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Sample records for impaired dopaminergic neuron

  1. Repeated heat exposure impairs nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Kim, Tae-mi; Park, Gunhyuk; Lee, Tae Hee; Oh, Myung Sook

    2013-01-01

    Environmental heat stress is associated with physical stress responses, including changes in monoamines, protein expression, and neuronal circuits and damage to neurons in the brain. This study determined the effects of heat stress on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system based on behavioral, histological, and neurochemical analyses. To evaluate behavioral changes after heat exposure, we subjected mice to the pole and open field tests. The data suggested that heat stress for 7 d significantly impaired movement. Then, we conducted a histological analysis using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the striatum and substantia nigra (SN). Heat stress induced a significant deficit in TH-positive fibers and cells after 14- and 21-d exposure, respectively. We also measured the striatal dopamine (DA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels. The data suggested that DA turnover rate increased with heat exposure in a time-dependent manner, resulting in the significant decrease of DA after 28 d. Moreover, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was increased in the mouse SN with up to 14-d heat exposure, but decreased after 21 d of the stress. And glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) was gradually increased in the mouse SN with 28-d heat exposure. The caspase-3 activity was also increased after 14-d heat exposure. These findings are the first evidence that repeated heat stress impairs nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, motor function, and DA availability with changes of HSP70 and GRP78 expressions and caspase-3 activity in mice.

  2. Relative contributions of severe dopaminergic neuron ablation and dopamine depletion to cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R Garrett; Gibbs, Jeffrey T; Melief, Erica J; Postupna, Nadia O; Sherfield, Emily E; Wilson, Angela; Keene, C Dirk; Montine, Thomas J; Palmiter, Richard D; Darvas, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and produces a movement disorder and cognitive impairment that becomes more extensive with the duration of the disease. To what extent cognitive impairment in advanced PD can be attributed to severe loss of dopamine (DA) signaling is not well understood. Furthermore, it is unclear if the loss of DA neurons contributes to the cognitive impairment caused by the reduction in DA signaling. We generated genetic mouse models with equally severe chronic loss of DA achieved by either extensive ablation of DA neurons or inactivation of DA synthesis from preserved neurons and compared their motor and cognitive performance. Motor behaviors were equally blunted in both models, but we observed that DA neuron ablation caused more severe cognitive deficits than DA depletion. Both models had marked deficits in cue-discrimination learning. Yet, deficits in cue-discrimination learning were more severe in mice with DA neuron ablation and only mice with DA neuron ablation had drastically impaired performance in spatial learning, spatial memory and object memory tests. These results indicate that while a severe reduction in DA signaling results in motor and cognitive impairments, the loss of DA neurons promotes more extensive cognitive deficits and suggest that a loss of additional factors that depend on DA neurons may participate in the progressive cognitive decline found in patients with PD.

  3. Efficient induction of dopaminergic neuron differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells reveals impaired mitophagy in PARK2 neurons.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sadafumi; Akamatsu, Wado; Kisa, Fumihiko; Sone, Takefumi; Ishikawa, Kei-Ichi; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-01-29

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show promise for use as tools for in vitro modeling of Parkinson's disease. We sought to improve the efficiency of dopaminergic (DA) neuron induction from iPSCs by the using surface markers expressed in DA progenitors to increase the significance of the phenotypic analysis. By sorting for a CD184(high)/CD44(-) fraction during neural differentiation, we obtained a population of cells that were enriched in DA neuron precursor cells and achieved higher differentiation efficiencies than those obtained through the same protocol without sorting. This high efficiency method of DA neuronal induction enabled reliable detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and vulnerable phenotypes in PARK2 iPSCs-derived DA neurons. We additionally established a quantitative system using the mt-mKeima reporter system to monitor mitophagy in which mitochondria fuse with lysosomes and, by combining this system with the method of DA neuronal induction described above, determined that mitophagy is impaired in PARK2 neurons. These findings suggest that the efficiency of DA neuron induction is important for the precise detection of cellular phenotypes in modeling Parkinson's disease.

  4. (G2019S) LRRK2 causes early-phase dysfunction of SNpc dopaminergic neurons and impairment of corticostriatal long-term depression in the PD transgenic mouse.

    PubMed

    Chou, Jun-Shiao; Chen, Chu-Yu; Chen, Ying-Ling; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Yeh, Tu-Hsueh; Lu, Chin-Song; Chang, Ya-Ming; Wang, Hung-Li

    2014-08-01

    Twelve- to sixteen-month-old (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice prepared by us displayed progressive neuronal death of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that prior to a late-phase death of SNpc dopaminergic neurons, (G2019S) LRRK2 also causes an early-phase neuronal dysfunction of SNpc dopaminergic cells in the (G2019S) LRRK2 mouse. Eight to nine-month-old (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice exhibited the symptom of hypoactivity in the absence of the degeneration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons or nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings of SNpc dopaminergic cells in brain slices demonstrated a significant decrease in spontaneous firing frequency of SNpc dopaminergic neurons of 8-month-old (G2019S) LRRK2 mice. Carbon fiber electrode amperometry recording using striatal slices showed that (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice at the age of 8 to 9months display an impaired evoked dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum. Normal nigrostriatal dopaminergic transmission is required for the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity expressed at corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses of striatal medium spiny neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that in contrast to medium spiny neurons of 8 to 9-month-old wild-type mice, high-frequency stimulation of corticostriatal afferents failed to induce long-term depression (LTD) of corticostriatal EPSCs in medium spiny neurons of (G2019S) LRRK2 mice at the same age. Our study provides the evidence that mutant (G2019S) LRRK2 causes early-phase dysfunctions of SNpc dopaminergic neurons, including a decrease in spontaneous firing rate and a reduction in evoked dopamine release, and impairment of corticostriatal LTD in the (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mouse.

  5. A PBX1 transcriptional network controls dopaminergic neuron development and is impaired in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Villaescusa, J Carlos; Li, Bingsi; Toledo, Enrique M; Rivetti di Val Cervo, Pia; Yang, Shanzheng; Stott, Simon Rw; Kaiser, Karol; Islam, Saiful; Gyllborg, Daniel; Laguna-Goya, Rocio; Landreh, Michael; Lönnerberg, Peter; Falk, Anna; Bergman, Tomas; Barker, Roger A; Linnarsson, Sten; Selleri, Licia; Arenas, Ernest

    2016-09-15

    Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (PBX) transcription factors are known to regulate organogenesis, but their molecular targets and function in midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mDAn) as well as their role in neurodegenerative diseases are unknown. Here, we show that PBX1 controls a novel transcriptional network required for mDAn specification and survival, which is sufficient to generate mDAn from human stem cells. Mechanistically, PBX1 plays a dual role in transcription by directly repressing or activating genes, such as Onecut2 to inhibit lateral fates during embryogenesis, Pitx3 to promote mDAn development, and Nfe2l1 to protect from oxidative stress. Notably, PBX1 and NFE2L1 levels are severely reduced in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and decreased NFE2L1 levels increases damage by oxidative stress in human midbrain cells. Thus, our results reveal novel roles for PBX1 and its transcriptional network in mDAn development and PD, opening the door for new therapeutic interventions.

  6. Impaired autophagic flux is critically involved in drug-induced dopaminergic neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Lim, Junghyun; Lee, Yunsu; Jung, Shinae; Youdim, Moussa B H; Oh, Young J

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that mediates the degradation of abnormal proteins and the removal of dysfunctional organelles. Recently, accumulating evidence has implicated the dysregulation of autophagy as underlying the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. Using culture models of Parkinson's disease, we have investigated whether and how prototypic autophagic events occur upon exposure to N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, a dopaminergic neurotoxin, or nigericin, a K(+)/H(+) ionophore. From these independent studies, we have found that these drugs equally induce morphological and biochemical changes typical of autophagy, including accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, appearance of LC3-II forms, and alteration in the expression and distribution of p62. Further investigation has indicated that drug-induced autophagic phenomena are largely the consequences of an impaired autophagic flux. In these cell death paradigms, we have intriguingly found that Bak, a prototypic proapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, exerts a protective role via reduction of the area occupied by swollen vacuoles and appearance of the LC3-II form, whereas silencing of Bak aggravates these phenomena. Further study has indicated that a protective role for Bak is primarily ascribed to its regulatory effect on the maintenance of autophagic flux and vacuole homeostasis. In this regard, a regulatory role for calcium has been proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic control of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development.

    PubMed

    Blaess, Sandra; Ang, Siew-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are involved in regulating motor control, reward behavior, and cognition. Degeneration or dysfunction of midbrain dopaminergic neurons is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease, substance use disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. Understanding the developmental processes that generate midbrain dopaminergic neurons will facilitate the generation of dopaminergic neurons from stem cells for cell replacement therapies to substitute degenerating cells in Parkinson's disease patients and will forward our understanding on how functional diversity of dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain is established. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons develop in a multistep process. Following the induction of the ventral midbrain, a distinct dopaminergic progenitor domain is specified and dopaminergic progenitors undergo proliferation, neurogenesis, and differentiation. Subsequently, midbrain dopaminergic neurons acquire a mature dopaminergic phenotype, migrate to their final position and establish projections and connections to their forebrain targets. This review will discuss insights gained on the signaling network of secreted molecules, cell surface receptors, and transcription factors that regulate specification and differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic progenitors and neurons, from the induction of the ventral midbrain to the migration of dopaminergic neurons. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2015 Medical Research Council.

  8. Abnormal differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in zebrafish trpm7 mutant larvae impairs development of the motor pattern

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Amanda R.; McNeill, Matthew S.; Lambert, Aaron M.; Overton, Jeffrey D.; Chen, Yu-Chia; Lorca, Ramón A.; Johnson, Nicolas A.; Brockerhoff, Susan E.; Mohapatra, Durga P.; MacArthur, Heather; Panula, Pertti; Masino, Mark A.; Runnels, Loren W.; Cornell, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential, melastatin-like 7 (Trpm7) is a combined ion channel and kinase implicated in the differentiation or function of many cell types. Early lethality in mice and frogs depleted of the corresponding gene impedes investigation of the functions of this protein particularly during later stages of development. By contrast, zebrafish trpm7 mutant larvae undergo early morphogenesis normally and thus do not have this limitation. The mutant larvae are characterized by multiple defects including melanocyte cell death, transient paralysis, and an ion imbalance that leads to the development of kidney stones. Here we report a requirement for Trpm7 in differentiation or function of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. First, trpm7 mutant larvae are hypomotile and fail to make a dopamine-dependent developmental transition in swim-bout length. Both of these deficits are partially rescued by the application of levodopa or dopamine. Second, histological analysis reveals that in trpm7 mutants a significant fraction of dopaminergic neurons lack expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. Third, trpm7 mutants are unusually sensitive to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, an oxidative stressor, and their motility is partially rescued by application of the iron chelator deferoxamine, an anti-oxidant. Finally, in SH-SY5Y cells, which model aspects of human dopaminergic neurons, forced expression of a channel-dead variant of TRPM7 causes cell death. In summary, a forward genetic screen in zebrafish has revealed that both melanocytes and dopaminergic neurons depend on the ion channel Trpm7. The mechanistic underpinning of this dependence requires further investigation. PMID:24291744

  9. Dissociation of Progressive Dopaminergic Neuronal Death and Behavioral Impairments by Bax Deletion in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Woo; Moon, Younghye; Kim, Kyungjin; Lee, Jeong Eun; Koh, Hyun Chul; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kim, Hyun; Sun, Woong

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, late-onset movement disorder with selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) has been used to induce progressive degeneration of DA neurons in various animal models of PD, the precise molecular pathway and the impact of anti-apoptotic treatment on this neurodegeneration are less understood. Following a striatal injection of 6-OHDA, we observed atrophy and progressive death of DA neurons in wild-type mice. These degenerating DA neurons never exhibited signs of apoptosis (i.e., caspase-3 activation and cytoplasmic release of cytochrome C), but rather show nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a hallmark of regulated necrosis. However, mice with genetic deletion of the proapoptotic gene Bax (Bax-KO) exhibited a complete absence of 6-OHDA-induced DA neuron death and nuclear translocation of AIF, indicating that 6-OHDA-induced DA neuronal death is mediated by Bax-dependent AIF activation. On the other hand, DA neurons that survived in Bax-KO mice exhibited marked neuronal atrophy, without significant improvement of PD-related behavioral deficits. These findings suggest that anti-apoptotic therapy may not be sufficient for PD treatment, and the prevention of Bax-independent neuronal atrophy may be an important therapeutic target. PMID:22043283

  10. Emotional memory impairments induced by AAV-mediated overexpression of human α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Alvarsson, A; Caudal, D; Björklund, A; Svenningsson, P

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with extensive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons originating in the substantia nigra pars compacta, but neuronal loss is also found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA projects to areas involved in cognitive and emotional processes, including hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and has thus been proposed to play a role in emotional memory impairments in PD. Since the formation of α-synuclein inclusions throughout the central nervous system is a pathological hallmark of PD, we studied the progressive effects of α-synuclein overexpression in the VTA on motor functions, emotional behaviour and emotional memory. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding either human α-synuclein or green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected stereotactically into the VTA, and behaviour was monitored 3 and 8 weeks following AAV injection. At week 8, there was a 22% reduction of TH+ neurons in the VTA. We demonstrate that α-synuclein overexpression in dopaminergic neurons of the VTA induced mild motor deficits that appeared 3 weeks following AAV-α-synuclein injection and were aggravated at week 8. No depressive- or anxiety-like behaviours were found. To address emotional memory, we used the passive avoidance test, a one-trial associative learning paradigm based on contextual conditioning which requires minimal training. Interestingly, emotional memory impairments were found in α-synuclein overexpressing animals at week 8. These findings indicate that α-synuclein overexpression induces progressive memory impairments likely caused by a loss of function of mesolimbic dopaminergic projections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lack of evidence for an impairment of tuberoinfundibolar dopaminergic neurons in aged male rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, S; Di Renzo, G F; Maurano, F; Maida, P; Taglialatela, M; Annunziato, L

    1987-01-01

    Circulating prolactin (PRL) levels, dopamine (DA) content, in vitro basal and stimulus-evoked endogenous DA release from arcuate-periventricular nuclei median-eminence fragments were studied in young (4 months) and old (24-25 months) male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain. Serum PRL levels did not differ in young and aged animals. In addition DA tissue content, basal and K+- or d-amphetamine evoked endogenous DA release did not show age-related differences. These results suggest that in male rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain the activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons does not change during senescence, unlike what happens in other strains of rats.

  12. Gene regulatory logic of dopaminergic neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Flames, Nuria; Hobert, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine signaling regulates a variety of complex behaviors and defects in dopaminergic neuron function or survival result in severe human pathologies, such as Parkinson's disease 1. The common denominator of all dopaminergic neurons is the expression of dopamine pathway genes, which code for a set of phylogenetically conserved proteins involved in dopamine synthesis and transport. Gene regulatory mechanisms that result in the activation of dopamine pathway genes and thereby ultimately determine the identity of dopaminergic neurons are poorly understood in any system studied to date 2. We show here that a simple cis-regulatory element, the DA motif, controls the expression of all dopamine pathway genes in all dopaminergic cell types in C. elegans. The DA motif is activated by the ETS transcription factor, AST-1. Loss of ast-1 results in the failure of all distinct dopaminergic neuronal subtypes to terminally differentiate. Ectopic expression of ast-1 is sufficient to activate the dopamine production pathway in some cellular contexts. Vertebrate dopaminergic pathway genes also contain phylogenetically conserved DA motifs that can be activated by the mouse ETS transcription factor Etv1/ER81 and a specific class of dopaminergic neurons fails to differentiate in mice lacking Etv1/ER81. Moreover, ectopic Etv1/ER81 expression induces dopaminergic fate marker expression in neuronal primary cultures. Mouse Etv1/ER81 can also functionally substitute for ast-1 in C.elegans. Our studies reveal an astoundingly simple and apparently conserved regulatory logic of dopaminergic neuron terminal differentiation and may provide new entry points into the diagnosis or therapy of conditions in which dopamine neurons are defective. PMID:19287374

  13. Selective expression of Parkinson's disease-related Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 G2019S missense mutation in midbrain dopaminergic neurons impairs dopamine release and dopaminergic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoxiang; Sgobio, Carmelo; Gu, Xinglong; Sun, Lixin; Lin, Xian; Yu, Jia; Parisiadou, Loukia; Xie, Chengsong; Sastry, Namratha; Ding, Jinhui; Lohr, Kelly M; Miller, Gary W; Mateo, Yolanda; Lovinger, David M; Cai, Huaibin

    2015-09-15

    Preferential dysfunction/degeneration of midbrain substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic (DA) neurons contributes to the main movement symptoms manifested in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S missense mutation (LRRK2 G2019S) is the most common causative genetic factor linked to PD, the effects of LRRK2 G2019S on the function and survival of SNpc DA neurons are poorly understood. Using a binary gene expression system, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type human LRRK2 (WT mice) or the LRRK2 G2019S mutation (G2019S mice) selectively in the midbrain DA neurons. Here we show that overexpression of LRRK2 G2019S did not induce overt motor abnormalities or substantial SNpc DA neuron loss. However, the LRRK2 G2019S mutation impaired dopamine homeostasis and release in aged mice. This reduction in dopamine content/release coincided with the degeneration of DA axon terminals and decreased expression of DA neuron-enriched genes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular monoamine transporter 2, dopamine transporter and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1. These factors are responsible for dopamine synthesis, transport and degradation, and their expression is regulated by transcription factor paired-like homeodomain 3 (PITX3). Levels of Pitx3 mRNA and protein were similarly decreased in the SNpc DA neurons of aged G2019S mice. Together, these findings suggest that PITX3-dependent transcription regulation could be one of the many potential mechanisms by which LRRK2 G2019S acts in SNpc DA neurons, resulting in downregulation of its downstream target genes critical for dopamine homeostasis and release.

  14. [Impact of opiates on dopaminergic neurons].

    PubMed

    Kaufling, Jennifer; Freund-Mercier, Marie-José; Barrot, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Since the work of Johnson and North, it is known that opiates increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons by a GABA neuron-mediated desinhibition. This model should however be updated based on recent advances. Thus, the neuroanatomical location of the GABA neurons responsible for this desinhibition has been recently detailed: they belong to a brain structure in continuity with the posterior part of the ventral tegmental area and discovered this past decade. Other data also highlighted the critical role played by glutamatergic transmission in the opioid regulation of dopaminergic neuron activity. During protracted opiate withdrawal, the inhibitory/excitatory balance exerted on dopaminergic neurons is altered. These results are now leading to propose an original hypothesis for explaining the impact of protracted opiate withdrawal on mood.

  15. NMDA Receptors in Dopaminergic Neurons are Crucial for Habit Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei Phillip; Li, Fei; Wang, Dong; Xie, Kun; Wang, Deheng; Shen, Xiaoming; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Dopamine is crucial for habit learning. Activities of midbrain dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the cortical and subcortical signals among which glutamatergic afferents provide excitatory inputs. Cognitive implications of glutamatergic afferents in regulating and engaging dopamine signals during habit learning however remain unclear. Here we show that mice with dopaminergic neuron-specific NMDAR1 deletion are impaired in a variety of habit learning tasks while normal in some other dopamine-modulated functions such as locomotor activities, goal directed learning, and spatial reference memories. In vivo neural recording revealed that DA neurons in these mutant mice could still develop the cue-reward association responses, but their conditioned response robustness was drastically blunted. Our results suggest that integration of glutamatergic inputs to DA neurons by NMDA receptors, likely by regulating associative activity patterns, is a crucial part of the cellular mechanism underpinning habit learning. PMID:22196339

  16. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Jakob K.; Jennings, Katie A.; Syed, Emilie C. J.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Bolam, J. Paul; Magill, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson’s disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson’s disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits. PMID:27001837

  17. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Paul D; Dreyer, Jakob K; Jennings, Katie A; Syed, Emilie C J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson's disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits.

  18. Dopaminergic neurons modulate GABA neuron migration in the embryonic midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Anju; Won, Chungkil; Li, Suyan; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Szabó, Gábor; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal migration, a key event during brain development, remains largely unexplored in the mesencephalon, where dopaminergic (DA) and GABA neurons constitute two major neuronal populations. Here we study the migrational trajectories of DA and GABA neurons and show that they occupy ventral mesencephalic territory in a temporally and spatially specific manner. Our results from the Pitx3-deficient aphakia mouse suggest that pre-existing DA neurons modulate GABA neuronal migration to their final destination, providing novel insights and fresh perspectives concerning neuronal migration and connectivity in the mesencephalon in normal as well as diseased brains. PMID:22872083

  19. Dopaminergic neurons modulate GABA neuron migration in the embryonic midbrain.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Anju; Won, Chungkil; Li, Suyan; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Szabó, Gábor; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2012-09-01

    Neuronal migration, a key event during brain development, remains largely unexplored in the mesencephalon, where dopaminergic (DA) and GABA neurons constitute two major neuronal populations. Here we study the migrational trajectories of DA and GABA neurons and show that they occupy ventral mesencephalic territory in a temporally and spatially specific manner. Our results from the Pitx3-deficient aphakia mouse suggest that pre-existing DA neurons modulate GABA neuronal migration to their final destination, providing novel insights and fresh perspectives concerning neuronal migration and connectivity in the mesencephalon in normal as well as diseased brains.

  20. Dopaminergic regulation of orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Bubser, Michael; Fadel, Jim R; Jackson, Lela L; Meador-Woodruff, James H; Jing, Deqiang; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2005-06-01

    Orexin/hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and adjacent perifornical area (LH/PFA) innervate midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons that project to corticolimbic sites and subserve psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity. However, it is not known whether dopamine neurons in turn regulate the activity of orexin cells. We examined the ability of dopamine agonists to activate orexin neurons in the rat, as reflected by induction of Fos. The mixed dopamine agonist apomorphine increased Fos expression in orexin cells, with a greater effect on orexin neurons located medial to the fornix. Both the selective D1-like agonist, A-77636, and the D2-like agonist, quinpirole, also induced Fos in orexin cells, suggesting that stimulation of either receptor subtype is sufficient to activate orexin neurons. Consistent with this finding, combined SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist)-haloperidol (D2 antagonist) pretreatment blocked apomorphine-induced activation of medial as well as lateral orexin neurons; in contrast, pretreatment with either the D1-like or D2-like antagonists alone did not attenuate apomorphine-induced activation of medial orexin cells. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that LH/PFA cells rarely express mRNAs encoding dopamine receptors, suggesting that orexin cells are transsynaptically activated by apomorphine. We therefore lesioned the nucleus accumbens, a site known to regulate orexin cells, but this treatment did not alter apomorphine-elicited activation of medial or lateral orexin neurons. Interestingly, apomorphine failed to activate orexin cells in isoflurane-anaesthetized animals. These data suggest that apomorphine-induced arousal but not accumbens-mediated hyperactivity is required for dopamine to transsynaptically activate orexin neurons.

  1. Necrostatin-1 protection of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-ru; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Sheng-kui; Yang, Long; Yin, Jia-le; Cao, Jun-ping; Cheng, Yan-bo

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis is characterized by programmed necrotic cell death and autophagic activation and might be involved in the death process of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that necrostatin-1 could block necroptosis and give protection to dopaminergic neurons. There is likely to be crosstalk between necroptosis and other cell death pathways, such as apoptosis and autophagy. PC12 cells were pretreated with necroststin-1 1 hour before exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine. We examined cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression patterns of apoptotic and necroptotic death signaling proteins. The results showed that the autophagy/lysosomal pathway is involved in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced death process of PC12 cells. Mitochondrial disability induced overactive autophagy, increased cathepsin B expression, and diminished Bcl-2 expression. Necrostatin-1 within a certain concentration range (5–30 μM) elevated the viability of PC12 cells, stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited excessive autophagy, reduced the expression of LC3-II and cathepsin B, and increased Bcl-2 expression. These findings suggest that necrostatin-1 exerted a protective effect against injury on dopaminergic neurons. Necrostatin-1 interacts with the apoptosis signaling pathway during this process. This pathway could be a new neuroprotective and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26330837

  2. Necrostatin-1 protection of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Ru; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Sheng-Kui; Yang, Long; Yin, Jia-le; Cao, Jun-Ping; Cheng, Yan-Bo

    2015-07-01

    Necroptosis is characterized by programmed necrotic cell death and autophagic activation and might be involved in the death process of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that necrostatin-1 could block necroptosis and give protection to dopaminergic neurons. There is likely to be crosstalk between necroptosis and other cell death pathways, such as apoptosis and autophagy. PC12 cells were pretreated with necroststin-1 1 hour before exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine. We examined cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression patterns of apoptotic and necroptotic death signaling proteins. The results showed that the autophagy/lysosomal pathway is involved in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced death process of PC12 cells. Mitochondrial disability induced overactive autophagy, increased cathepsin B expression, and diminished Bcl-2 expression. Necrostatin-1 within a certain concentration range (5-30 μM) elevated the viability of PC12 cells, stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited excessive autophagy, reduced the expression of LC3-II and cathepsin B, and increased Bcl-2 expression. These findings suggest that necrostatin-1 exerted a protective effect against injury on dopaminergic neurons. Necrostatin-1 interacts with the apoptosis signaling pathway during this process. This pathway could be a new neuroprotective and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease.

  3. Dopaminergic Neurons and Brain Reward Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Sarah X.; Huang, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area regulate extrapyramidal movement and important cognitive functions, including motivation, reward associations, and habit learning. Dysfunctions in DA neuron circuitry have been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction and schizophrenia, whereas selective degeneration of DA neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta is a key neuropathological feature in Parkinson disease. Efforts to understand these disorders have focused on dissecting the underlying causes, as well as developing therapeutic strategies to replenish dopamine deficiency. In particular, the promise of cell replacement therapies for clinical intervention has led to extensive research in the identification of mechanisms involved in DA neuron development. It is hoped that a comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms will lead to therapeutic strategies that improve the efficiency of DA neuron production, engraftment, and function. This review provides a comprehensive discussion on how Wnt/β-catenin and sonic hedgehog–Smoothened signaling mechanisms control the specification and expansion of DA progenitors and the differentiation of DA neurons. We also discuss how mechanisms involving transforming growth factor-β and transcriptional cofactor homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 regulate the survival and maturation of DA neurons in early postnatal life. These results not only reveal fundamental mechanisms regulating DA neuron development, but also provide important insights to their potential contributions to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26724386

  4. Integrin α5β1 expression on dopaminergic neurons is involved in dopaminergic neurite outgrowth on striatal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Wakita, Seiko; Kanbara, Chisato; Nakai, Toshie; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    During development, dopaminergic neurons born in the substantia nigra extend their axons toward the striatum. However, the mechanisms by which the dopaminergic axons extend the striatum to innervate their targets remain unclear. We previously showed that paired-cultivation of mesencephalic cells containing dopaminergic neurons with striatal cells leads to the extension of dopaminergic neurites from the mesencephalic cell region to the striatal cell region. The present study shows that dopaminergic neurites extended along striatal neurons in the paired-cultures of mesencephalic cells with striatal cells. The extension of dopaminergic neurites was suppressed by the pharmacological inhibition of integrin α5β1. Using lentiviral vectors, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of integrin α5 in dopaminergic neurons suppressed the neurite outgrowth to the striatal cell region. In contrast, the knockdown of integrin α5 in non-dopaminergic mesencephalic and striatal cells had no effect. Furthermore, overexpression of integrin α5 in dopaminergic neurons differentiated from embryonic stem cells enhanced their neurite outgrowth on striatal cells. These results indicate that integrin α5β1 expression on dopaminergic neurons plays an important role in the dopaminergic neurite outgrowth on striatal neurons. PMID:28176845

  5. Vulnerability of Mesostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    González-Hernández, Tomás; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Salas-Hernandez, Josmar; Castro-Hernandez, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The term vulnerability was first associated with the midbrain dopaminergic neurons 85 years ago, before they were identified as monoaminergic neurons, when Foix and Nicolesco (1925) reported the loss of neuromelanin containing neurons in the midbrain of patients with post-encephalitic Parkinson's disease (PD). A few years later, Hassler (1938) showed that degeneration is more intense in the ventral tier of the substantia nigra compacta than in its dorsal tier and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), outlining the concept of differential vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic (DA-) neurons. Nowadays, we know that other neuronal groups degenerate in PD, but the massive loss of nigral DA-cells is its pathological hallmark, having a pivotal position in the pathophysiology of the disease as it is responsible for the motor symptoms. Data from humans as well as cellular and animal models indicate that DA-cell degeneration is a complex process, probably precipitated by the convergence of different risk factors, mediated by oxidative stress, and involving pathogenic factors arising within the DA-neuron (intrinsic factors), and from its environment and distant interconnected brain regions (extrinsic factors). In light of current data, intrinsic factors seem to be preferentially involved in the first steps of the degenerative process, and extrinsic factors in its progression. A controversial issue is the relative weight of the impairment of common cell functions, such as energy metabolism and proteostasis, and specific dopaminergic functions, such as pacemaking activity and DA handling, in the pathogenesis of DA-cell degeneration. Here we will review the current knowledge about the relevance of these factors at the beginning and during the progression of PD, and in the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA-cells. PMID:21079748

  6. Minocycline enhances MPTP toxicity to dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichuan; Sugama, Shuei; Chirichigno, Jason W; Gregorio, Jason; Lorenzl, Stefan; Shin, Dong H; Browne, Susan E; Shimizu, Yoshinori; Joh, Tong H; Beal, M Flint; Albers, David S

    2003-10-15

    Minocycline has been shown previously to have beneficial effects against ischemia in rats as well as neuroprotective properties against excitotoxic damage in vitro, nigral cell loss via 6-hydroxydopamine, and to prolong the life-span of transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated whether minocycline would protect against toxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a toxin that selectively destroys nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons and produces a clinical state similar to Parkinson's disease (PD) in rodents and primates. We found that although minocycline inhibited microglial activation, it significantly exacerbated MPTP-induced damage to DA neurons. We present evidence suggesting that this effect may be due to inhibition of DA and 1-methyl-4-phenylpridium (MPP+) uptake into striatal vesicles. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Endorphinic neurons are contacting the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, G.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-11-01

    The anatomical relationships between endorphinic neurons and dopaminergic neurons were evaluated in the rat hypothalamus using a combination of immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. In the arcuate nucleus, endorphinic endings were seen making contacts with dopaminergic cell bodies and dendrites. No synapsis could be observed at the sites of contacts. These results strongly suggest that the endorphinic neurons are directly acting on dopaminergic neurons to modify the release of dopamine into the pituitary portal system.

  8. Sequential Loss of LC Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Neurons Results in a Correlation of Dopaminergic Neuronal Number to Striatal Dopamine Concentration.

    PubMed

    Szot, Patricia; Franklin, Allyn; Sikkema, Carl; Wilkinson, Charles W; Raskind, Murray A

    2012-01-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) are significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the LC exhibits neuropathological changes early in the disease process. It has been suggested that a loss of LC neurons can enhance the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to damage. To determine if LC noradrenergic innervation protects dopaminergic neurons from damage, the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was administered to adult male C57Bl/6 mice 3 days after bilateral LC administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA), a time when there is a significant reduction in LC neuronal number and innervation to forebrain regions. To assess if LC loss can affect dopaminergic loss four groups of animals were studied: control, 6OHDA, MPTP, and 6OHDA + MPTP; animals sacrificed 3 weeks after MPTP administration. The number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), and noradrenergic neurons in the LC were determined. Catecholamine levels in striatum were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The loss of LC neurons did not affect the number of dopaminergic neurons in the SN and VTA compared to control; however, LC 6OHDA significantly reduced striatal dopamine (DA; 29% reduced) but not norepinephrine (NE) concentration. MPTP significantly reduced SN and VTA neuronal number and DA concentration in the striatum compared to control; however, there was not a correlation of striatal DA concentration with SN or VTA neuronal number. Administration of 6OHDA prior to MPTP did not enhance MPTP-induced damage despite an effect of LC loss on striatal DA concentration. However, the loss of LC neurons before MPTP resulted now in a correlation between SN and VTA neuronal number to striatal DA concentration. These results demonstrate that the loss of either LC or DA neurons can affect the function of each others systems, indicating the importance of both the noradrenergic and

  9. Sequential Loss of LC Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Neurons Results in a Correlation of Dopaminergic Neuronal Number to Striatal Dopamine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Szot, Patricia; Franklin, Allyn; Sikkema, Carl; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Raskind, Murray A.

    2012-01-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) are significantly reduced in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the LC exhibits neuropathological changes early in the disease process. It has been suggested that a loss of LC neurons can enhance the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to damage. To determine if LC noradrenergic innervation protects dopaminergic neurons from damage, the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was administered to adult male C57Bl/6 mice 3 days after bilateral LC administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA), a time when there is a significant reduction in LC neuronal number and innervation to forebrain regions. To assess if LC loss can affect dopaminergic loss four groups of animals were studied: control, 6OHDA, MPTP, and 6OHDA + MPTP; animals sacrificed 3 weeks after MPTP administration. The number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), and noradrenergic neurons in the LC were determined. Catecholamine levels in striatum were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The loss of LC neurons did not affect the number of dopaminergic neurons in the SN and VTA compared to control; however, LC 6OHDA significantly reduced striatal dopamine (DA; 29% reduced) but not norepinephrine (NE) concentration. MPTP significantly reduced SN and VTA neuronal number and DA concentration in the striatum compared to control; however, there was not a correlation of striatal DA concentration with SN or VTA neuronal number. Administration of 6OHDA prior to MPTP did not enhance MPTP-induced damage despite an effect of LC loss on striatal DA concentration. However, the loss of LC neurons before MPTP resulted now in a correlation between SN and VTA neuronal number to striatal DA concentration. These results demonstrate that the loss of either LC or DA neurons can affect the function of each others systems, indicating the importance of both the noradrenergic and

  10. Physiological Characterisation of Human iPS-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Fernandes, Hugo J.; Vowles, Jane; James, William S.; Cowley, Sally A.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer the potential to study otherwise inaccessible cell types. Critical to this is the directed differentiation of hiPSCs into functional cell lineages. This is of particular relevance to research into neurological disease, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons degenerate during disease progression but are unobtainable until post-mortem. Here we report a detailed study into the physiological maturation over time of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We first generated and differentiated hiPSC lines into midbrain dopaminergic neurons and performed a comprehensive characterisation to confirm dopaminergic functionality by demonstrating dopamine synthesis, release, and re-uptake. The neuronal cultures include cells positive for both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (Kir3.2, henceforth referred to as GIRK2), representative of the A9 population of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons vulnerable in PD. We observed for the first time the maturation of the slow autonomous pace-making (<10 Hz) and spontaneous synaptic activity typical of mature SNc dopaminergic neurons using a combination of calcium imaging and electrophysiology. hiPSC-derived neurons exhibited inositol tri-phosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent release of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum in neuronal processes as calcium waves propagating from apical and distal dendrites, and in the soma. Finally, neurons were susceptible to the dopamine neuron-specific toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial morphology. Mature hiPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons provide a neurophysiologically-defined model of previously inaccessible vulnerable SNc dopaminergic neurons to bridge the gap between clinical PD and animal models. PMID:24586273

  11. Sirt3 Protects Dopaminergic Neurons from Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Shi, Han; Deng, Han-Xiang; Gius, David; Schumacker, Paul T; James Surmeier, D; Ma, Yong-Chao

    2017-03-24

    Age-dependent elevation in mitochondrial oxidative stress is widely posited to be a major factor underlying the loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, mechanistic links between aging and oxidative stress are not well understood. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is a mitochondrial deacetylase that could mediate this connection. Indeed, genetic deletion of Sirt3 increased oxidative stress and decreased the membrane potential of mitochondria in SNc dopaminergic neurons. This change was attributable to increased acetylation and decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Site directed mutagenesis of lysine 68 to glutamine (K68Q), mimicking acetylation, decreased MnSOD activity in SNc dopaminergic neurons, whereas mutagenesis of lysine 68 to arginine (K68R), mimicking deacetylation, increased activity. Introduction of K68R MnSOD rescued mitochondrial redox status and membrane potential of SNc dopaminergic neurons from Sirt3 knockouts. Moreover, deletion of DJ-1, which helps orchestrate nuclear oxidant defenses, and Sirt3 in mice led to a clear age-related loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons. Lastly, K68 acetylation of MnSOD was significantly increased in the SNc of PD patients. Taken together, our studies suggest that an age-related decline in Sirt3 protective function is a major factor underlying increasing mitochondrial oxidative stress and loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons in PD.

  12. Conditional deletion of Ndufs4 in dopaminergic neurons promotes Parkinson’s disease-like non-motor symptoms without loss of dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Tronche, François; Palmiter, Richard D.; Storm, Daniel R.; Xia, Zhengui

    2017-01-01

    Reduction of mitochondrial complex I activity is one of the major hypotheses for dopaminergic neuron death in Parkinson’s disease. However, reduction of complex I activity in all cells or selectively in dopaminergic neurons via conditional deletion of the Ndufs4 gene, a subunit of the mitochondrial complex I, does not cause dopaminergic neuron death or motor impairment. Here, we investigated the effect of reduced complex I activity on non-motor symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease using conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which Ndufs4 was selectively deleted in dopaminergic neurons (Ndufs4 cKO). This conditional deletion of Ndufs4, which reduces complex I activity in dopamine neurons, did not cause a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and there was no loss of dopaminergic neurites in striatum or amygdala. However, Ndufs4 cKO mice had a reduced amount of dopamine in the brain compared to control mice. Furthermore, even though motor behavior were not affected, Ndufs4 cKO mice showed non-motor symptoms experienced by many Parkinson’s disease patients including impaired cognitive function and increased anxiety-like behavior. These data suggest that mitochondrial complex I dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons promotes non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and reduces dopamine content in the absence of dopamine neuron loss. PMID:28327638

  13. Genetic networks controlling the development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Nilima; Wurst, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Recent data have substantially advanced our understanding of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development. Firstly, a Wnt1-regulated genetic network, including Otx2 and Nkx2-2, and a Shh-controlled genetic cascade, including Lmx1a, Msx1 and Nkx6-1, have been unravelled, acting in parallel or sequentially to establish a territory competent for midbrain dopaminergic precursor production at relatively early stages of neural development. Secondly, the same factors (Wnt1 and Lmx1a/Msx1) appear to regulate midbrain dopaminergic and/or neuronal fate specification in the postmitotic progeny of these precursors by controlling the expression of midbrain dopaminergic-specific and/or general proneural factors at later stages of neural development. For the first time, early inductive events have thus been linked to later differentiation processes in midbrain dopaminergic neuron development. Given the pivotal importance of this neuronal population for normal function of the human brain and its involvement in severe neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, these advances open new prospects for potential stem cell-based therapies. We will summarize these new findings in the overall context of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development in this review. PMID:16825303

  14. VTA dopaminergic neurons regulate ethologically relevant sleep–wake behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eban-Rothschild, Ada; Rothschild, Gideon; Giardino, William J; Jones, Jeff R; de Lecea, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons are critically involved in a variety of behaviors that rely on heightened arousal, but whether they directly and causally control the generation and maintenance of wakefulness is unknown. We recorded calcium activity using fiber photometry in freely behaving mice and found arousal-state-dependent alterations in VTA dopaminergic neurons. We used chemogenetic and optogenetic manipulations together with polysomnographic recordings to demonstrate that VTA dopaminergic neurons are necessary for arousal and that their inhibition suppresses wakefulness, even in the face of ethologically relevant salient stimuli. Nevertheless, before inducing sleep, inhibition of VTA dopaminergic neurons promoted goal-directed and sleep-related nesting behavior. Optogenetic stimulation, in contrast, initiated and maintained wakefulness and suppressed sleep and sleep-related nesting behavior. We further found that different projections of VTA dopaminergic neurons differentially modulate arousal. Collectively, our findings uncover a fundamental role for VTA dopaminergic circuitry in the maintenance of the awake state and ethologically relevant sleep-related behaviors. PMID:27595385

  15. Pharmacogenetic activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons induces hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujie; Tan, Yan; Zhang, Ju-En; Luo, Minmin

    2013-10-01

    Dopaminergic neurons regulate and organize numerous important behavioral processes including motor activity. Consistently, manipulation of brain dopamine concentrations changes animal activity levels. Dopamine is synthesized by several neuronal populations in the brain. This study was carried out to directly test whether selective activation of dopamine neurons in the midbrain induces hyperactivity. A pharmacogenetic approach was used to activate midbrain dopamine neurons, and behavioral assays were conducted to determine the effects on mouse activity levels. Transgenic expression of the evolved hM3Dq receptor was achieved by infusing Cre-inducible AAV viral vectors into the midbrain of DAT-Cre mice. Neurons were excited by injecting the hM3Dq ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Mouse locomotor activity was measured in an open field. The results showed that CNO selectively activated midbrain dopaminergic neurons and induced hyperactivity in a dose-dependent manner, supporting the idea that these neurons play an important role in regulating motor activity.

  16. Dopamine selectively sensitizes dopaminergic neurons to rotenone-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ferogh A; Grammatopoulos, Tom N; Poczobutt, Andy M; Jones, Susan M; Snell, Laurence D; Das, Mita; Zawada, W Michael

    2008-05-01

    Among various types of neurons affected in Parkinson's disease, dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra undergo the most pronounced degeneration. Products of DA oxidation and consequent cellular damage have been hypothesized to contribute to neuronal death. To examine whether elevated intracellular DA will selectively predispose the dopaminergic subpopulation of nigral neurons to damage by an oxidative insult, we first cultured rat primary mesencephalic cells in the presence of rotenone to elevate reactive oxygen species. Although MAP2(+) neurons were more sensitive to rotenone-induced toxicity than type 1 astrocytes, rotenone affected equally both DA (TH(+)) neurons and MAP2(+) neurons. In contrast, when intracellular DA concentration was elevated, DA neurons became selectively sensitized to rotenone. Raising intracellular DA levels in primary DA neurons resulted in dopaminergic neuron death in the presence of subtoxic concentrations of rotenone. Furthermore, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin, blocked activation of caspase-3, and consequent cell death. Our results demonstrate that an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and increased cytosolic DA may cooperatively lead to conditions of elevated oxidative stress and thereby promote selective demise of dopaminergic neurons.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of phytochemicals on dopaminergic neuron cultures.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Avila, S; Diaz, N F; Gómez-Pinedo, U; Canales-Aguirre, A A; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y K; Padilla-Camberos, E; Marquez-Aguirre, A L; Díaz-Martínez, N E

    2016-06-21

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which results in a significant decrease in dopamine levels and consequent functional motor impairment. Although its aetiology is not fully understood, several pathogenic mechanisms, including oxidative stress, have been proposed. Current therapeutic approaches are based on dopamine replacement drugs; these agents, however, are not able to stop or even slow disease progression. Novel therapeutic approaches aimed at acting on the pathways leading to neuronal dysfunction and death are under investigation. In recent years, such natural molecules as polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins have been shown to have a neuroprotective effect due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of our review is to analyse the most relevant studies worldwide addressing the benefits of some phytochemicals used in in vitro models of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in appetitive and aversive memory recall in an insect.

    PubMed

    Mizunami, Makoto; Unoki, Sae; Mori, Yasuhiro; Hirashima, Daisuke; Hatano, Ai; Matsumoto, Yukihisa

    2009-08-04

    In insect classical conditioning, octopamine (the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) or dopamine has been suggested to mediate reinforcing properties of appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, respectively. However, the roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in memory recall have remained unclear. We studied the roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in appetitive and aversive memory recall in olfactory and visual conditioning in crickets. We found that pharmacological blockade of octopamine and dopamine receptors impaired aversive memory recall and appetitive memory recall, respectively, thereby suggesting that activation of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and the resulting release of octopamine and dopamine are needed for appetitive and aversive memory recall, respectively. On the basis of this finding, we propose a new model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are formed by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus to octopaminergic or dopaminergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, respectively. The former is called 'stimulus-response connection' and the latter is called 'stimulus-stimulus connection' by theorists studying classical conditioning in higher vertebrates. Our model predicts that pharmacological blockade of octopamine or dopamine receptors during the first stage of second-order conditioning does not impair second-order conditioning, because it impairs the formation of the stimulus-response connection but not the stimulus-stimulus connection. The results of our study with a cross-modal second-order conditioning were in full accordance with this prediction. We suggest that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of two kinds of memory

  19. Social modulation during songbird courtship potentiates midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Hessler, Neal A

    2008-10-01

    Synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons of the mammalian ventral tegmental area (VTA) can be potentiated by acute or chronic exposure to addictive drugs. Because rewarding behavior, such as social affiliation, can activate the same neural circuitry as addictive drugs, we tested whether the intense social interaction of songbird courtship may also potentiate VTA synaptic function. We recorded glutamatergic synaptic currents from VTA of male zebra finches who had experienced distinct social and behavioral conditions during the previous hour. The level of synaptic transmission to VTA neurons, as assayed by the ratio of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptor mediated synaptic currents, was increased after males sang to females, and also after they saw females without singing, but not after they sang while alone. Potentiation after female exposure alone did not appear to result from stress, as it was not blocked by inhibition of glucocorticoid receptors. This potentiation was restricted to synapses of dopaminergic projection neurons, and appeared to be expressed postsynaptically. This study supports a model in which VTA dopaminergic neurons are more strongly activated during singing used for courtship than during non-courtship singing, and thus can provide social context-dependent modulation to forebrain areas. More generally, these results demonstrate that an intense social encounter can trigger the same pathways of neuronal plasticity as addictive drugs.

  20. Compromised NMDA/Glutamate Receptor Expression in Dopaminergic Neurons Impairs Instrumental Learning, But Not Pavlovian Goal Tracking or Sign Tracking(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    James, Alex S; Pennington, Zachary T; Tran, Phu; Jentsch, James David

    2015-01-01

    Two theories regarding the role for dopamine neurons in learning include the concepts that their activity serves as a (1) mechanism that confers incentive salience onto rewards and associated cues and/or (2) contingency teaching signal reflecting reward prediction error. While both theories are provocative, the causal role for dopamine cell activity in either mechanism remains controversial. In this study mice that either fully or partially lacked NMDARs in dopamine neurons exclusively, as well as appropriate controls, were evaluated for reward-related learning; this experimental design allowed for a test of the premise that NMDA/glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated mechanisms in dopamine neurons, including NMDA-dependent regulation of phasic discharge activity of these cells, modulate either the instrumental learning processes or the likelihood of pavlovian cues to become highly motivating incentive stimuli that directly attract behavior. Loss of NMDARs in dopamine neurons did not significantly affect baseline dopamine utilization in the striatum, novelty evoked locomotor behavior, or consumption of a freely available, palatable food solution. On the other hand, animals lacking NMDARs in dopamine cells exhibited a selective reduction in reinforced lever responses that emerged over the course of instrumental learning. Loss of receptor expression did not, however, influence the likelihood of an animal acquiring a pavlovian conditional response associated with attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues (sign tracking). These data support the view that reductions in NMDAR signaling in dopamine neurons affect instrumental reward-related learning but do not lend support to hypotheses that suggest that the behavioral significance of this signaling includes incentive salience attribution.

  1. Compromised NMDA/Glutamate Receptor Expression in Dopaminergic Neurons Impairs Instrumental Learning, But Not Pavlovian Goal Tracking or Sign Tracking1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    James, Alex S.; Pennington, Zachary T.; Tran, Phu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two theories regarding the role for dopamine neurons in learning include the concepts that their activity serves as a (1) mechanism that confers incentive salience onto rewards and associated cues and/or (2) contingency teaching signal reflecting reward prediction error. While both theories are provocative, the causal role for dopamine cell activity in either mechanism remains controversial. In this study mice that either fully or partially lacked NMDARs in dopamine neurons exclusively, as well as appropriate controls, were evaluated for reward-related learning; this experimental design allowed for a test of the premise that NMDA/glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated mechanisms in dopamine neurons, including NMDA-dependent regulation of phasic discharge activity of these cells, modulate either the instrumental learning processes or the likelihood of pavlovian cues to become highly motivating incentive stimuli that directly attract behavior. Loss of NMDARs in dopamine neurons did not significantly affect baseline dopamine utilization in the striatum, novelty evoked locomotor behavior, or consumption of a freely available, palatable food solution. On the other hand, animals lacking NMDARs in dopamine cells exhibited a selective reduction in reinforced lever responses that emerged over the course of instrumental learning. Loss of receptor expression did not, however, influence the likelihood of an animal acquiring a pavlovian conditional response associated with attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues (sign tracking). These data support the view that reductions in NMDAR signaling in dopamine neurons affect instrumental reward-related learning but do not lend support to hypotheses that suggest that the behavioral significance of this signaling includes incentive salience attribution. PMID:26464985

  2. Parkin cooperates with GDNF/RET signaling to prevent dopaminergic neuron degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Meka, Durga Praveen; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Nidadavolu, Prakash; Mohammadi, Behnam; Motori, Elisa; Ponna, Srinivas Kumar; Aboutalebi, Helia; Bassal, Mahmoud; Annamneedi, Anil; Finckh, Barbara; Miesbauer, Margit; Rotermund, Natalie; Lohr, Christian; Tatzelt, Jörg; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.; Kramer, Edgar R.

    2015-01-01

    Parkin and the glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor RET have both been independently linked to the dopaminergic neuron degeneration that underlies Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, we demonstrate that there is genetic crosstalk between parkin and the receptor tyrosine kinase RET in two different mouse models of PD. Mice lacking both parkin and RET exhibited accelerated dopaminergic cell and axonal loss compared with parkin-deficient animals, which showed none, and RET-deficient mice, in which we found moderate degeneration. Transgenic expression of parkin protected the dopaminergic systems of aged RET-deficient mice. Downregulation of either parkin or RET in neuronal cells impaired mitochondrial function and morphology. Parkin expression restored mitochondrial function in GDNF/RET-deficient cells, while GDNF stimulation rescued mitochondrial defects in parkin-deficient cells. In both cases, improved mitochondrial function was the result of activation of the prosurvival NF-κB pathway, which was mediated by RET through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Taken together, these observations indicate that parkin and the RET signaling cascade converge to control mitochondrial integrity and thereby properly maintain substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons and their innervation in the striatum. The demonstration of crosstalk between parkin and RET highlights the interplay in the protein network that is altered in PD and suggests potential therapeutic targets and strategies to treat PD. PMID:25822020

  3. Dopamine gates action potential backpropagation in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Gentet, Luc J; Williams, Stephen R

    2007-02-21

    Dopamine is released from both axonal and somatodendritic sites of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in an action potential-dependent manner. In contrast to the majority of central neurons, the axon of dopaminergic neurons typically originates from a dendritic site, suggesting a specialized computational function. Here, we examine the initiation and spread of action potentials in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and reveal that the displacement of the axon to a dendritic site allows highly compartmentalized electrical signaling. In response to a train of synaptic input, action potentials initiated at axon-bearing dendritic sites formed a variable trigger for invasion to the soma and contralateral dendritic tree, with action potentials often confined to the axon-bearing dendrite. The application of dopamine increased this form of electrical compartmentalization, an effect mediated by a tonic membrane potential hyperpolarization leading to an increased availability of a class of voltage-dependent potassium channel. These data suggest that the release of dopamine from axonal and somatodendritic sites are dissociable, and that dopamine levels within the midbrain are dynamically controlled by the somatodendritic spread of action potentials.

  4. Remote control of induced dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Anno, Maria Teresa; Caiazzo, Massimiliano; Leo, Damiana; Dvoretskova, Elena; Medrihan, Lucian; Colasante, Gaia; Giannelli, Serena; Theka, Ilda; Russo, Giovanni; Mus, Liudmila; Pezzoli, Gianni; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Benfenati, Fabio; Taverna, Stefano; Dityatev, Alexander; Broccoli, Vania

    2014-01-01

    Direct lineage reprogramming through genetic-based strategies enables the conversion of differentiated somatic cells into functional neurons and distinct neuronal subtypes. Induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons can be generated by direct conversion of skin fibroblasts; however, their in vivo phenotypic and functional properties remain incompletely understood, leaving their impact on Parkinson’s disease (PD) cell therapy and modeling uncertain. Here, we determined that iDA neurons retain a transgene-independent stable phenotype in culture and in animal models. Furthermore, transplanted iDA neurons functionally integrated into host neuronal tissue, exhibiting electrically excitable membranes, synaptic currents, dopamine release, and substantial reduction of motor symptoms in a PD animal model. Neuronal cell replacement approaches will benefit from a system that allows the activity of transplanted neurons to be controlled remotely and enables modulation depending on the physiological needs of the recipient; therefore, we adapted a DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) technology for remote and real-time control of grafted iDA neuronal activity in living animals. Remote DREADD-dependent iDA neuron activation markedly enhanced the beneficial effects in transplanted PD animals. These data suggest that iDA neurons have therapeutic potential as a cell replacement approach for PD and highlight the applicability of pharmacogenetics for enhancing cellular signaling in reprogrammed cell–based approaches. PMID:24937431

  5. Direct conversion of human fibroblasts to dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pfisterer, Ulrich; Kirkeby, Agnete; Torper, Olof; Wood, James; Nelander, Jenny; Dufour, Audrey; Björklund, Anders; Lindvall, Olle; Jakobsson, Johan; Parmar, Malin

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports demonstrate that somatic mouse cells can be directly converted to other mature cell types by using combined expression of defined factors. Here we show that the same strategy can be applied to human embryonic and postnatal fibroblasts. By overexpression of the transcription factors Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l, human fibroblasts were efficiently converted to functional neurons. We also demonstrate that the converted neurons can be directed toward distinct functional neurotransmitter phenotypes when the appropriate transcriptional cues are provided together with the three conversion factors. By combining expression of the three conversion factors with expression of two genes involved in dopamine neuron generation, Lmx1a and FoxA2, we could direct the phenotype of the converted cells toward dopaminergic neurons. Such subtype-specific induced neurons derived from human somatic cells could be valuable for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. PMID:21646515

  6. Immortalization of neuronal progenitors using SV40 large T antigen and differentiation towards dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Alwin Prem Anand, A; Gowri Sankar, S; Kokila Vani, V

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation is common in clinical practice where there is availability of the tissue and organ. In the case of neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease (PD), transplantation is not possible as a result of the non-availability of tissue or organ and therefore, cell therapy is an innovation in clinical practice. However, the availability of neuronal cells for transplantation is very limited. Alternatively, immortalized neuronal progenitors could be used in treating PD. The neuronal progenitor cells can be differentiated into dopaminergic phenotype. Here in this article, the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the differentiation of dopaminergic phenotype from the neuronal progenitors immortalized with SV40 LT antigen is discussed. In addition, the methods of generating dopaminergic neurons from progenitor cells and the factors that govern their differentiation are elaborated. Recent advances in cell-therapy based transplantation in PD patients and future prospects are discussed. PMID:22863662

  7. Parthanatos Mediates AIMP2 Activated Age Dependent Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunjong; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Shin, Joo-Ho; Lee, Yun-Il; Ko, Han Seok; Swing, Debbie; Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Lee, Byoung Dae; Kang, Ho Chul; Kim, Donghoon; Tessarollo, Lino; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2013-01-01

    The defining pathogenic feature of Parkinson’s disease is the age dependent loss of dopaminergic neurons. Mutations and inactivation of parkin, an ubiquitin E3 ligase, cause Parkinson’s disease through accumulation of pathogenic substrates. Here we show that transgenic overexpression of the parkin substrate, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex interacting multifunctional protein-2 (AIMP2) leads to a selective, age-dependent progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons via activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1). AIMP2 accumulation in vitro and in vivo results in PARP1 overactivation and dopaminergic cell toxicity via direct association of these proteins in the nucleus providing a new path to PARP1 activation other than DNA damage. Inhibition of PARP1 through gene deletion or drug inhibition reverses behavioral deficits and protects in vivo against dopamine neuron death in AIMP2 transgenic mice. These data indicate that brain permeable PARP inhibitors could be effective in delaying or preventing disease progression in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23974709

  8. Dopaminergic modulation of striatal neurons, circuits and assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Surmeier, D. James; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Bargas, Jose

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of progress toward understanding the role of the striatum and dopamine in action selection. The advent of new animal models and the development of optical techniques for imaging and stimulating select neuronal populations has provided the means by which identified synapses, cells and circuits can be reliably studied. This review attempts to summarize some of the key advances in this broad area, focusing on dopaminergic modulation of intrinsic excitability and synaptic plasticity in canonical microcircuits in the striatum as well as recent work suggesting that there are neuronal assemblies within the striatum devoted to particular types of computation and possibly action selection. PMID:21906660

  9. Oleuropein Prevents Neuronal Death, Mitigates Mitochondrial Superoxide Production and Modulates Autophagy in a Dopaminergic Cellular Model.

    PubMed

    Achour, Imène; Arel-Dubeau, Anne-Marie; Renaud, Justine; Legrand, Manon; Attard, Everaldo; Germain, Marc; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2016-08-09

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. There is currently no cure for PD and present medications aim to alleviate clinical symptoms, thus prevention remains the ideal strategy to reduce the prevalence of this disease. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oleuropein (OLE), the major phenolic compound in olive derivatives, may prevent neuronal degeneration in a cellular dopaminergic model of PD, differentiated PC12 cells exposed to the potent parkinsonian toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). We also investigated OLE's ability to mitigate mitochondrial oxidative stress and modulate the autophagic flux. Our results obtained by measuring cytotoxicity and apoptotic events demonstrate that OLE significantly decreases neuronal death. OLE could also reduce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species resulting from blocking superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, quantification of autophagic and acidic vesicles in the cytoplasm alongside expression of specific autophagic markers uncovered a regulatory role for OLE against autophagic flux impairment induced by bafilomycin A1. Altogether, our results define OLE as a neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and autophagy-regulating molecule, in a neuronal dopaminergic cellular model.

  10. Oleuropein Prevents Neuronal Death, Mitigates Mitochondrial Superoxide Production and Modulates Autophagy in a Dopaminergic Cellular Model

    PubMed Central

    Achour, Imène; Arel-Dubeau, Anne-Marie; Renaud, Justine; Legrand, Manon; Attard, Everaldo; Germain, Marc; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. There is currently no cure for PD and present medications aim to alleviate clinical symptoms, thus prevention remains the ideal strategy to reduce the prevalence of this disease. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oleuropein (OLE), the major phenolic compound in olive derivatives, may prevent neuronal degeneration in a cellular dopaminergic model of PD, differentiated PC12 cells exposed to the potent parkinsonian toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). We also investigated OLE’s ability to mitigate mitochondrial oxidative stress and modulate the autophagic flux. Our results obtained by measuring cytotoxicity and apoptotic events demonstrate that OLE significantly decreases neuronal death. OLE could also reduce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species resulting from blocking superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, quantification of autophagic and acidic vesicles in the cytoplasm alongside expression of specific autophagic markers uncovered a regulatory role for OLE against autophagic flux impairment induced by bafilomycin A1. Altogether, our results define OLE as a neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and autophagy-regulating molecule, in a neuronal dopaminergic cellular model. PMID:27517912

  11. Dopaminergic basis for impairments in functional connectivity across subdivisions of the striatum in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bell, Peter T; Gilat, Moran; O'Callaghan, Claire; Copland, David A; Frank, Michael J; Lewis, Simon J G; Shine, James M

    2015-04-01

    The pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons, leading to depletion of striatal dopamine. Recent neuroanatomical work has identified pathways for communication across striatal subdivisions, suggesting that the striatum provides a platform for integration of information across parallel corticostriatal circuits. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dopaminergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease was associated with impairments in functional connectivity across striatal subdivisions, which could potentially reflect reduced integration across corticostriatal circuits. Utilizing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we analyzed functional connectivity in 39 patients with Parkinson's disease, both "on" and "off" their regular dopaminergic medications, along with 40 age-matched healthy controls. Our results demonstrate widespread impairments in connectivity across subdivisions of the striatum in patients with Parkinson's disease in the "off" state. The administration of dopaminergic medication significantly improved connectivity across striatal subdivisions in Parkinson's disease, implicating dopaminergic deficits in the pathogenesis of impaired striatal interconnectivity. In addition, impaired striatal interconnectivity in the Parkinson's disease "off" state was associated with pathological decoupling of the striatum from the thalamic and sensorimotor (SM) networks. Specifically, we found that although the strength of striatal interconnectivity was positively correlated with both (i) the strength of internal thalamic connectivity, and (ii) the strength of internal SM connectivity, in both healthy controls and the Parkinson's disease "on" state, these relationships were absent in Parkinson's disease when in the "off" state. Taken together our findings emphasize the central role of dopamine in integrated striatal function and the pathological consequences of striatal dopamine

  12. Lack of CCR5 modifies glial phenotypes and population of the nigral dopaminergic neurons, but not MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Myung Koo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive expression of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 has been detected in astrocytes, microglia and neurons, but its physiological roles in the central nervous system are obscure. The bidirectional interactions between neuron and glial cells through CCR5 and its ligands were thought to be crucial for maintaining normal neuronal activities. No study has described function of CCR5 in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. In order to examine effects of CCR5 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we employed CCR5 wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Immunostainings for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) exhibited that CCR5 KO mice had lower number of TH-positive neurons even in the absence of MPTP. Difference in MPTP (15mg/kg×4 times, 2hr interval)-mediated loss of TH-positive neurons was subtle between CCR5 WT and KO mice, but there was larger dopamine depletion, behavioral impairments and microglial activation in CCR5 deficient mice. Intriguingly, CCR5 KO brains contained higher immunoreactivity for monoamine oxidase (MAO) B which was mainly localized within astrocytes. In agreement with upregulation of MAO B, concentration of MPP+ was higher in the substantia nigra and striatum of CCR5 KO mice after MPTP injection. We found remarkable activation of p38 MAPK in CCR5 deficient mice, which positively regulates MAO B expression. These results indicate that CCR5 deficiency modifies the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal system and bidirectional interaction between neurons and glial cells via CCR5 might be important for dopaminergic neuronal survival.

  13. A new designer drug 5F-ADB activates midbrain dopaminergic neurons but not serotonergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Nozomi; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Nishitani, Naoya; Kinoshita, Haruko; Shibui, Norihiro; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Kaneko, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    N-[[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]carbonyl]-3-methyl-D-valine methyl ester (5F-ADB) is one of the most potent synthetic cannabinoids and elicits severe psychotic symptoms in humans, sometimes causing death. To investigate the neuronal mechanisms underlying its toxicity, we examined the effects of 5F-ADB on midbrain dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, which modulate various basic brain functions such as those in reward-related behavior. 5F-ADB-induced changes in spontaneous firing activity of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons were recorded by ex vivo electrophysiological techniques. In dopaminergic neurons, 5F-ADB (1 μM) significantly increased the spontaneous firing rate, while 5F-ADB failed to activate dopaminergic neurons in the presence of the CB1 antagonist AM251 (1 μM). However, the same concentration of 5F-ADB did not affect serotonergic-neuron activity. These results suggest that 5F-ADB activates local CB1 receptors and potentiates midbrain dopaminergic systems with no direct effects on midbrain serotonergic systems.

  14. Roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in appetitive and aversive memory recall in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Mizunami, Makoto; Unoki, Sae; Mori, Yasuhiro; Hirashima, Daisuke; Hatano, Ai; Matsumoto, Yukihisa

    2009-01-01

    Background In insect classical conditioning, octopamine (the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) or dopamine has been suggested to mediate reinforcing properties of appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, respectively. However, the roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in memory recall have remained unclear. Results We studied the roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in appetitive and aversive memory recall in olfactory and visual conditioning in crickets. We found that pharmacological blockade of octopamine and dopamine receptors impaired aversive memory recall and appetitive memory recall, respectively, thereby suggesting that activation of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and the resulting release of octopamine and dopamine are needed for appetitive and aversive memory recall, respectively. On the basis of this finding, we propose a new model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are formed by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus to octopaminergic or dopaminergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, respectively. The former is called 'stimulus-response connection' and the latter is called 'stimulus-stimulus connection' by theorists studying classical conditioning in higher vertebrates. Our model predicts that pharmacological blockade of octopamine or dopamine receptors during the first stage of second-order conditioning does not impair second-order conditioning, because it impairs the formation of the stimulus-response connection but not the stimulus-stimulus connection. The results of our study with a cross-modal second-order conditioning were in full accordance with this prediction. Conclusion We suggest that insect classical conditioning involves the

  15. Regeneration of dopaminergic neurons after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion in planarian brain.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Inoue, Takeshi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2011-12-01

    Planarians have robust regenerative ability dependent on X-ray-sensitive pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts. Here, we report that planarians can regenerate dopaminergic neurons after selective degeneration of these neurons caused by treatment with a dopaminergic neurotoxin (6-hydroxydopamine; 6-OHDA). This suggests that planarians have a system to sense the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and to recruit stem cells to produce dopaminergic neurons to recover brain morphology and function. We confirmed that X-ray-irradiated planarians do not regenerate brain dopaminergic neurons after 6-OHDA-induced lesioning, suggesting that newly generated dopaminergic neurons are indeed derived from pluripotent stem cells. However, we found that the majority of regenerated dopaminergic neurons were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-negative cells. Therefore, we carefully analyzed when proliferating stem cells became committed to become dopaminergic neurons during regeneration by a combination of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments, immunostaining/in situ hybridization, and 5-fluorouracil treatment. The results strongly suggested that G(2) -phase stem cells become committed to dopaminergic neurons in the mesenchymal space around the brain, after migration from the trunk region following S-phase. These new findings obtained from planarian regeneration provide hints about how to conduct cell-transplantation therapy for future regenerative medicine. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Functional properties of dopaminergic neurones in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Angela; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Okano, Hideyuki; Belluzzi, Ottorino

    2005-01-01

    The olfactory bulb of mammals contains a large population of dopaminergic interneurones within the glomerular layer. Dopamine has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to modulate several aspects of olfactory information processing, but the functional properties of dopaminergic neurones have never been described due to the inability to recognize these cells in living preparations. To overcome this difficulty, we used a transgenic mouse strain harbouring an eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) reporter construct under the promoter of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for cathecolamine synthesis. As a result, we were able to identify dopaminergic neurones (TH-GFP cells) in living preparations and, for the first time, we could study the functional properties of such neurones in the olfactory bulb, in both slices and dissociated cells. The most prominent feature of these cells was the autorhythmicity. In these cells we identified five main voltage-dependent conductances: the two having largest amplitude were a fast transient Na+ current and a delayed rectifier K+ current. In addition, we observed three smaller inward currents, sustained by Na+ ions (persistent type) and by Ca2+ ions (LVA and HVA). Using pharmacological tools and ion substitution methods we showed that the pacemaking process is supported by the interplay of the persistent Na+ current and of a T-type Ca2+ current. We carried out a complete kinetical analysis of the five conductances present in these cells, and developed a Hodgkin-Huxley model of TH-GFP cells, capable of reproducing accurately the properties of living cells, including autorhytmicity, and allowing a precise understanding of the process. PMID:15731185

  17. A basal ganglia pathway drives selective auditory responses in songbird dopaminergic neurons via disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Gale, Samuel D; Perkel, David J

    2010-01-20

    Dopaminergic neurons in mammals respond to rewards and reward-predicting cues, and are thought to play an important role in learning actions or sensory cues that lead to reward. The anatomical sources of input that drive or modulate such responses are not well understood; these ultimately define the range of behavior to which dopaminergic neurons contribute. Primary rewards are not the immediate objective of all goal-directed behavior. For example, a goal of vocal learning is to imitate vocal-communication signals. Here, we demonstrate activation of dopaminergic neurons in songbirds driven by a basal ganglia region required for vocal learning, area X. Dopaminergic neurons in anesthetized zebra finches respond more strongly to the bird's own song (BOS) than to other sounds, and area X is critical for these responses. Direct pharmacological modulation of area X output, in the absence of auditory stimulation, is sufficient to bidirectionally modulate the firing rate of dopaminergic neurons. The only known pathway from song control regions to dopaminergic neurons involves a projection from area X to the ventral pallidum (VP), which in turn projects to dopaminergic regions. We show that VP neurons are spontaneously active and inhibited preferentially by BOS, suggesting that area X disinhibits dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting VP. Supporting this model, auditory-response latencies are shorter in area X than VP, and shorter in VP than dopaminergic neurons. Thus, dopaminergic neurons can be disinhibited selectively by complex sensory stimuli via input from the basal ganglia. The functional pathway we identify may allow dopaminergic neurons to contribute to vocal learning.

  18. β-synuclein aggregates and induces neurodegeneration in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Taschenberger, Grit; Toloe, Johan; Tereshchenko, Julia; Akerboom, Jasper; Wales, Pauline; Benz, Roland; Becker, Stefan; Outeiro, Tiago F; Looger, Loren L; Bähr, Mathias; Zweckstetter, Markus; Kügler, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    Whereas the contribution of α-synuclein to neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease is well accepted, the putative impact of its close homologue, β-synuclein, is enigmatic. β-Synuclein is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system, as is α-synuclein, but the physiological functions of both proteins remain unknown. Recent findings have supported the view that β-synuclein can act as an ameliorating regulator of α-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity, having neuroprotective rather than neurodegenerative capabilities, and being nonaggregating due to the absence of most of the aggregation-promoting NAC domain. However, a mutation of β-synuclein linked to dementia with Lewy bodies rendered the protein neurotoxic in transgenic mice, and fibrillation of β-synuclein has been demonstrated in vitro. Neurotoxicity and aggregation properties of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein were comparatively elucidated in the rat nigro-striatal projection and in cultured neurons. Supporting the hypothesis that β-synuclein can act as a neurodegeneration-inducing factor, we demonstrated that wild-type β-synuclein is neurotoxic for cultured primary neurons. Furthermore, β-synuclein formed proteinase K-resistant aggregates in dopaminergic neurons in vivo, leading to pronounced and progressive neurodegeneration in rats. Expression of β-synuclein caused mitochondrial fragmentation, but this fragmentation did not render mitochondria nonfunctional in terms of ion handling and respiration even at late stages of neurodegeneration. A comparison of the neurodegenerative effects induced by α-, β-, and γ-synuclein revealed that β-synuclein was eventually as neurotoxic as α-synuclein for nigral dopaminergic neurons, whereas γ-synuclein proved to be nontoxic and had very low aggregation propensity. Our results suggest that the role of β-synuclein as a putative modulator of neuropathology in aggregopathies like Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies needs to be revisited. © 2013

  19. Electrophysiological Effects of Trace Amines on Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ledonne, Ada; Berretta, Nicola; Davoli, Alessandro; Rizzo, Giada Ricciardo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio

    2011-01-01

    Trace amines (TAs) are a class of endogenous compounds strictly related to classic monoamine neurotransmitters with regard to their structure, metabolism, and tissue distribution. Although the presence of TAs in mammalian brain has been recognized for decades, until recently they were considered to be by-products of amino acid metabolism or as “false” neurotransmitters. The discovery in 2001 of a new family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), namely trace amines receptors, has re-ignited interest in TAs. In particular, two members of the family, trace amine receptor 1 (TA1) and trace amine receptor 2 (TA2), were shown to be highly sensitive to these endogenous compounds. Experimental evidence suggests that TAs modulate the activity of catecholaminergic neurons and that TA dysregulation may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease, all of which are characterized by altered monoaminergic networks. Here we review recent data concerning the electrophysiological effects of TAs on the activity of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. In the context of recent data obtained with TA1 receptor knockout mice, we also discuss the mechanisms by which the activation of these receptors modulates the activity of these neurons. Three important new aspects of TAs action have recently emerged: (a) inhibition of firing due to increased release of dopamine; (b) reduction of D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory responses (excitatory effects due to disinhibition); and (c) a direct TA1 receptor-mediated activation of GIRK channels which produce cell membrane hyperpolarization. While the first two effects have been well documented in our laboratory, the direct activation of GIRK channels by TA1 receptors has been reported by others, but has not been seen in our laboratory (Geracitano et al., 2004). Further research is needed to address this point, and to further characterize

  20. Prokineticin-2 upregulation during neuronal injury mediates a compensatory protective response against dopaminergic neuronal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Richard; Neal, Matthew L.; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica R.; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Panicker, Nikhil; Charli, Adhithiya; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Woodruff, Trent M.; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2016-01-01

    Prokineticin-2 (PK2), a recently discovered secreted protein, regulates important physiological functions including olfactory biogenesis and circadian rhythms in the CNS. Interestingly, although PK2 expression is low in the nigral system, its receptors are constitutively expressed on nigrostriatal neurons. Herein, we demonstrate that PK2 expression is highly induced in nigral dopaminergic neurons during early stages of degeneration in multiple models of Parkinson's disease (PD), including PK2 reporter mice and MitoPark mice. Functional studies demonstrate that PK2 promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and activates ERK and Akt survival signalling pathways, thereby driving neuroprotection. Importantly, PK2 overexpression is protective whereas PK2 receptor antagonism exacerbates dopaminergic degeneration in experimental PD. Furthermore, PK2 expression increased in surviving nigral dopaminergic neurons from PD brains, indicating that PK2 upregulation is clinically relevant to human PD. Collectively, our results identify a paradigm for compensatory neuroprotective PK2 signalling in nigral dopaminergic neurons that could have important therapeutic implications for PD. PMID:27703142

  1. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Dopaminergic Neurons during Development in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuchen; Guo, Qiang; Shan, Minghui; Wu, Yongmei; Huang, Sizhou; Zhao, Haixia; Hong, Huarong; Yang, Ming; Yang, Xi; Ren, Liyi; Peng, Jiali; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Hongli; Li, Shurong; Su, Bingyin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the model organisms of Parkinson's disease (PD) research, the zebrafish has its advantages, such as the 87% homology with human genome and transparent embryos which make it possible to observe the development of dopaminergic neurons in real time. However, there is no midbrain dopaminergic system in zebrafish when compared with mammals, and the location and projection of the dopaminergic neurons are seldom reported. In this study, Vmat2:GFP transgenic zebrafish was used to observe the development and distribution of dopaminergic neurons in real time. We found that diencephalons (DC) 2 and DC4 neuronal populations were detected at 24 h post fertilization (hpf). All DC neuronal populations as well as those in locus coeruleus (LC), raphe nuclei (Ra) and telencephalon were detected at 48 hpf. Axons were detected at 72 hpf. At 96 hpf, all the neuronal populations were detected. For the first time we reported axons from the posterior tubercle (PT) of ventral DC projected to subpallium in vivo. However, when compared with results from whole mount tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunofluorescence staining in wild type (WT) zebrafish, we found that DC2 and DC4 neuronal populations were mainly dopaminergic, while DC1, DC3, DC5 and DC6 might not. Neurons in pretectum (Pr) and telencephalon were mainly dopaminergic, while neurons in LC and Ra might be noradrenergic. Our study makes some corrections and modifications on the development, localization and distribution of zebrafish dopaminergic neurons, and provides some experimental evidences for the construction of the zebrafish PD model.

  2. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  3. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Jr., Edward W.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical ‘toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation. PMID:25348053

  4. In actio optophysiological analyses reveal functional diversification of dopaminergic neurons in the nematode C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Yuki; Zheng, Ying Grace; Fei, Xianfeng; Fujie, Yukako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Kimura, Koutarou D.

    2016-05-01

    Many neuronal groups such as dopamine-releasing (dopaminergic) neurons are functionally divergent, although the details of such divergence are not well understood. Dopamine in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans modulates various neural functions and is released from four left-right pairs of neurons. The terminal identities of these dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the same genetic program, and previous studies have suggested that they are functionally redundant. In this study, however, we show functional divergence within the dopaminergic neurons of C. elegans. Because dopaminergic neurons of the animals were supposedly activated by mechanical stimulus upon entry into a lawn of their food bacteria, we developed a novel integrated microscope system that can auto-track a freely-moving (in actio) C. elegans to individually monitor and stimulate the neuronal activities of multiple neurons. We found that only head-dorsal pair of dopaminergic neurons (CEPD), but not head-ventral or posterior pairs, were preferentially activated upon food entry. In addition, the optogenetic activation of CEPD neurons alone exhibited effects similar to those observed upon food entry. Thus, our results demonstrated functional divergence in the genetically similar dopaminergic neurons, which may provide a new entry point toward understanding functional diversity of neurons beyond genetic terminal identification.

  5. Ldb1 Is Essential for the Development of Isthmic Organizer and Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soojin; Zhao, Yangu; Lee, Ja-Myong; Kim, Woon Ryoung; Gorivodsky, Marat; Westphal, Heiner; Geum, Dongho

    2016-07-01

    LIM domain-binding protein 1 (Ldb1) is a nuclear cofactor that interacts with LIM homeodomain proteins to form multiprotein complexes that are important for transcription regulation. Ldb1 has been shown to play essential roles in various processes during mouse embryogenesis. To determine the role of Ldb1 in mid- and hindbrain development, we have generated a conditional mutant with a specific deletion of the Ldb1 in the Engrailed-1-expressing region of the developing mid- and hindbrain. Our study showed that the deletion impaired the expression of signaling molecules, such as fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) and Wnt1, in the isthmic organizer and the expression of Shh in the ventral midbrain. The midbrain and the cerebellum were severely reduced in size, and the midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons were missing in the mutant. These defects are identical to the phenotype that has been observed previously in mice with a deletion of the LIM homeodomain gene Lmx1b. Our results thus provide genetic evidence supporting that Ldb1 and Lmx1b function cooperatively to regulate mid- and hindbrain development. In addition, we found that mouse embryonic stem cells lacking Ldb1 failed to generate several types of differentiated neurons, including the mDA neurons, serotonergic neurons, cholinergic neurons, and olfactory bulb neurons, indicating an essential cell-autonomous role for Ldb1 in the development of these neurons.

  6. Licochalcone A Prevents the Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons by Inhibiting Microglial Activation in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Parkinson's Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bingxu; Liu, Juxiong; Ju, Chen; Yang, Dongxue; Chen, Guangxin; Xu, Shiyao; Zeng, Yalong; Yan, Xuan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dianfeng; Fu, Shoupeng

    2017-09-22

    The neuroprotective effects of Licochalcone A (Lico.A), a flavonoid isolated from the herb licorice, in Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been elucidated. The prominent pathological feature of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons. The crucial role of neuroinflammation induced by activated microglia in dopaminergic neurodegeneration has been validated. In this study, we explore the therapeutic effects of Lico.A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD models in vivo and in vitro. We find that Lico.A significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial activation by blocking the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 in BV-2 cells. In addition, through cultured primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cell experiments, we illustrate that Lico.A attenuates the decrease in [³H] dopamine (DA) uptake and the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in LPS-induced PD models in vitro. Furthermore, LPS intoxication in rats results in microglial activation, dopaminergic neurodegeneration and significant behavioral deficits in vivo. Lico.A treatment prevents microglial activation and reduction of dopaminergic neuron and ameliorates PD-like behavioral impairments. Thus, these results demonstrate for the first time that the neuroprotective effects of Lico.A are associated with microglia and anti-inflammatory effects in PD models.

  7. Effect of estrogen upon methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity within the impaired nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Dluzen, Dean E

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether estrogen remains effective as a neuroprotectant within an impaired nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system of gonadectomized female and male mice. In Experiment 1, mice were treated with four different regimens of methamphetamine (MA) to establish a protocol for an impaired NSDA system to be used in subsequent experiments. Based upon the results of Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 gonadectomized female mice received a treatment with either control (saline), low- or high-dose of MA to produce an initial NSDA impairment. At one week post-MA, mice received either estradiol benzoate (10 microg) or vehicle followed 24 h later with low-MA or saline. Estrogen altered the toxic effects of the second invasion of MA as indicated by a significant decrease in striatal dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) concentrations. In addition, DA and DOPAC depletion was greater in high- vs. low-dose MA. In gonadectomized male mice (Experiment 3), striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations showed greater decreases following high-, vs. low-doses of MA; however, estrogen did not alter these responses. These results demonstrate that the capacity for estrogen to protect or worsen MA-induced neurotoxicity of dopaminergic neurons is limited to female mice and depends on the condition of the NSDA system.

  8. Dicer expression is essential for adult midbrain dopaminergic neuron maintenance and survival.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xueyan; Hogan, Eric M; Casserly, Alison; Gao, Guangping; Gardner, Paul D; Tapper, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    The type III RNAse, Dicer, is responsible for the processing of microRNA (miRNA) precursors into functional miRNA molecules, non-coding RNAs that bind to and target messenger RNAs for repression. Dicer expression is essential for mouse midbrain development and dopaminergic (DAergic) neuron maintenance and survival during the early post-natal period. However, the role of Dicer in adult mouse DAergic neuron maintenance and survival is unknown. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we selectively knocked-down Dicer expression in individual DAergic midbrain areas, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) via viral-mediated expression of Cre in adult floxed Dicer knock-in mice (Dicer(flox/flox)). Bilateral Dicer loss in the VTA resulted in progressive hyperactivity that was significantly reduced by the dopamine agonist, amphetamine. In contrast, decreased Dicer expression in the SNpc did not affect locomotor activity but did induce motor-learning impairment on an accelerating rotarod. Knock-down of Dicer in both midbrain regions of adult Dicer(flox/flox) mice resulted in preferential, progressive loss of DAergic neurons likely explaining motor behavior phenotypes. In addition, knock-down of Dicer in midbrain areas triggered neuronal death via apoptosis. Together, these data indicate that Dicer expression and, as a consequence, miRNA function, are essential for DAergic neuronal maintenance and survival in adult midbrain DAergic neuron brain areas. © 2013.

  9. A Conserved Role for p48 Homologs in Protecting Dopaminergic Neurons from Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bou Dib, Peter; Gnägi, Bettina; Daly, Fiona; Sabado, Virginie; Tas, Damla; Glauser, Dominique A.; Meister, Peter; Nagoshi, Emi

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Both environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Although several genes linked to rare familial PD have been identified, endogenous risk factors for sporadic PD, which account for the majority of PD cases, remain largely unknown. Genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with sporadic PD in neurodevelopmental genes including the transcription factor p48/ptf1a. Here we investigate whether p48 plays a role in the survival of DA neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a Drosophila p48 homolog, 48-related-2 (Fer2), is expressed in and required for the development and survival of DA neurons in the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster. Loss of Fer2 expression in adulthood causes progressive PAM neuron degeneration in aging flies along with mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to the progressive locomotor deficits. The oxidative stress challenge upregulates Fer2 expression and exacerbates the PAM neuron degeneration in Fer2 loss-of-function mutants. hlh-13, the worm homolog of p48, is also expressed in DA neurons. Unlike the fly counterpart, hlh-13 loss-of-function does not impair development or survival of DA neurons under normal growth conditions. Yet, similar to Fer2, hlh-13 expression is upregulated upon an acute oxidative challenge and is required for the survival of DA neurons under oxidative stress in adult worms. Taken together, our results indicate that p48 homologs share a role in protecting DA neurons from oxidative stress and degeneration, and suggest that loss-of-function of p48 homologs in flies and worms provides novel tools to study gene-environmental interactions affecting DA neuron survival. PMID:25340742

  10. Differentiation of neuroepithelial stem cells into functional dopaminergic neurons in 3D microfluidic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Edinson Lucumi; Hachi, Siham; Hemmer, Kathrin; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Baumuratov, Aidos S; Hankemeier, Thomas; Vulto, Paul; Schwamborn, Jens C; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2015-06-07

    A hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. We derived human neuroepithelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells and successfully differentiated them into dopaminergic neurons within phase-guided, three-dimensional microfluidic cell culture bioreactors. After 30 days of differentiation within the microfluidic bioreactors, in situ morphological, immunocytochemical and calcium imaging confirmed the presence of dopaminergic neurons that were spontaneously electrophysiologically active, a characteristic feature of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Differentiation was as efficient as in macroscopic culture, with up to 19% of differentiated neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the penultimate enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine. This new microfluidic cell culture model integrates the latest innovations in developmental biology and microfluidic cell culture to generate a biologically realistic and economically efficient route to personalised drug discovery for Parkinson's disease.

  11. An Optimized Method for Histological Detection of Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Drobysheva, Daria; Ameel, Kristen; Welch, Brandon; Ellison, Esther; Chaichana, Khan; Hoang, Bryan; Sharma, Shilpy; Neckameyer, Wendi; Srinakevitch, Irina; Murphy, Kelley J.; Schmid, Aloisia

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects >1 million Americans and is marked by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. PD has been linked to two causative factors: genetic risks (hereditary PD) and environmental toxins (idiopathic PD). In recent years, considerable effort has been devoted to the development of a Drosophila model of human PD that might be useful for examining the cellular mechanisms of PD pathology by genetic screening. In 2000, Feany and Bender reported a Drosophila model of PD in which transgenic flies expressing human mutant α-synuclein exhibited shortened life spans, dopaminergic losses, Parkinsonian behaviors, and Lewy bodies in surviving dopaminergic neurons. Since then, a number of studies have been published that validate the model or build on it; conversely, a number report an inability to replicate the results and suggest that most protocols for dopaminergic histology underreport the actual numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the insect brain. Here we report the optimization of dopaminergic histology in Drosophila and identification of new dopaminergic neurons, show the remarkable dendritic complexity of these neurons, and provide an updated count of these neurons in adult brains. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1049–1063, 2008) PMID:18574253

  12. The transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 influences axonal projections and vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chee Yeun; Licznerski, Pawel; Alavian, Kambiz N.; Simeone, Antonio; Lin, Zhicheng; Martin, Eden; Vance, Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    Two adjacent groups of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, A9 (substantia nigra pars compacta) and A10 (ventral tegmental area), have distinct projections and exhibit differential vulnerability in Parkinson’s disease. Little is known about transcription factors that influence midbrain dopaminergic subgroup phenotypes or their potential role in disease. Here, we demonstrate elevated expression of the transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 in A10 dopaminergic neurons of embryonic and adult mouse, primate and human midbrain. Overexpression of orthodenticle homeobox 2 using lentivirus increased levels of known A10 elevated genes, including neuropilin 1, neuropilin 2, slit2 and adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide in both MN9D cells and ventral mesencephalic cultures, whereas knockdown of endogenous orthodenticle homeobox 2 levels via short hairpin RNA reduced expression of these genes in ventral mesencephalic cultures. Lack of orthodenticle homeobox 2 in the ventral mesencephalon of orthodenticle homeobox 2 conditional knockout mice caused a reduction of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and selective loss of A10 dopaminergic projections. Orthodenticle homeobox 2 overexpression protected dopaminergic neurons in ventral mesencephalic cultures from Parkinson’s disease-relevant toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, whereas downregulation of orthodenticle homeobox 2 using short hairpin RNA increased their susceptibility. These results show that orthodenticle homeobox 2 is important for establishing subgroup phenotypes of post-mitotic midbrain dopaminergic neurons and may alter neuronal vulnerability. PMID:20573704

  13. Sigma-1 receptor deficiency reduces MPTP-induced parkinsonism and death of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J; Sha, S; Zhou, L; Wang, C; Yin, J; Chen, L

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) has been reported to be decreased in nigrostriatal motor system of Parkinson's disease patients. Using heterozygous and homozygous σ1R knockout (σ1R+/− and σ1R−/−) mice, we investigated the influence of σ1R deficiency on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-impaired nigrostriatal motor system. The injection of MPTP for 5 weeks in wild-type mice (MPTP-WT mice), but not in σ1R+/− or σ1R−/− mice (MPTP-σ1R+/− or MPTP-σ1R−/− mice), caused motor deficits and ~40% death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta with an elevation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) NR2B phosphorylation. The σ1R antagonist NE100 or the NR2B inhibitor Ro25-6981 could alleviate the motor deficits and the death of dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-WT mice. By contrast, MPTP-σ1R+/− mice treated with the σ1R agonist PRE084 or MPTP-σ1R−/− mice treated with the NMDAr agonist NMDA appeared to have similar motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons as MPTP-WT mice. The pharmacological or genetic inactivation of σ1R suppressed the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in substantia nigra, which was corrected by NMDA. The activation of σ1R by PRE084 enhanced the DAT expression in WT mice or σ1R+/− mice. By contrast, the level of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in σ1R+/− mice or σ1R−/− mice had no difference from WT mice. Interestingly, MPTP-WT mice showed the reduction in the levels of DAT and VMAT2, but MPTP-σ1R−/− mice did not. The inactivation of σ1R by NE100 could prevent the reduction of VMAT2 in MPTP-WT mice. In addition, the activation of microglia cells in substantia nigra was equally enhanced in MPTP-WT mice and MPTP-σ1R−/− mice. The number of activated astrocytes in MPTP-σ1R−/− mice was less than that in MPTP-WT mice. The findings indicate that the σ1R deficiency through suppressing NMDAr function and DAT expression can reduce MPTP-induced death of

  14. Lmx1a and Lmx1b regulate mitochondrial functions and survival of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Doucet-Beaupré, Hélène; Gilbert, Catherine; Profes, Marcos Schaan; Chabrat, Audrey; Pacelli, Consiglia; Giguère, Nicolas; Rioux, Véronique; Deng, Qiaolin; Laguna, Ariadna; Ericson, Johan; Perlmann, Thomas; Ang, Siew-Lan; Cicchetti, Francesca; Parent, Martin; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Lévesque, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The LIM-homeodomain transcription factors Lmx1a and Lmx1b play critical roles during the development of midbrain dopaminergic progenitors, but their functions in the adult brain remain poorly understood. We show here that sustained expression of Lmx1a and Lmx1b is required for the survival of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Strikingly, inactivation of Lmx1a and Lmx1b recreates cellular features observed in Parkinson’s disease. We found that Lmx1a/b control the expression of key genes involved in mitochondrial functions, and their ablation results in impaired respiratory chain activity, increased oxidative stress, and mitochondrial DNA damage. Lmx1a/b deficiency caused axonal pathology characterized by α-synuclein+ inclusions, followed by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. These results reveal the key role of these transcription factors beyond the early developmental stages and provide mechanistic links between mitochondrial dysfunctions, α-synuclein aggregation, and the survival of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:27407143

  15. The Transcription Factor Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 Influences Axonal Projections and Vulnerability of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Chee Yeun; Licznerski, Pawel; Alavian, Kambiz N.; Simeone, Antonio; Lin, Zhicheng; Martin, Eden; Vance, Jeffery; Isacson, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Two adjacent groups of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, A9 (substantia nigra pars compacta) and A10 (ventral tegmental area), have distinct projections and exhibit differential vulnerability in Parkinson's disease. Little is known about transcription factors that influence midbrain dopaminergic subgroup phenotypes or their potential role in disease.…

  16. The Transcription Factor Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 Influences Axonal Projections and Vulnerability of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Chee Yeun; Licznerski, Pawel; Alavian, Kambiz N.; Simeone, Antonio; Lin, Zhicheng; Martin, Eden; Vance, Jeffery; Isacson, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Two adjacent groups of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, A9 (substantia nigra pars compacta) and A10 (ventral tegmental area), have distinct projections and exhibit differential vulnerability in Parkinson's disease. Little is known about transcription factors that influence midbrain dopaminergic subgroup phenotypes or their potential role in disease.…

  17. Gastrodin Protects Apoptotic Dopaminergic Neurons in a Toxin-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Hemant; Kim, In-Su; More, Sandeep Vasant; Kim, Byung-Wook; Bahk, Young-Yil; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2013-01-01

    Gastrodia elata (GE) Blume is one of the most important traditional plants in Oriental countries and has been used for centuries to improve various conditions. The phenolic glucoside gastrodin is an active constituent of GE. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of gastrodin in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- (MPTP) induced human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively. Gastrodin significantly and dose dependently protected dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxicity through regulating free radicals, Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA, caspase-3, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in SH-SY5Y cells stressed with MPP+. Gastrodin also showed neuroprotective effects in the subchronic MPTP mouse PD model by ameliorating bradykinesia and motor impairment in the pole and rotarod tests, respectively. Consistent with this finding, gastrodin prevented dopamine depletion and reduced reactive astrogliosis caused by MPTP as assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in the substantiae nigrae and striatata of mice. Moreover, gastrodin was also effective in preventing neuronal apoptosis by attenuating antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities in these brain areas. These results strongly suggest that gastrodin has protective effects in experimental PD models and that it may be developed as a clinical candidate to ameliorate PD symptoms. PMID:23533492

  18. Atrazine Causes Autophagy- and Apoptosis-Related Neurodegenerative Effects in Dopaminergic Neurons in the Rat Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yao; Li, Jia-Nan; Wu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is widely used as a broad-spectrum herbicide. Animal studies have demonstrated that ATR exposure can cause cell death in dopaminergic neurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying ATR-induced neuronal cell death, however, are unknown. In this study, we investigated the autophagy and apoptosis induced by ATR in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Wistar rats were administered with ATR at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for three months. In terms of histopathology, the expression of autophagy- and apoptosis-related genes as well as proteins related to the Beclin-1/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) autophagy and apoptosis pathways were examined in the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. We observed degenerative micromorphology indicative of neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial autophagy by electron microscopy in ATR-exposed rat striatum. The rat ventral mesencephalon in the ATR-exposed groups also showed increased expression of Beclin-1, LC3-II, Bax and Caspase-9, and decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Bcl-xl and Bcl-2. These findings indicate that ATR may induce autophagy- and apoptosis-related changes in doparminergic neurons. Furthermore, this induction may be regulated by the Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this may help to better understand the mechanism underlying the neurotoxicity of ATR. PMID:26075868

  19. Mitochondrial complex I inhibition is not required for dopaminergic neuron death induced by rotenone, MPP+, or paraquat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Seok; Kruse, Shane E.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Xia, Zhengui

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is one of the leading hypotheses for dopaminergic neuron death associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). To test this hypothesis genetically, we used a mouse strain lacking functional Ndufs4, a gene encoding a subunit required for complete assembly and function of complex I. Deletion of the Ndufs4 gene abolished complex I activity in midbrain mesencephalic neurons cultured from embryonic day (E) 14 mice, but did not affect the survival of dopaminergic neurons in culture. Although dopaminergic neurons were more sensitive than other neurons in these cultures to cell death induced by rotenone, MPP+, or paraquat treatments, the absence of complex I activity did not protect the dopaminergic neurons, as would be expected if these compounds act by inhibiting complex 1. In fact, the dopaminergic neurons were more sensitive to rotenone. These data suggest that dopaminergic neuron death induced by treatment with rotenone, MPP+, or paraquat is independent of complex I inhibition. PMID:18812510

  20. Diversity matters - heterogeneity of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral mesencephalon and its relation to Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Vogt Weisenhorn, Daniela Maria; Giesert, Florian; Wurst, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral mesencephalon (the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex) are known for their role in a multitude of behaviors, including cognition, reward, addiction and voluntary movement. Dysfunctions of these neurons are the underlying cause of various neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, addiction and schizophrenia. In addition, Parkinson's disease (PD), which is the second most common degenerative disease in developed countries, is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, leading to the core motor symptoms of the disease. However, only a subset of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral mesencephalon is highly vulnerable to the disease process. Indeed, research over several decades revealed that the neurons in the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex do not form a homogeneous group with respect to anatomy, physiology, function, molecular identity or vulnerability/dysfunction in different diseases. Here, we review how the concept of dopaminergic neuron diversity, assisted by the advent and application of new technologies, evolved and was refined over time and how it shaped our understanding of PD pathogenesis. Understanding this diversity of neurons in the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex at all levels is imperative for the development of new and more selective drugs for both PD and various other neuropsychiatric diseases. Several decades of research revealed that the neurons in the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex do not form a homogeneous group in respect to anatomy, physiology, function, molecular identity or vulnerability/dysfunction in diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we review how this concept evolved and was refined over time and how it shaped our understanding of the pathogenesis of PD. Source of the midbrain image: www.wikimd.org/wiki/index.php/The_Midbrain_or_Mesencephalon; downloaded 28.01.2016. See also Figures and of the paper. This article is part of a

  1. Dopaminergic neurons in the brain and dopaminergic innervation of the albumen gland in mated and virgin helisoma duryi (mollusca: pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Kiehn, Lana; Saleuddin, Saber; Lange, Angela

    2001-01-01

    Background Dopamine was shown to stimulate the perivitelline fluid secretion by the albumen gland. Even though the albumen gland has been shown to contain catecholaminergic fibers and its innervation has been studied, the type of catecholamines, distribution of fibers and the precise source of this neural innervation has not yet been deduced. This study was designed to address these issues and examine the correlation between dopamine concentration and the sexual status of snails. Results Dopaminergic neurons were found in all ganglia except the pleural and right parietal, and their axons in all ganglia and major nerves of the brain. In the albumen gland dopaminergic axons formed a nerve tract in the central region, and a uniform net in other areas. Neuronal cell bodies were present in the vicinity of the axons. Dopamine was a major catecholamine in the brain and the albumen gland. No significant difference in dopamine quantity was found when the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails were compared. Conclusions Our results represent the first detailed studies regarding the catecholamine innervation and quantitation of neurotransmitters in the albumen gland. In this study we localized catecholaminergic neurons and axons in the albumen gland and the brain, identified these neurons and axons as dopaminergic, reported monoamines present in the albumen gland and the brain, and compared the dopamine content in the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails. PMID:11513757

  2. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Dopaminergic Neurons during Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yuchen; Guo, Qiang; Shan, Minghui; Wu, Yongmei; Huang, Sizhou; Zhao, Haixia; Hong, Huarong; Yang, Ming; Yang, Xi; Ren, Liyi; Peng, Jiali; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Hongli; Li, Shurong; Su, Bingyin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the model organisms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) research, the zebrafish has its advantages, such as the 87% homology with human genome and transparent embryos which make it possible to observe the development of dopaminergic neurons in real time. However, there is no midbrain dopaminergic system in zebrafish when compared with mammals, and the location and projection of the dopaminergic neurons are seldom reported. In this study, Vmat2:GFP transgenic zebrafish was used to observe the development and distribution of dopaminergic neurons in real time. We found that diencephalons (DC) 2 and DC4 neuronal populations were detected at 24 h post fertilization (hpf). All DC neuronal populations as well as those in locus coeruleus (LC), raphe nuclei (Ra) and telencephalon were detected at 48 hpf. Axons were detected at 72 hpf. At 96 hpf, all the neuronal populations were detected. For the first time we reported axons from the posterior tubercle (PT) of ventral DC projected to subpallium in vivo. However, when compared with results from whole mount tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunofluorescence staining in wild type (WT) zebrafish, we found that DC2 and DC4 neuronal populations were mainly dopaminergic, while DC1, DC3, DC5 and DC6 might not. Neurons in pretectum (Pr) and telencephalon were mainly dopaminergic, while neurons in LC and Ra might be noradrenergic. Our study makes some corrections and modifications on the development, localization and distribution of zebrafish dopaminergic neurons, and provides some experimental evidences for the construction of the zebrafish PD model. PMID:27965546

  3. DJ-1 mediates paraquat-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyun Joo; Heo, Jun Young; Shim, Jung Hee; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Ryu, Min Jeong; Han, Jeong Su; Shong, Minho; Son, Jin H; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2011-04-25

    There are two causes of Parkinson's disease (PD): environmental insults and genetic mutations of PD-associated genes. Environmental insults and genetic mutations lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, and a combination of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Among the PD-associated genes, DJ-1 acts as a redox sensor for oxidative stress and has been also proposed to maintain mitochondrial complex I activity. To understand molecular functions of DJ-1 in the cell, we have generated DJ-1 null cells from the DJ-1(-/-) mouse embryos. Using these null cells, we investigated the susceptibility to an environmental toxin, paraquat, which is known to inhibit mitochondrial complex I. Interestingly, we found that DJ-1 null cells showed a resistance to paraquat-induced apoptosis, including reduced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and procaspase-3. Also DJ-1 null cells generated less superoxide than SN4741 cells by paraquat treatment. Consistent with the reduced paraquat sensitivity, DJ-1 null cells showed reduced complex I activity, which was partially rescued by ectopic DJ-I expression. In summary, our results suggest that DJ-1 is critical to maintain mitochondrial complex I and complex I could be a key target in interaction of paraquat toxicity and DJ-1 for giving rise to PD.

  4. Sweet Taste and Nutrient Value Subdivide Rewarding Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Martín; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects [1–4]. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars [5]. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor [6] specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste [4]. These dopaminergic neurons project to the β′2 and γ4 regions of the mushroom body lobes. In contrast, nutrient-dependent long-term memory requires different dopaminergic neurons that project to the γ5b regions, and it can be artificially reinforced by those projecting to the β lobe and adjacent α1 region. Surprisingly, whereas artificial implantation and expression of short-term memory occur in satiated flies, formation and expression of artificial long-term memory require flies to be hungry. These studies suggest that short-term and long-term sugar memories have different physiological constraints. They also demonstrate further functional heterogeneity within the rewarding dopaminergic neuron population. PMID:25728694

  5. The effect of different durations of morphine exposure on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in morphine dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weibo; Ma, Chunling; Qi, Qian; Liu, Lizhe; Bi, Haitao; Cong, Bin; Li, Yingmin

    2015-12-01

    Mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons are heavily involved in the development of drug dependence. Thyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, plays an important role in the survival of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, this study investigated TH changes in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), as well as the morphine effects on dopaminergic neurons induced by different durations of morphine dependence. Models of morphine dependence were established in rats, and paraffin-embedded sections, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to observe the changes in the expression of TH protein. Fluoro-Jade B staining was used to detect degeneration and necrosis, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) detected the apoptosis of mesencephalic dopaminergic nerve cells. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed that the number of TH positive cells and the protein levels in the VTA and SN were significantly decreased in the rats with a long period of morphine dependency. With prolonged morphine exposure, the dopaminergic nerve cells in the VTA and SN showed degeneration and necrosis, while apoptotic cells were not observed. The number of VTA and SN dopaminergic nerve cells decreased with increasing periods of morphine dependence, which was most likely attributable to the degeneration and necrosis of nerve cells induced by morphine toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depressive-like phenotype induced by AAV-mediated overexpression of human α-synuclein in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Caudal, D; Alvarsson, A; Björklund, A; Svenningsson, P

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and by the presence of aggregates containing α-synuclein called Lewy bodies. Viral vector-induced overexpression of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons represents a model of PD which recapitulates disease progression better than commonly used neurotoxin models. Previous studies using this model have reported motor and cognitive impairments, whereas depression, mood and anxiety phenotypes are less described. To investigate these psychiatric phenotypes, Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing human α-synuclein or GFP into the substantia nigra pars compacta. Behavior was assessed at two timepoints: 3 and 8 weeks post-injection. We report that nigral α-synuclein overexpression led to a pronounced nigral dopaminergic cell loss accompanied by a smaller cell loss in the ventral tegmental area, and to a decreased striatal density of dopaminergic fibers. The AAV-α-synuclein group exhibited modest, but significant motor impairments 8 weeks after vector administration. The AAV-α-synuclein group displayed depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test after 3 weeks, and reduced sucrose preference at week 8. At both timepoints, overexpression of α-synuclein was linked to a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation of corticosterone. The depressive-like phenotype was also correlated with decreased nigral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and spinophilin levels, and with decreased striatal levels of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein. This study demonstrates that AAV-mediated α-synuclein overexpression in dopamine neurons is not only useful to model motor impairments of PD, but also depression. This study also provides evidence that depression in experimental Parkinsonism is correlated to dysregulation of the HPA axis and to

  7. Effect of acupuncture on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostratal dopaminergic neuronal cell death in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeung-Kee; Lim, Hyung-Ho; Song, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Lim, Sabina; Han, Seung-Moo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    In this study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture at the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the rats with Parkinson's disease. Two weeks after unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum, an apomorphine-induced rotational behavior test showed significant rotational asymmetry in the rats with Parkinson's disease. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase demonstrated a dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. Acupuncture at the ST36 for 14 days significantly inhibited rotational asymmetry in the rats with Parkinson's disease, and also protected against 6-OHDA-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss. These effects of acupuncture were not observed for the non-acupoint (hip) acupuncture. The present study shows that acupuncture at the ST36 acupoint can be used as a useful strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  8. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

  9. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. PMID:28349030

  10. Toxic influence of chronic oral administration of paraquat on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jin-peng; Zhao, Yu-wu; Sun, Xiao-jiang

    2009-10-05

    Paraquat (PQ; 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium), a widely used herbicide, has been repeatedly suggested as a potential etiologic factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), owing to its structural similarity to the known dopaminergic neurotoxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). This study aimed to observe the influence of paraquat on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6 mice. A total of 24 male C57BL/6 mice were assigned randomly to 3 groups: control group (treated by saline), PQ treated group, and MPTP treated group. Mice in PQ treated group were taken orally with PQ (10 mg/kg) daily for four months. Locomotor activity was measured. Level of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites levels in the striatum were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons were detected by using immunohistochemistry. At the same time, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in substantia nigra were measured by spectrophotometry. mRNA expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra was also determined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technique. Locomotor activities were significantly impaired in the PQ treated group. Level of DA and its metabolites levels in the striatum were declined. The activities of SOD and GSH-PX were decreased, and the content of MDA was increased in PQ treated mice compared with that in control group. Numbers of TH positive neurons and the mRNA expression of DAT in substantia nigra of mice were also decreased after PQ taken orally for four months. The present study suggests that chronic oral administration of PQ could trigger dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Oxidative stress could be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of PD induced by PQ.

  11. Neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide enhances vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to rotenone neurotoxicity in later life

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Tien, Lu-Tai; Lin, Rick C. S.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Rhodes, Philip G.; Cai, Zhengwei

    2011-01-01

    Brain inflammation in early life has been proposed to play important roles in the development of neurodegenerative disorders in adult life. To test this hypothesis, we used a neonatal rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure (1,000 EU/g body weight, intracerebral injection on P5) to produce brain inflammation. By P70, when LPS-induced behavioral deficits were spontaneously recovered, animals were challenged with rotenone, a commonly used pesticide, through subcutaneous mini-pump infusion at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg per day for 14 days. This rotenone treatment regimen ordinarily does not produce toxic effects on behaviors in normal adult rats. Our results show that neonatal LPS exposure enhanced vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to rotenone neurotoxicity in later life. Rotenone treatment resulted in motor neurobehavioral impairments in rats with the neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without the neonatal LPS exposure. Rotenone induced losses of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra and decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of rats with neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without this exposure. Neonatal LPS exposure with later exposure to rotenone decreased retrogradely labeled nigrostriatal dopaminergic projecting neurons. The current study suggests that perinatal brain inflammation may enhance adult susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders triggered later on by environmental toxins at an ordinarily non-toxic or sub-toxic dose. Our model may be useful for studying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonfamilial Parkinson’s disease and the development of potential therapeutic treatments. PMID:21798348

  12. Neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide enhances vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to rotenone neurotoxicity in later life.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Tien, Lu-Tai; Lin, Rick C S; Simpson, Kimberly L; Rhodes, Philip G; Cai, Zhengwei

    2011-12-01

    Brain inflammation in early life has been proposed to play important roles in the development of neurodegenerative disorders in adult life. To test this hypothesis, we used a neonatal rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure (1000 EU/g body weight, intracerebral injection on P5) to produce brain inflammation. By P70, when LPS-induced behavioral deficits were spontaneously recovered, animals were challenged with rotenone, a commonly used pesticide, through subcutaneous mini-pump infusion at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg per day for 14 days. This rotenone treatment regimen ordinarily does not produce toxic effects on behaviors in normal adult rats. Our results show that neonatal LPS exposure enhanced the vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to rotenone neurotoxicity in later life. Rotenone treatment resulted in motor neurobehavioral impairments in rats with the neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without the neonatal LPS exposure. Rotenone induced losses of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra and decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of rats with neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without this exposure. Neonatal LPS exposure with later exposure to rotenone decreased retrogradely labeled nigrostriatal dopaminergic projecting neurons. The current study suggests that perinatal brain inflammation may enhance adult susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders triggered later on by environmental toxins at an ordinarily non-toxic or sub-toxic dose. Our model may be useful for studying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonfamilial Parkinson's disease and the development of potential therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Treadmill Exercise Protects against Dopaminergic Neuron Loss and Brain Oxidative Stress in Parkinsonian Rats.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Roberta Oliveira; Gadelha-Filho, Carlos Vinicius Jataí; da Costa, Ayane Edwiges Moura; Feitosa, Mariana Lima; de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; de Lucena, Jalles Dantas; de Aquino, Pedro Everson Alexandre; Lima, Francisco Arnaldo Viana; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurological pathology, presents motor and nonmotor impairments. The objectives were to support data on exercise benefits to PD. Male Wistar rats were distributed into sham-operated (SO) and 6-OHDA-lesioned, both groups without and with exercise. The animals were subjected to treadmill exercises (14 days), 24 h after the stereotaxic surgery and striatal 6-OHDA injection. Those from no-exercise groups stayed on the treadmill for the same period and, afterwards, were subjected to behavioral tests and euthanized for neurochemical and immunohistochemical assays. The data, analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test, were considered significant for p < 0.05. The results showed behavioral change improvements in the 6-OHDA group, after the treadmill exercise, evaluated by apomorphine rotational behavior, open field, and rota rod tests. The exercise reduced striatal dopaminergic neuronal loss and decreased the oxidative stress. In addition, significant increases in BDNF contents and in immunoreactive cells to TH and DAT were also observed, in striata of the 6-OHDA group with exercise, relatively to those with no exercise. We conclude that exercise improves behavior and dopaminergic neurotransmission in 6-OHDA-lesioned animals. The increased oxidative stress and decreased BDNF contents were also reversed, emphasizing the importance of exercise for the PD management.

  14. Interactions between Kisspeptin Neurons and Hypothalamic Tuberoinfundibular Dopaminergic Neurons in Aged Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Kinuyo; Ikehara, Masaaki; Kunimura, Yuyu; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) regulate prolactin secretion, and are in physical contact with tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, which inhibit prolactin secretion. Prolactin levels in the blood are increased with advancing age in rats; therefore, we investigated the interactions with TIDA neurons and kisspeptin neurons in aged female rats (24 months of age), relative to those of young adult female rats (9–10 weeks of age). Plasma prolactin levels in the aged rats were significantly higher than those of young adult rats. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies and kisspeptin-ir nerve fibers were found in the dorsomedial ARC of both groups. The number of TH-ir cell bodies in the dorsomedial ARC did not differ significantly between groups. Additionally, no significant differences in the number of TH-ir cells in contact with kisspeptin-ir fibers was observed between groups. However, the number of kisspeptin-ir or Kiss1 mRNA-expressing cells in the ARC was significantly reduced in the aged rats compared with that of the young rats. These results suggest that the contacts between TIDA neurons and kisspeptin neurons are maintained after reproductive senescence, while production of kisspeptin in the ARC decreases significantly during aging. PMID:28127107

  15. Selenoprotein T Exerts an Essential Oxidoreductase Activity That Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boukhzar, Loubna; Hamieh, Abdallah; Cartier, Dorthe; Tanguy, Yannick; Alsharif, Ifat; Castex, Matthieu; Arabo, Arnaud; Hajji, Sana El; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Errami, Mohammed; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Lihrmann, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms involved in the control of this stress in dopaminergic cells are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that selenoproteins play a central role in the control of redox homeostasis and cell defense, but the precise contribution of members of this family of proteins during the course of neurodegenerative diseases is still elusive. Results: We demonstrated first that selenoprotein T (SelT) whose gene disruption is lethal during embryogenesis, exerts a potent oxidoreductase activity. In the SH-SY5Y cell model of dopaminergic neurons, both silencing and overexpression of SelT affected oxidative stress and cell survival. Treatment with PD-inducing neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or rotenone triggered SelT expression in the nigrostriatal pathway of wild-type mice, but provoked rapid and severe parkinsonian-like motor defects in conditional brain SelT-deficient mice. This motor impairment was associated with marked oxidative stress and neurodegeneration and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatal system. Finally, in PD patients, we report that SelT is tremendously increased in the caudate putamen tissue. Innovation: These results reveal the activity of a novel selenoprotein enzyme that protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and prevents early and severe movement impairment in animal models of PD. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that selenoproteins such as SelT play a crucial role in the protection of dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and cell death, providing insight into the molecular underpinnings of this stress in PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 557–574. PMID:26866473

  16. Intranasal Administration of Rotenone to Mice Induces Dopaminergic Neurite Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Substantia Nigra.

    PubMed

    Sasajima, Hitoshi; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Noguchi, Tomohiro; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to environmental neurotoxins is suspected to be a risk factor for sporadic progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson's disease has been associated with exposure to the pesticide rotenone, a mitochondrial respiration inhibitor. We previously reported that intranasal administration of rotenone in mice induced dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in the olfactory bulb (OB) and reduced olfactory functions. In the present study, we investigated the DA neurons in the brains of mice that were administered rotenone intranasally for an extended period. We found that the olfactory function of mice was attenuated by rotenone administration. Electrophysiological analysis of the mitral cells, which are output neurons in the OB, revealed that the inhibitory input into the mitral cells was retarded. In the immunohistochemical analysis, neurite degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra was observed in rotenone-administered mice, indicating that rotenone progressively initiated the degeneration of cerebral DA neurons via the nasal route.

  17. Dopamine-Dependent Compensation Maintains Motor Behavior in Mice with Developmental Ablation of Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DeMaro, Joseph A.; Knoten, Amanda; Hoshi, Masato; Pehek, Elizabeth; Johnson, Eugene M.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consequent depletion of striatal dopamine are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Adaptive changes in dopaminergic terminals and in postsynaptic striatal neurons can compensate for significant losses of striatal dopamine, resulting in preservation of motor behavior. In addition, compensatory changes independent of striatal dopamine have been proposed based on PD therapies that modulate nondopaminergic circuits within the basal ganglia. We used a genetic strategy to selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons in mice during development to determine the necessity of these neurons for the maintenance of normal motor behavior in adult and aged mice. We find that loss of 90% of SNc dopaminergic neurons and consequent depletion of >95% of striatal dopamine does not result in changes in motor behavior in young-adult or aged mice as evaluated by an extensive array of motor behavior tests. Treatment of aged mutant mice with the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol precipitated motor behavior deficits in aged mutant mice, indicating that <5% of striatal dopamine is sufficient to maintain motor function in these mice. We also found that mutant mice exhibit an exaggerated response to l-DOPA compared with control mice, suggesting that preservation of motor function involves sensitization of striatal dopamine receptors. Our results indicate that congenital loss of dopaminergic neurons induces remarkable adaptions in the nigrostriatal system where limited amounts of dopamine in the dorsal striatum can maintain normal motor function. PMID:24155314

  18. Limitations of In Vivo Reprogramming to Dopaminergic Neurons via a Tricistronic Strategy.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Marina; Rauser, Benedict; Zhang, Jingzhong; Prakash, Nilima; Wurst, Wolfgang; Schick, Joel A

    2015-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders characterized by cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recent research has focused on cellular replacement through lineage reprogramming as a potential therapeutic strategy. This study sought to use genetics to define somatic cell types in vivo amenable to reprogramming. To stimulate in vivo reprogramming to dopaminergic neurons, we generated a Rosa26 knock-in mouse line conditionally overexpressing Mash1, Lmx1a, and Nurr1. These proteins are characterized by their role in neuronal commitment and development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and have previously been shown to convert fibroblasts to dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We show that a tricistronic construct containing these transcription factors can reprogram astrocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. However, cassette overexpression triggered cell death in vivo, in part through endoplasmic reticulum stress, while we also detected "uncleaved" forms of the polyprotein, suggesting poor "cleavage" efficiency of the 2A peptides. Based on our results, the cassette overexpression induced apoptosis and precluded reprogramming in our mouse model. Therefore, we suggest that alternatives must be explored to balance construct design with efficacious reprogramming. It is evident that there are still biological obstacles to overcome for in vivo reprogramming to dopaminergic neurons.

  19. Control of dopaminergic neuron survival by the unfolded protein response transcription factor XBP1

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pamela; Mercado, Gabriela; Vidal, Rene L.; Molina, Claudia; Parsons, Geoffrey; Court, Felipe A.; Martinez, Alexis; Galleguillos, Danny; Armentano, Donna; Schneider, Bernard L.; Hetz, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Although growing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a hallmark of PD, its exact contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Here we report that developmental ablation of X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in the nervous system, a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), protects dopaminergic neurons against a PD-inducing neurotoxin. This survival effect was associated with a preconditioning condition that resulted from induction of an adaptive ER stress response in dopaminergic neurons of the SNpc, but not in other brain regions. In contrast, silencing XBP1 in adult animals triggered chronic ER stress and dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Supporting this finding, gene therapy to deliver an active form of XBP1 provided neuroprotection and reduced striatal denervation in animals injected with 6-hydroxydopamine. Our results reveal a physiological role of the UPR in the maintenance of protein homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons that may help explain the differential neuronal vulnerability observed in PD. PMID:24753614

  20. Effect of total flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Li; Xu, Xiao-Fan; Bu, Qing-Xia; Jin, Wei-Rong; Sun, Qian-Ru; Feng, De-Peng; Zhang, Qing-Jv; Wang, Le-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid (SSTF) on the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The mouse model was established by intravenous injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). SSTF (5 mg/kg) was administered to the mice before or after MPTP injection, and the effects of SSTF on the behavior of the mice and the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra were assessed. In addition, the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. Following injection of MPTP, the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was decreased and the neurons appeared atrophic. In addition, the level of serum MDA in the MPTP mice increased. The mean behavioral scores and the number of dopaminergic neurons in the SSTF treatment groups were significantly higher than in the MPTP group (P<0.05), and the mean serum MDA levels were significantly lower (P<0.05). Thus, SSTF improves the behaviors and the numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in MPTP-induced PD in mice. These beneficial effects appear to be associated with the reduction in serum MDA. PMID:27446544

  1. Otx2 Requires Lmx1b to Control the Development of Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sherf, Orna; Nashelsky Zolotov, Limor; Liser, Keren; Tilleman, Hadas; Jovanovic, Vukasin M.; Zega, Ksenija; Jukic, Marin M.; Brodski, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Studying the development of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons provides an important basis for better understanding dopamine-associated brain functions and disorders and is critical for establishing cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease. The transcription factors Otx2 and Lmx1b play a key role in the development of mdDA neurons. However, little is known about the genes downstream of Otx2 and Lmx1b in the pathways controlling the formation of mdDA neurons in vivo. Here we report on our investigation of Lmx1b as downstream target of Otx2 in the formation of mdDA neurons. Mouse mutants expressing Otx2 under the control of the En1 promoter (En1+/Otx2) showed increased Otx2 expression in the mid-hindbrain region, resulting in upregulation of Lmx1b and expansion of mdDA neurons there. In contrast, Lmx1b-/- mice showed decreased expression of Otx2 and impairments in several aspects of mdDA neuronal formation. To study the functional interaction between Otx2 and Lmx1b, we generated compound mutants in which Otx2 expression was restored in mice lacking Lmx1b (En1+/Otx2;Lmx1b-/-). In these animals Otx2 was not sufficient to rescue any of the aberrations in the formation of mdDA neurons caused by the loss of Lmx1b, but rescued the loss of ocular motor neurons. Gene expression studies in Lmx1b-/- embryos indicated that in these mutants Wnt1, En1 and Fgf8 expression are induced but subsequently lost in the mdDA precursor domain and the mid-hindbrain organizer in a specific, spatio-temporal manner. In summary, we demonstrate that Otx2 critically depends on Lmx1b for the formation of mdDA neurons, but not for the generation of ocular motor neurons. Moreover, our data suggest that Lmx1b precisely maintains the expression pattern of Wnt1, Fgf8 and En1, which are essential for mid-hindbrain organizer function and the formation of mdDA neurons. PMID:26444681

  2. The lifelong maintenance of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by Nurr1 and engrailed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Specific vulnerability and degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. A number of transcription factors regulate the birth and development of this set of neurons and some remain constitutively expressed throughout life. These maintenance transcription factors are closely associated with essential neurophysiological functions and are required ultimately for the long-term survival of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The current review describes the role of two such factors, Nurr1 and engrailed, in differentiation, maturation, and in normal physiological functions including acquisition of neurotransmitter identity. The review will also elucidate the relationship of these factors with life, vulnerability, degeneration and death of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in the context of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24685177

  3. Pleiotrophin over-expression provides trophic support to dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Taravini, Irene Re; Chertoff, Mariela; Cafferata, Eduardo G; Courty, José; Murer, Mario G; Pitossi, Fernando J; Gershanik, Oscar S

    2011-06-07

    Pleiotrophin is known to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and is up-regulated in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. To establish whether pleiotrophin has a trophic effect on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing pleiotrophin in the substantia nigra of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. The viral vector induced pleiotrophin over-expression by astrocytes in the substantia nigra pars compacta, without modifying endogenous neuronal expression. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells as well as the area of their projections in the lesioned striatum was higher in pleiotrophin-treated animals than in controls. These results indicate that pleiotrophin over-expression partially rescues tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies and terminals of dopaminergic neurons undergoing 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration.

  4. Pleiotrophin over-expression provides trophic support to dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pleiotrophin is known to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and is up-regulated in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. To establish whether pleiotrophin has a trophic effect on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing pleiotrophin in the substantia nigra of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Results The viral vector induced pleiotrophin over-expression by astrocytes in the substantia nigra pars compacta, without modifying endogenous neuronal expression. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells as well as the area of their projections in the lesioned striatum was higher in pleiotrophin-treated animals than in controls. Conclusions These results indicate that pleiotrophin over-expression partially rescues tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies and terminals of dopaminergic neurons undergoing 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration. PMID:21649894

  5. Endogenous Parkin Preserves Dopaminergic Substantia Nigral Neurons following Mitochondrial DNA Mutagenic Stress.

    PubMed

    Pickrell, Alicia M; Huang, Chiu-Hui; Kennedy, Scott R; Ordureau, Alban; Sideris, Dionisia P; Hoekstra, Jake G; Harper, J Wade; Youle, Richard J

    2015-07-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. PARK2 mutations cause early-onset forms of PD. PARK2 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Parkin, that can selectively translocate to dysfunctional mitochondria to promote their removal by autophagy. However, Parkin knockout (KO) mice do not display signs of neurodegeneration. To assess Parkin function in vivo, we utilized a mouse model that accumulates dysfunctional mitochondria caused by an accelerated generation of mtDNA mutations (Mutator mice). In the absence of Parkin, dopaminergic neurons in Mutator mice degenerated causing an L-DOPA reversible motor deficit. Other neuronal populations were unaffected. Phosphorylated ubiquitin was increased in the brains of Mutator mice, indicating PINK1-Parkin activation. Parkin loss caused mitochondrial dysfunction and affected the pathogenicity but not the levels of mtDNA somatic mutations. A systemic loss of Parkin synergizes with mitochondrial dysfunction causing dopaminergic neuron death modeling PD pathogenic processes.

  6. Isolation, culture and long-term maintenance of primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from embryonic rodent brains.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Maria; Selvakumar, Tharakeswari; Tierney, Travis S; Alavian, Kambiz N

    2015-02-19

    Degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's diseae. Study of the biological processes involved in physiological functions and vulnerability and death of these neurons is imparative to understanding the underlying causes and unraveling the cure for this common neurodegenerative disorder. Primary cultures of mesDA neurons provide a tool for investigation of the molecular, biochemical and electrophysiological properties, in order to understand the development, long-term survival and degeneration of these neurons during the course of disease. Here we present a detailed method for the isolation, culturing and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons from E12.5 mouse (or E14.5 rat) embryos. Optimized cell culture conditions in this protocol result in presence of axonal and dendritic projections, synaptic connections and other neuronal morphological properties, which make the cultures suitable for study of the physiological, cell biological and molecular characteristics of this neuronal population.

  7. The cellular and Genomic response of rat dopaminergic neurons (N27) to coated nanosilver

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined if nanosilver (nanoAg) of different sizes and coatings were differentially toxic to oxidative stress-sensitive neurons. N27 rat dopaminergic neurons were exposed (0.5-5ppm) to a set of nanoAg of different sizes (10nm, 75nm) and coatings (PVP, citrate) and thei...

  8. The cellular and Genomic response of rat dopaminergic neurons (N27) to coated nanosilver

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined if nanosilver (nanoAg) of different sizes and coatings were differentially toxic to oxidative stress-sensitive neurons. N27 rat dopaminergic neurons were exposed (0.5-5ppm) to a set of nanoAg of different sizes (10nm, 75nm) and coatings (PVP, citrate) and thei...

  9. Dopaminergic Neurons Respond to Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress by Modulating Lipid Acylation and Deacylation Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Campos, Sofía; Rodríguez Diez, Guadalupe; Oresti, Gerardo Martín; Salvador, Gabriela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Metal-imbalance has been reported as a contributor factor for the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson Disease (PD). Specifically, iron (Fe)-overload and copper (Cu) mis-compartmentalization have been reported to be involved in the injury of dopaminergic neurons in this pathology. The aim of this work was to characterize the mechanisms of membrane repair by studying lipid acylation and deacylation reactions and their role in oxidative injury in N27 dopaminergic neurons exposed to Fe-overload and Cu-supplementation. N27 dopaminergic neurons incubated with Fe (1mM) for 24 hs displayed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and elevated plasma membrane permeability. Cu-supplemented neurons (10, 50 μM) showed no evidence of oxidative stress markers. A different lipid acylation profile was observed in N27 neurons pre-labeled with [3H] arachidonic acid (AA) or [3H] oleic acid (OA). In Fe-exposed neurons, AA uptake was increased in triacylglycerols (TAG) whereas its incorporation into the phospholipid (PL) fraction was diminished. TAG content was 40% higher in Fe-exposed neurons than in controls. This increase was accompanied by the appearance of Nile red positive lipid bodies. Contrariwise, OA incorporation increased in the PL fractions and showed no changes in TAG. Lipid acylation profile in Cu-supplemented neurons showed AA accumulation into phosphatidylserine and no changes in TAG. The inhibition of deacylation/acylation reactions prompted an increase in oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial dysfunction in Fe-overloaded neurons. These findings provide evidence about the participation of lipid acylation mechanisms against Fe-induced oxidative injury and postulate that dopaminergic neurons cleverly preserve AA in TAG in response to oxidative stress. PMID:26076361

  10. Brain angiotensin regulates iron homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons and microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Dominguez-Meijide, Antonio; Guerra, Maria J; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

    2013-12-01

    Dysfunction of iron homeostasis has been shown to be involved in ageing, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Increased levels of labile iron result in increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Angiotensin II, via type-1 receptors, exacerbates oxidative stress, the microglial inflammatory response and progression of dopaminergic degeneration. Angiotensin activates the NADPH-oxidase complex, which produces superoxide. However, it is not known whether angiotensin affects iron homeostasis. In the present study, administration of angiotensin to primary mesencephalic cultures, the dopaminergic cell line MES23.5 and to young adult rats, significantly increased levels of transferrin receptors, divalent metal transporter-1 and ferroportin, which suggests an increase in iron uptake and export. In primary neuron-glia cultures and young rats, angiotensin did not induce significant changes in levels of ferritin or labile iron, both of which increased in neurons in the absence of glia (neuron-enriched cultures, dopaminergic cell line) and in the N9 microglial cell line. In aged rats, which are known to display high levels of angiotensin activity, ferritin levels and iron deposits in microglial cells were enhanced. Angiotensin-induced changes were inhibited by angiotensin type-1 receptor antagonists, NADPH-oxidase inhibitors, antioxidants and NF-kB inhibitors. The results demonstrate that angiotensin, via type-1 receptors, modulates iron homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons and microglial cells, and that glial cells play a major role in efficient regulation of iron homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons.

  11. Mutant PINK1 upregulates tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine levels, leading to vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi Dong; Refai, Fathima Shaffra; Xie, Shao Ping; Ng, Shin Hui; Chan, Christine Hui Shan; Ho, Patrick Ghim Hoe; Zhang, Xiao Dong; Lim, Tit Meng; Tan, Eng King

    2014-03-01

    PINK1 mutations cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson disease (PD). Previous studies suggest that the neuroprotective function of wild-type (WT) PINK1 is related to mitochondrial homeostasis. PINK1 can also localize to the cytosol; however, the cytosolic function of PINK1 has not been fully elucidated. In this study we demonstrate that the extramitochondrial PINK1 can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine (DA) content in dopaminergic neurons in a PINK1 kinase activity-dependent manner. We demonstrate that overexpression of full-length (FL) WT PINK1 can downregulate TH expression and DA content in dopaminergic neurons. In contrast, overexpression of PD-linked G309D, A339T, and E231G PINK1 mutations upregulates TH and DA levels in dopaminergic neurons and increases their vulnerability to oxidative stress. Furthermore transfection of FL WT PINK1 or PINK1 fragments with the PINK1 kinase domain can inhibit TH expression, whereas kinase-dead (KD) FL PINK1 or KD PINK1 fragments upregulate TH level. Our findings highlight a potential novel function of extramitochondrial PINK1 in dopaminergic neurons. Deregulation of these functions of PINK1 may contribute to PINK1 mutation-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration. However, deleterious effects caused by PINK1 mutations may be alleviated by iron-chelating agents and antioxidant agents with DA quinone-conjugating capacity.

  12. An In Vitro Model of Human Dopaminergic Neurons Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells: MPP+ Toxicity and GDNF Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianmin; Chen, Jia; Deng, Xiaolin; Liu, Ying; Rao, Mahendra S.; Cadet, Jean-Lud; Freed, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can proliferate indefinitely yet also differentiate in vitro, allowing normal human neurons to be generated in unlimited numbers. Here, we describe the development of an in vitro neurotoxicity assay using human dopaminergic neurons derived from hESCs. We showed that the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which produces features of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in humans, was toxic for hESC-derived dopaminergic neurons. Treatment with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), protected tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons against MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death and loss of neuronal processes, as well as against formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The availability of human dopaminergic neurons, derived from hESCs, therefore allows for the possibility of directly examining the unique features of human dopaminergic neurons with respect to their responses to pharmacological agents as well as environmental and chemical toxins. PMID:17109014

  13. Simultaneous activation of mitophagy and autophagy by staurosporine protects against dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji-Young; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Seo-Eun; Son, Jin H

    2014-02-21

    Abnormal autophagy is frequently observed during dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is not yet firmly established whether active autophagy is beneficial or pathogenic with respect to dopaminergic cell loss. Staurosporine, a common inducer of apoptosis, is often used in mechanistic studies of dopaminergic cell death. Here we report that staurosporine activates both autophagy and mitophagy simultaneously during dopaminergic neuronal cell death, and evaluate the physiological significance of these processes during cell death. First, staurosporine treatment resulted in induction of autophagy in more than 75% of apoptotic cells. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased significantly cell viability. In addition, staurosporine treatment resulted in activation of the PINK1-Parkin mitophagy pathway, of which deficit underlies some familial cases of PD, in the dopaminergic neuronal cell line, SN4741. The genetic blockade of this pathway by PINK1 null mutation also dramatically increased staurosporine-induced cell death. Taken together, our data suggest that staurosporine induces both mitophagy and autophagy, and that these pathways exert a significant neuroprotective effect, rather than a contribution to autophagic cell death. This model system may therefore be useful for elucidating the mechanisms underlying crosstalk between autophagy, mitophagy, and cell death in dopaminergic neurons.

  14. The melanoma-linked "redhead" MC1R influences dopaminergic neuron survival.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiqun; Chen, Hongxiang; Cai, Waijiao; Maguire, Michael; Ya, Bailiu; Zuo, Fuxing; Logan, Robert; Li, Hui; Robinson, Katey; Vanderburg, Charles R; Yu, Yang; Wang, Yinsheng; Fisher, David E; Schwarzschild, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with Parkinson disease are more likely to develop melanoma, and melanoma patients are reciprocally at higher risk of developing Parkinson disease. Melanoma is strongly tied to red hair/fair skin, a phenotype of loss-of-function polymorphisms in the MC1R (melanocortin 1 receptor) gene. Loss-of-function variants of MC1R have also been linked to increased risk of Parkinson disease. The present study is to investigate the role of MC1R in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Genetic and pharmacological approaches were employed to manipulate MC1R, and nigrostriatal dopaminergic integrity was determined by comprehensive behavioral, neurochemical, and neuropathological measures. MC1R(e/e) mice, which carry an inactivating mutation of MC1R and mimic the human redhead phenotype, have compromised nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal integrity, and they are more susceptible to dopaminergic neuron toxins 6-hydroxydopamine and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Furthermore, a selective MC1R agonist protects against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Our findings reveal a protective role of MC1R in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, and they provide a rationale for MC1R as a potential therapeutic target for Parkinson disease. Together with its established role in melanoma, MC1R may represent a common pathogenic pathway for melanoma and Parkinson disease. Ann Neurol 2017;81:395-406. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  15. Midbrain dopaminergic neuron activity across alternating brain states of urethane anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Magdalena; Błasiak, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are implicated in the control of motor functions and reward-driven behaviours. The function of this neuronal population is strongly connected with distinct patterns of firing - irregular or bursting, which either maintains basal levels of dopamine (DA) or leads to phasic release, respectively. Heterogeneity of dopaminergic neurons, observed on both structural and functional levels, is also reflected in different responses of DA neurons to changes in global brain states. Preparation of urethane anaesthetized animal is a broadly used model to study brain state dependent activity of neurons. Unfortunately activity of midbrain DA neurons across urethane induced cyclic, spontaneous brain state alternations is poorly described. To fulfil this gap in our knowledge we have performed simultaneous, extracellular recordings of the firing of single putative DA neurons combined with continuous brain state monitoring. We found that during slow wave activity, the firing rate of recorded putative DA neurons was significantly higher compared to firing rates during activated state, both in ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In the presence of cortical slow waves, putative dopaminergic neurons also intensified bursting activity, but the magnitude of this phenomena differed in respect to the examined region (VTA or SNc). Our results show that activity of DA neurons under urethane anaesthesia is brain-state dependent and emphasize the importance of brain state monitoring during electrophysiological experiments. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prostaglandin receptor EP2 protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-mediated low oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Emilce; Werner, Peter; Casper, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) selectively die in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but it is unclear how and why this occurs. Recent findings implicate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and two of its four receptors, namely EP1 and EP2, as mediators of degenerative and protective events in situations of acute and chronic neuronal death. EP1 activation can exacerbate excitotoxic damage in stroke models and our recent study showed that EP1 activation may explain the selective sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons to oxidative stress. Conversely, EP2 activation may be neuroprotective, although toxic effects have also been demonstrated. Here we investigated if and how EP2 activation might alter the survival of dopaminergic neurons following selective low-level oxidative injury evoked by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in primary neuronal cultures prepared from embryonic rat midbrain. We found that cultured dopaminergic neurons displayed EP2 receptors. Butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist, significantly reduced 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. EP2 receptors are coupled to stimulatory G-proteins (Gs), which activate adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP synthesis, which then activates protein kinase A (PKA). Both dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin reduced dopaminergic cell loss after 6-OHDA exposure. Conversely, KT5720 and H-89, two structurally distinct high-affinity PKA inhibitors, abolished the protective effect of butaprost, implicating cAMP-dependent PKA activity in the neuroprotection by EP2 activation. Finally, we show that melanized dopaminergic neurons in the human SN express EP2. This pathway warrants consideration as a neuroprotective strategy for PD. PMID:18597941

  17. Prostaglandin receptor EP2 protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-mediated low oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Emilce; Werner, Peter; Casper, Diana

    2008-08-15

    Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) selectively die in Parkinson's disease (PD), but it is unclear how and why this occurs. Recent findings implicate prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and two of its four receptors, namely EP1 and EP2, as mediators of degenerative and protective events in situations of acute and chronic neuronal death. EP1 activation can exacerbate excitotoxic damage in stroke models and our recent study showed that EP1 activation may explain the selective sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons to oxidative stress. Conversely, EP2 activation may be neuroprotective, although toxic effects have also been demonstrated. Here we investigated if and how EP2 activation might alter the survival of dopaminergic neurons following selective low-level oxidative injury evoked by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in primary neuronal cultures prepared from embryonic rat midbrain. We found that cultured dopaminergic neurons displayed EP2 receptors. Butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist, significantly reduced 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. EP2 receptors are coupled to stimulatory G-proteins (Gs), which activate adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP synthesis, which then activates protein kinase A (PKA). Both dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin reduced dopaminergic cell loss after 6-OHDA exposure. Conversely, KT5720 and H-89, two structurally distinct high-affinity PKA inhibitors, abolished the protective effect of butaprost, implicating cAMP-dependent PKA activity in the neuroprotection by EP2 activation. Finally, we show that melanized dopaminergic neurons in the human SN express EP2. This pathway warrants consideration as a neuroprotective strategy for PD.

  18. Efficient Generation of Functional Dopaminergic Neurons from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Under Defined Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Swistowski, Andrzej; Peng, Jun; Liu, Qiuyue; Mali, Prashant; Rao, Mahendra S; Cheng, Linzhao; Zeng, Xianmin

    2010-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from somatic cells represent a promising unlimited cell source for generating patient-specific cells for biomedical research and personalized medicine. As a first step, critical to clinical applications, we attempted to develop defined culture conditions to expand and differentiate human iPSCs into functional progeny such as dopaminergic neurons for treating or modeling Parkinson's disease (PD). We used a completely defined (xeno-free) system that we previously developed for efficient generation of authentic dopaminergic neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and applied it to iPSCs. First, we adapted two human iPSC lines derived from different somatic cell types for the defined expansion medium and showed that the iPSCs grew similarly as hESCs in the same medium regarding pluripotency and genomic stability. Second, by using these two independent adapted iPSC lines, we showed that the process of differentiation into committed neural stem cells (NSCs) and subsequently into dopaminergic neurons was also similar to hESCs. Importantly, iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons were functional as they survived and improved behavioral deficits in 6-hydroxydopamine-leasioned rats after transplantation. In addition, iPSC-derived NSCs and neurons could be efficiently transduced by a baculoviral vector delivering episomal DNA for future gene function study and disease modeling using iPSCs. We also performed genome-wide microarray comparisons between iPSCs and hESCs, and we derived NSC and dopaminergic neurons. Our data revealed overall similarity and visible differences at a molecular level. Efficient generation of functional dopaminergic neurons under defined conditions will facilitate research and applications using PD patient-specific iPSCs. Stem Cells 2010;28:1893–1904 PMID:20715183

  19. On the properties of identified dopaminergic neurons in the mouse substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Krashia, Paraskevi; Martini, Alessandro; Nobili, Annalisa; Aversa, Daniela; D'Amelio, Marcello; Berretta, Nicola; Guatteo, Ezia; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio

    2017-01-01

    We studied the properties of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) in mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-GFP). By using a practical map of cell positioning in distinct SNpc and VTA subregions in horizontal midbrain slices we saw that the spontaneous firing, membrane properties, cell body size and magnitude of the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih ) in TH-GFP-positive neurons (TH-GFP(+) ) vary significantly among subregions, following a mediolateral gradient. Block of Ih with Zd7288 inhibited firing in the most lateral subregions, but had little effect in the intermediate/medial VTA. In addition, TH-GFP(+) cells were excited by Met(5) -Enkephalin. Extracellular recordings from a large neuron number showed that all TH-GFP(+) cells were inhibited by dopamine, suggesting that this is a reliable approach for identifying dopaminergic neurons in vitro. Simultaneous recordings from dopamine-sensitive and dopamine-insensitive neurons showed that dopamine-insensitive cells (putative non-dopaminergic neurons) are unaffected by Zd7288 but inhibited by Met(5) -Enkephalin. Under patch-clamp, dopamine generated a quantitatively similar outward current in most TH-GFP(+) neurons, although medial VTA cells showed reduced dopamine sensitivity. Pargyline prolonged the dopamine current, whereas cocaine enhanced dopamine-mediated responses in both the SNpc and the VTA. Our work provides new insights into the variability in mouse midbrain dopaminergic neurons along the medial-lateral axis and points to the necessity of a combination of different electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches for reliably identifying these cells to distinguish them from non-dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain.

  20. CB2 Receptor Agonists Protect Human Dopaminergic Neurons against Damage from HIV-1 gp120

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shuxian; Sheng, Wen S.; Rock, R. Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the therapeutic impact of anti-retroviral therapy, HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains a serious threat to AIDS patients, and there currently remains no specific therapy for the neurological manifestations of HIV-1. Recent work suggests that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic area is a critical brain region for the neuronal dysfunction and death seen in HAND and that human dopaminergic neurons have a particular sensitivity to gp120-induced damage, manifested as reduced function (decreased dopamine uptake), morphological changes, and reduced viability. Synthetic cannabinoids inhibit HIV-1 expression in human microglia, suppress production of inflammatory mediators in human astrocytes, and there is substantial literature demonstrating the neuroprotective properties of cannabinoids in other neuropathogenic processes. Based on these data, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that synthetic cannabinoids will protect dopaminergic neurons against the toxic effects of the HIV-1 protein gp120. Using a human mesencephalic neuronal/glial culture model, which contains dopaminergic neurons, microglia, and astrocytes, we were able to show that the CB1/CB2 agonist WIN55,212-2 blunts gp120-induced neuronal damage as measured by dopamine transporter function, apoptosis and lipid peroxidation; these actions were mediated principally by the CB2 receptor. Adding supplementary human microglia to our cultures enhances gp120-induced damage; WIN55,212-2 is able to alleviate this enhanced damage. Additionally, WIN55,212-2 inhibits gp120-induced superoxide production by purified human microglial cells, inhibits migration of human microglia towards supernatants generated from gp120-stimulated human mesencephalic neuronal/glial cultures and reduces chemokine and cytokine production from the human mesencephalic neuronal/glial cultures. These data suggest that synthetic cannabinoids are capable of protecting human dopaminergic neurons from gp120 in a variety

  1. Differential effects of histamine on the activity of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, A E; Lookingland, K J; Moore, K E

    1994-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular administration of histamine on hypothalamic dopaminergic neuronal activity was estimated in male rats by measuring concentrations of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in brain regions containing terminals or perikarya of these neurons. Three distinct, regionally specific neurochemical responses were apparent. In the median eminence and intermediate lobe of the pituitary, histamine affected neither DOPAC nor dopamine concentrations, suggesting no effect on tuberoinfundibular or periventricular-hypophysial dopaminergic neuronal activity. In the medial zona incerta and in the dorsomedial, rostral periventricular and medial preoptic hypothalamic nuclei, histamine effected a dose- and time-related increase in both DOPAC and dopamine concentrations; these effects were blocked by destruction of noradrenergic neurons projecting to these regions, suggesting that these changes are attributable to noradrenergic neuronal activation, and that histamine does not affect the activity of incertohypothalamic or periventricular-preoptic dopaminergic neurons located in these brain regions. In the suprachiasmatic, caudal periventricular and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, histamine effected a dose- and time-related increase in DOPAC, but not dopamine, concentrations; these effects were blocked by the H1 antagonist mepyramine, but not the H2 antagonist zolantidine. Destruction of noradrenergic neurons projecting to these regions did not prevent the histamine-induced increases in DOPAC concentrations. These data indicate that histamine increases the activity of dopaminergic neurons projecting to the suprachiasmatic, caudal periventricular and paraventricular nuclei via an action at H1 receptors. Overall, these results reveal that i.c.v. administration of histamine differentially affects the activity of the various dopaminergic neuronal systems of the rat hypothalamus.

  2. [Effect of beclin1 on vincristine-induced dopaminergic neurons injury in zebrafish].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhan-Ying; Zhang, Jing-Pu

    2014-06-01

    To investigate vincristine-induced dopaminergic neurons toxicity and mechanism, and explore the molecular target to reduce the toxicity, zebrafish was chosen as a model animal, based on RT-PCR, Western blotting, whole mount in situ immunofluorescence and other technical means. The results showed that the transcription levels of tyrosine hydroxylase gene and dopamine transporter protein gene were inhibited. Furthermore, the number of dopaminergic neurons was decreased by vincristine. Autophagy was suppressed and beclin1 gene expression was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by vincristine in larval zebrafish. Up-regulated beclin1 partly reduced vincristine-induced neurotoxicity, and down-regulated beclin1 increased toxicity. Beclin1 plays an important role in vincristine-induced dopaminergic neurons toxicity.

  3. Salidroside induces rat mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Bin; Ma, Hui; Ha, Xiao-Qin; Zheng, Ping; Li, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Ming; Dong, Ju-Zi; Yang, Yin-Shu

    2014-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons that leads to a reduction in striatal dopamine (DA) levels. Replacing lost cells by transplanting dopaminergic neurons has potential value to repair the damaged brain. Salidroside (SD), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from plant Rhodiola rosea, is neuroprotective. We examined whether salidroside can induce mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into neuron-like cells, and convert MSCs into dopamine neurons that can be applied in clinical use. Salidroside induced rMSCs to adopt a neuronal morphology, upregulated the expression of neuronal marker molecules, such as gamma neuronal enolase 2 (Eno2/NSE), microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2), and beta 3 class III tubulin (Tubb3/β-tubulin III). It also increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNAs, and promoted the secretion of these growth factors. The expression of dopamine neurons markers, such as dopamine-beta-hydroxy (DBH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was significantly upregulated after treatment with salidroside for 1-12 days. DA steadily increased after treatment with salidroside for 1-6 days. Thus salidroside can induce rMSCs to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons. © 2014 The Authors Cell Biology International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Cell Biology.

  4. Salidroside induces rat mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong-Bin; Ma, Hui; Ha, Xiao-Qin; Zheng, Ping; Li, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Ming; Dong, Ju-Zi; Yang, Yin-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons that leads to a reduction in striatal dopamine (DA) levels. Replacing lost cells by transplanting dopaminergic neurons has potential value to repair the damaged brain. Salidroside (SD), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from plant Rhodiola rosea, is neuroprotective. We examined whether salidroside can induce mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into neuron-like cells, and convert MSCs into dopamine neurons that can be applied in clinical use. Salidroside induced rMSCs to adopt a neuronal morphology, upregulated the expression of neuronal marker molecules, such as gamma neuronal enolase 2 (Eno2/NSE), microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2), and beta 3 class III tubulin (Tubb3/β-tubulin III). It also increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNAs, and promoted the secretion of these growth factors. The expression of dopamine neurons markers, such as dopamine-beta-hydroxy (DBH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was significantly upregulated after treatment with salidroside for 1–12 days. DA steadily increased after treatment with salidroside for 1–6 days. Thus salidroside can induce rMSCs to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons. PMID:24323403

  5. Eight Different Types of Dopaminergic Neurons Innervate the Drosophila Mushroom Body Neuropil: Anatomical and Physiological Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhengmei; Davis, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-GAL4) expression and anti-TH immunoreactivity in the Drosophila protocerebrum and characterized single cell clones of the TH-GAL4 neurons. Eight clusters of putative dopaminergic neurons were characterized. Neurons in three of the clusters project to the mushroom body neuropil: PAM neurons project to the medial portion of the horizontal lobes; PPL1 neurons project to the vertical lobes, the junction area, the heel and distal peduncle; and PPL2ab neurons project to the calyx. Five types of PPL1 neurons were discovered that innervate different zones of the mushroom body lobes. Functional imaging experiments showed that the dopaminergic processes in four of the zones differ in response properties to odor, electric shock, or following the pairing of odor and electric shock. These results indicate that distinct dopaminergic neurons define separate zones of the mushroom body lobes and are probably involved in different functions. Differences in functional response properties of these neurons suggest that they are involved in different behavioral processes. PMID:19597562

  6. Neurogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells to neuron-like cells in dopaminergic and motor neuronal inductive media.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Chieh; Chang, Kai-Chun; Tsai, Shang-Jye; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2014-12-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been proposed as a promising source of stem cells in nerve regeneration due to their close embryonic origin and ease of harvest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dopaminergic and motor neuronal inductive media on transdifferentiation of human DPSCs (hDPSCs) into neuron-like cells. Isolation, cultivation, and identification of hDPSCs were performed with morphological analyses and flow cytometry. The proliferation potential of DPSCs was evaluated with an XTT [(2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide)] assay. Media for the induction of dopaminergic and spinal motor neuronal differentiation were prepared. The efficacy of neural induction was evaluated by detecting the expression of neuron cell-specific cell markers in DPSCs by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the XTT assay, there was a 2.6- or 2-fold decrease in DPSCs cultured in dopaminergic or motor neuronal inductive media, respectively. The proportions of βIII-tubulin (βIII-tub), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and oligodendrocyte (O1)-positive cells were significantly higher in DPSCs cultured in both neuronal inductive media compared with those cultured in control media. Furthermore, hDPSC-derived dopaminergic and spinal motor neuron cells after induction expressed a higher density of neuron cell markers than those before induction. These findings suggest that in response to the neuronal inductive stimuli, a greater proportion of DPSCs stop proliferation and acquire a phenotype resembling mature neurons. Such neural crest-derived adult DPSCs may provide an alternative stem cell source for therapy-based treatments of neuronal disorders and injury. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Non-motor function of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Wietzikoski, Evellyn Claudia; Bortolanza, Mariza; Dombrowski, Patricia Andréia; dos Santos, Lucélia Mendes; Boschen, Suelen Lúcio; Miyoshi, Edmar; Vital, Maria Aparecida Barbato Frazão; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli; Andreatini, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The roles of the nigrostriatal pathway are far beyond the simple control of motor functions. The tonic release of dopamine in the dorsal and ventral striatum controls the choice of proper actions toward a given environmental situation. In the striatum, a specific action is triggered by a specific stimulus associated with it. When the subject faces a novel and salient stimulus, the phasic release of dopamine allows synaptic plasticity in the cortico-striatal synapses. Neurons of different regions of cortical areas make synapses that converge to the same medium spine neurons of the striatum. The convergent associations form functional units encoding body parts, objects, locations, and symbolic representations of the subject's world. Such units emerge in the striatum in a repetitive manner, like a mosaic of broken mirrors. The phasic release of dopamine allows the association of units to encode an action of the subject directed to an object or location with the outcome of this action. Reinforced stimulus-action-outcome associations will affect future decision making when the same stimulus (object, location, idea) is presented to the subject in the future. In the absence of a minimal amount of striatal dopamine, no action is initiated as seen in Parkinson's disease subjects. The abnormal and improper association of these units leads to the initiation of unpurposeful and sometimes repetitive actions, as those observed in dyskinetic patients. The association of an excessive reinforcement of some actions, like drug consumption, leads to drug addiction. Improper associations of ideas and unpleasant outcomes may be related to traumatic and depressive symptoms common in many diseases, including Parkinson's disease. The same can be said about the learning and memory impairments observed in demented and nondemented Parkinson's disease patients.

  8. Neonatal systemic exposure to lipopolysaccharide enhances susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to rotenone neurotoxicity in later life

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhengwei; Fan, Lir-Wan; Kaizaki, Asuka; Tien, Lu-Tai; Ma, Tangeng; Pang, Yi; Lin, Shuying; Lin, Rick C. S.; Simpson, Kimberly L.

    2013-01-01

    Brain inflammation via intracerebral injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in early life has been shown to increase risks for the development of neurodegenerative disorders in adult rats. To determine if neonatal systemic LPS exposure has the same effects on enhancement of adult dopaminergic neuron susceptibility to rotenone neurotoxicity as centrally-injected LPS does, LPS (2 μg/g body weight) was administered intraperitoneally into post-natal day 5 (P5) rats and when grown to P70, rats were challenged with rotenone, a commonly used pesticide, through subcutaneous mini-pump infusion at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg per day for 14 days. Systemically administered LPS can penetrate into the neonatal rat brain and cause acute and chronic brain inflammation, as evidenced by persistent increases in IL-1β levels, cyclooxygenase-2 expression and microglial activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of P70 rats. Neonatal LPS exposure resulted in suppression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, but not actual death of dopaminergic neurons in the SN, as indicated by the reduced number of TH+ cells and unchanged total number of neurons (NeuN+) in the SN. Neonatal LPS exposure also caused motor function deficits, which were spontaneously recoverable by P70. A small dose of rotenone at P70 induced loss of dopaminergic neurons, as indicated by reduced numbers of both TH+ and NeuN+ cells in the SN, and Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like motor impairment in P98 rats that had experienced neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without the LPS exposure. These results indicate that although neonatal systemic LPS exposure may not necessarily lead to death of dopaminergic neurons in the SN, such an exposure could cause persistent functional alterations in the dopaminergic system and indirectly predispose the nigrostriatal system in the adult brain more vulnerable to be damaged by environmental toxins at an ordinarily non-toxic or sub-toxic dose to develop PD-like pathological features and

  9. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) Mediates Paraquat- and Rotenone-Induced Dopaminergic Neuron Death

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Seok; Abel, Glen; Klintworth, Heather; Flavell, Richard A.; Xia, Zhengui

    2011-01-01

    Mechanistic studies underlying dopaminergic neuron death may identify new drug targets for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). Epidemiological studies have linked pesticide exposure to increased risk for sporadic PD. Here, we investigated the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3), a neural-specific JNK isoform, in dopaminergic neuron death induced by the pesticides rotenone and paraquat. The role of JNK3 was evaluated using RNA silencing and gene deletion to block JNK3 signaling. Using an antibody that recognizes all isoforms of activated JNKs, we found that paraquat and rotenone stimulate JNK phosphorylation in primary cultured dopaminergic neurons. In cultured neurons transfected with Jnk3-specific siRNA and in neurons from Jnk3−/− mice, JNK phosphorylation was nearly abolished, suggesting that JNK3 is the main JNK isoform activated in dopaminergic neurons by these pesticides. Paraquat- and rotenone-induced death of dopaminergic neurons was also significantly reduced by Jnk3 siRNA or Jnk3 gene deletion and deletion of the Jnk3 gene completely attenuated paraquat-induced dopaminergic neuron death and motor-deficits in vivo. Our data identify JNK3 as a common and critical mediator of dopaminergic neuron death induced by paraquat and rotenone, suggesting that it is a potential drug target for PD treatment. PMID:20418776

  10. Characterization of the axon initial segment of mice substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    González-Cabrera, Cristian; Meza, Rodrigo; Ulloa, Lorena; Merino-Sepúlveda, Paulina; Luco, Valentina; Sanhueza, Ana; Oñate-Ponce, Alejandro; Bolam, J Paul; Henny, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of initiation of action potentials and influences action potential waveform, firing pattern, and rate. In view of the fundamental aspects of motor function and behavior that depend on the firing of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons, we identified and characterized their AIS in the mouse. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), sodium channels (Nav ) and ankyrin-G (Ank-G) was used to visualize the AIS of dopaminergic neurons. Reconstructions of sampled AIS of dopaminergic neurons revealed variable lengths (12-60 μm) and diameters (0.2-0.8 μm), and an average of 50% reduction in diameter between their widest and thinnest parts. Ultrastructural analysis revealed submembranous localization of Ank-G at nodes of Ranvier and AIS. Serial ultrathin section analysis and 3D reconstructions revealed that Ank-G colocalized with TH only at the AIS. Few cases of synaptic innervation of the AIS of dopaminergic neurons were observed. mRNA in situ hybridization of brain-specific Nav subunits revealed the expression of Nav 1.2 by most SNc neurons and a small proportion expressing Nav 1.6. The presence of sodium channels, along with the submembranous location of Ank-G is consistent with the role of AIS in action potential generation. Differences in the size of the AIS likely underlie differences in firing pattern, while the tapering diameter of AIS may define a trigger zone for action potentials. Finally, the conspicuous expression of Nav 1.2 by the majority of dopaminergic neurons may explain their high threshold for firing and their low discharge rate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons Due to Metabolic Alterations and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Kim, Jongpil

    2016-01-01

    The rates of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), markedly increase with age. In recent years, studies have reported an association between metabolic changes and various pathophysiological mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with metabolic diseases. Oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in metabolic diseases lead to adverse neurophysiological phenomena, including neuronal loss, synaptic dysfunction, and improper insulin signaling, resulting in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, several lines of evidence suggest that alterations of CNS environments by metabolic changes influence the dopamine neuronal loss, eventually affecting the pathogenesis of PD. Thus, we reviewed recent findings relating to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons during metabolic diseases. We highlight the fact that using a metabolic approach to manipulate degeneration of dopaminergic neurons can serve as a therapeutic strategy to attenuate pathology of PD. PMID:27065205

  12. Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents degeneration of adult rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Hagg, T; Varon, S

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effects of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for injured dopaminergic neurons of the adult rat substantia nigra compacta. Fourteen days after a unilateral transection of the nigrostriatal pathway two-thirds of the neurons (identified by retrograde labeling) had degenerated. In sharp contrast, 73% (a few cases, > 90%) of this cell loss was prevented by continuous infusion of CNTF close to the injured neurons. However, CNTF did not prevent the disappearance of the transmitter-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, CNTF has potent neurotrophic effects for injured adult rat dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons, whose degeneration plays a major causative role in Parkinson disease. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8101002

  13. Histamine impairs midbrain dopaminergic development in vivo by activating histamine type 1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Histamine (HA) regulates the sleep-wake cycle, synaptic plasticity and memory in adult mammals. Dopaminergic specification in the embryonic ventral midbrain (VM) coincides with increased HA brain levels. To study the effect of HA receptor stimulation on dopamine neuron generation, we administered HA to dopamine progenitors, both in vitro and in vivo. Results Cultured embryonic day 12 (E12) VM neural stem/progenitor cells expressed transcripts for HA receptors H1R, H2R and H3R. These undifferentiated progenitors increased intracellular calcium upon HA addition. In HA-treated cultures, dopamine neurons significantly decreased after activation of H1R. We performed intrauterine injections in the developing VM to investigate HA effects in vivo. HA administration to E12 rat embryos notably reduced VM Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) staining 2 days later, without affecting GABA neurons in the midbrain, or serotonin neurons in the mid-hindbrain boundary. qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that several markers important for the generation and maintenance of dopaminergic lineage such as TH, Lmx1a and Lmx1b were significantly diminished. To identify the cell type susceptible to HA action, we injected embryos of different developmental stages, and found that neural progenitors (E10 and E12) were responsive, whereas differentiated dopaminergic neurons (E14 and E16) were not susceptible to HA actions. Proliferation was significantly diminished, whereas neuronal death was not increased in the VM after HA administration. We injected H1R or H2R antagonists to identify the receptor responsible for the detrimental effect of HA on dopaminergic lineage and found that activation of H1R was required. Conclusion These results reveal a novel action of HA affecting dopaminergic lineage during VM development. PMID:25112718

  14. Ceftriaxone Ameliorates Motor Deficits and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. There is no current promising treatment for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. Ceftriaxone is a beta-lactam antibiotic and has been reported to offer neuroprotective effects (Rothstein, J.-D., Patel, S., Regan, M.-R., Haenggeli, C., Huang, Y.-H., Bergles, D.-E., Jin, L., Dykes, H.-M., Vidensky, S., Chung, D.-S., Toan, S.-V., Bruijn, L.-I., Su, Z.-Z., Gupta, P., and Fisher, P.-B. (2005) Beta-lactam antibiotics offer neuroprotection by increasing glutamate transporter expression Nature433, 73–77). In the present study, efficacy of ceftriaxone in neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and amelioration of motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease were investigated. Ceftriaxone was administrated in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Using behavioral tests, grip strength and numbers of apomorphine-induced contralateral rotation were declined in the ceftriaxone-treated group. More importantly, cell death of dopaminergic neurons was found to decrease. In addition, both the protein expression and immunoreactivity for GLT-1 were up-regulated. The present results strongly indicate that ceftriaxone is a potential agent in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22860178

  15. NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION. M.L. Block1,2, X. Wu1, P. Zhong1, G. Li1, T. Wang1, J.S. Hong1 & B.Veronesi.2
    1The Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, RTP, NC and 2 National Health and Envi...

  16. NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION. M.L. Block1,2, X. Wu1, P. Zhong1, G. Li1, T. Wang1, J.S. Hong1 & B.Veronesi.2
    1The Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, RTP, NC and 2 National Health and Envi...

  17. Phosphodiesterase 7 Inhibition Preserves Dopaminergic Neurons in Cellular and Rodent Models of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A.; Redondo, Miriam; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Gil, Carmen; Perez, Concepción; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Background Phosphodiesterase 7 plays a major role in down-regulation of protein kinase A activity by hydrolyzing cAMP in many cell types. This cyclic nucleotide plays a key role in signal transduction in a wide variety of cellular responses. In the brain, cAMP has been implicated in learning, memory processes and other brain functions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show a novel function of phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal death. We found that S14, a heterocyclic small molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 7, conferred significant neuronal protection against different insults both in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y and in primary rat mesencephalic cultures. S14 treatment also reduced microglial activation, protected dopaminergic neurons and improved motor function in the lipopolysaccharide rat model of Parkinson disease. Finally, S14 neuroprotective effects were reversed by blocking the cAMP signaling pathways that operate through cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition can protect dopaminergic neurons against different insults, and they provide support for the therapeutic potential of phosphodiesterase 7 inhibitors in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Parkinson disease. PMID:21390306

  18. Brief Dopaminergic Stimulations Produce Transient Physiological Changes in Prefrontal Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Anna R.; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Potapenko, Evgeniy S.; Kim, Eun-Ji; Antic, Srdjan D.

    2010-01-01

    In response to food reward and other pertinent events, midbrain dopaminergic neurons fire short bursts of action potentials causing a phasic release of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex (rapid and transient increases in cortical dopamine concentration). Here we apply short (2 sec) iontophoretic pulses of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and dopaminergic agonists locally, onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons in brain slices of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Unlike glutamate and GABA, brief dopaminergic pulses had negligible effects on the resting membrane potential. However, dopamine altered action potential firing in an extremely rapid (<1s) and transient (<5min) manner, as every neuron returned to baseline in less than 5-min post-application. The physiological responses to dopamine differed markedly among individual neurons. Pyramidal neurons with a preponderance of D1-like receptor signaling respond to dopamine with a severe depression in action potential firing rate, while pyramidal neurons dominated by the D2 signaling pathway respond to dopamine with an instantaneous increase in spike production. Increasing levels of dopamine concentrations around the cell body resulted in a dose dependent response, which resembles an “inverted U curve” (Vijayraghavan et al., 2007), but this effect can easily be caused by an iontophoresis current artifact. Our present data imply that one population of PFC pyramidal neurons receiving direct synaptic contacts from midbrain dopaminergic neurons would stall during the 0.5 sec of the phasic dopamine burst. The spillover dopamine, on the other hand, would act as a positive stimulator of cortical excitability (30% increase) to all D2-receptor carrying pyramidal cells, for the next 40 seconds. PMID:21059342

  19. Loss of enteric dopaminergic neurons and associated changes in colon motility in an MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Grant; Noorian, Ali Reza; Taylor, Georgia; Anitha, Mallappa; Bernhard, Doug; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Greene, James G.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Symptoms of GI dysmotility include early satiety and nausea from delayed gastric emptying, bloating from poor small bowel coordination, and constipation and defecatory dysfunction from impaired colonic transit. Understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of these symptoms in PD patients has been hampered by the lack of investigation into GI symptoms and pathology in PD animal models. We report that the prototypical parkinsonian neurotoxin, MPTP (1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), is a selective dopamine neuron toxin in the enteric nervous system (ENS). When examined 10 days after treatment, there was a 40% reduction of dopamine neurons in the ENS of C57Bl/6 mice administered MPTP (60 mg/kg). There were no differences in the density of cholinergic or nitric oxide neurons. Electrophysiological recording of neural-mediated muscle contraction in isolated colon from MPTP-treated animals confirmed a relaxation defect associated with dopaminergic degeneration. Behaviorally, MPTP induced a transient increase in colon motility, but no changes in gastric emptying or small intestine transit. These results provide the first comprehensive assessment of gastrointestinal pathophysiology in an animal model of PD. They provide insight into the impact of dopaminergic dysfunction on gastrointestinal motility and a benchmark for assessment of other PD model systems. PMID:17586496

  20. Regulation of differentiation flux by Notch signalling influences the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Paredes, Niurka; Valencia, Concepción; Guerrero-Flores, Gilda; Arzate, Dulce-María; Baizabal, José-Manuel; Guerra-Crespo, Magdalena; Fuentes-Hernández, Ayari; Zea-Armenta, Iván; Covarrubias, Luis

    2016-02-24

    Notch signalling is a well-established pathway that regulates neurogenesis. However, little is known about the role of Notch signalling in specific neuronal differentiation. Using Dll1 null mice, we found that Notch signalling has no function in the specification of mesencephalic dopaminergic neural precursor cells (NPCs), but plays an important role in regulating their expansion and differentiation into neurons. Premature neuronal differentiation was observed in mesencephalons of Dll1-deficient mice or after treatment with a Notch signalling inhibitor. Coupling between neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation was indicated from the coincident emergence of neuronal and dopaminergic markers. Early in differentiation, decreasing Notch signalling caused a reduction in NPCs and an increase in dopaminergic neurons in association with dynamic changes in the proportion of sequentially-linked dopaminergic NPCs (Msx1/2+, Ngn2+, Nurr1+). These effects in differentiation caused a significant reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons produced. Accordingly, Dll1 haploinsufficient adult mice, in comparison with their wild-type littermates, have a consistent reduction in neuronal density that was particularly evident in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results are in agreement with a mathematical model based on a Dll1-mediated regulatory feedback loop between early progenitors and their dividing precursors that controls the emergence and number of dopaminergic neurons.

  1. Regulation of differentiation flux by Notch signalling influences the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo-Paredes, Niurka; Valencia, Concepción; Guerrero-Flores, Gilda; Arzate, Dulce-María; Baizabal, José-Manuel; Guerra-Crespo, Magdalena; Fuentes-Hernández, Ayari; Zea-Armenta, Iván; Covarrubias, Luis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Notch signalling is a well-established pathway that regulates neurogenesis. However, little is known about the role of Notch signalling in specific neuronal differentiation. Using Dll1 null mice, we found that Notch signalling has no function in the specification of mesencephalic dopaminergic neural precursor cells (NPCs), but plays an important role in regulating their expansion and differentiation into neurons. Premature neuronal differentiation was observed in mesencephalons of Dll1-deficient mice or after treatment with a Notch signalling inhibitor. Coupling between neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation was indicated from the coincident emergence of neuronal and dopaminergic markers. Early in differentiation, decreasing Notch signalling caused a reduction in NPCs and an increase in dopaminergic neurons in association with dynamic changes in the proportion of sequentially-linked dopaminergic NPCs (Msx1/2+, Ngn2+, Nurr1+). These effects in differentiation caused a significant reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons produced. Accordingly, Dll1 haploinsufficient adult mice, in comparison with their wild-type littermates, have a consistent reduction in neuronal density that was particularly evident in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results are in agreement with a mathematical model based on a Dll1-mediated regulatory feedback loop between early progenitors and their dividing precursors that controls the emergence and number of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:26912775

  2. Biochanin A protects dopaminergic neurons against lipopolysaccharide-induced damage and oxidative stress in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; He, Can; Wu, Wang-Yang; Chen, Feng; Wu, Yang-Yang; Li, Wei-Zu; Chen, Han-Qing; Yin, Yan-Yan

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Accumulated evidences have suggested that oxidative stress is closely associated with the dopaminergic neurodegeneration of PD that can be protected by antioxidants. Biochanin A that is an O-methylated isoflavone in chickpea is investigated to explore its protective mechanism on dopaminergic neurons of the unilateral lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected rat. The results showed that biochanin A significantly improved the animal model's behavioral symptoms, prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons and inhibited the deleterious microglia activation in the LPS-induced rats. Moreover, biochanin A inhibited nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) activation and malondialdehyde (MDA) production, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the rat brain. These results suggested that biochanin A might be a natural candidate with protective properties on dopaminergic neurons against the PD.

  3. Cabergoline protects dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced cell death in primary mesencephalic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Meinel, J; Radad, K; Rausch, W-D; Reichmann, H; Gille, G

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, primary mesencephalic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effect of cabergoline, an ergoline D2 receptor agonist, against the pesticide and neurotoxin rotenone relevant to Parkinson disease (PD). Treatment of cultures with cabergoline alone significantly increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neurons and reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium compared to untreated controls. Against rotenone toxicity, cabergoline significantly rescued degenerating THir neurons, reduced the release of LDH into the culture medium and improved the morphology of surviving THir neurons. The neuroprotective effects afforded by cabergoline were independent of dopaminergic stimulation as blocking of dopamine receptors by the dopamine receptor antagonist sulpiride did not prevent them. Furthermore, rotenone-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly reduced by cabergoline. Although cabergoline increased the glutathione (GSH) content in the culture, the protective effect for dopaminergic neurons seemed not to be predominantly mediated by increasing GSH, as depletion of GSH by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, did not prevent cabergoline-mediated neuroprotection of THir neurons in rotenone-treated cultures. Moreover, cabergoline significantly increased the ATP/protein ratio in primary mesencephalic cell cultures when added alone or prior to rotenone treatment. These results indicate a neuroprotective effect of cabergoline for dopaminergic neurons against rotenone toxicity. This effect was independent of dopamine receptor stimulation and was at least partially mediated by reducing ROS production and increasing the ATP/protein ratio.

  4. Complementary neural correlates of motivation in dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons of monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bouret, Sebastien; Ravel, Sabrina; Richmond, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    Rewards have many influences on learning, decision-making, and performance. All seem to rely on complementary actions of two closely related catecholaminergic neuromodulators, dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline (NA). We compared single unit activity of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) in monkeys performing a reward schedule task. Their motivation, indexed using operant performance, increased as they progressed through schedules ending in reward delivery. The responses of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons around the time of major task events, visual cues predicting trial outcome and operant action to complete a trial were similar in that they occurred at the same time. They were also similar in that they both responded most strongly to the first cues in schedules, which are the most informative cues. The neuronal responses around the time of the monkeys' actions were different, in that the response intensity profiles changed in opposite directions. Dopaminergic responses were stronger around predictably rewarded correct actions whereas noradrenergic responses were greater around predictably unrewarded correct actions. The complementary response profiles related to the monkeys operant actions suggest that DA neurons might relate to the value of the current action whereas the noradrenergic neurons relate to the psychological cost of that action. PMID:22822392

  5. In ovo electroporation in chick midbrain for studying gene function in dopaminergic neuron development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ben; Geary, Lauren B; Ma, Yong-Chao

    2012-08-03

    Dopaminergic neurons located in the ventral midbrain control movement, emotional behavior, and reward mechanisms. The dysfunction of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons is implicated in Parkinson's disease, Schizophrenia, depression, and dementia. Thus, studying the regulation of midbrain dopaminergic neuron differentiation could not only provide important insight into mechanisms regulating midbrain development and neural progenitor fate specification, but also help develop new therapeutic strategies for treating a variety of human neurological disorders. Dopaminergic neurons differentiate from neural progenitors lining the ventricular zone of embryonic ventral midbrain. The development of neural progenitors is controlled by gene expression programs. Here we report techniques utilizing electroporation to express genes specifically in the midbrain of Hamburger Hamilton (HH) stage 11 (thirteen somites, 42 hours) chick embryos. The external development of chick embryos allows for convenient experimental manipulations at specific embryonic stages, with the effects determined at later developmental time points. Chick embryonic neural tubes earlier than HH stage 13 (nineteen somites, 48 hours) consist of multipotent neural progenitors that are capable of differentiating into distinct cell types of the nervous system. The pCAG vector, which contains both a CMV promoter and a chick β-actin enhancer, allows for robust expression of Flag or other epitope-tagged constructs in embryonic chick neural tubes. In this report, we emphasize special measures to achieve regionally restricted gene expression in embryonic midbrain dopaminergic neuron progenitors, including how to inject DNA constructs specifically into the embryonic midbrain region and how to pinpoint electroporation with small custom-made electrodes. Analyzing chick midbrain at later stages provides an excellent in vivo system for plasmid vector-mediated gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies of midbrain

  6. A natural compound macelignan protects midbrain dopaminergic neurons from inflammatory degeneration via microglial arginase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kiyofuji, Kana; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Mishima, Satoshi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2015-08-05

    Inflammatory events involving activated microglia have been recognized to play an important role in pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease. Compounds regulating activation profiles of microglia may provide therapeutic benefits for Parkinson disease characterized by degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Here we examined the effect of macelignan, a compound derived from nutmeg, on inflammatory degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Treatment of midbrain slice cultures with interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused a substantial decrease in viable dopaminergic neurons and an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production indicated by extracellular nitrite accumulation. Application of macelignan (10 μM) concomitantly with LPS prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Besides nitrite accumulation, up-regulation of inducible NO synthase protein expression in response to IFN-γ/LPS was confirmed by Western blotting, and immunohistochemical examination revealed expression of inducible NO synthase in a subpopulation of Iba-1-poitive microglia. However, macelignan did not affect any of these NO-related parameters. On the other hand, macelignan promoted expression of arginase-1 in midbrain slice cultures irrespective of the presence or the absence of IFN-γ/LPS treatment. Arginase-1 expression was mainly localized in a subpopulation of Iba-1-positive cells. Importantly, the neuroprotective effect of macelignan was antagonized by N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, a specific arginase inhibitor. The neuroprotective effect of macelignan was also prevented by GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist. Overall, these results indicate that macelignan, a compound with PPARγ agonist activity, can provide neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons in an arginase-dependent but NO-independent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dopaminergic Neurons Controlling Anterior Pituitary Functions: Anatomy and Ontogenesis in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Bureau, Charlotte; Colin, Ingrid; Demarque, Michaël; Dufour, Sylvie; Vernier, Philippe; Yamamoto, Kei; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons located in the preoptico-hypothalamic region of the brain exert a major neuroendocrine control on reproduction, growth, and homeostasis by regulating the secretion of anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) hormones. Here, using a retrograde tract tracing experiment, we identified the neurons playing this role in the zebrafish. The DA cells projecting directly to the anterior pituitary are localized in the most anteroventral part of the preoptic area, and we named them preoptico-hypophyseal DA (POHDA) neurons. During development, these neurons do not appear before 72 hours postfertilization (hpf) and are the last dopaminergic cell group to differentiate. We found that the number of neurons in this cell population continues to increase throughout life proportionally to the growth of the fish. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation analysis suggested that this increase is due to continuous neurogenesis and not due to a phenotypic change in already-existing neurons. Finally, expression profiles of several genes (foxg1a, dlx2a, and nr4a2a/b) were different in the POHDA compared with the adjacent suprachiasmatic DA neurons, suggesting that POHDA neurons develop as a distinct DA cell population in the preoptic area. This study offers some insights into the regional identity of the preoptic area and provides the first bases for future functional genetic studies on the development of DA neurons controlling anterior pituitary functions.

  8. [Criteria of efficiency of transplantation of embryonic nervous tissue preparations in rats with 6-OHDA-impaired dopaminergic nigrostriatal system].

    PubMed

    Chekhonin, V P; Lebedev, S V; Dmitrieva, T B; Baklaushev, V P; Savchenko, E A; Lazarenko, I P; Gurina, O I; Belopasov, V V

    2002-01-01

    Effectiveness of transplantation of cells from embryonal nervous tissue of the ventral mesencephalon (VM ENT) and striatum (STR ENT) by apomorphin-induced motor asymmetry (APO-test), consolidation of the transplant (the degree of glyal reaction and amount of dopaminergic neurons) and blood serum levels of GFAP was studied for 3 months in Wistar rats with 6-OHDA-impaired dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Marked therapeutic effectiveness was registered in VM ENT transplantation in the denervated striatum and in combined transplantation of VM ENT into the lateral cerebral ventricle simultaneously with STR ENT transplantation in the striatum. Separate transplantation of VM ENT in the lateral ventricle and STR ENT in the striatum had no positive effect on recovery of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. A correlation was found between the degree of glial reaction of ENT transplants, severity of rotation asymmetry and serum levels of gliofibrillary protein (GFAP). GFAP in the serum for lifetime assessment of transplant consolidation and prognosis of neurotransplantation efficiency was assayed.

  9. Parkin protects dopaminergic neurons from excessive Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Rawal, Nina; Corti, Olga; Sacchetti, Paola; Ardilla-Osorio, Hector; Sehat, Bita; Brice, Alexis; Arenas, Ernest

    2009-10-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra but the molecular mechanisms underlying the degenerative process remain elusive. Several reports suggest that cell cycle deregulation in post-mitotic neurons could lead to neuronal cell death. We now show that Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase linked to familial PD, regulates {beta}-catenin protein levels in vivo. Stabilization of {beta}-catenin in differentiated primary ventral midbrain neurons results in increased levels of cyclin E and proliferation, followed by increased levels of cleaved PARP and loss of DA neurons. Wnt3a signaling also causes death of post-mitotic DA neurons in parkin null animals, suggesting that both increased stabilization and decreased degradation of {beta}-catenin results in DA cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel regulation of Wnt signaling by Parkin and suggest that Parkin protects DA neurons against excessive Wnt signaling and {beta}-catenin-induced cell death.

  10. Parkin protects dopaminergic neurons from excessive Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Nina; Corti, Olga; Sacchetti, Paola; Ardilla-Osorio, Hector; Sehat, Bita; Brice, Alexis; Arenas, Ernest

    2009-10-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra but the molecular mechanisms underlying the degenerative process remain elusive. Several reports suggest that cell cycle deregulation in post-mitotic neurons could lead to neuronal cell death. We now show that Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase linked to familial PD, regulates beta-catenin protein levels in vivo. Stabilization of beta-catenin in differentiated primary ventral midbrain neurons results in increased levels of cyclin E and proliferation, followed by increased levels of cleaved PARP and loss of DA neurons. Wnt3a signaling also causes death of post-mitotic DA neurons in parkin null animals, suggesting that both increased stabilization and decreased degradation of beta-catenin results in DA cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel regulation of Wnt signaling by Parkin and suggest that Parkin protects DA neurons against excessive Wnt signaling and beta-catenin-induced cell death.

  11. Crosstalk between insulin-like growth factor-1 and angiotensin-II in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells: role in neuroinflammation and aging

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Perez, Ana I.; Borrajo, Ana; Diaz-Ruiz, Carmen; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    The local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have been involved in longevity, neurodegeneration and aging-related dopaminergic degeneration. However, it is not known whether IGF-1 and angiotensin-II (AII) activate each other. In the present study, AII, via type 1 (AT1) receptors, exacerbated neuroinflammation and dopaminergic cell death. AII, via AT1 receptors, also increased the levels of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptors in microglial cells. IGF-1 inhibited RAS activity in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells, and also inhibited the AII-induced increase in markers of the M1 microglial phenotype. Consistent with this, IGF-1 decreased dopaminergic neuron death induced by the neurotoxin MPP+ both in the presence and in the absence of glia. Intraventricular administration of AII to young rats induced a significant increase in IGF-1 expression in the nigral region. However, aged rats showed decreased levels of IGF-1 relative to young controls, even though RAS activity is known to be enhanced in aged animals. The study findings show that IGF-1 and the local RAS interact to inhibit or activate neuroinflammation (i.e. transition from the M1 to the M2 phenotype), oxidative stress and dopaminergic degeneration. The findings also show that this mechanism is impaired in aged animals. PMID:27167199

  12. Functional Genomics of Dopaminergic Neurons and Cellular Susceptibility in Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0599 TITLE: Functional Genomics of Dopaminergic Neurons and Cellular Susceptibility in Parkinson’s Disease PRINCIPAL... Disease 5b. GRANTNUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0599 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Stefano Gustincich, Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...vulnerability of selected classes of dopaminergic cells in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). During the first year of research we have established an in house cDNA

  13. Transgenic Zebrafish Expressing mCherry in the Mitochondria of Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Noble, Sandra; Godoy, Rafael; Affaticati, Pierre; Ekker, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Genetic mutations and environmental toxins are known to affect mitochondrial health and have been implicated in the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. To visualize mitochondria in dopaminergic neurons of live zebrafish, we used the regulatory elements of the dopamine transporter (dat) gene to target a reporter, mCherry, after fusion with the mitochondrial localizing signal (MLS) of Tom20. Immunoblot analysis of mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions from Tg(dat:tom20 MLS-mCherry) larvae shows that mCherry is efficiently targeted to the mitochondria. Confocal imaging of live fish was carried out from 1 day postfertilization (dpf) to 9 dpf. We also colocalized dat mRNA expression with the mCherry protein in the olfactory bulb (OB), subpallium (SP), pretectum (Pr), diencephalic clusters 2 and 3 (DC2/3), caudal hypothalamus (Hc), locus coeruleus (LC), anterior preoptic area (POa), retinal amacrine cells (RAC), caudal hypothalamus (Hc), and preoptic area (PO). Treating Tg(dat:tom20 MLS-mCherry) larvae with the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP (1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) at 2 or 3 dpf resulted in a decrease in mCherry fluorescence in the pretectum, olfactory bulb, subpallium, diencephalic clusters 2 and 3, and the caudal hypothalamus. Labeling of mitochondria in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of zebrafish could allow their visualization in vivo following genetic or pharmacological manipulations.

  14. Activity of nigral dopaminergic neurons after lesion of the neostriatum in rats.

    PubMed

    Doudet, D; Gross, C; Seal, J; Bioulac, B

    1984-06-04

    As shown by post-mortem analysis the major neuropathological trait of Huntington's chorea is a degeneration of the intrinsic neurons of the neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen). Such a situation can be reproduced by a destruction of the neostriatum by kainic acid. When injected into the caudate nucleus this excitatory amino acid destroys the intrinsic neurons of the neostriatum and spares fairly well the passing fibers. In the present work, we have chosen to examine the influence of neostriatal destruction on the activity of identified dopaminergic cells in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. As a key element in the nigro-neostriato-nigral loop, this structure is a relevant site for observing the functional effects of neostriatal lesion. Our research hypothesis was based on the generally accepted view that the suppression of the important neostriato-nigral pathway and in particular the inhibitory GABAergic contingent, could generate a hyperactivity of nigral dopaminergic cells. One may therefore consider that the dopaminergic hyperactivity produces abnormal messages which can influence via several pathways the motoneurons, and which participates in the genesis of the hyperkinetic movements characteristic of chorea. After destruction of the neostriatum, we have shown that the pattern of discharge of most identified nigral dopaminergic neurons becomes greatly disorganized. This drastic change in the pattern of activity cannot be interpreted as the simple 'lift of a brake' on these cells by the suppression of the inhibitory GABAergic striato-nigral tract.

  15. A Tyrosine-Hydroxylase Characterization of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Honey Bee Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tedjakumala, Stevanus R.; Rouquette, Jacques; Boizeau, Marie-Laure; Mesce, Karen A.; Hotier, Lucie; Massou, Isabelle; Giurfa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a fundamental role in insect behavior as it acts both as a general modulator of behavior and as a value system in associative learning where it mediates the reinforcing properties of unconditioned stimuli (US). Here we aimed at characterizing the dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of the honey bee, an insect that serves as an established model for the study of learning and memory. We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (ir) to ensure that the neurons detected synthesize DA endogenously. We found three main dopaminergic clusters, C1–C3, which had been previously described; the C1 cluster is located in a small region adjacent to the esophagus (ES) and the antennal lobe (AL); the C2 cluster is situated above the C1 cluster, between the AL and the vertical lobe (VL) of the mushroom body (MB); the C3 cluster is located below the calyces (CA) of the MB. In addition, we found a novel dopaminergic cluster, C4, located above the dorsomedial border of the lobula, which innervates the visual neuropils of the bee brain. Additional smaller processes and clusters were found and are described. The profuse dopaminergic innervation of the entire bee brain and the specific connectivity of DA neurons, with visual, olfactory and gustatory circuits, provide a foundation for a deeper understanding of how these sensory modules are modulated by DA, and the DA-dependent value-based associations that occur during associative learning. PMID:28740466

  16. Cognitive executive impairment and dopaminergic deficits in de novo Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Siepel, Françoise J; Brønnick, Kolbjørn S; Booij, Jan; Ravina, Bernard M; Lebedev, Alexander V; Pereira, Joana B; Grüner, Renate; Aarsland, Dag

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is common and does directly impact patients' everyday functioning. However, the underlying mechanisms of early cognitive decline are not known. This study explored the association between striatal dopaminergic deficits and cognitive impairment within a large cohort of early, drug-naïve PD patients and tested the hypothesis that executive dysfunction in PD is associated with striatal dopaminergic depletion. A cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 339 PD patients and 158 healthy controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative study was analyzed. Each individual underwent cerebral single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and a standardized neuropsychological assessment with tests of memory as well as visuospatial and executive function. SPECT imaging was performed with [(123) I]FP-CIT, and specific binding ratios in left and right putamen and caudate nucleus were calculated. The association between specific binding ratios, cognitive domain scores, and age was analyzed using Pearson's correlations, partial correlation, and conditional process analysis. A small, but significant, positive association between total striatal dopamine transporter binding and the attention/executive domain was found (r = 0.141; P = 0.009) in PD, but this was not significant after adjusting for age. However, in a moderated mediation model, we found that cognitive executive differences between controls and patients with PD were mediated by an age-moderated striatal dopaminergic deficit. Our findings support the hypothesis that nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit is associated with executive impairment, but not to memory or visuospatial impairment, in early PD.

  17. Alcohol consumption induces global gene expression changes in VTA dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Marballi, Ketan; Genabai, Naresh K.; Blednov, Yuri A.; Harris, R. Adron; Ponomarev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is associated with dysregulation in the neural circuitry that mediates motivated and goal-directed behaviors. The dopaminergic connection between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens is viewed as a critical component of the neurocircuitry mediating alcohol’s rewarding and behavioral effects. We sought to determine the effects of binge alcohol drinking on global gene expression in VTA dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ F1 hybrid female mice were exposed to a modified drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 3 weeks, while control animals had access to water only. Global gene expression of laser-captured tyrosine hydroxylase - positive VTA DA neurons was measured using microarrays. 644 transcripts were differentially expressed between the drinking and non-drinking mice and 930 transcripts correlated with alcohol intake during the last two days of drinking in the alcohol group. Bioinformatics analysis of alcohol-responsive genes identified molecular pathways and networks perturbed in DA neurons by alcohol consumption, which included neuroimmune and epigenetic functions, alcohol metabolism and brain disorders. The majority of genes with high and specific expression in DA neurons were down regulated by or negatively correlated with alcohol consumption, suggesting a decreased activity of DA neurons in high drinking animals. These changes in the dopaminergic transcriptome provide a foundation for alcohol-induced neuroadaptations that may play a crucial role in the transition to addiction. PMID:26482798

  18. The Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Up-regulation and Proapoptotic Function in Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Saminathan, Hariharan; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Sondarva, Gautam; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Qian, Ziqing; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD remain unclear. Pin1, a major peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, has recently been associated with certain diseases. Notably, Ryo et al. (Ryo, A., Togo, T., Nakai, T., Hirai, A., Nishi, M., Yamaguchi, A., Suzuki, K., Hirayasu, Y., Kobayashi, H., Perrem, K., Liou, Y. C., and Aoki, I. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 4117–4125) implicated Pin1 in PD pathology. Therefore, we sought to systematically characterize the role of Pin1 in PD using cell culture and animal models. To our surprise we observed a dramatic up-regulation of Pin1 mRNA and protein levels in dopaminergic MN9D neuronal cells treated with the parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) as well as in the substantia nigra of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. Notably, a marked expression of Pin1 was also observed in the substantia nigra of human PD brains along with a high co-localization of Pin1 within dopaminergic neurons. In functional studies, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pin1 almost completely prevented MPP+-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation, indicating that Pin1 plays a proapoptotic role. Interestingly, multiple pharmacological Pin1 inhibitors, including juglone, attenuated MPP+-induced Pin1 up-regulation, α-synuclein aggregation, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Furthermore, juglone treatment in the MPTP mouse model of PD suppressed Pin1 levels and improved locomotor deficits, dopamine depletion, and nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Collectively, our findings demonstrate for the first time that Pin1 is up-regulated in PD and has a pathophysiological role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and suggest that modulation of Pin1 levels may be a useful translational therapeutic strategy in PD. PMID:23754278

  19. Neurotensin Induces Presynaptic Depression of D2 Dopamine Autoreceptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Piccart, Elisabeth; Courtney, Nicholas A; Branch, Sarah Y; Ford, Christopher P; Beckstead, Michael J

    2015-08-05

    Increased dopaminergic signaling is a hallmark of severe mesencephalic pathologies such as schizophrenia and psychostimulant abuse. Activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons is under strict control of inhibitory D2 autoreceptors. Application of the modulatory peptide neurotensin (NT) to midbrain dopaminergic neurons transiently increases activity by decreasing D2 dopamine autoreceptor function, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie long-lasting effects. Here, we performed patch-clamp electrophysiology and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in mouse brain slices to determine the effects of NT on dopamine autoreceptor-mediated neurotransmission. Application of the active peptide fragment NT8-13 produced synaptic depression that exhibited short- and long-term components. Sustained depression of D2 autoreceptor signaling required activation of the type 2 NT receptor and the protein phosphatase calcineurin. NT application increased paired-pulse ratios and decreased extracellular levels of somatodendritic dopamine, consistent with a decrease in presynaptic dopamine release. Surprisingly, we observed that electrically induced long-term depression of dopaminergic neurotransmission that we reported previously was also dependent on type 2 NT receptors and calcineurin. Because electrically induced depression, but not NT-induced depression, was blocked by postsynaptic calcium chelation, our findings suggest that endogenous NT may act through a local circuit to decrease presynaptic dopamine release. The current research provides a mechanism through which augmented NT release can produce a long-lasting increase in membrane excitability of midbrain dopamine neurons. Whereas plasticity of glutamate synapses in the brain has been studied extensively, demonstrations of plasticity at dopaminergic synapses have been more elusive. By quantifying inhibitory neurotransmission between midbrain dopaminergic neurons in brain slices from mice we have discovered that the modulatory

  20. Structure-activity relationship of sulfated hetero/galactofucan polysaccharides on dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Huaide; Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and more-widespread neuronal changes that cause complex symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationship of sulfated hetero-polysaccharides (DF1) and sulfated galactofucan polysaccharides (DF2) on dopaminergic neuron in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with samples significantly ameliorated the depletion of both DA and TH-, Bcl-2- and Bax-positive neurons in MPTP-induced PD mice, DF1 showed the highest activity. The in vitro results found that DF1 and DF2 could reverse the decreased mitochondrial activity and the increased LDL release induced by MPP(+) (P<0.01 or P<0.001) which provides further evidence that DF1 and DF2 also exerts a direct protection against the neuronal injury caused by MPP(+). Furthermore, the administration of samples effectively decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the level/activities of GSH, GSH-PX, MDA and CAT in MPTP mice. Thus, the neuron protective effect may be mediated, in part, through antioxidant activity and the prevention of cell apoptosis. The chemical composition of DF1, DF2 and DF differed markedly, the DF1 fraction had the most complex chemical composition and showed the highest neuron protective activity. These results suggest that diverse monosaccharides and uronic acid might contribute to neuron protective activity.

  1. Allopregnanolone enhances the neurogenesis of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in APPswe/PSEN1 mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Xie, M Q; Ding, Y-Q; Liao, M; Qi, S S; Chen, S X; Gu, Q Q; Zhou, P; Sun, C Y

    2015-04-02

    An earlier study has demonstrated that exogenous allopregnanolone (APα) can reverse the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of 3-month-old male triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse (3xTgAD). This paper is focused on further clarifying the origin of these new-born TH-positive neurons induced by exogenous APα treatment. We performed a deeper research in another AD mouse model, 4-month-old male APPswe/PSEN1 double transgenic AD mouse (2xTgAD) by measuring APα concentration and counting immunopositive neurons using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and unbiased stereology. It was found that endogenous APα level and the number of TH-positive neurons were reduced in the 2xTgAD mice, and these reductions were present prior to the appearance of β-amyloid (Aβ)-positive plaques. Furthermore, a single 20mg/kg of exogenous APα treatment prevented the decline of total neurons, TH-positive neurons and TH/bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) double-positive neurons in the SNpc of 2xTgAD mice although the decreased intensity of TH-positive fibers was not rescued in the striatum. It was also noted that exogenous APα administration had an apparent increase in the doublecortin (DCX)-positive neurons and DCX/BrdU double-positive neurons of subventricular zone (SVZ), as well as in the percentage of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN)/BrdU double-positive neurons of the SNpc in the 2xTgAD mice. These findings indicate that a lower level of endogenous APα is implicated in the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the 2xTgAD mice, and exogenous APα-induced a significant increase in the new-born dopaminergic neurons might be derived from the proliferating and differentiation of neural stem niche of SVZ.

  2. Zhichan decoction induces differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease rats after neural stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huifen; Song, Jie; Yang, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to increase the dopamine content and reduce dopaminergic metabolites in the brain of Parkinson's disease rats. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we found that dopamine and dopaminergic metabolite (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) content in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease rats was increased after neural stem cell transplantation + Zhichan decoction, compared with neural stem cell transplantation alone. Our genetic algorithm results show that dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels achieve global optimization. Neural stem cell transplantation + Zhichan decoction increased dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels up to 10-fold, while transplantation alone resulted in a 3-fold increment. Homovanillic acid levels showed no apparent change. Our experimental findings show that after neural stem cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease rats, Zhichan decoction can promote differentiation of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25206914

  3. Role of Slit and Robo proteins in the development of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine plays a number of important roles in the nervous system and the dopaminergic system is affected in several brain disorders. It is therefore of great interest to study the axonal guidance systems that specifically participate in the correct establishment of dopaminergic projections during development and possibly during regenerative processes. In recent years, several reports have shown that Slits and their Robo receptors control the growth of longitudinal (both ascending and descending) mesodiencephalic dopaminergic axons to their appropriate target areas. In vitro studies have shown that Slit1, 2 and 3 are potent repellents of dopamine neurite extension. In vivo studies using both mice and zebrafish mutants for Slits and Robos have shown that Slits and Robos control the lateral and dorsoventral positioning of dopaminergic longitudinal projections during early development. In the present review, we aimed to compile the existing knowledge from both in vitro and in vivo studies on the role of Slit and Robo proteins in the development of dopaminergic neurons as a basis for future studies.

  4. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson's Disease Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qiaoyun; Wang, Yanyong; Gu, Ping; Shao, Rusheng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Xiqi; Wang, Zhanqiang; Wang, Mingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson's disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson's disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson's disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25883828

  5. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson's Disease Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaoyun; Wang, Yanyong; Gu, Ping; Shao, Rusheng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Xiqi; Wang, Zhanqiang; Wang, Mingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson's disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson's disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson's disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson's disease.

  6. Parkinson's disease candidate gene prioritization based on expression profile of midbrain dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. The pathological hallmark of the disease is degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Genetic association studies have linked 13 human chromosomal loci to Parkinson's disease. Identification of gene(s), as part of the etiology of Parkinson's disease, within the large number of genes residing in these loci can be achieved through several approaches, including screening methods, and considering appropriate criteria. Since several of the indentified Parkinson's disease genes are expressed in substantia nigra pars compact of the midbrain, expression within the neurons of this area could be a suitable criterion to limit the number of candidates and identify PD genes. Methods In this work we have used the combination of findings from six rodent transcriptome analysis studies on the gene expression profile of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and the PARK loci in OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database, to identify new candidate genes for Parkinson's disease. Results Merging the two datasets, we identified 20 genes within PARK loci, 7 of which are located in an orphan Parkinson's disease locus and one, which had been identified as a disease gene. In addition to identifying a set of candidates for further genetic association studies, these results show that the criteria of expression in midbrain dopaminergic neurons may be used to narrow down the number of genes in PARK loci for such studies. PMID:20716345

  7. Endogenous Parkin Preserves Dopaminergic Substantia Nigral Neurons following Mitochondrial DNA Mutagenic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pickrell, Alicia M.; Huang, Chiu-Hui; Kennedy, Scott R.; Ordureau, Alban; Sideris, Dionisia P.; Hoekstra, Jake G.; Harper, J. Wade; Youle, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. PARK2 mutations cause early-onset forms of PD. PARK2 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Parkin, that can selectively translocate to dysfunctional mitochondria to promote their removal by autophagy. However, Parkin knockout (KO) mice do not display signs of neurodegeneration. To assess Parkin function in vivo, we utilized a mouse model that accumulates dysfunctional mitochondria caused by an accelerated generation of mtDNA mutations (Mutator mice). In the absence of Parkin, dopaminergic neurons in Mutator mice degenerated causing an L-DOPA reversible motor deficit. Other neuronal populations were unaffected. Phosphorylated ubiquitin was increased in the brains of Mutator mice, indicating PINK1-Parkin activation. Parkin loss caused mitochondrial dysfunction and affected the pathogenicity but not the levels of mtDNA somatic mutations. A systemic loss of Parkin synergizes with mitochondrial dysfunction causing dopaminergic neuron death modeling PD pathogenic processes. PMID:26182419

  8. Neuroprotection of resveratrol against neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine in mouse mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong; Yue, Qingwei; Guo, Weihua; Li, Tao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao; Liu, Zengxun; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is originally extracted from huzhang, a Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, resveratrol has attracted a great of attention due to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. Although the neuroprotection of resveratrol on neural damages in various models has been well characterized, little is known about the role of resveratrol in methamphetamine (MA) induced neurotoxicity in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic neurons were isolated from midbrain of mouse embryos at embryonic day 15 and cultured in the presence of MA and resveratrol. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay and the apoptosis was assessed using Hoechst33342/PI double staining. To evaluate the Oxidative damage, ROS assay was performed. Moreover, the changes of time course of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i) were analyzed with Fluo-3/AM tracing. The data showed that MA induced the neurotoxicity of cultured cells in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol significantly increased cellular viability and retarded cell apoptosis. Furthermore, resveratrol also attenuated MA induced ROS production and intracellular free calcium overload. Our results suggest that resveratrol protects dopaminergic neurons from MA-induced neuronal cytotoxicity, which, at least partly, is mediated by inhibition of [Ca(2+) ]i and oxidative stress. © 2015 BioFactors 41(4):252-260, 2015.

  9. Tetraspanin (TSP-17) Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against 6-OHDA-Induced Neurodegeneration in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Masoudi, Neda; Holmes, Alexander; Gartner, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, is linked to the gradual loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Disease loci causing hereditary forms of PD are known, but most cases are attributable to a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Increased incidence of PD is associated with rural living and pesticide exposure, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration can be triggered by neurotoxins such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). In C. elegans, this drug is taken up by the presynaptic dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT-1) and causes selective death of the eight dopaminergic neurons of the adult hermaphrodite. Using a forward genetic approach to find genes that protect against 6-OHDA-mediated neurodegeneration, we identified tsp-17, which encodes a member of the tetraspanin family of membrane proteins. We show that TSP-17 is expressed in dopaminergic neurons and provide genetic, pharmacological and biochemical evidence that it inhibits DAT-1, thus leading to increased 6-OHDA uptake in tsp-17 loss-of-function mutants. TSP-17 also protects against toxicity conferred by excessive intracellular dopamine. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence that TSP-17 acts partly via the DOP-2 dopamine receptor to negatively regulate DAT-1. tsp-17 mutants also have subtle behavioral phenotypes, some of which are conferred by aberrant dopamine signaling. Incubating mutant worms in liquid medium leads to swimming-induced paralysis. In the L1 larval stage, this phenotype is linked to lethality and cannot be rescued by a dop-3 null mutant. In contrast, mild paralysis occurring in the L4 larval stage is suppressed by dop-3, suggesting defects in dopaminergic signaling. In summary, we show that TSP-17 protects against neurodegeneration and has a role in modulating behaviors linked to dopamine signaling. PMID:25474638

  10. Identification of embryonic stem cell-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons for engraftment.

    PubMed

    Ganat, Yosif M; Calder, Elizabeth L; Kriks, Sonja; Nelander, Jenny; Tu, Edmund Y; Jia, Fan; Battista, Daniela; Harrison, Neil; Parmar, Malin; Tomishima, Mark J; Rutishauser, Urs; Studer, Lorenz

    2012-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons for applications in Parkinson disease. However, ESC-based transplantation paradigms carry a risk of introducing inappropriate or tumorigenic cells. Cell purification before transplantation may alleviate these concerns and enable identification of the specific DA neuron stage most suitable for cell therapy. Here, we used 3 transgenic mouse ESC reporter lines to mark DA neurons at 3 stages of differentiation (early, middle, and late) following induction of differentiation using Hes5::GFP, Nurr1::GFP, and Pitx3::YFP transgenes, respectively. Transplantation of FACS-purified cells from each line resulted in DA neuron engraftment, with the mid-stage and late-stage neuron grafts being composed almost exclusively of midbrain DA neurons. Mid-stage neuron cell grafts had the greatest amount of DA neuron survival and robustly induced recovery of motor deficits in hemiparkinsonian mice. Our data suggest that the Nurr1+ stage (middle stage) of neuronal differentiation is particularly suitable for grafting ESC-derived DA neurons. Moreover, global transcriptome analysis of progeny from each of the ESC reporter lines revealed expression of known midbrain DA neuron genes and also uncovered previously uncharacterized midbrain genes. These data demonstrate remarkable fate specificity of ESC-derived DA neurons and outline a sequential stage-specific ESC reporter line paradigm for in vivo gene discovery.

  11. Dopaminergic neuronal injury in the adult rat brain following neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide and the silent neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Pang, Yi; Lin, Rick C. S.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Ma, Tangeng; Rhodes, Philip G.; Cai, Zhengwei

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neuronal injury in the juvenile rat brain. To further examine whether neonatal LPS exposure has persisting effects in adult rats, motor behaviors were examined from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P70 and brain injury was determined in P70 rats following an intracerebral injection of LPS (1 mg/kg) in P5 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Although neonatal LPS exposure resulted in hyperactivity in locomotion and stereotyped tasks, and other disturbances of motor behaviors, the impaired motor functions were spontaneously recovered by P70. On the other hand, neonatal LPS-induced injury to the dopaminergic system such as the loss of dendrites and reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra persisted in P70 rats. Neonatal LPS exposure also resulted in sustained inflammatory responses in the P70 rat brain, as indicated by an increased number of activated microglia and elevation of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 content in the rat brain. In addition, when challenged with methamphetamine (METH, 0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneously, rats with neonatal LPS exposure had significantly increased responses in METH-induced locomotion and stereotypy behaviors as compared to those without LPS exposure. These results indicate that although neonatal LPS-induced neurobehavioral impairment is spontaneously recoverable, the LPS exposure-induced persistent injury to the dopaminergic system and the chronic inflammation may represent the existence of silent neurotoxicity. Our data further suggest that the compromised dendritic mitochondrial function might contribute, at least partially, to the silent neurotoxicity. PMID:20875849

  12. Transient Activation of GABAB Receptors Suppresses SK Channel Currents in Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Estep, Chad M.; Galtieri, Daniel J.; Zampese, Enrico; Goldberg, Joshua A.; Brichta, Lars; Greengard, Paul; Surmeier, D. James

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are richly innervated by GABAergic neurons. The postsynaptic effects of GABA on SNc DA neurons are mediated by a mixture of GABAA and GABAB receptors. Although activation of GABAA receptors inhibits spike generation, the consequences of GABAB receptor activation are less well characterized. To help fill this gap, perforated patch recordings were made from young adult mouse SNc DA neurons. Sustained stimulation of GABAB receptors hyperpolarized SNc DA neurons, as previously described. However, transient stimulation of GABAB receptors by optical uncaging of GABA did not; rather, it reduced the opening of small-conductance, calcium-activated K+ (SK) channels and increased the irregularity of spiking. This modulation was attributable to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A. Thus, because suppression of SK channel activity increases the probability of burst spiking, transient co-activation of GABAA and GABAB receptors could promote a pause-burst pattern of spiking. PMID:28036359

  13. Transient high-frequency firing in a coupled-oscillator model of the mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Alexey S; Kopell, Nancy J; Wilson, Charles J

    2006-02-01

    Dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain fire spontaneously at rates <10/s and ordinarily will not exceed this range even when driven with somatic current injection. When driven at higher rates, these cells undergo spike failure through depolarization block. During spontaneous bursting of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, bursts related to reward expectation in behaving animals, and bursts generated by dendritic application of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) agonists, transient firing attains rates well above this range. We suggest a way such high-frequency firing may occur in response to dendritic NMDA receptor activation. We have extended the coupled oscillator model of the dopaminergic neuron, which represents the soma and dendrites as electrically coupled compartments with different natural spiking frequencies, by addition of dendritic AMPA (voltage-independent) or NMDA (voltage-dependent) synaptic conductance. Both soma and dendrites contain a simplified version of the calcium-potassium mechanism known to be the mechanism for slow spontaneous oscillation and background firing in dopaminergic cells. The compartments differ only in diameter, and this difference is responsible for the difference in natural frequencies. We show that because of its voltage dependence, NMDA receptor activation acts to amplify the effect on the soma of the high-frequency oscillation of the dendrites, which is normally too weak to exert a large influence on the overall oscillation frequency of the neuron. During the high-frequency oscillations that result, sodium inactivation in the soma is removed rapidly after each action potential by the hyperpolarizing influence of the dendritic calcium-dependent potassium current, preventing depolarization block of the spike mechanism, and allowing high-frequency spiking.

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of 7, 8-dihydroxyflavone on Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons in MPP+-treated Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingjing; Xiang, Zheng; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Ai, Zongyong; Shen, Jingsong; Huang, Tianzhuang; Liu, Liegang; Ji, Weizhi; Li, Tianqing

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one common neurodegenerative disease caused by a significant loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Previous reports showed that 7, 8- dihydroxyflavone (7, 8-DHF) as a potent TrkB agonist can mimic BDNF and play neuroprotective roles for mouse dopaminergic neurons. Nonetheless, the safety and neuroprotective effects are unclear in monkey models of PD. Here, we find that 7, 8-DHF could be absorbed and metabolized into 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavone through oral administration in monkeys. The half-life time of 7, 8-DHF in monkey plasma is about 4–8 hrs. Furthermore, these monkeys maintain health state throughout the course of seven-month treatments of 7, 8-DHF (30 mg/kg/day). Importantly, 7, 8-DHF treatments can prevent the progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons by attenuating neurotoxic effects of MPP+ and display strong neuroprotective effects in monkeys. Our study demonstrates that this promising small molecule may be transited into a clinical useful pharmacological agent. PMID:27731318

  15. Cocaine increases dopaminergic neuron and motor activity via midbrain α1 adrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Richard Brandon; Wanat, Matthew J; Gomez, Jorge A; Brown, Zeliene J; Phillips, Paul E M; Paladini, Carlos A

    2015-03-13

    Cocaine reinforcement is mediated by increased extracellular dopamine levels in the forebrain. This neurochemical effect was thought to require inhibition of dopamine reuptake, but cocaine is still reinforcing even in the absence of the dopamine transporter. Here, we demonstrate that the rapid elevation in dopamine levels and motor activity elicited by cocaine involves α1 receptor activation within the ventral midbrain. Activation of α1 receptors increases dopaminergic neuron burst firing by decreasing the calcium-activated potassium channel current (SK), as well as elevates dopaminergic neuron pacemaker firing through modulation of both SK and the hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih). Furthermore, we found that cocaine increases both the pacemaker and burst-firing frequency of rat ventral-midbrain dopaminergic neurons through an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent mechanism within the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta. These results demonstrate the mechanism underlying the critical role of α1 adrenergic receptors in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission and behavior by cocaine.

  16. Hemoglobin is present as a canonical α2β2 tetramer in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Russo, Roberta; Zucchelli, Silvia; Codrich, Marta; Marcuzzi, Federica; Verde, Cinzia; Gustincich, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrier in blood erythrocytes. Oxygen coordination is mediated by α2β2 tetrameric structure via binding of the ligand to the heme iron atom. This structure is essential for hemoglobin function in the blood. In the last few years, expression of hemoglobin has been found in atypical sites, including the brain. Transcripts for α and β chains of hemoglobin as well as hemoglobin immunoreactivity have been shown in mesencephalic A9 dopaminergic neurons, whose selective degeneration leads to Parkinson's disease. To gain further insights into the roles of hemoglobin in the brain, we examined its quaternary structure in dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that (i) in mouse dopaminergic cell line stably over-expressing α and β chains, hemoglobin exists as an α2β2 tetramer; (ii) similarly to the over-expressed protein, endogenous hemoglobin forms a tetramer of 64kDa; (iii) hemoglobin also forms high molecular weight insoluble aggregates; and (iv) endogenous hemoglobin retains its tetrameric structure in mouse mesencephalon in vivo. In conclusion, these results suggest that neuronal hemoglobin may be endowed with some of the biochemical activities and biological function associated to its role in erythroid cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins.

  17. The Sensory Impact of Nicotine on Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Neurons of the Nicotine Reward - Addiction Neurocircuitry

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jed E; Dehkordi, Ozra; Manaye, Kebreten F; Millis, Richard M; Cianaki, Salman Ameri; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of smoking is a key component of nicotine addiction known to result, in part, from stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at peripheral sensory nerve endings. Such stimulation of nAChRs is followed by activation of neurons at multiple sites in the mesocorticolimbic reward pathways. However, the neurochemical profiles of CNS cells that mediate the peripheral sensory impact of nicotine remain unknown. In the present study in mice, we first used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify CNS cells stimulated by nicotine (NIC, 40 μg/kg, IP) and by a peripherally-acting analog of nicotine, nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM, 30 μg/kg, IP). Sequential double-labelling was then performed to determine whether noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons of the nicotine reward-addiction circuitry were primary targets of NIC and NIC-PM. Double-labelling of NIC and/or NIC-PM activated c-Fos immunoreactive cells with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed no apparent c-Fos expression by the dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). With the exception of sparse numbers of TH immunoreactive D11 cells, dopamine-containing neurons in other areas of the reward-addiction circuitry, namely periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe, were also devoid of c-Fos immunoreactivity. Noradrenergic neurons of locus coeruleus (LC), known to innervate VTA, were activated by both NIC and NIC-PM. These results demonstrate that noradrenergic neurons of LC are among the first structures that are stimulated by single acute IP injection of NIC and NIC-PM. Dopaminergic neurons of VTA and other CNS sites, did not respond to acute IP administration of NIC or NIC-PM by induction of c-Fos. PMID:27347434

  18. The Sensory Impact of Nicotine on Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Neurons of the Nicotine Reward - Addiction Neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jed E; Dehkordi, Ozra; Manaye, Kebreten F; Millis, Richard M; Cianaki, Salman Ameri; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2016-04-01

    The sensory experience of smoking is a key component of nicotine addiction known to result, in part, from stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at peripheral sensory nerve endings. Such stimulation of nAChRs is followed by activation of neurons at multiple sites in the mesocorticolimbic reward pathways. However, the neurochemical profiles of CNS cells that mediate the peripheral sensory impact of nicotine remain unknown. In the present study in mice, we first used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify CNS cells stimulated by nicotine (NIC, 40 μg/kg, IP) and by a peripherally-acting analog of nicotine, nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM, 30 μg/kg, IP). Sequential double-labelling was then performed to determine whether noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons of the nicotine reward-addiction circuitry were primary targets of NIC and NIC-PM. Double-labelling of NIC and/or NIC-PM activated c-Fos immunoreactive cells with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed no apparent c-Fos expression by the dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). With the exception of sparse numbers of TH immunoreactive D11 cells, dopamine-containing neurons in other areas of the reward-addiction circuitry, namely periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe, were also devoid of c-Fos immunoreactivity. Noradrenergic neurons of locus coeruleus (LC), known to innervate VTA, were activated by both NIC and NIC-PM. These results demonstrate that noradrenergic neurons of LC are among the first structures that are stimulated by single acute IP injection of NIC and NIC-PM. Dopaminergic neurons of VTA and other CNS sites, did not respond to acute IP administration of NIC or NIC-PM by induction of c-Fos.

  19. The substantia nigra and ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurons from development to degeneration.

    PubMed

    Fu, YuHong; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles; Halliday, Glenda M

    2016-10-01

    The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by the loss of neurons in the substantia nigra parcompacta (A9), which results in the insufficient release of dopamine, and the appearance of motor symptoms. Not all neurons in the A9 subregions degenerate in PD, and the dopaminergic (DA) neurons located in the neighboring ventral tegmental area (A10) are relatively resistant to PD pathogenesis. An increasing number of quantitative studies using human tissue samples of these brain regions have revealed important biological differences. In this review, we first describe current knowledge on the multi-segmental neuromere origin of these DA neurons. We then compare the continued transcription factor and protein expression profile and morphological differences distinguishing subregions within the A9 substantia nigra, and between A9 and A10 DA neurons. We conclude that the expression of three types of factors and proteins contributes to the diversity observed in these DA neurons and potentially to their differential vulnerability to PD. In particular, the specific axonal structure of A9 neurons and the way A9 neurons maintain their DA usage makes them easily exposed to energy deficits, calcium overload and oxidative stress, all contributing to their decreased survival in PD. We highlight knowledge gaps in our understanding of the cellular biomarkers for and their different functions in DA neurons, knowledge which may assist to identify underpinning disease mechansims that could be targeted for the treatment of any subregional dysfunction and loss of these DA neurons.

  20. Differentiation and Characterization of Dopaminergic Neurons From Baboon Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grow, Douglas A.; Simmons, DeNard V.; Gomez, Jorge A.; Wanat, Matthew J.; McCarrey, John R.; Paladini, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The progressive death of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is the principal cause of symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Stem cells have potential therapeutic use in replacing these cells and restoring function. To facilitate development of this approach, we sought to establish a preclinical model based on a large nonhuman primate for testing the efficacy and safety of stem cell-based transplantation. To this end, we differentiated baboon fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (biPSCs) into dopaminergic neurons with the application of specific morphogens and growth factors. We confirmed that biPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons resemble those found in the human midbrain based on cell type-specific expression of dopamine markers TH and GIRK2. Using the reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we also showed that biPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons express PAX6, FOXA2, LMX1A, NURR1, and TH genes characteristic of this cell type in vivo. We used perforated patch-clamp electrophysiology to demonstrate that biPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons fired spontaneous rhythmic action potentials and high-frequency action potentials with spike frequency adaption upon injection of depolarizing current. Finally, we showed that biPSC-derived neurons released catecholamines in response to electrical stimulation. These results demonstrate the utility of the baboon model for testing and optimizing the efficacy and safety of stem cell-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PD. Significance Functional dopamine neurons were produced from baboon induced pluripotent stem cells, and their properties were compared to baboon midbrain cells in vivo. The baboon has advantages as a clinically relevant model in which to optimize the efficacy and safety of stem cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. Baboons possess crucial neuroanatomical and immunological similarities to humans, and

  1. Disruption of LRRK2 Does Not Cause Specific Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Guiqi; Xin, Shengchang; Li, Song; Zhong, Hanbing; Lin, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in LRRK2 are genetically linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) but its normal biological function is largely unknown. Sheng et al. recently reported that deletion of the WD40 domain of LRRK2 in zebrafish specifically causes PD-like loss of neurons and behavior defect. However, our similar early study and recent confirming experiments using the same reagents reported by Sheng et al. failed to reproduce the phenotype of the loss of dopaminergic neurons, although the mRNA of LRRK2 was molecularly disrupted. Our study suggests that function of LRRK2 and its usefulness to generate zebrafish PD model needs further evaluation. PMID:21698186

  2. Tiam1 Regulates the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 Signaling Pathway and the Differentiation of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Čajánek, Lukáš; Ganji, Ranjani Sri; Henriques-Oliveira, Catarina; Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Koník, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive the differentiation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is crucial for successful development of novel therapies for Parkinson's disease, in which DA neurons progressively degenerate. However, the mechanisms underlying the differentiation-promoting effects of Wnt5a on DA precursors are poorly understood. Here, we present the molecular and functional characterization of a signaling pathway downstream of Wnt5a, the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 pathway. First, we characterize the interaction between Rac1 and Dvl and identify the N-terminal part of Dvl3 as necessary for Rac1 binding. Next, we show that Tiam1, a Rac1 guanosine exchange factor (GEF), is expressed in the ventral midbrain, interacts with Dvl, facilitates Dvl-Rac1 interaction, and is required for Dvl- or Wnt5a-induced activation of Rac1. Moreover, we show that Wnt5a promotes whereas casein kinase 1 (CK1), a negative regulator of the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 pathway, abolishes the interactions between Dvl and Tiam1. Finally, using ventral midbrain neurosphere cultures, we demonstrate that the generation of DA neurons in culture is impaired after Tiam1 knockdown, indicating that Tiam1 is required for midbrain DA differentiation. In summary, our data identify Tiam1 as a novel regulator of DA neuron development and as a Dvl-associated and Rac1-specific GEF acting in the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 pathway. PMID:23109420

  3. Tiam1 regulates the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 signaling pathway and the differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Čajánek, Lukáš; Ganji, Ranjani Sri; Henriques-Oliveira, Catarina; Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Koník, Peter; Bryja, Vítězslav; Arenas, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive the differentiation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is crucial for successful development of novel therapies for Parkinson's disease, in which DA neurons progressively degenerate. However, the mechanisms underlying the differentiation-promoting effects of Wnt5a on DA precursors are poorly understood. Here, we present the molecular and functional characterization of a signaling pathway downstream of Wnt5a, the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 pathway. First, we characterize the interaction between Rac1 and Dvl and identify the N-terminal part of Dvl3 as necessary for Rac1 binding. Next, we show that Tiam1, a Rac1 guanosine exchange factor (GEF), is expressed in the ventral midbrain, interacts with Dvl, facilitates Dvl-Rac1 interaction, and is required for Dvl- or Wnt5a-induced activation of Rac1. Moreover, we show that Wnt5a promotes whereas casein kinase 1 (CK1), a negative regulator of the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 pathway, abolishes the interactions between Dvl and Tiam1. Finally, using ventral midbrain neurosphere cultures, we demonstrate that the generation of DA neurons in culture is impaired after Tiam1 knockdown, indicating that Tiam1 is required for midbrain DA differentiation. In summary, our data identify Tiam1 as a novel regulator of DA neuron development and as a Dvl-associated and Rac1-specific GEF acting in the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 pathway.

  4. Modafinil inhibits rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons through D2-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, T M; Klyuch, B P; Ponomarenko, A A; Lin, J S; Haas, H L; Sergeeva, O A

    2007-02-01

    Modafinil is a well-tolerated medication for excessive sleepiness, attention-deficit disorder, cocaine dependence and as an adjunct to antidepressants with low propensity for abuse. We investigated the modafinil action on identified dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) of rat brain slices. Modafinil (20 microM) inhibited the firing of dopaminergic, but not GABAergic neurons. This inhibition was maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin and was accompanied by hyperpolarization. Sulpiride (10 microM), a D2-receptor antagonist, but not prazosine (20 microM, an alpha1-adrenoreceptor blocker) abolished the modafinil action. Inhibition of dopamine reuptake with a low dose of nomifensine (1 microM) reduced the firing of DA neurons in a sulpiride-dependent manner and blunted the effect of modafinil. On acutely isolated neurons, modafinil evoked D2-receptor-mediated outward currents in tyrosine-hydroxylase positive cells, identified by single-cell RT-PCR, which reversed polarity near the K(+) equilibrium potential and were unchanged in the presence of nomifensine. Thus modafinil directly inhibits DA neurons through D2 receptors.

  5. Transient activation of dopaminergic neurons during development modulates visual responsiveness, locomotion and brain activity in a dopamine ontogeny model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, B; Eyles, D; van Alphen, B; van Swinderen, B

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed that certain developmental environmental risk factors for schizophrenia when modeled in rodents alter the trajectory of dopaminergic development, leading to persistent behavioural changes in adults. This has recently been articulated as the “dopamine ontogeny hypothesis of schizophrenia”. To test one aspect of this hypothesis, namely that transient dopaminergic effects during development modulate attention-like behavior and arousal in adults, we turned to a small-brain model, Drosophila melanogaster. By applying genetic tools allowing transient activation or silencing of dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain, we investigated whether a critical window exists during development when altered dopamine (DA) activity levels could lead to impairments in arousal states in adult animals. We found that increased activity in dopaminergic neurons in later stages of development significantly increased visual responsiveness and locomotion, especially in adult males. This misallocation of visual salience and hyperactivity mimicked the effect of acute methamphetamine feeding to adult flies, suggesting up-regulated DA signaling could result from developmental manipulations. Finally, brain recordings revealed significantly reduced gamma-band activity in adult animals exposed to the transient developmental insult. Together, these data support the idea that transient alterations in DA signaling during development can permanently alter behavior in adults, and that a reductionist model such as Drosophila can be used to investigate potential mechanisms underlying complex cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:23299394

  6. Coupled oscillator model of the dopaminergic neuron of the substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C J; Callaway, J C

    2000-05-01

    Calcium imaging using fura-2 and whole cell recording revealed the effective location of the oscillator mechanism on dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta, in slices from rats aged 15-20 days. As previously reported, dopaminergic neurons fired in a slow rhythmic single spiking pattern. The underlying membrane potential oscillation survived blockade of sodium currents with TTX and was enhanced by blockade of voltage-sensitive potassium currents with TEA. Calcium levels increased during the subthreshold depolarizing phase of the membrane potential oscillation and peaked at the onset of the hyperpolarizing phase as expected if the pacemaker potential were due to a low-threshold calcium current and the hyperpolarizing phase to calcium-dependent potassium current. Calcium oscillations were synchronous in the dendrites and soma and were greater in the dendrites than in the soma. Average calcium levels in the dendrites overshot steady-state levels and decayed over the course of seconds after the oscillation was resumed after having been halted by hyperpolarizing currents. Average calcium levels in the soma increased slowly, taking many cycles to achieve steady state. Voltage clamp with calcium imaging revealed the voltage dependence of the somatic calcium current without the artifacts of incomplete spatial voltage control. This showed that the calcium current had little or no inactivation and was half-maximal at -40 to -30 mV. The time constant of calcium removal was measured by the return of calcium to resting levels and depended on diameter. The calcium sensitivity of the calcium-dependent potassium current was estimated by plotting the slow tail current against calcium concentration during the decay of calcium to resting levels at -60 mV. A single compartment model of the dopaminergic neuron consisting of a noninactivating low-threshold calcium current, a calcium-dependent potassium current, and a small leak current reproduced most features of the

  7. Social Isolation Blunted the Response of Mesocortical Dopaminergic Neurons to Chronic Ethanol Voluntary Intake

    PubMed Central

    Lallai, Valeria; Manca, Letizia; Dazzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that stress can increase the response of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons to acute administration of drugs of abuse included ethanol. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of the mesocortical dopaminergic pathway in the development of ethanol abuse under stress conditions. To this aim we trained both socially isolated (SI) and group housed (GH) rats to self administer ethanol which was made available only 2 ha day (from 11:00 to 13:00 h). Rats have been trained for 3 weeks starting at postnatal day 35. After training, rats were surgically implanted with microdialysis probes under deep anesthesia, and 24 hlater extracellular dopamine concentrations were monitored in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for the 2 hpreceding ethanol administration (anticipatory phase), during ethanol exposure (consummatory phase) and for 2 hafter ethanol removal. Results show that, in GH animals, dopamine extracellular concentration in the mPFC increased as early as 80 min before ethanol presentation (+50% over basal values) and remained elevated for 80 min during ethanol exposure. In SI rats, on the contrary, dopamine extracellular concentration did not show any significant change at any time point. Ethanol consumption was significantly higher in SI than in GH rats. Moreover, mesocortical dopaminergic neurons in SI animals also showed a decreased sensitivity to an acute administration of ethanol with respect to GH rats. Our results show that prolonged exposure to stress, as in social isolation, is able to induce significant changes in the response of mesocortical dopaminergic neurons to ethanol exposure and suggest that these changes might play an important role in the compulsivity observed in ethanol addiction. PMID:27378852

  8. Social Isolation Blunted the Response of Mesocortical Dopaminergic Neurons to Chronic Ethanol Voluntary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lallai, Valeria; Manca, Letizia; Dazzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that stress can increase the response of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons to acute administration of drugs of abuse included ethanol. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of the mesocortical dopaminergic pathway in the development of ethanol abuse under stress conditions. To this aim we trained both socially isolated (SI) and group housed (GH) rats to self administer ethanol which was made available only 2 ha day (from 11:00 to 13:00 h). Rats have been trained for 3 weeks starting at postnatal day 35. After training, rats were surgically implanted with microdialysis probes under deep anesthesia, and 24 hlater extracellular dopamine concentrations were monitored in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for the 2 hpreceding ethanol administration (anticipatory phase), during ethanol exposure (consummatory phase) and for 2 hafter ethanol removal. Results show that, in GH animals, dopamine extracellular concentration in the mPFC increased as early as 80 min before ethanol presentation (+50% over basal values) and remained elevated for 80 min during ethanol exposure. In SI rats, on the contrary, dopamine extracellular concentration did not show any significant change at any time point. Ethanol consumption was significantly higher in SI than in GH rats. Moreover, mesocortical dopaminergic neurons in SI animals also showed a decreased sensitivity to an acute administration of ethanol with respect to GH rats. Our results show that prolonged exposure to stress, as in social isolation, is able to induce significant changes in the response of mesocortical dopaminergic neurons to ethanol exposure and suggest that these changes might play an important role in the compulsivity observed in ethanol addiction.

  9. HIV Subtypes B and C gp120 and Methamphetamine Interaction: Dopaminergic System Implicates Differential Neuronal Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati V K; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Atluri, Venkata S R; Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Agudelo, Marisela; Perez, Suray; Yoo, Changwon; Raymond, Andrea D; Ding, Hong; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2015-06-09

    HIV subtypes or clades differentially induce HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and substance abuse is known to accelerate HIV disease progression. The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 plays a major role in binding and budding in the central nervous system (CNS) and impacts dopaminergic functions. However, the mechanisms utilized by HIV-1 clades to exert differential effects and the methamphetamine (METH)-associated dopaminergic dysfunction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that clade B and C gp120 structural sequences, modeling based analysis, dopaminergic effect, and METH potentiate neuronal toxicity in astrocytes. We evaluated the effect of clade B and C gp120 and/or METH on the DRD-2, DAT, CaMKs and CREBP transcription. Both the structural sequence and modeling studies demonstrated that clade B gp120 in V1-V4, α -2 and N-glycosylated sites are distinct from clade C gp120. The distinct structure and sequence variation of clade B gp120 differentially impact DRD-2, DAT, CaMK II and CaMK IV mRNA, protein and intracellular expression compared to clade C gp120. However, CREB transcription is upregulated by both clade B and C gp120, and METH co-treatment potentiated these effects. In conclusion, distinct structural sequences of HIV-1 clade B and C gp120 differentially regulate the dopaminergic pathway and METH potentiates neurotoxicity.

  10. Recent Advances in Imaging of Dopaminergic Neurons for Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lie-Hang; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Tseng, Yu-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine is the most intensely studied monoaminergic neurotransmitter. Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in regulating several aspects of basic brain function, including motor, behavior, motivation, and working memory. To date, there are numerous positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers available for targeting different steps in the process of dopaminergic neurotransmission, which permits us to quantify dopaminergic activity in the living human brain. Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system causes Parkinson's disease (PD) and related Parkinsonism. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter that has been classically associated with the reinforcing effects of drug abuse. Abnormalities within the dopamine system in the brain are involved in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopamine receptors play an important role in schizophrenia and the effect of neuroleptics is through blockage of dopamine D2 receptors. This review will concentrate on the radiotracers that have been developed for imaging dopaminergic neurons, describe the clinical aspects in the assessment of neuropsychiatric disorders, and suggest future directions in the diagnosis and management of such disorders. PMID:22570524

  11. Experimental strategy to identify genes susceptible to oxidative stress in nigral dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myung S; Kawamata, Hibiki; Kim, Dae J; Chun, Hong S; Son, Jin H

    2004-06-01

    Neuropathological evidence from both human and experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD) firmly supports a significant role for oxidative stress (OS) in the death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra. Largely unknown are the genes underlying selective susceptibility of nigral DA neuron to OS and how they effect nigral DA cell death. The major barriers to high-throughput identification of candidate genes are the paucity of nigral DA neurons as well as the dilution effect of non-DA cells both in primary cultures and brain tissues. To overcome these barriers, we have developed a DA cell line model, SN4741, appropriate for cDNA microarray analysis. Candidate genes were selected from both the microarray analysis and the molecular implication of their pathological mechanisms (i.e., decreased mitochondrial complex I activity and proteasomal dysfunction) of PD. Subsequent secondary validation tests were devised to characterize genes including clone #45 that may underlie selective vulnerability of nigral DA neuron to OS.

  12. Ghrelin inhibits LPS-induced release of IL-6 from mouse dopaminergic neurones

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is an orexigenic stomach hormone that acts centrally to increase mid-brain dopamine neurone activity, amplify dopamine signaling and protect against neurotoxin-induced dopamine cell death in the mouse substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). In addition, ghrelin inhibits the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from peripheral macrophages, T-cells and from LPS stimulated microglia. Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokine release from dopaminergic neurones. Findings The dopaminergic SN4741 cell-line, which derives from the mouse substantia nigra (SN) and expresses the ghrelin-receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)) and the ghrelin-O-acyl transferase (GOAT) enzyme, was used to determine the neuro-immunomodulatory action of ghrelin. We induced innate immune activation via LPS challenge (1 μg/ml) of SN4741 neurones that had been pre-cultured in the presence or absence of ghrelin (1, 10, 100 nM) for 4 h. After 24 h supernatants were collected for detection of IL-1 beta (IL-1β ), TNF alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 cytokines via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Nuclear translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was analyzed by Western blotting, and to determine viability of treatments a cell viability assay and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed. We provide evidence that while IL-1β and TNF-α were not detectable under any conditions, SN4741 neurones constitutively released IL-6 under basal conditions and treatment with LPS significantly increased IL-6 secretion. Pre-treatment of neurones with ghrelin attenuated LPS-mediated IL-6 release at 24 h, an affect that was inhibited by the GHS-R antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6. However, while ghrelin pre-treatment attenuated the LPS-mediated increase in NF-κB, there was no alteration in its nuclear translocation. Cell viability assay and caspase-3 immunocytochemistry

  13. Ghrelin inhibits LPS-induced release of IL-6 from mouse dopaminergic neurones.

    PubMed

    Beynon, Amy L; Brown, M Rowan; Wright, Rhiannon; Rees, Mark I; Sheldon, I Martin; Davies, Jeffrey S

    2013-03-19

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic stomach hormone that acts centrally to increase mid-brain dopamine neurone activity, amplify dopamine signaling and protect against neurotoxin-induced dopamine cell death in the mouse substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). In addition, ghrelin inhibits the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from peripheral macrophages, T-cells and from LPS stimulated microglia. Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokine release from dopaminergic neurones. The dopaminergic SN4741 cell-line, which derives from the mouse substantia nigra (SN) and expresses the ghrelin-receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)) and the ghrelin-O-acyl transferase (GOAT) enzyme, was used to determine the neuro-immunomodulatory action of ghrelin. We induced innate immune activation via LPS challenge (1 μg/ml) of SN4741 neurones that had been pre-cultured in the presence or absence of ghrelin (1, 10, 100 nM) for 4 h. After 24 h supernatants were collected for detection of IL-1 beta (IL-1β ), TNF alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 cytokines via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Nuclear translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was analyzed by Western blotting, and to determine viability of treatments a cell viability assay and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed.We provide evidence that while IL-1β and TNF-α were not detectable under any conditions, SN4741 neurones constitutively released IL-6 under basal conditions and treatment with LPS significantly increased IL-6 secretion. Pre-treatment of neurones with ghrelin attenuated LPS-mediated IL-6 release at 24 h, an affect that was inhibited by the GHS-R antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6. However, while ghrelin pre-treatment attenuated the LPS-mediated increase in NF-κB, there was no alteration in its nuclear translocation. Cell viability assay and caspase-3 immunocytochemistry demonstrated that the

  14. Detailed Analysis of the Genetic and Epigenetic Signatures of iPSC-Derived Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Reinhard; Smallwood, Sebastien A.; Veenvliet, Jesse V.; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Peng, Su-Ping; Chakrabarty, Koushik; Groot-Koerkamp, Marian J.A.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Wesseling, Evelyn; Kelsey, Gavin; Boddeke, Erik; Smidt, Marten P.; Copray, Sjef

    2014-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for in vitro generation of disease-relevant cell types, such as mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons involved in Parkinson’s disease. Although iPSC-derived midbrain DA neurons have been generated, detailed genetic and epigenetic characterizations of such neurons are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the authenticity of iPSC-derived DA neurons obtained by established protocols. We FACS purified mdDA (Pitx3Gfp/+) neurons derived from mouse iPSCs and primary mdDA (Pitx3Gfp/+) neurons to analyze and compare their genetic and epigenetic features. Although iPSC-derived DA neurons largely adopted characteristics of their in vivo counterparts, relevant deviations in global gene expression and DNA methylation were found. Hypermethylated genes, mainly involved in neurodevelopment and basic neuronal functions, consequently showed reduced expression levels. Such abnormalities should be addressed because they might affect unambiguous long-term functionality and hamper the potential of iPSC-derived DA neurons for in vitro disease modeling or cell-based therapy. PMID:24749075

  15. Neurofunctional dopaminergic impairment in elderly after lifetime exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Roberto G; Guazzetti, Stefano; Zoni, Silvia; Benedetti, Chiara; Fedrighi, Chiara; Peli, Marco; Donna, Filippo; Bontempi, Elza; Borgese, Laura; Micheletti, Serena; Ferri, Roberta; Marchetti, Serena; Smith, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    interval of 22.7 ng/m(3) (median 26.4). For the odor identification score of the Sniffin Stick test, an association was observed with soil Mn (p=0.0006) and with a significant interaction with blood Pb (p=0.0856). Significant dose-responses resulted also for the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices with the distance from exposure point source (p=0.0025) and Mn in soil (p=0.09), and for the Trail Making test, with urinary Mn (p=0.0074). Serum prolactin (PRL) levels were associated with air (p=0.061) and urinary (p=0.003) Mn, and with blood Pb (p=0.0303). In most of these associations age played a significant role as an effect modifier. Lifelong exposure to Mn was significantly associated with changes in odor discrimination, motor coordination, cognitive abilities and serum PRL levels. These effects are consistent with the hypothesis of a specific mechanism of toxicity of Mn on the dopaminergic system. Lead co-exposure, even at very low levels, can further enhance Mn toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. NEUROFUNCTIONAL DOPAMINERGIC IMPAIRMENT IN ELDERLY AFTER LIFETIME EXPOSURE TO MANGANESE

    PubMed Central

    Lucchini, Roberto G; Guazzetti, Stefano; Zoni, Silvia; Benedetti, Chiara; Fedrighi, Chiara; Peli, Marco; Donna, Filippo; Bontempi, Elza; Borgese, Laura; Micheletti, Serena; Ferri, Roberta; Marchetti, Serena; Smith, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    yielded a lower level confidence interval of 22.7 ng/m3 (median 26.4). For the odor identification score of the Sniffin Stick test, an association was observed with soil Mn (p=0.0006) and with a significant interaction with blood Pb (p=0.0856). Significant dose-responses resulted also for the Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices with the distance from exposure point source (p=0.0025) and Mn in soil (p=0.09), and for the Trail Making test, with urinary Mn (p=0.0074). Serum prolactin (PRL) levels were associated with air (p=0.061) and urinary (p=0.003) Mn, and with blood Pb (p=0.0303). In most of these associations age played a significant role as an effect modifier. Conclusion Lifelong exposure to Mn was significantly associated with changes in odor discrimination, motor coordination, cognitive abilities and serum PRL levels. These effects are consistent with the hypothesis of a specific mechanism of toxicity of Mn on the dopaminergic system. Lead co-exposure, even at very low levels, can further enhance Mn toxicity. PMID:24881811

  17. Do Dopaminergic Impairments Underlie Physical Inactivity in People with Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Alexxai V.; O'Neal, Timothy J.; Friend, Danielle M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the negative health consequences of obesity. Despite a wide consensus that people with obesity should exercise more, there are few effective methods for increasing physical activity in people with obesity. This lack is reflected in our limited understanding of the cellular and molecular causes of physical inactivity in obesity. We hypothesize that impairments in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in people with obesity, as in classic movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Here, we review two lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis: (1) chronic exposure to obesogenic diets has been linked to impairments in dopamine synthesis, release, and receptor function, particularly in the striatum, and (2) striatal dopamine is necessary for the proper control of movement. Identifying the biological determinants of physical inactivity may lead to more effective strategies for increasing physical activity in people with obesity, as well as improve our understanding of why it is difficult for people with obesity to alter their levels of physical activity. PMID:27790107

  18. Estrogen inhibits tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons but does not cause irreversible damage.

    PubMed

    Morel, Gustavo R; Carón, Rubén W; Cónsole, Gloria M; Soaje, Marta; Sosa, Yolanda E; Rodríguez, Silvia S; Jahn, Graciela A; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2009-12-16

    Dopaminergic neurons of the hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) system exert a tonic inhibitory control on prolactin (PRL) secretion whereas estrogen, known to inhibit TIDA neuron function, has been postulated to be toxic to TIDA neurons when it is chronically high. In order to determine whether estrogen in high doses can cause permanent damage to TIDA function, we submitted young female rats to continue high doses of estrogen administered, either centrally (intrahypothalamic estrogen implants) or peripherally (subcutaneous estrogen implants or weekly intramuscular (i.m.) injections for 7 weeks), subsequently withdrawing the steroid and observing the evolution of lactotrophes, serum PRL and TIDA neurons. Serum PRL was measured by radioimmunoassay whereas tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH+) neurons and PRL cells were morphometrically assessed in sections of fixed hypothalami and pituitaries, respectively. After 30 days, hypothalamic estrogen implants induced a significant increase in serum PRL, whereas TH+ neurons were not detectable in the arcuate-periventricular hypothalamic (ARC) region of estrogen-implanted rats. Removal of implants on day 30 restored TH expression in the ARC and brought serum PRL back to basal levels 30 days after estrogen withdrawal. Subcutaneous or i.m. administration of estrogen for 7 weeks induced a marked hyperprolactinemia. However, 30 weeks after estrogen withdrawal, TH neuron numbers in the ARC were back to normal and serum PRL returned to basal levels. After peripheral but not central estrogen withdrawal, pituitary weight and lactotrophic cell numbers remained slightly increased. Our data suggest that estrogen even at high doses, does not cause permanent damage to TIDA neurons.

  19. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-10-26

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD.

  20. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD. PMID:26499517

  1. Progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons induced by inflammatory responses to fipronil.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Park, Youn Sun; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2016-09-06

    Inflammatory responses are involved in mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the mechanisms whereby inflammatory responses contribute to loss of dopaminergic neurons in fipronil (FPN)-treated rats. After stereotaxic injection of FPN in the substantia nigra (SN), the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and the levels of TH expression in the SN decreased at 7days, and a significant decrease was observed at 14days with a subsequent reduction in striatal TH expression. Decreases in dopamine (DA) levels, however, began at 3days post-injection, preceding the changes in TH expression. In contrast, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was significantly increased at 3days and persisted for up to 14days post-lesion; these changes in GFAP expression appeared to be inversely correlated with TH expression. Furthermore, we found that FPN administration induced an inflammatory response characterized by increased levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which was mediated by activated microglia following infusion of FPN unilaterally into the SN. Intranigral injection of FPN underwent an inflammatory response with a resultant ongoing loss of dopaminergic neurons, indicating that pesticides may have important implication for the study of PD. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parkin functionally interacts with PGC-1α to preserve mitochondria and protect dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Bernard-Marissal, Nathalie; Moullan, Norman; D'Amico, Davide; Auwerx, Johan; Moore, Darren J; Knott, Graham; Aebischer, Patrick; Schneider, Bernard L

    2017-02-01

    To understand the cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), it is important to determine the functional interactions between factors linked to the disease. Parkin is associated with autosomal recessive early-onset PD, and controls the transcription of PGC-1α, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. These two factors functionally interact to regulate the turnover and quality of mitochondria, by increasing both mitophagic activity and mitochondria biogenesis. In cortical neurons, co-expressing PGC-1α and Parkin increases the number of mitochondria, enhances maximal respiration, and accelerates the recovery of the mitochondrial membrane potential following mitochondrial uncoupling. PGC-1α enhances Mfn2 transcription, but also leads to increased degradation of the Mfn2 protein, a key ubiquitylation target of Parkin on mitochondria. In vivo, Parkin has significant protective effects on the survival and function of nigral dopaminergic neurons in which the chronic expression of PGC-1α is induced. Ultrastructural analysis shows that these two factors together control the density of mitochondria and their interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum. These results highlight the combined effects of Parkin and PGC-1α in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons. These two factors synergistically control the quality and function of mitochondria, which is important for the survival of neurons in Parkinson's disease. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Motor Behavior Mediated by Continuously Generated Dopaminergic Neurons in the Zebrafish Hypothalamus Recovers After Cell Ablation

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Adam D.; Barrios, Joshua P.; Luks-Morgan, Sasha J.; Manfredi, John P.; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.; Douglass, Adam D.; Dorsky, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Postembryonic neurogenesis has been observed in several regions of the vertebrate brain, including the dentate gyrus and rostral migratory stream in mammals, and is required for normal behavior [1–3]. Recently the hypothalamus has also been shown to undergo continuous neurogenesis as a way to mediate energy balance [4–10]. As the hypothalamus regulates multiple functional outputs, it is likely that additional behaviors may be affected by postembryonic neurogenesis in this brain structure. Here, we have identified a progenitor population in the zebrafish hypothalamus that continuously generates neurons that express tyrosine hydroxylase 2 (th2). We develop and use novel transgenic tools to characterize the lineage of th2+ cells and demonstrate that they are dopaminergic. Through genetic ablation and optogenetic activation we then show that th2+ neurons modulate the initiation of swimming behavior in zebrafish larvae. Finally we find that the generation of new th2+ neurons following ablation correlates with restoration of normal behavior. This work thus identifies for the first time a population of dopaminergic neurons that regulates motor behavior capable of functional recovery. PMID:26774784

  4. Brn4 and TH synergistically promote the differentiation of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xuefeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Huixia; Qin, Jianbing; Tian, Meiling; Dong, Chuanming; Li, Haoming; Jin, Guohua

    2014-06-13

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are pluripotent cells capable of differentiation into dopaminergic (DA) neurons, which are the major cell types damaged in Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, NSCs are considered the most promising cell source for cell replacement therapy of PD. However, the poor differentiation and maturation of DA neurons and decreased cell survival after transplantation are a challenge. We have previously demonstrated that Brn4, a member of the POU domain family of transcription factors, induced the differentiation of NSCs into neurons and promoted their maturation. In this study, we directly transduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis, into NSCs to induce DA neuronal differentiation. However, these DA neurons were morphologically immature and seldom expressed dopamine transporter (DAT), a late marker of mature DA neurons. In contrast, TH co-transfected with Brn4 generated increased number of mature DA neurons. Furthermore, Brn4 significantly induced the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with its receptors GFRα-1 and Ret, which may contribute to the maturation and survival of differentiated DA neurons. Our findings may be of future importance for the use of NSCs in cell replacement therapy of PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated and manual patch clamp data of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Denise; Olsen, Hervør Lykke; Klink, Oliver; Gimsa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into dopaminergic neurons (Dopa.4U). Dopa.4U neurons expressed voltage-gated NaV and KV channels and showed neuron-like spontaneous electrical activity. In automated patch clamp measurements with suspended Dopa.4U neurons, delayed rectifier K+ current (delayed KV) and rapidly inactivating A-type K+ current (fast KV) were identified. Examination of the fast KV current with inhibitors yielded IC50 values of 0.4 mM (4-aminopyridine) and 0.1 mM (tetraethylammonium). In manual patch clamp measurements with adherent Dopa.4U neurons, fast KV current could not be detected, while the delayed KV current showed an IC50 of 2 mM for 4-aminopyridine. The NaV channels in adherent and suspended Dopa.4U neurons showed IC50 values for tetrodotoxin of 27 and 2.9 nM, respectively. GABA-induced currents that could be observed in adherent Dopa.4U neurons could not be detected in suspended cells. Application of current pulses induced action potentials in approx. 70 % of the cells. Our results proved the feasibility of automated electrophysiological characterization of neuronal cells. PMID:28440808

  6. Beneficial effects of carnosic acid on dieldrin-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Seung; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Chun-Sung; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Sung-Jun; Chun, Hong Sung

    2008-08-27

    Carnosic acid (CA) is one of the bioactive polyphenols present in extracts of the herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). In this study, we examined possible protective effects of CA on neurotoxicity induced by dieldrin, an organochlorine pesticide implicated in sporadic Parkinson's disease, in cultured dopaminergic cells (SN4741). CA (5-10 muM) pretreatment showed potent protective effects in a concentration-related manner and prevented dieldrin (10 muM)-induced caspase-3 activation, Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, and caspase-12 activation. Furthermore, dieldrin-induced downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor production was significantly attenuated by CA. These results suggest that CA may safeguard dopaminergic neuronal cells from environmental neurotoxins by enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and repressing apoptotic molecules.

  7. Histone Hyperacetylation Up-regulates Protein Kinase Cδ in Dopaminergic Neurons to Induce Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Kondru, Naveen; Ghosh, Anamitra; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKCδ expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKCδ gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKCδ expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKCδ promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKCδ promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKCδ promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKCδ up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKCδ sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKCδ expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease. PMID:25342743

  8. Nurr1 regulates Top IIβ and functions in axon genesis of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background NURR1 (also named as NR4A2) is a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family, which can bind to DNA and modulate expression of target genes. Previous studies have shown that NURR1 is essential for the nigral dopaminergic neuron phenotype and function maintenance, and the defects of the gene are possibly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Results In this study, we used new born Nurr1 knock-out mice combined with Affymetrix genechip technology and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Nurr1 regulated genes, which led to the discovery of several transcripts differentially expressed in the nigro-striatal pathway of Nurr1 knock-out mice. We found that an axon genesis gene called Topoisomerase IIβ (Top IIβ) was down-regulated in Nurr1 knock-out mice and we identified two functional NURR1 binding sites in the proximal Top IIβ promoter. While in Top IIβ null mice, we saw a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantial nigra and lack of neurites along the nigro-striatal pathway. Using specific TOP II antagonist ICRF-193 or Top IIβ siRNA in the primary cultures of ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons, we documented that suppression of TOP IIβ expression resulted in VM neurites shortening and growth cones collapsing. Furthermore, microinjection of ICRF-193 into the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB) led to the loss of nigro-striatal projection. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest that Top IIβ might be a down-stream target of Nurr1, which might influence the processes of axon genesis in dopaminergic neurons via the regulation of TOP IIβ expression. The Nurr1-Top IIβ interaction may shed light on the pathologic role of Nurr1 defect in the nigro-striatal pathway deficiency associated with PD. PMID:22296971

  9. Activity-dependent regulation of NMDA receptors in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurones

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Angela R; Jones, Susan; Gibb, Alasdair J

    2014-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are Ca2+-permeable glutamate receptors that play a critical role in synaptic plasticity and promoting cell survival. However, overactive NMDARs can trigger cell death signalling pathways and have been implicated in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) pathology in Parkinson's disease. Calcium ion influx through NMDARs recruits Ca2+-dependent proteins that can regulate NMDAR activity. The surface density of NMDARs can also be regulated dynamically in response to receptor activity via Ca2+-independent mechanisms. We have investigated the activity-dependent regulation of NMDARs in SNc dopaminergic neurones. Repeated whole-cell agonist applications resulted in a decline in the amplitude of NMDAR currents (current run-down) that was use dependent and not readily reversible. Run-down was reduced by increasing intracellular Ca2+ buffering or by reducing Ca2+ influx but did not appear to be mediated by the same regulatory proteins that cause Ca2+-dependent run-down in hippocampal neurones. The NMDAR current run-down may be mediated in part by a Ca2+-independent mechanism, because intracellular dialysis with a dynamin-inhibitory peptide reduced run-down, suggesting a role for clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the regulation of the surface density of receptors. Synaptic NMDARs were also subject to current run-down during repeated low-frequency synaptic stimulation in a Ca2+-dependent but dynamin-independent manner. Thus, we report, for the first time, regulation of NMDARs in SNc dopaminergic neurones by changes in intracellular Ca2+ at both synaptic and extrasynaptic sites and provide evidence for activity-dependent changes in receptor trafficking. These mechanisms may contribute to intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in dopaminergic neurones by limiting Ca2+ influx through the NMDAR. PMID:24344168

  10. Effect of Cell Adhesion Molecules on the Neurite Outgrowth of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Peng, Su-Ping; Schachner, Melitta; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2016-04-01

    Intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurons has been shown to be a potentially very effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). With the detection of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), an unlimited source of autologous dopaminergic (DA) neurons became available. Although the iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons exhibited most of the fundamental dopaminergic characteristics, detailed analysis and comparison with primary DA neurons have shown some aberrations in the expression of genes involved in neuronal development and neurite outgrowth. The limited outgrowth of the iPSC-derived DA neurons may hamper their potential application in cell transplantation therapy for PD. In the present study, we examined whether the forced expression of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) and polysialylated neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), via gene transduction, can promote the neurite formation and outgrowth of iPSC-derived DA neurons. In cultures on astrocyte layers, both adhesion factors significantly increased neurite formation of the adhesion factor overexpressing iPSC-derived DA neurons in comparison to control iPSC-derived DA neurons. The same tendency was observed when the DA neurons were plated on postnatal organotypic striatal slices; however, this effect did not reach statistical significance. Next, we examined the neurite outgrowth of the L1CAM- or PSA-NCAM-overexpressing iPSC-derived DA neurons after implantation in the striatum of unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, the animal model for PD. Like the outgrowth on the organotypic striatal slices, no significant L1CAM- and PSA-NCAM-enforced neurite outgrowth of the implanted DA neurons was observed. Apparently, induced expression of L1CAM or PSA-NCAM in the iPSC-derived DA neurons cannot completely restore the neurite outgrowth potential that was reduced in these DA neurons as a consequence of epigenetic aberrations resulting from the i

  11. Effects of Forskolin on Trefoil factor 1 expression in cultured ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P; Ducray, A D; Widmer, H R; Meyer, M

    2015-12-03

    Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) belongs to a family of secreted peptides that are mainly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Notably, TFF1 has been suggested to operate as a neuropeptide, however, its specific cellular expression, regulation and function remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that TFF1 is expressed in developing and adult rat ventral mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons. Here, we investigated the expression of TFF1 in rat ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons (embryonic day 14) grown in culture for 5, 7 or 10 days in the absence (controls) or presence of either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Forskolin or the combination. No TFF1-ir cells were identified at day 5 and only a few at day 7, whereas TH was markedly expressed at both time points. At day 10, several TFF1-ir cells were detected, and their numbers were significantly increased after the addition of GDNF (2.2-fold) or Forskolin (4.1-fold) compared to controls. Furthermore, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin had an additive effect and increased the number of TFF1-ir cells by 5.6-fold compared to controls. TFF1 expression was restricted to neuronal cells, and the percentage of TH/TFF1 co-expressing cells was increased to the same extent in GDNF and Forskolin-treated cultures (4-fold) as compared to controls. Interestingly, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin resulted in a significantly increased co-expression (8-fold) of TH/TFF1, which could indicate that GDNF and Forskolin targeted different subpopulations of TH/TFF1 neurons. Short-term treatment with Forskolin resulted in an increased number of TFF1-ir cells, and this effect was significantly reduced by the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 or the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89, suggesting that Forskolin induced TFF1 expression through diverse signaling pathways. In conclusion, distinct populations of cultured dopaminergic neurons express TFF1, and their numbers can be

  12. Effect of inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Paredes, J M; Gonzalez-Castañeda, R E; Escalante-Castañeda, A; Tejeda-Martínez, A R; Castañeda-Achutiguí, F; Flores-Soto, M E

    2017-01-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by balance problems, muscle rigidity, and slow movement due to low dopamine levels and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate the nigrostriatal pathway through endogenous ligands such as anandamide (AEA), which is hydrolysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The purpose of this study was to increase AEA levels using FAAH inhibitor URB597 to evaluate the modulatory effect of AEA on dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our study included 4 experimental groups (n = 6 mice per group): a control group receiving no treatment, a group receiving URB597 (0.2mg/kg) every 3 days for 30 days, a group treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 5 days, and a group receiving URB597 and subsequently MPTP injections. Three days after the last dose, we conducted a series of behavioural tests (beam test, pole test, and stride length test) to compare motor coordination between groups. We subsequently analysed immunoreactivity of dopaminergic cells and microglia in the SNpc and striatum. Mice treated with URB597 plus MPTP were found to perform better on behavioural tests than mice receiving MPTP only. According to the immunohistochemistry study, mice receiving MPTP showed fewer dopaminergic cells and fibres in the SNpc and striatum. Animals treated with URB597 plus MPTP displayed increased tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity compared to those treated with MPTP only. Regarding microglial immunoreactivity, the group receiving MPTP showed higher Iba1 immunoreactivity in the striatum and SNpc than did the group treated with URB597 plus MPTP. Our results show that URB597 exerts a protective effect since it inhibits dopaminergic neuronal death, decreases microglial immunoreactivity, and improves MPTP-induced motor alterations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado

  13. Effects of molindone on central dopaminergic neuronal activity and metabolism: similarity to other neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Bunney, B S; Roth, R H; Aghajanian, G K

    1975-01-01

    The effect of molindone on the activity of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the rat midbrain and on DA metabolism in the striatum and olfactory tubercles was studied using extracellular single unit recording and biochemical techniques respectively. Molindone in low intravenous doses (0.4-0.8 mg/kg) was found to reverse d-amphetamine and apomorphine induced depression of DA neurons and to block apomorphine induced depression of these cells. Molindone was also found to increase dopamine synthesis and dihydroxyphenylactic acid levels in the striatum and olfacotry tubercles. In all of these respects molindone behaves identically to most classical neuroleptics. However, unlike most antipsychotic drugs previously tested, molindone failed to increase the baseline firing rate of DA cells and blocked haloperidol induced increases in DA neuron activity. In this regard molindone most closely resembles thioridazine and clozapine. Possible mechanisms of action of molindone are discussed based on these findings.

  14. Early postnatal administration of growth hormone increases tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neuron numbers in Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Khodr, Christina E; Clark, Sara; Bokov, Alex F; Richardson, Arlan; Strong, Randy; Hurley, David L; Phelps, Carol J

    2010-07-01

    Hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons secrete dopamine, which inhibits pituitary prolactin (PRL) secretion. PRL has demonstrated neurotrophic effects on TIDA neuron development in PRL-, GH-, and TSH-deficient Ames (df/df) and Snell (dw/dw) dwarf mice. However, both PRL and PRL receptor knockout mice exhibit normal-sized TIDA neuron numbers, implying GH and/or TSH influence TIDA neuron development. The current study investigated the effect of porcine (p) GH on TIDA neuron development in Ames dwarf hypothalamus. Normal (DF/df) and dwarf mice were treated daily with pGH or saline beginning at 3 d of age for a period of 42 d. After treatment, brains were analyzed using catecholamine histofluorescence, tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunocytochemistry to detect BrdU incorporation. DF/df males and df/df treated with pGH experienced increased (P neuron numbers than df/df, regardless of treatment. TIDA neuron number in pGH-treated df/df was greater (P neurons were not affected by treatment or genotype. There was no effect of genotype or treatment on BrdU incorporation in the arcuate nucleus, median eminence, or periventricular region surrounding the third ventricle. Saline-treated df/df experienced decreased (P neuron development, although this effect is less potent than that of PRL, and likely GH-induced preservation of TIDA neurons rather than generation of new TIDA neurons via neurogenesis.

  15. Lipid-like components released from degenerating dopaminergic neurons trigger the dynamic migration of microglia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyemin; Park, June-Hee; Kim, Kyungjin

    2012-09-14

    In the brain, communication between neural and non-neural cells is crucial for the proper functioning of the central nervous system. Microglia play an important role in the clearance of neural cellular corpses and debris, especially under pathological conditions. It remains, however, unclear how microglia sense the degenerating neurons at a distance in order to migrate to them. In the present study, we explored the interaction between neurons and microglia using an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In primary mesencephalic neuronal cultures, 1-methyl-4-phenylpridinium (MPP(+)) induced the selective death of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Transmigration assay showed that the conditioned medium (CM) from mesencephalic cultures treated with MPP(+) was enough to trigger the attraction of microglia at an early as well as a late phase of neuronal damage. Microglia preferably reacted with the soluble parts separated by ultracentrifugation over the neural debris-containing pellets. This chemoattractive activity was significantly reduced by the removal of the lipidic components in CM, but not by the removal of proteins, DNA or RNA. These results suggest that as yet-unidentified lipid-like components released from dying DAergic neurons are likely to recruit microglia, and thus have a role in neuronal damage.

  16. N-oleoyldopamine modulates activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Olga A; De Luca, Roberto; Mazur, Karolina; Chepkova, Aissa N; Haas, Helmut L; Bauer, Andreas

    2017-04-09

    N-oleoyl-dopamine (OLDA) is an amide of dopamine and oleic acid, synthesized in catecholaminergic neurons. The present study investigates OLDA targets in midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Substantia Nigra compacta (SNc) DA neurons recorded in brain slices were excited by OLDA in wild type mice. In transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout (KO) mice, however, SNc DA neurons displayed sustained inhibition of firing. In the presence of the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist sulpiride or the dopamine transporter blocker nomifensine no such inhibition was observed. Under sulpiride OLDA slightly excited SNc DA neurons, an action abolished upon combined application of the cannabinoid1 and 2 receptor antagonists AM251 and AM630. In ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons from TRPV1 KO mice a transient inhibition of firing by OLDA was observed. Thus OLDA modulates the firing of nigrostriatal DA neurons through interactions with TRPV1, cannabinoid receptors and dopamine uptake. These findings suggest further development of OLDA-like tandem molecules for the treatment of movement disorders including Parkinson's disease.

  17. Human polymorphisms in nicotinic receptors: a functional analysis in iPS-derived dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Deflorio, Cristina; Blanchard, Stéphane; Carisì, Maria Carla; Bohl, Delphine; Maskos, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is a public health problem, with ∼5 million deaths per year, representing a heavy burden for many countries. No effective therapeutic strategies are currently available for nicotine addiction, and it is therefore crucial to understand the etiological and pathophysiological factors contributing to this addiction. The neuronal α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit is critically involved in nicotine dependence. In particular, the human polymorphism α5D398N corresponds to the strongest correlation with nicotine dependence risk found to date in occidental populations, according to meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. To understand the specific contribution of this subunit in the context of nicotine addiction, an efficient screening system for native human nAChRs is needed. We have differentiated human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons and obtained a comprehensive characterization of these neurons by quantitative RT-PCR. The functional properties of nAChRs expressed in these human DA neurons, with or without the polymorphism in the α5 subunit, were studied with the patch-clamp electrophysiological technique. Our results in human DA neurons carrying the polymorphism in the α5 subunit showed an increase in EC50, indicating that, in the presence of the polymorphism, more nicotine or acetylcholine chloride is necessary to obtain the same effect. This human cell culturing system can now be used in drug discovery approaches to screen for compounds that interact specifically with human native and polymorphic nAChRs.-Deflorio, C., Blanchard, S., Carisì, M. C., Bohl, D., Maskos, U. Human polymorphisms in nicotinic receptors: a functional analysis in iPS-derived dopaminergic neurons.

  18. Differential Neuronal Plasticity of Dental Pulp Stem Cells From Exfoliated Deciduous and Permanent Teeth Towards Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Debanjana; Kanafi, Mohammad; Bhonde, Ramesh; Gupta, Pawan; Datta, Indrani

    2016-09-01

    Based on early occurrence in chronological age, stem-cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) has been reported to possess better differentiation-potential toward certain cell-lineage in comparison to stem-cells from adult teeth (DPSCs). Whether this same property between them extends for the yield of functional central nervous system neurons is still not evaluated. Hence, we aim to assess the neuronal plasticity of SHED in comparison to DPSCs toward dopaminergic-neurons and further, if the difference is reflected in a differential expression of sonic-hedgehog (SHH)-receptors and basal-expressions of tyrosine-hydroxylase [TH; through cAMP levels]. Human SHED and DPSCs were exposed to midbrain-cues [SHH, fibroblast growth-factor8, and basic fibroblast growth-factor], and their molecular, immunophenotypical, and functional characterization was performed at different time-points of induction. Though SHED and DPSCs spontaneously expressed early-neuronal and neural-crest marker in their naïve state, only SHED expressed a high basal-expression of TH. The upregulation of dopaminergic transcription-factors Nurr1, Engrailed1, and Pitx3 was more pronounced in DPSCs. The yield of TH-expressing cells decreased from 49.8% to 32.16% in SHED while it increased from 8.09% to 77.47% in DPSCs. Dopamine release and intracellular-Ca(2+) influx upon stimulation (KCl and ATP) was higher in induced DPSCs. Significantly lower-expression of SHH-receptors was noted in naïve SHED than DPSCs, which may explain the differential neuronal plasticity. In addition, unlike DPSCs, SHED showed a down-regulation of cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) upon exposure to SHH; possibly another contributor to the lesser differentiation-potential. Our data clearly demonstrates for the first time that DPSCs possess superior neuronal plasticity toward dopaminergic-neurons than SHED; influenced by higher SHH-receptor and lower basal TH expression. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2048-2063, 2016. © 2016

  19. Laser Acupuncture at HT7 Acupoint Improves Cognitive Deficit, Neuronal Loss, Oxidative Stress, and Functions of Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Systems in Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Sutalangka, Chatchada

    2014-01-01

    To date, the therapeutic strategy against cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still not in satisfaction level and requires novel effective intervention. Based the oxidative stress reduction and cognitive enhancement induced by laser acupuncture at HT7, the beneficial effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 against cognitive impairment in PD has been focused. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 on memory impairment, oxidative stress status, and the functions of both cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in hippocampus of animal model of PD. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were induced unilateral lesion at right substantianigra by 6-OHDA and were treated with laser acupuncture continuously at a period of 14 days. The results showed that laser acupuncture at HT7 enhanced memory and neuron density in CA3 and dentate gyrus. The decreased AChE, MAO-B, and MDA together with increased GSH-Px in hippocampus of a 6-OHDA lesion rats were also observed. In conclusion, laser acupuncture at HT7 can improve neuron degeneration and memory impairment in animal model of PD partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the improved cholinergic and dopaminergic functions. More researches concerning effect of treatment duration are still required.

  20. Functional Dopaminergic Neurons in Substantia Nigra are Required for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Induced Motor Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Huang, Ying-Zu; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Wang, Jia-Yi; Chen, Jia-Jin J

    2015-07-01

    Repetitive magnetic stimulation (rTMS), including theta burst stimulation (TBS), is capable of modulating motor cortical excitability through plasticity-like mechanisms and might have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD). An animal model would be helpful for elucidating the mechanism of rTMS that remain unclear and controversial. Here, we have established a TMS model in rat and applied this model to study the impact of substantia nigra dopamine neuron on TBS-induced motor plasticity in PD rats. In parallel with human results, continuous TBS (cTBS) successfully suppressed motor evoked potentials (MEPs), while MEPs increased after intermittent TBS (iTBS) in healthy rats. We then tested the effect of iTBS in early and advanced 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned PD. Moreover, dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and rotation behavior were assessed to correlate with the amount of iTBS-induced plasticity. In results, iTBS-induced potentiation was reduced in early PD rats and was absent in advanced PD rats. Such reduction in plasticity strongly correlated with the dopaminergic cell loss and the count of rotation in PD rats. In conclusion, we have established a TMS PD rat model. With the help of this model, we confirmed the loss of domaninergic neurons in substantia nigra resulting in reduced rTMS-induced motor plasticity in PD.

  1. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, protects dopaminergic neurons from neurotoxin-induced damage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, SH; Wu, HM; Ossola, B; Schendzielorz, N; Wilson, BC; Chu, CH; Chen, SL; Wang, Q; Zhang, D; Qian, L; Li, X; Hong, JS; Lu, RB

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Prevention or disease-modifying therapies are critical for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. However, no such intervention is currently available. Growing evidence has demonstrated that administration of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors ameliorates a wide range of neurologic and psychiatric disorders in experimental models. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) was the first HDAC inhibitor approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the sole use of cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential new indications of SAHA for therapy of neurodegenerative diseases in in vitro Parkinson's disease models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mesencephalic neuron–glia cultures and reconstituted cultures were used to investigate neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of SAHA. We measured toxicity in dopaminergic neurons, using dopamine uptake assay and morphological analysis and expression of neurotrophic substances by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time RT PCR. KEY RESULTS In mesencephalic neuron–glia cultures, SAHA displayed dose- and time-dependent prolongation of the survival and protection against neurotoxin-induced neuronal death of dopaminergic neurons. Mechanistic studies revealed that the neuroprotective effects of SAHA were mediated in part by promoting release of neurotrophic factors from astroglia through inhibition of histone deacetylation. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS The novel neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of SAHA demonstrated in this study suggest that further study of this HDAC inhibitor could provide a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21726209

  2. Aminochrome induces dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction: a new animal model for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Andrea; Muñoz, Patricia; Paris, Irmgard; Díaz-Veliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Inzunza, Jose; Hultenby, Kjell; Cardenas, Cesar; Jaña, Fabián; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Gysling, Katia; Abarca, Jorge; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2016-09-01

    L-Dopa continues to be the gold drug in Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment from 1967. The failure to translate successful results from preclinical to clinical studies can be explained by the use of preclinical models which do not reflect what happens in the disease since these induce a rapid and extensive degeneration; for example, MPTP induces a severe Parkinsonism in only 3 days in humans contrasting with the slow degeneration and progression of PD. This study presents a new anatomy and develops preclinical model based on aminochrome which induces a slow and progressive dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons. The unilateral injection of aminochrome into rat striatum resulted in (1) contralateral rotation when the animals are stimulated with apomorphine; (2) absence of significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neuronal elements both in substantia nigra and striatum; (3) cell shrinkage; (4) significant reduction of dopamine release; (5) significant increase in GABA release; (6) significant decrease in the number of monoaminergic presynaptic vesicles; (7) significant increase of dopamine concentration inside of monoaminergic vesicles; (8) significant increase of damaged mitochondria; (9) significant decrease of ATP level in the striatum (10) significant decrease in basal and maximal mitochondrial respiration. These results suggest that aminochrome induces dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons where the contralateral behavior can be explained by aminochrome-induced ATP decrease required both for anterograde transport of synaptic vesicles and dopamine release. Aminochrome could be implemented as a new model neurotoxin to study Parkinson's disease.

  3. Effects of dopaminergic modulation on the integrative properties of the ventral striatal medium spiny neuron.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Jason T; Wolf, John A; Finkel, Leif H

    2007-12-01

    Dopaminergic modulation produces a variety of functional changes in the principal cell of the striatum, the medium spiny neuron (MSN). Using a 189-compartment computational model of a ventral striatal MSN, we simulated whole cell D1- and D2-receptor-mediated modulation of both intrinsic (sodium, calcium, and potassium) and synaptic currents (AMPA and NMDA). Dopamine (DA) modulations in the model were based on a review of published experiments in both ventral and dorsal striatum. To objectively assess the net effects of DA modulation, we combined reported individual channel modulations into either D1- or D2-receptor modulation conditions and studied them separately. Contrary to previous suggestions, we found that D1 modulation had no effect on MSN nonlinearity and could not induce bistability. In agreement with previous suggestions, we found that dopaminergic modulation leads to changes in input filtering and neuronal excitability. Importantly, the changes in neuronal excitability agree with the classical model of basal ganglia function. We also found that DA modulation can alter the integration time window of the MSN. Interestingly, the effects of DA modulation of synaptic properties opposed the effects of DA modulation of intrinsic properties, with the synaptic modulations generally dominating the net effect. We interpret this lack of synergy to suggest that the regulation of whole cell integrative properties is not the primary functional purpose of DA. We suggest that D1 modulation might instead primarily regulate calcium influx to dendritic spines through NMDA and L-type calcium channels, by both direct and indirect mechanisms.

  4. Induction of dopaminergic neurons from human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cell by forskolin.

    PubMed

    Paldino, Emanuela; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Giampaolo, Adele; Milazzo, Luisa; Pescatori, Mario; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Casalbore, Patrizia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells differentiation ability toward neuronal fate. Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSC) have been isolated from human umbilical cord of full-term births and characterized by flow cytometry analysis for their stem mesenchymal properties through specific surface markers expression (CD73, CD90, and CD105). hWJMSC mesodermal lineage differentiation ability and karyotype analysis were assessed. The trans-differentiation of hWJMSC into neural lineage was investigated in presence of forskolin, an agent known to increase the intracellular levels of cAMP. A molecular profile of differentiated hWJMSC was performed by microarray technology which revealed 1,532 statistically significant modulated genes respect to control cells. Most of these genes are mainly involved in functional neuronal signaling pathways and part of them are specifically required for the neuronal dopaminergic induction. The acquisition of the dopaminergic phenotype was evaluated via immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed the significant induction of Nurr1, NeuroD1, and TH proteins expression in forskolin-induced hWJMSC. Moreover, the treatment with forskolin promoted, in hWJMSC, a strong upregulation of the neurotrophin Trk receptors related to the high release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Taken together these findings show that hWJMSC may be represent an optimal therapeutic strategy for neurological diseases.

  5. Chemicals Possessing a Neurotrophin-Like Activity on Dopaminergic Neurons in Primary Culture

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Fanny; Champy, Pierre; Séon-Méniel, Blandine; Franck, Xavier; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Figadère, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Background Neurotrophic factors have been shown to possess strong neuroprotective and neurorestaurative properties in Parkinson's disease patients. However the issues to control their delivery into the interest areas of the brain and their surgical administration linked to their unability to cross the blood brain barrier are many drawbacks responsible of undesirable side effects limiting their clinical use. A strategy implying the use of neurotrophic small molecules could provide an interesting alternative avoiding neurotrophin administration and side effects. In an attempt to develop drugs mimicking neurotrophic factors, we have designed and synthesized low molecular weight molecules that exhibit neuroprotective and neuritogenic potential for dopaminergic neurons. Principal Findings A cell-based screening of an in-house quinoline-derived compound collection led to the characterization of compounds exhibiting both activities in the nanomolar range on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in spontaneous or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced neurodegeneration. This study provides evidence that rescued neurons possess a functional dopamine transporter and underlines the involvement of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway in these processes. Conclusion Cell-based screening led to the discovery of a potent neurotrophic compound possessing expected physico-chemical properties for blood brain barrier penetration as a serious candidate for therapeutic use in Parkinson disease. PMID:19593444

  6. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics induced by tebufenpyrad and pyridaben in a dopaminergic neuronal cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Charli, Adhithiya; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2015-01-01

    Tebufenpyrad and pyridaben are two agro-chemically important acaricides that function like the known mitochondrial toxicant rotenone. Although these two compounds have been commonly used to kill populations of mites and ticks in commercial greenhouses, their neurotoxic profiles remain largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these two pesticides on mitochondrial structure and function in an in vitro cell culture model using the Seahorse bioanalyzer and confocal fluorescence imaging. The effects were compared with rotenone. Exposing rat dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 cells) to tebufenpyrad and pyridaben for 3 h induced dose-dependent cell death with an EC50 of 3.98 μM and 3.77 μM, respectively. Also, tebufenpyrad and pyridaben (3 μM) exposure induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and m-aconitase damage, suggesting that the pesticide toxicity is associated with oxidative damage. Morphometric image analysis with the MitoTracker red fluorescent probe indicated that tebufenpyrad and pyridaben, as well as rotenone, caused abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology, including reduced mitochondrial length and circularity. Functional bioenergetic experiments using the Seahorse XF96 analyzer revealed that tebufenpyrad and pyridaben very rapidly suppressed the basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate similar to that of rotenone. Further analysis of bioenergetic curves also revealed dose-dependent decreases in ATP-linked respiration and respiratory capacity. The luminescence-based ATP measurement further confirmed that pesticide-induced mitochondrial inhibition of respiration is accompanied by the loss of cellular ATP. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to the pesticides tebufenpyrad and pyridaben induces neurotoxicity by rapidly initiating mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Our findings also reveal that monitoring the kinetics of mitochondrial respiration with Seahorse could be used

  7. Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Dopaminergic Neuron-like Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chun, So Young; Soker, Shay; Jang, Yu-Jin; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Yoo, Eun Sang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the potential of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro as an autologous stem cell source for Parkinson's disease treatment. The hDPSCs were expanded in knockout-embryonic stem cell (KO-ES) medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on gelatin-coated plates for 3-4 days. Then, the medium was replaced with KO-ES medium without LIF to allow the formation of the neurosphere for 4 days. The neurosphere was transferred into ITS medium, containing ITS (human insulin-transferrin-sodium) and fibronectin, to select for Nestin-positive cells for 6-8 days. The cells were then cultured in N-2 medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF-8b, sonic hedgehog-N, and ascorbic acid on poly-l-ornithine/fibronectin-coated plates to expand the Nestin-positive cells for up to 2 weeks. Finally, the cells were transferred into N-2/ascorbic acid medium to allow for their differentiation into dopaminergic neurons for 10-15 days. The differentiation stages were confirmed by morphological, immunocytochemical, flow cytometric, real-time PCR, and ELISA analyses. The expressions of mesenchymal stem cell markers were observed at the early stages. The expressions of early neuronal markers were maintained throughout the differentiation stages. The mature neural markers showed increased expression from stage 3 onwards. The percentage of cells positive for tyrosine hydroxylase was 14.49%, and the amount was 0.526 ± 0.033 ng/mL at the last stage. hDPSCs can differentiate into dopaminergic neural cells under experimental cell differentiation conditions, showing potential as an autologous cell source for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  8. Environmental Neurotoxic Pesticide Increases Histone Acetylation to Promote Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells: Relevance to Epigenetic Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Song, C.; Kanthasamy, A.; Anantharam, V.; Sun, F.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide exposure has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD); in particular, the organochlorine insecticide dieldrin is believed to be associated with PD. Emerging evidence indicates that histone modifications play a critical role in cell death. In this study, we examined the effects of dieldrin treatment on histone acetylation and its role in dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neuronal cells. In mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells, dieldrin induced a time-dependent increase in the acetylation of core histones H3 and H4. Histone acetylation occurred within 10 min of dieldrin exposure indicating that acetylation is an early event in dieldrin neurotoxicity. The hyperacetylation was attributed to dieldrin-induced proteasomal dysfunction, resulting in accumulation of a key histone acetyltransferase (HAT), cAMP response element-binding protein. The novel HAT inhibitor anacardic acid significantly attenuated dieldrin-induced histone acetylation, Protein kinase C δ proteolytic activation and DNA fragmentation in dopaminergic cells protected against dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in primary mesencephalic neuronal cultures. Furthermore, 30-day exposure of dieldrin in mouse models induced histone hyperacetylation in the striatum and substantia nigra. For the first time, our results collectively demonstrate that exposure to the neurotoxic pesticide dieldrin induces acetylation of core histones because of proteasomal dysfunction and that hyperacetylation plays a key role in dopaminergic neuronal degeneration after exposure of dieldrin. PMID:20097775

  9. DJ-1 Null Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells Exhibit Defects in Mitochondrial Function and Structure: Involvement of Mitochondrial Complex I Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jun Young; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Soung Jung; Seo, Kang Sik; Han, Jeong Su; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Jong Il; Park, Seung Kiel; Lim, Kyu; Hwang, Byung Doo; Shong, Minho; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2012-01-01

    DJ-1 is a Parkinson's disease-associated gene whose protein product has a protective role in cellular homeostasis by removing cytosolic reactive oxygen species and maintaining mitochondrial function. However, it is not clear how DJ-1 regulates mitochondrial function and why mitochondrial dysfunction is induced by DJ-1 deficiency. In a previous study we showed that DJ-1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells exhibit defective mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I activity. In the present article we investigated the role of DJ-1 in complex I formation by using blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 2-dimensional gel analysis to assess native complex status. On the basis of these experiments, we concluded that DJ-1 null cells have a defect in the assembly of complex I. Concomitant with abnormal complex I formation, DJ-1 null cells show defective supercomplex formation. It is known that aberrant formation of the supercomplex impairs the flow of electrons through the channels between respiratory chain complexes, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. We took two approaches to study these mitochondrial defects. The first approach assessed the structural defect by using both confocal microscopy with MitoTracker staining and electron microscopy. The second approach assessed the functional defect by measuring ATP production, O2 consumption, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, we showed that the assembly defect as well as the structural and functional abnormalities in DJ-1 null cells could be reversed by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of DJ-1, demonstrating the specificity of DJ-1 on these mitochondrial properties. These mitochondrial defects induced by DJ-1mutation may be a pathological mechanism for the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:22403686

  10. Therapeutic immunization protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Eric J.; Mosley, R. Lee; Destache, Chris J.; Lewis, Travis B.; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Gorantla, Santhi; Nemachek, Craig; Green, Steven R.; Przedborski, Serge; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2004-01-01

    Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the hallmark of Parkinson's disease, can be recapitulated in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated mice. Herein, we demonstrate that adoptive transfer of copolymer-1 immune cells to MPTP recipient mice leads to T cell accumulation within the substantia nigra pars compacta, suppression of microglial activation, and increased local expression of astrocyte-associated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. This immunization strategy resulted in significant protection of nigrostriatal neurons against MPTP-induced neurodegeneration that was abrogated by depletion of donor T cells. Such vaccine treatment strategies may provide benefit for Parkinson's disease. PMID:15197276

  11. Activation of transcription factor MEF2D by bis(3)-cognitin protects dopaminergic neurons and ameliorates Parkinsonian motor defects.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lu; Li, Wenming; She, Hua; Dou, Juan; Jia, Leili; He, Yingli; Yang, Qian; Zhu, Jinqiu; Cápiro, Natalie L; Walker, Douglas I; Pennell, Kurt D; Pang, Yuanping; Liu, Yong; Han, Yifan; Mao, Zixu

    2012-10-05

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the selective demise of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantial nigra pars compacta. Dysregulation of transcriptional factor myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) has been implicated in the pathogenic process in in vivo and in vitro models of PD. Here, we identified a small molecule bis(3)-cognitin (B3C) as a potent activator of MEF2D. We showed that B3C attenuated the toxic effects of neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) by activating MEF2D via multiple mechanisms. B3C significantly reduced MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress and potentiated Akt to down-regulate the activity of MEF2 inhibitor glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in a DA neuronal cell line SN4741. Furthermore, B3C effectively rescued MEF2D from MPP(+)-induced decline in both nucleic and mitochondrial compartments. B3C offered SN4741 cells potent protection against MPP(+)-induced apoptosis via MEF2D. Interestingly, B3C also protected SN4741 cells from wild type or mutant A53T α-synuclein-induced cytotoxicity. Using the in vivo PD model of C57BL/6 mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP), we showed that B3C maintained redox homeostasis, promoted Akt function activity, and restored MEF2D level in midbrain neurons. Moreover, B3C greatly prevented the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase signal in substantial nigra pars compacta DA neurons and ameliorated behavioral impairments in mice treated with MPTP. Collectedly, our studies identified B3C as a potent neuroprotective agent whose effectiveness relies on its ability to effectively up-regulate MEF2D in DA neurons against toxic stress in models of PD in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Activation of Transcription Factor MEF2D by Bis(3)-cognitin Protects Dopaminergic Neurons and Ameliorates Parkinsonian Motor Defects*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lu; Li, Wenming; She, Hua; Dou, Juan; Jia, Leili; He, Yingli; Yang, Qian; Zhu, Jinqiu; Cápiro, Natalie L.; Walker, Douglas I.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Pang, Yuanping; Liu, Yong; Han, Yifan; Mao, Zixu

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the selective demise of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantial nigra pars compacta. Dysregulation of transcriptional factor myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) has been implicated in the pathogenic process in in vivo and in vitro models of PD. Here, we identified a small molecule bis(3)-cognitin (B3C) as a potent activator of MEF2D. We showed that B3C attenuated the toxic effects of neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) by activating MEF2D via multiple mechanisms. B3C significantly reduced MPP+-induced oxidative stress and potentiated Akt to down-regulate the activity of MEF2 inhibitor glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in a DA neuronal cell line SN4741. Furthermore, B3C effectively rescued MEF2D from MPP+-induced decline in both nucleic and mitochondrial compartments. B3C offered SN4741 cells potent protection against MPP+-induced apoptosis via MEF2D. Interestingly, B3C also protected SN4741 cells from wild type or mutant A53T α-synuclein-induced cytotoxicity. Using the in vivo PD model of C57BL/6 mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP), we showed that B3C maintained redox homeostasis, promoted Akt function activity, and restored MEF2D level in midbrain neurons. Moreover, B3C greatly prevented the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase signal in substantial nigra pars compacta DA neurons and ameliorated behavioral impairments in mice treated with MPTP. Collectedly, our studies identified B3C as a potent neuroprotective agent whose effectiveness relies on its ability to effectively up-regulate MEF2D in DA neurons against toxic stress in models of PD in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22891246

  13. Electrophysiological characterization of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in partially lesioned rats: effects of subthalamotomy and levodopa treatment.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Gaizka; Ruiz-Ortega, Jose Angel; Miguens, Natalia; Ulibarri, Isabel; Linazasoro, Gurutz; Gómez-Urquijo, Sonia; Garibi, Jesús; Ugedo, Luisa

    2006-04-21

    Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is the main histopathological characteristic of Parkinson's disease. We studied the electrophysiological characteristics of the spontaneous activity of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons in rats with a partial, unilateral, 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway. In addition, the effects of subthalamotomy and prolonged levodopa treatment on the activity of dopaminergic neurons were investigated. As a result of the lesion ( approximately 50% neuronal loss), the number of spontaneously active neurons was significantly reduced. Basal firing rate, burst firing and responsiveness to intravenously administered apomorphine remained unchanged. In contrast, the variation coefficient, a measure of interspike interval regularity, was significantly increased. Ibotenic acid (10 microg) lesion of the ipsilateral subthalamic nucleus in lesioned rats did not modify the electrophysiological parameters. However, prolonged levodopa treatment (100 mg/kg/day + benserazide 25 mg/kg/day, 14 days) reversed the irregularity observed in cells from lesioned rats, while it induced an irregular firing pattern in cells from intact rats. Our results using an experimental model of moderate Parkinson's disease indicate that surviving substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons fire irregularly. In this model, subthalamotomy does not modify the firing pattern while levodopa treatment efficiently restores normal firing of SNpc neurons and does not appear to be toxic to them.

  14. Neuronal precursors within the adult rat subventricular zone differentiate into dopaminergic neurons after substantia nigra lesion and chromaffin cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Hernández-López, Salvador; Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Bargas, José; Hernández-Cruz, Arturo; Drucker-Colín, René

    2006-11-15

    Neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain continues in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Neuronal precursors from the SVZ migrate along the rostral migratory stream to replace olfactory bulb interneurons. After the destruction of the nigro-striatal pathway (SN-lesion), some SVZ precursors begin to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal markers (NeuN). Grafting of chromaffin cells (CCs) into the denervated striatum increases the number of TH+ cells (SVZ TH+ cells; Arias-Carrión et al., 2004). This study examines the functional properties of these newly differentiating TH+ cells. Under whole-cell patch-clamp, most SVZ cells recorded from lesioned and grafted animals (either TH+ or TH-) were non-excitable. Nevertheless, a small percentage of SVZ TH+ cells had the electrophysiologic phenotype of mature dopaminergic neurons and showed spontaneous postsynaptic potentials. Dopamine (DA) release was measured in SVZ and striatum from both control and SN-lesioned rats. As expected, 12 weeks after SN lesion, DA release decreased drastically. Nevertheless, 8 weeks after CCs graft, release from the SVZ of SN-lesioned rats recovered, and even surpassed that from control SVZ, suggesting that newly formed SVZ TH+ cells release DA. This study shows for the first time that in response to SN-lesions and CC grafts neural precursors within the SVZ change their developmental program, by not only expressing TH, but more importantly by acquiring excitable properties of mature dopaminergic neurons. Additionally, the release of DA in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and the attraction of synaptic afferents from neighboring neuronal networks gives further significance to the overall findings, whose potential importance is discussed.

  15. Generation of embryonic stem cells and transgenic mice expressing green fluorescence protein in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suling; Maxwell, Sarah; Jimenez-Beristain, Antonio; Vives, Joaquim; Kuehner, Eva; Zhao, Jiexin; O'Brien, Carmel; de Felipe, Carmen; Semina, Elena; Li, Meng

    2004-03-01

    We have generated embryonic stem (ES) cells and transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) inserted into the Pitx3 locus via homologous recombination. In the central nervous system, Pitx3-directed GFP was visualized in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Live primary DA neurons can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from these transgenic mouse embryos. In culture, Pitx3-GFP is coexpressed in a proportion of ES-derived DA neurons. Furthermore, ES cell-derived Pitx3-GFP expressing DA neurons responded to neurotrophic factors and were sensitive to DA-specific neurotoxin N-4-methyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine. We anticipate that the Pitx3-GFP ES cells could be used as a powerful model system for functional identification of molecules governing mDA neuron differentiation and for preclinical research including pharmaceutical drug screening and transplantation. The Pitx3 knock-in mice, on the other hand, could be used for purifying primary neurons for molecular studies associated with the midbrain-specific DA phenotype at a level not previously feasible. These mice would also provide a useful tool to study DA fate determination from embryo- or adult-derived neural stem cells.

  16. Dissecting the role of Engrailed in adult dopaminergic neurons--Insights into Parkinson disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rekaik, Hocine; Blaudin de Thé, François-Xavier; Prochiantz, Alain; Fuchs, Julia; Joshi, Rajiv L

    2015-12-21

    The homeoprotein Engrailed (Engrailed-1/Engrailed-2, collectively En1/2) is not only a survival factor for mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons during development, but continues to exert neuroprotective and physiological functions in adult mDA neurons. Loss of one En1 allele in the mouse leads to progressive demise of mDA neurons in the ventral midbrain starting from 6 weeks of age. These mice also develop Parkinson disease-like motor and non-motor symptoms. The characterization of En1 heterozygous mice have revealed striking parallels to central mechanisms of Parkinson disease pathogenesis, mainly related to mitochondrial dysfunction and retrograde degeneration. Thanks to the ability of homeoproteins to transduce cells, En1/2 proteins have also been used to protect mDA neurons in various experimental models of Parkinson disease. This neuroprotection is partly linked to the ability of En1/2 to regulate the translation of certain nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs for complex I subunits. Other transcription factors that govern mDA neuron development (e.g. Foxa1/2, Lmx1a/b, Nurr1, Otx2, Pitx3) also continue to function for the survival and maintenance of mDA neurons in the adult and act through partially overlapping but also diverse mechanisms.

  17. Angiotensin II protects cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Grammatopoulos, Tom N; Ahmadi, Ferogh; Jones, Susan M; Fariss, Marc W; Weyhenmeyer, James A; Zawada, W Michael

    2005-05-31

    In this study, we demonstrate that angiotensin II (Ang II) protects dopamine (DA) neurons from rotenone toxicity in vitro. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures from E15 rats were grown for 5 days and then cultured in the presence of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, rotenone. Acute exposure (20 h) to 20 nM rotenone reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neurons by 50 +/- 6% when compared to untreated cultures. Pre-treatment of VM cultures with 100 nM Ang II decreased TH+ neuronal loss to 25 +/- 10% at the 20-nM rotenone concentration. Ang II in the presence of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, losartan, was even more effective in protecting DA neurons showing a loss of only 13 +/- 4% at 20 nM rotenone. Conversely, the AT2R antagonist, PD123319, abolished the protective effects of Ang II. Furthermore, both the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801, and the antioxidant, alpha-tocopheryl succinate (vitamin E analogue), prevented rotenone-induced toxicity. Here, we show that acute exposure of VM cultures to the pesticide rotenone leads to dopaminergic neuronal cell death and that angiotensin acting through the AT2 receptor protects dopamine neurons from rotenone toxicity.

  18. Progranulin gene delivery protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M; Baranowski, David; Kay, Denis G

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia/bradykinesia resulting from the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date, only symptomatic treatment is available for PD patients, with no effective means of slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. Progranulin (PGRN) is a 593 amino acid multifunction protein that is widely distributed throughout the CNS, localized primarily in neurons and microglia. PGRN has been demonstrated to be a potent regulator of neuroinflammation and also acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. Thus, enhancing PGRN expression may strengthen the cells resistance to disease. In the present study, we have used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD to investigate the possible use of PGRN gene delivery as a therapy for the prevention or treatment of PD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene was an effective means of elevating PGRN expression in nigrostriatal neurons. When PGRN expression was elevated in the SNC, nigrostriatal neurons were protected from MPTP toxicity in mice, along with a preservation of striatal dopamine content and turnover. Further, protection of nigrostriatal neurons by PGRN gene therapy was accompanied by reductions in markers of MPTP-induced inflammation and apoptosis as well as a complete preservation of locomotor function. We conclude that PGRN gene therapy may have beneficial effects in the treatment of PD.

  19. Differentiation of Neural Precursors and Dopaminergic Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2010-01-01

    Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to a functional cell type, including neurons, is the foundation for application of hESCs. We describe here a reproducible, chemically-defined protocol that allows directed differentiation of hESCs to nearly pure neuroectodermal cells and neurons. First, hESC colonies are detached from mouse fibroblast feeder layers and form aggregates to initiate the differentiation procedure. Second, after 4 days of suspension culture, the ESC growth medium is replaced with neural induction medium to guide neuroectodermal specification. Third, the differentiating hESC aggregates are attached onto the culture surface at day 6-7, where columnar neural epithelial cells appear and organize into rosettes. Fourth, the neural rosettes are enriched by detaching rosettes and leaving the peripheral flat cells attached, and expanded as neuroepithelial aggregates in the same medium. Finally, the neuroepithelial aggregates are dissociated and differentiated to nearly pure neurons. This stepwise differentiation protocol results in the generation of primitive neuroepithelia at day 8-10, neural progenitors at the 2nd and 3rd week, and postmitotic neurons at the 4th week, which mirrors the early phase of neural development in a human embryo. Identification of the primitive neuroepithelial cells permits efficient patterning of region-specific progenitors and neuronal subtypes such as midbrain dopaminergic neurons. PMID:19907987

  20. Wnt/β-catenin signaling in midbrain dopaminergic neuron specification and neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Joksimovic, Milan; Awatramani, Rajeshwar

    2014-02-01

    Loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons underlies the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Towards cell replacement, studies have focused on mechanisms underlying embryonic mDA production, as a rational basis for deriving mDA neurons from stem cells. We will review studies of β-catenin, an obligate component of the Wnt cascade that is critical to mDA specification and neurogenesis. mDA neurons have a unique origin--the midbrain floor plate (FP). Unlike the hindbrain and spinal cord FP, the midbrain FP is highly neurogenic and Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical to this difference in neurogenic potential. In β-catenin loss-of-function experiments, the midbrain FP resembles the hindbrain FP, and key mDA progenitor genes such as Otx2, Lmx1a, Msx1, and Ngn2 are downregulated whereas Shh is maintained. Accordingly, the neurogenic capacity of the midbrain FP is diminished, resulting in fewer mDA neurons. Conversely, in β-catenin gain-of-function experiments, the hindbrain FP expresses key mDA progenitor genes, and is highly neurogenic. Interestingly, when excessive β-catenin is supplied to the midbrain FP, less mDA neurons are produced suggesting that the dosage of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical. These studies of β-catenin have facilitated new protocols to derive mDA neurons from stem cells.

  1. X-ray fluorescence analysis of iron and manganese distribution in primary dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dučić, Tanja; Barski, Elisabeth; Salome, Murielle; Koch, Jan C; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals have been suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. X-ray microscopy combined with a cryogenic setup is a powerful method for elemental imaging in low concentrations and high resolution in intact cells, eliminating the need for fixation and sectioning of the specimen. Here, we performed an elemental distribution analysis in cultured primary midbrain neurons with a step size in the order of 300 nm and ∼ 0.1 ppm sensitivity under cryo conditions by using X-ray fluorescence microscopy. We report the elemental mappings on the subcellular level in primary mouse dopaminergic (DAergic) and non-DAergic neurons after treatment with transition metals. Application of Fe2+ resulted in largely extracellular accumulation of iron without preference for the neuronal transmitter subtype. A quantification of different Fe oxidation states was performed using X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. After treatment with Mn2+, a cytoplasmic/paranuclear localization of Mn was observed preferentially in DAergic neurons, while no prominent signal was detectable after Mn3+ treatment. Immunocytochemical analysis correlated the preferential Mn uptake to increased expression of voltage-gated calcium channels in DAergic neurons. We discuss the implications of this differential elemental distribution for the selective vulnerability of DAergic neurons and Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. PMID:23106162

  2. Live imaging of mitochondrial dynamics in CNS dopaminergic neurons in vivo demonstrates early reversal of mitochondrial transport following MPP(+) exposure.

    PubMed

    Dukes, April A; Bai, Qing; Van Laar, Victor S; Zhou, Yangzhong; Ilin, Vladimir; David, Christopher N; Agim, Zeynep S; Bonkowsky, Joshua L; Cannon, Jason R; Watkins, Simon C; Croix, Claudette M St; Burton, Edward A; Berman, Sarah B

    2016-11-01

    Extensive convergent evidence collectively suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, changes in the dynamic properties of mitochondria have been increasingly implicated as a key proximate mechanism underlying neurodegeneration. However, studies have been limited by the lack of a model in which mitochondria can be imaged directly and dynamically in dopaminergic neurons of the intact vertebrate CNS. We generated transgenic zebrafish in which mitochondria of dopaminergic neurons are labeled with a fluorescent reporter, and optimized methods allowing direct intravital imaging of CNS dopaminergic axons and measurement of mitochondrial transport in vivo. The proportion of mitochondria undergoing axonal transport in dopaminergic neurons decreased overall during development between 2days post-fertilization (dpf) and 5dpf, at which point the major period of growth and synaptogenesis of the relevant axonal projections is complete. Exposure to 0.5-1.0mM MPP(+) between 4 and 5dpf did not compromise zebrafish viability or cause detectable changes in the number or morphology of dopaminergic neurons, motor function or monoaminergic neurochemistry. However, 0.5mM MPP(+) caused a 300% increase in retrograde mitochondrial transport and a 30% decrease in anterograde transport. In contrast, exposure to higher concentrations of MPP(+) caused an overall reduction in mitochondrial transport. This is the first time mitochondrial transport has been observed directly in CNS dopaminergic neurons of a living vertebrate and quantified in a PD model in vivo. Our findings are compatible with a model in which damage at presynaptic dopaminergic terminals causes an early compensatory increase in retrograde transport of compromised mitochondria for degradation in the cell body. These data are important because manipulation of early pathogenic mechanisms might be a valid therapeutic approach to PD. The novel transgenic lines and

  3. Marked differences in the number and type of synapses innervating the somata and primary dendrites of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, striatal cholinergic interneurons, and striatal spiny projection neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sizemore, Rachel J; Zhang, Rong; Lin, Naili; Goddard, Liping; Wastney, Timothy; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C; Reynolds, John N J; Oorschot, Dorothy E

    2016-04-01

    Elucidating the link between cellular activity and goal-directed behavior requires a fuller understanding of the mechanisms underlying burst firing in midbrain dopaminergic neurons and those that suppress activity during aversive or non-rewarding events. We have characterized the afferent synaptic connections onto these neurons in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), and compared these findings with cholinergic interneurons and spiny projection neurons in the striatum. We found that the average absolute number of synapses was three to three and one-half times greater onto the somata of dorsal striatal spiny projection neurons than onto the somata of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc or dorsal striatal cholinergic interneurons. A similar comparison between populations of dopamine neurons revealed a two times greater number of somatic synapses on VTA dopaminergic neurons than SNpc dopaminergic neurons. The percentage of symmetrical, presumably inhibitory, synaptic inputs on somata was significantly higher on spiny projection neurons and cholinergic interneurons compared with SNpc dopaminergic neurons. Synaptic data on the primary dendrites yielded similar significant differences for the percentage of symmetrical synapses for VTA dopaminergic vs. striatal neurons. No differences in the absolute number or type of somatic synapses were evident for dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc of Wistar vs. Sprague-Dawley rat strains. These data from identified neurons are pivotal for interpreting their electrophysiological responses to afferent activity and for generating realistic computer models of neuronal networks of striatal and midbrain dopaminergic function.

  4. Neuroprotection and neuronal differentiation studies using substantia nigra dopaminergic cells derived from transgenic mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Son, J H; Chun, H S; Joh, T H; Cho, S; Conti, B; Lee, J W

    1999-01-01

    The major pathological lesion of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the selective cell death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra (SN). Although the initial cause and subsequent molecular signaling mechanisms leading to DA cell death underlying the PD process remain elusive, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to exert neuroprotective as well as neurotrophic roles for the survival and differentiation of DA neurons in SN. Addressing molecular mechanisms of BDNF action in both primary embryonic mesencephalic cultures and in vivo animal models has been technically difficult because DA neurons in SN are relatively rare and present with many heterogeneous cell populations in midbrain. We have developed and characterized a DA neuronal cell line of embryonic SN origin that is more accessible to molecular analysis and can be used as an in vitro model system for studying SN DA neurons. A clonal SN DA neuronal progenitor cell line SN4741, arrested at an early DA developmental stage, was established from transgenic mouse embryos containing the targeted expression of the thermolabile SV40Tag in SN DA neurons. The phenotypic and morphological differentiation of the SN4741 cells could be manipulated by environmental cues in vitro. Exogenous BDNF treatment produced significant neuroprotection against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, glutamate, and nitric oxide-induced neurotoxicity in the SN4741 cells. Simultaneous phosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinase B accompanied the neuroprotection. This SN DA neuronal cell line provides a unique model system to circumvent the limitations associated with primary mesencephalic cultures for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of BDNF action on DA neurons of the SN.

  5. Expression of early developmental markers predicts the efficiency of embryonic stem cell differentiation into midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Salti, Ahmad; Nat, Roxana; Neto, Sonya; Puschban, Zoe; Wenning, Gregor; Dechant, Georg

    2013-02-01

    Dopaminergic neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells are among the best investigated products of in vitro stem cell differentiation owing to their potential use for neurorestorative therapy of Parkinson's disease. However, the classical differentiation protocols for both mouse and human pluripotent stem cells generate a limited percentage of dopaminergic neurons and yield a considerable cellular heterogeneity comprising numerous scarcely characterized cell populations. To improve pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocols for midbrain dopaminergic neurons, we established extensive and strictly quantitative gene expression profiles, including markers for pluripotent cells, neural progenitors, non-neural cells, pan-neuronal and glial cells, neurotransmitter phenotypes, midbrain and nonmidbrain populations, floor plate and basal plate populations, as well as for Hedgehog, Fgf, and Wnt signaling pathways. The profiles were applied to discrete stages of in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells toward the dopaminergic lineage and after transplantation into the striatum of 6-hydroxy-dopamine-lesioned rats. The comparison of gene expression in vitro with stages in the developing ventral midbrain between embryonic day 11.5 and 13.5 ex vivo revealed dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules. Based on these profiles, we propose quantitative gene expression milestones that predict the efficiency of dopaminergic differentiation achieved at the end point of the protocol, already at earlier stages of differentiation.

  6. Investigation of the ontogenetic patterns of rat hypothalamic dopaminergic neurone morphology and function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murray, H E; Gillies, G E

    1993-12-01

    Using fetal rat hypothalamic cells in primary culture maintained in a serum-free defined medium we have investigated the morphological and functional development of the dopamine (DA)-containing neurones intrinsic to the hypothalamus. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated the presence of three morphologically distinct subtypes of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive neurones. On day 3 in vitro unipolar, bipolar and multipolar cell types were apparent. The latter two subtypes persisted to later days in culture and increased both in perikarya size and neurite length. All subtypes have been shown to have correlates in vivo. Biochemical studies employing [3H]DA demonstrated a time- and temperature-dependent uptake mechanism within the cultures which was significantly attenuated by the uptake inhibitors benztropine and nomifensine in a dose-dependent manner. [3H]DA was also released under both basal and 56 mmol K+/l-stimulated conditions and the magnitude of the response was reduced by exclusion of calcium from the release medium. The amount of [3H]DA accumulated and released by the cultural cells increased with the age of the culture, suggesting functional maturation of the DA-containing neurones within this preparation. The role of oestradiol-17 beta in regulating hypothalamic dopaminergic function was also investigated both indirectly with the use of [3H]DA and by direct measurement of endogenously synthesized DA using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. Both uptake and release of [3H] and release of endogenous DA were significantly modulated by the concentration of steroid in the defined medium. These results demonstrate that hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones, when maintained in primary culture, undergo morphological and functional maturation which have several correlates in vivo. In addition, we have demonstrated that at least one sub-population of dopaminergic neurones within this preparation is responsive to oestradiol

  7. Opposing Dopaminergic and GABAergic Neurons Control the Duration and Persistence of Copulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Crickmore, Michael A.; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Behavioral persistence is a major factor in determiningwhen and under which circumstances animals will terminate their current activity and transition into more profitable, appropriate, or urgent behavior. We show that, for the first 5 min of copulation in Drosophila, stressful stimuli do not interrupt mating, whereas 10 min later, even minor perturbations are sufficient to terminate copulation. This decline in persistence occurs as the probability of successful mating increases and is promoted by approximately eight sexually dimorphic, GABAergic interneurons of the male abdominal ganglion. When these interneurons were silenced, persistence increased and males copulated far longer than required for successful mating. When these interneurons were stimulated, persistence decreased and copulations were shortened. In contrast, dopaminergic neurons of the ventral nerve cord promote copulation persistence and extend copulation duration. Thus, copulation duration in Drosophila is a product of gradually declining persistence controlled by opposing neuronal populations using conserved neurotransmission systems. PMID:24209625

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Source of Dopaminergic Neurons: A Potential Cell Based Therapy for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Katari; Sen, Dwaipayan

    2016-11-14

    Cell repair/replacing strategies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease depend on well-characterized dopaminergic neuronal candidates that are healthy and show promising effect in the rejuvenation of degenerated area of the brain. Therefore, it is imperative to develop innovative therapeutic strategies that replace damaged neurons with new/functional dopaminergic neurons. Although several research groups have reported the generation of neural precursors/neurons from human/mouse embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, the latter is considered to be an attractive therapeutic candidate because of its high capacity for self-renewable, no adverse effect to allogeneic versus autologous transplants, high ethical acceptance and no teratoma formation. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells can be considered as an ideal source for replacing lost cells in degenerative diseases like Parkinson's. Hence, the use of these cells in the differentiation of dopaminergic neurons becomes significant and thrives as a therapeutic approach to treat Parkinson's disease. Here we highlight the basic biology of mesenchymal stem cells, their differentiation potential into dopaminergic neurons and potential use in the clinics.

  9. Differential distribution of voltage-gated calcium channels in dopaminergic neurons of the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Witkovsky, Paul; Shen, Changpeng; McRory, John

    2006-07-20

    We studied by immunocytochemistry and Western blots the identity and cellular distribution of voltage-gated calcium channels within dopaminergic neurons of the rat retina. The aim was to associate particular calcium channel subtypes with known activities of the neuron (e.g., transmitter release from axon terminals). Five voltage-gated calcium channels were identified: alpha1A, alpha1B, alpha1E, alpha1F, and alpha1H. All of these, except the alpha1B subtype, were found within dopaminergic perikarya. The alpha1B channels were concentrated at axon terminal rings, together with alpha1A calcium channels. In contrast, alpha1H calcium channels were most abundant in the dendrites, and alpha1F calcium channels were restricted to the perikaryon. The alpha1E calcium channel was present at such a low density that its cellular distribution beyond the perikaryon could not be determined. Our findings are consistent with the available pharmacological data indicating that alpha1A and alpha1B calcium channels control the major fraction of dopamine release in the rat retina. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. [18F]fluorodopa PET shows striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ruottinen, H M; Rinne, J O; Haaparanta, M; Solin, O; Bergman, J; Oikonen, V J; Järvelä, I; Santavuori, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether nigrostriatal dopaminergic hypofunction is related to the extrapyramidal symptoms in patients with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL). METHODS: Nine patients with JNCL and seven healthy controls were studied using [18F]fluorodopa PET. RESULTS: In the patients with JNCL [18F]fluorodopa uptake (K[i][occ]) in the putamen was 60% of the control mean and the corresponding figure in the caudate nucleus was 79%. There was a weak correlation between putamen K(i)(occ) values and extrapyramidal symptoms of the patients evaluated by the motor part of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (r = -0.57, P < 0.05). The overall severity of the disease also displayed a negative correlation with the K(i)(occ) values in the putamen (r = -0.71, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In patients with JNCL there was reduced striatal [18F]fluorodopa uptake, which had a modest correlation with extrapyramidal symptoms. Dysfunction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons is therefore not the only cause of the patients' extrapyramidal symptoms, but degenerative changes in other brain areas are also contributory. Images PMID:9219750

  11. Withania somnifera alleviates parkinsonian phenotypes by inhibiting apoptotic pathways in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Westfall, Susan; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2014-12-01

    Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) are environmental toxins that have been experimentally used to induce selective damage of dopaminergic neurons leading to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the mechanism of this selective neuronal toxicity in not fully understood, oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of PD. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by Withania somnifera (Ws), a herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic root extract of Ws was co-treated with the MB-PQ induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue canonical indicators of PD including compromised locomotor activity, reduced dopamine in the substantia nigra and various aspects of oxidative damage. In particular, Ws reduced the expression of iNOS, a measure of oxidative stress. Ws also significantly improved the MB + PQ mediated induction of a pro-apoptotic state by reducing Bax and inducing Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Finally, Ws reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory marker of astrocyte activation, GFAP. Altogether, the present study suggests that Ws treatment provides nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuroprotection against MB-PQ induced Parkinsonism by the modulation of oxidative stress and apoptotic machinery possibly accounting for the behavioural effects.

  12. Smoking-Relevant Nicotine Concentration Attenuates the Unfolded Protein Response in Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Rahul; Henley, Beverley M.; Henderson, Brandon J.; Indersmitten, Tim; Cohen, Bruce N.; Kim, Charlene H.; McKinney, Sheri; Deshpande, Purnima; Xiao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between susceptibility to Parkinson's disease and a person's history of tobacco use. Animal model studies suggest nicotine as a neuroprotective agent and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) as targets for neuroprotection, but the underlying neuroprotective mechanism(s) are unknown. We cultured mouse ventral midbrain neurons for 3 weeks. Ten to 20% of neurons were dopaminergic (DA), revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity. We evoked mild endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with tunicamycin (Tu), producing modest increases in the level of nuclear ATF6, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, nuclear XBP1, and the downstream proapoptotic effector nuclear C/EBP homologous protein. We incubated cultures for 2 weeks with 200 nm nicotine, the approximate steady-state concentration between cigarette smoking or vaping, or during nicotine patch use. Nicotine incubation suppressed Tu-induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Study of mice with fluorescent nAChR subunits showed that the cultured TH+ neurons displayed α4, α6, and β3 nAChR subunit expression and ACh-evoked currents. Gene expression profile in cultures from TH-eGFP mice showed that the TH+ neurons also express several other genes associated with DA release. Nicotine also upregulated ACh-induced currents in DA neurons by ∼2.5-fold. Thus, nicotine, at a concentration too low to activate an appreciable fraction of plasma membrane nAChRs, induces two sequelae of pharmacological chaperoning in the ER: UPR suppression and nAChR upregulation. Therefore, one mechanism of neuroprotection by nicotine is pharmacological chaperoning, leading to UPR suppression. Measuring this pathway may help in assessing neuroprotection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkinson's disease (PD) cannot yet be cured or prevented. However, many retrospective epidemiological studies reveal that PD is diagnosed less frequently in

  13. FoxO1 in dopaminergic neurons regulates energy homeostasis and targets tyrosine hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Khanh V.; Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Ko, Chang Mann; Moh, Sang Hyun; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Inki; Paik, Ji-Hye; DePinho, Ronald A.; Yoon, Seul Gi; Kim, Il Yong; Seong, Je Kyung; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are involved in the integration of neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food consumption and energy balance. Forkhead transcriptional factor O1 (FoxO1) in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in mediation of leptin and insulin function. However, the homoeostatic role of FoxO1 in DA system has not been investigated. Here we report that FoxO1 is highly expressed in DA neurons and mice lacking FoxO1 specifically in the DA neurons (FoxO1 KODAT) show markedly increased energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis accompanied by reduced fat mass and improved glucose/insulin homoeostasis. Moreover, FoxO1 KODAT mice exhibit an increased sucrose preference in concomitance with higher dopamine and norepinephrine levels. Finally, we found that FoxO1 directly targets and negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis, delineating a mechanism for the KO phenotypes. Collectively, these results suggest that FoxO1 in DA neurons is an important transcriptional factor that directs the coordinated control of energy balance, thermogenesis and glucose homoeostasis. PMID:27681312

  14. Neurotoxicity and behavioral deficits associated with Septin 5 accumulation in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Son, Jin H; Kawamata, Hibiki; Yoo, Myung S; Kim, Dae J; Lee, Young K; Kim, Sooyoul; Dawson, Ted M; Zhang, Hui; Sulzer, David; Yang, Lichuan; Beal, M Flint; Degiorgio, Lorraine A; Chun, Hong S; Baker, Harriet; Peng, Chu

    2005-08-01

    Septin 5, a parkin substrate, is a vesicle- and membrane-associated protein that plays a significant role in inhibiting exocytosis. The regulatory function of Septin 5 in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of substantia nigra (SN), maintained at relatively low levels, has not yet been delineated. As loss of function mutations of parkin are the principal cause of a familial Parkinson's disease, a prevailing hypothesis is that the loss of parkin activity results in accumulation of Septin 5 which confers neuron-specific toxicity in SN-DAergic neurons. In vitro and in vivo models were used to support this hypothesis. In our well-characterized DAergic SN4741 cell model, acute accumulation of elevated levels of Septin 5, but not synphilin-1 (another parkin substrate), resulted in cytotoxic cell death that was markedly reduced by parkin co-transfection. A transgenic mouse model expressing a dominant negative parkin mutant accumulated moderate levels of Septin 5 in SN-DAergic neurons. These mice acquired a progressive l-DOPA responsive motor dysfunction that developed despite a 25% higher than normal level of striatal dopamine (DA) and no apparent loss of DAergic neurons. The phenotype of this animal, increased striatal dopamine and reduced motor function, was similar to that observed in parkin knockout animals, suggesting a common DAergic alteration. These data suggest that a threshold level of Septin 5 accumulation is required for DAergic cell loss and that l-DOPA-responsive motor deficits can occur even in the presence of elevated DA.

  15. Alcohol consumption induces global gene expression changes in VTA dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Marballi, K; Genabai, N K; Blednov, Y A; Harris, R A; Ponomarev, I

    2016-03-01

    Alcoholism is associated with dysregulation in the neural circuitry that mediates motivated and goal-directed behaviors. The dopaminergic (DA) connection between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens is viewed as a critical component of the neurocircuitry mediating alcohol's rewarding and behavioral effects. We sought to determine the effects of binge alcohol drinking on global gene expression in VTA DA neurons. Alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ F1 hybrid female mice were exposed to a modified drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 3 weeks, while control animals had access to water only. Global gene expression of laser-captured tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive VTA DA neurons was measured using microarrays. A total of 644 transcripts were differentially expressed between the drinking and nondrinking mice, and 930 transcripts correlated with alcohol intake during the last 2 days of drinking in the alcohol group. Bioinformatics analysis of alcohol-responsive genes identified molecular pathways and networks perturbed in DA neurons by alcohol consumption, which included neuroimmune and epigenetic functions, alcohol metabolism and brain disorders. The majority of genes with high and specific expression in DA neurons were downregulated by or negatively correlated with alcohol consumption, suggesting a decreased activity of DA neurons in high drinking animals. These changes in the DA transcriptome provide a foundation for alcohol-induced neuroadaptations that may play a crucial role in the transition to addiction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. Activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons following central administration of histamine is mediated by H1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, A E; Lookingland, K J; Moore, K E

    1993-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular administration of histamine on the activity of mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons was determined in male rats. The activity of these neurons was estimated by measuring: (1) the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) after administration of a decarboxylase inhibitor, and (2) the concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the nucleus accumbens and striatum, which contain the terminals of these neurons. Central administration of histamine increased both DOPA accumulation and DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens, but was without effect in the striatum. The increase in DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens occurred within 10 min and was sustained for at least 120 min. The H1 antagonist mepyramine blocked whereas the H2 antagonist zolantidine did not affect histamine-induced increases in DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. Neither mepyramine nor zolantidine affected basal DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. These results indicate that central administration of histamine stimulates mesolimbic DA neurons through an action at the H1 receptor, but has no effect upon the activity of nigrostriatal DA neurons.

  17. Dopaminergic neurons generated from monkey embryonic stem cells function in a Parkinson primate model.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yasushi; Takahashi, Jun; Saiki, Hidemoto; Morizane, Asuka; Hayashi, Takuya; Kishi, Yo; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Yo; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Ideguchi, Makoto; Hayashi, Hideki; Imazato, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Suemori, Hirofumi; Omachi, Shigeki; Iida, Hidehiko; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Nakatsuji, Norio; Sasai, Yoshiki; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. ES cells are currently the most promising donor cell source for cell-replacement therapy in PD. We previously described a strong neuralizing activity present on the surface of stromal cells, named stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA). In this study, we generated neurospheres composed of neural progenitors from monkey ES cells, which are capable of producing large numbers of DA neurons. We demonstrated that FGF20, preferentially expressed in the substantia nigra, acts synergistically with FGF2 to increase the number of DA neurons in ES cell-derived neurospheres. We also analyzed the effect of transplantation of DA neurons generated from monkey ES cells into 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated (MPTP-treated) monkeys, a primate model for PD. Behavioral studies and functional imaging revealed that the transplanted cells functioned as DA neurons and attenuated MPTP-induced neurological symptoms.

  18. Dopaminergic regulation of neuronal excitability through modulation of Ih in layer V entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, J Amiel; Johnston, Daniel

    2006-03-22

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a significant component of the systems that underlie certain forms of memory formation and recall. Evidence has been emerging that the dopaminergic system in the EC facilitates these and other functions of the EC. The effects of dopamine (DA) on membrane properties and excitability of EC neurons, however, are not known. We used in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from layer V pyramidal neuronal somata and dendrites of the adult rat lateral EC to investigate the effects of DA on the excitability of these neurons. We found that brief application of DA caused a reduction in the excitability of layer V EC pyramidal neurons. This effect was attributable to voltage-dependent modification of membrane properties that can best be explained by an increase in a hyperpolarization-activated conductance. Furthermore, the effects of DA were blocked by pharmacological blockade of h-channels, but not by any of a number of other ion channels. These actions were produced by a D1 receptor-mediated increase of cAMP but were independent of protein kinase A. A portion of the actions of DA can be attributed to effects in the apical dendrites. The data suggest that DA can directly influence the membrane properties of layer V EC pyramidal neurons by modulation of h-channels. These actions may underlie some of the effects of DA on memory formation.

  19. Isoforms of the Erythropoietin receptor in dopaminergic neurons of the Substantia Nigra.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Federica; Zucchelli, Silvia; Bertuzzi, Maria; Santoro, Claudio; Tell, Gianluca; Carninci, Piero; Gustincich, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) regulates erythrocytes differentiation in blood. In the brain, EpoR has been shown to protect several neuronal cell types from cell death, including the A9 dopaminergic neurons (DA) of the Substantia Nigra (SN). These cells form the nigrostriatal pathway and are devoted to the control of postural reflexes and voluntary movements. Selective degeneration of A9 DA neurons leads to Parkinson's disease. By the use of nanoCAGE, a technology that allows the identification of Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) at a genome-wide level, we have described the promoter-level expression atlas of mouse A9 DA neurons purified with Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM). Here, we identify mRNA variants of the Erythropoietin Receptor (DA-EpoR) transcribed from alternative TSSs. Experimental validation and full-length cDNA cloning is integrated with gene expression analysis in the FANTOM5 database. In DA neurons, the EpoR gene encodes for a N-terminal truncated receptor. Based on STAT5 phosphorylation assays, we show that the new variant of N-terminally truncated EpoR acts as decoy when co-expressed with the full-length form. A similar isoform is also found in human. This work highlights new complexities in the regulation of Erythropoietin (EPO) signaling in the brain.

  20. Intrastriatal 6-OHDA lesion differentially affects dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of prenatally stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Baier, Carlos J; Pallarés, María Eugenia; Adrover, Ezequiela; Katunar, María R; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Antonelli, Marta C

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to a variety of stressful events during the last week of pregnancy in rats interferes with the correct progeny development, which in turn leads to delays in motor development, impaired adaptation to stressful conditions, altered sexual behaviour, learning deficits, neuronal development and brain morphology. Many of these alterations have been attributed to changes in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission and occur primarily in the mesolimbic system. We found that prenatally stressed offspring showed higher levels of cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and that these cells were more susceptible to a neurochemical insult with 6-hydroxy-DA (6-OHDA) in adulthood. Moreover, prenatally stressed rats presented differences in terms of the number and asymmetry of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-expressing cells in the VTA and nucleus accumbens, respectively. Similar to the results described for TH-expressing cells, the nitrergic systems were differentially regulated after 6-OHDA lesion in control and prenatally stressed rats. These results indicated that prenatal stress affects the dopaminergic and nitrergic systems in the mesolimbic pathway. In addition, we propose that the mesolimbic areas are more susceptible than the motor areas to a neurochemical insult during adult life.

  1. Survival of a Novel Subset of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons Projecting to the Lateral Septum Is Dependent on NeuroD Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chabrat, Audrey; Spencer-Dene, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are highly heterogeneous. They differ in their connectivity and firing patterns and, therefore, in their functional properties. The molecular underpinnings of this heterogeneity are largely unknown, and there is a paucity of markers that distinguish these functional subsets. In this paper, we report the identification and characterization of a novel subset of midbrain dopaminergic neurons located in the ventral tegmental area that expresses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Neurogenic Differentiation Factor-6 (NEUROD6). Retrograde fluorogold tracing experiments demonstrate that Neurod6+ midbrain dopaminergic neurons neurons project to two distinct septal regions: the dorsal and intermediate region of the lateral septum. Loss-of-function studies in mice demonstrate that Neurod6 and the closely related family member Neurod1 are both specifically required for the survival of this lateral-septum projecting neuronal subset during development. Our findings underscore the complex organization of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and provide an entry point for future studies of the functions of the Neurod6+ subset of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Midbrain dopaminergic neurons regulate diverse brain functions, including voluntary movement and cognitive and emotive behaviors. These neurons are heterogeneous, and distinct subsets are thought to regulate different behaviors. However, we currently lack the means to identify and modify gene function in specific subsets of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we identify the transcription factor NEUROD6 as a specific marker for a novel subset of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain that project to the lateral septum, and we reveal essential roles for Neurod1 and Neurod6 in the survival of these neurons during development. Our findings highlight the molecular and anatomical heterogeneity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and contribute to a

  2. Survival of a Novel Subset of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons Projecting to the Lateral Septum Is Dependent on NeuroD Proteins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shabana; Stott, Simon R W; Chabrat, Audrey; Truckenbrodt, Anna M; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Guillemot, François; Levesque, Martin; Ang, Siew-Lan

    2017-03-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are highly heterogeneous. They differ in their connectivity and firing patterns and, therefore, in their functional properties. The molecular underpinnings of this heterogeneity are largely unknown, and there is a paucity of markers that distinguish these functional subsets. In this paper, we report the identification and characterization of a novel subset of midbrain dopaminergic neurons located in the ventral tegmental area that expresses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Neurogenic Differentiation Factor-6 (NEUROD6). Retrograde fluorogold tracing experiments demonstrate that Neurod6(+) midbrain dopaminergic neurons neurons project to two distinct septal regions: the dorsal and intermediate region of the lateral septum. Loss-of-function studies in mice demonstrate that Neurod6 and the closely related family member Neurod1 are both specifically required for the survival of this lateral-septum projecting neuronal subset during development. Our findings underscore the complex organization of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and provide an entry point for future studies of the functions of the Neurod6(+) subset of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Midbrain dopaminergic neurons regulate diverse brain functions, including voluntary movement and cognitive and emotive behaviors. These neurons are heterogeneous, and distinct subsets are thought to regulate different behaviors. However, we currently lack the means to identify and modify gene function in specific subsets of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we identify the transcription factor NEUROD6 as a specific marker for a novel subset of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain that project to the lateral septum, and we reveal essential roles for Neurod1 and Neurod6 in the survival of these neurons during development. Our findings highlight the molecular and anatomical heterogeneity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and contribute to

  3. Contribution of synchronized GABAergic neurons to dopaminergic neuron firing and bursting.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Ekaterina O; Myroshnychenko, Maxym; Zakharov, Denis; di Volo, Matteo; Gutkin, Boris; Lapish, Christopher C; Kuznetsov, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), interactions between dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are critical for regulating DA neuron activity and thus DA efflux. To provide a mechanistic explanation of how GABA neurons influence DA neuron firing, we developed a circuit model of the VTA. The model is based on feed-forward inhibition and recreates canonical features of the VTA neurons. Simulations revealed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABAR) stimulation can differentially influence the firing pattern of the DA neuron, depending on the level of synchronization among GABA neurons. Asynchronous activity of GABA neurons provides a constant level of inhibition to the DA neuron and, when removed, produces a classical disinhibition burst. In contrast, when GABA neurons are synchronized by common synaptic input, their influence evokes additional spikes in the DA neuron, resulting in increased measures of firing and bursting. Distinct from previous mechanisms, the increases were not based on lowered firing rate of the GABA neurons or weaker hyperpolarization by the GABAR synaptic current. This phenomenon was induced by GABA-mediated hyperpolarization of the DA neuron that leads to decreases in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration, thus reducing the Ca(2+)-dependent potassium (K(+)) current. In this way, the GABA-mediated hyperpolarization replaces Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current; however, this inhibition is pulsatile, which allows the DA neuron to fire during the rhythmic pauses in inhibition. Our results emphasize the importance of inhibition in the VTA, which has been discussed in many studies, and suggest a novel mechanism whereby computations can occur locally.

  4. Transgenic expression and activation of PGC-1α protect dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mudò, Giuseppa; Mäkelä, Johanna; Di Liberto, Valentina; Tselykh, Timofey V; Olivieri, Melania; Piepponen, Petteri; Eriksson, Ove; Mälkiä, Annika; Bonomo, Alessandra; Kairisalo, Minna; Aguirre, Jose A; Korhonen, Laura; Belluardo, Natale; Lindholm, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling these events. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that is a master regulator of oxidative stress and mitochondrial metabolism. We show here that transgenic mice overexpressing PGC-1α in dopaminergic neurons are resistant against cell degeneration induced by the neurotoxin MPTP. The increase in neuronal viability was accompanied by elevated levels of mitochondrial antioxidants SOD2 and Trx2 in the substantia nigra of transgenic mice. PGC-1α overexpression also protected against MPTP-induced striatal loss of dopamine, and mitochondria from PGC-1α transgenic mice showed an increased respiratory control ratio compared with wild-type animals. To modulate PGC-1α, we employed the small molecular compound, resveratrol (RSV) that protected dopaminergic neurons against the MPTP-induced cell degeneration almost to the same extent as after PGC-1α overexpression. As studied in vitro, RSV activated PGC-1α in dopaminergic SN4741 cells via the deacetylase SIRT1, and enhanced PGC-1α gene transcription with increases in SOD2 and Trx2. Taken together, the results reveal an important function of PGC-1α in dopaminergic neurons to combat oxidative stress and increase neuronal viability. RSV and other compounds acting via SIRT1/PGC-1α may prove useful as neuroprotective agents in PD and possibly in other neurological disorders.

  5. A novel thiol antioxidant that crosses the blood brain barrier protects dopaminergic neurons in experimental models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bahat-Stroomza, Merav; Gilgun-Sherki, Yossi; Offen, Daniel; Panet, Hana; Saada, Ann; Krool-Galron, Nili; Barzilai, Aari; Atlas, Daphne; Melamed, Eldad

    2005-02-01

    It is believed that oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) and that treatment with antioxidants might be neuroprotective. However, most currently available antioxidants cannot readily penetrate the blood brain barrier after systemic administration. We now report that AD4, the novel low molecular weight thiol antioxidant and the N-acytel cysteine (NAC) related compound, is capable of penetrating the brain and protects neurons in general and especially dopaminergic cells against various OS-generating neurotoxins in tissue cultures. Moreover, we found that treatment with AD4 markedly decreased the damage of dopaminergic neurons in three experimental models of PD. AD4 suppressed amphetamine-induced rotational behaviour in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA-induced nigral lesion. It attenuated the reduction in striatal dopamine levels in mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). It also reduced the dopaminergic neuronal loss following chronic intrajugular administration of rotenone in rats. Our findings suggest that AD4 is a novel potential new neuroprotective drug that might be effective at slowing down nigral neuronal degeneration and illness progression in patients with PD.

  6. Nestin-positive/SOX2-negative cells mediate adult neurogenesis of nigral dopaminergic neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Albright, Joshua E; Stojkovska, Iva; Rahman, Abir A; Brown, Connor J; Morrison, Brad E

    2016-02-26

    The primary clinical motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) result from loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Consequently, neurogenesis of this group of neurons in the adult brain has drawn considerable interest for the purpose of harnessing endogenous neurogenerative potential as well as devising better strategies for stem cell therapy for PD. However, the existence of adult neurogenesis for DA neurons within the SN remains controversial. To overcome technical and design limitations associated with previous studies, our group has developed a novel genetic mouse model for assessing adult nigral DA neurogenesis. This system utilizes transgenic mice that express a tamoxifen-activatable Cre recombinase (Cre(ERT2)) under the control of the neuronal progenitor cell promoters nestin or Sox2 leading to suppression of the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) via excision of exon 1 by flanking loxP sites in adult animals. This study reports that six months following initiation of a six week treatment with tamoxifen mice with nestin-mediated Th excision displayed a significant reduction in TH+ neurons in the SN. This finding indicates that nestin-expressing cells regenerate DA neurons within the SN of adult animals. Interestingly, no reduction was observed in TH+ cells following Sox2-mediated Th excision suggesting that a nestin+/SOX2- precursor cell population drives DA neurogenesis in the adult SN. This information represents a substantial leap in current knowledge of adult DA neurogenesis, will enable improved in vitro and in vivo modeling, as well as facilitate the harnessing of this process for therapeutic intervention for PD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Melatonin inhibits manganese-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss in mice: involvement of oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Jiao, Congcong; Mi, Chao; Xu, Bin; Li, Yuehui; Wang, Fei; Liu, Wei; Xu, Zhaofa

    2015-02-01

    Excessive manganese (Mn) induces oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the relationship between them during Mn neurotoxicity has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the probable role of melatonin (MLT) against Mn-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss as a result of antagonizing oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Mice were randomly divided into five groups as follows: control, MnCl2, low MLT + MnCl2, median MLT + MnCl2, and high MLT + MnCl2. Administration of MnCl2 (50 mg/kg) for 2 weeks significantly induced hypokinesis, dopaminergic neurons degeneration and loss, neuronal ultrastructural damage, and apoptosis in the substantia nigra and the striatum. These conditions were caused in part by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde accumulation, and dysfunction of the nonenzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase) antioxidative defense systems. Mn-induced neuron degeneration, astrocytes, and microglia activation contribute to the changes of oxidative stress markers. Dopamine (DA) depletion and downregulation of DA transporter and receptors were also found after Mn administration, this might also trigger motor dysfunction and neurons loss. Pretreatment with MLT prevented Mn-induced oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration and inhibited the interaction between them. As a result, pretreatment with MLT significantly alleviated Mn-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss. In conclusion, Mn treatment resulted in motor dysfunction and neuronal loss, possibly involving an interaction between oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra and the striatum. Pretreatment with MLT attenuated Mn-induced neurotoxicity by means of its antioxidant properties and promotion of the DA system.

  8. Increased innervation of forebrain targets by midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the absence of FGF-2.

    PubMed

    Rumpel, R; Baron, O; Ratzka, A; Schröder, M-L; Hohmann, M; Effenberg, A; Claus, P; Grothe, C

    2016-02-09

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate development and maintenance, and reduce vulnerability of neurons. FGF-2 is essential for survival of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons and is responsible for their dysplasia and disease-related degeneration. We previously reported that FGF-2 is involved in adequate forebrain (FB) target innervation by these neurons in an organotypic co-culture model. It remains unclear, how this ex-vivo phenotype relates to the in vivo situation, and which FGF-related signaling pathway is involved in this process. Here, we demonstrate that lack of FGF-2 results in an increased volume of the striatal target area in mice. We further add evidence that the low molecular weight (LMW) FGF-2 isoform is responsible for this phenotype, as this isoform is predominantly expressed in the embryonic ventral midbrain (VM) as well as in postnatal striatum (STR) and known to act via canonical transmembrane FGF receptor (FGFR) activation. Additionally, we confirm that the phenotype with an enlarged FB-target area by DA neurons can be mimicked in an ex-vivo explant model by inhibiting the canonical FGFR signaling, which resulted in decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, while AKT activation remained unchanged.

  9. Synergy of AMPA and NMDA Receptor Currents in Dopaminergic Neurons: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Zakharov, Denis; Lapish, Christopher; Gutkin, Boris; Kuznetsov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons display two modes of firing: low-frequency tonic and high-frequency bursts. The high frequency firing within the bursts is attributed to NMDA, but not AMPA receptor activation. In our models of the DA neuron, both biophysical and abstract, the NMDA receptor current can significantly increase their firing frequency, whereas the AMPA receptor current is not able to evoke high-frequency activity and usually suppresses firing. However, both currents are produced by glutamate receptors and, consequently, are often co-activated. Here we consider combined influence of AMPA and NMDA synaptic input in the models of the DA neuron. Different types of neuronal activity (resting state, low frequency, or high frequency firing) are observed depending on the conductance of the AMPAR and NMDAR currents. In two models, biophysical and reduced, we show that the firing frequency increases more effectively if both receptors are co-activated for certain parameter values. In particular, in the more quantitative biophysical model, the maximal frequency is 40% greater than that with NMDAR alone. The dynamical mechanism of such frequency growth is explained in the framework of phase space evolution using the reduced model. In short, both the AMPAR and NMDAR currents flatten the voltage nullcline, providing the frequency increase, whereas only NMDA prevents complete unfolding of the nullcline, providing robust firing. Thus, we confirm a major role of the NMDAR in generating high-frequency firing and conclude that AMPAR activation further significantly increases the frequency. PMID:27252643

  10. Regional differences in the vulnerability of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in weaver mice.

    PubMed

    Marti, Joaquín; Santa-Cruz, María C; Molina, Vanessa; Serra, Roger; Bayer, Shirley A; Ghetti, Bernardino; Hervás, José P

    2009-01-01

    Vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the weaver mouse was studied at postnatal (P) days 8 and 90, in chosen coronal levels throughout the anteroposterior (AP) extent of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Wild-type (+/+) and homozygous weaver (wv/wv) mice used were the offspring of pregnant dams injected in several cases with tritiated thymidine on embryonic days 11-15. DA neurons were identified for their tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. Data reveal that at P8, the frequency of both +/+ and wv/wv late-generated DA cells increases from rostral to caudal SNc. No apparent DA-cell loss was observed at P8 in the mutant genotype, irrespective of the AP level considered. However, throughout the AP, there was a significant reduction in the number of these neurons at any level in 90-day-old weavers. Comparison of P8 and P90 +/+ SNc suggests that cell death is not a major aspect in the developmental regulation of normal DA neurons, although numerical cell depletion in the postnatal development of weaver SNc probably results from the amplification of a basal cell-death process, which affected all the coronal levels studied.

  11. Electrical and Ca2+ signaling in dendritic spines of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Travis A; Sun, Yujie; Khaliq, Zayd M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the density and function of dendritic spines on midbrain dopamine neurons, or the relative contribution of spine and shaft synapses to excitability. Using Ca2+ imaging, glutamate uncaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and transgenic mice expressing labeled PSD-95, we comparatively analyzed electrical and Ca2+ signaling in spines and shaft synapses of dopamine neurons. Dendritic spines were present on dopaminergic neurons at low densities in live and fixed tissue. Uncaging-evoked potential amplitudes correlated inversely with spine length but positively with the presence of PSD-95. Spine Ca2+ signals were less sensitive to hyperpolarization than shaft synapses, suggesting amplification of spine head voltages. Lastly, activating spines during pacemaking, we observed an unexpected enhancement of spine Ca2+ midway throughout the spike cycle, likely involving recruitment of NMDA receptors and voltage-gated conductances. These results demonstrate functionality of spines in dopamine neurons and reveal a novel modulation of spine Ca2+ signaling during pacemaking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13905.001 PMID:27163179

  12. Dopaminergic modulation of axon collaterals interconnecting spiny neurons of the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Jaime N; Hernández, Adán; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Laville, Antonio; Vergara, Ramiro; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José

    2003-10-01

    Dopamine is a critical modulator of striatal function; its absence produces Parkinson's disease. Most cellular actions of dopamine are still unknown. This work describes the presynaptic actions of dopaminergic receptor agonists on GABAergic transmission between neostriatal projection neurons. Axon collaterals interconnect projection neurons, the main axons of which project to other basal ganglia nuclei. Most if not all of these projecting axons pass through the globus pallidus. Thus, we lesioned the intrinsic neurons of the globus pallidus and stimulated neostriatal efferent axons antidromically with a bipolar electrode located in this nucleus. This maneuver revealed a bicuculline-sensitive synaptic current while recording in spiny cells. D1 receptor agonists facilitated whereas D2 receptor agonists depressed this synaptic current. In contrast, a bicuculline-sensitive synaptic current evoked by field stimulation inside the neostriatum was not consistently modulated, in agreement with previous studies. The data are discussed in light of the most recent experimental and modeling results. The conclusion was that inhibition of spiny cells by axon collaterals of other spiny cells is quantitatively important; however, to be functionally important, this inhibition might be conditioned to the synchronized firing of spiny neurons. Finally, dopamine exerts a potentially important role regulating the extent of lateral inhibition.

  13. Neuron-derived IgG protects dopaminergic neurons from insult by 6-OHDA and activates microglia through the FcγR I and TLR4 pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Niu, Na; Wang, Mingyu; McNutt, Michael A; Zhang, Donghong; Zhang, Baogang; Lu, Shijun; Liu, Yuqing; Liu, Zhihui

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative and immune attacks from the environment or microglia have been implicated in the loss of dopaminergic neurons of Parkinson's disease. The role of IgG which is an important immunologic molecule in the process of Parkinson's disease has been unclear. Evidence suggests that IgG can be produced by neurons in addition to its traditionally recognized source B lymphocytes, but its function in neurons is poorly understood. In this study, extensive expression of neuron-derived IgG was demonstrated in dopaminergic neurons of human and rat mesencephalon. With an in vitro Parkinson's disease model, we found that neuron-derived IgG can improve the survival and reduce apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity, and also depress the release of NO from microglia triggered by 6-hydroxydopamine. Expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in microglia was elevated to protective levels by neuron-derived IgG at a physiologic level via the FcγR I and TLR4 pathways and microglial activation could be attenuated by IgG blocking. All these data suggested that neuron-derived IgG may exert a self-protective function by activating microglia properly, and IgG may be involved in maintaining immunity homeostasis in the central nervous system and serve as an active factor under pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease.

  14. Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system in hippocampus are involved in the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced learning and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Chun-Hai; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in mice. This study focused on the role of synaptophysin, growth-associated protein 43 and the action of the dopaminergic system in mechanisms associated with rutin protection and trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment. Cognitive learning and memory was measured by Morris Water Maze. The expression of synaptophysin and growth-associated protein 43 in hippocampus was analyzed by western blot. The concentrations of dopamine, homovanillic acid, and dihyroxyphenylacetic acid in hippocampus were detected using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Trimethyltin-induced spatial learning impairment showed a dose-dependent mode. Synaptophysin but not growth-associated protein 43 was decreased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. The concentration of dopamine decreased, while homovanillic acid increased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. Mice pretreated with 20 mg/kg of rutin for 7 consecutive days exhibited improved water maze performance. Moreover, rutin pretreatment reversed the decrease of synaptophysin expression and dopamine alteration. These results suggest that rutin may protect against spatial memory impairment induced by trimethyltin. Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system may be involved in trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in hippocampus.

  15. NADPH Oxidase and the Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinsonian Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernandes, Marina S.; Café-Mendes, Cecília C.; Britto, Luiz R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have implicated oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we characterized the involvement of NADPH oxidase (Nox), a multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen, in the 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced PD mice model and compared for the first time the effects of this neurotoxin in mice lacking gp91phox−/−, the catalytic subunit of Nox2, and pharmacological inhibition of Nox with apocynin. Six-OHDA induced increased protein expression of p47phox, a Nox subunit, in striatum. gp91phox−/− mice appear to be completely protected from dopaminergic cell loss, whereas the apocynin treatment conferred only a limited neuroprotection. Wt mice treated with apocynin and gp91phox−/− mice both exhibited ameliorated apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The microglial activation observed within the striatum and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of 6-OHDA-injected Wt mice was prevented by apocynin treatment and was not detected in gp91phox−/− mice. Apocynin was not able to attenuate astrocyte activation in SN. The results support a role for Nox2 in the 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and glial cell activation in the nigrostriatal pathway and reveal that no comparable 6-OHDA effects were observed between apocynin-treated and gp91phox−/− mice groups. PMID:24379900

  16. NADPH oxidase and the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian mice.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Marina S; Café-Mendes, Cecília C; Britto, Luiz R G

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have implicated oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we characterized the involvement of NADPH oxidase (Nox), a multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen, in the 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced PD mice model and compared for the first time the effects of this neurotoxin in mice lacking gp91(phox-/-), the catalytic subunit of Nox2, and pharmacological inhibition of Nox with apocynin. Six-OHDA induced increased protein expression of p47(phox), a Nox subunit, in striatum. gp91(phox-/-) mice appear to be completely protected from dopaminergic cell loss, whereas the apocynin treatment conferred only a limited neuroprotection. Wt mice treated with apocynin and gp91(phox-/-) mice both exhibited ameliorated apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The microglial activation observed within the striatum and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of 6-OHDA-injected Wt mice was prevented by apocynin treatment and was not detected in gp91(phox-/-) mice. Apocynin was not able to attenuate astrocyte activation in SN. The results support a role for Nox2 in the 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and glial cell activation in the nigrostriatal pathway and reveal that no comparable 6-OHDA effects were observed between apocynin-treated and gp91(phox-/-) mice groups.

  17. Azilsartan ameliorates apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and rescues characteristic parkinsonian behaviors in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qing; Ou, Zhou; Jiang, Teng; Tian, You-Yong; Zhou, Jun-Shan; Wu, Liang; Shi, Jian-Quan; Zhang, Ying-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) is a pathological hallmark of Parkinsons disease (PD), which leads to the onset of motor symptoms. Previously, our in vitro studies revealed that Angiotensin II (Ang II) induced apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons through its type 1 receptor (AT1R), but these findings needed to be confirmed via animal experiments. Here, using a rotenone-induced rat model of PD, we observed an overactivation of Ang II/AT1R axis in the SN, since Ang II level and AT1R expression were markedly increased. Furthermore, we provided in vivo evidence that Ang II directly elicited apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons via activation of AT1R in the SN of rats. More importantly, we showed for the first time that oral administration of azilsartan, a newly developed AT1R blocker approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for hypertension treatment, rescued the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and relieved the characteristic parkinsonian symptoms in PD rats. These results support the application of AT1R blockers in PD therapy, and strengthen the notion that many therapeutic agents may possess pleiotropic action in addition to their main applications. PMID:28445961

  18. Azilsartan ameliorates apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and rescues characteristic parkinsonian behaviors in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing; Ou, Zhou; Jiang, Teng; Tian, You-Yong; Zhou, Jun-Shan; Wu, Liang; Shi, Jian-Quan; Zhang, Ying-Dong

    2017-04-11

    Loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), which leads to the onset of motor symptoms. Previously, our in vitro studies revealed that Angiotensin II (Ang II) induced apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons through its type 1 receptor (AT1R), but these findings needed to be confirmed via animal experiments. Here, using a rotenone-induced rat model of PD, we observed an overactivation of Ang II/AT1R axis in the SN, since Ang II level and AT1R expression were markedly increased. Furthermore, we provided in vivo evidence that Ang II directly elicited apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons via activation of AT1R in the SN of rats. More importantly, we showed for the first time that oral administration of azilsartan, a newly developed AT1R blocker approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for hypertension treatment, rescued the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and relieved the characteristic parkinsonian symptoms in PD rats. These results support the application of AT1R blockers in PD therapy, and strengthen the notion that many therapeutic agents may possess pleiotropic action in addition to their main applications.

  19. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of tripchlorolide, an extract of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, on dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Qiao; Cheng, Xiao-Xin; Liang, Xi-Bin; Wang, Xin-Hong; Xue, Bing; He, Qi-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Min; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the immunosuppressant FK506 produced neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether tripchlorolide, an immunosuppressive extract of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, could exert similar neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects similar to those of FK506. It was found that tripchlorolide promoted axonal elongation and protected dopaminergic neurons from a neurotoxic lesion induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) at concentrations of as low as 10(-12) to 10(-8) M. In situ hybridization study revealed that tripchlorolide stimulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression. In vivo administration of tripchlorolide (1 microg/kg, ip) for 28 days effectively attenuated the rotational behavior challenged by D-amphetamine in the model rats by transection of the medial forebrain bundle. In addition, tripchlorolide treatment (0.5 or 1 microg/kg/day for 28 days) increased the survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta by 50 and 67%, respectively. Moreover, tripchlorolide markedly prevented the decrease in amount of dopamine in the striatum of model rats. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that tripchlorolide acts as a neuroprotective molecule that rescues MPP+ or axotomy-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, which may imply its therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease. The underlying mechanism may be relevant to its neurotrophic effect and its efficacy in stimulating the expression of BDNF.

  20. In vitro differentiation of neural stem cells derived from human olfactory bulb into dopaminergic-like neurons.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Rafieh; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Moradi, Fatemeh; Mohammadpour, Shahram; Ghorbani, Jahangir; Safavi, Ali; Sarbishegi, Maryam; Pirhajati Mahabadi, Vahid; Alizadeh, Leila; Hadjighassem, Mahmoudreza

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a new accessible source of neuronal stem cells that can be used in Parkinson's disease cell transplant. The human olfactory bulb contains neural stem cells (NSCs) that are responsible for neurogenesis in the brain and the replacement of damaged cellular components throughout life. NSCs are capable of differentiating into neuronal and glial cells. We isolated NSCs from the olfactory bulb of brain-death donors and differentiated them into dopaminergic neurons. The olfactory bulb tissues obtained were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F12, B27 supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor. The NSCs and proliferation markers were assessed. The multipotentiality of olfactory bulb NSCs was demonstrated by their capacity to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. To generate dopaminergic neurons, olfactory bulb NSCs were differentiated in neurobasal medium, supplemented with B27, and treated with sonic hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor 8 and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor from the 7th to the 21st day, followed by detection of dopaminergic neuronal markers including tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. The cells were expanded, established in continuous cell lines and differentiated into the two classical neuronal phenotypes. The percentage of co-positive cells (microtubule-associated protein 2 and tyrosine hydroxylase; aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase) in the treated cells was significantly higher than in the untreated cells. These results illustrate the existence of multipotent NSCs in the adult human olfactory bulb that are capable of differentiating toward putative dopaminergic neurons in the presence of trophic factors. Taken together, our data encourage further investigations of the possible use of olfactory bulb NSCs as a promising cell-based therapeutic strategy for Parkinson

  1. Dopaminergic Neurones in the Main Olfactory Bulb: An Overview from an Electrophysiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Angela; Belluzzi, Ottorino

    2017-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB), the first center processing olfactory information, is characterized by a vigorous life-long activity-dependent plasticity responsible for a variety of odor-evoked behavioral responses. It hosts the more numerous group of dopaminergic (DA) neurones in the central nervous system, cells strategically positioned at the entry of the bulbar circuitry, directly in contact with the olfactory nerve terminals, which play a key role in odor processing and in the adaptation of the bulbar network to external conditions. Here, we focus mainly on the electrophysiological properties of DA interneurones, reviewing findings concerning their excitability profiles in adulthood and in different phases of adult neurogenesis. We also discuss dynamic changes of the DA interneurones related to environmental stimuli and their possible functional implications. PMID:28261065

  2. Chronic organic manganese administration in the rat does not damage dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Yong, V W; Perry, T L; Godolphin, W J; Jones, K A; Clavier, R M; Ito, M; Foulks, J G

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to produce an animal model of Parkinson's disease, we injected rats repeatedly with high doses of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), a compound which has been reported to lower striatal dopamine content in mice. Chronic MMT administration for up to 5 months, even though it produced a substantial elevation in brain manganese content during the period of exposure, did not destroy dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. This was assessed by measurements of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and contents of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum, and by histological examination of the substantia nigra. Our results differ from those of others who administered manganese chloride in drinking water to rats. This discrepancy is unlikely to be a consequence of differences in duration of exposure or route of administration. It could be due to our having used an organic rather than an inorganic manganese compound, or to a species difference in vulnerability to organic manganese between rats and mice.

  3. Auraptene and Other Prenyloxyphenylpropanoids Suppress Microglial Activation and Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Death in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Semba, Tomoki; Toyoda, Nobuki; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Sawamoto, Atsushi; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), hyperactivated inflammation in the brain, particularly microglial hyperactivation in the substantia nigra (SN), is reported to be one of the triggers for the delayed loss of dopaminergic neurons and sequential motor functional impairments. We previously reported that (1) auraptene (AUR), a natural prenyloxycoumain, suppressed inflammatory responses including the hyperactivation of microglia in the ischemic brain and inflamed brain, thereby inhibiting neuronal cell death; (2) 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin (7-IP), another natural prenyloxycoumain, exerted anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity; and (3) 4′-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), a natural prenyloxycinnamic acid, also exerted anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using an intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD-like mouse model, we investigated whether AUR, 7-IP, and GOFA suppress microglial activation and protect against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the SN. We successfully showed that these prenyloxyphenylpropanoids exhibited these prospective abilities, suggesting the potential of these compounds as neuroprotective agents for patients with PD. PMID:27763495

  4. A microRNA embedded AAV alpha-synuclein gene silencing vector for dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ye; Khodr, Christina E.; Sapru, Mohan K.; Pedapati, Jyothi; Bohn, Martha C.

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (SNCA), an abundantly expressed presynaptic protein, is implicated in Parkinson disease (PD). Since over-expression of human SNCA (hSNCA) leads to death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in human, rodent and fly brain, hSNCA gene silencing may reduce levels of toxic forms of SNCA and ameliorate degeneration of DA neurons in PD. To begin to develop a gene therapy for PD based on hSNCA gene silencing, two AAV gene silencing vectors were designed, and tested for efficiency and specificity of silencing, as well as toxicity in vitro. The same hSNCA silencing sequence (shRNA) was used in both vectors, but in one vector, the shRNA was embedded in a microRNA backbone and driven by a pol II promoter, and in the other the shRNA was not embedded in a microRNA and was driven by a pol III promoter. Both vectors silenced hSNCA to the same extent in 293T cells transfected with hSNCA. In DA PC12 cells, neither vector decreased expression of rat SNCA, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) or the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT). However, the mir30 embedded vector was significantly less toxic to both PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells. Our in vitro data suggest that this miRNA-embedded silencing vector may be ideal for chronic in vivo SNCA gene silencing in DA neurons. PMID:21338582

  5. Clonal Human Fetal Ventral Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neuron Precursors for Cell Therapy Research

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Moreno, Tania; Lendínez, Javier G.; Pino-Barrio, María José; del Arco, Araceli; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge for further development of drug screening procedures, cell replacement therapies and developmental studies is the identification of expandable human stem cells able to generate the cell types needed. We have previously reported the generation of an immortalized polyclonal neural stem cell (NSC) line derived from the human fetal ventral mesencephalon (hVM1). This line has been biochemically, genetically, immunocytochemically and electrophysiologically characterized to document its usefulness as a model system for the generation of A9 dopaminergic neurons (DAn). Long-term in vivo transplantation studies in parkinsonian rats showed that the grafts do not mature evenly. We reasoned that diverse clones in the hVM1 line might have different abilities to differentiate. In the present study, we have analyzed 9 hVM1 clones selected on the basis of their TH generation potential and, based on the number of v-myc copies, v-myc down-regulation after in vitro differentiation, in vivo cell cycle exit, TH+ neuron generation and expression of a neuronal mature marker (hNSE), we selected two clones for further in vivo PD cell replacement studies. The conclusion is that homogeneity and clonality of characterized NSCs allow transplantation of cells with controlled properties, which should help in the design of long-term in vivo experiments. PMID:23300748

  6. Glucose Levels in Culture Medium Determine Cell Death Mode in MPP(+)-treated Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, So-Young; Oh, Young J

    2015-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) causes caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cells. Here, we specifically examined whether change of glucose concentration in culture medium may play a role for determining cell death modes of DA neurons following MPP(+) treatment. By incubating MN9D cells in medium containing varying concentrations of glucose (5~35 mM), we found that cells underwent a distinct cell death as determined by morphological and biochemical criteria. At 5~10 mM glucose concentration (low glucose levels), MPP(+) induced typical of the apoptotic dell death accompanied with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation as well as cell shrinkage. In contrast, MN9D cells cultivated in medium containing more than 17.5 mM (high glucose levels) did not demonstrate any of these changes. Subsequently, we observed that MPP(+) at low glucose levels but not high glucose levels led to ROS generation and subsequent JNK activation. Therefore, MPP(+)-induced cell death only at low glucose levels was significantly ameliorated following co-treatment with ROS scavenger, caspase inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. We basically confirmed the quite similar pattern of cell death in primary cultures of DA neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that a biochemically distinct cell death mode is recruited by MPP(+) depending on extracellular glucose levels.

  7. Estradiol promotes proliferation of dopaminergic precursors resulting in a higher proportion of dopamine neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Néstor F; Díaz-Martínez, Néstor E; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Velasco, Iván

    2009-08-01

    Estradiol protects dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra from toxic insults. Such neurons succumb in Parkinson's disease; one strategy for restoring dopamine deficiency is cell therapy with neurons differentiated from embryonic stem cells. We investigated the effects of 17beta-estradiol on dopaminergic induction of embryonic stem cells using the 5-stage protocol. Cells were incubated with different steroid concentrations during the proliferation (stage 4) or differentiation (stage 5) phases. Estradiol added at nM concentrations only during stage 4 increases the proliferation of dopaminergic precursors expressing Lmx1a, inducing a higher proportion of dopamine neurons at stage 5. These actions were mediated by activation of estrogen receptors, because co-incubation of cells with estradiol and ICI 182,780 completely abolished the positive effect on both proliferation of committed precursors, and subsequent differentiation to dopaminergic neurons. Our results suggest that estradiol should be useful in producing higher proportions of dopamine neurons from embryonic stem cells aimed for treating Parkinson's disease.

  8. Estradiol promotes proliferation of dopaminergic precursors resulting in a higher proportion of dopamine neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Néstor F.; Díaz-Martínez, Néstor E.; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Velasco, Iván

    2009-01-01

    Estradiol protects dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra from toxic insults. Such neurons succumb in Parkinson’s disease; one strategy for restoring dopamine deficiency is cell therapy with neurons differentiated from embryonic stem cells. We investigated the effects of 17β-estradiol on dopaminergic induction of embryonic stem cells using the 5-stage protocol. Cells were incubated with different steroid concentrations during the proliferation (stage 4) or differentiation (stage 5) phases. Estradiol added at nM concentrations only during stage 4 increases the proliferation of dopaminergic precursors expressing Lmx1a, inducing a higher proportion of dopamine neurons at stage 5. These actions were mediated by activation of estrogen receptors, because co-incubation of cells with estradiol and ICI 182,780 completely abolished the positive effect on both proliferation of committed precursors, and subsequent differentiation to dopaminergic neurons. Our results suggest that estradiol should be useful to produce higher proportions of dopamine neurons from embryonic stem cells aimed for treating Parkinson’s disease. PMID:19379802

  9. Interaction of NMDA Receptor and Pacemaking Mechanisms in the Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Joon; Kuznetsov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission has been found to play a role in addictive behavior and is altered in psychiatric disorders. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons display two functionally distinct modes of electrophysiological activity: low- and high-frequency firing. A puzzling feature of the DA neuron is the following combination of its responses: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation evokes high-frequency firing, whereas other tonic excitatory stimuli (-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR) activation or applied depolarization) block firing instead. We suggest a new computational model that reproduces this combination of responses and explains recent experimental data. Namely, somatic NMDAR stimulation evokes high-frequency firing and is more effective than distal dendritic stimulation. We further reduce the model to a single compartment and analyze the mechanism of the distinct high-frequency response to NMDAR activation vs. other stimuli. Standard nullcline analysis shows that the mechanism is based on a decrease in the amplitude of calcium oscillations. The analysis confirms that the nonlinear voltage dependence provided by the magnesium block of the NMDAR determine its capacity to elevate the firing frequency. We further predict that the moderate slope of the voltage dependence plays the central role in the frequency elevation. Additionally, we suggest a repolarizing current that sustains calcium-independent firing or firing in the absence of calcium-dependent repolarizing currents. We predict that the ether–a-go-go current (ERG), which has been observed in the DA neuron, is the best fit for this critical role. We show that a calcium-dependent and a calcium-independent oscillatory mechanisms form a structure of interlocked negative feedback loops in the DA neuron. The structure connects research of DA neuron firing with circadian biology and determines common minimal models for investigation of robustness of oscillations, which is

  10. Ascorbate prevents cell death from prolonged exposure to glutamate in an in vitro model of human dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Ballaz, Santiago; Morales, Ingrid; Rodríguez, Manuel; Obeso, José A

    2013-12-01

    Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a nonenzymatic antioxidant highly concentrated in the brain. In addition to mediating redox balance, ascorbate is linked to glutamate neurotransmission in the striatum, where it renders neuroprotection against excessive glutamate stimulation. Oxidative stress and glutamatergic overactivity are key biochemical features accompanying the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that characterizes Parkinson's disease (PD). At present, it is not clear whether antiglutamate agents and ascorbate might be neuroprotective agents for PD. Thus, we tested whether ascorbate can prevent cell death from prolonged exposure to glutamate using dopaminergic neurons of human origin. To this purpose, dopamine-like neurons were obtained by differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells and then cultured for 4 days without antioxidant (antiaging) protection to evaluate glutamate toxicity and ascorbate protection as a model system of potential factors contributing to dopaminergic neuron death in PD. Glutamate dose dependently induced toxicity in dopaminergic cells largely by the stimulation of AMPA and metabotropic receptors and to a lesser extent by N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptors. At relatively physiological levels of extracellular concentration, ascorbate protected cells against glutamate excitotoxicity. This neuroprotection apparently relies on the inhibition of oxidative stress, because ascorbate prevented the pro-oxidant action of the scavenging molecule quercetin, which occurred over the course of prolonged exposure, as is also seen with glutamate. Our findings show the relevance of ascorbate as a neuroprotective agent and emphasize an often underappreciated role of oxidative stress in glutamate excitotoxicity. Occurrence of a glutamate-ascorbate link in dopaminergic neurons may explain previous contradictions regarding their putative role in PD.

  11. Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) Phosphorylation Promotes Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival during 6-OHDA-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Asaithambi, Arunkumar; Ay, Muhammet; Jin, Huajun; Gosh, Anamitra; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major pathophysiological mediator of degenerative processes in many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Aberrant cell signaling governed by protein phosphorylation has been linked to oxidative damage of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Although several studies have associated activation of certain protein kinases with apoptotic cell death in PD, very little is known about protein kinase regulation of cell survival and protection against oxidative damage and degeneration in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we characterized the PKD1-mediated protective pathway against oxidative damage in cell culture models of PD. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) was used to induce oxidative stress in the N27 dopaminergic cell model and in primary mesencephalic neurons. Our results indicated that 6-OHDA induced the PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/S748) phosphorylation during early stages of oxidative stress and that PKD1 activation preceded cell death. We also found that 6-OHDA rapidly increased phosphorylation of the C-terminal S916 in PKD1, which is required for PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/748) phosphorylation. Interestingly, negative modulation of PKD1 activation by RNAi knockdown or by the pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 by kbNB-14270 augmented 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, while positive modulation of PKD1 by the overexpression of full length PKD1 (PKD1WT) or constitutively active PKD1 (PKD1S744E/S748E) attenuated 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, suggesting an anti-apoptotic role for PKD1 during oxidative neuronal injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PKD1 signaling plays a cell survival role during early stages of oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons and therefore, positive modulation of the PKD1-mediated signal transduction pathway can provide a novel neuroprotective strategy against PD. PMID:24806360

  12. Dopaminergic treatment weakens medium spiny neuron collateral inhibition in the parkinsonian striatum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Ding, Shengyuan; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2017-03-01

    The striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are critical to both motor and cognitive functions. A potential regulator of MSN activity is the GABAergic collateral axonal input from neighboring MSNs. These collateral axon terminals are further under the regulation of presynaptic dopamine (DA) receptors that may become dysfunctional when the intense striatal DA innervation is lost in Parkinson's disease (PD). We show that DA D1 receptor-expressing MSNs (D1-MSNs) and D2 receptor-expressing MSNs (D2-MSNs) each formed high-rate, one-way collateral connections with a homotypic preference in both normal and DA-denervated mouse striatum. Furthermore, whereas the homotypic preference, one-way directionality and the basal inhibitory strength were preserved, DA inhibited GABA release at the D2-MSN→D2-MSN collateral synapse in a supersensitive manner in the DA-denervated striatum. In contrast, for D1-MSN-originated collateral connections, whereas D1 agonism facilitated D1-MSN→D1-MSN collateral inhibition in the normal striatum, this presynaptic D1R facilitation of GABA release was lost in the parkinsonian striatum. These results indicate that in the parkinsonian striatum, dopaminergic treatment can presynaptically weaken the D2-MSN→D2-MSN collateral inhibition and disinhibit the surrounding D2-MSNs, whereas the D1-MSN→D1-MSN collateral inhibition is weakened by the loss of the presynaptic D1 receptor facilitation, disinhibiting the surrounding D1-MSNs. Together, these newly discovered effects can disrupt the MSN circuits in the parkinsonian striatum and may contribute to dopaminergic treatment-induced aberrant motor and nonmotor behaviors in PD.NEW & NOTEWORTHY With the use of a large database, this study establishes that neighboring homotypic striatal spiny projection neurons have a 50% chance to form one-way collateral inhibitory connection, a substantially higher rate than previous estimates. This study also shows that dopamine denervation may alter presynaptic dopamine

  13. Axon responses of embryonic stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons to Semaphorins 3A and 3C

    PubMed Central

    Tamariz, Elisa; Díaz-Martínez, N. Emmanuel; Díaz, Néstor F.; García-Peña, Claudia M.; Velasco, Iván; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Class 3 Semaphorins are a subfamily of chemotropic molecules implicated in the projection of dopaminergic neurons from the ventral mesencephalon and in the formation of the nigrostriatal pathway (NSP) during embryonic development. In humans, loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons leads to Parkinson’s disease (PD). Cell replacement therapy with dopaminergic neurons generated from embryonic stem cells (ES-TH+) is being actively explored in models of PD. Among several requisites for this approach to work are the adequate reconstruction of the NSP and the correct innervation of normal striatal targets by dopaminergic axons. In this work, we characterized the response of ES-TH+ neurons to Semaphorins 3A, 3C, and 3F, and compared it with that of tyrosine hidroxylase-positive neurons (TH+) obtained from embryonic ventral mesencephalon (VM-TH+). We observed that similar proportions of ES-TH+ and VM-TH+ neurons express Semaphorin receptors Neuropilin 1 and 2. Furthermore, the axons of both populations responded very similarly to Semaphorin exposure: Semaphorin 3A increased axon length, and Semaphorin 3C attracted axons and increased their length. These effects were mediated by Neuropilins, since addition of blocking antibodies against these proteins reduced the effects on axonal growth and attraction, and only TH+ axons expressing Neuropilins responded to the Semaphorins analyzed. The observations reported here show phenotypic similarities between VM-TH+ and ES-TH+ neurons, and suggest that Semaphorins 3A and 3C could be employed to guide axons of grafted ES-TH+ in therapeutic protocols for PD. PMID:19859963

  14. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline protects terminals of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum against the malonate-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lorenc-Koci, Elzbieta; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Wardas, Jadwiga

    2005-07-27

    Malonate, a reversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, is frequently used as a model neurotoxin to produce lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals due to particular sensitivity of dopamine neurons to mild energy impairment. This model of neurotoxicity was applied in our study to explore neuroprotective potential of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), an endo- and exogenous substance whose function in the mammalian brain, despite extensive studies, has not been elucidated so far. Injection of malonate at a dose of 3 mumol unilaterally into the rat left medial forebrain bundle resulted in the 54% decrease in dopamine (DA) concentration in the ipsilateral striatum and, depending on the examined striatum regions, caused 24-44% reduction in [3H]GBR12,935 binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT). TIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) administered 4 h before malonate infusion and next once daily for successive 7 days prevented both these effects of malonate. Such TIQ treatment restored DA content and DAT binding almost to the control level. The results of the present study indicate that TIQ may act as a neuroprotective agent in the rat brain. An inhibition of the enzymatic activities of monoamine oxidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase as well as an increase in the striatal levels of glutathione and nitric oxide found after TIQ administration and reported in our earlier studies are considered to be potential factors that may be involved in the TIQ-mediated protection of dopamine terminals from malonate toxicity.

  15. Environmental neurotoxic pesticide dieldrin activates a non receptor tyrosine kinase to promote PKCδ-mediated dopaminergic apoptosis in a dopaminergic neuronal cell model.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Hariharan; Asaithambi, Arunkumar; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2011-10-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis are two key pathophysiological mechanisms underlying dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we identified that proteolytic activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ), a member of the novel PKC family, contributes to oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration and that phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 311 (tyr311) on PKCδ is a key event preceding the PKCδ proteolytic activation during oxidative damage. Herein, we report that a non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn is significantly expressed in a dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell model. Exposure of N27 cells to the dopaminergic toxicant dieldrin (60 μM) rapidly activated Fyn kinase, PKCδ-tyr311 phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage. Fyn kinase activation precedes the caspase-3-mediated proteolytic activation of PKCδ. Pre-treatment with p60-tyrosine-specific kinase inhibitor (TSKI) almost completely attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311 and its proteolytic activation. Additionally, TSKI almost completely blocked dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death. To further confirm Fyn's role in the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ, we adopted the RNAi approach. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Fyn kinase also effectively attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311, caspase-3-mediated PKCδ proteolytic cleavage, and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that Fyn kinase regulates the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that Fyn kinase is a pro-apoptotic kinase that regulates upstream signaling of the PKCδ-mediated apoptotic cell death pathway in neurotoxicity models of pesticide exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL NEUROTOXIC PESTICIDE DIELDRIN ACTIVATES A NON RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE TO PROMOTE PKCδ-MEDIATED DOPAMINERGIC APOPTOSIS IN A DOPAMINERGIC NEURONAL CELL MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Saminathan, Hariharan; Asaithambi, Arunkumar; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis are two key pathophysiological mechanisms underlying dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Recently, we identified that proteolytic activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ), a member of the novel PKC family, contributes to oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration and that phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 311 (tyr311) on PKCδ is a key event preceding the PKCδ proteolytic activation during oxidative damage. Herein, we report that a non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn is significantly expressed in a dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell model. Exposure of N27 cells to the dopaminergic toxicant dieldrin (60 μM) rapidly activated Fyn kinase, PKCδ-tyr311 phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage. Fyn kinase activation precedes the caspase-3-mediated proteolytic activation of PKCδ. Co-treatment with p60-tyrosine-specific kinase inhibitor (TSKI) almost completely attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311 and its proteolytic activation. Additionally, TSKI almost completely blocked dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death. To further confirm Fyn’s role in the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ, we adopted the RNAi approach. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Fyn kinase also effectively attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311, caspase-3-mediated PKCδ proteolytic cleavage, and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that Fyn kinase regulates the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that Fyn kinase is a pro-apoptotic kinase that regulates upstream signaling of the PKCδ-mediated apoptotic cell death pathway in neurotoxicity models of pesticide exposure. PMID:21801747

  17. Conditional Expression of Parkinson disease-related Mutant α-synuclein in the Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons causes Progressive Neurodegeneration and Degradation of Transcription Factor Nuclear Receptor Related 1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xian; Parisiadou, Loukia; Sgobio, Carmelo; Liu, Guoxiang; Yu, Jia; Sun, Lixin; Shim, Hoon; Gu, Xing-Long; Luo, Jing; Long, Cai-Xia; Ding, Jinhui; Mateo, Yolanda; Sullivan, Patricia H.; Wu, Ling-Gang; Goldstein, David S.; Lovinger, David; Cai, Huaibin

    2012-01-01

    α-synuclein(α-syn) plays a prominent role in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in Parkinson disease (PD). However, only a few studies on α-syn have been carried out in the mDA neurons in vivo, which may be attributed to a lack of α-syn transgenic mice that develop PD-like severe degeneration of mDA neurons. To gain mechanistic insights into the α-syn-induced mDA neurodegeneration, we generated a new line of tetracycline-regulated inducible transgenic mice that overexpressed the PD-related α-syn A53T missense mutation in the mDA neurons. Here we show that the mutant mice developed profound motor disabilities and robust mDA neurodegeneration, resembling some key motor and pathological phenotypes of PD. We further systematically examined the subcellular abnormalities appeared in the mDA neurons of mutant mice, and observed a profound decrease of dopamine release, the fragmentation of Golgi apparatus, and impairments of autophagy/lysosome degradation pathways in these neurons. To further understand the specific molecular events leading to the α-syn-dependent degeneration of mDA neurons, we found that over-expression of α-syn promoted a proteasome-dependent degradation of nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1); while inhibition of Nurr1 degradation ameliorated the α-syn-induced loss of mDA neurons. Given that Nurr1 plays an essential role in maintaining the normal function and survival of mDA neurons, our studies suggest that the α-syn-mediated suppression of Nurr1 protein expression may contribute to the preferential vulnerability of mDA neurons in the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:22764233

  18. [Survival of dopaminergic neurons that were hibernated in vitro for seven days].

    PubMed

    de la Cuétara-Bernal, K; Castillo-Díaz, L; Martínez-Martí, L; García-Varona, A Y

    The use of fresh foetal tissue in neurotransplants entails considerable problems of logistics that limit its clinical applicability, something that can be resolved by the development of optimal tissue storage procedures that do not affect in vivo viability and survival of dopamine. AIMS. To determine whether 7 days' hibernation affects the survival of mesencephalic tissue in vitro, and to compare it to fresh tissue. The midbrains of rats were hibernated for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days at 4 degrees C. A cellular suspension was prepared for culture throughout a 7-day period. The number of TH+ cells present in the fresh and hibernated cultures was determined. The morphology of the hibernated and cultured dopaminergic neurons was very similar to that of the fresh cells. Comparing the viability of the hibernated and fresh cells did not reveal any significant differences. No significant differences between the numbers of TH+ neurons were observed at any of the hibernation times. The lowest rate of TH+ cell survival was reached at seven days' hibernation. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between the number of TH+ neurons for fresh and hibernated tissue. Hibernation at 4 degrees C for up to five days guarantees the survival of TH+ cells in vitro, but it is affected by longer times. This procedure could be considered useful for preserving human tissue in clinical transplant applications. These results refer to in vitro conditions; therefore, studies must be conducted to investigate the survival and functionality of hibernated and transplanted neurons in animal models to enable us to evaluate its applicability in neurorestorative therapy.

  19. Alkaloids from piper longum protect dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated damage induced by intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Guo, Wei-Wei; Xu, Rong-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Nan; Wu, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2016-10-24

    Alkaloids from Piper longum (PLA), extracted from P. longum, have potent anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PLA could protect dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated damage by inhibiting microglial activation using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage rat model. The animal behaviors of rotational behavior, rotarod test and open-field test were investigated. The survival ratio of dopaminergic neurons and microglial activation were examined. The dopamine (DA) and its metabolite were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of PLA on the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were also estimated. We showed that the survival ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and DA content in the striatum were reduced after a single intranigral dose of LPS (10 μg) treatment. The survival rate of TH-ir neurons in the SNpc and DA levels in the striatum were significantly improved after treatment with PLA for 6 weeks. The over-activated microglial cells were suppressed by PLA treatment. We also observed that the levels of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were decreased and the excessive production of ROS and NO were abolished after PLA treatment. Therefore, the behavioral dysfunctions induced by LPS were improved after PLA treatment. This study suggests that PLA plays a significant role in protecting dopaminergic neurons against inflammatory reaction induced damage.

  20. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects against the dopaminergic neuronal loss induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Barros Silva, R; Santos, N A G; Martins, N M; Ferreira, D A S; Barbosa, F; Oliveira Souza, V C; Kinoshita, A; Baffa, O; Del-Bel, E; Santos, A C

    2013-03-13

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a botanical compound abundant in honeybees' propolis. It has anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antitumor properties. Its beneficial effects against neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, have also been suggested and some mechanisms have been proposed. Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress are critical events in neurodegeneration. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol and the downstream activation of caspase-3 have been suggested as targets of the protective mechanism of CAPE. Most of the studies addressing the protective effect of CAPE have been performed in cell culture. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effect of CAPE against the dopaminergic neuronal loss induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. It also demonstrates, for the first time, the inhibitory effect of CAPE on mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), a mediator of neuronal death that triggers cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metal chelation was demonstrated in the brain-affected areas of the rats treated with 6-OHDA and CAPE. Additionally, we demonstrated that CAPE does not affect brain mitochondrial function. Based on these findings and on its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, CAPE is a promising compound to treat Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin and lindane induce cooperative toxicity in dopaminergic neurons: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Heera; Zhang, Ping; Barber, David S; Liu, Bin

    2010-03-01

    Elevated environmental exposure to pesticides has been implicated as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive movement disorder resulted from degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) pathway. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dieldrin and lindane remain ubiquitous in the environment and food supply due to their resistance to degradation and bioaccumulation along the food chain. While prior studies have gained insight into the neurotoxic effects of individual OCPs such as dieldrin, the effect of combinations of coexisting OCPs is lacking. In this study, we determined the combined effect of dieldrin and lindane on DA neurons and potential mechanism of action. Combinations of dieldrin and lindane (5-25 microM) were more effective in causing toxicity in immortalized rat N27 DA neurons than when used alone. Mechanistically, dieldrin and lindane combination induced a rapid increase in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 3/7. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blocked the effect of dieldrin and lindane on ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential and protected against dieldrin- and lindane-induced neurotoxicity. These results demonstrate that dieldrin and lindane work cooperatively to induce DA neurotoxicity through the induction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings may advance understanding of the role of pesticides in the multi-factorial etiology of PD. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Proteolytic activation of proapoptotic kinase protein kinase Cδ by tumor necrosis factor α death receptor signaling in dopaminergic neurons during neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of progressive dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain poorly understood, largely due to the complex etiology and multifactorial nature of disease pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence from human studies and experimental models over the last decade have identified neuroinflammation as a potential pathophysiological mechanism contributing to disease progression. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) has recently emerged as the primary neuroinflammatory mediator that can elicit dopaminergic cell death in PD. However, the signaling pathways by which TNF mediates dopaminergic cell death have not been completely elucidated. Methods In this study we used a dopaminergic neuronal cell model and recombinant TNF to characterize intracellular signaling pathways activated during TNF-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Etanercept and neutralizing antibodies to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) were used to block TNF signaling. We confirmed the results from our mechanistic studies in primary embryonic mesencephalic cultures and in vivo using the stereotaxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of nigral dopaminergic degeneration. Results TNF signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells triggered the activation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), an isoform of the novel PKC family, by caspase-3 and caspase-8 dependent proteolytic cleavage. Both TNFR1 neutralizing antibodies and the soluble TNF receptor Etanercept blocked TNF-induced PKCδ proteolytic activation. Proteolytic activation of PKCδ was accompanied by translocation of the kinase to the nucleus. Notably, inhibition of PKCδ signaling by small interfering (si)RNA or overexpression of a PKCδ cleavage-resistant mutant protected against TNF-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death. Further, primary dopaminergic neurons obtained from PKCδ knockout (−/−) mice were resistant to TNF toxicity. The proteolytic activation of PKCδ in the mouse substantia nigra in the neuroinflammatory LPS

  3. ETHANOL ACTION ON DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS IN THE VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA: INTERACTION WITH INTRINSIC ION CHANNELS AND NEUROTRANSMITTER INPUTS

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Hitoshi; Morrisett, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The dopaminergic system originating in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) has been extensively studied over the past decades as a critical neural substrate involved in the development of alcoholism and addiction to other drugs of abuse. Accumulating evidence indicates that ethanol modulates the functional output of this system by directly affecting the firing activity of VTA dopamine neurons, whereas withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure leads to a reduction in the functional output of these neurons. This chapter will provide an update on the mechanistic investigations of the acute ethanol action on dopamine neuron activity and the neuroadaptations/plasticities in the VTA produced by previous ethanol experience. PMID:20813245

  4. Proneural Transcription Factor Atoh1 Drives Highly Efficient Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sagal, Jonathan; Zhan, Xiping; Xu, Jinchong; Tilghman, Jessica; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Chen, Li; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Laterra, John

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a promising cell resource for various applications in regenerative medicine. Highly efficient approaches that differentiate human PSCs into functional lineage-specific neurons are critical for modeling neurological disorders and testing potential therapies. Proneural transcription factors are crucial drivers of neuron development and hold promise for driving highly efficient neuronal conversion in PSCs. Here, we study the functions of proneural transcription factor Atoh1 in the neuronal differentiation of PSCs. We show that Atoh1 is induced during the neuronal conversion of PSCs and that ectopic Atoh1 expression is sufficient to drive PSCs into neurons with high efficiency. Atoh1 induction, in combination with cell extrinsic factors, differentiates PSCs into functional dopaminergic (DA) neurons with >80% purity. Atoh1-induced DA neurons recapitulate key biochemical and electrophysiological features of midbrain DA neurons, the degeneration of which is responsible for clinical symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Atoh1-induced DA neurons provide a reliable disease model for studying PD pathogenesis, such as neurotoxin-induced neurodegeneration in PD. Overall, our results determine the role of Atoh1 in regulating neuronal differentiation and neuron subtype specification of human PSCs. Our Atoh1-mediated differentiation approach will enable large-scale applications of PD patient-derived midbrain DA neurons in mechanistic studies and drug screening for both familial and sporadic PD. PMID:24904172

  5. Sex-dependent diversity in ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurons and developmental programing: A molecular, cellular and behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Gillies, G E; Virdee, K; McArthur, S; Dalley, J W

    2014-12-12

    The knowledge that diverse populations of dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) can be distinguished in terms of their molecular, electrophysiological and functional properties, as well as their differential projections to cortical and subcortical regions has significance for key brain functions, such as the regulation of motivation, working memory and sensorimotor control. Almost without exception, this understanding has evolved from landmark studies performed in the male sex. However, converging evidence from both clinical and pre-clinical studies illustrates that the structure and functioning of the VTA dopaminergic systems are intrinsically different in males and females. This may be driven by sex differences in the hormonal environment during adulthood ('activational' effects) and development (perinatal and/or pubertal 'organizational' effects), as well as genetic factors, especially the SRY gene on the Y chromosome in males, which is expressed in a sub-population of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Stress and stress hormones, especially glucocorticoids, are important factors which interact with the VTA dopaminergic systems in order to achieve behavioral adaptation and enable the individual to cope with environmental change. Here, also, there is male/female diversity not only during adulthood, but also in early life when neurobiological programing by stress or glucocorticoid exposure differentially impacts dopaminergic developmental trajectories in male and female brains. This may have enduring consequences for individual resilience or susceptibility to pathophysiological change induced by stressors in later life, with potential translational significance for sex bias commonly found in disorders involving dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems. These findings highlight the urgent need for a better understanding of the sexual dimorphism in the VTA if we are to improve strategies for the prevention and treatment of

  6. Sex-dependent diversity in ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurons and developmental programing: A molecular, cellular and behavioral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, G.E.; Virdee, K.; McArthur, S.; Dalley, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge that diverse populations of dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) can be distinguished in terms of their molecular, electrophysiological and functional properties, as well as their differential projections to cortical and subcortical regions has significance for key brain functions, such as the regulation of motivation, working memory and sensorimotor control. Almost without exception, this understanding has evolved from landmark studies performed in the male sex. However, converging evidence from both clinical and pre-clinical studies illustrates that the structure and functioning of the VTA dopaminergic systems are intrinsically different in males and females. This may be driven by sex differences in the hormonal environment during adulthood (‘activational’ effects) and development (perinatal and/or pubertal ‘organizational’ effects), as well as genetic factors, especially the SRY gene on the Y chromosome in males, which is expressed in a sub-population of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Stress and stress hormones, especially glucocorticoids, are important factors which interact with the VTA dopaminergic systems in order to achieve behavioral adaptation and enable the individual to cope with environmental change. Here, also, there is male/female diversity not only during adulthood, but also in early life when neurobiological programing by stress or glucocorticoid exposure differentially impacts dopaminergic developmental trajectories in male and female brains. This may have enduring consequences for individual resilience or susceptibility to pathophysiological change induced by stressors in later life, with potential translational significance for sex bias commonly found in disorders involving dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems. These findings highlight the urgent need for a better understanding of the sexual dimorphism in the VTA if we are to improve strategies for the prevention and

  7. The cellular and genomic response of rat dopaminergic neurons (N27) to coated nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Chorley, Brian; Ward, William; Simmons, Steven O; Vallanat, Beena; Veronesi, Bellina

    2014-12-01

    This study examined if nanosilver (nanoAg) of different sizes and coatings were differentially toxic to oxidative stress-sensitive neurons. N27 rat dopaminergic neurons were exposed (0.5-5 ppm) to a set of nanoAg of different sizes (10nm, 75 nm) and coatings (PVP, citrate) and their physicochemical, cellular and genomic response measured. Both coatings retained their manufactured sizes in culture media, however, the zeta potentials of both sizes of PVP-coated nanoAg were significantly less electronegative than those of their citrate-coated counterparts. Markers of oxidative stress, measured at 0.5-5 ppm exposure concentrations, indicated that caspase 3/7 activity and glutathione levels were significantly increased by both sizes of PVP-coated nanoAg and by the 75 nm citrate-coated nanoAg. Both sizes of PVP-coated nanoAg also increased intra-neuronal nitrite levels and activated ARE/NRF2, a reporter gene for the oxidative stress-protection pathway. Global gene expression on N27 neurons, exposed to 0.5 ppm for 8h, indicated a dominant effect by PVP-coated nanoAg over citrate. The 75 nm PVP-coated material altered 196 genes that were loosely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, the 10nm PVP-coated nanoAg altered 82 genes that were strongly associated with NRF2 oxidative stress pathways. Less that 20% of the affected genes were shared by both sizes of PVP-coated nanoAg. These cellular and genomic findings suggest that PVP-coated nanoAg is more bioactive than citrate-coated nanoAg. Although both sizes of PVP-coated nanoAg altered the genomic expression of N27 neurons along oxidative stress pathways, exposure to the 75 nm nanoAg favored pathways associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas the 10nm PVP-coated nanoAg affected NRF2 neuronal protective pathways.

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway mediates acupuncture-induced dopaminergic neuron protection and motor function improvement in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Seung-Tae; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Ji-Yeun; Moon, Woongjoon; Chae, Younbyoung; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that acupuncture treatment reduced dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. However, the mechanistic pathways underlying, such neuroprotection, are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanism of acupuncture in a mouse model of PD using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). First, we observed that MPTP-induced impairment of Akt activation, but not MPTP-induced c-Jun activation, was effectively restored by acupuncture treatment in the substantia nigra. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that the brain-specific blockade of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, by intranasal administration of LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, significantly blocked acupuncture-induced dopaminergic neuron protection and motor function improvement. Our results provide evidence that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may play a central role in the mechanism underlying acupuncture-induced benefits in Parkinsonian mice.

  9. Orexins contribute to restraint stress-induced cocaine relapse by endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Li-Wei; Lu, Guan-Ling; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Yu, Lung; Lee, Hsin-Jung; Leishman, Emma; Bradshaw, Heather; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Hung, Ming-Shiu; Mackie, Ken; Zimmer, Andreas; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Orexins are associated with drug relapse in rodents. Here, we show that acute restraint stress in mice activates lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin neurons, increases levels of orexin A and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and reinstates extinguished cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). This stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP depends on type 1 orexin receptors (OX1Rs), type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) in the VTA. In dopaminergic neurons of VTA slices, orexin A presynaptically inhibits GABAergic transmission. This effect is prevented by internal GDP-β-S or inhibiting OX1Rs, CB1Rs, phospholipase C or DAGL, and potentiated by inhibiting 2-AG degradation. These results suggest that restraint stress activates LH orexin neurons, releasing orexins into the VTA to activate postsynaptic OX1Rs of dopaminergic neurons and generate 2-AG through a Gq-protein-phospholipase C-DAGL cascade. 2-AG retrogradely inhibits GABA release through presynaptic CB1Rs, leading to VTA dopaminergic disinhibition and reinstatement of cocaine CPP. PMID:27448020

  10. Functional Rescue of Dopaminergic Neuron Loss in Parkinson's Disease Mice After Transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Altarche-Xifro, Wassim; di Vicino, Umberto; Muñoz-Martin, Maria Isabel; Bortolozzi, Analía; Bové, Jordi; Vila, Miquel; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder, which is due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and for which no definitive cure is currently available. Cellular functions in mouse and human tissues can be restored after fusion of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells with a variety of somatic cells. Here, after transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the SNpc of two different mouse models of Parkinson's disease, we significantly ameliorated the dopaminergic neuron loss and function. We show fusion of transplanted HSPCs with neurons and with glial cells in the ventral midbrain of Parkinson's disease mice. Interestingly, the hybrids can undergo reprogramming in vivo and survived up to 4weeks after transplantation, while acquiring features of mature astroglia. These newly generated astroglia produced Wnt1 and were essential for functional rescue of the dopaminergic neurons. Our data suggest that glial-derived hybrids produced upon fusion of transplanted HSPCs in the SNpc can rescue the Parkinson's disease phenotype via a niche-mediated effect, and can be exploited as an efficient cell-therapy approach. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 maintain dopaminergic neuronal properties and control feeding behavior in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Pristerà, Alessandro; Lin, Wei; Kaufmann, Anna-Kristin; Brimblecombe, Katherine R.; Threlfell, Sarah; Dodson, Paul D.; Magill, Peter J.; Fernandes, Cathy; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Ang, Siew-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons are implicated in cognitive functions, neuropsychiatric disorders, and pathological conditions; hence understanding genes regulating their homeostasis has medical relevance. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 (FOXA1/2) are key determinants of mDA neuronal identity during development, but their roles in adult mDA neurons are unknown. We used a conditional knockout strategy to specifically ablate FOXA1/2 in mDA neurons of adult mice. We show that deletion of Foxa1/2 results in down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of dopamine (DA) biosynthesis, specifically in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In addition, DA synthesis and striatal DA transmission were reduced after Foxa1/2 deletion. Furthermore, the burst-firing activity characteristic of SNc mDA neurons was drastically reduced in the absence of FOXA1/2. These molecular and functional alterations lead to a severe feeding deficit in adult Foxa1/2 mutant mice, independently of motor control, which could be rescued by l-DOPA treatment. FOXA1/2 therefore control the maintenance of molecular and physiological properties of SNc mDA neurons and impact on feeding behavior in adult mice. PMID:26283356

  12. ROCK/Cdc42-mediated microglial motility and gliapse formation lead to phagocytosis of degenerating dopaminergic neurons in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Barcia, Carlos; Ros, Carmen María; Annese, Valentina; Carrillo-de Sauvage, María Angeles; Ros-Bernal, Francisco; Gómez, Aurora; Yuste, José Enrique; Campuzano, Carmen María; de Pablos, Vicente; Fernandez-Villalba, Emiliano; Herrero, María Trinidad

    2012-01-01

    The role of microglial motility in the context of adult neurodegeneration is poorly understood. In the present work, we investigated the microanatomical details of microglia-neuron interactions in an experimental mouse model of Parkinson's disease following the intraperitoneal injection of MPTP. The specific intoxication of dopaminergic neurons induces the cellular polarization of microglia, leading to the formation of body-to-body neuron-glia contacts, called gliapses, which precede neuron elimination. Inhibiting ROCK/Cdc42-mediated microglial motility in vivo blocks the activating features of microglia, such as increased cell size and number of filopodia and diminishes their phagocyting/secreting domains, as the reduction of the Golgi apparatus and the number of microglia-neuron contacts has shown. High-resolution confocal images and three-dimensional rendering demonstrate that microglia engulf entire neurons at one-to-one ratio, and the microglial cell body participates in the formation of the phagocytic cup, engulfing and eliminating neurons in areas of dopaminergic degeneration in adult mammals. PMID:23139861

  13. Regulation of firing frequency in a computational model of a midbrain dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Anna Y; Huertas, Marco A; Kuznetsov, Alexey S; Paladini, Carlos A; Canavier, Carmen C

    2010-06-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the mammalian midbrain exhibit unusually low firing frequencies in vitro. Furthermore, injection of depolarizing current induces depolarization block before high frequencies are achieved. The maximum steady and transient rates are about 10 and 20 Hz, respectively, despite the ability of these neurons to generate bursts at higher frequencies in vivo. We use a three-compartment model calibrated to reproduce DA neuron responses to several pharmacological manipulations to uncover mechanisms of frequency limitation. The model exhibits a slow oscillatory potential (SOP) dependent on the interplay between the L-type Ca(2+) current and the small conductance K(+) (SK) current that is unmasked by fast Na(+) current block. Contrary to previous theoretical work, the SOP does not pace the steady spiking frequency in our model. The main currents that determine the spontaneous firing frequency are the subthreshold L-type Ca(2+) and the A-type K(+) currents. The model identifies the channel densities for the fast Na(+) and the delayed rectifier K(+) currents as critical parameters limiting the maximal steady frequency evoked by a depolarizing pulse. We hypothesize that the low maximal steady frequencies result from a low safety factor for action potential generation. In the model, the rate of Ca(2+) accumulation in the distal dendrites controls the transient initial frequency in response to a depolarizing pulse. Similar results are obtained when the same model parameters are used in a multi-compartmental model with a realistic reconstructed morphology, indicating that the salient contributions of the dendritic architecture have been captured by the simpler model.

  14. Hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in an animal model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Deats, Sean P; Adidharma, Widya; Yan, Lily

    2015-08-18

    Light has profound effects on mood regulation as exemplified in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and the therapeutic benefits of light therapy. However, the underlying neural pathways through which light regulates mood are not well understood. Our previous work has developed the diurnal grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, as an animal model of SAD. Following housing conditions of either 12:12 h dim light:dark (DLD) or 8:16 h short photoperiod (SP), which mimic the lower light intensity or short day-length of winter, respectively, grass rats exhibit an increase in depression-like behavior compared to those housed in a 12:12 h bright light:dark (BLD) condition. Furthermore, we have shown that the orexinergic system is involved in mediating the effects of light on mood and anxiety. To explore other potential neural substrates involved in the depressive phenotype, the present study examined hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) and somatostatin (SST) neurons in the brains of grass rats housed in DLD, SP and BLD. Using immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and SST, we found that the number of TH- and SST-ir cells in the hypothalamus was significantly lower in the DLD and SP groups compared to the BLD group. We also found that treating BLD animals with a selective orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 significantly reduced the number of hypothalamic TH-ir cells. The present study suggests that the hypothalamic DA neurons are sensitive to daytime light deficiency and are regulated by an orexinergic pathway. The results support the hypothesis that the orexinergic pathways mediate the effects of light on other neuronal systems that collectively contribute to light-dependent changes in the affective state.

  15. Regulation of Firing Frequency in a Computational Model of a Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Anna Y; Huertas, Marco A.; Kuznetsov, Alexey S; Paladini, Carlos A; Canavier, Carmen C

    2010-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the mammalian midbrain exhibit unusually low firing frequencies in vitro. Furthermore, injection of depolarizing current induces depolarization block before high frequencies are achieved. The maximum steady and transient rates are about 10 and 20 Hz, respectively, despite the ability of these neurons to generate bursts at higher frequencies in vivo. We use a three-compartment model calibrated to reproduce DA neuron responses to several pharmacological manipulations to uncover mechanisms of frequency limitation. The model exhibits a slow oscillatory potential (SOP) dependent on the interplay between the L-type Ca2+ current and the small conductance K+ (SK) current that is unmasked by fast Na+ current block. Contrary to previous theoretical work, the SOP does not pace the steady spiking frequency in our model. The main currents that determine the spontaneous firing frequency are the subthreshold L-type Ca2+ and the A-type K+ currents. The model identifies the channel densities for the fast Na+ and the delayed rectifier K+ currents as critical parameters limiting the maximal steady frequency evoked by a depolarizing pulse. We hypothesize that the low maximal steady frequencies result from a low safety factor for action potential generation. In the model, the rate of Ca2+ accumulation in the distal dendrites controls the transient initial frequency in response to a depolarizing pulse. Similar results are obtained when the same model parameters are used in a multi-compartmental model with a realistic reconstructed morphology, indicating that the salient contributions of the dendritic architecture have been captured by the simpler model. PMID:20217204

  16. Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Neurons in an Animal Model of Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Deats, Sean P.; Adidharma, Widya; Yan, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Light has profound effects on mood regulation as exemplified in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and the therapeutic benefits of light therapy. However, the underlying neural pathways through which light regulates mood are not well understood. Our previous work has developed the diurnal grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, as an animal model of SAD. Following housing conditions of either 12:12hr Dim Light:Dark (DLD) or 8:16hr Short Photoperiod (SP), which mimic the lower light intensity or short day-length of winter, respectively, grass rats exhibit an increase in depression-like behavior compared to those housed in a 12:12hr Bright Light:Dark (BLD) condition. Furthermore, we revealed that the orexinergic system is involved in mediating the effects of light on mood and anxiety. To explore other potential neural substrates involved in the depressive phenotype, the present study examined hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) and somatostatin (SST) neurons in the brains of grass rats housed in DLD, SP and BLD. Using immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and SST, we found that the number of TH- and SST-ir cells in the hypothalamus was significantly lower in the DLD and SP groups compared to the BLD group. We also found that treating BLD animals with a selective orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 significantly reduced the number of hypothalamic TH-ir cells. The present study suggests that the hypothalamic DA neurons are sensitive to daytime light deficiency and are regulated by an orexinergic pathway. The results support the hypothesis that the orexinergic pathways mediate the effects of light on other neuronal systems that collectively contribute to light-dependent changes in the affective state. PMID:26116821

  17. Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) current in dopaminergic periglomerular neurons of the mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Borin, Mirta; Fogli Iseppe, Alex; Pignatelli, Angela; Belluzzi, Ottorino

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) periglomerular (PG) neurons are critically placed at the entry of the bulbar circuitry, directly in contact with both the terminals of olfactory sensory neurons and the apical dendrites of projection neurons; they are autorhythmic and are the target of numerous terminals releasing a variety of neurotransmitters. Despite the centrality of their position, suggesting a critical role in the sensory processing, their properties -and consequently their function- remain elusive. The current mediated by inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in DA-PG cells was recorded by adopting the perforated-patch configuration in thin slices; IKir could be distinguished from the hyperpolarization-activated current (I h ) by showing full activation in <10 ms, no inactivation, suppression by Ba(2+) in a typical voltage-dependent manner (IC50 208 μM) and reversal potential nearly coincident with EK. Ba(2+) (2 mM) induces a large depolarization of DA-PG cells, paralleled by an increase of the input resistance, leading to a block of the spontaneous activity, but the Kir current is not an essential component of the pacemaker machinery. The Kir current is negatively modulated by intracellular cAMP, as shown by a decrease of its amplitude induced by forskolin or 8Br-cAMP. We have also tested the neuromodulatory effects of the activation of several metabotropic receptors known to be present on these cells, showing that the current can be modulated by a multiplicity of pathways, whose activation in some case increases the amplitude of the current, as can be observed with agonists of D2, muscarinic, and GABAA receptors, whereas in other cases has the opposite effect, as it can be observed with agonists of α1 noradrenergic, 5-HT and histamine receptors. These characteristics of the Kir currents provide the basis for an unexpected plasticity of DA-PG cell function, making them potentially capable to reconfigure the bulbar network to allow a better flexibility.

  18. Presynaptic glycine receptors on GABAergic terminals facilitate discharge of dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiang-Hong; Wang, Fushun; Krnjevic, Kresimir; Wang, Weizhen; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jingli

    2004-10-13

    GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded from dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, in acute brain slices, and from enzymatically or mechanically dissociated neurons. In young rats (3-10 d of age), where GABA is excitatory, glycine (1-3 microm) and taurine (10-30 microm) increased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) and the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) but had minimal postsynaptic effects. Strychnine (1 microm) blocked the action of glycine; when applied alone, it reduced the amplitude of eIPSCs and the frequency of sIPSCs, indicating a tonic facilitation of GABAergic excitation by some endogenous glycine agonist(s). In medium containing no Ca2+, or with Cd2+ or tetrodotoxin added, the amplitude and especially the frequency of sIPSCs greatly diminished. In many cells, glycine had no effect on remaining miniature IPSCs, suggesting a preterminal site of glycine receptors (GlyRs). Fura-2 fluorescent imaging showed a glycine-induced increase of [Ca2+] in nerve terminals (on DA neurons), which was suppressed by strychnine or 3 microm omega-conotoxin MVIIA. Therefore, the presynaptic GlyR-mediated facilitation of GABAergic transmission seems to be mediated by N- and/or P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. In older rats (22-30 d of age), where GABA causes inhibition, the effect of strychnine on GABAergic IPSCs was reversed to facilitation, indicating a tonic glycinergic inhibition of GABA release. Furthermore, glycine (1-3 microm) reduced the amplitude of eIPSCs and the frequency of sIPSCs. Hence, the overall effect of the presynaptic action of glycine is to enhance the firing of DA cells, both in very young and older rats.

  19. Subcellular Distribution of M2-muscarinic Receptors in Relation to Dopaminergic Neurons of the Rat Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Garzón, Miguel; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholine can affect cognitive functions and reward, in part, through activation of muscarinic receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to evoke changes in mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic transmission. Of the known muscarinic receptor subtypes present in the VTA, the M2 receptor (M2R) is most implicated in autoregulation, and also may play a heteroreceptor role in regulation of the output of the dopaminergic neurons. We sought to determine the functionally relevant sites for M2R activation in relation to VTA dopaminergic neurons by examining the electron microscopic immunolabeling of M2R and the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the VTA of rat brain. The M2R was localized to endomembranes in DAT-containing somatodendritic profiles, but showed a more prominent, size-dependent plasmalemmal location in non-dopaminergic dendrites. M2R also was located on the plasma membrane of morphologically heterogenous axon terminals contacting unlabeled as well as M2R or DAT-labeled dendrites. Some of these terminals formed asymmetric synapses resembling those of cholinergic terminals in the VTA. The majority, however, formed symmetric, inhibitory-type synapses, or were apposed without recognized junctions. Our results provide the first ultrastructural evidence that the M2R is expressed, but largely not available for local activation, on the plasma membrane of VTA dopaminergic neurons. Instead, the M2R in this region has a distribution suggesting more indirect regulation of mesocorticolimbic transmission through autoregulation of acetylcholine release and changes in the physiological activity or release of other, largely inhibitory transmitters. These findings could have implications for understanding the muscarinic control of cognitive and goal-directed behaviors within the VTA. PMID:16927256

  20. Roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in mediating reward and punishment signals in insect visual learning.

    PubMed

    Unoki, Sae; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2006-10-01

    Insects, like vertebrates, have considerable ability to associate visual, olfactory or other sensory signals with reward or punishment. Previous studies in crickets, honey bees and fruit-flies have suggested that octopamine (OA, invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) and dopamine (DA) mediate various kinds of reward and punishment signals in olfactory learning. However, whether the roles of OA and DA in mediating positive and negative reinforcing signals can be generalized to learning of sensory signals other than odors remained unknown. Here we first established a visual learning paradigm in which to associate a visual pattern with water reward or saline punishment for crickets and found that memory after aversive conditioning decayed much faster than that after appetitive conditioning. Then, we pharmacologically studied the roles of OA and DA in appetitive and aversive forms of visual learning. Crickets injected with epinastine or mianserin, OA receptor antagonists, into the hemolymph exhibited a complete impairment of appetitive learning to associate a visual pattern with water reward, but aversive learning with saline punishment was unaffected. By contrast, fluphenazine, chlorpromazine or spiperone, DA receptor antagonists, completely impaired aversive learning without affecting appetitive learning. The results demonstrate that OA and DA participate in reward and punishment conditioning in visual learning. This finding, together with results of previous studies on the roles of OA and DA in olfactory learning, suggests ubiquitous roles of the octopaminergic reward system and dopaminergic punishment system in insect learning.

  1. Differential Effects of Toluene and Ethanol on Dopaminergic Neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Nimitvilai, Sudarat; You, Chang; Arora, Devinder S.; McElvain, Maureen A.; Vandegrift, Bertha J.; Brodie, Mark S.; Woodward, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Drugs of abuse increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and output from the VTA is critical for both natural and drug-induced reward and reinforcement. Ethanol and the abused inhalant toluene both enhance VTA neuronal firing, but the mechanisms of this effect is not fully known. In this study, we used extracellular recordings to compare the actions of toluene and ethanol on DA VTA neurons. Both ethanol and toluene increased the firing rate of DA neurons, although toluene was ~100 times more potent than ethanol. The mixed ion channel blocker quinine (100 μM) blocked the increases in firing produced by ethanol and toluene, indicating some similarity in mechanisms of excitation. A mixture of antagonists of GABA and cholinergic receptors did not prevent toluene-induced or ethanol-induced excitation, and toluene-induced excitation was not altered by co-administration of ethanol, suggesting independent mechanisms of excitation for ethanol and toluene. Concurrent blockade of NMDA, AMPA, and metabotropic glutamate receptors enhanced the excitatory effect of toluene while having no significant effect on ethanol excitation. Nicotine increased firing of DA VTA neurons, and this was blocked by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1 μM). Mecamylamine did not alter ethanol or toluene excitation of firing but the muscarinic antagonist atropine (5 μM) or a combination of GABA antagonists (bicuculline and CGP35348, 10 μM each) reduced toluene-induced excitation without affecting ethanol excitation. The Ih current blocker ZD7288 abolished the excitatory effect of toluene but unlike the block of ethanol excitation, the effect of ZD7288 was not reversed by the GIRK channel blocker barium, but was reversed by GABA antagonists. These results demonstrate that the excitatory effects of ethanol and toluene have some similarity, such as block by quinine and ZD7288, but also indicate that there are important differences between these two drugs

  2. Conditional ablation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling impairs striatal neuron development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Yui, Daishi; Luikart, Bryan W; McKay, Renée M; Li, Yanjiao; Rubenstein, John L; Parada, Luis F

    2012-09-18

    Neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are associated with the physiology of the striatum and the loss of its normal functioning under pathological conditions. The role of BDNF and its downstream signaling in regulating the development of the striatum has not been fully investigated, however. Here we report that ablation of Bdnf in both the cortex and substantia nigra depletes BDNF in the striatum, and leads to impaired striatal development, severe motor deficits, and postnatal lethality. Furthermore, striatal-specific ablation of TrkB, the gene encoding the high-affinity receptor for BDNF, is sufficient to elicit an array of striatal developmental abnormalities, including decreased anatomical volume, smaller neuronal nucleus size, loss of dendritic spines, reduced enkephalin expression, diminished nigral dopaminergic projections, and severe deficits in striatal dopamine signaling through DARPP32. In addition, TrkB ablation in striatal neurons elicits a non-cell-autonomous reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase protein level in the axonal projections of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurons. Thus, our results establish an essential function for TrkB in regulating the development of striatal neurons.

  3. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects.

    PubMed

    Borgs, Laurence; Peyre, Elise; Alix, Philippe; Hanon, Kevin; Grobarczyk, Benjamin; Godin, Juliette D; Purnelle, Audrey; Krusy, Nathalie; Maquet, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe; Seutin, Vincent; Malgrange, Brigitte; Nguyen, Laurent

    2016-09-19

    Some mutations of the LRRK2 gene underlie autosomal dominant form of Parkinson's disease (PD). The G2019S is a common mutation that accounts for about 2% of PD cases. To understand the pathophysiology of this mutation and its possible developmental implications, we developed an in vitro assay to model PD with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed from skin fibroblasts of PD patients suffering from the LRKK2 G2019S mutation. We differentiated the hiPSCs into neural stem cells (NSCs) and further into dopaminergic neurons. Here we show that NSCs bearing the mutation tend to differentiate less efficiently into dopaminergic neurons and that the latter exhibit significant branching defects as compared to their controls.

  4. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects

    PubMed Central

    Borgs, Laurence; Peyre, Elise; Alix, Philippe; Hanon, Kevin; Grobarczyk, Benjamin; Godin, Juliette D.; Purnelle, Audrey; Krusy, Nathalie; Maquet, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe; Seutin, Vincent; Malgrange, Brigitte; Nguyen, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Some mutations of the LRRK2 gene underlie autosomal dominant form of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The G2019S is a common mutation that accounts for about 2% of PD cases. To understand the pathophysiology of this mutation and its possible developmental implications, we developed an in vitro assay to model PD with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed from skin fibroblasts of PD patients suffering from the LRKK2 G2019S mutation. We differentiated the hiPSCs into neural stem cells (NSCs) and further into dopaminergic neurons. Here we show that NSCs bearing the mutation tend to differentiate less efficiently into dopaminergic neurons and that the latter exhibit significant branching defects as compared to their controls. PMID:27640816

  5. Dual role for Drosophila lethal of scute in CNS midline precursor formation and dopaminergic neuron and motoneuron cell fate.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Stephanie B; Guardiola, Amaris R; Crews, Stephen T

    2011-06-01

    Dopaminergic neurons play important behavioral roles in locomotion, reward and aggression. The Drosophila H-cell is a dopaminergic neuron that resides at the midline of the ventral nerve cord. Both the H-cell and the glutamatergic H-cell sib are the asymmetric progeny of the MP3 midline precursor cell. H-cell sib cell fate is dependent on Notch signaling, whereas H-cell fate is Notch independent. Genetic analysis of genes that could potentially regulate H-cell fate revealed that the lethal of scute [l(1)sc], tailup and SoxNeuro transcription factor genes act together to control H-cell gene expression. The l(1)sc bHLH gene is required for all H-cell-specific gene transcription, whereas tailup acts in parallel to l(1)sc and controls genes involved in dopamine metabolism. SoxNeuro functions downstream of l(1)sc and controls expression of a peptide neurotransmitter receptor gene. The role of l(1)sc may be more widespread, as a l(1)sc mutant shows reductions in gene expression in non-midline dopaminergic neurons. In addition, l(1)sc mutant embryos possess defects in the formation of MP4-6 midline precursor and the median neuroblast stem cell, revealing a proneural role for l(1)sc in midline cells. The Notch-dependent progeny of MP4-6 are the mVUM motoneurons, and these cells also require l(1)sc for mVUM-specific gene expression. Thus, l(1)sc plays an important regulatory role in both neurogenesis and specifying dopaminergic neuron and motoneuron identities.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  7. Dual role for Drosophila lethal of scute in CNS midline precursor formation and dopaminergic neuron and motoneuron cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Stagg, Stephanie B.; Guardiola, Amaris R.; Crews, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons play important behavioral roles in locomotion, reward and aggression. The Drosophila H-cell is a dopaminergic neuron that resides at the midline of the ventral nerve cord. Both the H-cell and the glutamatergic H-cell sib are the asymmetric progeny of the MP3 midline precursor cell. H-cell sib cell fate is dependent on Notch signaling, whereas H-cell fate is Notch independent. Genetic analysis of genes that could potentially regulate H-cell fate revealed that the lethal of scute [l(1)sc], tailup and SoxNeuro transcription factor genes act together to control H-cell gene expression. The l(1)sc bHLH gene is required for all H-cell-specific gene transcription, whereas tailup acts in parallel to l(1)sc and controls genes involved in dopamine metabolism. SoxNeuro functions downstream of l(1)sc and controls expression of a peptide neurotransmitter receptor gene. The role of l(1)sc may be more widespread, as a l(1)sc mutant shows reductions in gene expression in non-midline dopaminergic neurons. In addition, l(1)sc mutant embryos possess defects in the formation of MP4-6 midline precursor and the median neuroblast stem cell, revealing a proneural role for l(1)sc in midline cells. The Notch-dependent progeny of MP4-6 are the mVUM motoneurons, and these cells also require l(1)sc for mVUM-specific gene expression. Thus, l(1)sc plays an important regulatory role in both neurogenesis and specifying dopaminergic neuron and motoneuron identities. PMID:21558367

  8. TGF-beta superfamily members promote survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and protect them against MPP+ toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Krieglstein, K; Suter-Crazzolara, C; Fischer, W H; Unsicker, K

    1995-01-01

    The superfamily of transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta) comprises an expanding list of multifunctional proteins serving as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Prominent members of this family include the TGF-beta s 1-5, activins, bone morphogenetic proteins and a recently discovered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In the present study we demonstrate and compare the survival promoting and neuroprotective effects of TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3, activin A and GDNF for midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vitro. All proteins increase the survival of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive dopaminergic neurons isolated from the embryonic day (E) 14 rat mesencephalon floor to varying extents (TGF-beta s 2.5-fold, activin A and GDNF 1.6-fold). TGF-beta s, activin A and GDNF did not augment numbers of very rarely observed astroglial cells visualized by using antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein and had no effect on cell proliferation monitored by incorporation of BrdU. TGF-beta 1 and activin A protected dopaminergic neurons against N-methyl-4-phenylpiridinium ion toxicity. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that TGF-beta 2 mRNA, but not GDNF mRNA, is expressed in the E14 rat midbrain floor and in mesencephalic cultures. We conclude that TGF-beta s 1-3, activin A and GDNF share a neurotrophic capacity for developing dopaminergic neurons, which is not mediated by astroglial cells and not accompanied by an increase in cell proliferation. Images PMID:7882977

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2015-01-30

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson's disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson's disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  10. Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss, Reduced Neurite Complexity and Autophagic Abnormalities in Transgenic Mice Expressing G2019S Mutant LRRK2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Brian M.; Stafa, Klodjan; Kim, Jaekwang; Banerjee, Rebecca; Westerlund, Marie; Pletnikova, Olga; Glauser, Liliane; Yang, Lichuan; Liu, Ying; Swing, Deborah A.; Beal, M. Flint; Troncoso, Juan C.; McCaffery, J. Michael; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Galter, Dagmar; Thomas, Bobby; Lee, Michael K.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and also contribute to idiopathic PD. LRRK2 mutations represent the most common cause of PD with clinical and neurochemical features that are largely indistinguishable from idiopathic disease. Currently, transgenic mice expressing wild-type or disease-causing mutants of LRRK2 have failed to produce overt neurodegeneration, although abnormalities in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission have been observed. Here, we describe the development and characterization of transgenic mice expressing human LRRK2 bearing the familial PD mutations, R1441C and G2019S. Our study demonstrates that expression of G2019S mutant LRRK2 induces the degeneration of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons in an age-dependent manner. In addition, we observe autophagic and mitochondrial abnormalities in the brains of aged G2019S LRRK2 mice and markedly reduced neurite complexity of cultured dopaminergic neurons. These new LRRK2 transgenic mice will provide important tools for understanding the mechanism(s) through which familial mutations precipitate neuronal degeneration and PD. PMID:21494637

  11. Neuroprotective effects of tetramethylpyrazine against dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chen; Zhang, Jin; Shi, Xiaopeng; Miao, Shan; Bi, Linlin; Zhang, Song; Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Xie, Yanhua; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disease. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of PD, apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress are the most prevalent mechanisms. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a biological component that has been extracted from Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (ChuanXiong), which exhibits anti-apoptotic and antioxidant roles. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of TMP against dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP and to elucidate probable molecular mechanisms. The results showed that TMP could notably prevent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurons damage, reflected by improvement of motor deficits, enhancement of TH expression and the content of dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC. We observed MPTP-induced activation of mitochondrial apoptotic death pathway, evidenced by up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase 3, which was significantly inhibited by TMP. Moreover, TMP could prevent MPTP-increased TBARS level and MPTP-decreased GSH level, indicating the antioxidant role of TMP in PD model. And the antioxidant role of TMP attributes to the prevention of MPTP-induced reduction of Nrf2 and GCLc expression. In conclusion, in MPTP-induced PD model, TMP prevents the down-regulation of Nrf2 and GCLc, maintaining redox balance and inhibiting apoptosis, leading to the attenuation of dopaminergic neuron damage. The effectiveness of TMP in treating PD potentially leads to interesting therapeutic perspectives.

  12. Structural plasticity in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons produced by drugs of abuse: critical role of BDNF and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Collo, Ginetta; Cavalleri, Laura; Spano, PierFranco

    2014-01-01

    Mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons were suggested to be a critical physiopathology substrate for addiction disorders. Among neuroadaptive processes to addictive drugs, structural plasticity has attracted attention. While structural plasticity occurs at both pre- and post-synaptic levels in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, the present review focuses only on dopaminergic neurons. Exposures to addictive drugs determine two opposite structural responses, hypothrophic plasticity produced by opioids and cannabinoids (in particular during the early withdrawal phase) and hypertrophic plasticity, mostly driven by psychostimulants and nicotine. In vitro and in vivo studies identified BDNF and extracellular dopamine as two critical factors in determining structural plasticity, the two molecules sharing similar intracellular pathways involved in cell soma and dendrite growth, the MEK-ERK1/2 and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR, via preferential activation of TrkB and dopamine D3 receptors, respectively. At present information regarding specific structural changes associated to the various stages of the addiction cycle is incomplete. Encouraging neuroimaging data in humans indirectly support the preclinical evidence of hypotrophic and hypertrophic effects, suggesting a possible differential engagement of dopamine neurons in parallel and partially converging circuits controlling motivation, stress, and emotions.

  13. An Efficient and Versatile System for Visualization and Genetic Modification of Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Edgar R.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The brain dopaminergic (DA) system is involved in fine tuning many behaviors and several human diseases are associated with pathological alterations of the DA system such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and drug addiction. Because of its complex network integration, detailed analyses of physiological and pathophysiological conditions are only possible in a whole organism with a sophisticated tool box for visualization and functional modification. Methods & Results Here, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the tetracycline-regulated transactivator (tTA) or the reverse tetracycline-regulated transactivator (rtTA) under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, TH-tTA (tet-OFF) and TH-rtTA (tet-ON) mice, to visualize and genetically modify DA neurons. We show their tight regulation and efficient use to overexpress proteins under the control of tet-responsive elements or to delete genes of interest with tet-responsive Cre. In combination with mice encoding tet-responsive luciferase, we visualized the DA system in living mice progressively over time. Conclusion These experiments establish TH-tTA and TH-rtTA mice as a powerful tool to generate and monitor mouse models for DA system diseases. PMID:26291828

  14. Circadian modulation of dopamine levels and dopaminergic neuron development contributes to attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Xifeng; Tan, Yicheng; Zhang, Shuqing; He, Wei; He, Xiong; Huang, Guodong; Lu, Haiping; Wu, Ping; Che, Yi; Yan, Yi-Lin; Postlethwait, John H; Chen, Wenbiao; Wang, Han

    2015-02-11

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adults. While ADHD patients often display circadian abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we found that the zebrafish mutant for the circadian gene period1b (per1b) displays hyperactive, impulsive-like, and attention deficit-like behaviors and low levels of dopamine, reminiscent of human ADHD patients. We found that the circadian clock directly regulates dopamine-related genes monoamine oxidase and dopamine β hydroxylase, and acts via genes important for the development or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons to regulate their number and organization in the ventral diencephalic posterior tuberculum. We then found that Per1 knock-out mice also display ADHD-like symptoms and reduced levels of dopamine, thereby showing highly conserved roles of the circadian clock in ADHD. Our studies demonstrate that disruption of a circadian clock gene elicits ADHD-like syndrome. The circadian model for attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior sheds light on ADHD pathogenesis and opens avenues for exploring novel targets for diagnosis and therapy for this common psychiatric disorder.

  15. Dopaminergic neurons write and update memories with cell-type-specific rules

    PubMed Central

    Aso, Yoshinori; Rubin, Gerald M

    2016-01-01

    Associative learning is thought to involve parallel and distributed mechanisms of memory formation and storage. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is the major site of associative odor memory formation. Previously we described the anatomy of the adult MB and defined 20 types of dopaminergic neurons (DANs) that each innervate distinct MB compartments (Aso et al., 2014a, 2014b). Here we compare the properties of memories formed by optogenetic activation of individual DAN cell types. We found extensive differences in training requirements for memory formation, decay dynamics, storage capacity and flexibility to learn new associations. Even a single DAN cell type can either write or reduce an aversive memory, or write an appetitive memory, depending on when it is activated relative to odor delivery. Our results show that different learning rules are executed in seemingly parallel memory systems, providing multiple distinct circuit-based strategies to predict future events from past experiences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16135.001 PMID:27441388

  16. Circadian Modulation of Dopamine Levels and Dopaminergic Neuron Development Contributes to Attention Deficiency and Hyperactive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Xifeng; Tan, Yicheng; Zhang, Shuqing; He, Wei; He, Xiong; Huang, Guodong; Lu, Haiping; Wu, Ping; Che, Yi; Yan, Yi-Lin; Postlethwait, John H.; Chen, Wenbiao

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adults. While ADHD patients often display circadian abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we found that the zebrafish mutant for the circadian gene period1b (per1b) displays hyperactive, impulsive-like, and attention deficit-like behaviors and low levels of dopamine, reminiscent of human ADHD patients. We found that the circadian clock directly regulates dopamine-related genes monoamine oxidase and dopamine β hydroxylase, and acts via genes important for the development or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons to regulate their number and organization in the ventral diencephalic posterior tuberculum. We then found that Per1 knock-out mice also display ADHD-like symptoms and reduced levels of dopamine, thereby showing highly conserved roles of the circadian clock in ADHD. Our studies demonstrate that disruption of a circadian clock gene elicits ADHD-like syndrome. The circadian model for attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior sheds light on ADHD pathogenesis and opens avenues for exploring novel targets for diagnosis and therapy for this common psychiatric disorder. PMID:25673850

  17. Reversal of Prolonged Dopamine Inhibition of Dopaminergic Neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Nimitvilai, Sudarat

    2010-01-01

    Drug abuse-induced plasticity of putative dopaminergic (pDAergic) ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons may play an important role in changes in the mesocorticolimbic system that lead to the development of addiction. In the present study, extracellular recordings were used to examine time-dependent effects of dopamine (DA) on pDAergic VTA neurons in rat brain slices. Administration of DA (2.5–10 μM) for 40 min resulted in inhibition followed by partial or full reversal of that inhibition. The reduced sensitivity to DA inhibition lasted 30 to 90 min after washout of the long-term dopamine administration. The inhibition reversal was not observed with 40-min administration of the D2 agonist quinpirole (25–200 nM), so this phenomenon was not the result of desensitization induced solely by stimulation of D2 DA receptors. Inhibition reversal could be observed with the coapplication of quinpirole and the D1/D5 agonist SKF38393 [(±)-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol hydrobromide], suggesting a D1/D5 mechanism for the reversal. Furthermore, D1/D5 antagonists, given in the presence of prolonged DA exposure, prevented the inhibition reversal. Application of 3 μM quinpirole caused desensitization to low quinpirole concentrations that was blocked by a D1/D5 antagonist. These data suggest that coactivation of D1/D5 receptors and D2 receptors in the VTA results in desensitization of autoinhibitory D2 receptors. Prolonged increases in pDAergic tone in the VTA that may occur in vivo with drugs of abuse could reduce the regulation of firing by D2 dopamine receptor activation, producing long-term alteration in information processing related to reward and reinforcement. PMID:20164301

  18. Unrestricted somatic stem cells from human umbilical cord blood can be differentiated into neurons with a dopaminergic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Greschat, Susanne; Schira, Jessica; Küry, Patrick; Rosenbaum, Claudia; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Müller, Hans Werner

    2008-04-01

    Recently, it has been shown that human unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) from umbilical cord blood represent pluripotent, neonatal, nonhematopoietic stem cells with the potential to differentiate into the neural lineage. However, molecular and functional characterization of the neural phenotype and evaluation of the degree of maturity of the resulting cells are still lacking. In this study, we addressed the question of neuronal differentiation and maturation induced by a defined composition of growth and differentiation factors (XXL medium). We demonstrated the expression of different neuronal markers and their enrichment in USSC cultures during XXL medium incubation. Furthermore, we showed enrichment of USSCs expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme specific for dopaminergic neurons and other catecholamine-producing neurons, accompanied by induction of Nurr1, a factor regulating dopaminergic neurogenesis. The functionality of USSCs has been analyzed by patch-clamp recordings and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Voltage-gated sodium-channels could be identified in laminin-predifferentiated USSCs. In addition, HPLC analysis revealed synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter dopamine by USSC-derived cells, thus correlating well with the detection of TH transcripts and protein. This study provides novel insight into the potential of unrestricted somatic stem cells from human umbilical cord blood to acquire a neuronal phenotype and function.

  19. A new dopaminergic nigro-olfactory projection.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Günter U; Alvarez-Fischer, Daniel; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Djufri, Miriam; Windolph, Andrea; Keber, Ursula; Borta, Andreas; Ries, Vincent; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Scheller, Dieter; Oertel, Wolfgang H

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by massive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Whereas onset of motor impairments reflects a rather advanced stage of the disorder, hyposmia often marks the beginning of the disease. Little is known about the role of the nigro-striatal system in olfaction under physiological conditions and the anatomical basis of hyposmia in PD. Yet, the early occurrence of olfactory dysfunction implies that pathogens such as environmental toxins could incite the disease via the olfactory system. In the present study, we demonstrate a dopaminergic innervation from neurons in the substantia nigra to the olfactory bulb by axonal tracing studies. Injection of two dopaminergic neurotoxins-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and 6-hydroxydopamine-into the olfactory bulb induced a decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In turn, ablation of the nigral projection led to impaired olfactory perception. Hyposmia following dopaminergic deafferentation was reversed by treatment with the D1/D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist rotigotine. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of a direct dopaminergic projection into the olfactory bulb and identify its origin in the substantia nigra in rats. These observations may provide a neuroanatomical basis for invasion of environmental toxins into the basal ganglia and for hyposmia as frequent symptom in PD.

  20. Nato3 integrates with the Shh-Foxa2 transcriptional network regulating the differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Nissim-Eliraz, Einat; Zisman, Sophie; Schatz, Omri; Ben-Arie, Nissim

    2013-09-01

    Mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons originate from the floor plate of the midbrain, a transient embryonic organizing center located at the ventral-most midline. Since the loss of mesDA leads to Parkinson's disease, the molecular mechanisms controlling the genesis and differentiation of dopaminergic progenitors are extensively studied and the identification and characterization of new genes is of interest. Here, we show that the expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nato3 (Ferd3l) increases in parallel to the differentiation of SN4741 dopaminergic cells in vitro. Nato3 transcription is directly regulated by the transcription factor Foxa2, a target and effector of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling cascade. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of Shh signaling downregulated the expression of Nato3, thus defining Nato3 as a novel component of one of the major pathways controlling cell patterning and generation of mesDA. Furthermore, we show that Nato3 regulated Shh and Foxa2 through a novel feed-backward loop. Up- and downregulation of Nato3 further affected the transcription of Nurr1, implicated in the genesis of mesDA, but not of TH. Taken together, these data shed new light on the transcriptional networks controlling the generation of mesDA and may be utilized in the efforts to direct stem cells towards a dopaminergic fate.

  1. Striatal Dysfunctions Associated with Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pickrell, Alicia M.; Pinto, Milena; Hida, Aline; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. These symptoms are associated with massive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) causing an estimated 70–80% depletion of dopamine (DA) in the striatum, where their projections are located. Although the etiology of PD is unknown, mitochondrial dysfunctions have been associated with the disease pathophysiology. We used a mouse model expressing a mitochondria-targeted restriction enzyme, PstI or mito-PstI, to damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in dopaminergic neurons. The expression of mito-PstI induces double-strand breaks in the mtDNA, leading to an oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, mostly due to mtDNA depletion. Taking advantage of a dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter-driven tetracycline transactivator protein (tTA), we expressed mito-PstI exclusively in dopaminergic neurons, creating a novel PD transgenic mouse model (PD-mito-PstI mouse). These mice recapitulate most of the major features of PD: they have a motor phenotype that is reversible with l-DOPA treatment, a progressive neurodegeneration of the SN dopaminergic population, and striatal DA depletion. Our results also showed that behavioral phenotypes in PD-mito-PstI mice were associated with striatal dysfunctions preceding SN loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and that other neurotransmitter systems [noradrenaline (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)] were increased after the disruption of DA neurons, potentially as a compensatory mechanism. This transgenic mouse model provides a novel model to study the role of mitochondrial defects in the axonal projections of the striatum in the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:22131425

  2. Inhibition of microglial activation by the herbal flavonoid baicalein attenuates inflammation-mediated degeneration of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, F-Q; Wang, T; Pei, Z; Liu, B; Hong, J-S

    2005-03-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that inflammation in the brain participates in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, anti-inflammatory therapy has attracted much attention as novel interference to neurodegenerative diseases. Baicalein, a major flavonoid extracted from a traditional Chinese herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huangqin), possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. To test the potential neuroprotective effect of baicalein on dopaminergic neurons, primary midbrain neuron-glia cultures from E-14 rat embryos were used. Cultures were pretreated with baicalein for 30 min prior to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ng/ml). LPS leads to massive activation of microglial cells revealed by OX-42 immunostaining, and produced excessive quantities of NO. Excessive elevation of superoxide level was also observed in enriched-microglia after stimulating with LPS. LPS-induced damage to dopaminergic neurons was evaluated by uptake capacity for [3H]dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunocytochemistry. Pretreatment with baicalein concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced decrease in [3H]dopamine uptake and loss of TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons, which the maximum protective effect was observed at the concentration of 5 microM. Post-treatment with baicalein (5 microM) was also shown to be effective even if baicalein administered up to 2 h later than LPS application. Morphological study shows that baicalein (5 microM) almost completely blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia. Excessive production of TNF(alpha) and free radicals such as NO and superoxide by LPS stimulation were also attenuated by baicalein at a concentration-dependent pattern. The present study indicates that baicalein exerts potent neuroprotective effect on LPS-induced injury of dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesize that the inhibition of LPS-induced production of NO and free radicals from microglia may underlie the mechanism of

  3. A neural extracellular matrix-based method for in vitro hippocampal neuron culture and dopaminergic differentiation of neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to recreate an optimal cellular microenvironment is critical to understand neuronal behavior and functionality in vitro. An organized neural extracellular matrix (nECM) promotes neural cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Here, we expanded previous observations on the ability of nECM to support in vitro neuronal differentiation, with the following goals: (i) to recreate complex neuronal networks of embryonic rat hippocampal cells, and (ii) to achieve improved levels of dopaminergic differentiation of subventricular zone (SVZ) neural progenitor cells. Methods Hippocampal cells from E18 rat embryos were seeded on PLL- and nECM-coated substrates. Neurosphere cultures were prepared from the SVZ of P4-P7 rat pups, and differentiation of neurospheres assayed on PLL- and nECM-coated substrates. Results When seeded on nECM-coated substrates, both hippocampal cells and SVZ progenitor cells showed neural expression patterns that were similar to their poly-L-lysine-seeded counterparts. However, nECM-based cultures of both hippocampal neurons and SVZ progenitor cells could be maintained for longer times as compared to poly-L-lysine-based cultures. As a result, nECM-based cultures gave rise to a more branched neurite arborization of hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, the prolonged differentiation time of SVZ progenitor cells in nECM allowed us to obtain a purer population of dopaminergic neurons. Conclusions We conclude that nECM-based coating is an efficient substrate to culture neural cells at different stages of differentiation. In addition, neural ECM-coated substrates increased neuronal survival and neuronal differentiation efficiency as compared to cationic polymers such as poly-L-lysine. PMID:23594371

  4. The transcription factor Uncx4.1 acts in a short window of midbrain dopaminergic neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The homeobox containing transcription factor Uncx4.1 is, amongst others, expressed in the mouse midbrain. The early expression of this transcription factor in the mouse, as well as in the chick midbrain, points to a conserved function of Uncx4.1, but so far a functional analysis in this brain territory is missing. The goal of the current study was to analyze in which midbrain neuronal subgroups Uncx4.1 is expressed and to examine whether this factor plays a role in the early development of these neuronal subgroups. Results We have shown that Uncx4.1 is expressed in GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons in the mouse midbrain. In midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons Uncx4.1 expression is particularly high around E11.5 and strongly diminished already at E17.5. The analysis of knockout mice revealed that the loss of Uncx4.1 is accompanied with a 25% decrease in the population of mDA neurons, as marked by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), Pitx3 and Ngn2. In contrast, the number of glutamatergic Pax6-positive cells was augmented, while the GABAergic neuron population appears not affected in Uncx4.1-deficient embryos. Conclusion We conclude that Uncx4.1 is implicated in the development of mDA neurons where it displays a unique temporal expression profile in the early postmitotic stage. Our data indicate that the mechanism underlying the role of Uncx4.1 in mDA development is likely related to differentiation processes in postmitotic stages, and where Ngn2 is engaged. Moreover, Uncx4.1 might play an important role during glutamatergic neuronal differentiation in the mouse midbrain. PMID:23217170

  5. The transcription factor Uncx4.1 acts in a short window of midbrain dopaminergic neuron differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Tamara I; Griesel, Gundula; Blanke, Stephen; Kispert, Andreas; Leitges, Michael; van der Zwaag, Bert; Burbach, J Peter H; Varoqueaux, Frédérique; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2012-12-08

    The homeobox containing transcription factor Uncx4.1 is, amongst others, expressed in the mouse midbrain. The early expression of this transcription factor in the mouse, as well as in the chick midbrain, points to a conserved function of Uncx4.1, but so far a functional analysis in this brain territory is missing. The goal of the current study was to analyze in which midbrain neuronal subgroups Uncx4.1 is expressed and to examine whether this factor plays a role in the early development of these neuronal subgroups. We have shown that Uncx4.1 is expressed in GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons in the mouse midbrain. In midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons Uncx4.1 expression is particularly high around E11.5 and strongly diminished already at E17.5. The analysis of knockout mice revealed that the loss of Uncx4.1 is accompanied with a 25% decrease in the population of mDA neurons, as marked by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), Pitx3 and Ngn2. In contrast, the number of glutamatergic Pax6-positive cells was augmented, while the GABAergic neuron population appears not affected in Uncx4.1-deficient embryos. We conclude that Uncx4.1 is implicated in the development of mDA neurons where it displays a unique temporal expression profile in the early postmitotic stage. Our data indicate that the mechanism underlying the role of Uncx4.1 in mDA development is likely related to differentiation processes in postmitotic stages, and where Ngn2 is engaged. Moreover, Uncx4.1 might play an important role during glutamatergic neuronal differentiation in the mouse midbrain.

  6. Topographic organization of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons in the cerebral ganglia and their peripheral projection patterns in the head areas of the snail Helix pomatia.

    PubMed

    Hernádi, L; Elekes, K

    1999-08-23

    The distribution of monoaminergic neurons within the cerebral ganglia was investigated in the pulmonate snail Helix pomatia. Simultaneous serotonin and tyrosine hydroxylase double immunostaining revealed that the immunoreactive cell groups are concentrated in a putative monoaminergic center on the ventral surface of the cerebral ganglia. Simultaneous cobalt (Co)- and nickel (Ni)-lysine backfills of cerebral nerves were combined with 5, 6-dihydroxytryptamine pigment-labelling of serotonergic neurons, or with fluorescence immunocytochemistry of dopaminergic neurons. This showed that the serotonergic and dopaminergic cell groups can be divided into smaller subgroups on the basis of their axonal projections into different cerebral nerves. These subgroups show a topographic organization within the serotonergic and dopaminergic neuronal clusters. In the serotonergic system, the different regions of the head are represented in a rostrocaudal direction, whereas a caudorostral organization is characteristic for the dopaminergic system. No serotonin- or dopamine-immunoreative cell bodies but numerous fibers were observed in the head areas, indicating that these are innervated by cerebral monoaminergic neurons and show different innervation patterns. Serotonin-immunoreactive fibers mostly innervate muscle fibers, whereas dopamine-immunoreactive processes do not innervate effector cells, but terminate within the nerve branches of the head areas. On the basis of their innervation pattern, we suggest that dopaminergic neurons may take part in en route modulation of sensory afferent and efferent processes in an as yet unknown manner. The serotonergic neurons, on the other hand, may play a direct role in the modulation of muscle function. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Newly paired zebra finches have higher dopamine levels and immediate early gene Fos expression in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sunayana B; Dias, Brian G; Crews, David; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Most birds are socially monogamous, yet little is known about the neural pathways underlying avian monogamy. Recent studies have implicated dopamine as playing a role in courtship and affiliation in a socially monogamous songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). In the present study, we sought to understand the specific contribution to pair formation in zebra finches of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway that projects from the midbrain ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. We observed that paired birds had higher levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the ventral medial striatum, where the nucleus accumbens is situated, than unpaired birds. Additionally, we found that the percentage of dopaminergic neurons expressing immediate early gene Fos, a marker of neuronal activity, was higher in the ventral tegmental area of paired birds than in that of unpaired birds. These data are consistent with a role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway in pair formation in zebra finches, suggesting the possibility of a conserved neural mechanism of monogamy in birds and mammals.

  8. Activation of midbrain presumed dopaminergic neurones by muscarinic cholinergic receptors: an in vivo electrophysiological study in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gronier, B; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    Extracellular single-unit recording and iontophoresis were used to examine the effects of different cholinoceptor agonists and antagonists on the firing rate and firing pattern of A9 and A10 presumed dopaminergic neurones in the anaesthetized rat.Administration of low currents (1–5 nA) of the selective muscarinic agonists oxotremorine M (Oxo M) and muscarine and of the non-selective muscarinic/nicotinic agonist carbamylcholine (CCh) produced a dose-dependent increase in firing rate in most of the A9 and A10 presumed dopaminergic neurones tested. Oxo M-induced activation could be completely blocked by iontophoretic application of the muscarinic antagonist butyl-scopolamine or systemic administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (300 μg kg−1, i.v.).Iontophoretic application of the selective nicotinic agonist methylcarbamylcholine (MCCh), but not nicotine, induced a consistent increase in firing rate. Surprisingly, the excitatory effect of MCCh was significantly reduced by the selective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (300 μg kg−1, i.v.), but not by the selective nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (2.2 mg kg−1, i.v.). Mecamylamine (3 mg kg−1, i.v.) was also ineffective in reducing the CCh-induced activation of presumed dopamine neurones, suggesting that both CCh and MCCh increased the activity of dopamine neurones via an interaction with muscarinic receptors.Iontophoretic application of the endogenous agonist acetylcholine (ACh) had no or little effect on the firing activity of A10 presumed dopaminergic neurones. However, concomitant application of neostigmine, a potent cholinesterase inhibitor, with acetylcholine induced a substantial activation of these neurones. This activation consisted of two components; one, which was prevalent, was scopolamine (300 μg kg−1, i.v.)-sensitive, and the other was mecamylamine (2 mg kg−1, i.v.)-sensitive.In addition to their effect on firing activity, Oxo M, muscarine and

  9. Lutein protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced apoptotic death and motor dysfunction by ameliorating mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin; Essa, Musthafa Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in various neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin mimics the symptoms of PD by inhibiting mitochondrial complex I that stimulates excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and finally leads to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Lutein, a carotenoid of xanthophyll family, is found abundantly in leafy green vegetables such as spinach, kale and in egg yolk, animal fat and human eye retinal macula. Increasing evidence indicates that lutein has offers benefits against neuronal damages during diabetic retinopathy, ischemia and AD by virtue of its mitochondrial protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Male C57BL/6 mice (23-26 g) were randomized and grouped in to Control, MPTP, and Lutein treated groups. Lutein significantly reversed the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons by increasing the striatal dopamine level in mice. Moreover, lutein-ameliorated MPTP induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and motor abnormalities. In addition, lutein repressed the MPTP-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic markers (Bax, caspases-3, 8 and 9) and enhancing anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expressions. Our current results revealed that lutein possessed protection on dopaminergic neurons by enhancing antioxidant defense and diminishing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic death, suggesting the potential benefits of lutein for PD treatment.

  10. Effects of progesterone administered after MPTP on dopaminergic neurons of male mice.

    PubMed

    Litim, Nadhir; Morissette, Marc; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2017-05-01

    Progesterone neuroprotection of striatal dopamine (DA) in male mice lesioned with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was previously reported when administered before MPTP or an hour after. A dose of MPTP to induce a partial lesion was used to model early stages or prodromal Parkinson. We hypothesized that brain DA can be restored by progesterone administered early (24 h) or later (5 days) after MPTP. Male mice received 4 injections of MPTP (8 mg/kg) and progesterone (8 mg/kg) once daily for 5 days started 24 h or 5 days after MPTP. The lesion decreased striatal DA and its metabolites but not serotonin contents. MPTP mice treated with progesterone starting 24 h but not 5 days after MPTP had higher striatal DA and its metabolites content than vehicle-treated MPTP mice. Striatal DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) specific binding decreased in lesioned mice and were corrected with progesterone treatment starting 24 h but not 5 days after MPTP. Striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels, a marker of activated astrocytes, were elevated by the MPTP lesion and were corrected with progesterone treatment starting 24 h after MPTP. Striatal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were decreased by the MPTP lesion and were prevented by progesterone treatments whereas no change of Akt, GSK3β, ERK1 and 2 and their phosphorylated forms were observed. Thus, progesterone administered after MPTP in mice protected dopaminergic neurons through modulation of neuroinflammation and BDNF. In humans, progesterone could possibly be used as a disease-modifying drug in prodromal Parkinson. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Locomotion of aged rats: relationship to neurochemical but not morphological changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Emerich, D F; McDermott, P; Krueger, P; Banks, M; Zhao, J; Marszalkowski, J; Frydel, B; Winn, S R; Sanberg, P R

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneous locomotion and motor coordination was evaluated in young (5-6 month old) and aged (24-25 month old) rats. Animals were tested for spontaneous locomotor activity in Digiscan Animal Activity Monitors during the nocturnal cycle. Aged animals exhibited a significant hypoactivity compared to their young counterparts. Evaluation of the time course of activity revealed that the young animals had a cyclical pattern of activity during the 12-hour testing period with clear peaks at 2-4 hours after the initiation of testing and at 8- to 10-hour intervals thereafter. In contrast, the aged animals exhibited a blunted initial activity peak. During the remainder of the test period the aged animals activity was stable with no further peaks in activity. Compared to the young animals the aged animals also (a) remained suspended from a horizontal wire for less time, (b) were unable to descend a wooden pole covered with wire mesh in a coordinated manner, (c) fell more rapidly from a rotating rod and (d) were unable to maintain their balance on a series of wooden beams with either a square or rounded top of varying widths. Histological analysis demonstrated that there was no reduction in the number, area, or length of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons within the A8, A9, or A10 region of the aged animals. Neurochemical analysis revealed that while DA and HVA levels were not decreased in the aged rats, DOPAC levels, as well as the ratios of DA/DOPAC and DA/HVA, were decreased. These results indicate that neurochemical but not morphological changes within the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system underlie the deficits in motor behavior observed in aged rats.

  12. AaTX1, from Androctonus australis scorpion venom: purification, synthesis and characterization in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Mlayah-Bellalouna, Saoussen; Dufour, Martial; Mabrouk, Kamel; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Carlier, Edmond; Othman, Houcemeddine; Belghazi, Maya; Tarbe, Marion; Goaillard, Jean Marc; Gigmes, Didier; Seagar, Michael; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Debanne, Dominique; Srairi-Abid, Najet

    2014-12-15

    We have purified the AaTX1 peptide from the Androctonus australis (Aa) scorpion venom, previously cloned and sequenced by Legros and collaborators in a venom gland cDNA library from Aa scorpion. AaTX1 belongs to the α-Ktx15 scorpion toxins family (αKTx15-4). Characterized members of this family share high sequence similarity and were found to block preferentially IA-type voltage-dependent K(+) currents in rat cerebellum granular cells in an irreversible way. In the current work, we studied the effects of native AaTX1 (nAaTX1) using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of IA current in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons. At 250 nM, AaTX1 induces 90% decrease in IA current amplitude. Its activity was found to be comparable to that of rAmmTX3 (αKTx15-3), which differs by only one conserved (R/K) amino acid in the 19th position suggesting that the difference between R19 and K19 in AaTX1 and AmmTX3, respectively, may not be critical for the toxins' effects. Molecular docking of both toxins with Kv4.3 channel is in agreement with experimental data and suggests the implication of the functional dyade K27-Y36 in toxin-channel interactions. Since AaTX1 is not highly abundant in Aa venom, it was synthesized as well as AmmTX3. Synthetic peptides, native AaTX1 and rAmmTX3 peptides showed qualitatively the same pharmacological activity. Overall, these data identify a new biologically active toxin that belongs to a family of peptides active on Kv4.3 channel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethanol effects on dopaminergic ventral tegmental area neurons during block of Ih: involvement of barium-sensitive potassium currents.

    PubMed

    McDaid, John; McElvain, Maureen A; Brodie, Mark S

    2008-09-01

    The dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (DA VTA neurons) are important for the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol. Ethanol increases the firing frequency of DA VTA neurons from rats and mice. Because of a recent report on block of ethanol excitation in mouse DA VTA neurons with ZD7288, a selective blocker of the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current Ih, we examined the effect of ZD7288 on ethanol excitation in DA VTA neurons from C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mice and Fisher 344 rats. Ethanol (80 mM) caused only increases in firing rate in mouse DA VTA neurons in the absence of ZD7288, but in the presence of ZD7288 (30 microM), ethanol produced a more transient excitation followed by a decrease of firing. This same biphasic phenomenon was observed in DA VTA neurons from rats in the presence of ZD7288 only at very high ethanol concentrations (160-240 mM) but not at lower pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The longer latency ethanol-induced inhibition was not observed in DA VTA neurons from mice or rats in the presence of barium (100 microM), which blocks G protein-linked potassium channels (GIRKs) and other inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Ethanol may have a direct effect to increase an inhibitory potassium conductance, but this effect of ethanol can only decrease the firing rate if Ih is blocked.

  14. Mitochondrial angiotensin receptors in dopaminergic neurons. Role in cell protection and aging-related vulnerability to neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Rita; Costa-Besada, Maria A; Iglesias-Gonzalez, Javier; Perez-Costas, Emma; Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Soto-Otero, Ramon; Lanciego, Jose L; Henrion, Daniel; Franco, Rafael; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) was initially considered as a circulating humoral system controlling blood pressure, being kidney the key control organ. In addition to the ‘classical' humoral RAS, a second level in RAS, local or tissular RAS, has been identified in a variety of tissues, in which local RAS play a key role in degenerative and aging-related diseases. The local brain RAS plays a major role in brain function and neurodegeneration. It is normally assumed that the effects are mediated by the cell-surface-specific G-protein-coupled angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1 and AT2). A combination of in vivo (rats, wild-type mice and knockout mice) and in vitro (primary mesencephalic cultures, dopaminergic neuron cell line cultures) experimental approaches (confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, laser capture microdissection, transfection of fluorescent-tagged receptors, treatments with fluorescent angiotensin, western blot, polymerase chain reaction, HPLC, mitochondrial respirometry and other functional assays) were used in the present study. We report the discovery of AT1 and AT2 receptors in brain mitochondria, particularly mitochondria of dopaminergic neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors in mitochondria regulates superoxide production, via Nox4, and increases respiration. Mitochondrial AT2 receptors are much more abundant and increase after treatment of cells with oxidative stress inducers, and produce, via nitric oxide, a decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria from the nigral region of aged rats displayed altered expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors. AT2-mediated regulation of mitochondrial respiration represents an unrecognized primary line of defence against oxidative stress, which may be particularly important in neurons with increased levels of oxidative stress such as dopaminergic neurons. Altered expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors with aging may induce mitochondrial dysfunction, the main risk factor for neurodegeneration

  15. Homeodomain Interacting Protein Kinase 2 Regulates Postnatal Development of Enteric Dopaminergic Neurons and Glia via BMP Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chalazonitis, Alcmène; Tang, Amy A.; Shang, Yulei; Pham, Tuan D.; Hsieh, Ivy; Setlik, Wanda; Gershon, Michael D.; Huang, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Trophic factor signaling is important for the migration, differentiation and survival of enteric neurons during development. The mechanisms that regulate the maturation of enteric neurons in postnatal life, however, are poorly understood. Here, we show that transcriptional cofactor HIPK2 (homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2) is required for the maturation of enteric neurons and for regulating gliogenesis during postnatal development. Mice lacking HIPK2 display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) phenotypes, including distention of colon and slowed GI transit time. Although loss of HIPK2 does not affect enteric neuron in prenatal development, a progressive loss of enteric neurons occurs during postnatal life in Hipk2−/− -mutant mice that preferentially affects the dopaminergic population of neurons in the caudal region of the intestine. The mechanism by which HIPK2 regulates postnatal enteric neuron development appears to involve the response of enteric neurons to bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Specifically, compared to wild type mice, a larger proportion of enteric neurons in Hipk2−/−mutants have abnormally high level of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8. Consistent with the ability of BMP signaling to promote gliogenesis, Hipk2−/− mutants show a significant increase in glia in the ENS. In addition, numbers of autophagosomes are increased in enteric neurons in Hipk2−/−mutants and synaptic maturation is arrested. These results reveal a new role for HIPK2 as an important transcriptional cofactor that regulates the BMP signaling pathway in the maintenance of enteric neurons and glia, and further suggest that HIPK2 and its associated signaling mechanisms may be therapeutically altered to promote postnatal neuronal maturation. PMID:21957238

  16. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by thrombin injection in the substantia nigra of the rat is enhanced by dexamethasone: role of monoamine oxidase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Sandro; Herrera, Antonio J; Carreño-Müller, Eloisa; de Pablos, Rocío M; Villarán, Ruth F; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; Machado, Alberto; Cano, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory strategies receive growing attention for their potential to prevent pathological deterioration in disorders such as Parkinson's disease, which is accompanied by inflammatory reactions that might play a critical role in the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons. We investigated the influence of dexamethasone - a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoids class of steroid hormones that acts as an anti-inflammatory - on the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of rats observed after intranigral injection of thrombin, a serine protease that induces inflammation through microglia proliferation and activation. We evaluated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons as well as astroglial and microglial populations; dexamethasone prevented the loss of astrocytes but was unable to stop microglial proliferation induced by thrombin. Moreover, dexamethasone produced alterations in the levels of nexin and the thrombin receptor PAR-1, and facilitated accumulation of alpha-synuclein induced by thrombin in dopaminergic neurons. Dexamethasone increased oxidative stress and expression of monoamine oxidase A and B, along with changes on different MAP kinases related to degenerative processes, resulting in a bigger loss of dopaminergic neurons after intranigral injection of thrombin in dexamethasone-treated animals. It is interesting to ascertain that inhibition of monoamine oxidase by tranylcypromine prevented neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons, thus suggesting that the deleterious effects of dexamethasone might be mediated by monoamine oxidase.

  17. Conditional Expression of Parkinson's Disease-Related R1441C LRRK2 in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons of Mice Causes Nuclear Abnormalities without Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsika, Elpida; Kannan, Meghna; Foo, Caroline Shi-Yan; Dikeman, Dustin; Glauser, Liliane; Gellhaar, Sandra; Galter, Dagmar; Knott, Graham W.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). The clinical and neurochemical features of LRRK2-linked PD are similar to idiopathic disease although neuropathology is somewhat heterogeneous. Dominant mutations in LRRK2 precipitate neurodegeneration through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism which can be modeled in transgenic mice overexpressing human LRRK2 variants. A number of LRRK2 transgenic mouse models have been developed that display abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and alterations in tau metabolism yet without consistently inducing dopaminergic neurodegeneration. To directly explore the impact of mutant LRRK2 on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, we developed conditional transgenic mice that selectively express human R1441C LRRK2 in dopaminergic neurons from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter. The expression of R1441C LRRK2 does not induce the degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons or striatal dopamine deficits in mice up to 2 years of age, and fails to precipitate abnormal protein inclusions containing alpha-synuclein, tau, ubiquitin or autophagy markers (LC3 and p62). Furthermore, mice expressing R1441C LRRK2 exhibit normal motor activity and olfactory function with increasing age. Intriguingly, the expression of R1441C LRRK2 induces age-dependent abnormalities of the nuclear envelope in nigral dopaminergic neurons including reduced nuclear circularity and increased invaginations of the nuclear envelope. In addition, R1441C LRRK2 mice display increased neurite complexity of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, these novel R1441C LRRK2 conditional transgenic mice reveal altered dopaminergic neuronal morphology with advancing age, and provide a useful tool for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the R1441C LRRK2 mutation in PD. PMID:25174890

  18. Protection of Primary Dopaminergic Midbrain Neurons by GPR139 Agonists Supports Different Mechanisms of MPP+ and Rotenone Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bayer Andersen, Kirsten; Leander Johansen, Jens; Hentzer, Morten; Smith, Garrick Paul; Dietz, Gunnar P. H.

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 139 (GPR139) is expressed specifically in the brain in areas of relevance for motor control. GPR139 function and signal transduction pathways are elusive, and results in the literature are even contradictory. Here, we examined the potential neuroprotective effect of GPR139 agonism in primary culture models of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal degeneration. We find that in vitro GPR139 agonists protected primary mesencephalic DA neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-mediated degeneration. Protection was concentration-dependent and could be blocked by a GPR139 antagonist. However, the protection of DA neurons was not found against rotenone or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) mediated degeneration. Our results support differential mechanisms of toxicity for those substances commonly used in Parkinson’s disease (PD) models and potential for GPR139 agonists in neuroprotection. PMID:27445691

  19. Triptolide, a Chinese herbal extract, protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation-mediated damage through inhibition of microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Qiao; Lu, Xiu-Zhi; Liang, Xi-Bin; Zhou, Hui-Fang; Xue, Bing; Liu, Xian-Yu; Niu, Dong-Bin; Han, Ji-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2004-03-01

    Mounting lines of evidence have suggested that brain inflammation participates in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Triptolide is one of the major active components of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. We found that triptolide concentration-dependently attenuated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decrease in [3H]dopamine uptake and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in primary mesencephalic neuron/glia mixed culture. Triptolide also blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and excessive production of TNFalpha and NO. Our data suggests that triptolide may protect dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced injury and its efficiency in inhibiting microglia activation may underlie the mechanism.

  20. Wnt5a cooperates with canonical Wnts to generate midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vivo and in stem cells.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Emma R; Saltó, Carmen; Villaescusa, J Carlos; Cajanek, Lukas; Yang, Shanzheng; Bryjova, Lenka; Nagy, Irina I; Vainio, Seppo J; Ramirez, Carmen; Bryja, Vitezslav; Arenas, Ernest

    2013-02-12

    Wnts are a family of secreted proteins that regulate multiple steps of neural development and stem cell differentiation. Two of them, Wnt1 and Wnt5a, activate distinct branches of Wnt signaling and individually regulate different aspects of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neuron development. However, several of their functions and interactions remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that loss of Wnt1 results in loss of Lmx1a and Ngn2 expression, as well as agenesis of DA neurons in the midbrain floor plate. Remarkably, a few ectopic DA neurons still emerge in the basal plate of Wnt1(-/-) mice, where Lmx1a is ectopically expressed. These results indicate that Wnt1 orchestrates DA specification and neurogenesis in vivo. Analysis of Wnt1(-/-);Wnt5a(-/-) mice revealed a greater loss of Nurr1(+) cells and DA neurons than in single mutants, indicating that Wnt1 and Wnt5a interact genetically and cooperate to promote midbrain DA neuron development in vivo. Our results unravel a functional interaction between Wnt1 and Wnt5a resulting in enhanced DA neurogenesis. Taking advantage of these findings, we have developed an application of Wnts to improve the generation of midbrain DA neurons from neural and embryonic stem cells. We thus show that coordinated Wnt actions promote DA neuron development in vivo and in stem cells and suggest that coordinated Wnt administration can be used to improve DA differentiation of stem cells and the development of stem cell-based therapies for Parkinson's disease.

  1. Pacemaking in dopaminergic ventral tegmental area neurons: depolarizing drive from background and voltage-dependent sodium conductances

    PubMed Central

    Khaliq, Zayd M.; Bean, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) fire spontaneously in a pacemaker-like manner. We analyzed the ionic currents that drive pacemaking in dopaminergic VTA neurons, studied in mouse brain slices. Pacemaking was not inhibited by blocking hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) or blocking all calcium current by Mg2+ replacement of Ca2+. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) stopped spontaneous activity and usually resulted in stable resting potentials near −60 mV to −55 mV, 10–15 mV below the action potential threshold. When external sodium was replaced by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) with TTX present, cells hyperpolarized by an average of −11 mV, suggesting a significant resting sodium conductance not sensitive to TTX. Voltage-clamp experiments using slow (10 mV/s) ramps showed a steady-state, steeply voltage-dependent current blocked by TTX that activates near −60 mV, as well as a sodium “background” current with little voltage-sensitivity, revealed by NMDG replacement for sodium with TTX present. We quantified these two components of sodium current during the pacemaking trajectory using action potential clamp. The initial phase of depolarization, up to about −55 mV, is driven mainly by non-voltage-dependent sodium background current. Above −55 mV, TTX-sensitive voltage-dependent “persistent” Na current helps drive the final phase of depolarization to the spike threshold. Voltage-dependent calcium current is small at all subthreshold voltages. The pacemaking mechanism in VTA neurons differs from that in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons, where subthreshold calcium current plays a dominant role. In addition, we found that non-voltage-dependent background sodium current is much smaller in SNc neurons than VTA neurons. PMID:20505107

  2. Kisspeptin regulates tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurones and prolactin secretion in an oestradiol-dependent manner in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A B; Leite, C M; Kalil, B; Franci, C R; Anselmo-Franci, J A; Szawka, R E

    2015-02-01

    Prolactin (PRL) secretion is inhibited by hypothalamic dopamine. Kisspeptin controls luteinising hormone (LH) secretion and is also involved in PRL regulation. We further investigated the effect of kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) on the activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurones and the role of oestradiol (E2 ) in this mechanism. Female and male rats were injected with i.c.v. Kp-10 and evaluated for PRL release and the activity of dopamine terminals in the median eminence (ME) and neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary (NIL). Kp-10 at the doses of 0.6 and 3 nmol increased plasma PRL and decreased 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels in the ME and NIL of ovariectomised (OVX), E2 -treated rats but had no effect in OVX. In gonad-intact males, 3 nmol Kp-10 increased PRL secretion and decreased DOPAC levels in the ME but not in the NIL. Castrated males treated with either testosterone or E2 also displayed increased PRL secretion and reduced ME DOPAC in response to Kp-10, whereas castrated rats receiving oil or dihydrotestosterone were unresponsive. By contrast, the LH response to Kp-10 was not E2 -dependent in either females or males. Additionally, immunohistochemical double-labelling demonstrated that TIDA neurones of male rats contain oestrogen receptor (ER)-α, with a higher proportion of neurones expressing ERα than in dioestrous females. The dopaminergic neurones of periventricular hypothalamic nucleus displayed much lower ERα expression. Thus, TIDA neurones express ERα in male and female rats, and kisspeptin increases PRL secretion through inhibition of TIDA neurones in an E2 -dependent manner in both sexes. These findings provide new evidence about the role of kisspeptin in the regulation of dopamine and PRL. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  3. Neuroprotective Effects of β-Caryophyllene against Dopaminergic Neuron Injury in a Murine Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by MPTP.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Paredes, Juan M; González-Castañeda, Rocio E; Gertsch, Juerg; Chaparro-Huerta, Veronica; López-Roa, Rocio I; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Camins-Espuny, Antoni; Flores-Soto, Mario E

    2017-07-06

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although the causes of PD are not understood, evidence suggests that its pathogenesis is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent studies have suggested a protective role of the cannabinoid signalling system in PD. β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is an agonist of the cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R). Previous studies have suggested that BCP exerts prophylactic and/or curative effects against inflammatory bowel disease through its antioxidative and/or anti-inflammatory action. The present study describes the neuroprotective effects of BCP in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced murine model of PD, and we report the results of our investigation of its neuroprotective mechanism in neurons and glial cells. In the murine model, BCP pretreatment ameliorated motor dysfunction, protected against dopaminergic neuronal losses in the SN and striatum, and alleviated MPTP-induced glia activation. Additionally, BCP inhibited the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the nigrostriatal system. The observed neuroprotection and inhibited glia activation were reversed upon treatment with the CB2R selective antagonist AM630, confirming the involvement of the CB2R. These results indicate that BCP acts via multiple neuroprotective mechanisms in our murine model and suggest that BCP may be viewed as a potential treatment and/or preventative agent for PD.

  4. Stimulation, protection and regeneration of dopaminergic neurons by 9-methyl-β-carboline: a new anti-Parkinson drug?

    PubMed

    Polanski, Witold; Reichmann, Heinz; Gille, Gabriele

    2011-06-01

    β-carbolines are potential endogenous and exogenous neurotoxins that may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). 9-methyl-β-carboline exhibits multimodal effects that could be beneficial in the treatment of PD. It shows stimulatory effects to dopaminergic neurons by increasing the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and its transcription factors in pre-existing dopa decarboxylase immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, 9-methyl-β-carboline has emerged as a substance with the rare property of a protective and regenerative/restorative potential for dopaminergic neurons by inducing gene expression of several neurotrophic factors and decreasing apoptotic cell signals. It reduces protein levels of α-synuclein and inhibits monoamine oxidase A and B. Finally, 9-methyl-β-carboline acts on multiple targets in the inflammatory cascade by inhibiting the proliferation of microglia, by decreasing chemotactic cytokines and by creating an anti-inflammatory environment in the CNS. This article summarizes our current knowledge of 9-methyl-carboline and discusses its potential role as a new drug for the treatment of PD.

  5. Transduced PEP-1-PON1 proteins regulate microglial activation and dopaminergic neuronal death in a Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Park, Meeyoung; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Son, Ora; Jo, Hyo Sang; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Kim, Duk-Soo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Kim, Joon; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative disorder caused by selective dopaminergic neuronal death in the midbrain substantia nigra. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a potent inhibitor of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) against oxidation by destroying biologically active phospholipids with potential protective effects against oxidative stress-induced inflammatory disorders. In a previous study, we constructed protein transduction domain (PTD) fusion PEP-1-PON1 protein to transduce PON1 into cells and tissue. In this study, we examined the role of transduced PEP-1-PON1 protein in repressing oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory response in microglial BV2 cells after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, we identified the functions of transduced PEP-1-PON1 proteins which include, mitigating mitochondrial damage, decreasing reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and protecting against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, transduced PEP-1-PON1 protein reduced MMP-9 expression and protected against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice model. Taken together, these results suggest a promising therapeutic application of PEP-1-PON1 proteins against PD and other inflammation and oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine against Dopaminergic Neuron Injury in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by MPTP

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chen; Zhang, Jin; Shi, Xiaopeng; Miao, Shan; Bi, Linlin; Zhang, Song; Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Xie, Yanhua; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disease. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of PD, apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress are the most prevalent mechanisms. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a biological component that has been extracted from Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (ChuanXiong), which exhibits anti-apoptotic and antioxidant roles. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of TMP against dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP and to elucidate probable molecular mechanisms. The results showed that TMP could notably prevent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurons damage, reflected by improvement of motor deficits, enhancement of TH expression and the content of dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC. We observed MPTP-induced activation of mitochondrial apoptotic death pathway, evidenced by up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase 3, which was significantly inhibited by TMP. Moreover, TMP could prevent MPTP-increased TBARS level and MPTP-decreased GSH level, indicating the antioxidant role of TMP in PD model. And the antioxidant role of TMP attributes to the prevention of MPTP-induced reduction of Nrf2 and GCLc expression. In conclusion, in MPTP-induced PD model, TMP prevents the down-regulation of Nrf2 and GCLc, maintaining redox balance and inhibiting apoptosis, leading to the attenuation of dopaminergic neuron damage. The effectiveness of TMP in treating PD potentially leads to interesting therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24719552

  7. Partial agonists for α4β2 nicotinic receptors stimulate dopaminergic neuron firing with relatively enhanced maximal effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Broad, Lisa M; Phillips, Keith G; Zwart, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Partial agonists selective for α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors have been developed for smoking cessation as they induce weak activation of native α4β2* receptors and inhibit effect of nicotine. However, it is unclear whether at brain functions there is an existence of receptor reserve that allows weak receptor activation to induce maximum physiological effects. We assessed the extent of α4β2 partial agonist-induced increase of firing rate in dopaminergic neurons and evaluated the influence of receptor reserve. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The relative maximal effects and potencies of six nicotinic agonists were assessed on recombinant human α4β2 and α7 receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines by measuring calcium influx. Agonist-induced increase of the spontaneous firing rate of dopaminergic neurons was recorded using microelectrodes in the ventral tegmental area of rat brain slices. KEY RESULTS All α4β2 partial and full agonists increased the firing rate concentration-dependently. Their sensitivity to subtype-selective antagonists showed predominant activation of native α4β2* receptors. However, partial agonists with relative maximal effects as low as 33% on α4β2 receptors maximally increased the firing rate and induced additional depolarization block of firing, demonstrating that partial activation of receptors caused the maximum increase in firing rate in the presence of a receptor reserve. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Partial α4β2 agonists induced relatively enhanced effects on the firing rate of dopaminergic neurons, and the effect was mainly attributed to the existence of native α4β2* receptor reserve. The results have implications in the understanding of physiological effects and therapeutic efficacies of α4β2 partial agonists. PMID:21838750

  8. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates blood brain barrier damage and neuroinflammation and protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP toxicity in the substantia nigra in a model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yin Xia; He, Bei Ping; Tay, Samuel Sam Wah

    2009-11-30

    Immunomodulatory effects of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease were studied in the MPTP-induced mouse model. MPTP treatment induced a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons, decreased expressions of claudin 1, claudin 5 and occludin in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc), and functional damage of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study further discovered that infiltration of MBLs into the brain to bind with microglia was detected in the SNc of MPTP-treated mice, suggesting that the BBB compromise and MBL infiltration might be involved in the pathogenesis of MPTP-induced PD. In addition, MPTP treatment also increased the expression of mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) in the liver tissue. Intravenous transplantation of MSCs into MPTP-treated mice led to recovery of BBB integrity, suppression of MBL infiltration at SNc and MBL expression in the liver, suppression of microglial activation and prevention of dopaminergic neuron death. No transplanted MSCs were observed to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons, while the MSCs migrated into the SNc and released TGF-beta1 there. Therefore, intravenous transplantation of MSCs which protect dopaminergic neurons from MPTP toxicity may be engaged in anyone or a combination of these mechanisms: repair of the BBB, reduction of MBL in the brain, inhibition of microglial cytotoxicity, and direct protection of dopaminergic neurons.

  9. Squamosamide derivative FLZ protected dopaminergic neuron by activating Akt signaling pathway in 6-OHDA-induced in vivo and in vitro Parkinson's disease models.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiu-Qi; Kong, Xiang-Chen; Kong, Li-Bing; Wu, Liang-Yu; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan

    2014-02-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting up to 80% of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. FLZ, a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in experimental PD models. In this study, we carried out a set of in vitro and in vivo experiments to address the neuroprotective effect of FLZ and related mechanism. The results showed that FLZ significantly improved motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neuronal loss of rats injured by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The beneficial effects of FLZ attributed to the elevation of dopaminergic neuron number, dopamine level and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. Mechanistic study showed that FLZ protected TH activity and dopaminergic neurons through decreasing α-synuclein (α-Syn) expression and the interaction between α-Syn and TH. Further studies indicated the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway in the protective effect of FLZ since it showed that blocking PI3K/Akt signaling pathway prevented the expression of α-Syn and attenuated the neuroprotection of FLZ. In addition, FLZ treatment reduced the expression of RTP801, an important protein involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Taken together, these results revealed that FLZ suppressed α-Syn expression and elevated TH activity in dopaminergic neuron through activating Akt survival pathway in 6-OHDA-induced PD models. The data also provided evidence that FLZ had potent neuroprotecive effects and might become a new promising agent for PD treatment.

  10. Odour enrichment increases adult-born dopaminergic neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Bonzano, Sara; Bovetti, Serena; Fasolo, Aldo; Peretto, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first brain region involved in the processing of olfactory information. In adult mice, the OB is highly plastic, undergoing cellular/molecular dynamic changes that are modulated by sensory experience. Odour deprivation induces down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in OB dopaminergic interneurons located in the glomerular layer (GL), resulting in decreased dopamine in the OB. Although the effect of sensory deprivation is well established, little is known about the influence of odour enrichment on dopaminergic cells. Here we report that prolonged odour enrichment on C57BL/6J strain mice selectively increases TH-immunopositive cells in the GL by nearly 20%. Following odour enrichment on TH-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, in which GFP identified both mature TH-positive cells and putative immature dopaminergic cells expressing TH mRNA but not TH protein, we found a similar 20% increase in GFP-expressing cells, with no changes in the ratio between TH-positive and TH-negative cells. These data suggest that enriched conditions induce an expansion in the whole dopaminergic lineage. Accordingly, by using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections to label adult-generated cells in the GL of TH-GFP mice, we found an increase in the percentage of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive dopaminergic cells in enriched compared with control conditions, whereas no differences were found for calretinin- and calbindin-positive subtypes. Strikingly, the fraction of newborn cells among the dopaminergic population doubled in enriched conditions. On the whole, our results demonstrate that odour enrichment drives increased integration of adult-generated dopaminergic cells that could be critical to adapt the OB circuits to the environmental incoming information.

  11. Inflammation and B-cell Lymphoma-2 Associated X Protein Regulate Zinc-Induced Apoptotic Degeneration of Rat Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Mittra, Namrata; Kumar, Vinod; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Chetna

    2016-10-01

    Clinical evidences showing zinc (Zn) accumulation in the post-mortem brain of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and experimental studies on rodents chronically exposed to Zn suggested its role in PD. While oxidative stress is implicated in Zn-induced neurodegeneration, roles of inflammation and apoptosis in degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons have yet been elusive. The present study investigated the contribution of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins in Zn-induced Parkinsonism. Male Wistar rats were treated with/without zinc sulfate (Zn; 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), twice a week, for 2-12 weeks. In a few sets, animals were treated intraperitoneally with a NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; 100 mg/kg), a TNF-α inhibitor, pentoxyfylline (PTX; 50 mg/kg), and an anti-inflammatory agent, dexamethasone (DEX; 5 mg/kg), prior to Zn exposure along with respective controls. Zn caused neurobehavioral impairments and reduction in dopamine and its metabolites, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons, catalase activity, and expression of TH, Bcl-2, and NOXA. On the contrary, Zn augmented lipid peroxidation, activity of superoxide dismutase, expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, Bcl-xl, and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and translocation of NF-κB and Bax from the cytosol to the nucleus and mitochondria, respectively, with concomitant increase in the mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activation of procaspase-3 and -9. Pre-treatment with PTX, DEX, or PDTC invariably ameliorated Zn-induced changes in behavioral and neurodegenerative indexes, inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. Results demonstrate that inflammation regulates Bax expression that subsequently contributes to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  12. Estradiol Facilitates Functional Integration of iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons into Striatal Neuronal Circuits via Activation of Integrin α5β1

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Doi, Daisuke; Samata, Bumpei; Murayama, Shigeo; Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Summary For cell transplantation therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) to be realized, the grafted neurons should be integrated into the host neuronal circuit to restore the lost neuronal function. Here, using wheat-germ agglutinin-based transsynaptic tracing, we show that integrin α5 is selectively expressed in striatal neurons that are innervated by midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. In addition, we found that integrin α5β1 was activated by the administration of estradiol-2-benzoate (E2B) in striatal neurons of adult female rats. Importantly, we observed that the systemic administration of E2B into hemi-parkinsonian rat models facilitates the functional integration of grafted DA neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells into the host striatal neuronal circuit via the activation of integrin α5β1. Finally, methamphetamine-induced abnormal rotation was recovered earlier in E2B-administered rats than in rats that received other regimens. Our results suggest that the simultaneous administration of E2B with stem cell-derived DA progenitors can enhance the efficacy of cell transplantation therapy for PD. PMID:26997644

  13. Olfactory impairment in the rotenone model of Parkinson’s disease is associated with bulbar dopaminergic D2 activity after REM sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Lais S.; Targa, Adriano D. S.; Noseda, Ana Carolina D.; Aurich, Mariana F.; Da Cunha, Cláudio; Lima, Marcelo M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deficits are commonly found in untreated subjects with a recent diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Additionally, different studies report declines in olfactory performance during a short period of sleep deprivation. Mechanisms underlying these clinical manifestations are poorly understood, and impairment of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the olfactory bulb and the nigrostriatal pathway may have important roles in olfaction and REM sleep disturbances. Therefore, we hypothesized that modulation of the dopaminergic D2 receptors in the olfactory bulb could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the olfactory deficits in PD and REM sleep deprivation (REMSD). We decided to investigate the olfactory, neurochemical, and histological alterations generated through the administration of piribedil (a selective D2 agonist) or raclopride (a selective D2 antagonist) within the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, in rats subjected to intranigral rotenone and REMSD. Our findings provide evidence of the occurrence of a negative correlation (r = −0.52, P = 0.04) between the number of periglomerular TH-ir neurons and the bulbar levels of DA in the rotenone, but not sham, groups. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.34, P = 0.03) was observed between nigrostriatal DA levels and olfactory discrimination index (DI) for the sham groups, indicating that increased DA levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are associated with enhanced olfactory discrimination performance. Also, increased levels in bulbar and striatal DA were induced by piribedil in the rotenone control and rotenone REMSD groups, consistent with reductions in the DI. The present evidence reinforce the idea that DA produced by periglomerular neurons, particularly the bulbar dopaminergic D2 receptors, is an essential participant in olfactory discrimination processes, as the SNpc, and the striatum. PMID:25520618

  14. Activation of dopaminergic D2/D3 receptors modulates dorsoventral connectivity in the hippocampus and reverses the impairment of working memory after nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Cruz, Helder; Dourado, Margarida; Monteiro, Clara; Matos, Mariana R; Galhardo, Vasco

    2014-04-23

    Dopamine plays an important role in several forms of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, a crucial brain structure for working memory (WM) functioning. In this study, we evaluated whether the working-memory impairment characteristic of animal models of chronic pain is dependent on hippocampal dopaminergic signaling. To address this issue, we implanted multichannel arrays of electrodes in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal CA1 region of rats and recorded the neuronal activity during a food-reinforced spatial WM task of trajectory alternation. Within-subject behavioral performance and patterns of dorsoventral neuronal activity were assessed before and after the onset of persistent neuropathic pain using the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain. Our results show that the peripheral nerve lesion caused a disruption in WM and in hippocampus spike activity and that this disruption was reversed by the systemic administration of the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole (0.05 mg/kg). In SNI animals, the administration of quinpirole restored both the performance-related and the task-related spike activity to the normal range characteristic of naive animals, whereas quinpirole in sham animals caused the opposite effect. Quinpirole also reversed the abnormally low levels of hippocampus dorsoventral connectivity and phase coherence. Together with our finding of changes in gene expression of dopamine receptors and modulators after the onset of the nerve injury model, these results suggest that disruption of the dopaminergic balance in the hippocampus may be crucial for the clinical neurological and cognitive deficits observed in patients with painful syndromes.

  15. Restricted cortical and amygdaloid removal of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 in preadolescent mice impacts dopaminergic activity and neuronal circuitry of higher brain function.

    PubMed

    Wallén-Mackenzie, Asa; Nordenankar, Karin; Fejgin, Kim; Lagerström, Malin C; Emilsson, Lina; Fredriksson, Robert; Wass, Caroline; Andersson, Daniel; Egecioglu, Emil; Andersson, My; Strandberg, Joakim; Lindhe, Orjan; Schiöth, Helgi B; Chergui, Karima; Hanse, Eric; Långström, Bengt; Fredriksson, Anders; Svensson, Lennart; Roman, Erika; Kullander, Klas

    2009-02-18

    A major challenge in neuroscience is to resolve the connection between gene functionality, neuronal circuits, and behavior. Most, if not all, neuronal circuits of the adult brain contain a glutamatergic component, the nature of which has been difficult to assess because of the vast cellular abundance of glutamate. In this study, we wanted to determine the role of a restricted subpopulation of glutamatergic neurons within the forebrain, the Vglut2-expressing neurons, in neuronal circuitry of higher brain function. Vglut2 expression was selectively deleted in the cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala of preadolescent mice, which resulted in increased locomotor activity, altered social dominance and risk assessment, decreased sensorimotor gating, and impaired long-term spatial memory. Presynaptic VGLUT2-positive terminals were lost in the cortex, striatum, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus, and a downstream effect on dopamine binding site availability in the striatum was evident. A connection between the induced late-onset, chronic reduction of glutamatergic neurotransmission and dopamine signaling within the circuitry was further substantiated by a partial attenuation of the deficits in sensorimotor gating by the dopamine-stabilizing antipsychotic drug aripiprazole and an increased sensitivity to amphetamine. Somewhat surprisingly, given the restricted expression of Vglut2 in regions responsible for higher brain function, our analyses show that VGLUT2-mediated neurotransmission is required for certain aspects of cognitive, emotional, and social behavior. The present study provides support for the existence of a neurocircuitry that connects changes in VGLUT2-mediated neurotransmission to alterations in the dopaminergic system with schizophrenia-like behavioral deficits as a major outcome.

  16. Efficient generation of hPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons in a fully defined, scalable, 3D biomaterial platform

    PubMed Central

    Adil, Maroof M.; Rodrigues, Gonçalo M. C.; Kulkarni, Rishikesh U.; Rao, Antara T.; Chernavsky, Nicole E.; Miller, Evan W.; Schaffer, David V.

    2017-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have major potential as an unlimited source of functional cells for many biomedical applications; however, the development of cell manufacturing systems to enable this promise faces many challenges. For example, there have been major recent advances in the generation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons from stem cells for Parkinson’s Disease (PD) therapy; however, production of these cells typically involves undefined components and difficult to scale 2D culture formats. Here, we used a fully defined, 3D, thermoresponsive biomaterial platform to rapidly generate large numbers of action-potential firing mDA neurons after 25 days of differentiation (~40% tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive, maturing into 25% cells exhibiting mDA neuron-like spiking behavior). Importantly, mDA neurons generated in 3D exhibited a 30-fold increase in viability upon implantation into rat striatum compared to neurons generated on 2D, consistent with the elevated expression of survival markers FOXA2 and EN1 in 3D. A defined, scalable, and resource-efficient cell culture platform can thus rapidly generate high quality differentiated cells, both neurons and potentially other cell types, with strong potential to accelerate both basic and translational research. PMID:28091566

  17. Transcription factor Six2 mediates the protection of GDNF on 6-OHDA lesioned dopaminergic neurons by regulating Smurf1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J; Kang, X-y; Sun, S; Li, L; Zhang, B-l; Li, Y-q; Gao, D-s

    2016-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has strong neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects on dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we found that the expression level of transcription factor Six2 was increased in damaged DA neurons after GDNF rescue in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of Six2 resulted in decreased cell viability and increased the apoptosis of damaged DA neurons after GDNF treatment in vitro. In contrast, Six2 overexpression increased cell viability and decreased cell apoptosis. Furthermore, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) indicated that Six2 directly bound to the promoter CAGCTG sequence of smad ubiquitylation regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1). ChIP-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis showed that Smurf1 expression was significantly upregulated after GDNF rescue. Moreover, knockdown of Six2 decreased Smurf1 expression, whereas overexpression of Six2 increased Smurf1 expression in damaged DA neurons after GDNF rescue. Meanwhile, knockdown and overexpression of Smurf1 increased and decreased p53 expression, respectively. Taken together, our results from in vitro and in vivo analysis indicate that Six2 mediates the protective effects of GDNF on damaged DA neurons by regulating Smurf1 expression, which could be useful in identifying potential drug targets for injured DA neurons. PMID:27148690

  18. vglut2 and gad expression reveal distinct patterns of dual GABAergic versus glutamatergic cotransmitter phenotypes of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons in the zebrafish brain

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, Alida; Mueller, Thomas; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the vertebrate lineage, dopaminergic neurons form important neuromodulatory systems that influence motor behavior, mood, cognition, and physiology. Studies in mammals have established that dopaminergic neurons often use γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glutamatergic cotransmission during development and physiological function. Here, we analyze vglut2, gad1b and gad2 expression in combination with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in 4-day-old larval and 30-day-old juvenile zebrafish brains to determine which dopaminergic and noradrenergic groups may use GABA or glutamate as a second transmitter. Our results show that most dopaminergic neurons also express GABAergic markers, including the dopaminergic groups of the olfactory bulb (homologous to mammalian A16) and the subpallium, the hypothalamic groups (A12, A14), the prethalamic zona incerta group (A13), the preoptic groups (A15), and the pretectal group. Thus, the majority of catecholaminergic neurons are gad1b/2-positive and coexpress GABA. A very few gad1/2-negative dopaminergic groups, however, express vglut2 instead and use glutamate as a second transmitter. These glutamatergic dual transmitter phenotypes are the Orthopedia transcription factor–dependent, A11-type dopaminergic neurons of the posterior tuberculum. All together, our results demonstrate that all catecholaminergic groups in zebrafish are either GABAergic or glutamatergic. Thus, cotransmission of dopamine and noradrenaline with either GABA or glutamate appears to be a regular feature of zebrafish catecholaminergic systems. We compare our results with those that have been described for mammalian systems, discuss the phenomenon of transmitter dualism in the context of developmental specification of GABAergic and glutamatergic regions in the brain, and put this phenomenon in an evolutionary perspective. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2019–2037, 2014. PMID:24374659

  19. Nobiletin protects dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-treated rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Jeon, Min-Tae; Kim, Heung Deok; Jung, Un Ju; Jang, Min Cheol; Chu, Jin Woo; Yang, Seung Jun; Choi, Il Yoon; Choi, Myung-Sook; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of nobiletin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, on the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease (PD). 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) was unilaterally injected into the median forebrain bundle of rat brains (to generate a neurotoxin model of PD) with or without daily intraperitoneal injection of nobiletin. Our results showed that nobiletin treatment at 10 mg/kg bw, but not at 1 or 20 mg/kg bw, significantly protected DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of MPP(+)-treated rats. In parallel to the neuroprotection, nobiletin treatment at 10 mg/kg inhibited microglial activation and preserved the expression of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, which is a therapeutic agent against PD, in the SN. These results suggest that the proper supplementation with nobiletin may protect against the neurodegeneration involved in PD.

  20. Selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons does not alter [3H]-ryanodine binding in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Noël, F; Geurts, M; Maloteaux, J M

    2000-02-01

    Dopamine nigrostriatal neurons are important for motor control and may contain a particularly dense population of ryanodine receptors involved in the control of dopamine release. To test this hypothesis, we used a classical model of unilateral selective lesion of these neurons in rats based on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection into the substantia nigra. Binding of [3H]-GBR 12935, used as a presynaptic marker since it labels specifically the dopamine uptake complex, was dramatically decreased by 83-100% in striatum homogenates after 6-OHDA lesion. On the contrary, no reduction of [3H]-ryanodine binding was observed. The present data indicate that [3H]-ryanodine binding sites present in rat striatum are not preferentially localized in dopaminergic terminals.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist is neuroprotective and stimulates PGC-1α expression and CREB phosphorylation in human dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Johanna; Tselykh, Timofey V; Kukkonen, Jyrki P; Eriksson, Ove; Korhonen, Laura T; Lindholm, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a master gene for mitochondrial biogenesis and has been shown to be neuroprotective in models of PD. In this work we have studied the mechanisms by which peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) selective agonist N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-O-[2-(methyl-2-pyridinylamino)ethyl]-l-tyrosine hydrate (GW1929) acts on human dopaminergic neurons in culture. Data showed that GW1929 increased the viability of human dopaminergic neurons and protected them against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and the mitochondrial toxin Rotenone. The enhanced resilience of the neurons was attributed to increased levels of mitochondrial antioxidants and of PGC-1α. GW1929 treatment further increased cell respiration, mitochondrial biogenesis and sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression in the human dopaminergic neurons. Phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) was also robustly increased in GW1929-treated cells. Together these results show that the PPARγ agonist GW1929 influences CREB signaling and PGC-1α activities in the human dopaminergic neurons contributing to an increased cell viability. This supports the view that drugs acting on the PPARγ-PGC-1α signaling in neurons may have beneficial effects in PD and possible also in other brain disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Nano-MnO2 on Dopaminergic Neurons and the Spatial Learning Capability of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Shi, Tingting; Li, Xiaobo; Zeng, Shuilin; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the effect of intracerebrally injected nano-MnO2 on neurobehavior and the functions of dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes. Nano-MnO2, 6-OHDA, and saline (control) were injected in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area of Sprague-Dawley rat brains. The neurobehavior of rats was evaluated by Morris water maze test. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in rat brain were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the escape latencies of nano-MnO2 treated rat increased significantly compared with control. The number of TH-positive cells decreased, GFAP- and iNOS-positive cells increased significantly in the lesion side of the rat brains compared with the contralateral area in nano-MnO2 group. The same tendencies were observed in nano-MnO2-injected rat brains compared with control. However, in the the positive control, 6-OHDA group, escape latencies increased, TH-positive cell number decreased significantly compared with nano-MnO2 group. The alteration of spatial learning abilities of rats induced by nano-MnO2 may be associated with dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction and astrocyte activation. PMID:25101772

  3. Comparative study of efficacy of dopaminergic neuron differentiation between embryonic stem cell and protein-based induced pluripotent stem cell.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Chung, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Joonoh; Lee, Ho-Jae; Park, Jihwan; Roh, Tae-Young; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), stem cells can serve as therapeutic agents to restore or regenerate injured nervous system. Here, we differentiated two types of stem cells; mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and protein-based iPS cells (P-iPSCs) generated by non-viral methods, into midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons, and then compared the efficiency of DA neuron differentiation from these two cell types. In the undifferentiated stage, P-iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers as ES cells did, indicating that protein-based reprogramming was stable and authentic. While both stem cell types were differentiated to the terminally-matured mDA neurons, P-iPSCs showed higher DA neuron-specific markers' expression than ES cells. To investigate the mechanism of the superior induction capacity of DA neurons observed in P-iPSCs compared to ES cells, we analyzed histone modifications by genome-wide ChIP sequencing analysis and their corresponding microarray results between two cell types. We found that Wnt signaling was up-regulated, while SFRP1, a counter-acting molecule of Wnt, was more suppressed in P-iPSCs than in mESCs. In PD rat model, transplantation of neural precursor cells derived from both cell types showed improved function. The present study demonstrates that P-iPSCs could be a suitable cell source to provide patient-specific therapy for PD without ethical problems or rejection issues.

  4. Cell-autonomous FGF signaling regulates anteroposterior patterning and neuronal differentiation in the mesodiencephalic dopaminergic progenitor domain.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Laura; Peltopuro, Paula; Piepponen, T Petteri; Partanen, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The structure and projection patterns of adult mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (DA) neurons are one of the best characterized systems in the vertebrate brain. However, the early organization and development of these nuclei remain poorly understood. The induction of midbrain DA neurons requires sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the floor plate and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) from the isthmic organizer, but the way in which FGF8 regulates DA neuron development is unclear. We show that, during early embryogenesis, mesodiencephalic neurons consist of two distinct populations: a diencephalic domain, which is probably independent of isthmic FGFs; and a midbrain domain, which is dependent on FGFs. Within these domains, DA progenitors and precursors use partly different genetic programs. Furthermore, the diencephalic DA domain forms a distinct cell population, which also contains non-DA Pou4f1(+) cells. FGF signaling operates in proliferative midbrain DA progenitors, but is absent in postmitotic DA precursors. The loss of FGFR1/2-mediated signaling results in a maturation failure of the midbrain DA neurons and altered patterning of the midbrain floor. In FGFR mutants, the DA domain adopts characteristics that are typical for embryonic diencephalon, including the presence of Pou4f1(+) cells among TH(+) cells, and downregulation of genes typical of midbrain DA precursors. Finally, analyses of chimeric embryos indicate that FGF signaling regulates the development of the ventral midbrain cell autonomously.

  5. Th17 Cells Induce Dopaminergic Neuronal Death via LFA-1/ICAM-1 Interaction in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan; Huang, Yan; Cao, Bei-Bei; Qiu, Yi-Hua; Peng, Yu-Ping

    2016-11-14

    T helper (Th)17 cells, a subset of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, have strong pro-inflammatory property and appear to be essential in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. However, the involvement of Th17 cells in Parkinson's disease (PD) that is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the nigrostriatal system is unclear. Here, we aimed to demonstrate that Th17 cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma and induce neuroinflammation and DAergic neuronal death in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)- or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced PD models. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the substantia nigra (SN) was assessed by the signal of FITC-labeled albumin that was injected into blood circulation via the ascending aorta. Live cell imaging system was used to observe a direct contact of Th17 cells with neurons by staining these cells using the two adhesion molecules, leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, respectively. Th17 cells invaded into the SN where BBB was disrupted in MPTP-induced PD mice. Th17 cells exacerbated DAergic neuronal loss and pro-inflammatory/neurotrophic factor disorders in MPP(+)-treated ventral mesencephalic (VM) cell cultures. A direct contact of LFA-1-stained Th17 cells with ICAM-1-stained VM neurons was dynamically captured. Either blocking LFA-1 in Th17 cells or blocking ICAM-1 in VM neurons with neutralizing antibodies abolished Th17-induced DAergic neuronal death. These results establish that Th17 cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma of PD mice through lesioned BBB and exert neurotoxic property by promoting glial activation and importantly by a direct damage to neurons depending on LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction.

  6. Associated degeneration of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in the rat nigrostriatal lactacystin model of parkinsonism and their neuroprotection by valproate.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Anis, Hiba K; Dexter, David T

    2016-02-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests clinically as bradykinesia, rigidity, and development of a resting tremor, primarily due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways in the brain. Intranigral administration of the irreversible ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitor, lactacystin, has been used extensively to model nigrostriatal degeneration in rats, and study the effects of candidate neuroprotective agents on the integrity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Recently however, adjacent extra-nigral brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been noted to also become affected in this model, yet their integrity in studies of candidate neuroprotective agents in the model have largely been overlooked. Here we quantify the extent and distribution of dopaminergic degeneration in the VTA of rats intranigrally lesioned with lactacystin, and quantify the extent of VTA dopaminergic neuroprotection after systemic treatment with an epigenetic therapeutic agent, valproate, shown previously to protect dopaminergic SNpc neurons in this model. We found that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin resulted in a 53.81% and 31.72% interhemispheric loss of dopaminergic SNpc and VTA neurons, respectively. Daily systemic treatment of lactacystin lesioned rats with valproate however resulted in dose-dependant neuroprotection of VTA neurons. Our findings demonstrate that not only is the VTA also affected in the intranigral lactacystin rat model of PD, but that this extra-nigral brain region is substrate for neuroprotection by valproate, an agent shown previously to induce neuroprotection and neurorestoration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in this model. Our results therefore suggest that valproate is a candidate for extra-nigral as well as intra-nigral neuroprotection.

  7. Associated degeneration of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in the rat nigrostriatal lactacystin model of parkinsonism and their neuroprotection by valproate

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ian F.; Anis, Hiba K.; Dexter, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) manifests clinically as bradykinesia, rigidity, and development of a resting tremor, primarily due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways in the brain. Intranigral administration of the irreversible ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitor, lactacystin, has been used extensively to model nigrostriatal degeneration in rats, and study the effects of candidate neuroprotective agents on the integrity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Recently however, adjacent extra-nigral brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been noted to also become affected in this model, yet their integrity in studies of candidate neuroprotective agents in the model have largely been overlooked. Here we quantify the extent and distribution of dopaminergic degeneration in the VTA of rats intranigrally lesioned with lactacystin, and quantify the extent of VTA dopaminergic neuroprotection after systemic treatment with an epigenetic therapeutic agent, valproate, shown previously to protect dopaminergic SNpc neurons in this model. We found that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin resulted in a 53.81% and 31.72% interhemispheric loss of dopaminergic SNpc and VTA neurons, respectively. Daily systemic treatment of lactacystin lesioned rats with valproate however resulted in dose-dependant neuroprotection of VTA neurons. Our findings demonstrate that not only is the VTA also affected in the intranigral lactacystin rat model of PD, but that this extra-nigral brain region is substrate for neuroprotection by valproate, an agent shown previously to induce neuroprotection and neurorestoration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in this model. Our results therefore suggest that valproate is a candidate for extra-nigral as well as intra-nigral neuroprotection. PMID:26742637

  8. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle. PMID:26039160

  9. Prolactin induces tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurone differentiation in Snell dwarf mice if administered beginning at 3 days of age.

    PubMed

    Khodr, C E; Hurley, D L; Phelps, C J

    2009-06-01

    The hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurones secrete dopamine, which inhibits prolactin secretion. TIDA neurone numbers are deficient in Ames (df/df) and Snell (dw/dw) dwarf mice, which lack prolactin, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Prolactin therapy initiated before 21 days maintains normal-sized TIDA neurone numbers in df/df mice and, when initiated as early as 7 days, maintains the maximum TIDA neurone numbers observed in dw/dw development, which are decreased compared to those in normal mice. The present study investigated the effect of prolactin dose and species on TIDA neurone development. Snell dwarf and normal mice were treated with saline, 5 microg of ovine prolactin (oPRL), 50 microg of oPRL, or 50 microg of recombinant mouse prolactin (rmPRL) beginning at 3 days of age. Brains were analysed at 45 days using catecholamine histofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase or bromodeoxyuridine. Normal mice had greater (P neurones than dw/dw, regardless of treatment. TIDA neurones in 50 microg oPRL-treated dw/dw mice were greater (P neurone numbers than the maximum numbers observed in untreated dw/dw mice development. Among saline, 5 microg oPRL and 50 microg oPRL treatments, but not rmPRL, A14 neurone numbers were higher (P neurone recruitment was investigated using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) treatment at intervals after 21 days. Mice treated with rmPRL, but not oPRL, had increased BrdU incorporation in the periventricular area surrounding the third ventricle and median eminence and in the arcuate nucleus. The data obtained in the present study indicate that oPRL, but not rmPRL, when given at a high enough

  10. Vanillin Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Inflammation-Mediated Cell Death by Inhibiting ERK1/2, P38 and the NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuan; Liu, Dian-Feng; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Dong; Xu, Shi-Yao; Chen, Guang-Xin; Huang, Bing-Xu; Ren, Wen-Zhi; Wang, Wei; Fu, Shou-Peng; Liu, Ju-Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Neuroinflammation plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). After activation, microglia produce pro-inflammatory mediators that damage surrounding neurons. Consequently, the inhibition of microglial activation might represent a new therapeutic approach of PD. Vanillin has been shown to protect dopaminergic neurons, but the mechanism is still unclear. Herein, we further study the underlying mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD models. In vivo, we firstly established rat models of PD by unilateral injection of LPS into substantia nigra (SN), and then examined the role of vanillin in motor dysfunction, microglial activation and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In vitro, murine microglial BV-2 cells were treated with vanillin prior to the incubation of LPS, and then the inflammatory responses and the related signaling pathways were analyzed. The in vivo results showed that vanillin markedly improved the motor dysfunction, suppressed degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and inhibited microglial over-activation induced by LPS intranigral injection. The in vitro studies demonstrated that vanillin reduces LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-1β, and IL-6 through regulating ERK1/2, p38 and NF-κB signaling. Collectively, these data indicated that vanillin has a role in protecting dopaminergic neurons via inhibiting inflammatory activation. PMID:28208679

  11. Vanillin Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Inflammation-Mediated Cell Death by Inhibiting ERK1/2, P38 and the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuan; Liu, Dian-Feng; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Dong; Xu, Shi-Yao; Chen, Guang-Xin; Huang, Bing-Xu; Ren, Wen-Zhi; Wang, Wei; Fu, Shou-Peng; Liu, Ju-Xiong

    2017-02-12

    Neuroinflammation plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). After activation, microglia produce pro-inflammatory mediators that damage surrounding neurons. Consequently, the inhibition of microglial activation might represent a new therapeutic approach of PD. Vanillin has been shown to protect dopaminergic neurons, but the mechanism is still unclear. Herein, we further study the underlying mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD models. In vivo, we firstly established rat models of PD by unilateral injection of LPS into substantia nigra (SN), and then examined the role of vanillin in motor dysfunction, microglial activation and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In vitro, murine microglial BV-2 cells were treated with vanillin prior to the incubation of LPS, and then the inflammatory responses and the related signaling pathways were analyzed. The in vivo results showed that vanillin markedly improved the motor dysfunction, suppressed degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and inhibited microglial over-activation induced by LPS intranigral injection. The in vitro studies demonstrated that vanillin reduces LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-1β, and IL-6 through regulating ERK1/2, p38 and NF-κB signaling. Collectively, these data indicated that vanillin has a role in protecting dopaminergic neurons via inhibiting inflammatory activation.

  12. Genetic Feedback Regulation of Frontal Cortical Neuronal Ensembles Through Activity-Dependent Arc Expression and Dopaminergic Input

    PubMed Central

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Cao, Vania; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2016-01-01

    Mental functions involve coordinated activities of specific neuronal ensembles that are embedded in complex brain circuits. Aberrant neuronal ensemble dynamics is thought to form the neurobiological basis of mental disorders. A major challenge in mental health research is to identify these cellular ensembles and determine what molecular mechanisms constrain their emergence and consolidation during development and learning. Here, we provide a perspective based on recent studies that use activity-dependent gene Arc/Arg3.1 as a cellular marker to identify neuronal ensembles and a molecular probe to modulate circuit functions. These studies have demonstrated that the transcription of Arc is activated in selective groups of frontal cortical neurons in response to specific behavioral tasks. Arc expression regulates the persistent firing of individual neurons and predicts the consolidation of neuronal ensembles during repeated learning. Therefore, the Arc pathway represents a prototypical example of activity-dependent genetic feedback regulation of neuronal ensembles. The activation of this pathway in the frontal cortex starts during early postnatal development and requires dopaminergic (DA) input. Conversely, genetic disruption of Arc leads to a hypoactive mesofrontal dopamine circuit and its related cognitive deficit. This mutual interaction suggests an auto-regulatory mechanism to amplify the impact of neuromodulators and activity-regulated genes during postnatal development. Such a mechanism may contribute to the association of mutations in dopamine and Arc pathways with neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. As the mesofrontal dopamine circuit shows extensive activity-dependent developmental plasticity, activity-guided modulation of DA projections or Arc ensembles during development may help to repair circuit deficits related to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27999532

  13. Genetic Feedback Regulation of Frontal Cortical Neuronal Ensembles Through Activity-Dependent Arc Expression and Dopaminergic Input.

    PubMed

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Cao, Vania; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2016-01-01

    Mental functions involve coordinated activities of specific neuronal ensembles that are embedded in complex brain circuits. Aberrant neuronal ensemble dynamics is thought to form the neurobiological basis of mental disorders. A major challenge in mental health research is to identify these cellular ensembles and determine what molecular mechanisms constrain their emergence and consolidation during development and learning. Here, we provide a perspective based on recent studies that use activity-dependent gene Arc/Arg3.1 as a cellular marker to identify neuronal ensembles and a molecular probe to modulate circuit functions. These studies have demonstrated that the transcription of Arc is activated in selective groups of frontal cortical neurons in response to specific behavioral tasks. Arc expression regulates the persistent firing of individual neurons and predicts the consolidation of neuronal ensembles during repeated learning. Therefore, the Arc pathway represents a prototypical example of activity-dependent genetic feedback regulation of neuronal ensembles. The activation of this pathway in the frontal cortex starts during early postnatal development and requires dopaminergic (DA) input. Conversely, genetic disruption of Arc leads to a hypoactive mesofrontal dopamine circuit and its related cognitive deficit. This mutual interaction suggests an auto-regulatory mechanism to amplify the impact of neuromodulators and activity-regulated genes during postnatal development. Such a mechanism may contribute to the association of mutations in dopamine and Arc pathways with neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. As the mesofrontal dopamine circuit shows extensive activity-dependent developmental plasticity, activity-guided modulation of DA projections or Arc ensembles during development may help to repair circuit deficits related to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Ceramide sphingolipid signaling mediates Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-dependent toxicity via caspase signaling in dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral midbrain selectively degenerate in Parkinson’s disease (PD) in part because their oxidative environment in the substantia nigra (SN) may render them vulnerable to neuroinflammatory stimuli. Chronic inhibition of soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) with dominant-negative TNF inhibitors protects DA neurons in rat models of parkinsonism, yet the molecular mechanisms and pathway(s) that mediate TNF toxicity remain(s) to be clearly identified. Here we investigated the contribution of ceramide sphingolipid signaling in TNF-dependent toxicity. Results Ceramide dose-dependently reduced the viability of DA neuroblastoma cells and primary DA neurons and pharmacological inhibition of sphingomyelinases (SMases) with three different inhibitors during TNF treatment afforded significant neuroprotection by attenuating increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation and decreases in Akt phosphorylation. Using lipidomics mass spectrometry we confirmed that TNF treatment not only promotes generation of ceramide, but also leads to accumulation of several atypical deoxy-sphingoid bases (DSBs). Exposure of DA neuroblastoma cells to atypical DSBs in the micromolar range reduced cell viability and inhibited neurite outgrowth and branching in primary DA neurons, suggesting that TNF-induced de novo synthesis of atypical DSBs may be a secondary mechanism involved in mediating its neurotoxicity in DA neurons. Conclusions We conclude that TNF/TNFR1-dependent activation of SMases generates ceramide and sphingolipid species that promote degeneration and caspase-dependent cell death of DA neurons. Ceramide and atypical DSBs may represent novel drug targets for development of neuroprotective strategies that can delay or attenuate the progressive loss of nigral DA neurons in patients with PD. PMID:22973882

  15. Nifedipine and nimodipine protect dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons against axotomy-induced cell death in rat vibrosections via modulating inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Daschil, Nina; Humpel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons is a major hallmark in Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease, respectively. A dysregulation in calcium homeostasis may be part of this process and counteracting calcium influx may have neuroprotective properties in both diseases. Therefore, we investigated the putative neuroprotective or neurotoxic activity of L-type calcium channel (LTCC) inhibitors on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons in a rat organotypic vibrosection model. Sagittal or coronal vibrosections (200 μm thick) of postnatal day 10 rats were cultured on 0.4 μm semipermeable membranes for 2 weeks with 10 ng/ml nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or glial-cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to maintain survival of cholinergic or dopaminergic neurons, respectively. Thereafter, sections were incubated with 0.1, 1 or 10 μM isradipine, nicardipine or verapamil for 2 weeks to explore cytotoxicity. Alternatively, in order to explore neuroprotective activity, vibrosections were incubated without growth factors but with isradipine or verapamil or with nicardipine, nimodipine or nifedipine from the beginning for 4 weeks. Our data show that all LTCC inhibitors exhibited no neurotoxic effect on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons. Further, LTCC inhibitors did not have any neuroprotective activity on cholinergic neurons. However, nimodipine and nifedipine significantly enhanced the survival of dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) but not ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, while nicardipine, isradipine and verapamil had no effect. Nifedipine (and more potently GDNF) reduced inflammatory cytokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-2, tumor necrosis factor-α), but did not influence oxidative stress or caspase-3 activity and did not interfere with iron-mediated overload. Our data show that nifedipine and nimodipine are very potent to enhance the survival of axotomized SN neurons, possibly influencing inflammatory processes. PMID:25038562

  16. Nesfatin-1 protects dopaminergic neurons against MPP+/MPTP-induced neurotoxicity through the C-Raf–ERK1/2-dependent anti-apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Li; Song, Ning; Du, Xi-Xun; Li, Yong; Xie, Jun-Xia; Jiang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Several brain-gut peptides have been reported to have a close relationship with the central dopaminergic system; one such brain-gut peptide is nesfatin-1. Nesfatin-1 is a satiety peptide that is predominantly secreted by X/A-like endocrine cells in the gastric glands, where ghrelin is also secreted. We previously reported that ghrelin exerted neuroprotective effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons, which implied a role for ghrelin in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, we aim to clarify whether nesfatin-1 has similar effects on dopaminergic neurons both in vivo and in vitro. We show that nesfatin-1 attenuates the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD. In addition, nesfatin-1 antagonized 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridillium ion (MPP+)-induced toxicity by restoring mitochondrial function, inhibiting cytochrome C release and preventing caspase-3 activation in MPP+-treated MES23.5 dopaminergic cells. These neuroprotective effects could be abolished by selective inhibition of C-Raf and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Our data suggest that C-Raf-ERK1/2, which is involved in an anti-apoptotic pathway, is responsible for the neuroprotective effects of nesfatin-1 in the context of MPTP-induced toxicity. These results imply that nesfatin-1 might have therapeutic potential for PD. PMID:28106099

  17. Absence of glia maturation factor protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor behavior in mouse model of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Zaheer, Smita; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Patel, Margi; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Asgar

    2015-05-01

    Previously, we have shown that aberrant expression of glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein, is associated with the neuropathological conditions underlying diseases suggesting an important role for GMF in neurodegeneration. In the present study, we demonstrate that absence of GMF suppresses dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss, glial activation, and expression of proinflammatory mediators in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) and striatum (STR) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated mice. Dopaminergic neuron numbers in the SN and fiber densities in the STR were reduced in wild type (Wt) mice when compared with GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice after MPTP treatment. We compared the motor abnormalities caused by MPTP treatment in Wt and GMF-KO mice as measured by Rota rod and grip strength test. Results show that the deficits in motor coordination and decrease in dopamine and its metabolite content were protected significantly in GMF-KO mice after MPTP treatment when compared with control Wt mice under identical experimental conditions. These findings were further supported by the immunohistochemical analysis that showed reduced glial activation in the SN of MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice. Similarly, in MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice, production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukine-1 beta, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 MCP-1 was suppressed, findings consistent with a role for GMF in MPTP neurotoxicity. In conclusion, present investigation provides the first evidence that deficiency of GMF protects the DA neuron loss and reduces the inflammatory load following MPTP administration in mice. Thus depletion of endogenous GMF represents an effective and selective strategy to slow down the MPTP-induced neurodegeneration.

  18. Absence of glia maturation factor protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor behavior in mouse model of Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Zaheer, Smita; Ramasamy, Thangavel; Patel, Margi; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Asgar

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that aberrant expression of glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein, is associated with the neuropathological conditions underlying diseases suggesting an important role for GMF in neurodegeneration. In the present study, we demonstrate that absence of GMF suppresses dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss, glial activation, and expression of proinflammatory mediators in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) and striatum (STR) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated mice. Dopaminergic neuron numbers in the SN and fiber densities in the STR were reduced in wild type (Wt) mice when compared with GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice after MPTP treatment. We compared the motor abnormalities caused by MPTP treatment in Wt and GMF-KO mice as measured by Rota rod and grip strength test. Results show that the deficits in motor coordination and decrease in dopamine and its metabolite content were protected significantly in GMF-KO mice after MPTP treatment when compared with control Wt mice under identical experimental conditions. These findings were further supported by the immunohistochemical analysis that showed reduced glial activation in the SN of MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice. Similarly, in MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice, production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) MCP-1 was suppressed, findings consistent with a role for GMF in MPTP neurotoxicity. In conclusion, present investigation provides the first evidence that deficiency of GMF protects the DA neuron loss and reduces the inflammatory load following MPTP administration in mice. Thus depletion of endogenous GMF represents an effective and selective strategy to slow down the MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25754447

  19. Acupuncture prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal death in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in the rat Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Park, Hi-Joon; Lim, Sabina; Joo, Wan-Seok; Yin, Chang-Shik; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Jung Chul; Leem, Kanghyun; Son, Yang-Sun; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Yong-Sik; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2003-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, and it has been suggested that treatments promoting survival and functional recovery of affected dopaminergic neurons could have a significant and long-term therapeutic value. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture on the nigrostriatal system in rat unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 4 microg/microl, intrastriatal injection) using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, trkB, immunohistochemistries. Two weeks after the lesions were made, rats presented with asymmetry in rotational behavior (118.3 +/- 17.5 turns/h) following injection with apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist (0.5 mg/kg, sc). In contrast, acupunctural treatment at acupoints GB34 and LI3 was shown to significantly reduce this motor deficit (14.6 +/- 13.4 turns/h). Analysis via TH immunohistochemistry revealed a substantial loss of cell bodies in the substantia nigra (SN) (45.7% loss) and their terminals in the dorsolateral striatum ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA-induced lesion. However, acupunctural treatment resulted in the enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons in the SN (21.4% loss) and their terminals in the dorsolateral striatum. Acupuncture also increased the expression of trkB significantly (35.6% increase) in the ipsilateral SN. In conclusion, we observed that only acupuncturing without the use of any drug has the neuroprotective effects against neuronal death in the rat PD model and these protective properties of acupuncture could be mediated by trkB.

  20. Intranasal administration of rotenone in mice attenuated olfactory functions through the lesion of dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Sasajima, Hitoshi; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Noguchi, Tomohiro; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Many environmental chemicals are thought to affect brain function. It was reported that chemicals in the nasal cavity directly reach the brain through the connection between olfactory neurons and the olfactory bulb (OB). In this 'olfactory transport,' xenobiotics absorbed at the nasal mucosa reach the brain by bypassing some physical barriers and defenses, and thus olfactory transport is suspected to be a vulnerable mechanism of the brain against invasion threats of environmental chemicals. In this study, we focused on the neuronal toxicity of rotenone administered intranasally to mice. The results showed that the mice that were administered rotenone had attenuated olfactory functions. We also found that intranasally administered rotenone induced acute mitochondrial stress at the OB. The repeated administration of rotenone resulted in a decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons, which are inhibitory interneurons in the OB. Taken together, our findings suggest that the inhalation of environmental toxins induces the neurodegeneration of cranial neurons through olfactory transport, and that olfactory dysfunction may be induced as an earliest symptom of neurodegeneration caused by inhaled neurotoxins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of multivalent Sonic hedgehog on differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Vazin, Tandis; Ashton, Randolph S; Conway, Anthony; Rode, Nikhil A; Lee, Susan M; Bravo, Verenice; Healy, Kevin E; Kane, Ravi S; Schaffer, David V

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell differentiation is regulated by complex repertoires of signaling ligands which often use multivalent interactions, where multiple ligands tethered to one entity interact with multiple cellular receptors to yield oligomeric complexes. One such ligand is Sonic hedgehog (Shh), whose posttranslational lipid modifications and assembly into multimers enhance its biological potency, potentially through receptor clustering. Investigations of Shh typically utilize recombinant, monomeric protein, and thus the impact of multivalency on ligand potency is unexplored. Among its many activities, Shh is required for ventralization of the midbrain and forebrain and is therefore critical for the development of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) and forebrain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons. We have designed multivalent biomaterials presenting Shh in defined spatial arrangements and investigated the role of Shh valency in ventral specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into these therapeutically relevant cell types. Multivalent Shh conjugates with optimal valencies, compared to the monomeric Shh, increased the percentages of neurons belonging to mDA or forebrain GABAergic fates from 33% to 60% or 52% to 86%, respectively. Thus, multivalent Shh bioconjugates can enhance neuronal lineage commitment of pluripotent stem cells and thereby facilitate efficient derivation of neurons that could be used to treat Parkinson's and epilepsy patients.

  2. Midbrain-like Organoids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Contain Functional Dopaminergic and Neuromelanin-Producing Neurons.

    PubMed

    Jo, Junghyun; Xiao, Yixin; Sun, Alfred Xuyang; Cukuroglu, Engin; Tran, Hoang-Dai; Göke, Jonathan; Tan, Zi Ying; Saw, Tzuen Yih; Tan, Cheng-Peow; Lokman, Hidayat; Lee, Younghwan; Kim, Donghoon; Ko, Han Seok; Kim, Seong-Oh; Park, Jae Hyeon; Cho, Nam-Joon; Hyde, Thomas M; Kleinman, Joel E; Shin, Joo Heon; Weinberger, Daniel R; Tan, Eng King; Je, Hyunsoo Shawn; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2016-08-04

    Recent advances in 3D culture systems have led to the generation of brain organoids that resemble different human brain regions; however, a 3D organoid model of the midbrain containing functional midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons has not been reported. We developed a method to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells into a large multicellular organoid-like structure that contains distinct layers of neuronal cells expressing characteristic markers of human midbrain. Importantly, we detected electrically active and functionally mature mDA neurons and dopamine production in our 3D midbrain-like organoids (MLOs). In contrast to human mDA neurons generated using 2D methods or MLOs generated from mouse embryonic stem cells, our human MLOs produced neuromelanin-like granules that were structurally similar to those isolated from human substantia nigra tissues. Thus our MLOs bearing features of the human midbrain may provide a tractable in vitro system to study the human midbrain and its related diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. α-Synuclein propagates from mouse brain to grafted dopaminergic neurons and seeds aggregation in cultured human cells

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Christian; Angot, Elodie; Bergström, Ann-Louise; Steiner, Jennifer A.; Pieri, Laura; Paul, Gesine; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Melki, Ronald; Kallunki, Pekka; Fog, Karina; Li, Jia-Yi; Brundin, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Post-mortem analyses of brains from patients with Parkinson disease who received fetal mesencephalic transplants show that α-synuclein–containing (α-syn–containing) Lewy bodies gradually appear in grafted neurons. Here, we explored whether intercellular transfer of α-syn from host to graft, followed by seeding of α-syn aggregation in recipient neurons, can contribute to this phenomenon. We assessed α-syn cell-to-cell transfer using microscopy, flow cytometry, and high-content screening in several coculture model systems. Coculturing cells engineered to express either GFP– or DsRed-tagged α-syn resulted in a gradual increase in double-labeled cells. Importantly, α-syn–GFP derived from 1 neuroblastoma cell line localized to red fluorescent aggregates in other cells expressing DsRed–α-syn, suggesting a seeding effect of transmitted α-syn. Extracellular α-syn was taken up by cells through endocytosis and interacted with intracellular α-syn. Next, following intracortical injection of recombinant α-syn in rats, we found neuronal uptake was attenuated by coinjection of an endocytosis inhibitor. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo transfer of α-syn between host cells and grafted dopaminergic neurons in mice overexpressing human α-syn. In summary, intercellularly transferred α-syn interacts with cytoplasmic α-syn and can propagate α-syn pathology. These results suggest that α-syn propagation is a key element in the progression of Parkinson disease pathology. PMID:21245577

  4. Parthenolide Blocks Cocaine’s Effect on Spontaneous Firing Activity of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, David; Bloom, Damaris; Castro, Rocío; Pagán, Oné R; Jiménez-Rivera, C.A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cocaine administration leads to catecholamine reuptake inhibition which enhances reward and motivational behaviors. Ventral Tegmental Area dopaminergic (VTA DA) neuronal firing is associated with changes in reward predictive signals. Acute cocaine injections inhibit putative VTA DA cell firing in vertebrates. Parthenolide, a compound isolated from the feverfew plant (Tanacetum parthenium), has been shown to substantially inhibit cocaine’s locomotion effects in a planarian animal model (Pagán et al., 2008). Here we investigated the effects of parthenolide on the spontaneous firing activity of putative VTA DA neurons in anesthetized male rats (250-300g). Single-unit recordings were analyzed after intravenous (i.v.) parthenolide administration followed by 1mg/kg i.v. cocaine injection. Results showed that parthenolide at 0.125 mg/kg and 0.250mg/kg significantly blocked cocaine’s inhibitory effect on DA neuronal firing rate and bursting activity (p< 0.05, two way ANOVA). We propose that parthenolide might inhibit cocaine’s effects on VTA DA neurons via its interaction with a common binding site at monoamine transporters. It is suggested that parthenolide could have a potential use as an overdose antidote or therapeutic agent to cocaine intoxication. PMID:21886554

  5. Dieldrin induces ubiquitin-proteasome dysfunction in alpha-synuclein overexpressing dopaminergic neuronal cells and enhances susceptibility to apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Sun, Faneng; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2005-10-01

    Exposure to pesticides is implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin is one of the environmental chemicals potentially linked to PD. Because recent evidence indicates that abnormal accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction can contribute to the degenerative processes of PD, in the present study we examined whether the environmental pesticide dieldrin impairs proteasomal function and subsequently promotes apoptotic cell death in rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells overexpressing human alpha-synuclein. Overexpression of wild-type alpha-synuclein significantly reduced the proteasomal activity. Dieldrin exposure dose-dependently (0-70 microM) decreased proteasomal activity, and 30 microM dieldrin inhibited activity by more than 60% in alpha-synuclein cells. Confocal microscopic analysis of dieldrin-treated alpha-synuclein cells revealed that alpha-synuclein-positive protein aggregates colocalized with ubiquitin protein. Further characterization of the aggregates with the autophagosomal marker mondansyl cadaver