution, reflects the efficiency of percolation paths, which is linked to the topology of the material. The measurement of the effective conductivity of a bed of particles saturated with an electrolyte is a simple way to evaluate tortuosity. Nevertheless, it received only little attention because of the real difficulties in both getting reliable results and interpreting data. Notably, the discrimination between the contribution of interparticle and intraparticle porosities to the tortuosity is not resolved. To our knowledge, there is no model able to fit the experimental data of the tortuosity of a suspension, and a fortiori of a particle bed, in the whole porosity range. Only empirical expressions have been proposed, but they do not allow deriving intratortuosity of a <span class="hlt">porous</span> particle. For a dilute system, Maxwell's equation predicts the effective conductivity of suspensions of spherical particles as a function of the bulk electrolyte conductivity and of particle conductivity. The intraparticle tortuosity can be derived from the particle conductivity obtained from the Maxwell equation applied to data at infinite dilution of particles. Then, by assuming that the Maxwell equation is a first-order approximation of the conductivity as a function of porosity, we propose an explicit relation of the tortuosity tau of a suspension of <span class="hlt">porous</span> particles, obtained by conductivity measurement, as tau = tau(epsilon, epsilon(p), tau(p)), where epsilon is the total porosity of the suspension, tau(p) is the intraparticle tortuosity, and epsilon(p) is the particle porosity. This relationship fits the experimental data in the whole porosity range and can be used to determine tau(p) from an experiment at only one porosity. Finally, the obtained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510512','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510512"><span>Photoactive <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanopowder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meekins, Benjamin H; Lin, Ya-Cheng; Manser, Joseph S; Manukyan, Khachatur; Mukasyan, Alexander S; Kamat, Prashant V; McGinn, Paul J</p> <p>2013-04-24</p> <p>Bulk processing of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanoparticles (nSi) of 50-300 nm size and surface area of 25-230 m(2)/g has been developed using a combustion synthesis method. nSi exhibits consistent photoresponse to AM 1.5 simulated solar excitation. In confirmation of photoactivity, the films of nSi exhibit prompt bleaching following femtosecond laser pulse excitation resulting from the photoinduced charge separation. Photocurrent generation observed upon AM 1.5 excitation of these films in a photoelectrochemical cell shows strong dependence on the thickness of the intrinsic silica shell that encompasses the nanoparticles and hinders interparticle electron transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006886','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006886"><span>Crosslinked, <span class="hlt">porous</span>, polyacrylate beads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Uniformly-shaped, <span class="hlt">porous</span>, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23416226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23416226"><span>Radioactive characterization of the main materials <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the titanium dioxide production process and their environmental radiological <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mantero, J; Gazquez, M J; Bolivar, J P; Garcia-Tenorio, R; Vaca, F</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A study about the distribution of several radionuclides from the uranium and the thorium series radionuclides along the production process of a typical NORM industry devoted to the production of titanium dioxide has been performed. With this end the activity concentrations in raw materials, final product, co-products, and wastes of the production process have been determined by both gamma-ray and alpha-particle spectrometry. The main raw material used in the studied process (ilmenite) presents activity concentrations of around 300 Bq kg(-1) for Th-series radionuclides and 100 Bq kg(-1) for the U-series ones. These radionuclides in the industrial process are distributed in the different steps of the production process according mostly to the chemical behaviour of each radioelement, following different routes. As an example, most of the radium remains associated with the un-dissolved material waste, with activity concentrations around 3 kBq kg(-1) of (228)Ra and around 1 kBq kg(-1) of (226)Ra, while the final commercial products (TiO2 pigments and co-products) contain negligible amounts of radioactivity. The obtained results have allowed assessing the possible public radiological <span class="hlt">impact</span> associated with the use of the products and co-products obtained in this type of industry, as well as the environmental radiological <span class="hlt">impact</span> associated with the solid residues and liquid generated discharges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8465E..1BM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8465E..1BM"><span>Optimizing the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">porous</span> thin film optical sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mackay, Tom G.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>We considered a <span class="hlt">porous</span> thin film as a platform for optical sensing. It is envisaged that the <span class="hlt">porous</span> thin filmbecomes infiltrated by a fluid containing an agent to be sensed. The basis for detection of this agent to besensed is provided by changes in the optical properties of the infiltrated <span class="hlt">porous</span> thin film. Provided that thepore sizes are much smaller than the wavelengths <span class="hlt">involved</span>, the infiltrated <span class="hlt">porous</span> thin film may be regardedas a homogenized composite material. Using the well-established Bruggeman homogenization formalism, thesensitivity of such an optical sensor was investigated theoretically. The sensitivity was considered in relation tothe optical properties of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> thin film and the infiltrating fluid, the porosity of the thin film, and theshape of the pores. For the case of an isotropic dielectric <span class="hlt">porous</span> thin film of relative permittivity ɛa and anisotropic dielectric fluid of relative permittivity ɛb, the sensitivity was found to be maximized if: (i) the contrast between ɛa and ɛb was maximized; (ii) mid-range values of porosity were used; (iii) the regime 0 < ɛb < 1 with ɛa » 1 pertained, for example; and (iv) pores which have elongated spheroidal shapes were incorporated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15101451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15101451"><span>Middle manager <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in strategy development in not-for profit organizations: the director of nursing perspective--how organizational structure <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the role.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carney, M</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>An attempt was made to link organizational structure and strategic management and, in the process, to identify how organizational structure <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the strategic management role of Directors of Nursing working in acute care hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. Directors of Nursing are recognized as holding a pivotal role in health care delivery. The need for their <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in strategic management is acknowledged, yet it is not clear if this role is influenced by organizational structure. It is recognized that strategic <span class="hlt">involvement</span> increases the likelihood that middle managers' initiatives will be in line with top management's concept of corporate strategy. The principal thesis is that organizational members will exercise a higher level of strategic consensus if they have been initially <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the development of strategy. The study was undertaken in not-for-profit health service organizations, through a series of 25 semi-structured interviews with Directors of Nursing. The review of the literature was undertaken simultaneously with grounded theory analysis of the interviews. This research suggests that structure does <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the role, conferring both positive benefits and negative consequences. Structure is identified in this study, in terms of organizational hierarchy, and the locus of control pertaining in each organization. Two predominating structure models are discussed and analysed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24629567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24629567"><span>Attitudes toward hiring applicants with mental illness and criminal justice <span class="hlt">involvement</span>: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of education and experience.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Batastini, Ashley B; Bolanos, Angelea D; Morgan, Robert D</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Individuals with mental health diagnoses, as well as those <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the criminal justice system, experience a number of barriers in the recovery and reintegration progress, including access to stable, prosocial employment opportunities. Employment for these populations is important for establishing financial security, reducing unstructured leisure time, increasing self-worth, and improving interpersonal skills. However, research has demonstrated that individuals with psychiatric and/or criminal backgrounds may experience stigmatizing attitudes from employers that impede their ability to find adequate work. This study aimed to evaluate stigmatizing beliefs toward hypothetical applicants who indicated a mental health history, a criminal history, or both, as well as the effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing stigma. Participants consisted of 465 individuals recruited from a large university who completed a series of online questions about a given applicant. Results of this study varied somewhat across measures of employability, but were largely consistent with extant research suggesting that mental illness and criminal justice <span class="hlt">involvement</span> serve as deterrents when making hiring decisions. Overall, psychoeducation appeared to reduce stigma for hiring decisions when the applicant presented with a criminal history. Unfortunately, similar findings were not revealed when applicants presented with a psychiatric or a psychiatric and criminal history. Implications and limitations of these findings are presented, along with suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27906387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27906387"><span>Hierarchically <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials: synthesis strategies and structure design.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Li-Hua; Li, Yu; Rooke, Joanna Claire; Sanchez, Clément; Su, Bao-Lian</p> <p>2017-01-23</p> <p>Owing to their immense potential in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation and life science applications, significant interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of hierarchically <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials. The hierarchy of materials on porosity, structural, morphological, and component levels is key for high performance in all kinds of applications. Synthesis and applications of hierarchically structured <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials have become a rapidly evolving field of current interest. A large series of synthesis methods have been developed. This review addresses recent advances made in studies of this topic. After identifying the advantages and problems of natural hierarchically <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials, synthetic hierarchically <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials are presented. The synthesis strategies used to prepare hierarchically <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials are first introduced and the features of synthesis and the resulting structures are presented using a series of examples. These <span class="hlt">involve</span> templating methods (surfactant templating, nanocasting, macroporous polymer templating, colloidal crystal templating and bioinspired process, i.e. biotemplating), conventional techniques (supercritical fluids, emulsion, freeze-drying, breath figures, selective leaching, phase separation, zeolitization process, and replication) and basic methods (sol-gel controlling and post-treatment), as well as self-formation phenomenon of <span class="hlt">porous</span> hierarchy. A series of detailed examples are given to show methods for the synthesis of hierarchically <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures with various chemical compositions (dual porosities: micro-micropores, micro-mesopores, micro-macropores, meso-mesopores, meso-macropores, multiple porosities: micro-meso-macropores and meso-meso-macropores). We hope that this review will be helpful for those entering the field and also for those in the field who want quick access to helpful reference information about the synthesis of new hierarchically <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865714','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865714"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> metallic bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Landingham, Richard L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides are heated in a confining container at a controlled rate to a temperature of about greater than the temperature at which the hydride decomposes. Hydrogen is removed from the container and the remaining metal is heated during a second stage to a temperature greater than the temperature at which it was previously heated but not greater than the temperature of 1/2 to 2/3 the temperature at which the metal melts at a controlled rate. The resulting <span class="hlt">porous</span> metallic body produced has a density less than about 25 percent theoretical and a pore size of less than about 200 microns. The metallic particles of the present invention have high inner surface area and possess minimum resistance to gas flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28935993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28935993"><span>"A Twenty-Hour-a-Day Job": The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Frequent Low-Level Criminal Justice <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on Family Life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Comfort, Megan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the growing field of research on the consequences of criminal justice contact for family life, a heavy emphasis has been placed on how imprisonment influences the emotional, physical, and socioeconomic wellbeing of prisoners' loved ones. In this article, I elaborate on and analyze the experiences of family members of people with frequent, low-level criminal justice <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. I draw on ethnographic data collected in partnership with a clinical social worker over the course of a three-year study of an intensive case management intervention for HIV-positive individuals. Findings indicate that loved ones' brief jail stays and community supervision through probation and parole pose hardships for family members that are distinct from those hardships that arise during imprisonment. These experiences are uniquely destabilizing, may confer specific risks to family members' wellbeing, and merit further study to inform programs, social services, and public policy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28810944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28810944"><span>A Mixed Method Study of Intimate Partner Violence: How Sex and Severity <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Perpetrator Prior <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>, Abnormality, and Responsibility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Savage, Matthew; Scarduzio, Jennifer; Lockwood Harris, Kate; Carlyle, Kellie</p> <p>2017-08-15</p> <p>This study employed a mixed method approach to examine the effects of participant sex, perpetrator sex, and severity ofviolence on perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Quantitative participants (n = 449) completed a survey and qualitative participants (n = 31) participated in a focus group or an interview. Participants believed that it was more likely male perpetrators had prior <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in IPV. Participants rated stories of female perpetrators as more abnormal than stories of male perpetrators. Participants in the weak severity of violence condition had lower evaluations of responsibility than the strong or fatal severity of violence conditions and only women were discerning about perpetrator sex in their ratings of responsibility. Theoretical implications extend intimate terrorism and defensive attribution theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MicST..23..391M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MicST..23..391M"><span>An in Vitro Study on Tissue Repair: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Unloading on Cells <span class="hlt">Involved</span> in the Remodelling Phase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monici, Monica; Cialdai, Francesca; Romano, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Egli, Marcel; Pezzatini, Silvia; Morbidelli, Lucia</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The number of astronauts <span class="hlt">involved</span> in long-lasting missions and extra-vehicular activities is going to increase in the future. Consequently, the chance of injury due to traumatic events or unexpected emergency surgery will also increase and medical evacuation times to earth will be prolonged. Hence, the need to address requirements for surgery and trauma care in non terrestrial environments will be a priority. Tissue repair in weightlessness should therefore be regarded as a major issue not enough studied to date. Wound healing is a complex multi-step process, crucial to the survival of the organism. It starts with an inflammatory phase followed by a remodelling phase. During repair, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is sequentially remodelled by the concerted action of different cell types, in order to rebuild a functional tissue. The available literature concerning wound healing with mechanical unloading presents controversial results. However, many studies indicate impairment of the healing processes. Here we present a study on the behaviour of cells <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the remodelling phase of repair, e.g. fibroblasts and endothelial cells, in response to microgravity ( μg). In particular, their adhesion/migration, cytoskeleton organization, production of ECM molecules and receptors have been investigated. Cell response to pulsed Nd: YAG laser irradiation has also been investigated in order to evaluate the possibility to use laser irradiation for counteracting the effect of μg on wound healing. In μg, we observed alterations in production/assembling of ECM molecules. Increased fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LM) could be the cause for impaired ECM rebuilding and altered cell adhesion/migration. Treatment with Nd:YAG laser pulses induced organized fibrillogenesis and favoured endothelial cell spreading and monolayer formation. These findings open the way for a better understanding of tissue repair mechanisms in space and future clinical applications on earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780019129','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780019129"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials for laminar flow control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pearce, W. E.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Fairly smooth <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials were elected for study Doweave; Fibermetal; Dynapore; and perforated titanium sheet. Factors examined include: surface smoothness; suction characteristics; porosity; surface <span class="hlt">impact</span> resistance; and strain compatibility. A laminar flow control suction glove arrangement was identified with material combinations compatible with thermal expansion and structural strain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26500837','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26500837"><span>Analysis by a highly sensitive split luciferase assay of the regions <span class="hlt">involved</span> in APP dimerization and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Decock, Marie; El Haylani, Laetitia; Stanga, Serena; Dewachter, Ilse; Octave, Jean-Noël; Smith, Steven O; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive loss of cognitive functions, leading to dementia. Two types of lesions are found in AD brains: neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. The latter are composed mainly of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) generated by amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Several studies have suggested that dimerization of APP is closely linked to Aβ production. Nevertheless, the mechanisms controlling APP dimerization and their role in APP function are not known. Here we used a new luciferase complementation assay to analyze APP dimerization and unravel the <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of its three major domains: the ectodomain, the transmembrane domain and the intracellular domain. Our results indicate that within cells full-length APP dimerizes more than its α and β C-terminal fragments, confirming the pivotal role of the ectodomain in this process. Dimerization of the APP transmembrane (TM) domain has been reported to regulate processing at the γ-cleavage site. We show that both non-familial and familial AD mutations in the TM GXXXG motifs strongly modulate Aβ production, but do not consistently change dimerization of the C-terminal fragments. Finally, we found for the first time that removal of intracellular domain strongly increases APP dimerization. Increased APP dimerization is linked to increased non-amyloidogenic processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21300125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21300125"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of early developmental arsenic exposure on promotor CpG-island methylation of genes <span class="hlt">involved</span> in neuronal plasticity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez, Liborio; Jiménez, Verónica; García-Sepúlveda, Christian; Ceballos, Fátima; Delgado, Juan Manuel; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Doniz, Lesly; Saavedra-Alanís, Víctor; Castillo, Claudia G; Santoyo, Martha E; González-Amaro, Roberto; Jiménez-Capdeville, María E</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Epigenetic mechanisms are crucial to regulate the expression of different genes required for neuronal plasticity. Neurotoxic substances such as arsenic, which induces cognitive deficits in exposed children before any other manifestation of toxicity, could interfere with the epigenetic modulation of neuronal gene expression required for learning and memory. This study assessed in Wistar rats the effects that developmental arsenic exposure had on DNA methylation patterns in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Animals were exposed to arsenic in drinking water (3 and 36ppm) from gestation until 4 months of age, and DNA methylation in brain cells was determined by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the promoter regions of reelin (RELN) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) at 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Immunoreactivity to 5 methyl-cytosine was significantly higher in the cortex and hippocampus of exposed animals compared to controls at 1 month, and DNA hypomethylation was observed the following months in the cortex at high arsenic exposure. Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in the non-methylated form of PP1 gene promoter at 2 and 3 months of age, either in cortex or hippocampus. In order to determine whether this exposure level is associated with memory deficits, a behavioral test was performed at the same age points, revealing progressive and dose-dependent deficits of fear memory. Our results demonstrate alterations of the methylation pattern of genes <span class="hlt">involved</span> in neuronal plasticity in an animal model of memory deficit associated with arsenic exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26237334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26237334"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of frequency of behavior and type of contact on judgments <span class="hlt">involving</span> a criminal stalking case.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Magyarics, Casey L; Lynch, Kellie R; Golding, Jonathan M; Lippert, Anne</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We investigated mock juror perceptions of the frequency of behavior and type of contact in an ex-intimate stalking case. We used a mock-juror methodology, in which 204 community members (129 women) read a stalking trial summary, rendered a verdict, and evaluated the intent of the defendant to cause the victim fear and distress, as well as the victim's experience with these emotions. The trial varied as to whether there were 5 or 30 stalking incidents and whether the stalking <span class="hlt">involved</span> personal contact or stalking via text message. Results showed that females were more likely to render a guilty verdict when the victim had been stalked 30 times rather than 5 times while males were equally likely to render a guilty verdict regardless of the frequency. Mock jurors were significantly more likely to render guilty verdicts in the personal contact condition than in the text message condition. Females' perceptions of the victim's fear and distress mediated the frequency of incidents x gender interaction. The victim's fear and the defendant's intentions mediated the main effect of type of contact on verdict. Cognitive network analyses showed that victim fear and the defendant's intent to cause fear were central to participant verdict decision making. We discuss these results in terms of the implications, specifically that victim fear should be a primary focus in stalking legislation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26322721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26322721"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of overtly listing eligibility requirements on MTurk: An investigation <span class="hlt">involving</span> organ donation, recruitment scripts, and feelings of elevation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siegel, Jason T; Navarro, Mario A; Thomson, Andrew L</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Investigations conducted through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) sometimes explicitly note eligibility requirements when recruiting participants; however, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of this practice on data integrity is relatively unexplored within the MTurk context. Contextualized in the organ donor registration domain, the current study assessed whether overtly listing eligibility requirements impairs the accuracy of data collected on MTurk. On day 1, the first and third round of data collection did not list eligibility requirements; the second and fourth round overtly listed a qualification requirement: status as a non-registered organ donor. On day 2, the approach was identical, except the order was reversed-the first and third round overtly listed the study qualifications, while the second and fourth did not. These procedures provided eight different waves of data. In addition, all participants were randomly assigned to read an elevating (i.e., morally inspiring) story or a story not intended to elicit any emotion. Regardless of recruitment approach, only participants who were not registered as donors were included in the analysis. Results indicated that the recruitment script that explicitly requested non-registered donors resulted in the collection of participants with higher mean intentions scores than the script that did not overtly list the eligibility requirements. Further, even though the elevation induction increased intentions to register as a donor, there was not a significant interaction between recruitment approach and the influence of the elevation manipulation on registration intentions. Explicitly listing eligibility requirements can influence the accuracy of estimates derived from data collected through MTurk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJST.224.1749C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJST.224.1749C"><span>A comprehensive multiscale moisture transport analysis: From <span class="hlt">porous</span> reference silicates to cement-based materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chemmi, H.; Petit, D.; Tariel, V.; Korb, J.-P.; Denoyel, R.; Bouchet, R.; Levitz, P.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Natural and manufactured disordered systems are ubiquitous and often <span class="hlt">involve</span> hierarchical structures. This structural organization optimizes defined physical properties at several scales from molecular to representative volumes where the usual homogenization approach becomes efficient. For studying a particular physical property on these systems it is thus required to use a general method of analysis based on the joint application of complementary techniques covering the whole set of time-and length-scales. Here we review a comprehensive multiscale method presented for analyzing the three-dimensional moisture transport in hierarchical <span class="hlt">porous</span> media such as synthesized reference silicates and cement-based materials. Several techniques (NMR spectroscopy, relaxometry, diffusometry, X-ray micro-tomography, conductivity…) have been used to evidence the interplay between the different scales <span class="hlt">involved</span> in this transport process. This method allows answering the general opened questions concerning the scale dependence of such a moisture transport in cement-based materials. We outline the main results of the multiscale techniques applied on reference <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicates allowing separating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of geometry, hydric state and wettability on the moisture transport. Based on this approach, we prove that this transport at micro- and meso-scale is determinant to modify the moisture at macro-scale during setting or for hardened cement-based materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41L..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41L..04H"><span>Biogenic Cracks in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Rock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Microorganisms growing on and inside <span class="hlt">porous</span> rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. We designed a model <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium until saturation of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the <span class="hlt">porous</span> sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087103"><span>Study investigating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pharmacist <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on the outcomes of diabetes medication therapy adherence program Malaysia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lim, Phei Ching; Lim, Kelvin; Embee, Zubaidah Che; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Thiagarajan, Anuradha; Khan, Tahir Mehmood</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of pharmacists in improving medication adherence among diabetic patients is recognized globally. In Malaysian healthcare system, pharmacists are also operating health services i.e. Diabetes Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (DMTAC). This study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of patients managed by pharmacists (DMTAC), in a Malaysian hospital setting. This was an open labelled randomised study. Type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c ≥8% were recruited and arbitrarily divided into the intervention group (usual care plus DMTAC) and the non-intervention group (usual care only). Those enrolled in the intervention group were scheduled for follow-up for eight consecutive visits. Improvements in lab results were compared longitudinally (pre and post analysis) between the groups. Data analysis was done using PASW 18® version. A total of 76 patients were enrolled, with 39 patients in the intervention group and 37 patients in the non-intervention group. Mean HbA1c (-0.90% vs. -0.08%, p=0.011) and fasting blood glucose levels (-3.45 mmol.l vs. +0.79 mmol/l, p=0.002) reduced significantly between the intervention group vs. non-intervention group. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also significantly reduced in the intervention group (TC -0.34 mmol/l, p=0.018) (LDL -0.45 mmol/l, p=0.001). In conclusion, pharmacists managed DMTAC significantly improved glycaemic control and lipid profile of diabetic patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25205453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25205453"><span>Ki-1/57 and CGI-55 ectopic expression <span class="hlt">impact</span> cellular pathways <span class="hlt">involved</span> in proliferation and stress response regulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Costa, Fernanda C; Saito, Angela; Gonçalves, Kaliandra A; Vidigal, Pedro M; Meirelles, Gabriela V; Bressan, Gustavo C; Kobarg, Jörg</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Ki-1/57 (HABP4) and CGI-55 (SERBP1) are regulatory proteins and paralogs with 40.7% amino acid sequence identity and 67.4% similarity. Functionally, they have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression on both the transcriptional and mRNA metabolism levels. A link with tumorigenesis is suggested, since both paralogs show altered expression levels in tumor cells and the Ki-1/57 gene is found in a region of chromosome 9q that represents a haplotype for familiar colon cancer. However, the target genes regulated by Ki-1/57 and CGI-55 are unknown. Here, we analyzed the alterations of the global transcriptome profile after Ki-1/57 or CGI-55 overexpression in HEK293T cells by DNA microchip technology. We were able to identify 363 or 190 down-regulated and 50 or 27 up-regulated genes for Ki-1/57 and CGI-55, respectively, of which 20 were shared between both proteins. Expression levels of selected genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR both after protein overexpression and siRNA knockdown. The majority of the genes with altered expression were associated to proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle control processes, prompting us to further explore these contexts experimentally. We observed that overexpression of Ki-1/57 or CGI-55 results in reduced cell proliferation, mainly due to a G1 phase arrest, whereas siRNA knockdown of CGI-55 caused an increase in proliferation. In the case of Ki-1/57 overexpression, we found protection from apoptosis after treatment with the ER-stress inducer thapsigargin. Together, our data give important new insights that may help to explain these proteins putative <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in tumorigenic events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27177737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27177737"><span>Seatbelt use to save money: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on hospital costs of occupants who are <span class="hlt">involved</span> in motor vehicle crashes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Seatbelt use is the single most effective way to save lives in motor vehicle crashes (MVC). However, although safety belt laws have been enacted in many countries, seatbelt usage throughout the world remains below optimal levels, and educational interventions may be needed to further increase seatbelt use. In addition to reducing crash-related injuries and deaths, reduced medical expenditures resulting from seatbelt use are an additional benefit that could make such interventions cost-effective. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between seatbelt use and hospital costs of injuries <span class="hlt">involved</span> in MVC. The data used in this study were from the Nebraska CODES database for motor vehicle crashes that occurred between 2004 and 2013. The hospital cost information and information about other factors were obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data. A multivariable regression model was performed for the association between seatbelt use and hospital costs. Mean hospital costs were significantly lower among motor vehicle occupants using a lap-shoulder seatbelt ($2909), lap-only seatbelt ($2289), children's seatbelt ($1132), or booster ($1473) when compared with those not using any type of seatbelt ($7099). After adjusting for relevant factors, there were still significantly decreased hospital costs for motor vehicle occupants using a lap-shoulder seatbelt (84.7%), lap-only seatbelt (74.1%), shoulder-only seatbelt (40.6%), children's seatbelt (95.9%), or booster (82.8%) compared to those not using a seatbelt. Seatbelt use is significantly associated with reduced hospital costs among injured MVC occupants. The findings in this study will provide important educational information for emergency department nurses who can encourage safety belt use for vehicle occupants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001874','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001874"><span>Regeneratively Cooled <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media Jacket</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a <span class="hlt">porous</span> media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and <span class="hlt">porous</span> media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are <span class="hlt">porous</span> media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......108P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......108P"><span>Light emission from <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Penczek, John</p> <p></p> <p>The continuous evolution of silicon microelectronics has produced significant gains in electronic information processing. However, greater improvements in performance are expected by utilizing optoelectronic techniques. But these techniques have been severely limited in silicon- based optoelectronics due to the lack of an efficient silicon light emitter. The recent observation of efficient light emission from <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon offer a promising opportunity to develop a suitable silicon light source that is compatible with silicon microelectronics. This dissertation examined the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon emission mechanism via photoluminescence, and by a novel device structure for <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon emitters. The investigation first examined the correlation between <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon formation conditions (and subsequent morphology) with the resulting photoluminescence properties. The quantum confinement theory for <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon light emission contends that the morphology changes induced by the different formation conditions determine the optical properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon. The photoluminescence spectral shifts measured in this study, in conjunction with TEM analysis and published morphological data, lend support to this theory. However, the photoluminescence spectral broadening was attributed to electronic wavefunction coupling between adjacent silicon nanocrystals. An novel device structure was also investigated in an effort to improve current injection into the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon layer. The selective etching properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon were used to create a p-i-n structure with crystalline silicon contacts to the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon layer. The resulting device was found to have unique characteristics, with a negative differential resistance region and current-induced emission that spanned from 400 nm to 5500 nm. The negative differential resistance was correlated to resistive heating effects in the device. A numerical analysis of thermal emission spectra from silicon films, in addition to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5492258','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5492258"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Molecular Solids and Liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Until recently, <span class="hlt">porous</span> molecular solids were isolated curiosities with properties that were eclipsed by <span class="hlt">porous</span> frameworks, such as metal–organic frameworks. Now molecules have emerged as a functional materials platform that can have high levels of porosity, good chemical stability, and, uniquely, solution processability. The lack of intermolecular bonding in these materials has also led to new, counterintuitive states of matter, such as <span class="hlt">porous</span> liquids. Our ability to design these materials has improved significantly due to advances in computational prediction methods. PMID:28691065</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7.2361N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7.2361N"><span>Mathematical analysis of ferromagnetic fluid embedded in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nadeem, Sohail; Raishad, Irum; Muhammad, Noor; Mustafa, M. T.</p> <p></p> <p>This article focuses on the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat transport phenomenon in a ferrofluid in presence of a magnetic dipole. The flow is caused by stretching of the surface. The analysis is disclosed with <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium and thermal stratification. The characteristics of thermomechanical coupling are computed analytically and numerically. It is depicted that the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium has the significant effect in controlling the rate of heat transfer in the boundary layer. Drag coefficient at the surface reduces when larger ratio parameter is considered. Comparison of present study with previous published work is given. The results are found in excellent agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EML....12...17J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EML....12...17J"><span>Fabrication and characterization of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Daeyoon; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Moon, Taeho; Sohn, Honglae</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We report the synthesis of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires through the metalassisted chemical etching of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The morphology of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The etch rate of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires was faster than that of silicon nanowires, but slower than that of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires distributed uniformly on the entire <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon layer and the tips of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires congregated together. The single crystalline and sponge-like <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure with the pore diameters of less than 5 nm was confirmed for the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires. [Figure not available: see fulltext.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22475958','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22475958"><span>Efficient visible-light photocatalytic performance of cuprous oxide <span class="hlt">porous</span> nanosheet arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Xianghua; Wang, Jianqiang; Cao, Minhua</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>Graphical Abstract: We demonstrated a facile and efficient process for fabricating Cu{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">porous</span> nanosheet arrays on Cu mesh. Benefiting from the 1D array structure and <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure, the as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O sample exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">porous</span> nanosheet arrays on Cu mesh were synthesized via the facile and efficient process. • The Cu{sub 2}O sample exhibited the 1D array structure and <span class="hlt">porous</span> nanosheet morphology. • The as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">porous</span> nanosheet arrays exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: One-dimensional nanostructures are of great interest for a wide range of applications. In this work, we demonstrated the fabrication of visible-light-responsive Cu{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">porous</span> nanosheet arrays. The synthesis <span class="hlt">involved</span> the growth of Cu(OH){sub 2} nanosheet arrays on Cu mesh by solution-based corrosion and thermal transformation of Cu(OH){sub 2} nanosheet to Cu{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">porous</span> nanosheets on Cu mesh. Benefiting from the one dimensional array structure and <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure, the as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">porous</span> nanosheet arrays exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17939887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17939887"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon as a neural electrode material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Persson, Jörgen; Danielsen, Nils; Wallman, Lars</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The electrical properties of the solid state/fluid (Ringer solution) interface for phosphorous- and boron-doped <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon are reported and the benefits of using <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon as neural recording electrodes are discussed. The impedance, reactance and resistance for doped <span class="hlt">porous</span> and planar silicon, in Ringer solution, were compared to gold electrodes. Planar silicon displayed approximately a three times higher reactance than <span class="hlt">porous</span> electrodes. The phosphorous-doped <span class="hlt">porous</span> electrodes displayed a similar reactance compared to the gold electrodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......309S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......309S"><span>Processing and Modeling of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Copper Using Sintering Dissolution Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salih, Mustafa Abualgasim Abdalhakam</p> <p></p> <p>The growth of <span class="hlt">porous</span> metal has produced materials with improved properties as compared to non-metals and solid metals. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> metal can be classified as either open cell or closed cell. Open cell allows a fluid media to pass through it. Closed cell is made up of adjacent sealed pores with shared cell walls. Metal foams offer higher strength to weight ratios, increased <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy absorption, and a greater tolerance to high temperatures and adverse environmental conditions when compared to bulk materials. Copper and its alloys are examples of these, well known for high strength and good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. In the present study, the <span class="hlt">porous</span> Cu was made by a powder metallurgy process, using three different space holders, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate. Several different samples have been produced, using different ratios of volume fraction. The densities of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> metals have been measured and compared to the theoretical density calculated using an equation developed for these foams. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure was determined with the removal of spacer materials through sintering process. The sintering process of each spacer material depends on the melting point of the spacer material. Processing, characterization, and mechanical properties were completed. These tests include density measurements, compression tests, computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The captured morphological images are utilized to generate the object-oriented finite element (OOF) analysis for the <span class="hlt">porous</span> copper. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> copper was formed with porosities in the range of 40-66% with density ranges from 3 to 5.2 g/cm3. A study of two different methods to measure porosity was completed. OOF (Object Oriented Finite Elements) is a desktop software application for studying the relationship between the microstructure of a material and its overall mechanical, dielectric, or thermal properties using finite element models based on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100011222','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100011222"><span>Freeze Tape Casting of Functionally Graded <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Ceramics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sofie, Stephen W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Freeze tape casting is a means of making preforms of ceramic sheets that, upon subsequent completion of fabrication processing, can have anisotropic and/or functionally graded properties that notably include aligned and graded porosity. Freeze tape casting was developed to enable optimization of the microstructures of <span class="hlt">porous</span> ceramic components for use as solid oxide electrodes in fuel cells: Through alignment and grading of pores, one can tailor surface areas and diffusion channels for flows of gas and liquid species <span class="hlt">involved</span> in fuel-cell reactions. Freeze tape casting offers similar benefits for fabrication of optimally <span class="hlt">porous</span> ceramics for use as catalysts, gas sensors, and filters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6799E..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6799E..07S"><span>Interfacing <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon with biomolecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sweetman, Martin J.; Graney, Sean D.; Voelcker, Nicolas H.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The control of protein binding into nanostructured <span class="hlt">porous</span> surfaces is highly relevant to the development of advanced biosensors and other biodevices. Here, an investigation of the covalent immobilisation of a model protein (albumin) onto <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon (pSi) films was conducted using a new alkene linker, the synthesis of which was developed. This alkene linker contained both hydrophobic and hydrophilic (oligoethylene glycol) sections and terminated in a protected thiol. The alkene was attached to freshly etched <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon via thermal hydrosilylation, where further surface reactions resulted in the attachment of a maleimido N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) heterobifunctional crosslinker. Albumin was then covalently immobilised on the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon layer through reaction of the protein's amine groups and the NHS functional group of the crosslinker. Surface modification reactions were monitored by infrared spectroscopy and interferometric reflectance spectroscopy. Protein binding was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994HyInt..84..109J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994HyInt..84..109J"><span>EPR study of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jishi, Fu; Jinchang, Mao; En, Wu; Yongqiang, Jia; Borui, Zhang; Lizhu, Zhang; Guogang, Qin; Yuhua, Zhang; Genshuan, Wui</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>An anisotropic EPR signal was observed in <span class="hlt">porous</span> Si. According to its symmetry and g value, the EPR signal can be attributed to silicon dangling bonds located on the surface of a <span class="hlt">porous</span> Si skeleton. The evolution of the EPR signal at room temperature in air was measured. The annealing temperature dependence of the EPR and the PL of <span class="hlt">porous</span> Si in oxygen and the effects of gamma irradiation on the EPR and the PL spectra of <span class="hlt">porous</span> Si were studied. The changes of the EPR signal and the PL intensity induced in atmosphere by ethyl alcohol and acetone were discovered. The dangling bond is only one of the factors which affect the PL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1150645','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1150645"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> substrates filled with nanomaterials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael</p> <p>2014-08-19</p> <p>A composition comprising: at least one <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040865"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> light-emitting compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burrell, Anthony K; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Jia, Quanxi; Bauer, Eve; Mueller, Alexander H</p> <p>2012-04-17</p> <p>Light-emitting devices are prepared by coating a <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate using a polymer-assisted deposition process. Solutions of metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for metal precursor were coated onto <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrates. The coated substrates were heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere. The result was a substrate with a conformal coating that did not substantially block the pores of the substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010REDS..165..566A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010REDS..165..566A"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> carbon EOS: numerical analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aliverdiev, A.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Vinci, T.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, we address the problem of direct simulation of laser-driven shock experiments aiming at determining the equation of state (EOS) of carbon using the "relative" impedance mismatch method. In particular, using tabulated carbon EOS (SESAME library, material number 7830), we have found some difficulties in reducing the initial density of the material in simulations with <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbon. We have therefore calculated a new EOS for <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbon with a reduced bulk modulus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16214789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16214789"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">porous</span> aluminosilicate pellets for drug delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Byrne, R S; Deasy, P B</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Three pelletized <span class="hlt">porous</span> aluminosilicate ceramics were obtained commercially and their potential to act as extended release drug delivery systems was assessed. The pellets were drug loaded using a vacuum impregnation technique. Factors such as the concentration of the loading solution and the porosity and bulk density of the ceramic influenced the drug loading. The release of drug from the pellets was extended as the drug was entrapped within their <span class="hlt">porous</span> interior. The rate of release was influenced by the <span class="hlt">porous</span> microstructure of the pellets and the physicochemical properties of the drug. Extrusion-spheronization was used to prepare pellets similar to the <span class="hlt">porous</span> ceramics. The pellet formulations contained an aluminosilicate clay mineral (kaolin or halloysite), ethylcellulose 100 cps, ethanol and varying quantities of sucrose. The latter two components acted as pore forming agents. Diltiazem HCl was loaded into the pellets and its release was extended. The release rate could be modified by changing the quantity of sucrose included in the initial formulation, as this influenced the <span class="hlt">porous</span> microstructure of the pellets. In halloysite-based products the release was further extended due to entrapment of the drug within the halloysite microtubules. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> kaolin-based pellets were also prepared by cryopelletization. This <span class="hlt">involved</span> freezing droplets of an aqueous suspension containing kaolin, sodium silicate solution and sodium lauryl sulphate. The resulting pellets were freeze-dried, which removed ice from them to leave pores behind. The pellets gave extended drug release with the release rate being influenced by the <span class="hlt">porous</span> microstructure of the pellets and their microclimate pH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2041842','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2041842"><span>NanoCipro Encapsulation in Monodisperse Large <span class="hlt">Porous</span> PLGA Microparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arnold, Matthew M.; Gorman, Eric M.; Schieber, Loren J.; Munson, Eric J.; Berland, Cory</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Pulmonary drug delivery of controlled release formulations may provide an effective adjunct approach to orally delivered antibiotics for clearing persistent lung infections. Dry powder formulations for this indication should possess characteristics including; effective deposition to infected lung compartments, persistence at the infection site, and steady release of antibiotic. Large <span class="hlt">porous</span> particles (∼10-15 μm) have demonstrated effective lung deposition and enhanced lung residence as a result of their large diameter and reduced clearance by macrophages in comparison to small microparticles (∼1-5 μm). In this report, Precision Particle Fabrication technology was used to create monodisperse large <span class="hlt">porous</span> particles of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) utilizing oils as extractable porogens. After extraction, the resulting large <span class="hlt">porous</span> PLGA particles exhibited a low density and a web-like or hollow interior depending on porogen concentration and type, respectively. Ciprofloxacin nanoparticles (nanoCipro) created by homogenization in dichloromethane, possessed a polymorph with a decreased melting temperature. Encapsulating nanoCipro in large <span class="hlt">porous</span> PLGA particles resulted in a steady release of ciprofloxacin that was extended for larger particle diameters and for the solid particle morphology in comparison to large <span class="hlt">porous</span> particles. The encapsulation efficiency of nanoCipro was quite low and factors <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the entrapment of nanoparticles during particle formation were elucidated. A dry powder formulation with the potential to control particle deposition and sustain release to the lung was developed and insight to improve nanoparticle encapsulation is discussed. PMID:17604870</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25500631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25500631"><span>Additively manufactured <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum implants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The medical device industry's interest in open <span class="hlt">porous</span>, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly <span class="hlt">porous</span> pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical <span class="hlt">porous</span> Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25592166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25592166"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of patients' <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in cooking on their mortality and morbidity: a 19-year follow-up of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jandorf, Sofie; Siersma, Volkert; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; de Fine Olivarius, Niels; Waldorff, Frans Boch</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This study explored the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in cooking on long-term morbidity and mortality among patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data are from the population-based study Diabetes Care in General Practice. In baseline questionnaires, 1348 patients newly diagnosed with T2DM gave information on how frequently they consumed a warm main meal and how often they cooked it themselves. The selected patients were followed up for 19 years in the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. This study analysed the association between <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in cooking and each of seven pre-specified outcomes was analysed in Cox regression models with stepwise adjustment for possible confounders and mediators. 92% of the patients with T2DM consumed a warm main meal ≥ five times per week. Among these, women who cooked for themselves less than once a week had a higher risk of diabetes-related deaths (HR 1.86 [95% CI 1.03-3.35], p = 0.039) and stroke (HR 2.47 [95% CI 1.08-5.65], p = 0.033), after adjustment for confounders. For men, infrequent cooking was not related to increased risk for the outcomes investigated. In patients newly diagnosed with T2DM and with a regular intake of warm main meals, infrequent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in cooking was associated with an increased risk of diabetes-related death and stroke for women, but not for men. General practitioners should pay special attention to managing diabetes treatment in female patients newly diagnosed with T2DM who report infrequent <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in cooking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21343925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21343925"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> organic molecular solids by dynamic covalent scrambling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Shan; Jones, James T A; Hasell, Tom; Blythe, Charlotte E; Adams, Dave J; Trewin, Abbie; Cooper, Andrew I</p> <p>2011-02-22</p> <p>The main strategy for constructing <span class="hlt">porous</span> solids from discrete organic molecules is crystal engineering, which <span class="hlt">involves</span> forming regular crystalline arrays. Here, we present a chemical approach for desymmetrizing organic cages by dynamic covalent scrambling reactions. This leads to molecules with a distribution of shapes which cannot pack effectively and, hence, do not crystallize, creating porosity in the amorphous solid. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> properties can be fine tuned by varying the ratio of reagents in the scrambling reaction, and this allows the preparation of materials with high gas selectivities. The molecular engineering of <span class="hlt">porous</span> amorphous solids complements crystal engineering strategies and may have advantages in some applications, for example, in the compatibilization of functionalities that do not readily cocrystallize.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1769j0011S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1769j0011S"><span>Formation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> inner architecture at the interface of magnetic pulse welded Al/Cu joints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sapanathan, T.; Raoelison, R. N.; Yang, K.; Buiron, N.; Rachik, M.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> inner architecture has been revealed at the interface of magnetic pulse welded aluminum/copper (Al/Cu) joints. These materials could serve the purpose of heterogeneous architectured materials, while their makeup of inner architecture of <span class="hlt">porous</span> interface with the pore sizes of sub-micron to a few microns, could offer potential attributes in energy storage application. Two welding cases with various <span class="hlt">impact</span> intensities are compared. An input voltage of 6.5 kV with an initial air gap of 1.5 mm and a higher voltage of 7.5 kV with a large initial air gap of 5 mm are respectively considered as two cases with low and high velocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Overall morphology of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium was revealed at the interface either in layered or pocketed structures. The allocation of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> zone and pore sizes vary with the <span class="hlt">impact</span> condition. The low velocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> welding conditions also produces smaller pores compared to the high velocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> case, where the pore sizes varies in submicron to a few microns (<10μm). By investigating the potential mechanism of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> zone formation, it was identified that a combined phenomena of cavitation and coalescence play a major role in nucleation and growth of the pores where a rapid cooling that eventually freezes the <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure at the interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSV...330.5292Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSV...330.5292Z"><span>Numerical investigation of active <span class="hlt">porous</span> composites with enhanced acoustic absorption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zieliński, Tomasz G.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The paper presents numerical analysis - <span class="hlt">involving</span> an advanced multiphysics modeling - of the concept of active <span class="hlt">porous</span> composite sound absorbers. Such absorbers should be made up of a layer or layers of poroelastic material (<span class="hlt">porous</span> foams) with embedded elastic inclusions having active (piezoelectric) elements. The purpose of such active composite material is to significantly absorb the energy of acoustic waves in a wide frequency range, particularly, at lower frequencies. At the same time the total thickness of composite should be very moderate. The active parts of composites are used to adapt the absorbing properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> layers to different noise conditions by affecting the so-called solid-borne wave - originating mainly from the vibrations of elastic skeleton of <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium - to counteract the fluid-borne wave - resulting mainly from the vibrations of air in the pores; both waves are strongly coupled, especially, at lower frequencies. In fact, since the traction between the air and the solid frame of <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium is the main absorption mechanism, the elastic skeleton is actively vibrated in order to adapt and improve the dissipative interaction of the skeleton and air in the pores. Passive and active performance of such absorbers is analyzed to test the feasibility of this approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDD40008L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDD40008L"><span>Modeling and Simulations of Particulate Flows through Functionalized <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chunhui; Dutta, Prashanta; Liu, Jin</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Transport of particulate fluid through a functionalized <span class="hlt">porous</span> material is of significant interest in many industrial applications, such as earth sciences, battery designs and water/air purifications. The entire process is complex, which <span class="hlt">involves</span> the convection of fluid, diffusion of reactants as well as reversible chemical reactions at the fluid-solid interface In this work we present a convection-diffusion-reaction model and simulate the transport of particulate fluid through a functionalized <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures are generated and manipulated through the quartet structure generation set method. The Navier-Stokes with convection-diffusion equations are solved using the lattice Boltzmann method. The chemical reactions at the interface are modeled by an absorption-desorption process and treated as the boundary conditions for above governing equations. Through our simulations we study the effects of <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures, including porosity, pore orientation, and pore size as well as the kinetic rates of surface reactions on the overall performance of removal efficiency of the species from the solution. Our results show that whole process is highly affected by both the <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures and absorption rate. The optimal parameters can be achieved by proper design. This work is supported by NSF Grants: CBET-1250107 and CBET -1604211.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..84..436M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..84..436M"><span>An analytical model for <span class="hlt">porous</span> single crystals with ellipsoidal voids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mbiakop, A.; Constantinescu, A.; Danas, K.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A rate-(in)dependent constitutive model for <span class="hlt">porous</span> single crystals with arbitrary crystal anisotropy (e.g., FCC, BCC, HCP, etc.) containing general ellipsoidal voids is developed. The proposed model, denoted as modified variational model (MVAR), is based on the nonlinear variational homogenization method, which makes use of a linear comparison <span class="hlt">porous</span> material to estimate the response of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">porous</span> single crystal. Periodic multi-void finite element simulations are used in order to validate the MVAR for a large number of parameters including cubic (FCC, BCC) and hexagonal (HCP) crystal anisotropy, various creep exponents (i.e., nonlinearity), several stress triaxiality ratios, general void shapes and orientations and various porosity levels. The MVAR model, which <span class="hlt">involves</span> a priori no calibration parameters, is found to be in good agreement with the finite element results for all cases considered in the rate-dependent context. The model is then used in a predictive manner to investigate the complex response of <span class="hlt">porous</span> single crystals in several cases with strong coupling between the anisotropy of the crystal and the (morphological) anisotropy induced by the shape and orientation of the voids. Finally, a simple way of calibrating the MVAR with just two adjustable parameters is depicted in the rate-independent context so that an excellent agreement with the FE simulation results is obtained. In this last case, this proposed model can be thought as a generalization of the Gurson model in the context of <span class="hlt">porous</span> single crystals and general ellipsoidal void shapes and orientations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........96T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........96T"><span>Adhesion of liquids to <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials and fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trofimov, Artem</p> <p></p> <p>This research is centered on the analysis of adhesion properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials and fibers of elliptical shapes. Composites are a unique class of materials having properties, which could not be achieved by either of the constituent materials alone. Composites with <span class="hlt">porous</span> filler are put into service in buildings, roads, bridges, etc. Fiber-reinforced composites are actively <span class="hlt">involved</span> in flight vehicles, automobiles, boats, and dozens of other products. In the first part of this study we developed a procedure for evaluation of adhesion of liquids to <span class="hlt">porous</span> solids, where water, hexadecane and asphalt binder and different rocks were studied to illustrate the methodology. An experimental protocol to evaluate the work of adhesion, a characteristic thermodynamic parameter of the liquid/<span class="hlt">porous</span> solid pair, was discussed and a mathematical model describing the kinetics of liquid penetration into inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> material was developed and used for interpretation of the experiments. The second part is devoted to the analysis of interactions of liquids with circular and elliptical wires. The behavior of menisci embracing the fiber in the capillary rise experiment was investigated. In particular, we study the profiles of the contact line around cylinders, contact angle, and the work of adhesion of a set of different liquids. Compared to the circular wires, elliptical wires produced taller menisci, hence the wetted area increases. It is expected that the kinetics of resin impregnation into a preforms made of elliptical fibers will significantly change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........26D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........26D"><span>Stability of Chromium Carbide/Chromium Oxide Based <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Ceramics in Supercritical Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Ziqiang</p> <p></p> <p>This research was aimed at developing <span class="hlt">porous</span> ceramics as well as ceramic-metal composites that can be potentially used in Gen-IV supercritical water reactors (SCWR). The research mainly includes two parts: 1) fabricating and engineering the <span class="hlt">porous</span> ceramics and <span class="hlt">porous</span> ceramic-metal composite; 2) Evaluating the stability of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> ceramics in SCW environments. Reactive sintering in carbonaceous environments was used to fabricate <span class="hlt">porous</span> Cr3C2/Cr2O3-based ceramic. A new process consisting of freeze casting and reactive sintering has also been successfully developed to fabricate highly <span class="hlt">porous</span> Cr3C 2 ceramics with multiple interconnected pores. Various amounts of cobalt powders were mixed with ceramic oxides in order to modify the <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure and property of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> carbide obtained by reactive sintering. The hardness of the M(Cr,Co)7C3-Co composite has been evaluated and rationalized based on the solid solution of cobalt in the ceramic phase, the composite effect of soft Co metal and the <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure of the ceramic materials. Efforts have also been made in fabricating and evaluating interpenetrating Cr3C2-Cu composites formed by infiltrating liquid copper into <span class="hlt">porous</span> Cr3C2. The corrosion evaluation mainly focused on assessing the stability of <span class="hlt">porous</span> Cr3C2 and Cr2O3 under various SCW conditions. The corrosion tests showed that the <span class="hlt">porous</span> Cr3C 2 is stable in SCW at temperatures below 425°C. However, cracking and disintegrating of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> Cr3C2 occurred when the SCW temperature increased above 425°C. Mechanisms of the corrosion attack were also investigated. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> Cr2O3 obtained by oxidizing the <span class="hlt">porous</span> Cr3C2 was exposed to various SCW environments. It was found that the stability of Cr 2O 3 was dependent on its morphology and the SCW testing conditions. Increasing SCW temperature increased the dissociation rate of the Cr2O 3. Adding proper amount of Y2O3 can increase the stability of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> Cr2O3 in SCW. It was also concluded that decreasing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22136546','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22136546"><span>A <span class="hlt">POROUS</span>, LAYERED HELIOPAUSE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Swisdak, M.; Drake, J. F.; Opher, M. E-mail: drake@umd.edu</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The picture of the heliopause (HP)-the boundary between the domains of the Sun and the local interstellar medium (LISM)-as a pristine interface with a large rotation in the magnetic field fails to describe recent Voyager 1 (V1) data. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the global heliosphere reveal that the rotation angle of the magnetic field across the HP at V1 is small. Particle-in-cell simulations, based on cuts through the MHD model at V1's location, suggest that the sectored region of the heliosheath (HS) produces large-scale magnetic islands that reconnect with the interstellar magnetic field while mixing LISM and HS plasma. Cuts across the simulation reveal multiple, anti-correlated jumps in the number densities of LISM and HS particles, similar to those observed, at the magnetic separatrices. A model is presented, based on both the observations and simulations, of the HP as a <span class="hlt">porous</span>, multi-layered structure threaded by magnetic fields. This model further suggests that contrary to the conclusions of recent papers, V1 has already crossed the HP.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6060851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6060851"><span>The formation of microbial barriers in saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hendry, M.J.; Lawrence, J.R. )</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>Control of contaminant migration in the subsurface to prevent off-site migration and facilitate treatment is an essential component of any remediation scheme. In situ plugging of pore spaces by introduced bacteria has been suggested as a mechanism to seal permeable zones and to enhance bioremediation. This procedure <span class="hlt">involves</span> the injection of bacteria which adsorb to the geologic media, are stimulated with a nutrient solution and grow producing an exopolysaccharide plug. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the feasibility of in situ placement of biological barriers for containment of contaminants in subsurface environments. Transport of bacteria through sands at a groundwater velocity of 0.3 m/day and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of growth and exopolymer production during nutrient stimulation were studied over time using confocal laser microscopy and viable fluorescence exclusion techniques. The inoculum rapidly colonized the sand matrix and dominated surface sites while forming extensive biofilms. After three to four days the native ground-water flora invaded the established biofilm, creating a mixed species biofilm which reduced the effective porosity of the geologic medium. The resulting biobarrier reduced the hydraulic conductivity of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media by two orders of magnitude, and exhibited self-sealing properties in response to changes in hydraulic head.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444352"><span>How does <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of a hospice nurse specialist <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the experience on informal caring in palliative care? Perspectives of middle-aged partners bereaved through cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borland, R; Glackin, M; Jordan, J</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to retrospectively explore partners' understandings and experiences in relation to caring for a loved one with a terminal illness, with a particular focus on the role of the hospice nurse specialist (HNS). Participants were purposively sampled and recruited through HNS gatekeepers. Seven middle-aged, bereaved partners participated in semi-structured, qualitative interviews. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Five main themes emerged regarding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the HNS on informal caring: 'the ambivalence of caring', 'the HNS as a "confidante" in caring', 'the HNS as a "champion" in support', 'the work of the HNS--an unseen benefit' and 'being prepared for death and bereavement'. Findings from this study offer new insights into how <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of a HNS <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the ability of carers to perform their role as an informal caregiver. Results highlight a crucial need for carers to have a clear understanding of all aspects of the HNS role so that full benefit is derived from their input. Recruitment of experienced and knowledgeable nurses is paramount, but equally important for carers is the supportive aspect of the role for which nurses need to demonstrate excellent communication skills and an intuitive, caring approach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22869206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22869206"><span>The Citizenship Project part II: <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a citizenship intervention on clinical and community outcomes for persons with mental illness and criminal justice <span class="hlt">involvement</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clayton, Ashley; O'Connell, Maria J; Bellamy, Chyrell; Benedict, Patricia; Rowe, Michael</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>This study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention based on a theoretical framework of citizenship on reducing psychiatric symptoms, alcohol use, and drug use, and increasing quality of life for persons with serious mental illness (SMI) and criminal justice <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. One-hundred fourteen adults with SMI and a history of criminal justice <span class="hlt">involvement</span> participated in a 2 × 3 longitudinal randomized controlled trial of a four-month citizenship intervention versus usual services. Linear mixed model analyses were used to assess the intervention's <span class="hlt">impact</span> on quality of life, symptoms, and substance use. After controlling for baseline covariates, participants in the experimental condition reported significantly increased quality of life, greater satisfaction with and amount of activity, higher satisfaction with work, and reduced alcohol and drug use over time. However, individuals in the experimental condition also reported increased anxiety/depression and agitation at 6 months (but not 12 months) and significantly increased negative symptoms at 12 months. Findings suggest that community-oriented, citizenship interventions for persons with SMI and criminal justice histories may facilitate improved clinical and community outcomes in some domains, but some negative clinical findings suggest the need for post-intervention support for intervention participants. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24245166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24245166"><span>Large-scale fabrication of In2S3 <span class="hlt">porous</span> films via one-step hydrothermal process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Fei; Deng, Dan; Lei, Yinlin</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Large-scale indium sulfide (In2S3) <span class="hlt">porous</span> films were fabricated via a facile one-step and non-template hydrothermal process using L-cysteine as a capping agent. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of reaction conditions such as reaction time, temperatures, and capping agents on the synthesis of the In2S3 <span class="hlt">porous</span> films were studied. The morphology, structure, and phase composition of In2S3 <span class="hlt">porous</span> films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The formation process and the optical property of the In2S3 <span class="hlt">porous</span> films were also evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7034896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7034896"><span>Numerical simulation of chemical migration in physically and chemically heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tompson, A.F.B. )</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>A series of chemical transport simulations in saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> media are conducted to examine the coupled <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on chemical mobility induced by nonuniform sorption reactions and heterogeneous flow fields. The simulations <span class="hlt">involve</span> the calculation of fluid flow and chemical migration within highly resolved, three-dimensional cubic regions with synthetically derived material properties. Nonuniformities in subsurface materials are represented as randomly correlated hydraulic conductivity and sorption partition coefficient fields. Transport computations are based upon a random walk particle model, appropriately modified to treat equilibrium sorption reactions. Current experiments focus on four hypothetical constituents, one being inert, and the other three independently obeying linear, Freundlich, and Langmuir partitioning relationships. Results show distinct effects of the nonuniform flow and sorption processes on the overall displacement, dispersion, and partitioning/retardation and the breakthrough behavior of the constituent plumes, as well as on the sharpening fronts and skewed concentration profiles associated with nonlinear partitioning models. 37 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28934545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28934545"><span>Antimicrobial 3D <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Scaffolds Prepared by Additive Manufacturing and Breath Figures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vargas Alfredo, Nelson; Dorronsoro, Ane; Cortajarena, Aitziber L; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Juan</p> <p>2017-09-21</p> <p>We describe herein a novel strategy for the fabrication of efficient 3D printed antibacterial scaffolds. For this purpose, both the surface topography as well as the chemical composition of 3D scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing were modified. The scaffolds were fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM) using high <span class="hlt">impact</span> polystyrene (HIPS) filaments. The surface of the objects was then topographically modified providing materials with <span class="hlt">porous</span> surfaces by means of the Breath Figures approach. The strategy <span class="hlt">involves</span> the immersion of the scaffold in a polymer solution during a precise period of time. This approach permitted the modification of the pore size varying the immersion time as well as the solution concentration. Moreover, by using polymer blend solutions of polystyrene and polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PS23-b-PAA18) and a quaternized polystyrene-b-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PS42-b-PDMAEMAQ17), the scaffolds were simultaneously chemically modified. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR. Finally, the biological response towards bacteria was explored. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> surfaces prepared using quaternized PDMAEMA as well as those prepared using PAA confer antimicrobial activity to the films, i.e. were able to kill on contact S. aureus employed as model bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22287819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22287819"><span>Analysis of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of professional <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in evidence generation for the HTA Process, subproject "cochlear implants": methodology, results and recommendations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berrettini, S; Arslan, E; Baggiani, A; Burdo, S; Cassandro, E; Cuda, D; Filipo, R; Rossi, P Giorgi; Mancini, P; Martini, A; Quaranta, A; Quaranta, N; Turchetti, G; Forli, F</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The aim of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is to provide decision-makers, distributors and recipients with information on the effectiveness, cost and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of health technologies. The present study constitutes a subproject within the wider project "Analysis of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of professional <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in evidence generation for the HTA process", which is part of the strategic programme "Transfer of the results of the research in clinical practice and organisation of healthcare services", coordinated by Laziosanità - Agency of Public Healthcare of the Lazio Region and AgeNaS (National Agency for Regional Healthcare Services). The objectives of the present subproject (cochlear implants) are as follows: a) to produce a report regarding the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of cochlear implants (CI) on their recipients, through a systematic review of literature and extensive selection of relative studies, combining the outcomes with metanalytical techniques. Output: report on the indications of usage in the groups of population for which benefits are controversial; b) to create a registry of patients using cochlear implants. The registry should contain a selection of anagraphic and clinical information relative to patient follow-up in order to assess factors associated with safety and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cochlear implant users. This source of information is essential for future observational studies. This was divided into 4 phases: 1(st) phase: definition of key participants in the assessment process; 2(nd) phase: definition of methods and timing of "Aims" (definition of the objective); 3(rd) phase: definition of the methods and times of the "assessment process", 4(th) phase: production of the final report. From the analysis of systematic reviews and italian and international guidelines, the Working Group members approved recommendations on the following topics: results after CI in children in relation to age at implantation, bilateral CI in children, CI in deaf children with associated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSG....63...50F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSG....63...50F"><span>Anisotropy of permeability in faulted <span class="hlt">porous</span> sandstones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farrell, N. J. C.; Healy, D.; Taylor, C. W.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Studies of fault rock permeabilities advance the understanding of fluid migration patterns around faults and contribute to predictions of fault stability. In this study a new model is proposed combining brittle deformation structures formed during faulting, with fluid flow through pores. It assesses the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of faulting on the permeability anisotropy of <span class="hlt">porous</span> sandstone, hypothesising that the formation of fault related micro-scale deformation structures will alter the host rock porosity organisation and create new permeability pathways. Core plugs and thin sections were sampled around a normal fault and oriented with respect to the fault plane. Anisotropy of permeability was determined in three orientations to the fault plane at ambient and confining pressures. Results show that permeabilities measured parallel to fault dip were up to 10 times higher than along fault strike permeability. Analysis of corresponding thin sections shows elongate pores oriented at a low angle to the maximum principal palaeo-stress (σ1) and parallel to fault dip, indicating that permeability anisotropy is produced by grain scale deformation mechanisms associated with faulting. Using a soil mechanics 'void cell model' this study shows how elongate pores could be produced in faulted <span class="hlt">porous</span> sandstone by compaction and reorganisation of grains through shearing and cataclasis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........76M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........76M"><span>Modeling isothermal and non-isothermal flows in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohseni Languri, Ehsan</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A complete understanding of the physics of flow and heat transfer phenomena in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is vital for accurate simulation of flow processes in industrial applications. In one such application pertaining to liquid composite molding (LCM) for manufacturing polymer composites, the fiber preforms used in LCM as reinforcements are limited not only to the single-scale <span class="hlt">porous</span> media in the form of random fiber-mats, but also include dual-scale <span class="hlt">porous</span> media in the form of woven or stitched fiber-mats. The conventional flow physics is not able to model the resin filling process in LCM <span class="hlt">involving</span> the dual-scale <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. In this study, the flow in dual-scale <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is studied in order to predict the permeability of these fiber mats. The effect of aspect ratio of the fiber preform on the accuracy and flow during permeability estimation in single- and dual-scale <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is analyzed experimentally and numerically. Flow of liquid in a free channel bounded on one side by <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium is studied next, and two well-known boundary conditions of stress continuity and stress jump at the interface of the two regions are evaluated numerically. A point-wise solution for Stokes flow through periodic and non periodic <span class="hlt">porous</span> media (made of cylindrical particles) adjacent to the free channel is presented using the Imite element based CFD software COMSOL. The efficacy of the two interfacial conditions is evaluated after volume averaging the point-wise velocity using a long averaging volume, also called the representative elementary volume or REV, and then comparing such a volume-averaged velocity profile with the available analytical solution. The investigation is carried out for five different porosities at three different Reynolds numbers to cover a wide range of applications. The presence of randomly-placed cylinders during the creation of non-periodic <span class="hlt">porous</span> media damps out spatial fluctuations in the averaged velocity observed in periodic <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. The analytical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975034"><span>Absorption of impinging water droplet in <span class="hlt">porous</span> stones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, J B; Radu, A I; Vontobel, P; Derome, D; Carmeliet, J</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents an experimental investigation and numerical analysis of the absorption of water droplets <span class="hlt">impacting</span> <span class="hlt">porous</span> stones. The absorption process of an impinging droplet is here fully characterized from spreading to evaporation in terms of absorbed mass during droplet depletion and moisture content distribution in a time-resolved manner for three different natural stones. High-speed imaging and neutron radiography are used to quantify moisture absorption in <span class="hlt">porous</span> stones of varying moisture properties from deposition until depletion. During <span class="hlt">impact</span> and spreading, the droplet exhibits a dynamic non-wetting behavior. At maximum spreading, the droplet undergoes pinning, resulting into the contact radius remaining constant until droplet depletion. Absorption undergoes two phases: initially, absorption is hindered due a contact resistance attributed to entrapped air; afterwards, a more perfect capillary contact occurs and absorption goes on until depletion, concurrently with evaporation and further redistribution. A finite-element numerical model for isothermal unsaturated moisture transport in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media captures the phases of mass absorption in good agreement with the experimental data. Droplet spreading and absorption are highly determined by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity of the droplet, while moisture content redistribution after depletion is much less dependent on <span class="hlt">impact</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011143','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011143"><span>Acoustic Absorption in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009TCCh..287..135L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009TCCh..287..135L"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Networks Through Colloidal Templates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Qin; Retsch, Markus; Wang, Jianjun; Knoll, Wolfgang; Jonas, Ulrich</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> networks represent a class of materials with interconnected voids with specific properties concerning adsorption, mass and heat transport, and spatial confinement, which lead to a wide range of applications ranging from oil recovery and water purification to tissue engineering. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> networks with well-defined, highly ordered structure and periodicities around the wavelength of light can furthermore show very sophisticated optical properties. Such networks can be fabricated from a very large range of materials by infiltration of a sacrificial colloidal crystal template and subsequent removal of the template. The preparation procedures reported in the literature are discussed in this review and the resulting <span class="hlt">porous</span> networks are presented with respect to the underlying material class. Furthermore, methods for hierarchical superstructure formation and functionalization of the network walls are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0265637','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0265637"><span>DEVELOPMENT OF A <span class="hlt">POROUS</span> METALLIC COMPOSITE MATERIAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">POROUS</span> METALS, ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, BONDING, CLAY, COATINGS, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, COPPER, DEPOSITS, ELECTROCHEMISTRY, ELECTROPLATING, EXPANDED...PLASTICS, GLASS, GRAPHITE, METALS, NICKEL, OXIDES, PAINTS, PLASTICS, PLATING, POLYMERS, <span class="hlt">POROUS</span> MATERIALS, SILVER, SPHERES, STYRENES, UREIDES, VACUUM APPARATUS, VAPOR PLATING.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18517570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18517570"><span>Diffusion of colloidal fluids in random <span class="hlt">porous</span> media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chávez-Rojo, M A; Juárez-Maldonado, R; Medina-Noyola, M</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The diffusive relaxation of a colloidal fluid adsorbed in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium depends on many factors, including the concentration and composition of the adsorbed colloidal fluid, the average structure of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix, and the nature of the colloid-colloid and colloid-substrate interactions. A simple manner to describe these effects is to model the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium as a set of spherical particles fixed in space at random positions with prescribed statistical structural properties. Within this model one may describe the relaxation of concentration fluctuations of the adsorbed fluid by simply setting to zero the short-time mobility of one species (the <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix) in a theory of the dynamics of equilibrium colloidal mixtures, or by extending such dynamic theory to explicitly consider the <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix as a random external field, as recently done in the framework of mode coupling theory [V. Krakoviack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 065703 (2005)]. Here we consider the first approach and employ the self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of the dynamics of equilibrium colloidal mixtures, to describe the dynamics of the mobile component. We focus on the short- and intermediate-time regimes, which we compare with Brownian dynamics simulations <span class="hlt">involving</span> a binary mixture with screened Coulomb interactions for two models of the average static structure of the matrix: a <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix constructed by quenching configurations of an equilibrium mixture in which both species were first equilibrated together, and a preexisting matrix with prescribed average structure, in which we later add the mobile species. We conclude that in both cases, if the correct static structure factors are provided as input, the SCGLE theory correctly predicts the main features of the dynamics of the permeating fluid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MART30009Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MART30009Y"><span>Templated Electrodeposition of Highly <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Nanostructured Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Han-Chang; Lim, Stephanie; Liu, Jiabin; Wu, Qian; Cheng, X. M.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The fabrication of nanoporous materials has been of great interest for applications such as biosensors, photonic materials and energy storage. Compared to many other methods, the templated electrodeposition method is low cost, fast, and compatible with large-scale production. In this work, we developed a templated electrochemical deposition technique for fabricating highly ordered and highly <span class="hlt">porous</span> nanostructured materials. The fabrication <span class="hlt">involves</span> the following steps: self-assembly of monodispersed polystyrene spheres, electrochemical deposition of the desired materials, and sphere removal by a dissolution process. Deposition of Au and Ni layered metallic nanoporous structures were studied using different electrolytes at appropriate potentials. The pore size of the materials was tuned by using different sizes of template polystyrene spheres ranging from 50nm to 1000nm. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the highly ordered 3-dimensional hexagonal closed pack (hcp) structures in the samples. The templated electrochemical deposition technique provides a promising alternative approach to preparing highly <span class="hlt">porous</span> anode materials for battery applications. Work supported by Bryn Mawr K/G fund for faculty research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868499','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868499"><span>Metal recovery from <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sturcken, Edward F.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A method for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF.sub.4 and HNO.sub.3 and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200.degree. C. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhyB..185..603C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhyB..185..603C"><span>Luminescence decay of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, X.; Uttamchandani, D.; Sander, D.; O'Donnell, K. P.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>The luminescence decay pattern of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon samples prepared by electrochemical etching is characterised experimentally by a non-exponential profile, a strong dependence on temperature and an absence of spectral diffusion. We describe this luminescence as carrier-dopping-assisted recombination. Following the correlation function approach to non-dispersive transport developed by Scher and co-workers [Physics Today 41 (1991) 26], we suggest a simple derivation of analytical functions which accurately describes the anomalous luminescence decay of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon, and show that this model includes exponential and Kohlrausch [Pogg. Ann. Phys. 119 (1863) 352] (stretched-exponential) relaxations as special cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28960427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28960427"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">involved</span> free light chain (FLC) levels in patients achieving normal FLC ratio after initial therapy in light chain amyloidosis (AL).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tandon, Nidhi; Sidana, Surbhi; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Dingli, David; Buadi, Francis K; Fonder, Amie L; Hayman, Suzanne R; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Hobbs, Miriam A; Kapoor, Prashant; Gonsalves, Wilson I; Leung, Nelson; Go, Ronald S; Lust, John A; Russell, Stephen J; Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kumar, Shaji K</p> <p>2017-09-27</p> <p>Achievement of a normal FLC ratio (FLCr) following treatment indicates hematologic response and suggests better outcomes in light chain amyloidosis (AL). We examined if elevated <span class="hlt">involved</span> free light chain (hiFLC) <span class="hlt">impacts</span> outcomes in patients achieving normal FLCr. We retrospectively analyzed 345 AL patients who were diagnosed within a 10-year period (2006-2015) and had 2 consecutive normal FLCr values after 1st line treatment. Among these, patients with hiFLC at 1(st) reading of normal FLCr (hiFLC1; n=166; 48.1%) were compared to those who did not (n=179; 51.9%). Patients with AL who have hiFLC1 after initial therapy had higher rates of multi-organ <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (63.3 vs 46.4%; p=0.002) and patients in advanced Mayo stage (42.9 vs 32.2%; p=0.04) at diagnosis. The median progression free survival [PFS; 38.2 (95%CI; 26.4, 55.4) vs 67.1 (95%CI; 55.8, 88) months; p=0.0002] and overall survival [OS; 94.4 (95%CI; 78, 107.1) vs not reached (NR, 95%CI; 116.1, NR) months; p<0.0001] were lower in those who had hiFLC1. A more stringent comparison for patients with 2 consecutive hiFLC (hIFLC2; n=111; 32.2%) versus not (n=2234; 67.8%) showed consistent results [PFS; 27.1 (95%CI; 23, 53.8) vs 63.3 (95%CI; 55.4, 77) months; p<0.0001 and OS; 78 (95% CI; 54.6, 98.8) vs NR (95%CI; NR, NR); p<0.0001]. This poor prognostic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of hiFLC on survival was independent of serum creatinine, Mayo stage, negative immunofixation status and inclusion of transplant in initial therapy on multivariate analysis. Hence, persistent elevation of iFLC predicts poor prognosis even among patients achieving normal ratio after initial therapy in AL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA428124','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA428124"><span>Formation of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Silicon Carbide and its Suitability as a Chemical and Temperature Detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-12-19</p> <p>Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ii iii FORMATION OF <span class="hlt">POROUS</span> SILICON CARBIDE AND ITS SUITABILITY AS A CHEMICAL AND TEMPERATURE...processes.17-20 Semiconductors, such as silicon and gallium nitride , can easily be made <span class="hlt">porous</span> via wet etching techniques (both electrochemical and...highly dependent upon the etching conditions. In gallium nitride , the etching conditions have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the resulting morphology, but</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/441854','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/441854"><span>Process of preparing tritiated <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Tam, S.W.</p> <p>1997-02-18</p> <p>A process of preparing tritiated <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon is described in which <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T{sub 2} gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon. 1 fig.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194877"><span>Correlates of a good death and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of hospice <span class="hlt">involvement</span>: findings from the national survey of households affected by cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cagle, John G; Pek, Jolynn; Clifford, Maggie; Guralnik, Jack; Zimmerman, Sheryl</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Knowing how to improve the dying experience for patients with end-stage cancer is essential for cancer professionals. However, there is little evidence on the relationship between clinically relevant factors and quality of death. Also, while hospice has been linked with improved outcomes, our understanding of factors that contribute to a "good death" when hospice is <span class="hlt">involved</span> remains limited. This study (1) identified correlates of a good death and (2) provided evidence on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of hospice on quality of death. Using data from a survey of US households affected by cancer (N = 930, response rate 51 %), we fit regression models with a subsample of 158 respondents who had experienced the death of a family member with cancer. Measures included quality of death (good/bad) and clinically relevant factors including: hospice <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, symptoms during treatment, whether wishes were followed, provider knowledge/expertise, and compassion. Respondents were 60 % female, 89 % White, and averaged 57 years old. Decedents were most often a respondent's spouse (46 %). While 73 % of respondents reported a good death, Hispanics were less likely to experience good death (p = 0.007). Clinically relevant factors, including hospice, were associated with good death (p < 0.05)--an exception being whether the physician said the cancer was curable/fatal. With adjustments, perceptions of provider knowledge/expertise was the only clinical factor that remained associated with good death. Enhanced provider training/communication, referrals to hospice and greater attention to symptom management may facilitate improved quality of dying. Additionally, the cultural relevance of the concept of a "good death" warrants further research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5484523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5484523"><span>Correlates of a Good Death and the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Hospice <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>: Findings from the National Survey of Households Affected by Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cagle, John G.; Pek, Jolynn; Clifford, Maggie; Guralnik, Jack; Zimmerman, Sheryl</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Knowing how to improve the dying experience for patients with end-stage cancer is essential for cancer professionals. However, there is little evidence on the relationship between clinically relevant factors and quality of death. Also, while hospice has been linked with improved outcomes, our understanding of factors that contribute to a “good death” when hospice is <span class="hlt">involved</span> remains limited. This study (1) identified correlates of a good death; and, (2) provided evidence on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of hospice on quality of death. Methods Using data from a survey of US households affected by cancer (N=930, response rate 51%), we fit regression models with a subsample of 158 respondents who had experienced the death of a family member with cancer. Measures included quality of death (good/bad) and clinically relevant factors including: hospice <span class="hlt">involvement</span>, symptoms during treatment, whether wishes were followed, provider knowledge/expertise and compassion. Results Respondents were 60% female, 89% White, and averaged 57 years old. Decedents were most often a respondent's spouse (46%). While 73% of respondents reported a good death, Hispanics were less likely to experience good death (p=.007). Clinically relevant factors, including hospice, were associated with good death (p<.05) -- an exception being whether the physician said the cancer was curable/fatal. With adjustments, perceptions of provider knowledge/expertise was the only clinical factor that remained associated with good death. Conclusions Enhanced provider training/communication, referrals to hospice and greater attention to symptom management may facilitate improved quality of dying. Additionally, the cultural relevance of the concept of a “good death” warrants further research. PMID:25194877</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995548"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span> on post-operative morbidity and mortality following orthopaedic procedures: a study of 43,343 cases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Serrano, Jose A; Waterman, Brian R; Bader, Julia O; Belmont, Philip J</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Few studies have addressed the role of residents' participation in morbidity and mortality after orthopaedic surgery. The present study utilized the 2005-2010 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) dataset to assess the risk of 30-day post-operative complications and mortality associated with resident participation in orthopaedic procedures. The NSQIP dataset was queried using codes for 12 common orthopaedic procedures. Patients identified as having received one of the procedures had their records abstracted to obtain demographic data, medical history, operative time, and resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in their surgical care. Thirty-day post-operative outcomes, including complications and mortality, were assessed for all patients. A step-wise multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of resident participation on mortality- and complication-risk while controlling for other factors in the model. Primary analyses were performed comparing cases where the attending surgeon operated alone to all other case designations, while a subsequent sensitivity analysis limited inclusion to cases where resident participation was reported by post-graduate year. In the NSQIP dataset, 43,343 patients had received one of the 12 orthopaedic procedures queried. Thirty-five percent of cases were performed with resident participation. The mortality rate, overall, was 2.5 and 10 % sustained one or more complications. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between resident participation and the risk of one or more complications [OR 1.3 (95 % CI 1.1, 1.4); p < 0.001] as well as major systemic complications [OR 1.6 (95 % CI 1.3, 2.0); p < 0.001] for primary joint arthroplasty procedures only. These findings persisted even after sensitivity testing. A mild to moderate risk for complications was noted following resident <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in joint arthroplasty procedures. No significant risk of post-operative morbidity or mortality was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ResPh...6..337L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ResPh...6..337L"><span>Study of the deposition process of vinpocetine on the surface of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lenshin, A. S.; Polkovnikova, Yu. A.; Seredin, P. V.</p> <p></p> <p>Currently the most prospective way in pharmacotherapy is the obtaining of nanoparticles <span class="hlt">involving</span> pharmaceutical substances. Application of <span class="hlt">porous</span> inorganic materials on the basis of silicon is among the main features in solving of this problem. The present work is concerned with the problem of the deposition of pharmaceutical drug with nootropic activity - vinpocetine - into <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon. Silicon nanoparticles were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching of Si plates. The process of vinpocetine deposition was studied in dependence of the deposition time. As a result of the investigations it was found that infrared transmission spectra of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon with the deposited vinpocetine revealed the absorption bands characteristic of vinpocetine substance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1014938','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1014938"><span>Enhancement of thermal stability of <span class="hlt">porous</span> bodies comprised of stainless steel or an alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Judkins, Roddie R.; Armstrong, Timothy R.; Adcock, Kenneth D.</p> <p>2010-11-09</p> <p>A method for treating a <span class="hlt">porous</span> item constructed of metal powder, such as a powder made of Series 400 stainless steel, <span class="hlt">involves</span> a step of preheating the <span class="hlt">porous</span> item to a temperature of between about 700 and 900.degree. C. degrees in an oxidizing atmosphere and then sintering the body in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature which is slightly below the melting temperature of the metal which comprises the <span class="hlt">porous</span> item. The thermal stability of the resulting item is enhanced by this method so that the item retains its porosity and metallic characteristics, such as ductility, at higher (e.g. near-melting) temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911718"><span>FLUID FLOW, SOLUTE MIXING AND PRECIPITATION IN <span class="hlt">POROUS</span> MEDIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Redden, George D; Y. Fang; T.D. Scheibe; A.M. Tartakovsky; Fox, Don T; Fujita, Yoshiko; White, Timothy A</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p> carbonate ions came into contact along a parallel flow boundary and mixed by dispersion and diffusion. The result is the propagation of calcium carbonate precipitates along the solution-solution boundary in the direction of flow. As carbonate precipitates fill the pore space mixing of the two solutions is restricted and therefore precipitation, flow, and transport are coupled. The distribution of carbonate phases is a complex interaction <span class="hlt">involving</span> precipitation and dissolution kinetics, which are functions of pore-scale saturation indices and solute ratios, heterogeneous vs. homogeneous nucleation and growth mechanisms and changes in porosity and flow. Experimental and modeling results illustrate challenges in understanding the macroscopic and microscopic phenomena that depend on solute mixing, the relevance of molecular and pore-scale processes to the macroscopic behavior, and potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> on metal mobility in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Mineral precipitation and changes in porosity are simulated at the pore-scale using the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method. Macroscopic simulations were performed using discretized, continuum-scale modeling with parameterization representing macroscopic media properties. One of the modeling goals is to use pore-scale simulations to provide the basis for parameterization of macroscopic (more practical) model predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17729137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17729137"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of lowering the legal blood alcohol concentration limit to 0.03 on male, female and teenage drivers <span class="hlt">involved</span> alcohol-related crashes in Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Desapriya, E; Shimizu, S; Pike, I; Subzwari, S; Scime, G</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>In June of 2002, a revision to part of the Road Traffic Act drastically increased the penalties for drinking and driving offences in Japan. Most notably, the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving was lowered from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. The rationale for the new lower BAC limit was predicated on the assumption that drinking drivers will comply with the new, lower limit by reducing the amount of alcohol they consume prior to driving, thereby lowering their risk of crash <span class="hlt">involvement</span>. This, in turn, would lead to fewer alcohol-related crashes. A key limitation of previous lower BAC evaluation research in determining the effectiveness of lower legal BAC limit policies is the assumption of population homogeneity in responding to the laws. The present analysis is unique in this perspective and focuses on the evaluation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of BAC limit reduction on different segments of the population. The chief objective of this research is to quantify the extent to which lowering the legal limit of BAC has reduced male, female and teenager <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in motor vehicle crashes in Japan since 2002. Most notably, the introduction of reduced BAC limit legislation resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the number of alcohol-impaired drivers on the road in Japan, indicating responsiveness to the legal change among adults and teenagers. In addition, this preliminary assessment appears to indicate that the implementation of 0.03 BAC laws and other associated activities are associated with statistically significant reductions in alcohol-<span class="hlt">involved</span> motor vehicle crashes. In comparison, the rates of total crashes showed no statistically significant decline nor increase in the period following the introduction of the BAC law, indicating that the lower BAC limit only had an effect on alcohol-related crashes in Japan. The evidence suggests that the lower BAC legal limit and perceived risk of detection are the two most important factors resulting in a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700405"><span><span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of NRN1 gene in schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on age at onset and cognitive functioning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Prats, Claudia; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Lázaro, Luisa; Moreno, Carmen; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Lera-Miguel, Sara; Miret, Salvador; Muñoz, Ma José; Ibáñez, Ignacio; Campanera, Sílvia; Giralt-López, Maria; Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Ortet, Generós; Parellada, Mara; González-Pinto, Ana; McKenna, Peter J; Fañanás, Lourdes</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Neuritin 1 gene (NRN1) is <span class="hlt">involved</span> in neurodevelopment processes and synaptic plasticity and its expression is regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We aimed to investigate the association of NRN1 with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) and bipolar disorders (BPD), to explore its role in age at onset and cognitive functioning, and to test the epistasis between NRN1 and BDNF. The study was developed in a sample of 954 SSD/BPD patients and 668 healthy subjects. Genotyping analyses included 11 SNPs in NRN1 and one functional SNP in BDNF. The frequency of the haplotype C-C (rs645649-rs582262) was significantly increased in patients compared to controls (P = 0.0043), while the haplotype T-C-C-T-C-A (rs3763180-rs10484320-rs4960155-rs9379002-rs9405890-rs1475157) was more frequent in controls (P = 3.1 × 10(-5)). The variability at NRN1 was nominally related to changes in age at onset and to differences in intelligence quotient, in SSD patients. Epistasis between NRN1 and BDNF was significantly associated with the risk for SSD/BPD (P = 0.005). Results suggest that: (i) NRN1 variability is a shared risk factor for both SSD and BPD, (ii) NRN1 may have a selective <span class="hlt">impact</span> on age at onset and intelligence in SSD, and (iii) the role of NRN1 seems to be not independent of BDNF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511914L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511914L"><span>Instability of fluid flow over saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lyubimova, Tatyana; Kolchanova, Ekaterina; Lyubimov, Dmitry</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We investigate the stability of a fluid flow over a saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. The problem is of importance due to the applications to washing out of contaminants from the bottom layer of vegetation, whose properties are similar to the properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. In the case of <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium with the relatively high permeability and porosity the flow <span class="hlt">involves</span> a part of the fluid saturating the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium, with the tangential fluid velocity drop occurring because of the resistance of the solid matrix. The drop leads to the instability analogous to Kelvin-Helmholtz one accompanied by the formation of travelling waves. In the present paper we consider a two-layer system consisting of a pure fluid layer and a <span class="hlt">porous</span> layer saturated by the fluid located underneath. The system is bounded by a rigid surface at the bottom and a non-deformable free surface at the top. It is under the gravity and inclined at a slight angle to the horizontal axis. The boundary conditions at the interface between the fluid and <span class="hlt">porous</span> layers are the continuity of fluid velocities and the balance of normal and tangential stresses taking into account the resistance of the solid matrix with respect to the fluid flow near the interface [1-2]. The problem is solved in the framework of the Brinkman model applying the classical shooting algorithm with orthogonalization. The stability boundaries of the stationary fluid flow over the saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium with respect to the small oscillatory perturbations are obtained for the various values of the Darcy number and the ratio of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> layer thickness to the full thickness of the system d. It was shown that at the d > 0.5 with increasing the <span class="hlt">porous</span> layer thickness (or with decreasing of the fluid layer thickness) the stability threshold rises. This is because of the fact that the instability is primarily caused by perturbations located in the fluid layer. At the d < 0.5 the reduction of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> layer thickness leads to the stability threshold</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804902"><span>A story of scrutiny and fear: Australian midwives' experiences of an external review of obstetric services, being <span class="hlt">involved</span> with litigation and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on clinical practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hood, Laraine; Fenwick, Jennifer; Butt, Janice</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>to describe Australian midwives' experiences of an external review of obstetric services, <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in legal proceedings and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on midwives' clinical practice and personal wellbeing. the external review process (commonly referred to as the 'Douglas Inquiry') was initiated by a state government and was in response to hospital staff and consumer complaints that focused on anomalies in client care and a significantly high rate of adverse outcomes and clinical errors. It took place within the context of a number of legal proceedings against medical practitioners. As a result, some midwives employed by the hospital were called to give evidence at a variety of legal forums. a qualitative study using an explorative descriptive design. Snowball sampling was used to invite 16 Australian midwives to participate in a tape-recorded interview. Thematic analysis and the techniques associated with constant comparison were used to analyse the data. Australian maternity tertiary referral centre. the analysis identified two overarching themes, 'A story of scrutiny' and 'A story of fear', each with a number of subthemes. 'A story of scrutiny' consists of three subthemes. 'A cloak and dagger affair' reflects the midwives' sense of being and feeling 'exposed' and 'vulnerable' whilst simultaneously being 'kept in the dark' and uninformed during the review process. The subtheme 'Being thrown to the wolves' describes the midwives' experiences of being <span class="hlt">involved</span>, as witnesses, in medico-legal proceedings. The third subtheme, 'The Inquiry followed them home' outlines the effect on midwives' emotional wellbeing and personal relationships. The second major theme, 'A story of fear' again consists of a number of subthemes. 'Feeling unsafe at work: a culture of fear' describes the midwives' experiences of working within an environment they perceive as driven by the fear of litigation. In order to protect themselves and maintain a sense of control, the midwives adopted a number of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......340S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......340S"><span>Engineered Surface Properties of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Tungsten from Cryogenic Machining</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schoop, Julius Malte</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> tungsten is used to manufacture dispenser cathodes due to it refractory properties. Surface porosity is critical to functional performance of dispenser cathodes because it allows for an impregnated ceramic compound to migrate to the emitting surface, lowering its work function. Likewise, surface roughness is important because it is necessary to ensure uniform wetting of the molten impregnate during high temperature service. Current industry practice to achieve surface roughness and surface porosity requirements <span class="hlt">involves</span> the use of a plastic infiltrant during machining. After machining, the infiltrant is baked and the cathode pellet is impregnated. In this context, cryogenic machining is investigated as a substitutionary process for the current plastic infiltration process. Along with significant reductions in cycle time and resource use, surface quality of cryogenically machined un-infiltrated (as-sintered) <span class="hlt">porous</span> tungsten has been shown to significantly outperform dry machining. The present study is focused on examining the relationship between machining parameters and cooling condition on the as-machined surface integrity of <span class="hlt">porous</span> tungsten. The effects of cryogenic pre-cooling, rake angle, cutting speed, depth of cut and feed are all taken into consideration with respect to machining-induced surface morphology. Cermet and Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) cutting tools are used to develop high performance cryogenic machining of <span class="hlt">porous</span> tungsten. Dry and pre-heated machining were investigated as a means to allow for ductile mode machining, yet severe tool-wear and undesirable smearing limited the feasibility of these approaches. By using modified PCD cutting tools, high speed machining of <span class="hlt">porous</span> tungsten at cutting speeds up to 400 m/min is achieved for the first time. Beyond a critical speed, brittle fracture and built-up edge are eliminated as the result of a brittle to ductile transition. A model of critical chip thickness ( hc ) effects based on cutting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10162698','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10162698"><span>Metal recovery from <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sturcken, E.F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..115.6204S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..115.6204S"><span>Evaporation from layered <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shokri, N.; Lehmann, P.; Or, D.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Evaporation rates from <span class="hlt">porous</span> media may vary considerably due to changes in internal transport mechanisms and potential interruption of hydraulic continuity; both are influenced by media pore space properties. Evaporation behavior in layered <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is affected by thickness and sequence of layering and capillary characteristics of each layer. We propose a composite characteristic length for predicting drying front depth at the end of a period with a high and constant drying rate (stage 1 evaporation) from layered <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. The model was tested in laboratory experiments using Hele-Shaw cells filled with alternating layers of coarse and fine sands considering different combinations of thicknesses and positions. The presence of textural interfaces affects drying rate, modifies liquid phase configuration, and affects the dynamics of the receding drying front. Neutron radiography measurements were used to delineate dynamics of liquid phase distribution with high temporal and spatial resolution. Results show that air invading an interface between fine and coarse sand layers results in a capillary pressure jump and subsequent relaxation that significantly modify liquid phase distribution compared with evaporation from homogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Insights are potentially useful for designing mulching strategies and capillary barriers aimed at reducing evaporative losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254921','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254921"><span>Neural Tissue as <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Basser, Peter J.</p> <p>2008-12-05</p> <p>The fields of MR in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media and Neuroradiology have largely developed separately during the past two decades with little appreciation of the problems, challenges and methodologies of the other. However, this trend is clearly changing and possibilities for significant cross-fertilization and synergies are now being realized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/228041','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/228041"><span>Whey drying on <span class="hlt">porous</span> carriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mitura, E.; Kaminski, W.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>Whey is treated very often as a waste which pollutes the natural environment. Whey which is a valuable source of protein, lacrose, vitamins and mineral salts should be utilized completely. The present paper is a proposal of whey drying on <span class="hlt">porous</span> carriers. It is proved experimentally that the proposed drying method guarantees good product quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985lock.rept.....K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985lock.rept.....K"><span>Reaction profiles in <span class="hlt">porous</span> electrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katan, T.; Carlen, P. J.</p> <p>1985-05-01</p> <p>An experimental program was conducted to ascertain causes of alkaline zinc electrode shape change and to determine the development of reaction profiles within the pores of <span class="hlt">porous</span> zinc electrodes. Various analog electrochemical cells were operated to isolate and evaluate the individual processes occurring during charge and discharge. It was found that both edge effects and osmosis can be responsible for the shape change phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H43E1407R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H43E1407R"><span>Linking Colloid Deposit Morphology and Clogging in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roth, E. J.; Mont-eton, M. E.; Mays, D. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> analyzed to provide measurement of deposit fractal dimension—a novel technique that is unique to our research. Experimental results indicate that deposit fractal dimension can be quantified. Continuing research is investigating the extent to which colloid concentration, ionic strength, flow velocity, and other environmental factors will <span class="hlt">impact</span> colloid deposit morphology in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media and the resulting <span class="hlt">impact</span> on clogging. The ultimate goal of this research is to create a clogging model that links colloidal and environmental characteristics to permeability in soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..174a2031M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..174a2031M"><span>Saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> layers squeezed between parallel disks in enclosed cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melciu, I. C.; Cicone, T.; Pascovici, M. D.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Theoretical and experimental evidences show that high lift forces can be generated when a <span class="hlt">porous</span> layer imbibed with a fluid is subjected to compression by a rigid and impermeable component in normal (approaching) relative motion. If the <span class="hlt">porous</span> layer is soft enough to neglect its solid structure reaction to compression then the pressure increase can be entirely attributed to the flow resistance of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure when the fluid is squeezed out. The mechanism is highly dependent on the variation of permeability with porosity at its turn variable with the rate of compression. Such a mechanism can be used for <span class="hlt">impact</span> damping but realistic applications need to consider an enclosed system which keeps the squeezed fluid inside and allows for re-imbibition. The paper presents a simple analytical model for the effects produced in highly compressible <span class="hlt">porous</span> layers imbibed with Newtonian liquids, during compression between two parallel rigid disks placed in enclosed cells with variable volume buffer, similar to a hydro-pneumatic accumulator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.H11E0342G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.H11E0342G"><span>Biofilm Growth Induced Transformation of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gage, J. P.; Seymour, J. D.; Codd, S. L.; Gerlach, R.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has been applied to study hydrodynamic dispersion in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by biofilms growth. MRM measures the averaged propagator of motion which provides the probability of displacements to occur over experimentally controlled times. The transition from pre-asymptotic to asymptotic hydrodynamic dispersion in a homogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium constructed from monodisperse spheres is clearly visualized by the time evolution of the propagator to a Gaussian distribution. The growth of biofilms in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media induces a transition in the hydrodynamic dispersion from normal to anomalous transport which is visualized by the propagator transition from Gaussian to that modeled by a subdiffusive fractal kinetics model based on continuous time random walks (CTRW's). This transition is consistent with the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media structure changing from homogeneous to nonhomogeneous and connections to fractal dimensions are discussed. The MRM data can be analyzed in the q-space domain, i.e. the wavelength space reciprocal to displacement, and provides information on the dynamics on scales above and below a single pore. Fractional kinetics models for subdiffusive processes predict stretched exponential Gaussian behavior and the q-space data fits to strectched exponentials exhibit a transition from Gaussian to subdiffusion due to biofilm growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633817L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633817L"><span>Superhydrophobic <span class="hlt">porous</span> networks for enhanced droplet shedding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yahua; Wang, Zuankai</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Recent research has shown that the use of submillimeter-scale tapered post arrays could generate the so-called pancake bouncing, which is characterized by the fast shedding of impinging drops from the surface in a pancake shape without undergoing the retraction stage as observed on conventional superhydrophobic surfaces. Despite this exciting discovery, the fabrication of this unique superhydrophobic surface with tapered post arrays <span class="hlt">involves</span> complex processes, hindering its wide applications in practical sectors. Here, we report on the facile strategy to prepare a new hierarchical multilayered superhydrophobic surface directly from commercially available <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix that allows for efficient drop shedding. Further study shows that the enhanced drop mobility observed on such a surface is attributed to the synergistic cooperation of hierarchical structures endowing an adequate energy storage and effective energy release. The facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with enhanced drop mobility may find many practical applications including anti-icing, dropwise condensation and self-cleaning.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27644452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27644452"><span>Superhydrophobic <span class="hlt">porous</span> networks for enhanced droplet shedding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yahua; Wang, Zuankai</p> <p>2016-09-20</p> <p>Recent research has shown that the use of submillimeter-scale tapered post arrays could generate the so-called pancake bouncing, which is characterized by the fast shedding of impinging drops from the surface in a pancake shape without undergoing the retraction stage as observed on conventional superhydrophobic surfaces. Despite this exciting discovery, the fabrication of this unique superhydrophobic surface with tapered post arrays <span class="hlt">involves</span> complex processes, hindering its wide applications in practical sectors. Here, we report on the facile strategy to prepare a new hierarchical multilayered superhydrophobic surface directly from commercially available <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix that allows for efficient drop shedding. Further study shows that the enhanced drop mobility observed on such a surface is attributed to the synergistic cooperation of hierarchical structures endowing an adequate energy storage and effective energy release. The facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with enhanced drop mobility may find many practical applications including anti-icing, dropwise condensation and self-cleaning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5028764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5028764"><span>Superhydrophobic <span class="hlt">porous</span> networks for enhanced droplet shedding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yahua; Wang, Zuankai</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent research has shown that the use of submillimeter-scale tapered post arrays could generate the so-called pancake bouncing, which is characterized by the fast shedding of impinging drops from the surface in a pancake shape without undergoing the retraction stage as observed on conventional superhydrophobic surfaces. Despite this exciting discovery, the fabrication of this unique superhydrophobic surface with tapered post arrays <span class="hlt">involves</span> complex processes, hindering its wide applications in practical sectors. Here, we report on the facile strategy to prepare a new hierarchical multilayered superhydrophobic surface directly from commercially available <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix that allows for efficient drop shedding. Further study shows that the enhanced drop mobility observed on such a surface is attributed to the synergistic cooperation of hierarchical structures endowing an adequate energy storage and effective energy release. The facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with enhanced drop mobility may find many practical applications including anti-icing, dropwise condensation and self-cleaning. PMID:27644452</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=control+AND+postural&pg=7&id=ED080564','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=control+AND+postural&pg=7&id=ED080564"><span>On <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Greene, Michael B.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Involvement</span> Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of <span class="hlt">involved</span> and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=postural+AND+control&pg=7&id=ED080564','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=postural+AND+control&pg=7&id=ED080564"><span>On <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Greene, Michael B.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Involvement</span> Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of <span class="hlt">involved</span> and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006974','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006974"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon carbide (SIC) semiconductor device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon carbide is fabricated according to techniques which result in a significant portion of nanocrystallites within the material in a sub 10 nanometer regime. There is described techniques for passivating <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon carbide which result in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices which exhibit brighter blue luminescence and exhibit improved qualities. Based on certain of the techniques described <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon carbide is used as a sacrificial layer for the patterning of silicon carbide. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon carbide is then removed from the bulk substrate by oxidation and other methods. The techniques described employ a two-step process which is used to pattern bulk silicon carbide where selected areas of the wafer are then made <span class="hlt">porous</span> and then the <span class="hlt">porous</span> layer is subsequently removed. The process to form <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon carbide exhibits dopant selectivity and a two-step etching procedure is implemented for silicon carbide multilayers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..96a3310J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..96a3310J"><span>Eigenvector centrality for geometric and topological characterization of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin; Negre, Christian F. A.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Solving flow and transport through complex geometries such as <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is computationally difficult. Such calculations usually <span class="hlt">involve</span> the solution of a system of discretized differential equations, which could lead to extreme computational cost depending on the size of the domain and the accuracy of the model. Geometric simplifications like pore networks, where the pores are represented by nodes and the pore throats by edges connecting pores, have been proposed. These models, despite their ability to preserve the connectivity of the medium, have difficulties capturing preferential paths (high velocity) and stagnation zones (low velocity), as they do not consider the specific relations between nodes. Nonetheless, network theory approaches, where a complex network is a graph, can help to simplify and better understand fluid dynamics and transport in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Here we present an alternative method to address these issues based on eigenvector centrality, which has been corrected to overcome the centralization problem and modified to introduce a bias in the centrality distribution along a particular direction to address the flow and transport anisotropy in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. We compare the model predictions with millifluidic transport experiments, which shows that, albeit simple, this technique is computationally efficient and has potential for predicting preferential paths and stagnation zones for flow and transport in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. We propose to use the eigenvector centrality probability distribution to compute the entropy as an indicator of the "mixing capacity" of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H23L..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H23L..01L"><span>Chaotic Advection, Transport and Mixing in Homogeneous <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lester, D.; Trefry, M.; Metcalfe, G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>All <span class="hlt">porous</span> media, whether heterogeneous or homogeneous, including granular and packed media, fractured and open networks, are typified by the inherent topographical complexity of the pore-space. Such geometric complexities render exact modelling of fluid flow and transport an intractable problem, hence averaging methods are required for upscaling to the Darcy scale. Although successful transport theories have been developed via averaging techniques, it is also possible to eliminate important flow phenomena during the upscaling process. In general, the detailed flow structure and Lagrangian dynamics of fluid flows can have significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> upon a range of fluid-borne processes. In the context of turbulent flow, it is well known that such structure can fundamentally alter processes such as transport, mixing, chemical reactions and biological activity across a wide range of length scales. More recently, it has been established that similar <span class="hlt">impacts</span> also occur for laminar flows which exhibit chaotic Lagrangian dynamics, commonly known as chaotic advection. In the context of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media flows, an important question is whether steady Stokes flow at the pore scale can admit chaotic advection, and what are the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> upon fluid transport, mixing, chemical reaction and biological activity? Conversely, due to limitations of the flow topology, steady Darcy flow cannot admit chaotic advection, and so the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of chaotic advection are neglected during the upscaling process. For transport and mixing, chaotic advection imparts strongly anomalous transport for passive tracer particles, whereas diffusive particles exhibit significantly accelerated dispersion even in the limit of vanishing diffusivity. Chemically or biologically active chaotic flows have been shown to generate singularly-enhanced reaction kinetics in autocatalytic, bistable and combustion reactions, and fundamentally alter the stability of a wide variety of reactive processes. An important question is whether</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhFl...29d3602W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhFl...29d3602W"><span>A biphasic approach for the study of lift generation in soft <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Qianhong; Santhanam, Sridhar; Nathan, Rungun; Wang, Qiuyun</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Lift generation in highly compressible <span class="hlt">porous</span> media under rapid compression continues to be an important topic in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media flow. Although significant progress has been made, how to model different lifting forces during the compression process remains unclear. This is mainly because the input parameters of the existing theoretical studies, including the Darcy permeability of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media and the viscous damping coefficient of its solid phase, were manually adjusted so as to match the experimental data. In the current paper, we report a biphasic approach to experimentally and theoretically treat this limitation. Synthetic fibrous <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials, whose permeability were precisely measured, were subsequently exposed to sudden <span class="hlt">impacts</span> using a <span class="hlt">porous</span>-walled cylinder-piston apparatus. The obtained time-dependent compression of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media, along with the permeability data, was applied in two different theoretical models to predict the pore pressure generation, a plug flow model and a consolidation model [Q. Wu et al., J. Fluid Mech. 542, 281 (2005a)]. Comparison between the theory and the experiments on the pore pressure distribution proved the validity of the consolidation model. Furthermore, a viscoelastic model, containing a nonlinear spring in conjunction with a linear viscoelastic generalized Maxwell mechanical module, was developed to characterize the solid phase lifting force. The model matched the experimental data very well. The paper presented herein, as one of the series studies on this topic, provides an important biphasic approach to characterize different forces that contribute to the lift generation in a soft <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium under rapid compression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21902772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21902772"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of patient and public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in the work of the Dementias & Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Network (DeNDRoN): case studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iliffe, Steve; McGrath, Terry; Mitchell, Douglas</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>(i) To describe patient and public <span class="hlt">involvement</span> (PPI) in a network promoting research in dementia and neurodegenerative diseases, in terms of activity at the different stages of the research cycle and within the different levels of the research network. (ii) To use case studies to try and answer the question: what benefits (if any) does PPI in research bring to the research process? PPI in health research is a central part of government policy, but the evidence base underpinning it needs strengthening. PPI allows exploration of feasibility, acceptability and relevance of hypotheses, assists in the precise definition of research questions and increases accrual to studies. However, the measurement of outcomes is methodologically difficult, because the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of lay researchers may occur through team interactions and be difficult to untangle from the efforts of professional researchers. Opportunities for PPI in rapidly progressive diseases may be limited, and <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of people with marked cognitive impairment is particularly challenging. (i) Description of PPI within the DeNDRoN network. (ii) Case studies of three research projects which asked for extra help from centrally organized PPI. PPI in research projects on the DeNDRoN portfolio may function at different levels, occurring at project, local research network and national level. Case studies of three research projects show different roles for PPI in research and different functions for centrally organized PPI, including contribution to remedial action in studies that are not recruiting to target, solving problems because of the complexity and sensitivity of the research topic, and linking researchers to PPI resources. The case studies suggest that centrally organized PPI can have 'diagnostic' and remedial functions in studies that are struggling to recruit and serve as reinforcement for study-level PPI in the complex and sensitive research topics that are typical in neurodegenerative diseases research. PPI may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044861&hterms=asteroid+impact&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dasteroid%2Bimpact','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044861&hterms=asteroid+impact&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dasteroid%2Bimpact"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Comets and Asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>OKeefe, John D.; Stewart, Sarah T.; Ahrens, Thomas J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We characterized the <span class="hlt">impact</span> physics in collisions on <span class="hlt">porous</span> bodies by various density projectiles and defined different penetration modes (compression, spreading, or breakup) based on transitions between instability regimes. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682809','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682809"><span>Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a <span class="hlt">porous</span> oscillating stretching surface embedded in <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the <span class="hlt">involved</span> parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number. PMID:26657931</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657931"><span>Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Medium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a <span class="hlt">porous</span> oscillating stretching surface embedded in <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the <span class="hlt">involved</span> parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499737','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499737"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Cranial Irradiation Added to Intrathecal Conditioning in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Central Nervous System <span class="hlt">Involvement</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Douglas, James G.; Storer, Barry E.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Storb, Rainer</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Purpose: Neither the prognostic importance nor the appropriate management of central nervous system (CNS) <span class="hlt">involvement</span> is known for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a CNS irradiation boost to standard intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC). Methods and Materials: From 1995 to 2005, a total of 648 adult AML patients received a myeloablative HCT: 577 patients were CNS negative (CNS-), and 71 were CNS positive (CNS+). Of the 71 CNS+ patients, 52 received intrathecal chemotherapy alone (CNS+ITC), and 19 received ITC plus an irradiation boost (CNS+RT). Results: The CNS-, CNS+ITC, and CNS+RT patients had 1- and 5-year relapse-free survivals (RFS) of 43% and 35%, 15% and 6%, and 37% and 32%, respectively. CNS+ITC patients had a statistically significant worse RFS compared with CNS- patients (hazard ratio [HR], 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-3.6; p < 0.0001). CNS+RT patients had improved relapse free survival over that of CNS+ITC patients (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; p = 0.01). The 1- and 5-year overall survivals (OS) of patients with CNS-, CNS+ITC, and CNS+RT, were 50% and 38%, 21% and 6%, and 53% and 42%, respectively. The survival of CNS+RT were significantly better than CNS+ITC patients (p = 0.004). After adjusting for known risk factors, CNS+RT patients had a trend toward lower relapse rates and reduced nonrelapse mortality. Conclusions: CNS+ AML is associated with a poor prognosis. The role of a cranial irradiation boost to intrathecal chemotherapy appears to mitigate the risk of CNS disease, and needs to be further investigated to define optimal treatment strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573758','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573758"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on the terrestrial environment in case of a hypothetical accident <span class="hlt">involving</span> the recovery of the dumped Russian submarine K-27.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, J E; Amundsen, I; Bartnicki, J; Dowdall, M; Dyve, J E; Hosseini, A; Klein, H; Standring, W</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Objects containing radioactivity have been routinely dumped in Arctic waters near NW Russia up until the 1990s. One of the most radioactive objects in this region, the nuclear submarine K-27, was dumped in Stepogovo Fjord and contained spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Although the two K-27 submarine reactors were mothballed before dumping, concerns about the potential long term risks of contamination remain and plans to retrieve and decommission K-27 exist. In this article, human dose and environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> aseessments are presented for two possible future scenarios <span class="hlt">involving</span>: (1) an ingress of water into a reactor in situ leading to a spontaneous chain reaction (SCR) and (2) an on-board fire when SNF is being removed at the mainland decommissiong site at Gremhika Bay on the Kola Peninsula. Assessments have been completed using conservative assumptions, focusing on possible effects to Norwegian territory. Atmospheric transport and deposition of radioactivity was modelled near field and regionally, using appropriate models, whilst human doses and environmental exposures were modelled using a standard IAEA approach and the ERICA tool, respectively. Results indicate that large areas of Norwegian territory could be affected by fallout from the Gremhika scenario, especially in the north, though at levels two orders of magnitude lower than those observed after the Chernobyl accident. Potential doses, primarily due to ground shine, to a critical group of personnel on-site at Stepogovo resulting from a SCR could require preventative measures based on ICRP recommendations (20-100 mSv). Doses to non-human biota in Norway for the Gremhika scenario would be negligible, typical of background dose rates for terrestrial organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAMTP..53..231M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAMTP..53..231M"><span>Local nonsimilarity solution for the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the buoyancy force on heat and mass transfer in a flow over a <span class="hlt">porous</span> wedge with a heat source in the presence of suction/injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muhaimin, I.; Kandasamy, R.; Loganathan, P.; Puvi Arasu, P.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Combined heat and mass transfer in free, forced and mixed convection flows along a <span class="hlt">porous</span> wedge with internal heat generation in the presence of uniform suction or injection is investigated. The boundary-layer analysis is formulated in terms of the combined thermal and solute buoyancy effect. The flow field characteristics are analyzed using the Runge-Kutta-Gill method, the shooting method, and the local nonsimilarity method. Due to the effect of the buoyancy force, power law of temperature and concentration, and suction/injection on the wall of the wedge, the flow field is locally nonsimilar. Numerical calculations up to third-order level of truncation are carried out for different values of dimensionless parameters as a special case. The effects of the buoyancy force, suction, heat generation, and variable wall temperature and concentration on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are studied. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with previously published works.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23313642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23313642"><span>Platelets self-assemble into <span class="hlt">porous</span> nacre during freeze casting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hunger, Philipp M; Donius, Amalie E; Wegst, Ulrike G K</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Nacre possesses a remarkable combination of mechanical properties. Its high stiffness, strength and toughness are attributed to a highly aligned structure of aragonite platelets "glued" together by a small fraction (∼5vol%) of polymer; theoretically it can be described by a shear-lag model of staggered tensile elements between which loads are transferred via shear. Despite extensive research, it has not been possible yet to manufacture this aligned structure as a bulk material of considerable volume with a fast and easy production process. Particularly <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials would benefit from enhanced wall material properties to compensate for performance loss due to their high porosity. An important application for such <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials are tissue scaffolds for bone substitution. Bone, like nacre, exhibits excellent mechanical properties, particularly an exceptionally high toughness, because of its composite structure of hydroxyapatite platelets aligned in a ∼35vol% polymer matrix. Through the freeze casting process, which results in a fast and straightforward self-assembly of platelet-shaped particles during directional solidification, highly <span class="hlt">porous</span> bulk materials with nacre-like cell walls can now be created. This <span class="hlt">porous</span> nacre outperforms by a factor of 1.5-4 in terms of stiffness, strength and toughness materials that have the same amount of porosity but do not exhibit the nacre-like microarchitecture. The self-assembly process presented in this study thus has tremendous potential for the creation of highly <span class="hlt">porous</span>, yet mechanically strong tissue scaffolds for low or medium load bearing bone substitute materials. Due to the versatility of the freeze casting process, materials with a self-assembled cell wall structure can be created from high-aspect ratio particles of all material classes. This enables material optimization for a great variety of applications such as <span class="hlt">impact</span> protection, filtration, catalysis, energy generation and storage, in addition to those with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Romance&pg=2&id=EJ1039711','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Romance&pg=2&id=EJ1039711"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Direct <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> I and Direct <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> II Experiences on Secondary School Students' Social Capital, as Measured by Co-Cognitive Factors of the Operation Houndstooth Intervention Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sands, Michelle M.; Heilbronner, Nancy N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A mixed-methods study grounded in Renzulli's Operation Houndstooth Intervention Theory examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of different types of volunteer experiences on the six co-cognitive factors (Optimism, Courage, Romance With a Topic/Discipline, Sensitivity to Human Concerns, Physical/Mental Energy, and Vision/Sense of Destiny) associated with the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Romance&pg=2&id=EJ1039711','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Romance&pg=2&id=EJ1039711"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Direct <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> I and Direct <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> II Experiences on Secondary School Students' Social Capital, as Measured by Co-Cognitive Factors of the Operation Houndstooth Intervention Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sands, Michelle M.; Heilbronner, Nancy N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A mixed-methods study grounded in Renzulli's Operation Houndstooth Intervention Theory examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of different types of volunteer experiences on the six co-cognitive factors (Optimism, Courage, Romance With a Topic/Discipline, Sensitivity to Human Concerns, Physical/Mental Energy, and Vision/Sense of Destiny) associated with the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990027885&hterms=density+same+material&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddensity%2Bsame%2Bmaterial','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990027885&hterms=density+same+material&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddensity%2Bsame%2Bmaterial"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Coating for Low-Density Ceramic Insulation Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leiser, Daniel B.; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The need for improved coatings on low-density reusable surface insulation (RSI) materials used on the space shuttle has stimulated research into developing tougher coatings. The processing of a new <span class="hlt">porous</span> composite "coating" for RST called toughened unipiece fibrous insulation Is discussed. Characteristics including performance in a simulated high-speed atmospheric entry, morphological structure before and after this exposure, resistance to <span class="hlt">Impact</span>, and thermal response to a typical heat pulse are described. It is shown that this coating has improved <span class="hlt">impact</span> resistance while maintaining optical and thermal properties comparable to the previously available reaction-cured glass coating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990027885&hterms=materials+insulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmaterials%2Binsulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990027885&hterms=materials+insulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmaterials%2Binsulation"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Coating for Low-Density Ceramic Insulation Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leiser, Daniel B.; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The need for improved coatings on low-density reusable surface insulation (RSI) materials used on the space shuttle has stimulated research into developing tougher coatings. The processing of a new <span class="hlt">porous</span> composite "coating" for RST called toughened unipiece fibrous insulation Is discussed. Characteristics including performance in a simulated high-speed atmospheric entry, morphological structure before and after this exposure, resistance to <span class="hlt">Impact</span>, and thermal response to a typical heat pulse are described. It is shown that this coating has improved <span class="hlt">impact</span> resistance while maintaining optical and thermal properties comparable to the previously available reaction-cured glass coating.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Fract..2450013L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Fract..2450013L"><span>Analysis of Fractional Flow for Transient Two-Phase Flow in Fractal <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Ting; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Dai, Xiaolu; Wu, Jinsui</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Prediction of fractional flow in fractal <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium is important for reservoir engineering and chemical engineering as well as hydrology. A physical conceptual fractional flow model of transient two-phase flow is developed in fractal <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium based on the fractal characteristics of pore-size distribution and on the approximation that <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium consist of a bundle of tortuous capillaries. The analytical expression for fractional flow for wetting phase is presented, and the proposed expression is the function of structural parameters (such as tortuosity fractal dimension, pore fractal dimension, maximum and minimum diameters of capillaries) and fluid properties (such as contact angle, viscosity and interfacial tension) in fractal <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. The sensitive parameters that influence fractional flow and its derivative are formulated, and their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on fractional flow are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5328729','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5328729"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span>-electrode preparation method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.</p> <p>1981-09-17</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">porous</span> sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7278897','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7278897"><span>Metal recovery from <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sturcken, E.F.</p> <p>1992-10-13</p> <p>A method is described for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF[sub 4] and HNO[sub 3] and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200 C. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JOM....60e..45V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JOM....60e..45V"><span>Engineered <span class="hlt">porous</span> metals for implants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vamsi Krishna, B.; Xue, Weichang; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Interest is significant in patient-specific implants with the possibility of guided tissue regeneration, particularly for load-bearing implants. For such implants to succeed, novel design approaches and fabrication technologies that can achieve balanced mechanical and functional performance in the implants are necessary. This article is focused on <span class="hlt">porous</span> load-bearing implants with tailored micro-as well as macrostructures using laser-engineered net shaping (LENS™), a solid freeform fabrication or rapid prototyping technique that can be used to manufacture patient-specific implants. This review provides an insight into LENS, some properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> metals, and the potential applications of this process to fabricate unitized structures which can eliminate longstanding challenges in load-bearing implants to increase their in-vivo lifetime, such as in a total hip prosthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED343233.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED343233.pdf"><span>Family <span class="hlt">Involvement</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liontos, Lynn Balster</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvP...5d4020M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvP...5d4020M"><span>Large Deformations of a Soft <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacMinn, Christopher W.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Wettlaufer, John S.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Compressing a <span class="hlt">porous</span> material will decrease the volume of the pore space, driving fluid out. Similarly, injecting fluid into a <span class="hlt">porous</span> material can expand the pore space, distorting the solid skeleton. This poromechanical coupling has applications ranging from cell and tissue mechanics to geomechanics and hydrogeology. The classical theory of linear poroelasticity captures this coupling by combining Darcy's law with Terzaghi's effective stress and linear elasticity in a linearized kinematic framework. Linear poroelasticity is a good model for very small deformations, but it becomes increasingly inappropriate for moderate to large deformations, which are common in the context of phenomena such as swelling and damage, and for soft materials such as gels and tissues. The well-known theory of large-deformation poroelasticity combines Darcy's law with Terzaghi's effective stress and nonlinear elasticity in a rigorous kinematic framework. This theory has been used extensively in biomechanics to model large elastic deformations in soft tissues and in geomechanics to model large elastoplastic deformations in soils. Here, we first provide an overview and discussion of this theory with an emphasis on the physics of poromechanical coupling. We present the large-deformation theory in an Eulerian framework to minimize the mathematical complexity, and we show how this nonlinear theory simplifies to linear poroelasticity under the assumption of small strain. We then compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of large-deformation poroelasticity in the context of two uniaxial model problems: fluid outflow driven by an applied mechanical load (the consolidation problem) and compression driven by a steady fluid throughflow. We explore the steady and dynamical errors associated with the linear model in both situations, as well as the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of introducing a deformation-dependent permeability. We show that the error in linear poroelasticity is due primarily to kinematic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22262346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22262346"><span>Diffusion in <span class="hlt">porous</span> crystalline materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishna, Rajamani</p> <p>2012-04-21</p> <p>The design and development of many separation and catalytic process technologies require a proper quantitative description of diffusion of mixtures of guest molecules within <span class="hlt">porous</span> crystalline materials. This tutorial review presents a unified, phenomenological description of diffusion inside meso- and micro-<span class="hlt">porous</span> structures. In meso-<span class="hlt">porous</span> materials, with pore sizes 2 nm < d(p) < 50 nm, there is a central core region where the influence of interactions of the molecules with the pore wall is either small or negligible; meso-pore diffusion is governed by a combination of molecule-molecule and molecule-pore wall interactions. Within micro-pores, with d(p) < 2 nm, the guest molecules are always under the influence of the force field exerted with the wall and we have to reckon with the motion of adsorbed molecules, and there is no "bulk" fluid region. The characteristics and physical significance of the self-, Maxwell-Stefan, and Fick diffusivities are explained with the aid of data obtained either from experiments or molecular dynamics simulations, for a wide variety of structures with different pore sizes and topology. The influence of adsorption thermodynamics, molecular clustering, and segregation on both magnitudes and concentration dependences of the diffusivities is highlighted. In mixture diffusion, correlations in molecular hops have the effect of slowing-down the more mobile species. The need for proper modeling of correlation effects using the Maxwell-Stefan formulation is stressed with the aid of examples of membrane separations and catalytic reactors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EOSTr..74..252A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EOSTr..74..252A"><span>Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media in hydrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ababou, Rachid</p> <p></p> <p>In natural geologic formations, flow and transport-related processes are perturbed by multidimensional and anisotropic material heterogeneities of diverse sizes, shapes, and origins (bedding, layering, inclusions, fractures, grains, for example). Heterogeneity tends to disperse and mix transported quantities and may initiate new transfer mechanisms not seen in ideally homogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Effective properties such as conductivity and dispersivity may not be simple averages of locally measured quantities.The special session, “Effective Constitutive Laws for Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media,” convened at AGU's 1992 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, addressed these issue. Over forty-five contributions, both oral and poster, covering a broad range of physical phenomena were presented. The common theme was the macroscale characterization and modeling of flow and flow-related processes in geologic media that are heterogeneous at various scales (from grain size or fracture aperture, up to regional scales). The processes analyzed in the session included coupled hydro-mechanical processes; Darcy-type flow in the saturated, unsaturated, or two-phase regimes; tracer transport, dilution, and dispersion. These processes were studied for either continuous (<span class="hlt">porous</span>) or discontinuous (fractured) media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7189244','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7189244"><span>Theoretical studies of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Yu-Shu.</p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>A comprehensive theoretical study has been carried out on the flow behavior of both single and multiple phase non-Newtonian fluids in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. This work is divided into three parts: development of numerical and analytical solutions; theoretical studies of transient flow of non-Newtonian fluids in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media; and applications of well test analysis and displacement efficiency evaluation to field problems. A fully implicit, integral finite difference model has been developed for simulation of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Several commonly-used rheological models of power-law and Bingham plastic non-Newtonian fluids have been incorporated in the simulator. A Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution for one-dimensional, immiscible displacement <span class="hlt">involving</span> non-Newtonian fluids in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media has been developed. An integral method is also presented for the study of transient flow of Bingham fluids in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. In addition, two well test analysis methods have been developed for analyzing pressure transient tests of power-law and Bingham fluids, respectively. Applications are included to demonstrate this new technology. The physical mechanisms <span class="hlt">involved</span> in immiscible displacement with non-Newtonian fluids in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media have been studied using the Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution. In another study, an idealized fracture model has been used to obtain some insights into the flow of a power-law fluid in a double-porosity medium. Transient flow of a general pseudoplastic fluid has been studied numerically. 125 refs., 91 figs., 12 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NRL....10..384T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NRL....10..384T"><span>Fabrication and Characterization of Monodisperse Magnetic <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Nickel Microspheres as Novel Catalysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Teng, Chao; He, Jie; Zhu, Lili; Ren, Lianbing; Chen, Jiwei; Hong, Mei; Wang, Yong</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A facile and efficient hard-templating strategy is reported for the preparation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> nickel microspheres with excellent uniformity and strong magnetism. The strategy <span class="hlt">involves</span> impregnation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> polymer microspheres with nickel precursors, calcination to remove the template, followed by thermal reduction. The morphology, structure, and the property of the Ni microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis, and magnetic hysteresis measurement. The obtained <span class="hlt">porous</span> nickel microspheres were monodispersed with a particle size of 0.91 μm and crystallite size of 52 nm. Their saturation magnetization was much higher than that of Ni nanoparticles. The unique <span class="hlt">porous</span> nanostructured Ni microspheres possess catalytic activity and excellent recyclability, as demonstrated in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. The micropherical Ni catalysts could be easily separated either by an external magnetic field or by simple filtration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27896354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27896354"><span>Structural and dynamic studies of substrate binding in <span class="hlt">porous</span> metal-organic frameworks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Easun, Timothy L; Moreau, Florian; Yan, Yong; Yang, Sihai; Schröder, Martin</p> <p>2017-01-03</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are the subject of considerable research interest because of their high porosity and capability of specific binding to small molecules, thus underpinning a wide range of materials functions such as gas adsorption, separation, drug delivery, catalysis, and sensing. MOFs, constructed by the designed assembly of metal ions and functional organic linkers, are an emerging class of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials with extended <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures containing periodic binding sites. MOFs thus provide a new platform for the study of the chemistry and reactivity of small molecules in confined pores using advanced diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. In this review, we focus on recent progress in experimental investigations on the crystallographic, dynamic and kinetic aspects of substrate binding within <span class="hlt">porous</span> MOFs. In particular, we focus on studies on host-guest interactions <span class="hlt">involving</span> open metal sites or pendant functional groups in the pore as the primary binding sites for guest molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MSSP...21..535Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MSSP...21..535Y"><span>FEA for damping of structures having elastic bodies, viscoelastic bodies, <span class="hlt">porous</span> media and gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamaguchi, Takao; Kurosawa, Yoshio; Matsumura, Shuuji</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A numerical method is proposed to calculate damping properties for soundproof structures <span class="hlt">involving</span> solid bodies, <span class="hlt">porous</span> media and air in two-dimensional regions. Both effective density and bulk modulus have complex quantity to represent damped sound fields in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Particle displacements in the media are discretized using finite element method. For damped solid bodies, displacements are formulated using conventional finite elements including complex modulus of elasticity. Displacement vectors as common unknown variables are solved under coupled condition between solid bodies, <span class="hlt">porous</span> media and gas. Further, by applying asymptotic method to complex eigenvalue problem, explicit expressions of modal loss factor for the mixed structures are derived. The proposed methods yield appropriate results for some typical problems and this method diminish computational time for large-scaled finite element models concerning the mixed structure. Moreover, it is found that damping can be coupled in the mixed structures between solid bodies, <span class="hlt">porous</span> media and air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18355029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18355029"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> devices derived from co-continuous polymer blends as a route for controlled drug release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salehi, Pouneh; Sarazin, Pierre; Favis, Basil D</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>In this study we examine the release profile of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from a <span class="hlt">porous</span> polymer matrix derived from a co-continuous polymer blend. The porosity is generated through the selective extraction of one of the continuous phases. This is the first study to examine the approach of using morphologically tailored co-continuous polymer blends as a template for generating <span class="hlt">porous</span> polymer materials for use in controlled release. A method for the preparation of polymeric capsules is introduced, and the effect of matrix pore size and surface area on the BSA release profile is investigated. Furthermore, the effect of surface charge on release is examined by surface modification of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate using layer-by-layer deposition techniques. Synthetic, nonerodible polymer, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), was used as a model substrate prepared by melt blending with two different styrene-ethylene-butylene copolymers. Blends with HDPE allow for the preparation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrates with small pore sizes (300 and 600 nm). A blend of polylactide (PLA) and polystyrene was also used to prepare <span class="hlt">porous</span> PLA with a larger pore size (1.5 microm). The extents of interconnectivity, surface area, and pore dimension of the prepared <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrates were examined via gravimetric solvent extraction, BET nitrogen adsorption, mercury porosimetry, and image analysis of scanning electron microscopy micrographs. With a loading protocol into the <span class="hlt">porous</span> HDPE and PLA <span class="hlt">involving</span> the alternate application of pressure and vacuum, it is shown that virtually the entire <span class="hlt">porous</span> network was accessible to BSA loading, and loading efficiencies of between 80% and 96% were obtained depending on the pore size of the carrier and the applied pressure. The release profile of BSA from the microporous structure was monitored by UV spectrophotometry. The influence of pore size, surface area, surface charge, and number of deposited layers is demonstrated. It is shown that an effective closed-cell structure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15890400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15890400"><span>Protein binding properties of surface-modified <span class="hlt">porous</span> polyethylene membranes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greene, George; Radhakrishna, Harish; Tannenbaum, Rina</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>In this study, we quantified the adsorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein onto several polyelectrolyte-modified sintered <span class="hlt">porous</span> polyethylene (PPE) membranes. The polymer surfaces had both cationic and anionic charges obtained via the adsorption of polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyacrylic acid (PAA), respectively, onto plasma-activated PPE. The amount of IgG adsorption was determined by measuring the gamma radiation emitted by [125I]-IgG radio labeled protein. By studying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pH and ionic strength on IgG adsorption, we attempted to characterize the role and nature of the electrostatic interactions <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the adsorption process to better understand how these interactions were influenced by the charge and structure of immobilized polyelectrolyte complexes at modified membrane surfaces. We were able to show that surface modification of PPE membranes with adsorbed PEI monolayers and PEI-PAA bilayers can greatly improve the IgG binding ability of the membrane under optimized conditions. We also showed that the observed improvement in the IgG binding is derived from electrostatic interactions between IgG and the polyelectrolyte surface. In addition, we found that the greatest IgG adsorption occurred when the IgG and the surface possessed predominantly opposite charges, rather than when the surface possessed the greatest electrostatic charge. Finally, we have found that the molecular weight of the terminating polyelectrolyte has a noticeable effect upon the electrostatic interactions between IgG and the PEI-PAA bilayer-modified PPE surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MSMSE..21g4009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MSMSE..21g4009C"><span>Validity of the Bruggeman relation for <span class="hlt">porous</span> electrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, Ding-Wen; Ebner, Martin; Ely, David R.; Wood, Vanessa; García, R. Edwin</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The ability to engineer electrode microstructures to increase power and energy densities is critical to the development of high-energy density lithium-ion batteries. Because high tortuosities in <span class="hlt">porous</span> electrodes are linked to lower delivered energy and power densities, in this paper, we experimentally and computationally study tortuosity and consider possible approaches to decrease it. We investigate the effect of electrode processing on the tortuosity of in-house fabricated <span class="hlt">porous</span> electrodes, using three-dimensionally reconstructed microstructures obtained by synchrotron x-ray tomography. Computer-generated electrodes are used to understand the experimental findings and assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of particle size distribution and particle packing on tortuosity and reactive area density. We highlight the limitations and tradeoffs of reducing tortuosity and develop a practical set of guidelines for active material manufacture and electrode preparation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFDA17006B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFDA17006B"><span>Drop Impingement on Highly Wetting Micro/Nano <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buie, Cullen; Joung, Youngsoo</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Recently, we developed a novel fabrication method using a combination of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and break down anodization (BDA) to achieve highly wetting nanoporous surfaces with microscale features. In this study we investigate droplet impingement behavior on these surfaces as a function of <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity, droplet size, and liquid properties. We observe impingement modes we denote as ``necking'' (droplet breaks before full penetration in the <span class="hlt">porous</span> surface), ``spreading'' (continuous wicking into the <span class="hlt">porous</span> surface), and ``jetting'' (jets of liquid emanate from the edges of the wicking liquid). To predict the droplet impingement modes, we've developed a non-dimensional parameter that is a function of droplet velocity, dynamic viscosity, effective pore radius and contact angle. The novel dimensionless parameter successfully predicts drop impingement modes across multiple fluids. Results of this study will inform the design of spray impingement cooling systems for electronics applications where the ``spreading'' mode is preferred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22190767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22190767"><span>Photocatalytic Properties of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Silicon Nanowires.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qu, Yongquan; Zhong, Xing; Li, Yujing; Liao, Lei; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon nanowires are synthesized through metal assisted wet-chemical etch of highly-doped silicon wafer. The resulted <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires exhibit a large surface area of 337 m(2)·g(-1) and a wide spectrum absorption across the entire ultraviolet, visible and near infrared regime. We further demonstrate that platinum nanoparticles can be loaded onto the surface of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires with controlled density. These combined advancements make the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires an interesting material for photocatalytic applications. We show that the <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires and platinum nanoparticle loaded <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon nanowires can be used as effective photocatalysts for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes and toxic pollutants under visible irradiation, and thus are of significant interest for organic waste treatment and environmental remediation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130000617','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130000617"><span>Thermally conductive <span class="hlt">porous</span> element-based recuperators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Du, Jian Hua (Inventor); Chow, Louis C (Inventor); Lin, Yeong-Ren (Inventor); Wu, Wei (Inventor); Kapat, Jayanta (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A heat exchanger includes at least one hot fluid flow channel comprising a first plurality of open cell <span class="hlt">porous</span> elements having first gaps there between for flowing a hot fluid in a flow direction and at least one cold fluid flow channel comprising a second plurality of open cell <span class="hlt">porous</span> elements having second gaps therebetween for flowing a cold fluid in a countercurrent flow direction relative to the flow direction. The thermal conductivity of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> elements is at least 10 W/mK. A separation member is interposed between the hot and cold flow channels for isolating flow paths associated these flow channels. The first and second plurality of <span class="hlt">porous</span> elements at least partially overlap one another to form a plurality of heat transfer pairs which transfer heat from respective ones of the first <span class="hlt">porous</span> elements to respective ones of the second <span class="hlt">porous</span> elements through the separation member.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V11B1421W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V11B1421W"><span>Experiments on <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Flow With Cooling Boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watanabe, T.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Fluid migrations in geological problems (hydrothermal systems, magma migration, etc.) are not purely mechanical problems. They <span class="hlt">involve</span> heat transfer and/or chemical reactions, which may cause the structural change of fluid paths. When the fluid flows into cooler regions, it may precipitate dissolved materials along its paths. Such a structural change affects the fluid flow and leads to a temporal change in flux. In order to understand the fluid migration with thermal and chemical processes, we have conducted experiments of <span class="hlt">porous</span> flow with a cooling boundary. We employ packed nylon beads (D=0.4 mm, L=0.4 mm) and NH4Cl aqueous solution as a <span class="hlt">porous</span> matrix and a fluid, respectively. The solubility of NH4Cl is very sensitive to the temperature. A small temperature drop makes a considerable amount of precipitation. Undersaturated NH4Cl solution is injected at a constant rate from the column of beads. The top part of the column is cooled from the outside, where NH4Cl can precipitate in pores to reduce the permeability. We change the temperature of the cooling boundary, the fluid injection rate, and the concentration of NH4Cl, and study the temporal change of the temperature of the fluid, the outflow rate, and the fluid pressure. We have observed three different types of temporal change. When the cooling of the fluid is not effective, the fluid does not precipitate dissolved NH4Cl. The outflow rate and the fluid pressure are kept constant. On the other hand, when the cooling is effective, the fluid precipitates NH4Cl. The fluid pressure increases to keep the outflow rate constant. The second case is subdivided into two types. When the cooling effect is strong, the precipitation makes a strong lid at the cooling boundary. The fluid pressure increases steadily. When the cooling effect is moderate, the elevated fluid pressure breaks the low permeability lid. The fluctuation of the fluid pressure is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H33H1717T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H33H1717T"><span>Macroscopic properties of fractured <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thovert, J.; Mourzenko, V. V.; Adler, P. M.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The determination of the local fields in fractured <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is a challenging problem, because of the multiple scales that are <span class="hlt">involved</span> and of the possible nonlinearity of the governing equations. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overall view of the numerical technique which has been used to solve numerous problems. It is based on a three-dimensional discrete description of the fracture network and of the embedding matrix. Any fracture network geometry, any type of boundary condition, and any distribution of the fracture and matrix properties can be addressed, without simplifying approximations. The first step is to mesh the fracture network as it is by triangles of a controlled size. This meshing by an advancing front technique is done successively for each fracture and the intersections between fractures are taken into account. Then, the space in between the fractures is meshed by tetrahedra by the advancing front technique again. The faces of the tetrahedra which are in contact with fractures, coincide with the corresponding triangles in these fractures. The performances of these meshing codes will be illustrated by a few examples. The second step consists in discretizing the conservation equations by the finite volume technique. Specific properties are given to each fracture such as a surface permeability or a joint rigidity. This general technique has been applied to the basic and most important properties of fracture networks and of fractured <span class="hlt">porous</span> media (1). These properties are single and two phase flows, wether they are accompagnied or not by dispersion of a solute and mechanical properties possibly coupled with flow. These applications will be briefly illustrated by some examples, including when possible comparison with real data. Ref: (1) P.M. Adler, V.V. Mourzenko, J.-F. Thovert, I. Bogdanov, in Dynamics of fluids and transport in fractured rock, ed. B. Faybishenko, Geophysical Monograph Series, 162, 33, 2005.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CPL...669..202S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CPL...669..202S"><span>Transportation of MHD nanofluid free convection in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> semi annulus using numerical approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sheikholeslami, M.; Ganji, D. D.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Nanofluid free convection in presence of Lorentz forces in a permeable semi annulus is simulated using Control Volume based Finite Element Method. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media on governing equations is considered by means of Darcy law. Brownian motion <span class="hlt">impact</span> on properties of nanofluid is taken into account using Koo-Kleinstreuer-Li (KKL) model. Important parameters are inclination angle (ξ) , CuO-water volume fraction (ϕ) , Hartmann (Ha) and Rayleigh (Ra) numbers for <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. A formula for Nuave is provided. Results indicated that temperature gradient detracts with enhance of Ha but it enhances with rise of ξ, Ra . Heat transfer augmentation enhances with rise of Lorentz forces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........48W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........48W"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> silicon technology for integrated microsystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wallner, Jin Zheng</p> <p></p> <p>With the development of micro systems, there is an increasing demand for integrable <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials. In addition to those conventional applications, such as filtration, wicking, and insulating, many new micro devices, including micro reactors, sensors, actuators, and optical components, can benefit from <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials. Conventional <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials, such as ceramics and polymers, however, cannot meet the challenges posed by micro systems, due to their incompatibility with standard micro-fabrication processes. In an effort to produce <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials that can be used in micro systems, <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon (PS) generated by anodization of single crystalline silicon has been investigated. In this work, the PS formation process has been extensively studied and characterized as a function of substrate type, crystal orientation, doping concentration, current density and surfactant concentration and type. Anodization conditions have been optimized for producing very thick <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon layers with uniform pore size, and for obtaining ideal pore morphologies. Three different types of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon materials: meso <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon, macro <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon with straight pores, and macro <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon with tortuous pores, have been successfully produced. Regular pore arrays with controllable pore size in the range of 2mum to 6mum have been demonstrated as well. Localized PS formation has been achieved by using oxide/nitride/polysilicon stack as masking materials, which can withstand anodization in hydrofluoric acid up to twenty hours. A special etching cell with electrolytic liquid backside contact along with two process flows has been developed to enable the fabrication of thick macro <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon membranes with though wafer pores. For device assembly, Si-Au and In-Au bonding technologies have been developed. Very low bonding temperature (˜200°C) and thick/soft bonding layers (˜6mum) have been achieved by In-Au bonding technology, which is able to compensate the potentially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhL..88k1905V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhL..88k1905V"><span>Piezoelectric and piezooptic effects in <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vinikman-Pinhasi, Shirly; Ribak, Erez N.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Although silicon is a simple cubic crystal, it can be induced to have a piezoelectric response, by making pores in it and thus spoiling its symmetry. By etching a silicon wafer into <span class="hlt">porous</span> material, we found that it responds to voltage applied to it, as well as to light. A <span class="hlt">porous</span> shallow layer on the surface of the wafer induced bimorph bending roughly proportional to the voltage squared. Illuminating the <span class="hlt">porous</span> patch caused a similar bending.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1255215','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1255215"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> media heat transfer for injection molding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Beer, Neil Reginald</p> <p>2016-05-31</p> <p>The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium disposed within an injection molding component via a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium inlet. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25811970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25811970"><span>Foam drainage placed on a <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arjmandi-Tash, O; Kovalchuk, N; Trybala, A; Starov, V</p> <p>2015-05-14</p> <p>A model for drainage/imbibition of a foam placed on the top of a <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate is presented. The equation of liquid imbibition into the <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate is coupled with a foam drainage equation at the foam/<span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate interface. The deduced dimensionless equations are solved using a finite element method. It was found that the kinetics of foam drainage/imbibition depends on three dimensionless numbers and the initial liquid volume fraction. The result shows that there are three different regimes of the process. Each regime starts after initial rapid decrease of a liquid volume fraction at the foam/<span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate interface: (i) rapid imbibition: the liquid volume fraction inside the foam at the foam/<span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate interface remains constant close to a final liquid volume fraction; (ii) intermediate imbibition: the liquid volume fraction at the interface with the <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate experiences a peak point and imbibition into the <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate is slower as compared with the drainage; (iii) slow imbibition: the liquid volume fraction at the foam/<span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate interface increases to a maximum limiting value and a free liquid layer is formed between the foam and the <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrate. However, the free liquid layer disappears after some time. The transition points between these three different drainage/imbibition regimes were delineated by introducing two dimensionless numbers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000586&hterms=transpiration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtranspiration','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000586&hterms=transpiration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtranspiration"><span>Transpiration Control Of Aerodynamics Via <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Banks, Daniel W.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Quasi-active <span class="hlt">porous</span> surface used to control pressure loading on aerodynamic surface of aircraft or other vehicle, according to proposal. In transpiration control, one makes small additions of pressure and/or mass to cavity beneath surface of <span class="hlt">porous</span> skin on aerodynamic surface, thereby affecting rate of transpiration through <span class="hlt">porous</span> surface. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> skin located on forebody or any other suitable aerodynamic surface, with cavity just below surface. Device based on concept extremely lightweight, mechanically simple, occupies little volume in vehicle, and extremely adaptable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EML.....9..783C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EML.....9..783C"><span>Bimodal <span class="hlt">porous</span> gold opals for molecular sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chae, Weon-Sik; Yu, Hyunung; Ham, Sung-Kyoung; Lee, Myung-Jin; Jung, Jin-Seung; Robinson, David B.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>We have fabricated bimodal <span class="hlt">porous</span> gold skeletons by double-templating routes using poly(styrene) colloidal opals as templates. The fabricated gold skeletons show a bimodal pore-size distribution, with small pores within spheres and large pores between spheres. The templated bimodal <span class="hlt">porous</span> gold skeletons were applied in Raman scattering experiments to study sensing efficiency for probe molecules. We found that the bimodal <span class="hlt">porous</span> gold skeletons showed obvious enhancement of Raman scattering signals versus that of the unimodal <span class="hlt">porous</span> gold which only has interstitial pores of several hundred nanometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23876827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23876827"><span>Characterization and comparison of pore landscapes in crystalline <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pinheiro, Marielle; Martin, Richard L; Rycroft, Chris H; Jones, Andrew; Iglesia, Enrique; Haranczyk, Maciej</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Crystalline <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials have many applications, including catalysis and separations. Identifying suitable materials for a given application can be achieved by screening material databases. Such a screening requires automated high-throughput analysis tools that characterize and represent pore landscapes with descriptors, which can be compared using similarity measures in order to select, group and classify materials. Here, we discuss algorithms for the calculation of two types of pore landscape descriptors: pore size distributions and stochastic rays. These descriptors provide histogram representations that encode the geometrical properties of pore landscapes. Their calculation <span class="hlt">involves</span> the Voronoi decomposition as a technique to map and characterize accessible void space inside <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials. Moreover, we demonstrate pore landscape comparisons for materials from the International Zeolite Association (IZA) database of zeolite frameworks, and illustrate how the choice of pore descriptor and similarity measure affects the perspective of material similarity exhibiting a particular emphasis and sensitivity to certain aspects of structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAMTP..51..721M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAMTP..51..721M"><span>Local Nonsimilarity Solution for the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Chemical Reaction in an MHD Mixed Convection Heat and Mass Transfer Flow over a <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Wedge in the Presence Of Suction/Injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muhaimin, I.; Kandasamy, R.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Combined heat and mass transfer in free, forced, and mixed convection flows along a <span class="hlt">porous</span> wedge with a magnetic effect in the presence of a chemical reaction is investigated. The flow field characteristics are analyzed with the Runge—Kutta—Gill method in conjunction with the shooting method, and local nonsimilarity method. The governing boundary-layer equations are written in a dimensionless form with the use of the Falkner—Skan transformations. Owing to the effect of the buoyancy force, the power law of temperature and concentration, and suction/injection on the wall of the wedge, the flow field is locally nonsimilar. Numerical calculations up to the third-order level of truncation are carried out for different values of dimensionless parameters as a special case. Effects of the magnetic field strength in the presence of a chemical reaction with a variable wall temperature and concentration on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are shown graphically. Comparisons with previously published works are performed, and excellent agreement between the results is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1162233','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1162233"><span>Final Report - Montana State University - Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gerlach, Robin</p> <p>2014-10-31</p> <p>Background. The use of biological and chemical processes that degrade or immobilize contaminants in subsurface environments is a cornerstone of remediation technology. The enhancement of biological and chemical processes in situ, <span class="hlt">involves</span> the transport, displacement, distribution and mixing of one or more reactive agents. Biological and chemical reactions all require diffusive transport of solutes to reaction sites at the molecular scale and accordingly, the success of processes at the meter-scale and larger is dictated by the success of phenomena that occur at the micron-scale. However, current understanding of scaling effects on the mixing and delivery of nutrients in biogeochemically dynamic <span class="hlt">porous</span> media systems is limited, despite the limitations this imposes on the efficiency and effectiveness of the remediation challenges at hand. Objectives. We therefore proposed to experimentally characterize and computationally describe the growth, evolution, and distribution of microbial activity and mineral formation as well as changes in transport processes in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media that receive two or more reactive amendments. The model system chosen for this project was based on a method for immobilizing 90Sr, which <span class="hlt">involves</span> stimulating microbial urea hydrolysis with ensuing mineral precipitation (CaCO3), and co-precipitation of Sr. Studies at different laboratory scales were used to visualize and quantitatively describe the spatial relationships between amendment transport and consumption that stimulate the production of biomass and mineral phases that subsequently modify the permeability and heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Biomass growth, activity, and mass deposition in mixing zones was investigated using two-dimensional micro-model flow cells as well as flow cells that could be analyzed using synchrotron-based x-ray tomography. Larger-scale flow-cell experiments were conducted where the spatial distribution of media properties, flow, segregation of biological activity and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=customer+AND+service&pg=3&id=ED552368','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=customer+AND+service&pg=3&id=ED552368"><span>Multi-Generational Perspectives: How They Interact and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Service to Students and Their Families in an Age of Highly-<span class="hlt">Involved</span> Parents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wawrzusin, Andrea C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although there have always been differences in how generations navigate decision-making in higher education, highly <span class="hlt">involved</span> parents have led to conflicting inter-generational educational expectations. This research study investigated the phenomenon of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and how meanings on educational expectations vary depending on generation.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=customer%2bservice&pg=3&id=ED552368','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=customer%2bservice&pg=3&id=ED552368"><span>Multi-Generational Perspectives: How They Interact and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Service to Students and Their Families in an Age of Highly-<span class="hlt">Involved</span> Parents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wawrzusin, Andrea C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although there have always been differences in how generations navigate decision-making in higher education, highly <span class="hlt">involved</span> parents have led to conflicting inter-generational educational expectations. This research study investigated the phenomenon of parental <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and how meanings on educational expectations vary depending on generation.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED545474.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED545474.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Family <span class="hlt">Involvement</span> on the Education of Children Ages 3 to 8: A Focus on Literacy and Math Achievement Outcomes and Social-Emotional Skills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Van Voorhis, Frances L.; Maier, Michelle F.; Epstein, Joyce L.; Lloyd, Chrishana M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes research conducted primarily over the past 10 years on how families' <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in children's learning and development through activities at home and at school affects the literacy, mathematics, and social-emotional skills of children ages 3 to 8. A total of 95 studies of family <span class="hlt">involvement</span> are reviewed. These include both…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......212M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......212M"><span>Fluid diffusion in <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCann, Lowell I.</p> <p></p> <p>Fluid motion in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media has received a great deal of theoretical and experimental attention due to its importance in systems as diverse as ground water aquifers, catalytic processes, and size separation schemes. Often, the motion of interest is the random thermal motion of molecules in a fluid undergoing no net flow. This diffusive motion is particularly important when the size of the pores is nearly the same as the size of the molecules. In this study, fluid diffusion is measured in several varieties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica whose pore structure is determined by the process by which it is made. The samples in this study have porosities (φ, the ratio of the pore volume to the total sample volume) that vary from 0.3 to 0.75 and average pore radii that range from approximately 15 to 120 A. Determining the effect of the pore structure on the diffusion of a liquid in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> material is complicated by the chemical interactions between the diffusing molecules and the pore surface. In this study, ions in a hydrophilic fluid are used to block the adsorption of the diffusing dye molecules to the hydroxyl groups covering the silica surface. This technique is unlike typical surface treatments of silica in that it does not permanently alter the pore geometry. In this work, fluid diffusion is measured with a transient holographic grating technique where interfering laser beams create a periodic refractive index modulation in the fluid. The diffraction of a third laser off this grating is monitored to determine how quickly the grating relaxes, thereby determining the diffusion coefficient of the molecules in the fluid. Varying the grating periodicity controls the length scale of the diffusion measurement from 1.2 to 100 μm which is much larger than the average pore sizes of the samples. Therefore, over these large scales, we measure 'normal' diffusion, where the mean squared displacement of a diffusing particle varies linearly with time. In one particular type of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silica</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22318045','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22318045"><span>ZnO/<span class="hlt">porous</span>-Si and TiO{sub 2}/<span class="hlt">porous</span>-Si nanocomposite nanopillars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Dong Yan, Yong; Schaaf, Peter; Sharp, Thomas; Schönherr, Sven; Ronning, Carsten; Ji, Ran</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Si nanopillar arrays are used as templates for atomic layer deposition of ZnO and TiO{sub 2}, and thus, ZnO/<span class="hlt">porous</span>-Si and TiO{sub 2}/<span class="hlt">porous</span>-Si nanocomposite nanopillars are fabricated. The diffusion of the precursor molecules into the inside of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure occurs via Knudsen diffusion and is strongly limited by the small pore size. The luminescence of the ZnO/<span class="hlt">porous</span>-Si nanocomposite nanopillars is also investigated, and the optical emission can be changed and even quenched after a strong plasma treatment. Such nanocomposite nanopillars are interesting for photocatalysis and sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNS24A..01W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNS24A..01W"><span>Imaging Microbial Biofilms in Opaque Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media: Opportunities and Limitations (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wildenschild, D.; Iltis, G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Microbial biofilms are observed in both natural and engineered subsurface environments and can dramatically alter the physical properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Current understanding of biofilm formation and the associated <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to structural and hydrodynamic properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media are limited by our ability to observe changes to pore morphology non-destructively. Imaging biofilm within opaque <span class="hlt">porous</span> media has historically presented a significant challenge. X-ray computed microtomography has traditionally been used for non-destructive imaging of a variety of processes and phenomena in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media, yet, the conventional contrast agents used in tomography research tend to diffuse quite readily into both the aqueous phase as well as the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media-associated biofilm, thereby preventing delineation of the two phases. A couple of new methods for imaging biofilm within opaque <span class="hlt">porous</span> media using x-ray microtomography have been developed in recent years, and this presentation will discuss advantages and limitations to using polychromatic vs. monochromatic (synchrotron) radiation, as well as different types, and various concentrations of, contrast agents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10148699','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10148699"><span>DDT modeling and shock compression experiments of <span class="hlt">porous</span> or damaged energetic materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baer, M.R.; Anderson, M.U.; Graham, R.A.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>In this presentation, we present modeling of DDT in <span class="hlt">porous</span> energetic materials and experimental studies of a time-resolved, shock compression of highly <span class="hlt">porous</span> inert and reactive materials. This combined theoretical and experimental studies explore the nature of the microscale processes of consolidation, deformation and reaction which are key features of the shock response of <span class="hlt">porous</span> or damaged energetic materials. The theoretical modeling is based on the theory of mixtures in which multiphase mixtures are treated in complete nonequilibrium allowing for internal boundary effects associated mass/momentum and energy exchange between phases, relative flow, rate-dependent compaction behavior, multistage chemistry and interphase boundary effects. Numerous studies of low-velocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> using a high resolution adaptive finite element method are presented which replicate experimental observations. The incorporation of this model into multi-material hydrocode analysis will be discussed to address the effects of confinement and its influence on accelerated combustion behavior. The experimental studies will focus on the use of PVDF piezoelectric polymer stress-rate gauge to precisely measure the input and propagating shock stress response of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials. In addition to single constituent <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials, such as granular HMX, we have resolved shock waves in <span class="hlt">porous</span> composite intermetallic powders that confirm a dispersive wave nature which is highly morphologically and material dependent. This document consists of viewgraphs from the poster session.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22921844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22921844"><span>Foam-oil interaction in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media: implications for foam assisted enhanced oil recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farajzadeh, R; Andrianov, A; Krastev, R; Hirasaki, G J; Rossen, W R</p> <p>2012-11-15</p> <p>The efficiency of a foam displacement process in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends largely on the stability of foam films in the presence of oil. Experimental studies have demonstrated the detrimental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of oil on foam stability. This paper reviews the mechanisms and theories (disjoining pressure, coalescence and drainage, entering and spreading of oil, oil emulsification, pinch-off, etc.) suggested in the literature to explain the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of oil on foam stability in the bulk and <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Moreover, we describe the existing approaches to foam modeling in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media and the ways these models describe the oil effect on foam propagation in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Further, we present various ideas on an improvement of foam stability and longevity in the presence of oil. The outstanding questions regarding foam-oil interactions and modeling of these interactions are pointed out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S11B1731H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S11B1731H"><span>Infrasound Sensor and <span class="hlt">Porous</span>-Hose Filter Characterization Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hart, D. M.; Harris, J. M.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEM R&D) program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is regarded as the primary center for unbiased expertise in testing and evaluation of geophysical sensors and instrumentation for nuclear explosion monitoring. Over the past year much of our work has focused in the area of infrasound sensor characterization through the continuing development of an infrasound sensor characterization test-bed. Our main areas of focus have been in new sensor characterization and understanding the effects of <span class="hlt">porous</span>-hose filters for reducing acoustic background signals. Three infrasound sensors were evaluated for characteristics of instrument response, linearity and self-noise. The sensors tested were Chaparral Physics model 2.5 low-gain, New Mexico Tech All-Sensor and the Inter-Mountain Labs model SS avalanche sensor. For the infrasound sensors tested, the test results allow us to conclude that two of the three sensors had sufficiently quiet noise floor to be at or below the Acoustic low-noise model from 0.1 to 7 Hz, which make those sensors suitable to explosion monitoring. The other area of focus has been to understand the characteristics of <span class="hlt">porous</span>-hose filters used at some monitoring sites. For this, an experiment was designed in which two infrasound sensors were co- located. One sensor was connected to a typical <span class="hlt">porous</span>-hose spatial filter consisting of eight individual hoses covering a 30m aperture and the second sensor was left open to unimpeded acoustic input. Data were collected for several days, power spectrum computed for two-hour windows and the relative gain of the <span class="hlt">porous</span>-hose filters were estimated by dividing the power spectrum. The <span class="hlt">porous</span>-hose filter appears to attenuate less than 3 dB (rel 1 Pa**2/Hz) below 0.1 Hz and as much as 25 dB at 1 Hz and between 20 to 10 dB above 10 Hz. Several more experiments will be designed to address the effects of different characteristics of the individual <span class="hlt">porous</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..SHK..M533G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..SHK..M533G"><span>Mathematical Model of <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Medium Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerschuk, Peotr; Sapozhnikov, Anatoly</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>Semiempirical model describing <span class="hlt">porous</span> material strains under pulse mechanical and thermal loadings is proposed. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> medium is considered as continuous one but with special form of pressure dependence upon strain. This model takes into account principal features of <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials behavior which can be observed when the material is strained in dynamic and static experiments ( non-reversibility of large strains, nonconvexity of loading curve). Elastoplastic properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium, its damages when it is strained and dynamic fracture are also taken into account. Dispersion of unidirectional motion caused by medium heterogeneity (<span class="hlt">porousness</span>) is taken into acount by introducing the physical viscosity depending upon pores size. It is supposed that at every moment of time pores are in equilibrium with pressure i.e. kinetic of pores collapse is not taken into account. The model is presented by the system of differential equations connecting pressure and energy of <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium with its strain. These equations close system of equations of motion and continuity which then is integrated numerically. The proposed model has been tested on carbon materials and <span class="hlt">porous</span> copper . Results of calculation of these materials shock compressing are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. Results of calculation of thin plate with <span class="hlt">porous</span> copper layer collision are given as an illustration.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1265277-thiazolothiazole-linked-porous-organic-polymers','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1265277-thiazolothiazole-linked-porous-organic-polymers"><span>Thiazolothiazole-linked <span class="hlt">porous</span> organic polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xiang; Tian, Chengcheng; Jin, Tian; ...</p> <p>2014-10-07</p> <p>In this study, thiazolothiazole-linked <span class="hlt">porous</span> organic polymers have been synthesized from a facile catalyst-free condensation reaction between aldehydes and dithiooxamide under solvothermal conditions. The resultant <span class="hlt">porous</span> frameworks exhibit a highly selective uptake of CO2 over N2 under ambient conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1265277','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1265277"><span>Thiazolothiazole-linked <span class="hlt">porous</span> organic polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xiang; Tian, Chengcheng; Jin, Tian; Wang, Jitong; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mei, Wenwen; Xiong, Yan; Hu, Jun; Feng, Xinliang; Liu, Honglai; Dai, Sheng</p> <p>2014-10-07</p> <p>In this study, thiazolothiazole-linked <span class="hlt">porous</span> organic polymers have been synthesized from a facile catalyst-free condensation reaction between aldehydes and dithiooxamide under solvothermal conditions. The resultant <span class="hlt">porous</span> frameworks exhibit a highly selective uptake of CO<sub>2</sub> over N<sub>2</sub> under ambient conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4316955','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4316955"><span>Biocompatibility and osteogenic properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>WANG, QIAN; ZHANG, HUI; LI, QIJIA; YE, LEI; GAN, HONGQUAN; LIU, YINGJIE; WANG, HUI; WANG, ZHIQIANG</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span> tantalum has been reported to be a promising material for use in bone tissue engineering. In the present study, the biocompatibility and osteogenic properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum were studied in vitro and in vivo. The morphology of <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoblasts were cultured with <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum, and cell morphology, adhesion and proliferation were investigated using optical microscopy and SEM. In addition, <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum rods were implanted in rabbits, and osteogenesis was observed using laser scanning confocal microscopy and hard tissue slice examination. The osteoblasts were observed to proliferate over time and adhere to the tantalum surface and pore walls, exhibiting a variety of shapes and intercellular connections. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum rod connected tightly with the host bone. At weeks 2 and 4 following implantation, new bone and small blood vessels were observed at the tantalum-host bone interface and pores. At week 10 after the <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum implantation, new bone tissue was observed at the tantalum-host bone interface and pores. By week 12, the tantalum-host bone interface and pores were covered with new bone tissue and the bone trabeculae had matured and connected directly with the materials. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that <span class="hlt">porous</span> tantalum is non-toxic, biocompatible and a promising material for use in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25667628</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4174..398S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4174..398S"><span>Novel <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon formation without external contact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Splinter, Alexandra; Stuermann, Joerg; Benecke, Wolfgang</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>Presently two <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon formation technologies are published: the anodization into an electro chemical cell and stain etch without external current into a hydrofluoric acid/nitride acid solution. For anodization an external current is necessary in order to achieve <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon thicknesses up to 100 micrometers . Stain etch is an electroless process, and the <span class="hlt">porous</span> layer thickness sis limited to a few micrometers. A novel <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon formation technique that combines the advantages of thick layer anodization and electroless stain etch will be shown. A current generated by a galvanic element of silicon and a precision metal on the backside of a silicon wafer in a hydrofluoric acid (HF)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/ethanol electrolyte is utilized in order to generate <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon. In this case the silicon operates as anode and the metal as cathode for current generation. This current is similar to the external current needed for anodization. Beside the standard <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon etch solution HF and ethanol to oxidizing agent H2O2 is used to support the etch process and to generate a higher etch rate. Etch rate control is given by concentration of etching solution and metalization. Different kinds of metalizations and etching solutions were investigated. This novel technology enables to generate stable <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon layers of e.g. 80 micrometers within 10 minutes without an external current. This can be the first efficient way for <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon batch processing. Detailed process parameters and characterization will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680000331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680000331"><span>Electron beam selectively seals <span class="hlt">porous</span> metal filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Snyder, J. A.; Tulisiak, G.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>Electron beam welding selectively seals the outer surfaces of <span class="hlt">porous</span> metal filters and impedances used in fluid flow systems. The outer surface can be sealed by melting a thin outer layer of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> material with an electron beam so that the melted material fills all surface pores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDH40009Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDH40009Z"><span>On the Examination of Darcy Permeability a Thin Fibrous <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Zenghao; Wang, Qiuyun; Wu, Qianhong; Vucbmss Team</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report a novel experimental approach to investigate the Darcy permeability of a soft and thin fibrous <span class="hlt">porous</span> layer. The project is inspired by recent studies <span class="hlt">involved</span> compression of very thin <span class="hlt">porous</span> films and the resultant pore fluid flow inside the confined <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure. The Darcy permeability plays a critical role during the process, which however, is tricky to measure due to the very thin nature of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. In the current study, a special micro-fluidic device is developed that consists of a rectangular flow channel with adjustable gap height ranging from 20 mm to 0.5 mm. Air is forced through the thin gap filled with testing fibrous materials. By measuring the flow rate and the pressure drop, we have successfully obtained the Darcy permeability of different thin <span class="hlt">porous</span> sheets at different compression ratios. Furthermore, the surface area of the fibers are evaluated using a Micromeritics® ASAP 2020 (Accelerated Surface Area and Porosimetry) system. We found that, although the functions relating the permeability and porosities are different for different fibrous materials, these functions collapse to a single relationship if one express the permeability as a function of the solid phase surface area per unit volume. This finding provides a useful approach to evaluate the permeability of very thin fibrous <span class="hlt">porous</span> sheet, which otherwise is difficult to measure directly. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Award #1511096.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23107474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23107474"><span>Mechanical properties of sintered meso-<span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon: a numerical model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martini, Roberto; Depauw, Valerie; Gonzalez, Mario; Vanstreels, Kris; Nieuwenhuysen, Kris Van; Gordon, Ivan; Poortmans, Jef</p> <p>2012-10-29</p> <p>: Because of its optical and electrical properties, large surfaces, and compatibility with standard silicon processes, <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon is a very interesting material in photovoltaic and microelectromechanical systems technology. In some applications, <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon is annealed at high temperature and, consequently, the cylindrical pores that are generated by anodization or stain etching reorganize into randomly distributed closed sphere-like pores. Although the design of devices which <span class="hlt">involve</span> this material needs an accurate evaluation of its mechanical properties, only few researchers have studied the mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon, and no data are nowadays available on the mechanical properties of sintered <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon. In this work we propose a finite element model to estimate the mechanical properties of sintered meso-<span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon. The model has been employed to study the dependence of the Young's modulus and the shear modulus (upper and lower bounds) on the porosity for porosities between 0% to 40%. Interpolation functions for the Young's modulus and shear modulus have been obtained, and the results show good agreement with the data reported for other <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. A Monte Carlo simulation has also been employed to study the effect of the actual microstructure on the mechanical properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4305408','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4305408"><span>Cytoskeleton remodelling of confluent epithelial cells cultured on <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rother, Jan; Büchsenschütz-Göbeler, Matthias; Nöding, Helen; Steltenkamp, Siegfried; Samwer, Konrad; Janshoff, Andreas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of substrate topography on the morphological and mechanical properties of confluent MDCK-II cells cultured on <span class="hlt">porous</span> substrates was scrutinized by means of various imaging techniques as well as atomic force microscopy comprising force volume and microrheology measurements. Regardless of the pore size, ranging from 450 to 5500 nm in diameter, cells were able to span the pores. They did not crawl into the holes or grow around the pores. Generally, we found that cells cultured on non-<span class="hlt">porous</span> surfaces are stiffer, i.e. cortical tension rises from 0.1 to 0.3 mN m−1, and less fluid than cells grown over pores. The mechanical data are corroborated by electron microscopy imaging showing more cytoskeletal filaments on flat samples in comparison to <span class="hlt">porous</span> ones. By contrast, cellular compliance increases with pore size and cells display a more fluid-like behaviour on larger pores. Interestingly, cells on pores larger than 3500 nm produce thick actin bundles that bridge the pores and thereby strengthen the contact zone of the cells. PMID:25566882</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DFD.PE001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DFD.PE001H"><span>Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Flow in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hassanipour, Fatemeh; Catoe, James K.; Lage, Jose</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Modeling techniques and simulation of laminar flow through <span class="hlt">porous</span> media have been applied for a number of years for designing particulate filters, catalytic reactors, thermal and sound insulators, combustors, and more recently fuel cells. Essential for further analysis, and in support of new synthesis, is the modeling necessary for simulating turbulent flows in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. This has been studied in the present work, in principle, through modeling that is an alternative to Direct Numerical Simulation. A natural approach to build a turbulence model for flow in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is to simply apply the time averaging (for handling turbulence) and the space averaging (for handling the morphology) to the microscopic equations valid at the pore level. When pursuing a combined time and space averaging approach, the averaging order (i.e. space-time or time-space) matters. The difference in pursuing a time-space or a space-time averaging order is now known to essentially <span class="hlt">impact</span> the way in which the resulting model treats the interaction of a large flow structure. In the current study, these two different approaches have been investigated in parallel to the experiments for their validity range. The comparisons are based on flow structure visualization and on values of turbulence characteristics obtained from direct measurements of fluid velocity via digital particle image velocimetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24210950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24210950"><span>Environmental concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine <span class="hlt">impact</span> specific behaviors <span class="hlt">involved</span> in reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance in the fish Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weinberger, Joel; Klaper, Rebecca</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been found in surface waters worldwide, but little is understood of their effects on the wildlife that inhabit these waters. Fluoxetine (Prozac; Eli Lilly), a highly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a commonly found PPCP in surface water. The purpose of this project was to determine if environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine <span class="hlt">impact</span> behavior that is important for population survival in native fish species, including reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance. Chronic 4-week exposures were conducted with doses ranging from 100 ng/L to 100 μg/L to cover a range of environmentally relevant concentrations up to higher concentrations comparable to other published studies with the same drug that have documented various physiological <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), a species native to North America, was used as it conducts a range of specific mating behaviors and therefore serves as an excellent model of specific <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on brain function. Fluoxetine concentrations as low as 1 μg/L, a concentration that has been found in many freshwater environments, were found to significantly <span class="hlt">impact</span> mating behavior, specifically nest building and defending in male fish. Males were also found to display aggression, isolation, and repetitive behaviors at higher concentrations. Female mating behavior was largely unaffected. In addition, predator avoidance behaviors in males and females were also <span class="hlt">impacted</span> at 1 μg/L. Feeding was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> at 10 μg/L and in the highest exposure (100 μg/L), egg production was limited by deaths of females due to significant male aggressive behaviors in the first two weeks of exposure. Specific behavioral changes occurred at each concentration (most noticeably 1 μg/L and 100 μg/L) indicating a dose dependent effect that triggered different responses at lower exposures versus higher exposures or differential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of dose depending on brain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989372','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989372"><span>Environmental concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine <span class="hlt">impact</span> specific behaviors <span class="hlt">involved</span> in reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance in the fish Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weinberger, Joel; Klaper, Rebecca</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) have been found in surface waters worldwide, but little is understood of their effects on the wildlife that inhabit these waters. Fluoxetine (Prozac; Eli Lilly), a highly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a commonly found PPCP in surface water. The purpose of this project was to determine if environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine <span class="hlt">impact</span> behavior that is important for population survival in native fish species, including reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance. Chronic 4-week exposures were conducted with doses ranging from 100 ng/L to 100 μg/L to cover a range of environmentally relevant concentrations up to higher concentrations comparable to other published studies with the same drug that have documented various physiological <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), a species native to North America, was used as it conducts a range of specific mating behaviors and therefore serves as an excellent model of specific <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on brain function. Fluoxetine concentrations as low as 1 μg/L, a concentration that has been found in many freshwater environments, were found to significantly <span class="hlt">impact</span> mating behavior, specifically nest building and defending in male fish. Males were also found to display aggression, isolation, and repetitive behaviors at higher concentrations. Female mating behavior was largely unaffected. In addition, predator avoidance behaviors in males and females were also <span class="hlt">impacted</span> at 1 μg/L. Feeding was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> at 10 μg/L and in the highest exposure (100 μg/L), egg production was limited by deaths of females due to significant male aggressive behaviors in first two weeks of exposure. Specific behavioral changes occurred at each concentration (most noticeably 1 μg/L and 100 μg/L) indicating a dose dependent effect that triggered different responses at lower exposures versus higher exposures or differential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of dose depending on brain region</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H51F1439M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H51F1439M"><span>Upscaling of Large-Scale Transport in Spatially Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media Using Wavelet Transformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moslehi, M.; de Barros, F.; Ebrahimi, F.; Sahimi, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Modeling flow and solute transport in large-scale heterogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> media <span class="hlt">involves</span> substantial computational burdens. A common approach to alleviate this complexity is to utilize upscaling methods. These processes generate upscaled models with less complexity while attempting to preserve the hydrogeological properties comparable to the original fine-scale model. We use Wavelet Transformations (WT) of the spatial distribution of aquifer's property to upscale the hydrogeological models and consequently transport processes. In particular, we apply the technique to a <span class="hlt">porous</span> formation with broadly distributed and correlated transmissivity to verify the performance of the WT. First, transmissivity fields are coarsened using WT in such a way that the high transmissivity zones, in which more important information is embedded, mostly remain the same, while the low transmissivity zones are averaged out since they contain less information about the hydrogeological formation. Next, flow and non-reactive transport are simulated in both fine-scale and upscaled models to predict both the concentration breakthrough curves at a control location and the large-scale spreading of the plume around its centroid. The results reveal that the WT of the fields generates non-uniform grids with an average of 2.1% of the number of grid blocks in the original fine-scale models, which eventually leads to a significant reduction in the computational costs. We show that the upscaled model obtained through the WT reconstructs the concentration breakthrough curves and the spreading of the plume at different times accurately. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the Hurst coefficient, size of the flow domain and the orders of magnitude difference in transmissivity values on the results have been investigated. It is observed that as the heterogeneity and the size of the domain increase, better agreement between the results of fine-scale and upscaled models can be achieved. Having this framework at hand aids</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28208825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28208825"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Frameworks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Yi-Fei; Yuan, Ying-Xue; Wang, Hong-Bo</p> <p>2017-02-13</p> <p>Ordered <span class="hlt">porous</span> solid-state architectures constructed via non-covalent supramolecular self-assembly have attracted increasing interest due to their unique advantages and potential applications. <span class="hlt">Porous</span> metal-coordination organic frameworks (MOFs) are generated by the assembly of metal coordination centers and organic linkers. Compared to MOFs, <span class="hlt">porous</span> hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) are readily purified and recovered via simple recrystallization. However, due to lacking of sufficiently ability to orientate self-aggregation of building motifs in predictable manners, rational design and preparation of <span class="hlt">porous</span> HOFs are still challenging. Herein, we summarize recent developments about <span class="hlt">porous</span> HOFs and attempt to gain deeper insights into the design strategies of basic building motifs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFDD29004Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFDD29004Z"><span>Fluid Drainage from <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Reservoirs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Zhong; Soh, Beatrice; Huppert, Herbert; Stone, Howard; Stone Group Team</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We report theoretical and experimental studies to describe buoyancy-driven fluid drainage from a <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. We first study homogeneous <span class="hlt">porous</span> systems. To investigate the influence of heterogeneities, we consider the case where the permeability varies transverse to the flow direction, exemplified by a V-shaped Hele-Shaw cell. Finally, we analyze a model where both the permeability and the porosity vary transverse to the flow direction. In each case, a self-similar solution for the shape of the gravity current is found and a power-law behavior in time is derived for the mass remaining in the system. Laboratory experiments are conducted in homogeneous and V-shaped Hele-Shaw cells, and the measured profile shapes and the mass remaining in the cells agree well with our model predictions. Our study provides new insights into drainage processes such as may occur in a variety of natural and industrial activities including the geological storage of carbon dioxide. This work is supported by a grant from Carbon Mitigation Initiative at Princeton University.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170007097&hterms=carey&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcarey','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170007097&hterms=carey&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcarey"><span>Manufactured <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Ambient Surface Simulants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carey, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Gregory H.; Chu, Lauren; Zhou, Yu Meng; Cohen, Brooklin; Panossian, Lara; Green, Jacklyn R.; Moreland, Scott; Backes, Paul</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The planetary science decadal survey for 2013-2022 (Vision and Voyages, NRC 2011) has promoted mission concepts for sample acquisition from small solar system bodies. Numerous comet-sampling tools are in development to meet this standard. Manufactured <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Ambient Surface Simulants (MPASS) materials provide an opportunity to simulate variable features at ambient temperatures and pressures to appropriately test potential sample acquisition systems for comets, asteroids, and planetary surfaces. The original "flavor" of MPASS materials is known as Manufactured <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Ambient Comet Simulants (MPACS), which was developed in parallel with the development of the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review). The current suite of MPACS materials was developed through research of the physical and mechanical properties of comets from past comet missions results and modeling efforts, coordination with the science community at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and testing of a wide range of materials and formulations. These simulants were required to represent the physical and mechanical properties of cometary nuclei, based on the current understanding of the science community. Working with cryogenic simulants can be tedious and costly; thus MPACS is a suite of ambient simulants that yields a brittle failure mode similar to that of cryogenic icy materials. Here we describe our suite of comet simulants known as MPACS that will be used to test and validate the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5234B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5234B"><span><span class="hlt">Porous</span> Soil as Complex Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benito, R. M.; Santiago, A.; Cárdenas, J. P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Borondo, F.; Losada, J. C.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>We present a complex network model based on a heterogeneous preferential attachment scheme [1,2] to quantify the structure of <span class="hlt">porous</span> soils [3]. Under this perspective pores are represented by nodes and the space for the flow of fluids between them are represented by links. Pore properties such as position and size are described by fixed states in a metric space, while an affinity function is introduced to bias the attachment probabilities of links according to these properties. We perform an analytical and numerical study of the degree distributions in the soil model and show that under reasonable conditions all the model variants yield a multiscaling behavior in the connectivity degrees, leaving a empirically testable signature of heterogeneity in the topology of pore networks. References [1] A. Santiago and R. M. Benito, "Emergence of multiscaling in heterogeneous complex networks". Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 18, 1591 (2007). [2] A. Santiago and R. M. Benito, "An extended formalism for preferential attachment in heterogeneous complex networks". Europhys. Lett. 82, 58004 (2008). [3] A. Santiago, R. M. Benito, J. P. Cárdenas, J. C. Losada, A. M. Tarquis and F. Borondo, "Multiscaling of <span class="hlt">porous</span> soils as heterogeneous complex networks". Nonl. Proc. Geophys. 15, 1-10 (2008).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1021902','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1021902"><span>Microelectromechanical pump utilizing <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Lantz, Jeffrey W.; Stalford, Harold L.</p> <p>2011-07-19</p> <p>A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The <span class="hlt">porous</span> silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.520B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.520B"><span>Dynamic pressures in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the relationship between fluid pressures and water content (saturation) in soils or other <span class="hlt">porous</span> media can be important in a wide range of practical areas, including oil recovery, infiltration and flooding during extreme weather events, and environmental remediation. The relationship between fluid pressures and saturation in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media has been reported to be dynamic—to depend on the flow rate as saturation changes. However, previous studies designed to understand the dynamic component of this relationship have been highly contradictory. To learn more, Hou et al. conducted experiments to quantify the relationship between pressure and rate of saturation change using a small-volume system with highly characterized fluid selective microsensors. Their analyses corrected for two often-overlooked experimental artifacts: gas pressure gradients and sensor response rate. When the researchers applied these corrections, they found that the dependence of pressure on the rate of saturation change may be much less significant than previously thought. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2012WR012434, 2012)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..87a2718D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..87a2718D"><span>Hydrodynamic dispersion within <span class="hlt">porous</span> biofilms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davit, Y.; Byrne, H.; Osborne, J.; Pitt-Francis, J.; Gavaghan, D.; Quintard, M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these <span class="hlt">porous</span> biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher's equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels' network; (2) the solute's diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3949B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3949B"><span>Effect of sequential release of NAPLs on NAPL migration in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bang, Woohui; Yeo, In Wook</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>NAPLs (Non-aqueous phase liquids) are common groundwater contaminants and are classified as LNAPLs (Light non-aqueous phase liquids) and DNAPLs (Dense non-aqueous phase liquids) according to relative density for water. Due to their low solubility in water, NAPLs remain for a long time in groundwater, and they pose a serious environmental problem. Therefore, understanding NAPLs migration in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is essential for effective NAPLs remediation. DNAPLs tend to move downward through the water table by gravity force because its density is higher than water. However, if DNAPLs do not have sufficient energy which breaks capillary force of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media, they will just accumulate above capillary zone or water table. Mobile phase of LNAPLs rises and falls depending on fluctuation of water table, and it could change the wettability of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This could <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the migration characteristics of subsequently-released DNAPLs. LNAPLs and DNAPLs are sometime disposed at the same place (for example, the Hill air force base, USA). Therefore, this study focuses on the effect of sequential release of NAPLs on NAPLs (in particular, DNAPL) migration in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. We have conducted laboratory experiments. Gasoline, which is known to change wettability of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media from hydrophilic to intermediate, and TCE (Trichloroethylene) were used as LNAPL and DNAPL, respectively. Glass beads with the grain size of 1 mm and 2 mm were prepared for two sets of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Gasoline and TCE was dyed for visualization. First, respective LNAPL and DNAPL of 10 ml were separately released into prepared <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. For the grain size of 2 mm glass beads, LNAPL became buoyant above the water table, and DNAPL just moved downward through <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. However, for the experiment with the grain size of 1 mm glass beads, NAPLs behaved very differently. DNAPL did not migrate downward below and just remained above the water table due to capillary pressure of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26422294','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26422294"><span>Development Trends in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Adsorbents for Carbon Capture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sreenivasulu, Bolisetty; Sreedhar, Inkollu; Suresh, Pathi; Raghavan, Kondapuram Vijaya</p> <p>2015-11-03</p> <p>Accumulation of greenhouse gases especially CO2 in the atmosphere leading to global warming with undesirable climate changes has been a serious global concern. Major power generation in the world is from coal based power plants. Carbon capture through pre- and post- combustion technologies with various technical options like adsorption, absorption, membrane separations, and chemical looping combustion with and without oxygen uncoupling have received considerable attention of researchers, environmentalists and the stake holders. Carbon capture from flue gases can be achieved with micro and meso <span class="hlt">porous</span> adsorbents. This review covers carbonaceous (organic and metal organic frameworks) and noncarbonaceous (inorganic) <span class="hlt">porous</span> adsorbents for CO2 adsorption at different process conditions and pore sizes. Focus is also given to noncarbonaceous micro and meso <span class="hlt">porous</span> adsorbents in chemical looping combustion <span class="hlt">involving</span> insitu CO2 capture at high temperature (>400 °C). Adsorption mechanisms, material characteristics, and synthesis methods are discussed. Attention is given to isosteric heats and characterization techniques. The options to enhance the techno-economic viability of carbon capture techniques by integrating with CO2 utilization to produce industrially important chemicals like ammonia and urea are analyzed. From the reader's perspective, for different classes of materials, each section has been summarized in the form of tables or figures to get a quick glance of the developments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Nanot..23a5601K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Nanot..23a5601K"><span>Ordered <span class="hlt">porous</span> diamond films fabricated by colloidal crystal templating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurdyukov, D. A.; Feoktistov, N. A.; Nashchekin, A. V.; Zadiranov, Yu M.; Aleksenskii, A. E.; Vul', A. Ya; Golubev, V. G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We have developed a colloidal crystal templating method for preparation of diamond films with 2D and 3D ordered <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures. The technological process <span class="hlt">involved</span> breaks down into (a) impregnation into the pores of silica colloidal crystal (opal) films of detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles from their hydrosol; (b) microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MWPECVD) regrowth with diamond of pores with high DND filling; (c) Ar + ion dry etching of fragments of shells of coalesced diamond crystallites which form in the course of MWPECVD on the surface of the SiO2 beads making up the outer surface of a film and (d) wet etching of the SiO2 template in aqueous HF solution. The final samples are either connected to the substrate or free-standing films of various thicknesses having 2D or 3D ordered <span class="hlt">porous</span> structures. The morphology of the diamond films fabricated by this method replicates the pore network of the opal template. Raman measurements confirm the diamond structure of the synthesized ordered <span class="hlt">porous</span> material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H13P..01O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H13P..01O"><span>Pore Scale View of Fluid Displacement Fronts in <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Or, D.; Moebius, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The macroscopically smooth and regular motion of fluid fronts in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is composed of abrupt pore-scale interfacial jumps <span class="hlt">involving</span> intense interfacial energy release marked by pressure bursts and acoustic emissions. The characteristics of these pore scale events affect residual phase entrapment and the resulting unsaturated transport properties behind the front. Experimental studies using acoustic emissions technique (AE), rapid imaging, and pressure measurements help characterize pore scale processes during drainage and imbibition in model <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Imbibition and drainage produce different AE signatures (obeying a power law). For rapid drainage, AE signals persist long after cessation of front motion indicative of redistribution and interfacial relaxation. Rapid imaging revealed that interfacial jumps exceed mean front velocity and are highly inertial (Re>1000). Imaged pore invasion volumes and pore volumes deduced from waiting times between pressure fluctuations were in remarkable agreement with geometric pores. Differences between invaded volumes and geometrical pores increase with increasing capillary numbers due to shorter pore evacuation times and onset of simultaneous invasion events. A new mechanistic model for interfacial motions through a pore-throat network enabled systematic evaluation of inertia in interfacial dynamics. Results suggest that in contrast to great sensitivity of pore scale dynamics to variations in pore geometry and boundary conditions, inertia exerts only a minor effect on average phase entrapment. Pore scale invasion events paint a complex picture of rapid and inertial motions and provide new insights on mechanisms at displacement fronts essential for improving the macroscopic description of multiphase flow in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24407681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24407681"><span>Microscale simulation of particle deposition in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boccardo, Gianluca; Marchisio, Daniele L; Sethi, Rajandrea</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In this work several geometries, each representing a different <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium, are considered to perform detailed computational fluid dynamics simulation for fluid flow, particle transport and deposition. Only Brownian motions and steric interception are accounted for as deposition mechanisms. Firstly pressure drop in each <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium is analyzed in order to determine an effective grain size, by fitting the results with the Ergun law. Then grid independence is assessed. Lastly, particle transport in the system is investigated via Eulerian steady-state simulations, where particle concentration is solved for, not following explicitly particles' trajectories, but solving the corresponding advection-diffusion equation. An assumption was made in considering favorable collector-particle interactions, resulting in a "perfect sink" boundary condition for the collectors. The gathered simulation data are used to calculate the deposition efficiency due to Brownian motions and steric interception. The original Levich law for one simple circular collector is verified; subsequently <span class="hlt">porous</span> media constituted by a packing of collectors are scrutinized. Results show that the interactions between the different collectors result in behaviors which are not in line with the theory developed by Happel and co-workers, highlighting a different dependency of the deposition efficiency on the dimensionless groups <span class="hlt">involved</span> in the relevant correlations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/287534','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/287534"><span>Laboratory experiments with heterogeneous reactions in mixed <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burris, D.R.; Hatfield, K.; Wolfe, N.L.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>The limited success and high cost of traditional active ground-water-contaminant plume management efforts (i.e., pump-and-treat systems) has stimulated a search for less expensive passive plume interception and in-situ treatment technologies. The funnel/gate system, which uses heterogeneous (surface-mediated) reactions on <span class="hlt">porous</span> media to degrade dissolved contaminants, is one passive technology under consideration. Research on a heterogeneous reaction is presented in this paper, which can be extended to facilitate the design of engineered <span class="hlt">porous</span> media systems (i.e., funnel/gates). Results are examined from batch and flow-through column experiments <span class="hlt">involving</span> nitrobenzene degradation in a surface-mediated reaction with granular metallic iron. A nonequilibrium transport model that incorporates solute mass-transfer resistance near reactive iron surfaces is shown to simulate breakthrough curves (BTCs) from column systems, using model parameters estimated from batch systems. The investigation shows pseudo first-order degradation-rate coefficients increasing with higher solid:liquid ratios and with greater iron concentrations. In addition, nitrobenzene degradation is found to be faster in batch systems than in comparable column systems, indicating the presence of mass-transfer limitations in the flow-through systems. Finally, the present study provides insights on conditions pertinent to the design of engineered in-situ treatment zones, such as how mass-transfer, hydraulic, and reaction kinetic conditions affect ground-water-contaminant fate and transport through reactive <span class="hlt">porous</span> media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...36a2021B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...36a2021B"><span>Adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic solution onto <span class="hlt">porous</span> adsorbents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bono, A.; Ramlan, N. A.; Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Chu, C. M.; Farm, Y. Y.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Adsorption isotherm is essential component in the understanding of the adsorption process. Several methods of the measurements, analysis and interpretation of adsorption from solution have been reported in the literature. Most of the measurements of adsorption isotherm from solution were <span class="hlt">involved</span> the measurement of excess isotherm conducted at low region of sorbates concentration. Direct interpretation of excess adsorption isotherm as adsorption isotherm is always been practice. Therefore, in this work a study on the measurement of the adsorption isotherm from solution of non-azeotropic organic solvent mixture onto <span class="hlt">porous</span> adsorbents for whole range of liquid concentration was conducted. The study included the measurement of excess adsorption isotherm using conventional technique. Theoretical analysis and interpretation of adsorption isotherm from the excess isotherm were conducted using Pseudo Ideal Adsorption, Gibbs Dividing Plane Model and Langmuir-Fruendlich binary isotherm model. For organic solvents, acetone and propanol were chosen as the adsorbates due to the non-azeotropic properties in the mixture. Activated carbon and silicalite were chosen as adsorbents due to the different in their porosity such as macro <span class="hlt">porous</span> and micro <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure. The result of the study has revealed that the adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic mixture onto activated carbon and silicalite can be interpreted as monolayer type of adsorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1005634','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1005634"><span>Measurement and Estimation of Organic-Liquid/Water Interfacial Areas for Several Natural <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brusseau, M.L.; Narter, M.; Schnaar, G.; Marble, J.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">porous</span>-medium texture on interfacial area between immiscible organic liquid and water residing within natural <span class="hlt">porous</span> media. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to obtain high-resolution, three-dimensional images of solid and liquid phases in packed columns. The image data were processed to generate quantitative measurements of organic-liquid/water interfacial area and of organic-liquid blob sizes. Ten <span class="hlt">porous</span> media, comprising a range of median grain sizes, grain-size distributions, and geochemical properties, were used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">porous</span>-medium texture on interfacial area. The results show that fluid-normalized specific interfacial area (A{sub f}) and maximum specific interfacial area (A{sub m}) correlate very well to inverse median grain diameter. These functionalities were shown to result from a linear relationship between effective organic-liquid blob diameter and median grain diameter. These results provide the basis for a simple method for estimating specific organic-liquid/water interfacial area as a function of fluid saturation for a given <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium. The availability of a method for which the only parameter needed is the simple-to-measure median grain diameter should be of great utility for a variety of applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......246T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......246T"><span>Micro/macroscopic fluid flow in open cell fibrous structures and <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tamayol, Ali</p> <p></p> <p>Fibrous <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials are <span class="hlt">involved</span> in a wide range of applications including composite fabrication, filtration, compact heat exchangers, fuel cell technology, and tissue engineering to name a few. Fibrous structures, such as metalfoams, have unique characteristics such as low weight, high porosity, high mechanical strength, and high surface to volume ratio. More importantly, in many applications the fibrous microstructures can be tailored to meet a range of requirements. Therefore, fibrous materials have the potential to be used in emerging sustainable energy conversion applications. The first step for analyzing transport phenomena in <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials is to determine the micro/macroscopic flow-field inside the medium. In applications where the <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is confined in a channel, the system performance is tightly related to the flow properties of the <span class="hlt">porous</span> medium and its interaction with the channel walls, i.e., macroscopic velocity distribution. Therefore, the focus of the study has been on: developing new mechanistic model(s) for determining permeability and inertial coefficient of fibrous <span class="hlt">porous</span> materials; investigating the effects of microstructural and mechanical parameters such as porosity, fiber orientation, mechanical compression, and fiber distribution on the flow properties and pressure drop of fibrous structures; determining the macroscopic flow-field in confined <span class="hlt">porous</span> media where the <span class="hlt">porous</span> structure fills the channel cross-section totally or partially. A systematic approach has been followed to study different aspects of the flow through fibrous materials. The complex microstructure of real materials has been modelled using unit cells that have been assumed to be repeated throughout the media. Implementing various exact and approximate analytical techniques such as integral technique, point matching, blending rules, and scale analysis the flow properties of such media have been modelled; the targeted properties include permeability and inertial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H43E1060P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H43E1060P"><span>Colloid Straining within Saturated Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porubcan, A.; Walczak, J.; Xu, S.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>A thorough understanding of colloid movement in the subsurface system is critical to the assessment of groundwater pollution by pathogenic bacteria and colloid-bound contaminants. It is increasingly recognized that straining, a process that occurs when the pore space is too small to allow for a particle's passage, represents an important process in colloid immobilization within groundwater systems. Previously published studies have focused on the kinetics of colloid straining within sand packs composed of uniform mineral grains. Natural aquifers, however, are usually characterized by physically heterogeneous sediments. In this study, we conducted column transport experiments with carboxylated latex particles and quartz sand to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sediment texture (i.e., the size distribution of mineral grains) on colloid straining kinetics. The quartz sands used in the experiment were thoroughly cleaned and the strong repulsive interactions between colloid particles and quartz sands resulted in minimal physicochemical deposition so the straining kinetics can be quantified unambiguously. Sand packs of different textures were prepared by mixing sands of various sizes (mesh sizes of 20-25, 35-40 and 60-70). Our results suggested that the ratio of colloid size and the median sand grain size was insufficient to predict colloid straining within heterogeneous sediments. Soil texture, which was related to the size distribution of the sand grains, must be considered. A relationship between colloid straining kinetics and the heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">porous</span> media that can be useful for the prediction of colloid transport within heterogeneous sediments was presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLA..381..494S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLA..381..494S"><span>Numerical simulation of magnetic nanofluid natural convection in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sheikholeslami, Mohsen</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Free convection of magnetic nanofluid in a <span class="hlt">porous</span> curved cavity is investigated. Influence of external magnetic source is taken into account. Innovative numerical approach, namely CVFEM, is applied. <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Darcy number (Da), Rayleigh (Ra), Hartmann (Ha) numbers and volume fraction of Fe3O4 (ϕ) on hydrothermal characteristics are examined. Results indicate that heat transfer augmentation augments with rise of Ha and reduces with rise of Da , Ra . Lorentz forces make the nanofluid motion to decrease and enhance the thermal boundary layer thickness. Temperature gradient enhances with increase of Da , Ra , ϕ, but it reduces with rise of Ha.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26ES...15f2017Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26ES...15f2017Y"><span>Numerical simulation study on the flow field of <span class="hlt">porous</span> hydrofoil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, F. R.; Zhang, L. X.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Because cavitation and cavitation erosion will caused significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the security and stability of hydro turbine, so changing geometric structure to reduce the risk of cavitation is considered. Punching many holes on the hydrofoil is adopted. By using RNG κ - ɛ turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm, the flow field around hydrofoil and <span class="hlt">porous</span> hydrofoil are simulated based computational fluid dynamics(CFD). The numerical simulation result-velocity and pressure field of hydrofoil with different geometry are compared and analysed. This study introduces geometry optimization ideas to researchers for improving cavitation phenomenon in water turbine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDD40001A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDD40001A"><span>Title: Spatial velocity fluctuations in flow through <span class="hlt">porous</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aramideh, Soroush; Guo, Tianqi; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Ardekani, Arezoo M.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Understanding the flow in <span class="hlt">porous</span> media is of great importance and has direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> on many processes in chemical and oil industries, fuel cell design, and filtration. In this work, we use direct numerical simulations (DNS) to examine the flow through variety of sphere packings with different levels of complexity and heterogeneity. DNS results are validated with velocity fields obtained via volumetric particle tracking velocimetry at high resolution. We show that flow in random close packing of spheres has unique statistical properties while the medium is random itself. Furthermore, we quantify the relationship between pore geometry and velocity fluctuations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24615596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24615596"><span><span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of patients or their representatives in quality management functions in EU hospitals: implementation and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on patient-centred care strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Groene, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Klazinga, Niek S; Wang, Aolin; Dersarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A; Thompson, Andrew; Arah, Onyebuchi A</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to describe the <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of patients or their representatives in quality management (QM) functions and to assess associations between levels of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and the implementation of patient-centred care strategies. A cross-sectional, multilevel that surveyed quality managers and department heads and data from an organizational audit. Randomly selected hospitals (n = 74) from seven European countries (The Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Turkey). Hospital quality managers (n = 74) and heads of clinical departments (n = 262) in charge of four patient pathways (acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hip fracture and deliveries) participated in the data collection between May 2011 and February 2012. Four items reflecting essential patient-centred care strategies based on an on-site hospital visit: (1) formal survey seeking views of patients and carers, (2) written policies on patients' rights, (3) patient information literature including guidelines and (4) fact sheets for post-discharge care. The main predictors were patient <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in QM at the (i) hospital level and (ii) pathway level. Current levels of <span class="hlt">involving</span> patients and their representatives in QM functions in European hospitals are low at hospital level (mean score 1.6 on a scale of 0 to 5, SD 0.7), but even lower at departmental level (mean 0.6, SD 0.7). We did not detect associations between levels of <span class="hlt">involving</span> patients and their representatives in QM functions and the implementation of patient-centred care strategies; however, the smallest hospitals were more likely to have implemented patient-centred care strategies. There is insufficient evidence that <span class="hlt">involving</span> patients and their representatives in QM leads to establishing or implementing strategies and procedures that facilitate patient-centred care; however, lack of evidence should not be interpreted as evidence of no effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4001693','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4001693"><span><span class="hlt">Involvement</span> of patients or their representatives in quality management functions in EU hospitals: implementation and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on patient-centred care strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Groene, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Klazinga, Niek S.; Wang, Aolin; Dersarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A.; Thompson, Andrew; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lombarts, MJMH; Plochg, T; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Bottaro, S; Garel, P; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Lívio, A; Eiras, M; Franca, M; Leite, I; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, CA; Wang, A; Thompson, A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective The objective of this study was to describe the <span class="hlt">involvement</span> of patients or their representatives in quality management (QM) functions and to assess associations between levels of <span class="hlt">involvement</span> and the implementation of patient-centred care strategies. Design A cross-sectional, multilevel study design that surveyed quality managers and department heads and data from an organizational audit. Setting Randomly selected hospitals (n = 74) from seven European countries (The Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Turkey). Participants Hospital quality managers (n = 74) and heads of clinical departments (n = 262) in charge of four patient pathways (acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hip fracture and deliveries) participated in the data collection between May 2011 and February 2012. Main Outcome Measures Four items reflecting essential patient-centred care strategies based on an on-site hospital visit: (1) formal survey seeking views of patients and carers, (2) written policies on patients' rights, (3) patient information literature including guidelines and (4) fact sheets for post-discharge care. The main predictors were patient <span class="hlt">involvement</span> in QM at the (i) hospital level and (ii) pathway level. Results Current levels of <span class="hlt">involving</span> patients and their representatives in QM functions in European hospitals are low at hospital level (mean score 1.6 on a scale of 0 to 5, SD 0.7), but even lower at departmental level (mean 0.6, SD 0.7). We did not detect associations between levels of <span class="hlt">involving</span> patients and their representatives in QM functions and the implementation of patient-centred care strategies; however, the smallest hospitals were more likely to have implemented patient-centred care strategies. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence that <span class="hlt">involving</span> patients and their representatives in QM leads to establishing or implementing strategies and procedures that facilitate patient-centred care; however, lack of evidence should not be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/810008','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/810008"><span>Countercurrent Gaseous Diffusion Model of Oxidation Through a <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Coating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holcomb, G.R.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>A countercurrent gaseous diffusion model was developed to describe oxidation through <span class="hlt">porous</span> coatings and scales. The specific system modeled <span class="hlt">involved</span> graphite oxidized through a <span class="hlt">porous</span> alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) overcoat between 570 C (1,058 F) and 975 C (1,787 F). The model separated the <span class="hlt">porous</span> Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating into two gas diffusion regions separated by a flame front, where oxygen (O{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) react to form carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the outer region O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} counterdiffused. In the inner region, CO{sub 2} and CO counterdiffused. Concentration gradients of each gaseous specie in the pores of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were determined, and the oxidation rate was calculated. The model was verified by oxidation experiments using graphite through various <span class="hlt">porous</span> Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overcoats. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overcoats ranged in fractional porosity and in average pore radius from 0.077 {micro}m (3.0 x 10{sup -6} in., Knudsen diffusion) to 10.0 {micro}m (3.9 x 10{sup -4} in., molecular diffusion). Predicted and measured oxidation rates were shown to have the same dependence upon porosity, pore radius, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure (P{sub O{sub 2}}). Use of the model was proposed for other oxidation systems and for chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This work was part of the U.S. Bureau of Mines corrosion research program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1667.6250S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1667.6250S"><span>Experimental Study on Collisional Sticking of Isometric Sintered <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Ice Spheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shimaki, Y.; Arakawa, M.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>We conducted low-velocity collision experiment of isometric sintered <span class="hlt">porous</span> ice spheres with porosity of 44% to 80% at the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity of 0.44 to 4.14 m/s to study sticking process of icy dust in protoplanetary disk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SJCE...22b...1D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SJCE...22b...1D"><span>Comparison of a Wooden House and a <span class="hlt">Porous</span> Concrete Masonry House</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ďurica, Pavol; Badurové, Silvia; Časnocha, Peter</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>This paper deals with an evaluation of an existing wooden panel house and its comparison with alternative material composition (<span class="hlt">porous</span> concrete masonry house). The criteria for evaluation are the energy performance, size of the usable area, environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> and final costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090024823&hterms=Ballistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBallistics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090024823&hterms=Ballistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBallistics"><span>Ballistic Performance of <span class="hlt">Porous</span>-Ceramic, Thermal-Protection-Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span>-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Space Shuttle and are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. This paper discusses recent <span class="hlt">impact</span> testing up to 9 km/s, and the findings of the influence of material equation-of-state on the simulation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> event to characterize the ballistic performance of these materials. These results will be compared with heritage models1 for these materials developed from testing at lower velocities. Assessments of predicted spacecraft risk based upon these tests and simulations will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090024823&hterms=Ballistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBallistics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090024823&hterms=Ballistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBallistics"><span>Ballistic Performance of <span class="hlt">Porous</span>-Ceramic, Thermal-Protection-Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Porous</span>-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Space Shuttle and are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. This paper discusses recent <span class="hlt">impact</span> testing up to 9 km/s, and the findings of the influence of material equation-of-state on the simulation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> event to characterize the ballistic performance of these materials. These results will be compared with heritage models1 for these materials developed from testing at lower velocities. Assessments of predicted spacecraft risk based upon these tests and simulations will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/948405','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/948405"><span>Evaluation of Sampling Tools for Environmental Sampling of Bacterial Endospores from <span class="hlt">Porous</span> and Non-<span class="hlt">porous</span> Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Valentine, Nancy B.; Butcher, Mark G.; Su, Yin-Fong; Jarman, Kristin H.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Seiders, Barbara AB; Wahl, Karen L.</p> <p>2008-03-08</p> <p>Aims: Having and executing a well-defined and validated sampling protocol is critical following a purposeful release of a biological agent for response and recovery activities, for clinical and epidemiological analysis and for forensic purposes. The objective of this study was to address the need for validated sampling and analysis methods called out by the General Accounting Office and others to systematically compare the collection efficiency of various swabs and wipes for collection of bacterial endospores from five different surfaces, both <span class="hlt">porous</span> and non-<span class="hlt">porous</span>. This study was also designed to test the collection and extraction solutions used for endospore recovery from swabs and wipes. Methods and Results: Eight collection tools were used, five swabs and three wipes. Three collection/preservation solutions were evaluated: sterile E-pure® water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and phosphate buffered saline with 0.3% Tween (PBST). An Ink Jet Aerosol Generator (IJAG) was used to apply Bacillus subtilis endospores to five <span class="hlt">porous</span> and non-<span class="hlt">porous</span> surfaces. The collection efficiencies of the swabs and wipes were compared using a statistical multiple comparison analysis. Results indicated that wipes tend to have higher collection efficiency than swabs. Of the swabs tested, the recovery from most of the surfaces was highest with the polyurethane foam swab. Conclusions: The ScottPure® wipe had the highest collection efficiency and PBST was the best collection solution of those tested. Significance and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Study: Validated sampling for potential biological warfare is of significant importance and this study answered some relevant questions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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