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Sample records for impaired nasal breathing

  1. A comparative study on oxidative stress role in nasal breathing impairment and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Passali, D; Corallo, G; Petti, A; Longini, M; Passali, F M; Buonocore, G; Bellussi, L M

    2016-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep disorder that leads to metabolic abnormalities and increased cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to define the expression and clinical significance of biomarkers involved in oxidative stress in patients with OSAS. A prospective study was designed to compare outcomes of oxidative stress laboratory tests in three groups of subjects. The study involved the recruitment of three groups of subjects, 10 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome with AHI > 30; 10 patients suffering from snoring at night with AHI < 15; 10 patients with nasal respiratory impairment with AHI < 5. Patients were subjected to skin prick tests for common aero-allergens, nasal endoscopy, active anterior rhinomanometry, fibrolaryngoscopy and polysomnography; and extra-routine diagnostic tests and procedures; analysis of oxidative and antioxidant (plasma thiol groups) biomarkers in blood and urine samples. No statistical differences in age, sex distribution or body mass index were present between the three groups (p > 0.05). There were significant differences in AHI among the three groups of patients (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found in the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test (p > 0.05) between the levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress in the three populations studied. The results of our study show that the nose can play a role in the pathogenesis of OSAS through the production of biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  2. Nasal and Oral Inspiration During Natural Speech Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method Ten healthy adults, 18–45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations were categorized as a nasal only, oral only, simultaneous nasal and oral, or alternating nasal and oral inspiration. The method was validated using nasal airflow, oral airflow, audio, and video recordings for two participants. Results The predominant pattern was simultaneous nasal and oral inspirations for all speaking tasks. This pattern was not affected by the nature of the speaking task or by the phonetic context surrounding the inspiration. The validation procedure confirmed that nearly all inspirations during counting and paragraph reading were simultaneous nasal and oral inspirations; whereas for sentence reading, the predominant pattern was alternating nasal and oral inspirations across the three phonetic contexts. Conclusions Healthy adults inspire through both the nose and mouth during natural speech breathing. This pattern of inspiration is likely beneficial in reducing pathway resistance while preserving some of the benefits of nasal breathing. PMID:24129013

  3. [Numerical flow simulation : A new method for assessing nasal breathing].

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T; Osman, J; Goubergrits, L

    2016-08-01

    The current options for objective assessment of nasal breathing are limited. The maximum they can determine is the total nasal resistance. Possibilities to analyze the endonasal airstream are lacking. In contrast, numerical flow simulation is able to provide detailed information of the flow field within the nasal cavity. Thus, it has the potential to analyze the nasal airstream of an individual patient in a comprehensive manner and only a computed tomography (CT) scan of the paranasal sinuses is required. The clinical application is still limited due to the necessary technical and personnel resources. In particular, a statistically based referential characterization of normal nasal breathing does not yet exist in order to be able to compare and classify the simulation results.

  4. Comparison of maximal oxygen consumption with oral and nasal breathing.

    PubMed

    Morton, A R; King, K; Papalia, S; Goodman, C; Turley, K R; Wilmore, J H

    1995-09-01

    The major cause of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is thought to be the drying and cooling of the airways during the 'conditioning' of the inspired air. Nasal breathing increases the respiratory system's ability to warm and humidity the inspired air compared to oral breathing and reduces the drying and cooling effects of the increased ventilation during exercise. This will reduce the severity of EIA provoked by a given intensity and duration of exercise. The purpose of the study was to determine the exercise intensity (%VO2 max) at which healthy subjects, free from respiratory disease, could perform while breathing through the nose-only and to compare this with mouth-only and mouth plus nose breathing. Twenty subjects (11 males and 9 females) ranging from 18-55 years acted as subjects in this study. They were all non-smokers and non-asthmatic. At the time of the study, all subjects were involved in regular physical activity and were classified, by a physician, as free from nasal polyps or other nasal obstruction. The percentage decrease in maximal ventilation with nose-only breathing compare to mouth and mouth plus nose breathing was three times the percentage decrease in maximal oxygen consumption. The pattern of nose-only breathing at maximal work showed a small reduction in tidal volume and large reduction in breathing frequency. Nasal breathing resulted in a reduction in FEO2 and an increase in FECO2. While breathing through the nose-only, all subjects could attain a work intensity great enough to produce an aerobic training effect (based on heart rate and percentage of VO2 max).

  5. Posture and posterior crossbite in oral and nasal breathing children.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jecilene Rosana; Pereira, Silvia Regina Amorim; Pignatari, Shirley S N; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice

    2010-01-01

    The most known etiologic factors of oral breathing may influence the craniofacial development leading to anatomical and functional alterations. A proper head and cervical spine posture allows a well functioning of the stomatognathic system structures and vice versa. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of posterior crossbite in a group of oral breathing children (OB) and nasal (NB) and associate the type of bite with the head and cervical spine posture. It was concluded that most of the children, either oral or nasal breathers, did not present a crossbite and any kind of head posture and cervical spine can vary independently of a posterior crossbite.

  6. Nasal and Oral Inspiration during Natural Speech Breathing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…

  7. [Nasal breath recovery and rhinoplasty in cleft lip and palate patient with unilateral choanal atresia].

    PubMed

    Chkadua, T Z; Ivanova, M D; Daminov, R O; Brusova, L A; Savvateeva, D M

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of clinical case of endoscopic nasal breath restoration and elimination of the secondary cleft lip nasal deformity in 27 years old patient with unilateral choanal atresia and secondary nasal deformity after rhinocheiloplasty. Preoperative examination revealed the absence of nasal breathing on collateral side due to complete bone choanal atresia. Surgical treatment included endoscopic choanal repair, elimination of the secondary nasal deformity, septoplasty, conchotomy and lateroposition of the inferior conchae. The treatment resulted in nasal breath restoration and elimination of nasal deformity. Long-term follow-up at 1 and 12 months post-operatively proved stable positive aesthetic and functional results.

  8. Nasal Contribution to Breathing and Fine Particle Deposition in Children Versus Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both the route of breathing, nasal versus oral, and the effectiveness of the nose to filter inhaled, fine particles may differ between children and adults. This study compared (1) the nasal contribution to breathing at rest and during mild to moderate exercise in children (age 6–...

  9. A decrease in nasal CO2 stimulates breathing in the tegu lizard.

    PubMed

    Coates, E L; Furilla, R A; Ballam, G O; Bartlett, D

    1991-10-01

    Tegu lizards decrease ventilatory frequency (f) when constant CO2, as low as 0.4%, is delivered to the nasal cavities. In contrast, CO2, as high as 6%, pulsed into the nasal cavities during the expiratory phase of the breathing cycle does not alter f. The purpose of the present study was to investigate further the effect of nasal CO2 pattern on f in tegu lizards. Specifically, we tested: (1) whether f was affected by CO2 delivered to the nasal cavities during the inspiratory phase of the breathing cycle, and (2) whether pulsed decreases in nasal CO2 from 4% to 2% and from 4% to 0% would remove the f inhibition caused by constant nasal CO2. Ventilation was measured using a pneumotachograph and pressure transducer in-line with an endotracheal T-tube inserted through the glottis. CO2 was delivered to the nasal cavities through small tubes inserted into the external nares. Ventilatory frequency was not significantly altered when 4% CO2 was pulsed into the nasal cavities during inspiration. Dropping the CO2 in the nasal cavities from 4% to 0% at either 15 cycles/min (0.25 Hz) or for one cycle stimulated breathing. There was no significant difference between the f response to a drop in CO2 from 4% to 0% and that to a drop in CO2 from 4% to 2%. The failure to link the phasic CO2 ventilatory response to a phase in the respiratory cycle indicates that the nasal CO2 receptors do not participate in the breath-by-breath regulation of breathing in these lizards. The observation that small decreases in nasal CO2 abolished the f inhibition caused by constant nasal CO2 provides further evidence for the ability of the nasal CO2 receptors to distinguish between pulsed and constant CO2.

  10. Nasal Reflexes: Implications for Exercise, Breathing, and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    Nasal patency, with both congestion and decongestion, is affected in a wide variety of reflexes. Stimuli that lead to nasal reflexes include exercise, alterations of body position, pressure, and temperature, neurological syndromes, and dentists. As anticipated, the vagal and trigeminal systems are closely integrated through nasobronchial and bronchonasal reflexes. However, perhaps of greater pathophysiological importance are the naso-hypopharyngea-laryngeal reflexes that become aggravated during sinusitis. None other than Sigmund Freud saw deeply beyond the facial adornment and recognized the deeper sexual tensions that can regulate nasal functions and psychoanalytical status. Wine, women and song are linked with airflow through the nose, the nose, that by any other name would still smell as sweetly. PMID:18417057

  11. Restorative procedures in disturbed function of the upper airways - nasal breathing

    PubMed Central

    Mlynski, Gunter

    2005-01-01

    These days, functional rhinosurgery is almost always taken to mean the improvement of nasal airflow. However, air should not only pass through the nose without obstruction. It needs to be warmed, moistened and filtered. This requires sufficient air/mucous membrane contact by spreading airflow over the entire turbinate region, as well as regulation of nasal airway resistance and the degree of turbulence within the nasal cycle. These factors are not considered enough in the concept of functional rhinosurgery. There cannot be a rigid concept for functional/aesthetic rhinosurgery, the surgical procedure must be adapted to the individual anatomy and pathology. In spite of this, it must be clear (based on evidence) which surgical steps can solve a functional problem of the nose in the long term. This paper cannot explain evidence-based treatment strategies to restore nasal respiratory function because in all branches of rhinosurgery, there are no prospective studies available with a sufficiently high sample size and long-term results objectivized by functional diagnosis. Studies available on septal surgery show better results for SP after Cottle than for SMR after Killian. However, the success rate of a 70 to 80% improvement in nasal breathing is not satisfactory. The incidence of postoperative, dry nasal mucosa is also too high. The task of rhinology is to stress the functional side of rhinosurgery more. This includes preoperative analysis of the causes of disturbed respiratory function using the functional diagnosis methods available, the use of evidence-based surgical techniques and postoperative, objectivized quality control. More research needs to be done on the physiology and pathophysiology of nasal airflow as well as on the effect of rhinosurgery on airflow. Numerical flow simulation can contribute greatly to this because the effects of shape changes on the flow can be visualized. Methods need to be developed which can be used for routine, diagnostic recording of

  12. Improved Pharmacokinetics of Sumatriptan With Breath Powered™ Nasal Delivery of Sumatriptan Powder

    PubMed Central

    Obaidi, Mohammad; Offman, Elliot; Messina, John; Carothers, Jennifer; Djupesland, Per G; Mahmoud, Ramy A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives.— The purpose of this study was to directly compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of 22-mg sumatriptan powder delivered intranasally with a novel Breath Powered™ device (11 mg in each nostril) vs a 20-mg sumatriptan liquid nasal spray, a 100-mg oral tablet, and a 6-mg subcutaneous injection. Background.— A prior PK study found that low doses of sumatriptan powder delivered intranasally with a Breath Powered device were efficiently and rapidly absorbed. An early phase clinical trial with the same device and doses found excellent tolerability with high response rates and rapid onset of pain relief, approaching the benefits of injection despite significantly lower predicted drug levels. Methods.— An open-label, cross-over, comparative bioavailability study was conducted in 20 healthy subjects at a single center in the USA. Following randomization, fasted subjects received a single dose of each of the 4 treatments separated by a 7-day washout. Blood samples were taken pre-dose and serially over 14 hours post-dose for PK analysis. Results.— Quantitative measurement of residuals in used Breath Powered devices demonstrated that the devices delivered 8 ± 0.9 mg (mean ± standard deviation) of sumatriptan powder in each nostril (total dose 16 mg). Although the extent of systemic exposure over 14 hours was similar following Breath Powered delivery of 16-mg sumatriptan powder and 20-mg liquid nasal spray (area under the curve [AUC]0-∞ 64.9 ng*hour/mL vs 61.1 ng*hour/mL), sumatriptan powder, despite a 20% lower dose, produced 27% higher peak exposure (Cmax 20.8 ng/mL vs 16.4 ng/mL) and 61% higher exposure in the first 30 minutes compared with the nasal spray (AUC0-30 minutes 5.8 ng*hour/mL vs 3.6 ng*hour/mL). The magnitude of difference is larger on a per-milligram basis. The absorption profile following standard nasal spray demonstrated bimodal peaks, consistent with lower early followed by higher later absorptions. In

  13. Flow modeling of actual human nasal cavity for various breathing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Nur Hazwani; Yaakob, Muhammad Syauki; Osman, Kahar; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Abdullah, Wan Kamil Wan; Haron, Juhara

    2012-06-01

    Flow in the human nasal cavity varies when the body is under various physical activities. However, in order to visualize the flow pattern, traditional in-vivo technique may disturb the flow patterns. In this study, computational method was used to model the flow in the nasal cavity under various breathing conditions. Image from CT-Scan was used to mimic the actual cavity geometry. The image was computationally constructed and EFD. Lab was used to predict the flow behavior. Steady incompressible flow was considered for all case studies. The result shows that, for all breathing conditions, vortices were observed in the turbinate region which confirms the turbinate functions as a filter before the flow reaches the olfactory area. Larger vortices were detected when the flow rates were higher. In the olfactory region, the flow velocities were shown to be dramatically dropped to the ideal odorant uptake velocity range for all cases studied. This study had successfully produced visual description of air flow pattern in the nasal cavity.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of discontinuation of nasal-CPAP in stable preterm infants breathing room air.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, H; Mohareb, S; Khashaba, M; Abu-Alkhair, M; Greisen, G

    1998-01-01

    This trial assessed the consequences of discontinuation of nasal-CPAP in stable preterm infants breathing room air. Eighty-eight infants with a mean gestational age of 29 (24-33) weeks and a mean birthweight of 1264 (665-2060)g, randomized to either discontinuation of CPAP or its continuation, were clinically observed and monitored for 6 h by cardiorespiratory monitor, pulse oximeter and transcutaneous blood gas monitor. The abdominal circumference and gastric air and aspirate volumes were measured prior to meals at trial entry and after 6 h. Discontinuation of CPAP led to a small but significant decrease in oxygenation at 1 and 6 h. During the trial, five infants in the experimental group required supplemental oxygen and one infant was put back on CPAP owing to excessive apnoeas. Discontinuation of CPAP did not influence the TcPCO2 or the number of apnoeas and bradycardias during the trial, but led to significantly increased respiratory rate, retractions, and flaring at 6 h. It also led to a significant decrease in the abdominal circumference and gastric air volume. Thirty-nine percent of infants were put back on CPAP some time after the trial, mainly because of recurrent apnoeas and bradycardias. Taking the infant off CPAP during the trial reduced subsequent use of CPAP.

  15. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  16. The Influence of Speaking Rate on Nasality in the Speech of Hearing-Impaired Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Claire H.; Robb, Michael P.; O'Beirne, Greg A.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deliberate increases in speaking rate would serve to decrease the amount of nasality in the speech of severely hearing-impaired individuals. Method: The participants were 11 severely to profoundly hearing-impaired students, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years (M = 16 years). Each…

  17. [The possibility of using соformulated intranasal drugs after surgical correction of nasal breathing].

    PubMed

    Nikiforova, G N; Svistushkin, V M; Zakharova, N M; Shevchik, E A; Zolotova, A V; Dedova, M G

    2016-01-01

    One of the major causes of chronic nasal obstruction is the nasal septum deformation and increase of the lower nasal turbinates. The number of septoplasty--operations ranges from 14% to 44,2% of all ENT-operations. The results of surgery are swelling of the tissues and damaged ciliar epithelium, that leads to the inparament of the mucociliar transport. In the postoperati e period the nasal cavity should be cleaned. Drugs, that are used, should reduce swelling, improve regeneration and should not supress ciliar activity. The results of supervisory, non-interventional study have shown, that application of Nasiс after septoplasty and submucose vasotomy of inferior nasal turbinates increases reparative process and leads to more rapid recovery of respiratory function of nasal cavity.

  18. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more severe climates of

  19. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved “Out of Africa” to explore the more severe climates of

  20. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Breathing-Impaired Speech after Brain Haemorrhage: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heselwood, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from an auditory and acoustic analysis of the speech of an adult male with impaired prosody and articulation due to brain haemorrhage. They show marked effects on phonation, speech rate and articulator velocity, and a speech rhythm disrupted by "intrusive" stresses. These effects are discussed in relation to the speaker's…

  2. Sleep-related breathing disorders. 5. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Grunstein, R R

    1995-10-01

    CPAP should be considered the first line of treatment in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea. In our centre in Sydney this generally means patients with more than 20 apnoea/hypopnoeas per hour with repeated dips in oxyhaemoglobin saturation and usually some symptomatology. Despite this first line role of nasal CPAP, recent objective studies question whether earlier enthusiastic reports on adherence to CPAP are correct. The role of technical innovations in new CPAP machines in improving usage remains to be tested. The "drop out" rate from physician selection for a CPAP trial to highly compliant user is certainly more than 50% of patients. What happens to these patients? Data from some studies suggest that surgical treatments are used, at least in the USA, but in all probability many of these patients remain untreated. The challenge in the next decade is either to improve CPAP devices to increase usage in this group or to develop other treatment options. The role of intensive inhospital "acclimatisation" to CPAP also has yet to be objectively tested. It is unclear whether "intelligent" CPAP will make huge inroads in increasing the number of patients who accept CPAP trials, prescriptions, or compliance. It will have minimal impact on patients with mask problems or claustrophobia or those who feel that CPAP is inconvenient. There is a high likelihood that it will reduce technologist workload during CPAP titration studies. "Intelligent" CPAP may help to reduce total overnight mouth leakage and therefore reduce nasal side effects. The current expense of developing such devices will mean that they are unlikely to supersede much cheaper standard "one pressure" CPAP machines in the next few years.

  3. An adaptive breath sampler for use with human subjects with an impaired respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Basanta, M; Koimtzis, T; Singh, D; Wilson, I; Thomas, C L P

    2007-02-01

    An adaptive sampler for collecting 2.5 dm(3) samples of exhaled air from human subjects with an impaired respiratory function is described. Pressure in the upper respiratory tract is continuously monitored and the data used to control an automated system to collect select portions of the expired breathing cycle onto a mixed bed Tenax(trade mark) and Carbotrap(trade mark) adsorbent trap for analysis by GC-MS. The sampling approach is intended for use in metabolomic profiling of volatiles in human breath at concentrations greater than microg m(-3). The importance of experimental reproducibility in metabolomic data is emphasised and consequently a high purity air supply is used to maintain a stable exogenous volatile organic compound profile at concentrations in the range 5 to 30 microg m(-3). The results of a 90 day stability study showed that exogenous VOCs were maintained at significantly lower levels (40 times lower for isopropyl alcohol) and with significantly higher reproducibility (80 times lower standard deviation for isopropyl alcohol) than would have been be the case if ambient air had been used. The sampling system was evaluated with healthy controls alongside subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subjects were able to breathe normally with control subjects observed to breathe at a rate of 9 to 17 breaths per minute, compared to 16 to 30 breaths per minute for subjects with COPD. This study presents, for the first time, observations and estimates of intra-subject breath sample reproducibility from human subjects. These reproducibility studies indicated that VOCs in exhaled breath exhibit a variety of dynamic behaviours, with some species recovered with a RSD <30%, while other species were observed to have significantly more variable concentrations, 30 to 130% RSD. The approach was also demonstrated to reliably differentiate the differences in the VOC profiles between alveolar and dead space air.

  4. [pH values in the pharynx of the patients presenting with compromised nasal breathing of inflammatory and non-inflammatory genesis concomitant with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Subbotina, M V; Temnikova, I V; Onuchina, E V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on the pH values in the pharynx and nose. It included 87 patients at the age varying from 18 to 81 years admitted to the Irkutsk-based Railway Clinical Hospital and allocated to four groups. Group 1 was comprised of 25 patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), group 2 consisted of 29 patients with CRS in the absence of GERD, group 3 included 22 patients with nasal septum deformations (NSD) and GERD, group 4 included 11 patients with NSD and motor rhinitis without GERD. The control group was formed from 10 volunteers. pH was measured by the contact method with the use ofEkokhim indicator paper. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed following the recommendations of the Montreal consensus. It was shown that pH values in the pharynx of the patients with compromised nasal breathing of any origin in combination with GERD were lower than in the absence of GERD and in the healthy volunteers. The study groups did not differ in terms of pH values in the nasal cavity. It is concluded that pH values 4 or lower may serve as the criterion for pharyngo-laryngeal reflux (PLR) concomitant with HERD while pH 5 occurs more frequently in the patients with compromised nasal breathing of any etiology, regardless of the presence or absence of GERD.Disordered nasal breathing of any genesis in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease was associated with the feeling of the lump in the throat, congestion of the respiratory tract and the nose, pain in the ears, cardialgia, and irregular heartbeat. It isrecommended to use pH measurements as a criterion for diagnostics of pharyngo-laryngeal reflux in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  5. Low-dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized four-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment.

    PubMed

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Rustan, Ø G; Tesli, N; Poppy, C L; Smevik, H; Tesli, M; Røine, M; Mahmoud, R A; Smerud, K T; Djupesland, P G; Andreassen, O A

    2015-07-14

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel 'Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we evaluated dose-dependent effects on social cognition, compared response with intravenous (IV) administration of OT, and assessed nasal cavity dimensions using acoustic rhinometry. We adopted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover design, with 16 healthy male adults completing four single-dose treatments (intranasal 8 IU (international units) or 24 IU OT, 1 IU OT IV and placebo). The primary outcome was social cognition measured by emotional ratings of facial images. Secondary outcomes included the pharmacokinetics of OT, vasopressin and cortisol in blood and the association between nasal cavity dimensions and emotional ratings. Despite the fact that all the treatments produced similar plasma OT increases compared with placebo, there was a main effect of treatment on anger ratings of emotionally ambiguous faces. Pairwise comparisons revealed decreased ratings after 8 IU OT in comparison to both placebo and 24 IU OT. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between nasal valve dimensions and anger ratings of ambiguous faces after 8-IU OT treatment. These findings provide support for a direct nose-to-brain effect, independent of blood absorption, of low-dose OT delivered from a Breath Powered device.

  6. [Nursing outcomes for ineffective breathing patterns and impaired spontaneous ventilation in intensive care].

    PubMed

    do Canto, Débora Francisco; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to validate the results of Nursing selected from the link NANDA-I-NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification--NANDA--International) for diagnosis Ineffective Breathing Pattern and Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation in adult intensive care unit. This is a content validation study conducted in a university hospital in southern Brazil with 15 expert nurses with clinical experience and knowledge of the ratings. The instruments contained five-point Likert scales to rate the importance of each outcome (1st step) and indicator (Step 2) for the diagnoses studied. We calculated weighted averages for each outcome/indicator, considering) 1 = 0. 2 = 0.25, 3 = 0.50 4 = 0.75 and 5 = 1. The outcomes suggested by the NOC with averages above 0.8 were considered validated as well as the indicators. The results Respiratory State--airway permeability (Ineffective Breathing Patterns) and 11 indicators, and Response to mechanical ventilation: adult (Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation) with 26 indicators were validated.

  7. Standardization procedure for the nasal nitric oxide measurement method using Niox MINO® and the tidal-breathing technique with velum-closure.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Abbattista, G; Quaranta, V N; Quaranta, N; Seccia, V; Buttafava, S; Frati, F; Ciprandi, G

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that performs many functions in the human body. The entire respiratory tract can produce NO, but the highest production occurs in the upper respiratory tract, in the paranasal sinuses in particular. The aim of the present study was to assess a new nasal NO (nNO) measurement method using the Niox MINO Nasal® device (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden) and a special procedure, in order to compare the nNO values obtained in 32 healthy subjects with the values found in the international literature. The measured normal nNO values were equal to 426.76±143.27 ppb, with a 95% confidence interval [160.22-733.30]. Males had an average nNO value equal to 446.76±133.63 [178.64 – 714.02], whereas in females the average value was 403.80±154.90 [94.00-713.60]. This study allows us to confirm that we have been able to establish the normal range of nitric oxide quantity produced in the nasal/sinus cavities of healthy individuals using the Niox MINO Nasal® device and tidal-breathing with velum-closure manoeuvre.

  8. Breathing resistance and ultrafine particle deposition in nasal-laryngeal airways of a newborn, an infant, a child, and an adult.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Berlinski, Ariel; Zhou, Yue; Greenberg, Bruce; Ou, Xiawei

    2012-12-01

    As a human grows from birth to adulthood, both airway anatomy and breathing conditions vary, altering the deposition rate and pattern of inhaled aerosols. However, deposition studies have typically focused on adult subjects, results of which may not be readily extrapolated to children. This study numerically evaluated the age-related effects on the airflow and aerosol dynamics in image-based nose-throat models of a 10-day-old newborn, a 7-month-old infant, a 5-year-old child, and a 53-year-old adult. Differences in airway physiology, breathing resistance, and aerosol filtering efficiency among the four models were quantified and compared. A high-fidelity fluid-particle transport model was employed to simulate the multi-regime airflows and particle transport within the nasal-laryngeal airways. Ultrafine particles were evaluated under breathing conditions ranging from sedentary to heavy activities. Results of this study indicate that the nasal-laryngeal airways at different ages, albeit differ significantly in morphology and dimension, do not significantly affect the total deposition fractions or maximum local deposition enhancement for ultrafine aerosols. Further, the deposition partitioning in the sub-regions of interest is different among the four models. Results of this study corroborate the use of the in vivo-based diffusion parameter (D(0.5)Q(-0.28)) over the replica-based parameter in correlating nasal-laryngeal depositions of ultrafine aerosols. Improved correlations have been developed for the four age groups by implementing this in vivo-based diffusion parameter as well as the Cunningham correction factor.

  9. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jason M; Porter, W M Ruger; Ridgely, Ryan C; Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Bell, Phil R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2014-11-01

    The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their small body size (which mitigated allometric concerns) and their tendency to preserve nasal soft tissues within their hypermineralized skulls. Hypermineralization directly preserved portions of the olfactory turbinates along with an internal nasal ridge that we regard as potentially an osteological correlate for respiratory conchae. Fossil specimens were CT-scanned, and nasal cavities were segmented and restored. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the nasal capsule was functionally tested in a virtual environment using computational fluid dynamics by running air through multiple models differing in nasal soft-tissue conformation: a bony-bounded model (i.e., skull without soft tissue) and then models with soft tissues added, such as a paranasal septum, a scrolled concha, a branched concha, and a model combining the paranasal septum with a concha. Deviations in fluid flow in comparison to a phylogenetically constrained sample of extant diapsids were used as indicators of missing soft tissue. Models that restored aspects of airflow found in extant diapsids, such as appreciable airflow in the olfactory chamber, were judged as more likely. The model with a branched concha produced airflow patterns closest to those of extant diapsids. These results from both paleontological observation and airflow modeling indicate that S. validum and other pachycephalosaurids could have had both olfactory and respiratory conchae. Although respiratory conchae have been linked to endothermy, such conclusions require caution in that our re-evaluation of the reptilian nasal apparatus indicates that respiratory conchae may be more widespread

  10. Autonomic Markers of Impaired Glucose Metabolism: Effects of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenli; Redline, Susan; Khoo, Michael C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between diabetes and abnormalities in autonomic function is well-known, but it is not clear if this association can be extended to subjects with prediabetic impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which commonly occurs in this population, is often overlooked. We sought to determine how autonomic function, monitored in an overnight sleep study setting, may be impaired in subjects with IGM and/or SDB. Methods Polysomnograms (PSGs) selected from the Cleveland Family Study database were categorized into four groups: normal, SDB (respiratory disturbance index > 5/h), IGM, and both SDB and IGM. Impaired glucose metabolism was defined as an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) level > 140 mg/dl. Time-domain and frequency-domain indices of heart rate variability were used to quantify autonomic impairment. Baroreflex sensitivity determined using pulse transit time (BRSPTT), an indirect measure of baroreflex sensitivity based on spontaneous pulse transit time fluctuations, was used as a surrogate measure of baroreflex sensitivity. Results Based on 31 PSGs from subjects (16 males, 15 females) ages 20.8–61.2 years, both SDNN and BRSPTT were found to be 20-25% lower in SDB and ~40% lower in IGM and SDB + IGM as compared to subjects without either condition. In analyses of continuous measures, mean standard deviation of 5 min R–R intervals (SDNN) and BRSPTT were found to be negatively correlated with OGTT following adjustment for age and body mass index. Oral glucose tolerance test and age were the two most significant factors for predicting SDNN and BRSPTT. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that cardiac autonomic control is impaired in IGM, regardless of whether SDB is present. The abnormal autonomic function involves degradation of baroreflex regulation. PMID:23063043

  11. Influence of the respiratory cycle structure on the flow field in human nasal cavity at a fixed level of breath depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosykh, L. Yu.; Ganimedov, V. L.; Muchnaya, M. I.; Sadovskii, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of air flow field in the human nasal cavity has studied during the respiratory cycle. Real tomographic scans of the adult without abnormalities in the upper airway have been used to construct the geometric model. Quiet breathing mode is selected: the duration of the respiratory cycle is 4.3 sec and the depth of breathing is 600 ml, which provides pulmonary ventilation at 8.4 liters of air per minute. The system of Navier - Stokes equations was used to describe the flow. Laminar flow regime was postulated. The Lagrange approach was used for calculation of submicron particles motion. The numerical solution was built on the basis of gas-dynamic solver FLUENT of software package ANSYS 12. Calculations were made for two cases in which the same value of the integral characteristic (the depth of breathing) was reached, but which had different kind of boundary conditions on the exit. In the first case, the velocity was assumed symmetrical with respect to inhalation - exhalation and was approximated by sinusoid. In the second case, the velocity as a function of time is determined by processing of the real person spirogram. For the both variants the flow fields were obtained and compared. Analysis of the results showed that in non-stationary case the use of symmetric boundary condition leads to an underestimation of respiratory effort for the implementation of the required depth of breathing. In cyclic flow the flow fields in acceleration and deceleration phases are, basically, the same as in the corresponding steady flow. At the same time taking into account of non-symmetry of respiratory cycle influences on deposition pattern of particles significantly.

  12. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  13. Disorders of the nasal valve area

    PubMed Central

    Bloching, Marc Boris

    2008-01-01

    The nasal valve area is not a singular structure, but a complex three-dimensional construct consisting of several morphological structures. From the physiologic point of view, it is the place of maximum nasal flow resistance (“flow limiting segment”). Therefore, according to Poiseuille’s law, even minor constrictions of this area result in a clinically relevant impairment of nasal breathing for the patient. This narrow passage, also called “ostium internum nasi”, is formed by the mobile lateral nasal wall, the anterior septum with the swell body, the head of the inferior turbinate and the osseous piriform aperture. Within the framework of aetiology, static and dynamic disorders of the nasal valve area have to be distinguished since they result in different therapeutic measures. In the context of diagnosis, the exploration of the case history for assessing the patient’s extent of suffering and the clinical examination are very important. In addition to the presentation of the basics of disorders of the nasal valves, this paper focuses on the treatment of dynamic disorders that mainly constitute the more important therapeutic issue. In this context, we distinguish between stabilisation techniques through grafts or implants and stabilising suture techniques. Following a thorough analysis, the correction of static nasal valve disorders requires various plastic-reconstructive measures using transposition grafting and skin or composite grafts. PMID:22073083

  14. Respiratory monitoring system based on the nasal pressure technique for the analysis of sleep breathing disorders: Reduction of static and dynamic errors, and comparisons with thermistors and pneumotachographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves de Mesquita, Jayme; Lopes de Melo, Pedro

    2004-03-01

    Thermally sensitive devices—thermistors—have usually been used to monitor sleep-breathing disorders. However, because of their long time constant, these devices are not able to provide a good characterization of fast events, like hypopneas. Nasal pressure recording technique (NPR) has recently been suggested to quantify airflow during sleep. It is claimed that the short time constants of the devices used to implement this technique would allow an accurate analysis of fast abnormal respiratory events. However, these devices present errors associated with nonlinearities and acoustic resonance that could reduce the diagnostic value of the NPR. Moreover, in spite of the high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this work was twofold: (1) describe the development of a flexible NPR device and (2) evaluate the performance of this device when compared to pneumotachographs (PNTs) and thermistors. After the design details are described, the system static accuracy is evaluated by a comparative analysis with a PNT. This analysis revealed a significant reduction (p<0.001) of the static error when system nonlinearities were reduced. The dynamic performance of the NPR system was investigated by frequency response analysis and time constant evaluations and the results showed that the developed device response was as good as PNT and around 100 times faster (τ=5,3 ms) than thermistors (τ=512 ms). Experimental results obtained in simulated clinical conditions and in a patient are presented as examples, and confirmed the good features achieved in engineering tests. These results are in close agreement with physiological fundamentals, supplying substantial evidence that the improved dynamic and static characteristics of this device can contribute to a more accurate implementation of medical research projects and to improve the

  15. [Complications and sequelae after nasal trauma].

    PubMed

    Calderón, R; Miralles, G; Rodríguez Urcelay, P; Berenguer, B; González Meli, B; Enríquez de Salamanca, J; Cervera, J

    2007-04-01

    Septal haematoma after nasal trauma is a complication that can lead to septal abscess if unrecognized or early intervention is not performed. It can cause compression and thereby necrosis that evolve to a septal abscess in which cultures reveal saprophyte bacteria. Cartilage necrosis and destruction can produce impaired breathing and aesthetic deformities with collapse of the dorsum and the tip of the nose. We present a 10 year old masculine infant, that suffered a nasal fracture with a septal haematoma that remained undiagnosed. The patient developed a septal abscess that required drainage and resulted in nasal sequelae with collapse of dorsum and cranial displacement of tip and columella. Functional and aesthetic reconstruction was performed using rib cartilage grafts. No complications occurred. Functional and aesthetic improvement was observed. Result after 2 months of follow-up is considered favourable.

  16. Sleep and neuromuscular disease: bilevel positive airway pressure by nasal mask as a treatment for sleep disordered breathing in patients with neuromuscular disease

    PubMed Central

    Guilleminault, C.; Philip, P.; Robinson, A.

    1998-01-01

    their masks. Three patients with myotonic dystrophy presented continued daytime somnolence despite apparent adequate treatment of their sleep disordered breathing. This required the addition of stimulant medication to their regimen. During this time three additional subjects had to be switched to nasal mask intermittent positive pressure ventilation delivered by traditional volume cycled home ventilator (volume controlled NIPPV).
CONCLUSIONS—Bilevel positive airway pressure delivered by nasal mask may be used successfully to treat sleep disordered breathing associated with neuromuscular disease. This device can be employed to assist nocturnal ventilation by either the spontaneous or timed mode. In the United States it is less expensive and easier to institute than volume controlled NIPPV and may be as efficacious as this mode if close surveillance and regular re-evaluation of the patient's status is maintained.

 PMID:9703177

  17. Are Nocturnal Breathing, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance Impaired at Moderate Altitude (1,630-2,590 m)?

    PubMed Central

    Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Stöwhas, Anne-Christin; Grimm, Mirjam; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Newcomers at high altitude (> 3,000 m) experience periodic breathing, sleep disturbances, and impaired cognitive performance. Whether similar adverse effects occur at lower elevations is uncertain, although numerous lowlanders travel to moderate altitude for professional or recreational activities. We evaluated the hypothesis that nocturnal breathing, sleep, and cognitive performance of lowlanders are impaired at moderate altitude. Design: Randomized crossover trial. Setting: University hospital at 490 m, Swiss mountain villages at 1,630 m and 2,590 m. Participants: Fifty-one healthy men, median (quartiles) age 24 y (20-28 y), living below 800 m. Interventions: Studies at Zurich (490 m) and during 4 consecutive days at 1,630 m and 2,590 m, respectively, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Polysomnography, psychomotor vigilance tests (PVT), the number back test, several other tests of cognitive performance, and questionnaires were evaluated. Measurements and Results: The median (quartiles) apnea-hypopnea index at 490 m was 4.6/h (2.3; 7.9), values at 1,630 and 2,590 m, day 1 and 2, respectively, were 7.0/h (4.1; 12.6), 5.4/h (3.5; 10.5), 13.1/h (6.7; 32.1), and 8.0/h (4.4; 23.1); corresponding values of mean nocturnal oxygen saturation were 96% (95; 96), 94% (93; 95), 94% (93; 95), 90% (89; 91), 91% (90; 92), P < 0.05 versus 490 m, all instances. Slow wave sleep on the first night at 2,590 m was 21% (18; 25) versus 24% (20; 27) at 490 m (P < 0.05). Psychomotor vigilance and various other measures of cognitive performance did not change significantly. Conclusions: Healthy men acutely exposed during 4 days to hypoxemia at 1,630 m and 2,590 m reveal a considerable amount of periodic breathing and sleep disturbances. However, no significant effects on psychomotor reaction speed or cognitive performance were observed. Clinical Trials Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01130948. Citation: Latshang TD; Lo Cascio CM; Stöwhas AC

  18. Intranasal trigeminal sensitivity: measurements before and after nasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, M; Schulze, S; Mueller, C A; Schuster, B; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Nasal surgeries constitute an extensive manipulation of the nasal mucosa and therefore of structures related to trigeminal and olfactory sensitivity. While olfactory changes due to nasal surgery are relatively well investigated, there are only very few studies regarding trigeminal sensitivity. Aim of the present study was to investigate sensory changes after nasal surgery with special regard to the trigeminal sensitivity. In 38 patients prior to and around 12 weeks after nasal surgery the following psychophysical measures were performed: odor identification, odor discrimination, phenyl ethyl alcohol odor threshold, sensitivity to trigeminal stimuli, trigeminal detection thresholds and trigeminal pain thresholds. These results were compared to those of a control group (43 healthy volunteers). Psychophysical olfactory and trigeminal testing showed no major changes in patients after surgery compared to the control group. Independent from the time of measurement higher trigeminal detection thresholds were found in patients compared to healthy subjects, meaning that trigeminal thresholds were already increased before surgery. The present study revealed a decreased trigeminal sensitivity in patients already before surgery. It may be hypothesized that patients also exhibit a decreased sensitivity for nasal airflow, which may also contribute to the patients' impression of impaired nasal breathing.

  19. Nasal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... get rid of nasal polyps. Nasal steroid sprays shrink polyps. They help clear blocked nasal passages and ... is stopped. Corticosteroid pills or liquid may also shrink polyps, and can reduce swelling and nasal congestion. ...

  20. Masticatory Changes in Oral Breath Secondary to Allergic Rhinitis: Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo; Silva, Hilton Justino da; Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Moraes, Klyvia Juliana Rocha de; Cunha, Renata Andrade da; Cunha, Daniele Andrade da; Medeiros, Décio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis (2012) defines allergic rhinitis as a nasal mucosa inflammation, mediated by immunoglobulin E, after exposure to allergens. The classic signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis are nasal obstruction, watery rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment, and mouth breathing (breathing predominantly through the mouth, regardless of the cause, due to a nasal breathing impairment) in some cases. Objective To evaluate the literature on masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing due to allergic rhinitis. Methods We conducted a search of the past 10 years, at Bireme and MEDLINE databases, for articles that covered masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing secondary to allergic rhinitis. Results We found 1,986 articles, including 15 repeated in databases, but only two articles met the inclusion criteria fully. Discussion We found few studies to answer the question raised in this review, and those studies have some methodological limitations. Most articles claimed no have statistically significant differences in masticatory changes in this population. Conclusion A better controlled study (isolating diseases, exposure time), with a larger sample (sample calculation appropriate), would be necessary to examine such changes. PMID:25992077

  1. Taste - impaired

    MedlinePlus

    ... longer. Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu and other viral infections Nasal infection, nasal ... your diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

  2. Nasal Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal mucosa can help adjust the humidity and temperature of the air before it reaches the lungs. ... area of the nasal mucosa helps regulate the temperature and humidity of inspired air. The nasal cycle ...

  3. Different aspects of respiration: relationships between the upper and lower respiratory tracts, and the middle ear cleft, nasal versus oral breathing.

    PubMed

    Collet, S; Vande Vannet, B; Watelet, J B; Gordts, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the normal functioning of the child's upper airway: defending the lower airway by means of air conditioning, filtration, initiation of inflammatory reactions or immune responses. We investigate the hypothetical mechanisms that explain the influence of, and interrelations between, mouth breathing and obstructive sleep apnoea on craniofacial development. We advise orthodontic diagnosis and/or intervention at a young age.

  4. Factors related to quality of life and satisfaction with nasal appearance in patients treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Mani, Maria; Reiser, Erika; Andlin-Sobocki, Anna; Skoog, Valdemer; Holmström, Mats

    2013-07-01

    Objective : To identify factors related to quality of life (QoL) and satisfaction with nasal appearance among patients treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Design : Cross-sectional population study with long-term follow-up. Patients/Settings : All patients with UCLP born between 1960 and 1987, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited (n  =  109); 86 (79%) participated. Mean follow-up time was 35 years. Main Outcome Measures : Quality of life was measured with Short Form-36 (SF-36) and analyzed using mental and physical cluster scores (MCS and PCS). Nasal appearance was self-assessed with the "Satisfaction With Appearance" questionnaire and by panel judgment. Multivariate regression analyses explored endogenous factors (age, gender, infancy cleft width, nasal function, nasolabial appearance) and exogenous factors (marital status, number of children, education level, operation method, number of rhinoplasties performed). Results : A larger cleft width in infancy was associated with less satisfaction with nasal appearance as adults. A lower mental health QoL was associated with less satisfaction with nasal appearance. Despite female gender being linked to less satisfaction with nasal appearance, it was associated with higher mental health QoL. Higher resistance during nasal breathing was associated with lower physical health QoL. Conclusions : Gender and infant cleft width may affect QoL and satisfaction with nasal appearance among adults. They are potential predictive factors for satisfaction with nasal appearance and QoL during adulthood. The correlation of nasal function impairment and decreased physical health QoL underlines the importance of treatment of nasal symptoms in these patients.

  5. Post Septorhinoplasty Custom-Made Unilateral Nasal Stent for Nasal Cleft Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu; Bhoria, Mohaneesh; Boora, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Context: Nasal cleft deformity is a complicated problem. Utilization of nasal stent in post septorhinoplastyaims at establishing and maintaining airway patency, tissue position, and reduces tissue contracture after surgery. Case Report: A 16-year-old female patient presented with history of surgical reconstruction of congenital cleft lip and cleft palate with secondary septorhinoplasty of nasal cleft deformity. Patient was referred for nasal stent 1 week after septorhinoplasty. This case report provides a novel technique for fabrication of esthetic nasal stent after postseptorhinoplasty for secondary cleft nose deformity correction. Conclusion: This case report presents a simple, convenient technique for nasal stent fabrication for prevention of restenosis for cleft nose deformity post secondary septorhinoplasty. Provision of nasal stent allows breathing, maintains esthetics, comfort, nasal patency, and contour with minimal discomfort. PMID:25789253

  6. Nasal airway and septal variation in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, John M; Friel, Michael T; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Flores, Roberto L; Tholpady, Sunil; Kula, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) affects the dentoalveolar and nasolabial facial regions. Internal and external nasal dysmorphology may persist in individuals born with CLP despite surgical interventions. 7-18 year old individuals born with unilateral and bilateral CLP (n = 50) were retrospectively assessed using cone beam computed tomography. Anterior, middle, and posterior nasal airway volumes were measured on each facial side. Septal deviation was measured at the anterior and posterior nasal spine, and the midpoint between these two locations. Data were evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and post-hoc ANOVA tests. PCA results show partial separation in high dimensional space along PC1 (48.5% variance) based on age groups and partial separation along PC2 (29.8% variance) based on CLP type and septal deviation patterns. MANOVA results indicate that age (P = 0.007) and CLP type (P ≤ 0.001) significantly affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation. ANOVA results indicate that anterior nasal volume is significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.001), whereas septal deviation patterns are significantly affected by CLP type (P ≤ 0.001). Age and CLP type affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation patterns. Nasal airway volumes tend to be reduced on the clefted sides of the face relative to non-clefted sides of the face. Nasal airway volumes tend to strongly increase with age, whereas septal deviation values tend to increase only slightly with age. These results suggest that functional nasal breathing may be impaired in individuals born with the unilateral and bilateral CLP deformity.

  7. Pathophysiology of nasal congestion

    PubMed Central

    Naclerio, Robert M; Bachert, Claus; Baraniuk, James N

    2010-01-01

    Nasal congestion is a common symptom in rhinitis (both allergic and nonallergic), rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Congestion can also be caused by physical obstruction of nasal passages and/or modulation of sensory perception. Mucosal inflammation underlies many of the specific and interrelated factors that contribute to nasal congestion, as well as other symptoms of both allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. A wide range of biologically active agents (eg, histamine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins, cell adhesion molecules) and cell types contribute to inflammation, which can manifest as venous engorgement, increased nasal secretions and tissue swelling/edema, ultimately leading to impaired airflow and the sensation of nasal congestion. Inflammation-induced changes in the properties of sensory afferents (eg, expression of peptides and receptors) that innervate the nose can also contribute to altered sensory perception, which may result in a subjective feeling of congestion. Increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying inflammation can facilitate improved treatment selection and the development of new therapies for congestion. PMID:20463823

  8. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (P<0.05). Chewing cycle variance during mouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (P<0.05). Mouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  9. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Bad Breath KidsHealth > For Kids > Bad Breath A A ... visit your dentist or doctor . continue What Causes Bad Breath? Here are three common causes of bad ...

  10. Nasal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gerald A.

    1969-01-01

    A review of 313 cases of nasal polyposis indicates that there is a high incidence of recurrence in this disease. Other nasal pathology affects a significant number of these patients. Simple surgical removal of the polypi by a transnasal route is the common mode of treatment. PMID:4187956

  11. Breathing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulty in which you make a high-pitched sound when you breathe out. Causes Shortness of breath has many different causes. For ... episode have a similar pattern? Does breathing difficulty cause you to wake up at ... or wheezing sounds while breathing? Tests that may be ordered include: ...

  12. Pediatric sleep-disordered breathing: New evidence on its development.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, Christian; Akhtar, Farah

    2015-12-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children could be resolved by adenotonsillectomy (T&A). However, incomplete results are often noted post-surgery. Because of this partial resolution, long-term follow-up is needed to monitor for reoccurrence of SDB, which may be diagnosed years later through reoccurrence of complaints or in some cases, through systematic investigations. Children undergoing T&A often have small upper airways. Genetics play a role in the fetal development of the skull, the skull base, and subsequently, the size of the upper airway. In non-syndromic children, specific genetic mutations are often unrecognized early in life and affect the craniofacial growth, altering functions such as suction, mastication, swallowing, and nasal breathing. These developmental and functional changes are associated with the development of SDB. Children without genetic mutations but with impairment of the above said functions also develop SDB. When applied early in life, techniques involved in the reeducation of these functions, such as myofunctional therapy, alter the craniofacial growth and the associated SDB. This occurs as a result of the continuous interaction between cartilages, bones and muscles involved in the growth of the base of the skull and the face. Recently collected data show the impact of the early changes in craniofacial growth patterns and how these changes lead to an impairment of the developmental functions and consequent persistence of SDB. The presence of nasal disuse and mouth breathing are abnormal functions that are easily amenable to treatment. Understanding the dynamics leading to the development of SDB and recognizing factors affecting the craniofacial growth and the resulting functional impairments, allows appropriate treatment planning which may or may not include T&A. Enlargement of lymphoid tissue may actually be a consequence as opposed to a cause of these initial dysfunctions.

  13. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittelman, Talia; Downing, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and nasal accelerometer signals were collected during the production of /pɑpɑpɑpɑ/ speech utterances by 25 children with and without cleft palate. Fourteen inexperienced raters listened to the microphone signals from the pediatric speakers and rated the samples for the severity of NAE using direct magnitude estimation. Mean listener ratings were compared to a novel quantitative measurement of NAE derived from the nasal acceleration signals. Results Correlation between the nasal acceleration energy measure and the measured nasal airflow was high (r = .87). Correlation between the measure and auditory-perceptual ratings was moderate (r = .49). Conclusion The measure presented here is quantitative and noninvasive, and the required hardware is inexpensive ($150). Future studies will include speakers with a wider range of NAE severity and etiology, including cleft palate, hearing impairment, or dysarthria. Further development will also involve validation of the measure against airflow measures across subjects. PMID:27618145

  14. Nasalance in Cochlear Implantees

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, N; Lepcha, Anjali; Mathew, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Speech intelligibility is severely affected in children with congenital profound hearing loss. Hypernasality is a problem commonly encountered in their speech. Auditory information received from cochlear implants is expected to be far superior to that from hearing aids. Our study aimed at comparing the percentages of nasality in the speech of the cochlear implantees with hearing aid users and also with children with normal hearing. Methods Three groups of subjects took part in the study. Groups I and II comprised 12 children each, in the age range of 4-10 years, with prelingual bilateral profound hearing loss, using multichannel cochlear implants and digital hearing aids respectively. Both groups had received at least one year of speech therapy intervention since cochlear implant surgery and hearing aid fitting respectively. The third group consisted of age-matched and sex-matched children with normal hearing. The subjects were asked to say a sentence which consisted of only oral sounds and no nasal sounds ("Buy baby a bib"). The nasalance score as a percentage was calculated. Results Statistical analysis revealed that the children using hearing aids showed a high percentage of nasalance in their speech. The cochlear implantees showed a lower percentage of nasalance compared to children using hearing aids, but did not match with their normal hearing peers. Conclusion The quality of speech of the cochlear implantees was superior to that of the hearing aid users, but did not match with the normal controls. The study suggests that acoustic variables still exist after cochlear implantation in children, with hearing impairments at deviant levels, which needs attention. Further research needs to be carried out to explore the effect of the age at implantation as a variable in reducing nasality in the speech and attaining normative values in cochlear implantees, and also between unilateral versus bilateral implantees. PMID:26330912

  15. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  16. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... breath? Maybe you shouldn't have put extra onions on your hamburger at lunch. What's a kid ... bad breath: foods and drinks, such as garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene ( ...

  17. Collection of breath for hydrogen estimation.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, A J; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H G

    1981-02-01

    The breath hydrogen test is used in gastroenterological investigation, particularly for sugar malabsorption, transit time, and the investigation of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. Several methods of collecting breath from infants and children for hydrogen assay have been described. Four such techniques (postnasal catheter, nasal prong, Rahn-Otis end-tidal sampler, and modification of a party toy--the 'Wiggins's blowout') were compared with breath collection using the Haldane-Priestley tube. Multiple sampling of breath from 3 adults was performed after initial lactulose loads to increase breath hydrogen excretion. The variability between the different assay techniques was less than the inherent variability of repeated breath hydrogen assays using the same technique. Each technique is therefore adequate for breath hydrogen collection; we recommend the Rahn-Otis end-tidal sampler in young infants and children, and the Haldane-Priestley tube in older children, since these were most acceptable to the children and their parents.

  18. Lamaze Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Lamaze breathing historically is considered the hallmark of Lamaze preparation for childbirth. This column discusses breathing in the larger context of contemporary Lamaze. Controlled breathing enhances relaxation and decreases perception of pain. It is one of many comfort strategies taught in Lamaze classes. In restricted birthing environments, breathing may be the only nonpharmacological comfort strategy available to women. Conscious breathing and relaxation, especially in combination with a wide variety of comfort strategies, can help women avoid unnecessary medical intervention and have a safe, healthy birth. PMID:22379360

  19. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  20. Mouth leak with nasal continuous positive airway pressure increases nasal airway resistance.

    PubMed

    Richards, G N; Cistulli, P A; Ungar, R G; Berthon-Jones, M; Sullivan, C E

    1996-07-01

    Nasal congestion, dry nose and throat, and sore throat affect approximately 40% of patients using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The mechanisms causing nasal symptoms are unclear, but mouth leaks causing high unidirectional nasal airflow may be important. We conducted a study to investigate the effects of mouth leak and the influence of humidification on nasal resistance in normal subjects. Nasal resistance was measured with posterior rhinomanometry in six normal subjects who deliberately produced a mouth leak for 10 min while using nasal CPAP. Nasal resistance was measured regularly for 20 min after the challenge. A series of tests were performed using air at differing temperatures and humidities. There was no change in nasal resistance when subjects breathed through their noses while on CPAP, but a mouth leak caused a large increase in resistance (at a flow of 0.5 L/s) from a baseline mean of 2.21 cm H2O/L/s to a maximum mean of 7.52 cm H2O/L/s at 1 min after the challenge. Use of a cold passover humidifier caused little change in the response (maximum mean: 8.27 cm H2O/L/s), but a hot water bath humidifier greatly attenuated the magnitude (maximum mean: 4.02 cm H2O/L/s) and duration of the response. Mouth leak with nasal CPAP leads to high unidirectional nasal airflow, which causes a large increase in nasal resistance. This response can be largely prevented by fully humidifying the inspired air.

  1. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results Mean Cancer Infections, such as tuberculosis Necrotizing granuloma , a type of tumor Nasal polyps Nasal tumors ... Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Juvenile angiofibroma Nasal polyps Necrotizing granuloma Tumor Review Date 4/11/2015 Updated by: ...

  2. Post-Nasal Drip

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Post-Nasal Drip Post-Nasal Drip Patient Health Information News media ... guaifenesin (Humibid®, Robitussin®) may also thin secretions. Nasal irrigations may alleviate thickened secretions. These can be performed ...

  3. Automatic Recognition of Breathing Route During Sleep Using Snoring Sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Yohichiro

    This letter classifies snoring sounds into three breathing routes (oral, nasal, and oronasal) with discriminant analysis of the power spectra and k-nearest neighbor method. It is necessary to recognize breathing route during snoring, because oral snoring is a typical symptom of sleep apnea but we cannot know our own breathing and snoring condition during sleep. As a result, about 98.8% classification rate is obtained by using leave-one-out test for performance evaluation.

  4. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

  5. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... drain their stomach. The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or " ... Is there a specific odor (such as fish, ammonia, fruit, feces, or alcohol)? Have you recently eaten ...

  6. External nasal dilators: definition, background, and current uses

    PubMed Central

    Dinardi, Ricardo Reis; de Andrade, Cláudia Ribeiro; Ibiapina, Cássio da Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to revise the literature about external nasal dilators (ENDs) as to their definition, history, and current uses. We reviewed journals in the PubMed and MEDLINE databases. The current uses hereby presented and discussed are physical exercise, nasal congestion and sleep, snoring, pregnancy, cancer, and healthy individuals. Numerous studies have shown that ENDs increase the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve, reducing nasal resistance and transnasal inspiratory pressure and stabilizing the lateral nasal vestibule, avoiding its collapse during final inspiration. These effects also facilitate breathing and are beneficial to patients with nasal obstruction. Furthermore, END use is simple, noninvasive, painless, affordable, and bears minimum risk to the user. Most studies have limited sample size and are mainly focused on physical exercise. In conclusion, ENDs seem useful, so further studies involving potential effects on the performance of physical tests and improvements in sleep quality are necessary, especially in children and teenagers. PMID:25419156

  7. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  8. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    PubMed

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations.

  9. Phonatory Effects of Airway Dehydration: Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Compensation to Oral Breathing in Individuals with a History of Vocal Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Erickson, Elizabeth; Schneider, Sara; Hawes, Ashleigh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Airway drying is detrimental to phonation and is posited to exacerbate vocal fatigue. However, limited research has demonstrated the adverse phonatory effects of dehydration in speakers reporting vocal fatigue. We compared the negative phonatory consequences of short-term oral breathing at low, moderate, and high humidity in individuals…

  10. Nasal obstruction may alleviate bruxism related temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Devrim; Cankaya, Mustafa; Livaoglu, Murat

    2011-02-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a collective term used to identify a group of musculoskeletal conditions of the temporomandibular region. Bruxism is a non-functional activity characterized by repeated tooth clenching or grinding in an unconscious manner. Over the time bruxism may lead to TMD by the uploading it causes. Nasal obstruction is a common complaint that necessitates mouth breathing when severe. The treatment of bruxism is frequently performed by oral appliances, which induce occlusal disengagement and relax jaw musculature and therefore reduce the force on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We believe that nasal obstruction may indirectly have a preemptive and therapeutic effect on sleep bruxism related TMD by causing mouth breathing.

  11. Medical Issues: Breathing

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common cause of illness for children with SMA. Breathing Risks In healthy individuals, the muscles between the ...

  12. Nasal lift-nasal valve lift and nasal tip lift-preliminary results of a new technique using noninvasive self-retaining unidirectional nasal suspension with threads.

    PubMed

    Saban, Yves; Javier, De Benito; Massa, Michela

    2014-12-01

    In the context of nasal obstruction treatment, an alternative, no invasive technique is described. It consists in the suspension of the nasal valve or in the association of the suspension of the valve and rotation of the tip, through the placement of one or two absorbable threads, already known in aesthetic medicine. This technique allows to open the nasal valve and to correct the moderate closure of the nasolabial angle obtaining an immediate benefit of breathing. Functional improvement has been evaluated at regular intervals, that is, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and then provided for every 6 months, through the use of a visual scale of 0/10 to 10/10. In our experience, the technique allows to obtain satisfactory results, avoiding more invasive techniques and postoperative recovery days.

  13. Deprojecting the nasal profile.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D; Mabrie, D C

    1999-02-01

    The nose is the most prominent aesthetic feature of the facial profile. Nasal length, tip rotation, and tip projection are integral aspects in analysis of the nasal profile. In most rhinoplasties the surgeon has the difficult task of increasing or maintaining tip projection of an underprojected or normally projected nasal tip. Less commonly, the rhinoplastic surgeon is presented with an overprojected nasal tip, and efforts are focused on deprojecting the nasal profile. In this article, the authors present a discussion of the overprojected tip, elucidating strategies of analysis, etiologies, and management of the nasal profile and give clinical examples.

  14. Nasal Injuries in Sports.

    PubMed

    Marston, Alexander P; O'Brien, Erin K; Hamilton, Grant S

    2017-04-01

    Nasal trauma is a common consequence of athletic competition. The nasal bones are the most commonly fractured facial bone and are particularly at risk during sports participation. Acute management of trauma to the nose includes thorough evaluation of all injuries and may require immediate management for repair of facial lacerations, epistaxis control, or septal hematoma drainage. Nasal fractures can often be addressed with closed reduction techniques; however, in the setting of complex nasal trauma, an open approach may be indicated. Using appropriate treatment techniques, posttraumatic nasal sequelae can be minimized; most patients report satisfactory long-term nasal form and function.

  15. Unsteady flow in the nasal cavity with high flow therapy measured by stereoscopic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C. J. T.; Buchmann, N. A.; Jermy, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) cannulae are used to deliver heated and humidified air to patients at steady flows ranging from 5 to 50 l/min. In this study, the flow velocities in the nasal cavity across the complete respiratory cycle during natural breathing and with NHF has been mapped in vitro using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV). An anatomically accurate silicone resin model of a complete human nasal cavity was constructed using CT scan data and rapid prototyping. Physiological breathing waveforms were reproduced in vitro using Reynolds and Womersley number matching and a piston pump driven by a ball screw and stepper motor. The flow pattern in the nasal cavity with NHF was found to differ significantly from natural breathing. Velocities of 2.4 and 3.3 ms-1 occurred in the nasal valve during natural breathing at peak expiration and inspiration, respectively; however, on expiration, the maximum velocity of 3.8 ms-1 occurred in the nasopharynx. At a cannula flow rate of 30 l/min, maximal velocities of 13.6 and 16.5 ms-1 at peak expiration and inspiration, respectively, were both located in the cannula jet within the nasal valve. Results are presented that suggest the quasi-steady flow assumption is invalid in the nasal cavity during natural breathing; however, it was valid with NHF. Cannula flow has been found to continuously flush the nasopharyngeal dead space, which may enhance carbon dioxide removal and increase oxygen fraction.

  16. Innovative management of nasal septal hematoma in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Sumitha, R.; Anandan, Ajay Kumar; Govarthanaraj, Aberna

    2015-01-01

    Nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood between the cartilage or bone and mucoperichondrium or mucoperiosteum of the nose. This condition requires immediate surgical drainage to prevent complications. All patients need nasal packing postoperatively to prevent recurrence. This causes a lot of discomforts due to mouth breathing more in infants who are obligatory nose breathers. They can go for cyanosis in the postoperative period. Here, we discuss the case report of an infant who had tubular nasal pack with endotracheal tube postoperatively to maintain the patency of nose. PMID:26015758

  17. Innovative management of nasal septal hematoma in an infant.

    PubMed

    Sumitha, R; Anandan, Ajay Kumar; Govarthanaraj, Aberna

    2015-04-01

    Nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood between the cartilage or bone and mucoperichondrium or mucoperiosteum of the nose. This condition requires immediate surgical drainage to prevent complications. All patients need nasal packing postoperatively to prevent recurrence. This causes a lot of discomforts due to mouth breathing more in infants who are obligatory nose breathers. They can go for cyanosis in the postoperative period. Here, we discuss the case report of an infant who had tubular nasal pack with endotracheal tube postoperatively to maintain the patency of nose.

  18. Measurement of nitric oxide in human exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.M.; Spicer, C.W.; Ollison, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    This project was initiated to confirm the reliability of nitric oxide (NO) measurement in the breath matrix, using two different analytical techniques - ozone and luminol chemiluminescence - and to corroborate literature reports of elevated breath NO values. To measure peak oral and nasal NO levels, subjects performed slow vital capacity and breath holding maneuvers directly into the monitors through the mouth and the nose, respectively. Additional measurements were made using normal breathing techniques. Initial interferent tests indicate that measured NO signals are real and are not confounded by measurement artifacts. Similar results were obtained using the two independent analytical methods in dry or humid air. The NO signal was unaffected by maximum concentrations of potential breath interferents, such as sulfur compounds and alkenes. The measured breath NO concentrations were greater than typical room air levels and differed significantly with the breathing technique used. During these tests room air averaged 4-5 ppb NO. Peak oral NO levels were 4.3 {+-} 1.5 ppb during a slow vital capacity maneuver and 8.0 {+-} 5.0 ppb during a breath holding maneuver. By contrast, higher peak nasal NO levels were measured for both slow vital capacity (17.8 {+-} 7.8 ppb) and breath holding maneuvers (45.4 {+-} 29.5 ppb).

  19. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. Triamcinolone nasal spray should not ... germs.Triamcinolone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever and allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  20. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies. Flunisolide nasal spray should not ... germs.Flunisolide nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  1. Saline nasal washes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a neti pot, squeeze bottle, or rubber nasal bulb at your drug store. You can also buy ... infection. Always clean the neti pot or nasal bulb with distilled, boiled, or filtered water after every ...

  2. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... or concerns about your symptoms Trouble using the medicine Alternative Names Steroid nasal sprays; Allergies - nasal corticosteroid sprays References American Academy of ... of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University ...

  3. Nasal septal hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001292.htm Nasal septal hematoma To use the sharing features on this page, ... heal. References Chegar BE, Tatum SA III. Nasal fractures. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund VJ, et ...

  4. Nasal Harmony in Aguaruna.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Gui-Sun

    A discussion of the nasal harmony of Aguaruna, a language of the Jivaroan family in South America, approaches the subject from the viewpoint of generative phonology. This theory of phonology proposes an underlying nasal consonant, later deleted, that accounts for vowel nasalization. Complex rules that suppose a complex system of vowel and…

  5. Nasal septal hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, C M

    1998-04-01

    Nasal septal hematoma is a rare but potentially serious complication of nasal trauma. Proper management consists of early recognition, prompt surgical evacuation of the hematoma, and antimicrobial therapy if a secondary nasal septal abscess is suspected. Clindamycin is recommended as initial therapy until the results of cultures and susceptibility studies are available.

  6. Nasal computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Ned F

    2006-05-01

    Chronic nasal disease is often a challenge to diagnose. Computed tomography greatly enhances the ability to diagnose chronic nasal disease in dogs and cats. Nasal computed tomography provides detailed information regarding the extent of disease, accurate discrimination of neoplastic versus nonneoplastic diseases, and identification of areas of the nose to examine rhinoscopically and suspicious regions to target for biopsy.

  7. Changes in respiratory activity induced by mastication during oral breathing in humans.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effect of oral breathing on respiratory movements, including the number of respirations and the movement of the thoracic wall at rest and while chewing gum. Forty normal nose breathers were selected by detecting expiratory airflow from the mouth using a CO2 sensor. Chest measurements were recorded using a Piezo respiratory belt transducer, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and trapezius muscles were recorded at rest and while chewing gum during nasal or oral breathing. Oral breathing was introduced by completely occluding the nostrils with a nose clip. During oral breathing, the respiration rate was significantly lower while chewing gum than while at rest (P < 0.05). While chewing gum, the respiration rate was significantly lower during oral breathing than during nasal breathing (P < 0.05). During oral breathing, thoracic movement was significantly higher while chewing gum than while at rest (P < 0.05). Thoracic movement was significantly greater during oral breathing than during nasal breathing (P < 0.05). The trapezius muscle exhibited significant EMG activity when chewing gum during oral breathing. The activity of the trapezius muscle coincided with increased movement of the thoracic wall. Chewing food while breathing through the mouth interferes with and decreases the respiratory cycle and promotes unusual respiratory movement of the thoracic wall, which is directed by the activity of accessory muscles of respiration.

  8. Impaired gastric emptying of a solid test meal in patients with Parkinson's disease using 13C-sodium octanoate breath test.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Oliver; Wieczorek, Joerg; Mueller, Thomas; Przuntek, Horst; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Woitalla, Dirk

    2005-03-03

    Up to now gastric emptying in patients with Parkinson's disease was determined by radioscintigraphy. The 13C-sodium octanoate breath test (OBT) has been established for the non-invasive evaluation of gastric emptying with a solid test meal. The aim of the study was to evaluate the OBT in patients with Parkinson's disease and to investigate the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying for solids in PD and the relationship to clinical staging patterns. Twenty-two healthy subjects and 36 patients with different clinical stages of PD classified using Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were studied. Each fasting control and patient received a solid test meal (241 kcal) labelled with 100 mg of 13C-sodium octanoate. Breath samples were obtained before substrate administration and then in 15-min intervals over 4 h. The 13CO2/12CO2 ratio was determined in each breath sample as delta over baseline. Time to peak (t(peak)), gastric half emptying time (t1/2b), lag phase (t(lagb)) and gastric emptying coefficient (GEC) were calculated. Significant differences in t(peak), t1/2b, t(lagb) and GEC were found between patients and healthy volunteers (p<0.0001), with a 60% delay in gastric half emptying time in the patient group. Gastric half emptying time was different between clinical disease groups (H&Y 0-2 versus H&Y 2.5-5, p=0.001; UPDRS 0-30 versus UPDRS 61-92, p<0.05). The OBT detects a significant delay in gastric emptying of a solid test meal in patients with PD. Delayed gastric emptying for solids is associated with disease severity.

  9. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... level is often dependent on his or her breathing pattern. Therefore, people with chronic lung conditions may ...

  10. Deep breathing after surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  11. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  12. Investigation of the vascular reaction of the nasal mucosa in cosmonauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakovleva, I. Y.; Baranova, V. P.

    1982-01-01

    Rhinopneumometric examinations in 3 positions of the body were undertaken in 36 cosmonauts aged 25 to 45 years, 14 of whom participated in space flights of various lengths. The nasal vascular response standards were defined in persons of the group examined. A subjective characteristic of the nasal vascular, reactions arising during the flight is provided. Examinations of 14 people were performed before and after the space flight. The rise of intranasal resistance in the horizontal body position permits forecasting different degrees of nasal breathing disturbances during a period of acute adaptation to weightlessness owing to vasomotor alterations of the nasal mucous membrane.

  13. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state. PMID:27711189

  14. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle.

    PubMed

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state.

  15. [Nasal fractures in adults].

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, Sannia; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Bilde, Anders; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-03-07

    The risk of complications warrants treatment of most dislocated nasal fractures. Other injuries including other facial fractures and septal haematoma must be treated if present at the initial presentation. The usual treatment for a simple nasal fracture is closed reduction in local anaesthesia after five to seven days. Complicated cases require open reduction in general anaesthesia. Later revision of the deviated nose may become necessary in patients suffering from complications such as persistent nasal stenosis and/or deformity.

  16. Treatment and prognosis of nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stern, R C; Boat, T F; Wood, R E; Matthews, L W; Doershuk, C F

    1982-12-01

    Nasal polyposis complicated the course of fibrosis in 157 (26%) of 605 patients. Onset before age 5 years or after age 20 years was rare. Polyposis was the initial symptom of cystic fibrosis in 13 patients. Common symptoms included obstruction to nasal air flow, mouth breathing, epistaxis, and rhinorrhea. Intranasal and oral corticosteroids and antihistamines were ineffective in preventing recurrences but did occasionally afford symptomatic relief of obstruction. Nineteen (31%) of 62 patients who never had surgery had spontaneous and permanent disappearance of polyps. Simple polypectomy was an adequate procedure for patients with substantial nasal symptoms. There were no visual complications. Other surgical complications were rare. Children and adolescents with nasal polyps should have sweat tests by pilocarpine iontophoresis to rule out cystic fibrosis.

  17. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction.

  18. The supernumerary nasal tooth.

    PubMed

    Kirmeier, R; Truschnegg, A; Payer, M; Malyk, J; Daghighi, S; Jakse, N

    2009-11-01

    Teeth exceeding the normal dental complement that have erupted into the nasal cavity are a rare pathological entity. This case report describes a female patient with recurrent complaints and fetid discharge from the left nasal cavity. The suspected clinical diagnosis of a supernumerary nasal tooth was confirmed by computed tomography. After endoscopic removal, the tooth was examined using X-ray microtomography and thin-section preparations; these findings are presented for the first time. A literature search identified 25 supernumerary nasal teeth in 23 patients.

  19. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  20. Nasal high flow reduces dead space.

    PubMed

    Möller, Winfried; Feng, Sheng; Domanski, Ulrike; Franke, Karl-Josef; Celik, Gülnaz; Bartenstein, Peter; Becker, Sven; Meyer, Gabriele; Schmid, Otmar; Eickelberg, Oliver; Tatkov, Stanislav; Nilius, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that nasal high flow (NHF) therapy can support ventilation in patients with acute or chronic respiratory disorders. Clearance of dead space has been suggested as being the key mechanism of respiratory support with NHF therapy. The hypothesis of this study was that NHF in a dose-dependent manner can clear dead space of the upper airways from expired air and decrease rebreathing. The randomized crossover study involved 10 volunteers using scintigraphy with (81m)Krypton ((81m)Kr) gas during a breath-holding maneuver with closed mouth and in 3 nasally breathing tracheotomized patients by volumetric capnography and oximetry through sampling CO2 and O2 in the trachea and measuring the inspired volume with inductance plethysmography following NHF rates of 15, 30, and 45 l/min. The scintigraphy revealed a decrease in (81m)Kr gas clearance half-time with an increase of NHF in the nasal cavities [Pearson's correlation coefficient cc = -0.55, P < 0.01], the pharynx (cc = -0.41, P < 0.01), and the trachea (cc = -0.51, P < 0.01). Clearance rates in nasal cavities derived from time constants and MRI-measured volumes were 40.6 ± 12.3 (SD), 52.5 ± 17.7, and 72.9 ± 21.3 ml/s during NHF (15, 30, and 45 l/min, respectively). Measurement of inspired gases in the trachea showed an NHF-dependent decrease of inspired CO2 that correlated with an increase of inspired O2 (cc = -0.77, P < 0.05). NHF clears the upper airways of expired air, which reduces dead space by a decrease of rebreathing making ventilation more efficient. The dead space clearance is flow and time dependent, and it may extend below the soft palate.

  1. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  2. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bachiega, Joanna Carolina; Guedes, Carolina Cardoso; Laranja, Lorena Tristão; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with the mouth-breathing pattern than girls. A total of 23.6% of the participants had no mouth odor, 12.7% had mild odor, 12.7% had moderate odor and 50.9% had strong odor. There was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of halitosis was high among the children evaluated, and there was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. PMID:21808855

  3. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients.

  4. Nasality in Taiwanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Ho-hsien

    2004-01-01

    This study used perceptual and articulatory data to investigate a language specific phonemic inventory, and allophonic rules for homorganic initial voiced stops versus homorganic nasal stops, and oral versus nasal vowels in Taiwanese. Four experiments were conducted: concept formation, gating, and two airflow studies. Results of a first nasal…

  5. Lining in nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sebastian; Fischer, Helmut; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Restoring nasal lining is one of the essential parts during reconstruction of full-thickness defects of the nose. Without a sufficient nasal lining the whole reconstruction will fail. Nasal lining has to sufficiently cover the shaping subsurface framework. But in addition, lining must not compromise or even block nasal ventilation. This article demonstrates different possibilities of lining reconstruction. The use of composite grafts for small rim defects is described. The limits and technical components for application of skin grafts are discussed. Then the advantages and limitations of endonasal, perinasal, and hingeover flaps are demonstrated. Strategies to restore lining with one or two forehead flaps are presented. Finally, the possibilities and technical aspects to reconstruct nasal lining with a forearm flap are demonstrated. Technical details are explained by intraoperative pictures. Clinical cases are shown to illustrate the different approaches and should help to understand the process of decision making. It is concluded that although the lining cannot be seen after reconstruction of the cover it remains one of the key components for nasal reconstruction. When dealing with full-thickness nasal defects, there is no way to avoid learning how to restore nasal lining.

  6. An investigation on airflow in disordered nasal cavity and its corrected models by tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. K.; Chung, S. K.

    2004-06-01

    Knowledge of airflow characteristics in nasal cavities is essential to understand the physiology and pathology aspects of nasal breathing. Several studies have utilized physical models of the healthy nasal cavity to investigate the relationship between nasal anatomy and airflow. Since the final goal of these works is their contribution to the diagnosis and treatment of nasal diseases, therefore, the next step in this topic must be followed by the studies for disordered nasal cavities. In this paper, airflows in normal and abnormal nasal cavities and surgically created models, which simulate surgical treatment, are investigated experimentally by PIV. High-resolution computerized tomogram data and careful manipulation of the model surface by the ear, nose and throat doctor provide more sophisticated nasal cavity models. The correlation based correction PIV algorithm with window offset is used for PIV flow analysis. Average and RMS distributions in sagittal and coronal sections are obtained for inspiratory and expiratory nasal airflows. Comparisons in nasal airflows for both normal and abnormal cases are also examined. Airflow characteristics that are related to the abnormalities in the nasal cavity are proposed. In the case of simulations of surgical operations, velocity and RMS distributions in coronal section change locally, this may cause some difficulties in physiologic functions of noses and may hurt mucosal surface.

  7. [Nasal allergenic provocation test].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, M H; Pérez López, A; Azuara Pliego, E

    2000-01-01

    This is a method to evaluate both specific sensitivity to allergens in the nasal mucosa, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, and antiinflammatory and antiallergic drugs efficacy, whose objectives are for research in diagnosis and treatment. The method is based in allergen extracts delivery in the nasal mucosa and the post-challenge measurement of rhinitis symptoms, vasoactive mediators release quantification and nasal obstruction degree evaluated by rhinomanometry. Nasal allergen challenge is a procedure of diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation usefulness, that must be performed in selected patients, in adequate facilities, by experts physicians, with standardised allergen dosages, in an specific nasal area, with objective measurements (rhinomanometry, mediators and secretions of the allergic response) and symptoms scoring that allow get reliable results in patients with allergic rhinitis under study.

  8. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  9. Comparison of Nasal Acceleration and Nasalance across Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Elias B.; Virnik, Boris T.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Method: Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using…

  10. Oral and oronasal breathing during continuous exercise produce similar responses to ozone inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.C.; Schelegle, E.S.; Shaffrath, J.D. )

    1989-09-01

    Breathing route has a profound effect on sulfur dioxide-induced pulmonary function response in human subjects. There is comparatively little evidence of the effects of oral, nasal, and oronasal breathing on ozone (O3)-induced responses in humans. In this study, six young adult males were exposed on five occasions to 0.40 parts per million (ppm) O3 while exercising continuously at one of two workloads (minute ventilation, VE, of approximately 30 and 75 l/min). The VE exposure time product was similar for all protocols. Four exposures were delivered randomly with a Hans-Rudolph respiratory valve attached to a silicone facemask, with breathing route effected with and without noseclip. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences (p less than .05) across conditions in pulmonary function, exercise ventilatory pattern, or subjective symptoms responses. The fifth exposure, delivered via the same respiratory valve with mouthpiece, but without facemask, revealed significantly greater forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) impairment than that observed for the respiratory valve, facemask with noseclip exposure (-20.4% and -15.9%, respectively). The latter suggests partial O3 reactivity to the facemask and clean shaven facial surface of the subjects, although reduced oral scrubbing by mouthpiece-induced bypassing of the oral vestibule might account, in part, for this difference. Recent O3 uptake evidence from another laboratory, however, supports our conclusion that breathing route during moderate and heavy continuous exercise does not affect acute physiologic responses to 0.40 ppm O3.

  11. Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS1) have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michèle; Conjard, Agnès; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S.; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M.; Jorisch, Renée; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated and died in the first post-natal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the central nervous system. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the Pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that while alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and so the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior and neonatal demise. PMID:16641247

  12. Nasal septal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K D; Carpenter, R J; Kern, E B

    1979-07-01

    If the septal component of a nasal injury is adequately managed, usually the entire nasal injury will be well managed. Major or minor nasal trauma can cause cartilage fracture, deviation, dislocation, hematoma, or abscess formation, and the various associated sequelae, some of them life-threatening. A negative x-ray report should never be used as a substitute for a complete intranasal examination in any child with nasal trauma. Any nasal abnormality should be referred for immediate evaluation and treatment.

  13. Nasal symptoms and clinical findings in adult patients treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Morén, Staffan; Mani, Maria; Lundberg, Kristina; Holmström, Mats

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate self-experienced nasal symptoms among adults treated for UCLP and the association to clinical findings, and to evaluate whether palate closure in one-stage or two-stages affected the symptoms or clinical findings. All people with UCLP born between 1960-1987, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, were considered for participation in this cross-sectional population study with long-term follow-up. Eighty-three patients (76% participation rate) participated, a mean of 37 years after the first operation. Fifty-two patients were treated with one-stage palate closure and 31 with two-stage palate closure. An age-matched group of 67 non-cleft controls completed the same study protocol, which included a questionnaire regarding nasal symptoms, nasal inspection, anterior rhinoscopy, and nasal endoscopy. Patients reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms compared with the control group, e.g., nasal obstruction (81% compared with 60%) and mouth breathing (20% compared with 5%). Patients also rated their nasal symptoms as having a more negative impact on their daily life and physical activities than controls. Nasal examination revealed higher frequencies of nasal deformities among patients. No positive correlation was found between nasal symptoms and severity of findings at nasal examination. No differences were identified between patients treated with one-stage and two-stage palate closure regarding symptoms or nasal findings. Adult patients treated for UCLP suffer from more nasal symptoms than controls. However, symptoms are not associated with findings at clinical nasal examination or method of palate closure.

  14. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies (caused by an allergy to ... germs.Budesonide nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  15. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies (caused by an allergy to ... germs.Fluticasone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  16. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies. It is also used to ... using mometasone nasal spray to prevent or relieve hay fever or allergy symptoms, it is usually sprayed in ...

  17. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... runny, stuffy, or itchy nose (rhinitis) caused by hay fever, other allergies, or vasomotor (nonallergic) rhinitis. It is ... germs.Beclomethasone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  18. Nasal Wash Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... months or if it becomes discolored. Cleaning the Bulb Syringe (dropper, syringe or nasal spray bottle) After ... may be several times a day), fill the bulb syringe with water (described above), swish the water ...

  19. Nasal packing and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue. PMID:22073095

  20. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  1. Chapter 6: Nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Settipane, Russell A; Peters, Anju T; Chiu, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    Nasal polyps occur in 1-4% of the population, usually occurring in the setting of an underlying local or systemic disease. The most common associated condition is chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). A high prevalence of nasal polyps is also seen in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and cystic fibrosis. In the setting of CRS, nasal polyps are not likely to be cured by either medical or surgical therapy; however, control is generally attainable. The best medical evidence supports the use of intranasal corticosteroids for maintenance therapy and short courses of oral corticosteroids for exacerbations. The evidence for short- and long-term antibiotics is much less robust. For patients with symptomatic nasal polyposis nonresponsive to medical therapies, functional endoscopic sinus surgery provides an adjunctive therapeutic option.

  2. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... postures and exposure to environmental irritants. Pursed-Lip Breathing One focus of occupational therapy is to teach ... the accessory muscles and manage respiratory symptoms. Monitor Breathing During an activity, it is important to pause ...

  3. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    Waking at night short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Cor pulmonale Heart failure ... conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring

  4. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Key points Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses. Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m−2) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy. SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations. There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. Educational aims To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population. To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy. To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the

  5. Nasal bots...a fascinating world!

    PubMed

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E; Scholl, Philip J; Cepeda-Palacios, Ramón; Jacquiet, Philippe; Dorchies, Philippe

    2010-11-24

    Larvae causing obligatory myiasis are numerous and they may affect cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, wounds, nasopharyngeal cavities (nasal bots), internal organs and the digestive tract (bots) of domestic and wild animals and humans as well. Nasal bots belong to the Family Oestridae, Subfamily Oestrinae, which includes several important genera: Oestrus, Kirkioestrus, and Gedoelstia infecting Artiodactyla (except Cervidae) in Africa and Eurasia, Cephenemyia and Pharyngomyia infecting Cervidae, Rhinoestrus infecting horses, Cephalopina infecting camels, Pharyngobolus infecting African elephants, and Tracheomyia infecting Australian kangaroos. Nasal bots are widespread in Mediterranean and tropical areas and in affected animals they induce sneezing and nasal discharge which may become caked with dust making breathing very difficult. The aforementioned species of larvae are host-specific but sometimes the may be deposited in human eyes inducing a painful opthalmomyiasis of short duration. The first fascinating trait of these parasites is the very efficient morphological and biological adaptations to parasitism they show either as larvae or as adults, in order to facilitate their survival and search for a suitable host. Nasal bots have reached different degrees of complexity in their life cycles. Indeed, while for some species (e.g., Oestrus ovis, Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus) larvae are injected by flies directly into nostrils and develop in the sinuses before being ejected for external pupation, some other species migrate from eyes to blood before returning to nasal cavities either through the ethmoid bone (Gedoelstia hässleri) or via lungs and bronchi (Gedoelstia cristata). Moreover, larvae are very well-adapted to their environment being able to undergo through hypobiosis either inside or outside the host, according to the climatic environmental conditions and seasonality. The second fascinating trait of nasal bots is related to host behavioural and immune

  6. Autologous Diced Cartilage in Nasal Septoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sersar, Sameh Ibrahim; Yassin, Ibrahim; Eldin Aly, Mohammed Saad

    2016-01-01

    Diced rib cartilage is an acceptable option in severe nasal deformities. We present our preliminary experience in KAMC in nasal septoplasties using the autologous diced costal cartilage. This is a retrospective study of the 22 cases who needed the autologous diced costal cartilage in our centre in 4 years. All our patients needed autologous diced rib cartilages. Twelve were wrapped with temporalis fascia, eight needed rectus fascia and perichondrium was used in only 2 cases. The naso-frontal angle for the whole series decreased by a mean of 4.41° (p=0.008) for the group using the rectus fascia diced cartilage graft. From the aesthetic point of view, all cases were satisfied except 3 (13.6%); two in the group of diced cartilage temporalis fascia; group 1. From the functional breathing view, only 1 case was not satisfied. He was in group 1. Autologous rib cartilage was shown to be a good graft in nasal septoplasty especially if wrapped with rectus fascia. PMID:27853694

  7. Nasal high flow reduces dead space

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Sheng; Domanski, Ulrike; Franke, Karl-Josef; Celik, Gülnaz; Bartenstein, Peter; Becker, Sven; Meyer, Gabriele; Schmid, Otmar; Eickelberg, Oliver; Tatkov, Stanislav; Nilius, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that nasal high flow (NHF) therapy can support ventilation in patients with acute or chronic respiratory disorders. Clearance of dead space has been suggested as being the key mechanism of respiratory support with NHF therapy. The hypothesis of this study was that NHF in a dose-dependent manner can clear dead space of the upper airways from expired air and decrease rebreathing. The randomized crossover study involved 10 volunteers using scintigraphy with 81mKrypton (81mKr) gas during a breath-holding maneuver with closed mouth and in 3 nasally breathing tracheotomized patients by volumetric capnography and oximetry through sampling CO2 and O2 in the trachea and measuring the inspired volume with inductance plethysmography following NHF rates of 15, 30, and 45 l/min. The scintigraphy revealed a decrease in 81mKr gas clearance half-time with an increase of NHF in the nasal cavities [Pearson’s correlation coefficient cc = −0.55, P < 0.01], the pharynx (cc = −0.41, P < 0.01), and the trachea (cc = −0.51, P < 0.01). Clearance rates in nasal cavities derived from time constants and MRI-measured volumes were 40.6 ± 12.3 (SD), 52.5 ± 17.7, and 72.9 ± 21.3 ml/s during NHF (15, 30, and 45 l/min, respectively). Measurement of inspired gases in the trachea showed an NHF-dependent decrease of inspired CO2 that correlated with an increase of inspired O2 (cc = −0.77, P < 0.05). NHF clears the upper airways of expired air, which reduces dead space by a decrease of rebreathing making ventilation more efficient. The dead space clearance is flow and time dependent, and it may extend below the soft palate. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Clearance of expired air in upper airways by nasal high flow (NHF) can be extended below the soft palate and de facto causes a reduction of dead space. Using scintigraphy, the authors found a relationship between NHF, time, and clearance. Direct measurement of CO2 and O2 in the trachea confirmed a reduction of rebreathing, providing

  8. Titanium Mesh Nasal Repair without Nasal Lining.

    PubMed

    Zenga, Joseph; Kao, Katherine; Chen, Collin; Gross, Jennifer; Hahn, Samuel; Chi, John J; Branham, Gregory H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe outcomes for patients who underwent titanium mesh reconstruction of full-thickness nasal defects without internal lining repair. This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients with through-and-through nasal defects were identified at a single academic institution between 2008 and 2016. Nasal reconstruction was performed with either titanium mesh and external skin reconstruction without repair of the intranasal lining or traditional three-layer closure. Five patients underwent titanium mesh reconstruction and 11 underwent traditional three-layer repair. Median follow-up was 11 months (range, 2-66 months). The only significant difference between groups was older age in patients undergoing titanium reconstruction (mean, 81 vs. 63 years; difference of 18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4-32 years). Defect extent including overall size and structures removed was similar between groups (p > 0.05). Paramedian forehead flap was the most common external reconstruction in both groups (100% for titanium mesh and 73% for three-layer closure). Time under anesthesia was significantly shorter for titanium mesh reconstruction (median, 119 vs. 314 minutes; difference of 195; 95% CI, 45-237). Estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay were similar between groups (p > 0.05). Complication rates were substantial although not significantly different, 40 and 36% in titanium and three-layer reconstruction, respectively (p > 0.05). All patients with complications after titanium reconstruction had prior or postoperative radiotherapy. Titanium mesh reconstruction of through-and-through nasal defects can successfully be performed without reconstruction of the intranasal lining, significantly decreasing operative times. This reconstructive technique may not be suitable for patients who undergo radiotherapy.

  9. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? A A A en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  10. Nasal highflow improves ventilation in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bräunlich, Jens; Köhler, Marcus; Wirtz, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasal highflow (NHF) provides a warmed and humidified air stream up to 60 L/min. Recent data demonstrated a positive effect in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, especially when caused by pneumonia. Preliminary data show a decrease in hypercapnia in patients with COPD. Therefore, NHF should be evaluated as a new ventilatory support device. This study was conducted to assess the impact of different flow rates on ventilatory parameters in patients with COPD. Materials and methods This interventional clinical study was performed with patients suffering from severe COPD. The aim was to characterize flow-dependent changes in mean airway pressure, breathing volumes, breathing frequency, and decrease in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Mean airway pressure was measured in the nasopharyngeal space (19 patients). To evaluate breathing volumes, we used a polysomnographic device (18 patients). All patients received 20 L/min, 30 L/min, 40 L/min, and 50 L/min and – to illustrate the effects – nasal continuous positive airway pressure and nasal bilevel positive airway pressure. Capillary blood gas analyses were performed in 54 patients with hypercapnic COPD before and two hours after the use of NHF. We compared the extent of decrease in pCO2 when using 20 L/min and 30 L/min. Additionally, comfort and dyspnea during the use of NHF were surveyed. Results NHF resulted in a minor flow dependent increase in mean airway pressure. Tidal volume increased, and breathing rate decreased. The calculated minute volume decreased under NHF breathing. In spite of this fact, hypercapnia decreased with increasing flow (20 L/min vs 30 L/min). Additionally, an improvement in dyspnea was observed. The rapid shallow breathing index shows a decrease when using NHF. Conclusion NHF leads to a flow-dependent reduction in pCO2. This is most likely achieved by a washout of the respiratory tract and a functional reduction in dead space. In summary, NHF enhances effectiveness of

  11. Prosthetic Management of a Nasal Septal Defect using a Custom Made Unilateral Intranasal Stent: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Harshakumar; Rodrigues, Sheela Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Various etiologies including congenital malformations, infections, trauma, iatrogenic causes or complications of systemic diseases can result in perforation of the nasal septum. The common symptoms associated with such defects include difficulty in breathing, nasal twang in voice, rhinorrhea, etc. Obturation can be achieved by insertion of a unilateral nasal stent. An attempt has been made in the present report to address the prosthetic management of pateint having nasal septum perforation utilizing a unilateral, custom made heat cured acrylic stent and the details of the technique are presented. PMID:27656584

  12. Click production during breathing in a sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Frantzis, Alexandros; Alexiadou, Paraskevi; Madsen, Peter T.; Møhl, Bertel

    2005-12-01

    A sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) was observed at the surface with above- and underwater video and synchronized underwater sound recordings. During seven instances the whale ventilated its lungs while clicking. From this observation it is inferred that click production is achieved by pressurizing air in the right nasal passage, pneumatically disconnected from the lungs and the left nasal passage, and that air flows anterior through the phonic lips into the distal air sac. The capability of breathing and clicking at the same time is unique among studied odontocetes and relates to the extreme asymmetry of the sperm whale sound-producing forehead.

  13. Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum

    PubMed Central

    Bahgat, Mohammed; Bahgat, Yassin; Bahgat, Ahmed; Elwany, Yasmine

    2012-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum is a rare malignancy. When it occurs, early diagnosis is difficult because patients generally present with common, non-specific sinonasal complaints. This is the report of a 62-year-old woman who presented with a 1-month history of nasal obstruction, headache and anosmia. Nasal endoscopy showed a nasal mass obstructing both nasal cavities not separable from the septum. A wedge biopsy of the nasal mass was taken. Histopathology was suggestive of chondrosarcoma. The tumour was removed by an endoscopic approach. The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of this case as well as a review of the literature are discussed. PMID:22669930

  14. Influence of breathing route on upper airway lining liquid surface tension in humans

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Manisha; Seto-Poon, Margaret; Wheatley, John R; Amis, Terence C; Kirkness, Jason P

    2006-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the severity of sleep-disordered breathing in obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) can be reduced by lowering the surface tension (γ) of the upper airway lining liquid (UAL). Morning xerostomia (related to oral breathing during sleep) is reported by most OSAHS patients. In the present study we examine relationships between breathing route, oral mucosal ‘wetness’ and the γ of UAL. We studied eight healthy subjects (age, 25 ± 5 years [mean ± s.d.]; body-mass index, 23 ± 2 kg m−2) during a 120 min challenge of both nasal-only breathing (mouth taped) and oral-only breathing (nose clip), each on a separate day (randomized). Both oral mucosal ‘wetness’ (5 s contact gravimetric absorbent paper strip method) and the γ (‘pull-off’ force technique) of 0.2 μl samples of UAL obtained from the posterior pharyngeal wall were measured at 15 min intervals (mouth tape removed and replaced as required). Upper airway mucosal ‘wetness’ increased during 120 min of nasal breathing from 4.0 ± 0.4 (mean ± s.e.m.) to 5.3 ± 0.3 μl (5 s)−1 but decreased from 4.5 ± 0.4 to 0.1 ± 0.2 μl (5 s)−1 with oral breathing (both P < 0.001, repeated-measures ANOVA, Tukey's multiple comparison test, post hoc test). Concurrently, the γ of UAL decreased from 59.3 ± 2.2 to 51.8 ± 0.98 mN m−1 with nasal breathing but increased from 64.4 ± 2.7 to 77.4 ± 1.1 mN m−1 with oral breathing (P < 0.001). For the group and all conditions studied, γ of UAL values strongly correlated with upper airway mucosal ‘wetness’ (correlation coefficient, r2=−0.34, P < 0.001; linear regression). We conclude that oral breathing increases and nasal breathing decreases the γ of UAL in healthy subjects during wakefulness. We speculate that nasal breathing in OSAHS patients during sleep may promote a low γ of UAL that may contribute to reducing the severity of sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:16690717

  15. [Congenital nasal obstruction due to pyriform aperture stenosis. A case series].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, G; José, G; Demarchi, V; Razetti, J; Boccio, C

    2015-01-01

    Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potentially fatal condition due to their exclusive nasal breathing. The main cause is inflammatory or infectious rhinitis. Congenital, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes are less frequent. Choanal atresia is the most common congenital nasal anomaly. A less common etiology of congenital nasal obstruction is pyriform aperture stenosis. Suspicion might arise in any newborn with varying degrees of stridor and respiratory distress, associated with the difficulty of passing a probe through anterior nares. Diagnosis should be confirmed by a computed tomography of the craniofacial massif. The therapeutic approach will depend on the severity of symptoms. We describe our experience with 5 patients with this condition, treated surgically using a sub-labial approach, and followed by nasal stenting.

  16. Effects of cold dry air nasal stimulation on airway mucosal blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Le Merre, C; Isber, J; Chediak, A D; Wanner, A

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that nasal challenges can induce reflex responses in the respiratory system. Some authors have described bronchoconstriction and modification of the pattern of breathing following nasal challenges by irritants and cold air. We propose to determine the effect of nasal stimulation with cold dry air on airway mucosal blood flow (Qaw) in the proximal tracheal bronchial tree of healthy humans. Nine healthy subjects participated in the study. Baseline measurement Qaw, nasal airway resistance (NAR) and airway caliber by specific airways conductance (SGaw) were followed by nasal challenge with cold dry air. Qaw, NAR and Sgaw were determined after the challenge. In those subjects in which a significant decline in Qaw was recorded the protocol was repeated after pretreatment with nasal anesthesia using topical lidocaine. Cold dry air challenge produced a significant decrease in mean Qaw for the nine subjects and this response was abolished by pretreatment with nasal anesthesia using topical lidocaine. There was no significant change in Sgaw and NAR after the challenge and topical lidocaine anesthesia. Our data indicates that nasal stimulation with cold dry air leads to a reduction in Qaw and that this effect may be mediated by a nasal reflex.

  17. Impact of nasal obstruction on sleep quality: a community-based study of women.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Caroline; Jonsson, Lars; Holmström, Mats; Svensson, Malin; Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the impact of self-reported nasal obstruction on sleep quality in women. A community-based sample of 400 women underwent a full night of polysomnography. Airway diseases, allergies and sleep-related symptoms were assessed by questionnaires. Women with subjective nasal obstruction were subdivided into three groups: persistent nasal obstruction (PNO, n = 46), hay fever (n = 88) and nasal obstruction at night (NON, n = 30). Sleep problems and related daytime symptoms were most prevalent among women with NON. After adjusting for age, BMI, smoking and asthma, NON was an independent predictor of 'Difficulties inducing sleep due to nasal obstruction' [adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI): 89.5 (27.0-296.7)], 'Snoring' [4.2 (1.7-10.2)], 'Sweating at night' [2.6 (1.1-6.1)], 'Difficulties maintaining sleep' [2.7 (1.2-6.2)], and 'Waking up hastily gasping for breath' [32.2 (8.7-119.1)]. 'Dry mouth on awakening' [7.7 (3.2-18.4)], 'Waking up unrefreshed' [2.7 (1.2-6.0)], 'Excessive daytime sleepiness' [2.6 (1.1-6.0)], and 'Daytime nasal obstruction' [12.2 (4.8-31.2)] were also associated with NON. Persistent nasal obstruction and hay fever were both associated with some reported sleep problems due to an overlap with NON. When women with NON were excluded, only 'Daytime nasal obstruction' was still significantly associated with PNO, while hay fever was associated with 'Daytime nasal obstruction' and 'Waking up hastily gasping for breath'. There were no significant differences in objectively measured sleep variables between any of the three subgroups and the study cohort. Self-reported nasal obstruction at night in women has a significant effect on several subjective day- and nighttime symptoms, but it does not appear to affect objectively measured sleep quality.

  18. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  19. Nasal Airway Evaluation After Le Fort I Osteotomy Combined With Septoplasty in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongying; Wang, Peihua; Zhang, Yixin; Shen, Guofang

    2017-01-01

    Septal deviation constitutes an important component of both esthetic deformity and airway compromise in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). The posterior parts of the nasal septum presented greater deviation than the anterior parts in patients with complete unilateral CLP. Le Fort I down-fracture provides better access to the nasal septum than intranasal incision during rhinoplasty, especially to the posterior part. This study objectively and subjectively evaluated the nasal function after Le Fort I osteotomy combined with septoplasty in patients with complete unilateral CLP. Twenty-three patients with complete unilateral CLP presenting with nasal obstruction and septum deviation were included (12-combined surgery group; 11-control group). Types of septum deviation in the patients were analyzed. Presurgical and 6-month-postsurgical acoustic rhinometry (AR) was performed for objective assessment; and the nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale was used for subjective assessment. The authors used SPSS to compare the baseline and follow-up results. Acoustic rhinometry assessment showed improvements in the nasal minimal cross-sectional area (MCA), nasal resistance, and nasal volumes in 12 patients who received combined surgery. For the 2 groups, significant improvements in nasal breathing were documented (by NOSE scores) at 6 months after surgery. Simultaneous management of the maxillary dysplasia (Le Fort I osteotomy) and intranasal pathology (septoplasty) were effective for relief of nasal airway obstruction in patients with complete unilateral CLP. The combination of objective (AR) and subjective (NOSE scale) assessments allowed better evaluation of the nasal function.

  20. Nasal reconstruction after epithelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Camps, S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present our procedure for the treatment, histopathological diagnosis, and resection of skin cancer in the nasal pyramid and its subsequent reconstruction. Because we are dealing with the most important anatomical feature of the face our goal is an aesthetic reconstruction [2,4] according to the anatomical subunits criterion of Burget [3]. First, a histopathological diagnosis is made to determine the nature of the tumor. Then, we proceed with the resection according to the Mohs Micrographic Surgery [1,5,7]. Then we begin with the first step of the nasal reconstruction.

  1. Large rhinolith causing nasal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dincer Kose, Onur; Kose, Taha Emre; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Cankaya, Abdulkadir Burak

    2015-01-01

    Rhinoliths are calcified masses located in the nasal cavity and may cause symptoms such as nasal obstruction, fetid odour and facial pain. They are usually diagnosed incidentally on radiographic examinations or depending on the symptoms. In this paper we report a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a calcified mass in the right nasal cavity causing nasal obstruction, anosmia and facial pain. The calcified mass was removed by endonasal approach. PMID:25759270

  2. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  3. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    PubMed

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  4. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a breathing metabolic simulator (BMS) is reported. This BMS simulates all of the breathing and metabolic parameters required for complete evaluation and test of life support and resuscitation equipment. It is also useful for calibrating and validating mechanical and gaseous pulmonary function test procedures. Breathing rate, breathing depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide release are all variable over wide ranges simulating conditions from sleep to hard work with respiratory exchange ratios covering the range from hypoventilation. In addition, all of these parameters are remotely controllable to facilitate use of the device in hostile or remote environments. The exhaled breath is also maintained at body temperature and a high humidity. The simulation is accurate to the extent of having a variable functional residual capacity independent of other parameters.

  5. Routine nasal packing follwoing nasal surgery-Is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Basha, S I; Gupta, D; Kaluskar, S K

    2005-01-01

    The practice of routine nasal packing after nasal surgery is usually customary and not evidence based. Post operative complications, while uncoumon, are sometimes pack related. A retrospective analysis of 110 patients who underwent a variety of nasal operations was performed to determine the incidence of complications when nasal packs were not routinely inserted 9 cases (8.2%) [6 out of these were revision surgeries] needed nasal packing for haemostasis at the end of surgery. 4 cases (3.6%) required to be packed in the immediate post operative period. One patient who required nasal packing developed a unilateral adhesion. No patient developed septal hematoma. The need for routine nasal packing is not supported. Packing should be indicated where there continuous bleeding at.

  6. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    MedlinePlus

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  7. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wash the dust cap and applicator with warm water. Dry and replace the applicator and press down and release the pump one time or until you see a fine spray. Replace the dust cap. Do not use pins or other sharp objects in the tiny spray hole on the nasal applicator to remove the blockage. ...

  8. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rinse the tip of the dispenser with hot water or wipe it clean after you use it.Follow the directions for using the nasal spray that appear on the package label. If you are using a product that comes in a pump dispenser, press down on the rim several times ...

  9. As the Nasal Spine Goes, So Goes the Septum

    PubMed Central

    Jagade, Mohan; Kale, Vitthal; Attakil, Anoop; Kar, Rajesh; Singhal, Arpita; Rao, Karthik; Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction "As the septum goes, so goes the nose". A well-known phrase by Maurice Cottle forms the pillar of septoplasty. Since the inception of septal surgeries, numerous methods of septoplasty have been described. But, if not performed meticulously, may lead to deformity. For a successful surgery, understanding the anatomy and addressing the anterior nasal spine and maintaining the tip integrity is vital. Aim To study the outcomes of “ROUND ABOUT technique” to correct deviated nasal septum which focuses on the importance of anterior spine and hence maintain the tip integrity. Materials and Methods This was a prospective, single-centre outcome study of 35 patients with symptomatic nasal obstruction. Here, we describe a method of elevating the mucoperichondrial and mucoperiosteal flaps bilaterally, without transecting the quadrilateral cartilage of the septum. The Sino Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) Questionnaire was administered pre-operatively and after 3 months following surgery. The post-operative follow-up period ranged from 3 to 6 months (mean= 4.5 months) to evaluate the functional and aesthetic outcomes of the performed procedure. Results A total of 35 patients underwent surgery by this technique who presented with deviated nasal septum and variable degrees of nasal obstruction. To assess the statistical outcome, Paired t-test was applied. Mean SNOT-22 scores decreased significantly from 40.02 pre-operatively to 18.65 three months after surgery. The results sustained after 6 months (p-value <0.0001), 85% of these patients had improved breathing post-operatively and none of the patients complained any aesthetic criticisms. The patients were content and the requirement of medications post-operatively were minimal. Conclusion The ROUND ABOUT technique is a very effective and safe method in correcting the septal deviations especially the ones with caudal or dorsal deflections. It also helps in maintaining the tip integrity and addressing the anterior

  10. Increased oxygen load in the prefrontal cortex from mouth breathing: a vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Sayaka; Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who habitually breathe through the mouth are more likely than nasal breathers to have sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. We hypothesized that brain hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might be different for mouth and nasal breathing. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex during mouth breathing and nasal breathing in healthy adults (n=9) using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. The angle k, calculated from changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and indicating the degree of oxygen exchange, was significantly higher during mouth breathing (P<0.05), indicating an increased oxygen load. Mouth breathing also caused a significant increase in deoxyhemoglobin, but oxyhemoglobin did not increase. This difference in oxygen load in the brain arising from different breathing routes can be evaluated quantitatively using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. Phase responses could help to provide an earlier and more reliable diagnosis of a patient’s habitual breathing route than a patient interview. PMID:24169579

  11. Microphonic versus end-tidal carbon dioxide nasal airflow detection in neonates with apnea.

    PubMed

    Toubas, P L; Duke, J C; Sekar, K C; McCaffree, M A

    1990-12-01

    Impedance pneumography in combination with expired CO2 monitoring are commonly used techniques for detecting central and obstructive apnea in infants. In this investigation an American Telephone and Telegraph StarSet-1 3000-ohm self-actuating microphone connected to the end of an infant cannula was used to monitor neonatal nasal airflow to detect breaths and apnea. The microphone was placed in a soundproof container to eliminate environmental sound artifacts. Analyses of 100 breaths from five patient samples during active and quiet sleep showed that there was no significant difference between microphone and expired CO2 recording of respiration. The techniques were 98% and 96% sensitive, respectively. Microphonic detection of nasal airflow identified 27 of the 32 episodes of upper airway obstruction (84.2%) registered by end-tidal CO2 recording. Inspiratory and expiratory events could also be well documented. Microphonic recording of nasal airflow is a reliable and inexpensive technique to detect apnea.

  12. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs.

  13. Breathing-metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Breathing-metabolic simulator was developed to be used for evaluation of life support equipment. Apparatus simulates human breathing rate and controls temperature and humidity of exhaled air as well as its chemical composition. All functions are designed to correspond to various degrees of human response.

  14. What Controls Your Breathing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your Breathing Lung Diseases & Conditions Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Asthma Bronchitis COPD How the Heart Works Respiratory Failure Send a link to NHLBI to someone ...

  15. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Shortness of breath By Mayo Clinic Staff Few sensations are as frightening as not being able to get enough air. Shortness of breath — known medically as dyspnea — is often described as an intense tightening in the chest, air hunger or a ...

  16. What is normal nasal airflow? A computational study of 22 healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nasal airflow is essential for functioning of the human nose. Given individual variation in nasal anatomy, there is yet no consensus what constitutes normal nasal airflow patterns. We attempt to obtain such information that is essential to differentiate disease-related variations. Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulated nasal airflow in 22 healthy subjects during resting breathing. Streamline patterns, airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, wall stress, turbulence, and vortical flow characteristics under quasi-steady state were analyzed. Patency ratings, acoustically measured minimum cross-sectional area (MCA), and rhinomanometric nasal resistance (NR) were examined for potential correlations with morphological and airflow-related variables. Results Common features across subjects included: >50% total pressure-drop reached near the inferior turbinate head; wall shear stress, NR, turbulence energy, and vorticity were lower in the turbinate than in the nasal valve region. However, location of the major flow path and coronal velocity distributions varied greatly across individuals. Surprisingly, on average, more flow passed through the middle than the inferior meatus and correlated with better patency ratings (r=-0.65, p<0.01). This middle flow percentage combined with peak post-vestibule nasal heat loss and MCA accounted for >70% of the variance in subjective patency ratings and predicted patency categories with 86% success. Nasal index correlated with forming of the anterior dorsal vortex. Expected for resting breathing, the functional impact for local and total turbulence, vorticity, and helicity was limited. As validation, rhinomanometric NR significantly correlated with CFD simulations (r=0.53, p<0.01). Conclusion Significant variations of nasal airflow found among healthy subjects; Key features may have clinically relevant applications. PMID:24664528

  17. Effect of route of breathing on response to exposure in a swine confinement building.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Y; Laviolette, M; Bedard, G; Dosman, J; Israel-Assayag, E

    1998-05-01

    Exposure of naive subjects to swine buildings results in acute nasal, lung, and peripheral blood inflammatory responses with an increase in nonallergic airway responsiveness. Because nasal passages filter large particles and soluble gases and because swine building exposure results in an acute inflammatory response at this level, we questioned what effect breathing through or avoiding this route would have on local and systemic inflammation. Nine normal young men 23 to 37 yr of age were exposed for 5 h to a swine building, once breathing normally and once with the mouth occluded (n = 8) (Protocol 1) or the nose occluded (n = 4) (Protocol 2); three subjects participated in both protocols. For each protocol each subject underwent a methacholine challenge for PC20 measurement, a nasal lavage, venous blood puncture, and a bronchoalveolor lavage (BAL) once before and once after each swine building exposure. Bronchial responsiveness as measured by PC20 decreased in most subjects after swine building exposure and was not influenced by the route of breathing. Nasal lavage neutrophils increased tenfold after each swine exposure, except when the nose was occluded where no alteration was observed. Total BAL cells significantly increased after each exposure to the swine building, this increase was not modified by the route of breathing. In Protocol 1, white blood cells increased from a baseline level of 7.0 to 10.5 x 10(9) cells/L after exposure with normal breathing and to 10.7 x 10(9) cells/L during nasal breathing exclusively. For Protocol 2, these respective values were: 5.6, 11.7 and 10.4 x 10(9)/L. Interleukins 6 and 8 levels in BAL, nasal washes, and serum were increased by swine building exposure, except in the nasal wash when the nose was occluded. In conclusion, the lung and blood responses to exposure in a swine confinement building are not modified by the route of breathing, suggesting that nasal inflammation and filtration are not important in the process and that

  18. Airflow and nanoparticle deposition in rat nose under various breathing and sniffing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianbo; Zhao, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of nanoparticle (1~100 nm) deposition in the rat nasal cavity is important for assessing the toxicological impact of inhaled nanoparticles as well as for potential therapeutic applications. A quasi-steady assumption has been widely adopted in the past investigations on this topic, yet the validity of such simplification under various breathing and sniffing conditions has not been carefully examined. In this study, both steady and unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in a published rat nasal model under various physiologically realistic breathing and sniffing flow rates. The transient airflow structures, nanoparticle transport and deposition patterns in the whole nasal cavity and the olfactory region were investigated and compared with steady state simulation of equivalent flow rate. The results showed that (1) the quasi-steady flow assumption for cyclic flow was valid for over 70% of the cycle period during all simulated breathing and sniffing conditions in the rat nasal cavity, or the unsteady effect was only significant during the transition between the respiratory phases; (2) yet the quasi-steady assumption for nanoparticle transport was not valid, except in the vicinity of peak respiration. In general, the total deposition efficiency of nanoparticle during cyclic breathing would be lower than that of steady state due to the unsteady effect on particle transport and deposition, and further decreased with the increase of particle size, sniffing frequency, and flow rate. In the contrary, previous study indicated that for micro-scale particles (0.5~4μm), the unsteady effect would increase deposition efficiencies in rat nasal cavity. Combined, these results suggest that the quasi-steady assumption of nasal particle transport during cycling breathing should be used with caution for an accurate assessment of the toxicological and therapeutic impact of particle inhalation. Empirical equations and effective steady

  19. The incompressibility assumption in computational simulations of nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Cal, Ismael R; Cercos-Pita, Jose Luis; Duque, Daniel

    2017-04-03

    Most of the computational works on nasal airflow up to date have assumed incompressibility, given the low Mach number of these flows. However, for high temperature gradients, the incompressibility assumption could lead to a loss of accuracy, due to the temperature dependence of air density and viscosity. In this article we aim to shed some light on the influence of this assumption in a model of calm breathing in an Asian nasal cavity, by solving the fluid flow equations in compressible and incompressible formulation for different ambient air temperatures using the OpenFOAM package. At low flow rates and warm climatological conditions, similar results were obtained from both approaches, showing that density variations need not be taken into account to obtain a good prediction of all flow features, at least for usual breathing conditions. This agrees with most of the simulations previously reported, at least as far as the incompressibility assumption is concerned. However, parameters like nasal resistance and wall shear stress distribution differ for air temperatures below [Formula: see text]C approximately. Therefore, density variations should be considered for simulations at such low temperatures.

  20. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  1. The role of septoplasty in the management of nasal septum fracture: a randomized quality of life study.

    PubMed

    Younes, A; Elzayat, S

    2016-11-01

    Fracture of the nasal septum is a common injury. Fracture reduction using Ash forceps is the standard treatment for non-severely comminuted cases. In this study, septoplasty was compared to Ash forceps reduction of nasal septum fractures with regard to the quality of life outcome of patient breathing. Thirty consecutive patients with non-comminuted septal fractures were divided randomly into two groups. In group I, fractures were managed by closed reduction (using Ash forceps), while in group II, fractures were managed by septoplasty surgery. Each patient completed a validated quality of life scale for breathing (Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation, NOSE) preoperatively and at 3 months postoperative. In group I, the mean difference between postoperative and preoperative NOSE scores was -28.33 (range -40 to -15), while in group II the mean difference was -44.33 (range -70 to -30). There was a significant improvement in nasal breathing quality of life in group II compared with group I (t-test, P=0.001). The results of this study showed a significant improvement in quality of life outcome with the use of septoplasty compared to closed reduction for acute septal fractures. Septoplasty could be recommended for patients with acute nasoseptal fractures to ensure better nasal breathing outcomes.

  2. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Strategies with Bubble Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Not All Bubbling Is the Same: The Seattle Positive Airway Pressure System.

    PubMed

    Welty, Stephen E

    2016-12-01

    Premature neonates are predisposed to complications, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD is associated with long-term pulmonary and neurodevelopmental consequences. Noninvasive respiratory support with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been recommended strongly by the American Academy of Pediatrics. However, CPAP implementation has shown at least a 50% failure rate. Enhancing nasal CPAP effectiveness may decrease the need for mechanical ventilation and reduce the incidence of BPD. Bubble nasal CPAP is better than nasal CPAP using mechanical devices and the bubbling provides air exchange in distal respiratory units. The Seattle PAP system reduces parameters that assess work of breathing.

  3. Some acoustic features of nasal and nasalized vowels: a target for vowel nasalization.

    PubMed

    Feng, G; Castelli, E

    1996-06-01

    In order to characterize acoustic properties of nasal and nasalized vowels, these sounds will be considered as a dynamic trend from an oral configuration toward an [n]-like configuration. The latter can be viewed as a target for vowel nasalization. This target corresponds to the pharyngonasal tract and it can be modeled, with some simplifications, by a single tract without any parallel paths. Thus the first two resonance frequencies (at about 300 and 1000 Hz) characterize this target well. A series of measurements has been carried out in order to describe the acoustic characteristics of the target. Measured transfer functions confirm the resonator nature of the low-frequency peak. The introduction of such a target allows the conception of the nasal vowels as a trend beginning with a simple configuration, which is terminated in the same manner, so allowing the complex nasal phenomena to be bounded. A complete study of pole-zero evolutions for the nasalization of the 11 French vowels is presented. It allows the proposition of a common strategy for the nasalization of all vowels, so a true nasal vowel can be placed in this nasalization frame. The measured transfer functions for several French nasal vowels are also given.

  4. Breathing metabolic simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a device for simulation of the human breathing and metabolic parameters required for the evaluation of respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support and resuscitation equipment. The remotely controlled device allows wide variations in breathing rate and depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide release to simulate conditions from sleep to hard work, with respiration exchange ratios ranging from hypoventilation to hyperventilation. It also reduces the cost of prolonged testing when simulation chambers with human subjects require three shifts of crews and standby physicians. Several block diagrams of the device and subsystems are given.

  5. Assessment of nasal patency after rhinoplasty through the Glatzel mirror

    PubMed Central

    de Pochat, Victor Diniz; Alonso, Nivaldo; Mendes, Rogério Rafael da Silva; Gravina, Paula Rocha; Cronenberg, Eduardo Valente; Meneses, José Valber Lima

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Objective evaluation of nasal function is a constant challenge for plastic surgeons, otolaryngologists, and allergists. The modified Glatzel mirror can evaluate nasal expiratory flow; however, there is little information on this method and its use in the measurement of nasal patency after surgical procedures. Objective: To compare, in a prospective study, the functional results before and after cosmetic rhinoplasty and evaluate the use of the Glatzel mirror as an objective method to assess nasal patency. Methods: To achieve this objective, we analyzed the functional results of surgery through a subjective questionnaire and objective evaluation through a modified Glatzel mirror, and evaluated the correlation between the 2 methods. Twenty patients (14 women and 6 men) underwent aesthetic rhinoplasty using spreader grafts. Pre- and postoperative evaluation (90–120 days) included a respiratory quality score (subjective) and modified Glatzel mirror test (objective). Subsequently, the Spearman test was used to compare the pre- and postoperative subjective and objective data. Results: The subjective evaluation demonstrated a statistical difference between pre- and postoperative scores (8 ± 2 and 9.4 ± 0.7, P ≤ 0.001). There was no statistical difference in mean nasal patency by modified Glatzel mirror. No statistically significant correlation was observed when comparing the modified Glatzel mirror values with the subjective scores reported by patients pre- or postoperatively. Conclusion: The Glatzel method lacks sensitivity in detecting patient-reported improvements in breathing following rhinoplasty. This suggests that the method is a poor assessment tool to detect small, post-surgical changes in the nasal airways. PMID:25991955

  6. A Real-time Method to Evaluate the Nasal Deposition and Clearance of Acetone in the Human Volunteer

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, Karla D. ); Schwartz, Ronald E.; Weitz, Karl K. ); Soelberg, Jolen J. ); Foureman, Gary L.; Prah, James D.; Timchalk, Charles

    2003-05-01

    Nasal dosimetry models have become increasingly quantitative as insights into tissue deposition/clearance and computational fluid dynamics have become available. Validation of these models requires sufficient experimental data. However, investigations into respiratory deposition, particularly in human volunteers, have been historically limited due to methodological limitations. To overcome this, a method for evaluating the nasal wash-in, wash-out phenomena of a highly water-soluble compound in human volunteers was developed and characterized. This methodology was assessed using controlled human inhalation exposures to uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at approximately 1 ppm concentration for 30 minutes under different breathing maneuvers (inhale nose/exhale nose; inhale nose/exhale mouth; inhale mouth/exhale nose). A small-diameter air-sampling probe inserted in the nasopharyngeal cavity of the volunteer was connected directly to an ion-trap mass spectrometer capable of sampling every 0.8 sec. A second ion-trap mass spectrometer simultaneously sampled from the volunteer?s exhaled breath stream via a breath-inlet device interface. Together, the two mass spectrometers provided real-time appraisal of the 13C-acetone concentrations in the nasopharyngeal region and in the exhaled breath stream before, during, and after the different breathing maneuvers. The breathing cycle (depth and frequency) and heart rate were concurrently monitored throughout the exposure using a heart rate monitor and a human plethysmograph to differentiate inhalation and exhalation. Graphical overlay of the plethysmography results with the mass spectrometer measurements show clear quantifiable differences in 13C-acetone levels at the nasal probe as a function of breathing maneuvers. Breath-by-breath analysis of 13C-acetone concentrations indicate that between 40-75% of the compound is absorbed upon inhalation and nearly all of that absorbed released back into the breath stream during exhalation.

  7. Effects of nasal mask leak and heated humidification on nasal mucosa in the therapy with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Yvonne; Keck, Tilman; Leiacker, Richard; Rozsasi, Ajnacska; Rettinger, Gerhard; Gruen, Philipp M

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the objective short-term influence of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy, nasal mask leak (NML) and heated humidifiers (HH) to nasal conditioning of spontaneously breathing subjects. This was a prospective, non-randomized, non-blinded day-time study. Eighteen healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. All subjects received nCPAP therapy for 60 min in three different conditions successively: (1) nCPAP without humidification, (2) nCPAP with a defined leakage of nasal mask (slashed circle 28.3 mm2) and (3) nCPAP with HH. Nasal humidity and temperature were measured in the anterior turbinate area using a miniaturized thermocouple and a relative humidity sensor. The measurements were accomplished at the beginning of therapy, after 60, 120 and 180 min. Absolute humidity (aH) in the anterior turbinate area decreased significantly (p = 0.0075) from 17.41 +/- 3.81 mg/l (baseline) to 15.27 +/- 2.21 mg/l (nCPAP alone). With attachment of a NML, aH decreased from 15.27 mg/l not significantly (p = 0.058) to 13.77 +/- 2.28 mg/l (nCPAP and NML) compared to nCPAP alone. After addition of heated humidification to nCPAP, aH increased again from 13.77 mg/l significantly (p = 0.042) to 15.29 +/- 3.51 mg/l (nCPAP and HH) compared to aH (nCPAP+NML). No difference was found between aH (nCPAP and HH) and aH (nCPAP alone). Airway temperature did not change significantly after application of nCPAP alone, nCPAP and NML, and nCPAP and HH. These data indicate that nCPAP therapy with NML tends to have more remarkable reduction of the nasal humidity than nCPAP therapy without NML. nCPAP with heated humidifier is able to compensate the dehydration effects induced by nCPAP therapy with NML by increasing the aH at the anterior turbinate area to the levels observed during breathing with nCPAP alone.

  8. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause kids to stop breathing and sometimes lose consciousness for up to a minute. In the most ... pose a choking hazard once your child regains consciousness roll your child over onto his or her ...

  9. Breathing - slowed or stopped

    MedlinePlus

    ... who is not responsive is called cardiac (or cardiopulmonary) arrest. In infants and children, the most common ... brain inflammation and infection that affects vital brain functions) Gastroesophageal reflux (heartburn) Holding one's breath Meningitis (inflammation ...

  10. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wound. Bandage such wounds at once. A "sucking" chest wound allows air to enter the person's ... things you can do to help prevent breathing problems: If you have a history of severe allergic ...

  11. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood clots in the legs or pelvis (deep venous thrombosis), debilitating medical conditions, immobility, or inherited ... it hard for a person to take a deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon ...

  12. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  13. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Breath-Holding ... > For Parents > Breath-Holding Spells Print A A A What's ...

  14. Nasal septum injury in preterm infants using nasal prongs 1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Suely de Fátima Santos Freire; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena; de Sousa, Nayara Francisca Cabral; da Silva, Daiana Vieira Câmara; Leal, Luciana Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with nasal septum injury in premature infants using reused and new nasal prongs. METHOD: the study was a cohort from an open therapeutic intervention. The sample included 70 infants with a gestational age inferior to 37 weeks, who used nasal prongs and were hospitalized at the neonatal service of a hospital in Recife-PE, in the Northeast of Brazil. The data were collected in patient files through the assessment of the application of the device and of the nasal septum. Multinomial Logistic Regression and Survival analyses were applied. RESULTS: the incidence of nasal injury corresponded to 62.9%. In the multiple analysis, only the length of the infant's treatment was a determinant factor for the occurrence and severity of the injuries. CONCLUSION: the type of nasal prong does not serve as a risk factor for the nasal injury. The high incidence of nasal injury indicates the need to adapt the nursing care with emphasis on prevention. PMID:25493679

  15. Comparison between Perceptual Assessments of Nasality and Nasalance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnegard, Karin; Lohmander, Anette; van Doorn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are different reports of the usefulness of the Nasometer[TM] as a complement to listening, often as correlation calculations between listening and nasalance measurements. Differences between findings have been attributed to listener experience and types of speech stimuli. Aims: To compare nasalance scores from the Nasometer with…

  16. The detection of breathing behavior using Eulerian-enhanced thermal video.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Stephanie L; Goubran, Rafik; Knoefel, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The current gold standard for detecting and distinguishing between types of sleep apnea is expensive and invasive. This paper aims to examine the potential of inexpensive and unobtrusive thermal cameras in the identification and distinction between types of sleep apnea. A thermal camera was used to gather video of a subject performing regular nasal breathing, nasal hyperventilation and an additional trial simulating one type of sleep apnea. Simultaneously, a respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) band gathered respiratory data. Thermal video of all three trials were subjected to Eulerian Video Magnification; a procedure developed at MIT for enhancing subtle color variations in video data. Post magnification, nasal regions of interest were defined and mean region intensities were found for each frame of each trial. These signals were compared to determine the best performing region and compared to RIP data to validate breathing behavior. While some regions performed better, all region intensity signals depicted correct breathing behavior. The mean intensity signals for normal breathing and hyperventilation were correct and correlated well with RIP data. Furthermore, the RIP data resulting from the sleep apnea simulation clearly depicted chest movement while the corresponding mean intensity signal depicted lack of cyclical air flow. These results indicate that a subject's breathing behavior can be captured using thermal video and suggest that, with further development and additional equipment, thermal video can be used to detect and distinguish between types of sleep apnea.

  17. Visualization of nasal airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. J. M.; Mitchell, G.; Bailie, N.; Thornhill, D.; Watterson, J.; Kimbell, J. S.

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between airflow patterns in the nasal cavity and nasal function is poorly understood. This paper reports an experimental study of the interplay between symptoms and airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis. This pathology is characterized by mucosal dryness, fetor, progressive atrophy of anatomical structures, a spacious nasal cavity, and a paradoxical sensation of nasal congestion. A physical replica of the patient's nasal geometry was made and particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize and measure the flow field. The nasal replica was based on computed tomography (CT) scans of the patient and was built in three steps: three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT scans; rapid prototyping of a cast; and sacrificial use of the cast to form a model of the nasal passage in clear silicone. Flow patterns were measured by running a water-glycerol mixture through the replica and evaluating the displacement of particles dispersed in the liquid using PIV. The water-glycerol flow rate used corresponded to an air flow rate representative of a human breathing at rest. The trajectory of the flow observed in the left passage of the nose (more affected by atrophic rhinitis) differed markedly from what is considered normal, and was consistent with patterns of epithelial damage observed in cases of the condition. The data are also useful for validation of computational fluid dynamics predictions.

  18. Accuracy of CO₂ monitoring via nasal cannulas and oral bite blocks during sedation for esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuo-Chen; Orr, Joe; Hsu, Wei-Chih; Yu, Lu; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Westenskow, Dwayne R; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Esophagogastroduodenoscopy procedures are typically performed under conscious sedation. Drug-induced respiratory depression is a major cause of serious adverse effects during sedation. Capnographic monitoring of respiratory activity improves patient safety during procedural sedation. This bench study compares the performance of the nasal cannulas and oral bite blocks used to monitor exhaled CO2 during sedation. We used a spontaneously breathing mechanical lung to evaluated four CO2 sampling nasal cannulas and three CO2 sampling bite blocks. We placed pneumatic resistors in the mouth of the manikin to simulate different levels of mouth opening. We compared CO2 measurements taken from the sampling device to CO2 measurements taken directly from the trachea. The end tidal CO2 concentration (PETCO2) measured through the bite blocks and nasal cannulas was always lower than the corresponding PETCO2 measured at the trachea. The difference became larger as the amount of oxygen delivered through the devices increased. The difference was larger during normal ventilation than during hypoventilation. The difference became larger as the amount of oral breathing increased. The two nasal cannulas without oral cups failed to provide sufficient CO2 for breath detection when the mouth was fully open and oxygen was delivered at 10 L/min. Our simulation found that respiratory rate can be accurately monitored during the procedure using a CO2 sampling bite block or a nasal cannula with oral cup. The accuracy of PETCO2 measurements depends on the device used, the amount of supplement oxygen, the amount of oral breathing and the patient's minute ventilation.

  19. A system to reproduce human breathing patterns: its development and validation.

    PubMed

    Häussermann, S; Bailey, A G; Maul, C

    2000-01-01

    Studies of aerosol deposition in models of the human respiratory tract play a significant role in developing our understanding of drug delivery by inhalation and particle retention in the lungs during exposure to polluted environments. To use replica casts of human airways and compare the results with in vivo data, a device is required to simulate human breathing. The objective of this study was to simulate human breathing for nasal casts. Breathing through the nose is normally limited to about 50 L/min. Therefore, a system was built to simulate human breathing patterns as well as artificial ones up to this flow rate. The system consists of a reciprocating piston in a cylinder, which is displaced by a synchronous motor via a linear actuator. The desired signal to drive the motor is given in real time by purpose-written software. The rotation and position of the motor are controlled by an electronic position control unit. The validation of the system shows that it simulates breathing up to 50 L/min closely even for complex waveforms. At breathing rates above 50 L/min, a slight difference is apparent between the desired breathing pattern and the simulated one. The breathing simulator has been shown to be a reliable tool for reproducing a wide variety of breathing patterns.

  20. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, N; Yamaguchi, K; Daimon, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. Masseter muscle activity during chewing of a rice ball was recorded in 45 adult volunteers (three women), identified as nose breathers. Surface electrodes were placed on the skin according to the orientation of the masseter muscle to record the activity of this muscle while the subjects chewed the food until swallowing. Each activity was recorded twice, once with nose breathing and once with mouth breathing induced by nasal obstruction. The integrated and mean electromyography values for mouth breathing were significantly lower than the values for nose breathing (P < 0·05). The resting and total duration of chewing were significantly prolonged (P < 0·05) and the active duration significantly shorter (P < 0·05) when breathing through the mouth compared with the nose. Significantly more chewing strokes were counted for mouth breathing compared with nose breathing (P < 0·05). Taken together, the results indicate that mouth breathing decreases chewing activity and reduces the vertical effect upon the posterior teeth.

  1. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  2. Epiglottic movements during breathing in humans

    PubMed Central

    Amis, T C; O'Neill, N; Di Somma, E; Wheatley, J R

    1998-01-01

    Using X-ray fluoroscopy we measured antero-posterior (A–P) and cranio-caudal (C–C) displacements of the epiglottic tip (ET), corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone in seven seated, normal human subjects (age 34 ± 3 years; mean ±s.e.m.; 4 males, 3 females) breathing via a nasal mask or mouthpiece with (RL) and without (UB) a fixed resistive load.During UB, via either mouth or nose, there were no significant A-P ET movements. During RL via the nose the ET at peak expiratory flow was 2.6 ± 1.3 mm cranial to its position at peak inspiratory flow (P <0.05, ANOVA). C–C movements of the ET correlated strongly with C-C movements of the corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone.The ET, corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone (at zero airflow) were situated more caudally during oral UB than for any other condition.When present, epiglottic movements during breathing do not appear to be independent of those of the larynx and hyoid. Furthermore, epiglottic position may be related to the level of upper airway resistance. PMID:9729637

  3. [Historical study on traditional Chinese formulations and crude drugs used for bad breath].

    PubMed

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki; Honda, Mami; Honda, Shun-Ichi; Tani, Tadato

    2011-01-01

    Bad breath is a topic of general interest. In this study, the treatment for bad breath in traditional Chinese medicine was reviewed with a special focus on pathologic diagnosis and crude drug prescriptions. It was shown that bad breath developed based on both systemic and local diseases. Some systemic conditions, including nasal, paranasal, pulmonary and digestive diseases, are considered to cause bad breath. The morbid state of a patient with bad breath has been recognized as being based on "heat syndrome" and "Qi-stagnation syndrome." Bad breath based on "heat syndrome" is manifested as thirst and ulceration of the oral cavity, and has been treated with crude drugs such as Coptis rhizome, Scutellaria root and gypsum. One case study reported that bad breath resulting from a dry mouth was treated with byakkokaninjinto, a Kampo formulation containing gypsum. "Qi" is considered to be the vital energy of all life forms including for the functioning of organs and mental and emotional activity. "Qi-stagnation syndrom," referring to the dysfunction of organs, is manifested as psychosomatic symptoms such as irritability, a flushed face and restlessness. Bad breath based on "Qi-stagnation syndrome" has been treated with crude drugs such as Cnidium rhizome, clove and cinnamon bark. Modern dental and medical treatment both accept the participation of psychogenic agents in the development of bad breath. Bad breath also develops based on periodontal and oral diseases. This type of bad breath has been treated with mouth-wash (collutorium) containing Asiasarum root, Angelica dahurica root and Cnidium rhizome. This historical evidence regarding crude drug prescriptions contributes to the development of mouth care products for preventing and treating bad breath.

  4. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  6. The Relationship between Nasalance and Nasality in Children with Cleft Palate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watterson, Thomas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study correlated measures of nasalance computed by the Nasometer with listener judgments of nasality of speech passages spoken by 25 children with craniofacial disorders. Results showed a significant correlation between nasalance and nasality only when nasal consonants were not included in the passage spoken. (Author/DB)

  7. [The influence of nasal flow aerodynamics on the nasal physiology].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the human nose to warm and humidify the respiratory air is important to maintaining the internal environment of the lungs, since ambient air is conditioned to nearly alveolar conditions (body temperature and fully saturated with water vapour) upon reaching the nasopharynx. Because of very short time of the inspiratory phase duration, as well as expiratory phase, only the rich vascularization of the nasal mucosa and specific organization of the submucosal vessels are not able to assure such effective physiological activity. Therefore the type of airflow during the respiration is essential to understanding the functional possibilities of the nasal mucosa. Most studies have investigated the airflow only in steady-flow conditions, where the laminar flow was observed. Anatomically accurate physical models of real nasal cavities and particle image velocimetry allow evaluation of the entire flow field in the nasal cavity. In these investigations a partially turbulent flow was observed even at low air velocities in most part of the nasal cavity. From a physiological perspective, a turbulent flow would seem sensible, since it enhances contact between air and the mucosal layer. By doing so, the nasal physiological functions - humidification, cleaning and warming are optimized.

  8. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in adults.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy comprises an air/oxygen blender, an active humidifier, a single heated circuit, and a nasal cannula. It delivers adequately heated and humidified medical gas at up to 60 L/min of flow and is considered to have a number of physiological effects: reduction of anatomical dead space, PEEP effect, constant fraction of inspired oxygen, and good humidification. While there have been no big randomized clinical trials, it has been gaining attention as an innovative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Most of the available data has been published in the neonatal field. Evidence with critically ill adults are poor; however, physicians apply it to a variety of patients with diverse underlying diseases: hypoxemic respiratory failure, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, post-extubation, pre-intubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, patients with do-not-intubate order, and so on. Many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces needs of escalation of respiratory support in patients with diverse underlying diseases. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as its indication, timing of starting and stopping HFNC, and escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC oxygen therapy is an innovative and effective modality for the early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases.

  9. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  10. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of an automatic computer controlled second generation breathing metabolic simulator (BMS). The simulator is used for evaluating and testing respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support, and resuscitation equipment. Any desired sequence of metabolic activities can be simulated on the device for up to 15 hours. The computer monitors test procedures and provides printouts of test results.

  11. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  12. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  13. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  14. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs.

  15. Complications of Nasal Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Yeom, Seung Han; Hwang, Suk Hyun

    2017-01-27

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10.4% ± 4.8%. No significant differences were found between patients who underwent closed reduction (14.7% ± 7.3%) and those who underwent open reduction (9.4% ± 4.4%), between those who underwent local anesthesia (5.8% ± 4.5%), and those who underwent general anesthesia (8.8% ± 3.8%), or between those who received timely treatment (5.7%) and those whose treatment was delayed (9.0%). Septal deviation occurred in 10.0% of patients as a sequela of nasal bone fracture. The nasal obstruction rate was 10.5% ± 5.3%. Fewer patients of nasal obstruction occurred in the open reduction patients (6.9% ± 4.4%) than in the closed reduction patients (15.2%). One patient of epiphora and 1 patient of diplopia were reportedAmong the 77 patients with nasal bone fractures, 29 (37.7% ± 11.3%) complained of olfactory disturbances. No significant associations were found between the type of fracture and the presence of olfactory disturbances. It is recommended for providers to explain to patients that approximately one-tenth of nasal bone fractures exhibit deformity, septal deviation, or nasal obstruction after surgery. Surgeons should take considerable care to avoid the olfactory mucosa during reduction surgery.

  16. Cleft Nasal Deformity and Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Yoav; Buchanan, Edward P.; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Weathers, William M.; Stal, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The cleft nasal deformity is a complex challenge in plastic surgery involving the skin, cartilage, mucosa, and skeletal platform. Ever since Blair and Brown first described the intricacies of the cleft pathology in 1931, the appropriate approach has been extensively debated in the literature with respect to timing, technique, and extent of surgical intervention. In this article, the authors review the literature and summarize the various modalities for achieving a successful rhinoplasty in the patient with a cleft nasal deformity. PMID:24179452

  17. Nasal Airway Evaluation After Le Fort I Osteotomy Combined With Septoplasty in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongying; Wang, Peihua; Zhang, Yixin; Shen, Guofang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Septal deviation constitutes an important component of both esthetic deformity and airway compromise in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). The posterior parts of the nasal septum presented greater deviation than the anterior parts in patients with complete unilateral CLP. Le Fort I down-fracture provides better access to the nasal septum than intranasal incision during rhinoplasty, especially to the posterior part. This study objectively and subjectively evaluated the nasal function after Le Fort I osteotomy combined with septoplasty in patients with complete unilateral CLP. Twenty-three patients with complete unilateral CLP presenting with nasal obstruction and septum deviation were included (12—combined surgery group; 11—control group). Types of septum deviation in the patients were analyzed. Presurgical and 6-month-postsurgical acoustic rhinometry (AR) was performed for objective assessment; and the nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale was used for subjective assessment. The authors used SPSS to compare the baseline and follow-up results. Acoustic rhinometry assessment showed improvements in the nasal minimal cross-sectional area (MCA), nasal resistance, and nasal volumes in 12 patients who received combined surgery. For the 2 groups, significant improvements in nasal breathing were documented (by NOSE scores) at 6 months after surgery. Simultaneous management of the maxillary dysplasia (Le Fort I osteotomy) and intranasal pathology (septoplasty) were effective for relief of nasal airway obstruction in patients with complete unilateral CLP. The combination of objective (AR) and subjective (NOSE scale) assessments allowed better evaluation of the nasal function. PMID:27930464

  18. Envelope Analysis of the Airflow Signal To Improve Polysomnographic Assessment of Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Javier A.; Arancibia, José M.; Bassi, Alejandro; Vivaldi, Ennio A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Given the detailed respiratory waveform signal provided by the nasal cannula in polysomnographic (PSG) studies, to quantify sleep breathing disturbances by extracting a continuous variable based on the coefficient of variation of the envelope of that signal. Design: Application of an algorithm for envelope analysis to standard nasal cannula signal from actual polysomnographic studies. Setting: PSG recordings from a sleep disorders center were analyzed by an algorithm developed on the Igor scientific data analysis software. Patients or Participants: Recordings representative of different degrees of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) severity or illustrative of the covariation between breathing and particularly relevant factors and variables. Interventions: The method calculated the coefficient of variation of the envelope for each 30-second epoch. The normalized version of that coefficient was defined as the respiratory disturbance variable (RDV). The method outcome was the all-night set of RDV values represented as a time series. Measurements and Results: RDV quantitatively reflected departure from normal sinusoidal breathing at each epoch, providing an intensity scale for disordered breathing. RDV dynamics configured itself in recognizable patterns for the airflow limitation (e.g., in UARS) and the apnea/hypopnea regimes. RDV reliably highlighted clinically meaningful associations with staging, body position, oximetry, or CPAP titration. Conclusions: Respiratory disturbance variable can assess sleep breathing disturbances as a gradual phenomenon while providing a comprehensible and detailed representation of its dynamics. It may thus improve clinical diagnosis and provide a revealing descriptive tool for mechanistic sleep disordered breathing modeling. Respiratory disturbance variable may contribute to attaining simplified screening methodologies, novel diagnostic criteria, and insightful research tools. Citation: Díaz JA; Arancibia JM; Bassi A

  19. Breathing pattern and ventilatory control in chronic tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Spungen, Ann M; Bauman, William A; Lesser, Marvin; McCool, F Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Blunted ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide indicate that respiratory control is impaired when ventilation is stimulated in individuals with tetraplegia; however, respiratory control during resting breathing has not been extensively studied in this population. Our objective was to evaluate respiratory control and sigh frequency during resting breathing in persons with tetraplegia. A prospective, two-group comparative study was performed. Breathing pattern was assessed in ten outpatients with chronic tetraplegia and eight age- and gender-matched able-bodied controls. Subjects were noninvasively monitored for 1 h, while seated and at rest. Tidal volume (V(T)) was calculated from the sum of the anteroposterior displacements of the rib cage and abdomen and the axial displacement of the chest wall. Inspiratory time (T(I)), V(T), and the ratio of V(T) to inspiratory time (V(T)/T(I)) were calculated breath by breath. A sigh was defined as any breath greater than two or more times an individual's mean V(T). Minute ventilation, V(T)/T(I), and sigh frequency were reduced in tetraplegia compared with controls (5.24 +/- 1.15 vs. 7.16 +/- 1.29 L/min, P < 0.005; 208 +/- 45 vs. 284 +/- 47 ml/s, P < 0.005; and 11 +/- 7 vs. 42 +/- 19 sighs/h, P < 0.0005, respectively). V(T)/T(I) was associated with sigh frequency in both groups (tetraplegia: R = 0.88; P = 0.001 and control: R = 0.70; P < 0.05). We concluded that reductions in minute ventilation, V(T)/T(I), and sigh frequency suggest that respiratory drive is diminished during resting breathing in subjects with tetraplegia. These findings extend prior observations of disordered respiratory control during breathing stimulated by CO(2) in tetraplegia to resting breathing.

  20. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  1. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun Kumar; Nandini, R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM) too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it's management both at the time of cleft lip repair and also secondarily

  2. [TMJ, eating and breathing].

    PubMed

    Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    The study of the relationship between temporomandibular joints (TMJ), mastication and ventilation and the involvement of these two functions in the genesis of primary Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and in some dentofacial deformities, was initiated in France, more than 30years, by Professor Raymond Gola. Once criticized the weakness of the scientific literature in this domain, the originality of the TMJ within the masticatory system is recalled with its huge adaptation potential to very different biomechanical constraints according to the age and masticatory activities during the day. But the biomechanics of the masticatory system does not stop at night and the positions of the mandible and head during sleep should be studied carefully. In case of nocturnal mouth breathing with open mouth, the predominant sleeping position (generating small but long-term strengths) may be deleterious to the condyle-disc complex, to the surrounding muscles and the occlusal relationships. Some condyle-disc displacements and asymmetric malocclusions occur in this long portion of life what sleep, especially as oral breathing leads to a lot of dysfunctions (low position of the tongue, labio-lingual dysfunctions, exacerbation of bruxism sleep…). The aim of this work was to share our multidisciplinary experience of the biomechanical consequences of the nocturnal mouth breathing on the face involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, allergists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and radiologists.

  3. Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; de Oliveira-Filho, J C; Dantas, A F M; Simões, S V D; Garino, F; Riet-Correa, F

    2014-01-01

    Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis is reported in an adult goat. The clinical signs were severe respiratory distress due to partial nasal obstruction, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, skin nodules on the ears and dorsal nasal region and focal depigmentation of the ventral commissure of the right nostril. At necropsy examination, sagittal sectioning of the head revealed a yellow irregular mass extending from the nasal vestibule to the frontal portion of the nasal cavity. Microscopically, there was pyogranulomatous rhinitis and dermatitis, with numerous intralesional periodic acid-Schiff-positive fungal hyphae morphologically suggestive of Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger was isolated by microbiological examination.

  4. Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2017-02-01

    variations, and clinical concerns associated with this surgical procedure; it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for improving nasal form and function after rhinoplasty. Recommendations in this guideline concerning education and counseling to the patient are also intended to include the caregiver if the patient is <18 years of age. Action Statements The Guideline Development Group made the following recommendations: (1) Clinicians should ask all patients seeking rhinoplasty about their motivations for surgery and their expectations for outcomes, should provide feedback on whether those expectations are a realistic goal of surgery, and should document this discussion in the medical record. (2) Clinicians should assess rhinoplasty candidates for comorbid conditions that could modify or contraindicate surgery, including obstructive sleep apnea, body dysmorphic disorder, bleeding disorders, or chronic use of topical vasoconstrictive intranasal drugs. (3) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, should evaluate the rhinoplasty candidate for nasal airway obstruction during the preoperative assessment. (4) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, should educate rhinoplasty candidates regarding what to expect after surgery, how surgery might affect the ability to breathe through the nose, potential complications of surgery, and the possible need for future nasal surgery. (5) The clinician, or the clinician's designee, should counsel rhinoplasty candidates with documented obstructive sleep apnea about the impact of surgery on nasal airway obstruction and how obstructive sleep apnea might affect perioperative management. (6) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, should educate rhinoplasty patients before surgery about strategies to manage discomfort after surgery. (7) Clinicians should document patients' satisfaction with their nasal appearance and with their nasal function at a minimum of 12 months after rhinoplasty. The Guideline Development Group made recommendations

  5. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Chen, D.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, J.; Deng, J.

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  6. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of CO2 Distribution in the Upper Airways During Nasal High Flow Therapy.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, S C; Storey, J; Adams, C; Dey, K; Geoghegan, P H; Kabaliuk, N; Oldfield, S D; Spence, C J T; Jermy, M C; Suresh, V; Cater, J E

    2016-10-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) therapy is used to treat a variety of respiratory disorders to improve patient oxygenation. A CO2 washout mechanism is believed to be responsible for the observed increase in oxygenation. In this study, experimentally validated Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the CO2 concentration within the upper airway during unassisted and NHF assisted breathing were undertaken with the aim of exploring the existence of this washout mechanism. An anatomically accurate nasal cavity model was generated from a CT scan and breathing was reproduced using a Fourier decomposition of a physiologically measured breath waveform. Time dependent CO2 profiles were obtained at the entrance of the trachea in the experimental model, and were used as simulation boundary conditions. Flow recirculation features were observed in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity upon application of the therapy. This causes the CO2 rich gas to vent from the nostrils reducing the CO2 concentration in the dead space and lowering the inspired CO2 volume. Increasing therapy flow rate increases the penetration depth within the nasal cavity of the low CO2 concentration gas. A 65% decrease in inspired CO2 was observed for therapy flow rates ranging from 0 to 60 L min(-1) supporting the washout mechanism theory.

  7. Replacement of Missing Anterior Teeth in a Patient with Chronic Mouth Breathing and Tongue Thrusting

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Al-Qahtani, Ali Saad

    2013-01-01

    The loss of anterior teeth has serious functional, esthetic disabilities, in addition to compromising the patients' quality of life. Various etiologies can be attributed to the anterior tooth loss, including trauma, caries, and periodontal diseases. The chronic mouth breathing due to nasal adenoids is known to enhance the gingival and periodontal diseases. The dental literature proves the association of nasal breathing, tongue thrusting, and anterior open bite. Arch shape and tooth position are primarily determined by the equilibrium of the forces from tongue and perioral musculature. Increased force from tongue musculature in the tongue thrusting patient leads to flaring of anterior teeth, making them susceptible for periodontal and traumatic tooth loss. Replacement of the anterior teeth in this patient will also help in restoration of anterior guidance, which is critical for the health of temporomandibular joint, posterior teeth, and musculature. PMID:24490091

  8. Effects of Nasal Port Area on Perception of Nasality and Measures of Nasalance Based on Computational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Bunton, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to extend previously published modeling work examining the relation between nasal port opening, measures of nasalance, and perceptual ratings of nasality by experienced listeners for three simulated English corner vowels, /i/, /u/, and /ɑ/. Design Samples were generated using a computational model that allowed for exact control of nasal port size and direct measures of nasalance. Perceptual ratings were obtained using a paired stimulus presentation. Participants Four experienced listeners. Main Outcome Measures Nasalance and perceptual ratings of nasality. Results Findings indicate that perceptual ratings of nasality and nasalance increased for samples generated with nasal port areas up to and including 0.16 cm2 but plateaued in samples generated with larger nasal port areas. No vowel differences were noted for perceptual ratings. Conclusions This work extends previously published work by including nasal port areas representative of those reported in the literature for clinical populations, however, continued work using samples with varied phonetic context, and varying suprasegmental and temporal characteristics are needed. PMID:24437587

  9. Nasal mucociliary clearance after radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Stringer, S P; Stiles, W; Slattery, W H; Krumerman, J; Parsons, J T; Mendenhall, W M; Cassisi, N J

    1995-04-01

    Irradiation has been demonstrated to cause decreased mucociliary clearance in animal models. We sought to verify this effect clinically by using the saccharin transport test to evaluate nasal mucociliary clearance in 9 patients previously treated with radiation therapy to the nasal cavity. The patients also completed a questionnaire examining the prevalence of nasal symptoms before and after radiation therapy. Patients who received radiation therapy had no clearance of saccharin from the nasal cavity at a minimum of 20 minutes. The controls had a median clearance time of 5 minutes. The patients noted a higher prevalence of nasal congestion, drainage, and facial pain after radiation therapy. This study demonstrates that radiation therapy to the nasal cavity causes a decrease in nasal mucociliary clearance. This alteration should be considered when selecting therapy for malignancies in the nasal area.

  10. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  11. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, S; Eder, G; Bolle, I; Tsuda, A; Schulz, H

    2009-10-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-mum sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathing 90-day-old Wistar-Kyoto rats placed in a size-adjusted body plethysmograph box. Instrumental dead space of the system was minimized down to 310 microl (i.e., approximately 20% of respiratory dead space). The system allows continuous monitoring of particle concentration in the respired volume. Breathing parameters, such as respiratory rate (f), tidal volume (Vt), as well as inspiration/expiration times, were also monitored at different levels of anesthesia. The results showed that Vt typically varied between 1.5 and 4.0 ml for regular breathing and between 4.0 and 10.0 ml for single-sigh breaths; f ranged from 40 to 200 breaths/min. Corresponding deposition values varied between 5 and 50%, depending on breath-by-breath breathing patterns. The best fit of deposition (D) was achieved by a bilinear function of Vt and f and found to be D = 11.0 - 0.09.f + 3.75.Vt. We conclude that our approach provides more realistic conditions for the measurement of deposition than conventional models using ventilated animals and allows us to analyze the correlation between breath-specific deposition and spontaneous breathing patterns.

  12. Quilting sutures for nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Hari, C; Marnane, C; Wormald, P J

    2008-05-01

    Suturing of the nasal septum after septal surgery is a commonly performed procedure designed to prevent complications such as septal haematoma and bleeding. It is also useful for closing any inadvertent tears of the septal mucosa and providing additional support for the cartilage pieces retained in septoplasty. In addition, the suture can be placed through the middle turbinates, stabilising them during the healing process. Placing knots for interrupted sutures in the posterior and middle part of the nasal septum can be technically difficult. We describe a continuous suturing technique for approximating the mucosal flaps following septal surgery.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Nasal Epithelial Cells from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Papon, Jean-François; Chhuon, Cerina; Zadigue, Patricia; Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Amselem, Serge; Escudier, Estelle; Coste, André; Edelman, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease remains incompletely understood. New explanations for the pathogenesis of CF lung disease may be discovered by studying the patterns of protein expression in cultured human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). To that aim, we compared the level of protein expressions in primary cultures of HNEC from nasal polyps secondary to CF (CFNP, n = 4), primary nasal polyps (NP, n = 8) and control mucosa (CTRL, n = 4) using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. The analysis of the data revealed 42 deregulated protein expressions in CFNP compared to NP and CTRL, suggesting that these alterations are related to CF. Overall, AmiGo analysis highlighted six major pathways important for cell functions that seem to be impaired: metabolism, G protein process, inflammation and oxidative stress response, protein folding, proteolysis and structural proteins. Among them, glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways could be impaired in CF with nine deregulated proteins. Our proteomic study provides a reproducible set of differentially expressed proteins in airway epithelial cells from CF patients and reveals many novel deregulated proteins that could lead to further studies aiming to clarify the involvement of such proteins in CF pathophysiology. PMID:25268127

  14. Nasal septal cyst--a case report.

    PubMed

    Chiang, C H; Juan, K H; Kuo, W R; Tai, C F; Wu, J R

    1996-04-01

    The usual complications of submucous resection of the nasal septum (SMR) are septal hematoma, infection, hemorrhage, septal perforation, and nasal deformity. We present a case of nasal septal cyst which may be a rare complication of SMR. Entrapment of free nasal mucosal remnants or inward folding of incised septal mucosa is thought to be the cause. The patient underwent deroofment of the left cystic wall by lateral rhinotomy. There was no recurrence after one year.

  15. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K. Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  16. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasal sinus cavities.

    PubMed

    Lomeo, Paul E; McDonald, John E; Finneman, Judith; Shoreline

    2007-01-01

    This is case report of extramedullary plasmacytoma occurring in the nasal cavity. These are unusual tumors especially in the nasal area. Patients present mainly with nasal symptoms on the same side of the tumors. The treatment consists of surgery resection, or, radiation, or both. There is a fifty percent survival rate in five years.

  17. Does post septoplasty nasal packing reduce complications?

    PubMed

    Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Naghibzadeh, Ghazal

    2011-01-01

    The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not).Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  18. Double blind randomised controlled trial of two different breathing techniques in the management of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Slader, C A; Reddel, H K; Spencer, L M; Belousova, E G; Armour, C L; Bosnic‐Anticevich, S Z; Thien, F C K; Jenkins, C R

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that breathing techniques reduce short acting β2 agonist use and improve quality of life (QoL) in asthma. The primary aim of this double blind study was to compare the effects of breathing exercises focusing on shallow nasal breathing with those of non‐specific upper body exercises on asthma symptoms, QoL, other measures of disease control, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. This study also assessed the effect of peak flow monitoring on outcomes in patients using breathing techniques. Methods After a 2 week run in period, 57 subjects were randomised to one of two breathing techniques learned from instructional videos. During the following 30 weeks subjects practised their exercises twice daily and as needed for relief of symptoms. After week 16, two successive ICS downtitration steps were attempted. The primary outcome variables were QoL score and daily symptom score at week 12. Results Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or 28. The QoL score remained unchanged (0.7 at baseline v 0.5 at week 28, p = 0.11 both groups combined), as did lung function and airway responsiveness. However, across both groups, reliever use decreased by 86% (p<0.0001) and ICS dose was reduced by 50% (p<0.0001; p>0.10 between groups). Peak flow monitoring did not have a detrimental effect on asthma outcomes. Conclusion Breathing techniques may be useful in the management of patients with mild asthma symptoms who use a reliever frequently, but there is no evidence to favour shallow nasal breathing over non‐specific upper body exercises. PMID:16517572

  19. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory.

  20. Heated Humidified High-Flow Nasal Oxygen in Adults: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Spoletini, Giulia; Alotaibi, Mona; Blasi, Francesco; Hill, Nicholas S

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, nasal oxygen therapy has been delivered at low flows through nasal cannulae. In recent years, nasal cannulae designed to administer heated and humidified air/oxygen mixtures at high flows (up to 60 L/min) have been gaining popularity. These high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) systems enhance patient comfort and tolerance compared with traditional high-flow oxygenation systems, such as nasal masks and nonrebreathing systems. By delivering higher flow rates, HFNC systems are less apt than traditional oxygenation systems to permit entrainment of room air during patient inspiration. Combined with the flushing of expired air from the upper airway during expiration, these mechanisms assure more reliable delivery of high Fio2 levels. The flushing of upper airway dead space also improves ventilatory efficiency and reduces the work of breathing. HFNC also generates a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), which may counterbalance auto-PEEP, further reducing ventilator work; improve oxygenation; and provide back pressure to enhance airway patency during expiration, permitting more complete emptying. HFNC has been tried for multiple indications, including secretion retention, hypoxemic respiratory failure, and cardiogenic pulmonary edema, to counterbalance auto-PEEP in patients with COPD and as prophylactic therapy or treatment of respiratory failure postsurgery and postextubation. As of yet, very few high-quality studies have been published evaluating these indications, so recommendations regarding clinical applications of HFNC remain tentative.

  1. The mandible advancement may alter the coordination between breathing and the non-nutritive swallowing reflex.

    PubMed

    Ayuse, T; Ayuse, T; Ishitobi, S; Yoshida, H; Nogami, T; Kurata, S; Hoshino, Y; Oi, K

    2010-05-01

    The coordination between nasal breathing and non-nutritive swallowing serves as a protective reflex against potentially asphyxiating material, i.e. saliva and secretions, entering the respiratory tract. Although this protective reflex is influenced by positional changes in the head and body, the effect of mandible position on this reflex is not fully understood. We examined the effect of mandible advancement associated with mouth opening on the coordination between nasal breathing and non-nutritive swallowing induced by continuous infusion of distilled water into the pharyngeal cavity. The combination of mandible advancement and mouth opening increased the duration of swallowing apnoea and submental electromyographic burst duration. When the mandible was advanced with the mouth open, the duration of swallowing apnoea increased significantly compared with the centric position (0.79 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.12 s, P < 0.05, n = 12), and the duration of submental electromyographic activity increased significantly (2.11 +/- 0.63 vs. 1.46 +/- 0.25 s, P < 0.05, n = 12). Mandible advancement with mouth opening altered the respiratory phase resetting during swallowing and the timing of swallow in relation to respiratory cycle phase. We conclude that mandible re-positioning may strongly influence the coordination between nasal breathing and non-nutritive swallowing by altering respiratory parameters and by inhibiting movement of the tongue-jaw complex.

  2. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle coordination A longer reaction time Impaired judgment Driving and operating machinery when you're drunk (intoxicated) ... test. Considerations The test does not measure the driving abilities of a person. Driving abilities vary among ...

  3. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  4. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  5. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  6. Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dimitri; Doghramji, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness. OSAS can coexist with major depressive disorder, exacerbate depressive symptoms, or be responsible for a large part of the symptom complex of depression. Additionally, in schizophrenia, sleep apnea may develop as a result of chronic neuroleptic treatment and its effect on gains in body weight, a major risk factor for the development of OSAS. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Recognition of the existence of sleep apnea, prompt referral to a sleep specialist, and ultimately treatment of an underlying sleep disorder, such as OSAS, can ameliorate symptoms of psychiatric disease. PMID:20975818

  7. Nasal intubation: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Varun; Acharya, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Nasal intubation technique was first described in 1902 by Kuhn. The others pioneering the nasal intubation techniques were Macewen, Rosenberg, Meltzer and Auer, and Elsberg. It is the most common method used for giving anesthesia in oral surgeries as it provides a good field for surgeons to operate. The anatomy behind nasal intubation is necessary to know as it gives an idea about the pathway of the endotracheal tube and complications encountered during nasotracheal intubation. Various techniques can be used to intubate the patient by nasal route and all of them have their own associated complications which are discussed in this article. Various complications may arise while doing nasotracheal intubation but a thorough knowledge of the anatomy and physics behind the procedure can help reduce such complications and manage appropriately. It is important for an anesthesiologist to be well versed with the basics of nasotracheal intubation and advances in the techniques. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy and the advent of newer devices have abolished the negative effect of blindness of the procedure. PMID:27994382

  8. Hydrogen breath test in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Douwes, A C; Schaap, C; van der Klei-van Moorsel, J M

    1985-04-01

    The frequency of negative hydrogen breath tests due to colonic bacterial flora which are unable to produce hydrogen was determined after oral lactulose challenge in 98 healthy Dutch schoolchildren. There was a negative result in 9.2%. The probability of a false normal lactose breath test (1:77) was calculated from these results together with those from a separate group of children with lactose malabsorption (also determined by hydrogen breath test). A study of siblings and mothers of subjects with a negative breath test did not show familial clustering of this condition. Faecal incubation tests with various sugars showed an increase in breath hydrogen greater than 100 parts per million in those with a positive breath test while subjects with a negative breath test also had a negative faecal incubation test. The frequency of a false negative hydrogen breath test was higher than previously reported, but this does not affect the superiority of this method of testing over the conventional blood glucose determination.

  9. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  10. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    PubMed

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses.

  11. What Happens When You Breathe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your Breathing Lung Diseases & Conditions Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Asthma Bronchitis COPD How the Heart Works Respiratory Failure Send a link to NHLBI to someone ...

  12. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. PMID:27542677

  13. Clinical applications of breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

  14. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  15. A simple nasal anemometer for clinical purposes.

    PubMed

    Hutters, B; Brøndsted, K

    1992-01-01

    There is a need for clinical methods which give more direct information about the behaviour of the velopharyngeal mechanism in natural speech than do the examination methods normally applied to patients suffering from velopharyngeal insufficiency. One possibility is the recording of nasal airflow in order to detect nasal emission of air. The purpose of the present study is to examine the qualities and the characteristics of a simple and cheap nasal anemometer. As this type of flowmeter is considered less reliable than most other flowmeters, its limitations must be clearly understood and accounted for in drawing conclusions. Therefore, nasal airflow in speech obtained with this flowmeter is discussed in relation to nasal airflow obtained by the more reliable pneumotachograph and in relation to nasal airflow data found in the literature. The tests made here suggest that, at least for the type of speech material and measurements used in the present study, reliable nasal airflow data can be obtained by the anemometer.

  16. Flow in the human upper airway: work of breathing and the compliant soft palate and tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermy, Mark; Adams, Cletus; Aplin, Jonathan; Buchajczyk, Marcin; van Hove, Sibylle; Kabaliuk, Natalia; Geoghegan, Patrick; Cater, John

    2016-11-01

    The human upper airway (nasal cavity, pharynx and trachea) filters, heats and humidifies inspired air. Its pressure drop affects the work of breathing (WOB, energy expended to inspire and expire) to a degree which varies from person to person, and which is altered by breathing therapy devices. We report experimental studies using 3D printed models of the upper airway based on CT scans of single individuals (adult and paediatric), and average geometries based on PCA analysis of 150 individuals. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), gas concentration and pressure measurements, coupled with CFD simulation. These reveal the details of the washout of CO2 rich exhaled gas, the direction-dependent time-varying pressure drop, and the effect of high-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) on these phenomena. A 1D multi-compartment model is used to estimate the work of breathing. For the first time, soft (compliant) elements have been included in the model airways and show that the assumption of rigid tissue is acceptable for unassisted breathing, but unrealistic for therapy-assisted flows.

  17. Role of mandibular displacement and airway size in improving breathing after rapid maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral breathing and maxillary deficiency are often associated with steep mandibular plane angle, and retrognathic mandible compared with the faces of healthy controls. Some studies suggested that after rapid maxillary expansion, improvement in nasal breathing and repositioning of mandible with transitory increasing of facial height and, in some cases, spontaneous forward repositioning might occur. The abovementioned mandibular effects could contribute to enlarge oropharynx volume with repositioning of tongue and soft palate with an improvement of upper airway volume after treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate by cone beam computed tomography the role of oropharyngeal volume and mandibular position changes after rapid maxillary expansion in patients showing improved breathing pattern confirmed by polysomnography exam. Methods The final sample of this retrospective study comprised 14 Caucasian patients (mean age 7.6 years) who undergone rapid maxillary expansion with Haas-type expander banded on second deciduous upper molars. Cone beam computed tomography scans and polysomnography exams were collected before placing the appliance (T0) and after 12 months (T1). Mandibular landmarks localization and airway semiautomatic segmentation on cone beam computed tomography scans allowed airway volume computing and measurements. Results No significant differences were found between oropharyngeal airway changes and mandibular displacement after rapid maxillary expansion in growing patients. Conclusions The suggested improvement in upper airway and breathing after rapid maxillary expansion should be further related to different compartments of airway such as rhinopharynx and nasal cavity. PMID:24934328

  18. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  19. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  20. The Effect of Nasal Obstruction after Different Nasal Surgeries Using Acoustic Rhinometry and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Erkan; Cil, Yakup; Incesulu, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The efficiency of nasal surgeries can be determined by objective or subjective methods. We have assessed the effect of nasal obstruction after different nasal surgeries using Acoustic Rhinometry (AR) and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) Scale. METHODS Between May 2011 and May 2012, 40 young adult patients and 10 healthy volunteers as control group who referred to Otorhinolaryngology Clinic in Eskisehir Military Hospital due to nasal obstruction were enrolled. Depending on operation, patients were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: Septoplasty, Group 2: Septoplasty with sprader graft, Group 3: Septorinoplasty and Group 4: Septorhinoplasty with spreader graft. The patients completed NOSE scale, 1 week before and 1 month after the surgery and AR measurements. RESULTS There were a significant improvement in mean NOSE scores of patients and statistical difference was found between pre and post-operational values for each group. There was a statistically significant change of the mean minimal cross section areas (MCA) of the deviated side of nasal passages measured by AR between pre and postoperative period. CONCLUSION In patients with nasal obstruction, functional nasal surgeries which were performed after appropriate medical examination and with right operation methods had a positive impact on quality of life and patient satisfaction. We observed that nasal findings were correlated with NOSE scores and MCA values. So, we suggest that NOSE scale and AR to be used for evaluation of the efficiency of functional nasal surgeries. PMID:27853686

  1. Nasal septal haematoma in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukuezi, A B

    1992-05-01

    A prospective study of 46 consecutive patients with nasal septal haematoma admitted at the General Hospital, Owerri, Nigeria over a five year period is presented. The disease was commoner in males than females. The majority of the cases (65.6 per cent) were of unknown cause and were therefore grouped as spontaneous haematoma while 30.4 per cent were due to trauma. Trauma was more common in patients below the age of 15 years while spontaneous haematoma was common in patients above that age. All the patients with septal haematoma represented 0.2 per cent of total attendances to the ENT clinic over the period. Most of the patients presented with severe and threatening symptoms necessitating intense aggressive management. All the patients were managed by surgical incision and drainage, four had marked nasal abnormalities. Three patients died from a brain abscess as a complication of infected haematoma.

  2. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. PMID:26664051

  3. Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopfenstein, Marie

    2005-09-01

    Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

  4. Influence of Mouth Breathing on the Dentofacial Growth of Children: A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Bahija; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Umar, Dilshad; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The involvement of mouth breathing, facial, and structural growth alterations, especially during childhood has been discussed in medical and dental literature. The relevance of airway obstruction and its assumed effect on facial growth continues to be debated. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at assessing the dental and soft tissue abnormalities in mouth breathing children with and without adenoid hypertrophy. Fifty children aged between 6 and 12 years following otolaryngological examination were divided into three groups: Group I (MBA): Twenty mouth breathing children with enlarged adenoids and 60% of nasopharynx obstruction; Group II (MB): Twenty mouth breathing children without any nasal obstruction; Group III (nasal breathers [NB]): Ten nose breathing healthy individuals (control group). Digital lateral cephalograms were obtained and the dental and soft tissue parameters were assessed using the cephalometric software, Dolphin Imaging 11.5 version. Comparison was done using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Results: There was a significant increase in IMPA (P = 0.001 and 0.007 respectively), interlabial gap (P = 0.007 and 0.002 respectively) and facial convexity (P < 0.001 and 0.001 respectively) in both MBA and MB groups when compared to NB. The upper incisor proclination (P = 0.012) and facial convexity (P = 0.003) were significantly higher in mouthbreathers with adenoid hypertrophy. However, upper incisor proclination (P = 0.009) was statistically signifi cant only in group MB when compared to NB. Conclusion: All subjects with mouth-breathing habit exhibited a significant increase in lower incisor proclination, lip incompetency and convex facial profile. The presence of adenoids accentuated the facial convexity and mentolabial sulcus depth. PMID:25628484

  5. Speech aerodynamics and nasalance in oral cancer patients treated with microvascular transfers.

    PubMed

    Markkanen-Leppänen, Mari; Isotalo, Elina; Mäkitie, Antti A; Suominen, Erkki; Asko-Seljavaara, Sirpa; Haapanen, Marja-Leena

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess speech aerodynamics and nasal acoustic energy during a follow-up period of 12 months in patients having undergone microvascular free flap reconstruction after tumor ablation from the oral cavity or oropharynx, usually followed by radiotherapy. Velopharyngeal function was assessed in terms of velopharyngeal orifice size by a pressure-flow measurement technique as well as by determining the instrumental correlate of perceived nasality (i.e., nasalance) during speech production. Velopharyngeal closure and nasalance were estimated to be adequate before operation both in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer patients. After the operation, at the group level, the oral cavity patients showed adequate velopharyngeal closure and nasalance. In contrast, the postoperative velopharynx orifice size was significantly bigger in the oropharyngeal cancer patients as compared with the oral cavity patients 6 months after operation. However, based on average aerodynamic as well as the nasalance data, the impairment of velopharyngeal function was not regarded clinically significant at the group level in either group of patients. The present treatment protocol served to maintain the prerequisites for normal or close to normal speech physiology.

  6. The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Utiyama, Daniela Mitiyo Odagiri; Yoshida, Carolina Tieko; Goto, Danielle Miyuki; de Santana Carvalho, Tômas; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). METHOD: A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. RESULTS: Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation. PMID:27438569

  7. Nasal Administration of Cholera Toxin as a Mucosal Adjuvant Damages the Olfactory System in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Okada, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) induces severe diarrhea in humans but acts as an adjuvant to enhance immune responses to vaccines when administered orally. Nasally administered CT also acts as an adjuvant, but CT and CT derivatives, including the B subunit of CT (CTB), are taken up from the olfactory epithelium and transported to the olfactory bulbs and therefore may be toxic to the central nervous system. To assess the toxicity, we investigated whether nasally administered CT or CT derivatives impair the olfactory system. In mice, nasal administration of CT, but not CTB or a non-toxic CT derivative, reduced the expression of olfactory marker protein (OMP) in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulbs and impaired odor responses, as determined with behavioral tests and optical imaging. Thus, nasally administered CT, like orally administered CT, is toxic and damages the olfactory system in mice. However, CTB and a non-toxic CT derivative, do not damage the olfactory system. The optical imaging we used here will be useful for assessing the safety of nasal vaccines and adjuvants during their development for human use and CT can be used as a positive control in this test. PMID:26422280

  8. Nasal reconstruction using porous polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Romo, T; Sclafani, A P; Jacono, A A

    2000-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction presents a significant challenge to the facial plastic surgeon. The dual goals of reconstruction are restoration of the desired aesthetic nasal contour and an improved nasal airway. Autologous cartilage and bone are considered optimal grafting material, but their supply is often limited and harvesting entails additional morbidity. Many synthetic materials have been introduced in nasal reconstruction, but high infection and extrusion rates limited their use. Porous high density polyethylene implants present an alternative to autologous material as they allow for fibrovascular ingrowth, leading to stability of the implant and decreased rates of infection. Herein we describe the use of porous high density polyethylene implants for reconstruction of the platyrrhine nose and in revision rhinoplasty. The use of preformed nasal-dorsal tip and alar batten implants are described, as well as the use of columellar strut and premaxillary plumper implants. We believe that porous high density polyethylene implants provide a safe, desirable alternative in functional and aesthetic nasal reconstruction.

  9. C-130J Breathing Resistance Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    the long breathing hose configurations did not provide acceptable breathing resistance in a significant majority of test conditions. 15...requirements in the Air Standard. In general, breathing resistance of the system with the long breathing hoses did not meet the Air Standard

  10. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  11. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  12. Shortness of Breath and Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... 877-CALL NJH (877.225.5654) Submit About Us Careers Patient Portal Login Patients & ... of breath can make eating hard work. If you use all your energy preparing a healthy meal, you may find yourself ...

  13. SCUBA Diving for Blind and Visually Impaired People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candela, Anthony R.

    1982-01-01

    The author, a trained scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) diver who is severely visually impaired provides an orientation to scuba diving as a leisure and career activity. (Author/SB)

  14. Nasal dorsal augmentation with silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Mark A; Parhiscar, Afshin

    2003-11-01

    Silicone rubber has been used safely and effectively for facial augmentation for nearly 5 decades in eastern Asia. We have used silicone rubber nasal implants in primary ethnic rhinoplasty and have found consistent and long-lasting results with low complication rates. Silicone dorsal nasal augmentation in primary rhinoplasty avoids donor site morbidity and implant resorption as seen with autogenous implants. Silicone nasal implants have a low extrusion and infection rate. In the appropriate patient with proper placement, silicone nasal implant is nearly the ideal implant material.

  15. Reconstruction of Small Soft Tissue Nasal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Weathers, William M.; Cheng, David; Thornton, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Nasal defect repair has been one of the more challenging areas of reconstructive surgery due to the lack of uniform nasal skin thickness and complex contours. Currently, algorithms for medium to large nasal soft tissue defects have been well defined by various authors. Small defects, arbitrarily defined as 1 cm or less, still present significant challenges. In this article, the authors examine the options available to repair small soft tissue nasal defects and the appropriate situations in which each method is best suited. PMID:24872751

  16. Perception of Better Nasal Patency Correlates with Increased Mucosal Cooling after Surgery for Nasal Obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Guilherme; Sullivan, Corbin; Frank-Ito, Dennis; Kimbell, Julia; Rhee, John

    2014-11-01

    Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common health problem with 340,000 patients undergoing surgery annually in the United States. Traditionally, otolaryngologists have focused on airspace cross-sectional areas and nasal resistance to airflow as objective measures of nasal patency, but neither of these variables correlated consistently with patients' symptoms. Given that the sensation of nasal airflow is also associated with mucosal cooling (i.e., heat loss) during inspiration, we investigated the correlation between the sensation of nasal obstruction and mucosal cooling in 10 patients before and after NAO surgery. Three-dimensional models of the nasal anatomy were created based on pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify nasal resistance and mucosal cooling. Patient-reported symptoms were measured by a visual analog scale and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE), a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. Our results revealed that the subjective sensation of nasal obstruction correlated with both nasal resistance and heat loss, but the strongest correlation was between the NOSE score and the nasal surface area where heat flux exceeds 50 W /m2 . In conclusion, a significant post-operative increase in mucosal cooling correlates well with patients' perception of better nasal patency after NAO surgery.

  17. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Haribalan; Jain, Ravi; Douglas, Richard G.; Tawhai, Merryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic surgery is performed on patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects. Transient air flow through the nasal passage during calm breathing was simulated. Subject-specific differences in ventilation of the nasal passage were observed. Velocity magnitude at ostium was different between left and right airway. In FESS, airflow in post-surgical subjects, airflow at the maxillary sinus ostium was upto ten times higher during inspiration. In a Lothrop procedure, airflow at the frontal sinus ostium can be upto four times higher during inspiration. In both post-operative subjects, airflow at ostium was not quasi-steady. The subject-specific effect (of surgery) on sinonasal interaction evaluated through airflow simulations may have important consequences for pre- and post-surgical assessment and surgical planning, and design for improvement of the delivery efficiency of nasal therapeutics. PMID:27249219

  18. [Congenital atresia of the anterior nares and hypoplasia of the nasal cavity].

    PubMed

    Murawski, E; Gajewski, P

    1995-01-01

    We described a case of congenital atresia of the anterior nares with a minute opening on the right side and underdevelopment of the nasal cavities. The hard palate was flat and the soft palate was normally mobile. Right anophthalmia and microphthalmia of the left eye with iris coloboma were also noted. In order to provide a nasal airway and to enable the newborn to suck and breathe simultaneously the patient was operated on at four days of age. By means of transpalatal approach a nasal cavity was drilled out of solid bone and connected with the small anterior duct. Trough the new created air duct a nasopharyngeal tube was introduced. In spite of that the external nasal orifice was enlarged later, there was an inclination the orifice to collapse due to lack of nostril cartilages, therefore a nasopharyngeal tube still is used. The physical and intellectual development of the now 11-month old infant is normal. Final reconstruction of the external nose will take place later.

  19. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P.

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  20. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  1. Tumours of the nasal cavity*

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Hauser, B.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the nasal cavity are rare in domestic animals, most cases occurring in the dog. Epithelial tumours are the most common type in carnivores (dogs and cats). In general, the same types of tumour occur in domestic animals as occur in man. There was no significant predisposition for breed in dogs, but in both dogs and cats far more males than females were affected. Metastases occurred only rarely. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:1086156

  2. Neurilemmoma of lateral nasal wall.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Gautam, Parul; Arora, Prerna

    2015-01-01

    Neurilemmoma is a benign tumour of nerve sheath origin that can arise from myelinated nerve. The Head and neck is the most frequent site involved and other sites are scalp, face, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea and ear. Neurilemmoma usually occur as solitary lesions and in association with NF type 2. Malignant transformation is very rare. We report a case of 18 year old male presented with complaint of nasal obstruction and swelling in right side of nose. We discuss the clinical presentation, histologic features, and therapeutic options for such a rare benign lesion.

  3. Changes in nasal airflow and heat transfer correlate with symptom improvement after surgery for nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kimbell, J S; Frank, D O; Laud, Purushottam; Garcia, G J M; Rhee, J S

    2013-10-18

    Surgeries to correct nasal airway obstruction (NAO) often have less than desirable outcomes, partly due to the absence of an objective tool to select the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can be used to investigate nasal airflow, but variables need to be identified that can detect surgical changes and correlate with patient symptoms. CFD models were constructed from pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans for 10 NAO patients showing no evidence of nasal cycling. Steady-state inspiratory airflow, nasal resistance, wall shear stress, and heat flux were computed for the main nasal cavity from nostrils to posterior nasal septum both bilaterally and unilaterally. Paired t-tests indicated that all CFD variables were significantly changed by surgery when calculated on the most obstructed side, and that airflow, nasal resistance, and heat flux were significantly changed bilaterally as well. Moderate linear correlations with patient-reported symptoms were found for airflow, heat flux, unilateral allocation of airflow, and unilateral nasal resistance as a fraction of bilateral nasal resistance when calculated on the most obstructed nasal side, suggesting that these variables may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of nasal surgery objectively. Similarity in the strengths of these correlations suggests that patient-reported symptoms may represent a constellation of effects and that these variables should be tracked concurrently during future virtual surgery planning.

  4. [Long-term effects of home mechanical ventilation with positive pressure using a nasal mask].

    PubMed

    Escarrabill, J; Estopà, R; Robert, D; Casolivé, V; Manresa, F

    1991-10-05

    Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is an efficient alternative in the treatment of patients with chronic respiratory failure secondary to restrictive mechanical disorders (neuromuscular disease, such as Duchenne's disease, thorax deformities due to kyphoscoliosis or tuberculosis sequelae). The case of a patient with severe kyphoscoliosis in the phase of chronic respiratory failure (PaO2 34 mmHg and PaCO2 61 mmHg, breathing ambient air) is presented in which, following the failure of negative pressure mechanical ventilation ("poncho"), positive pressure ventilation was tested with a silicon made-to-measure nasal mask as the access via. Adaptation to HMV was good with the patient using the ventilation nightly. Following 12 months of treatment the patient is able to carry out everyday activities and arterial gasometry breathing ambient air is PaO2 77 mmHg and PaCO2 43 mmHg.

  5. Nasal allergen challenge and mediators release.

    PubMed

    Carlos, A G; Carlos, M L; Ferreira, M B; Santos, A S; Santos, M C; Pedro, E

    1997-11-01

    Nasal allergen challenges, despite not reproducing exactly natural allergen exposure, are a very useful method to understand the complex cellular kinetics and cellular interactions that occur in allergic rhinitis. Cell-specific soluble mediator measurements can give useful diagnostic information. In this paper we present data concerning eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and tryptase measurements after nasal allergen challenge.

  6. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  9. Transnasal microsurgical ethmoidectomy in nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Bagatella, F; Mazzoni, A

    1980-03-01

    A technique of microsurgical ethmoidectomy by a nasal route was devised for and applied to the treatment of nasal polyposis. A description of the operative procedure and the results in 30 cases with a 3-5 years of follow-up are reported.

  10. Fluid mechanics based classification of the respiratory efficiency of several nasal cavities.

    PubMed

    Lintermann, Andreas; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    The flow in the human nasal cavity is of great importance to understand rhinologic pathologies like impaired respiration or heating capabilities, a diminished sense of taste and smell, and the presence of dry mucous membranes. To numerically analyze this flow problem a highly efficient and scalable Thermal Lattice-BGK (TLBGK) solver is used, which is very well suited for flows in intricate geometries. The generation of the computational mesh is completely automatic and highly parallelized such that it can be executed efficiently on High Performance Computers (HPCs). An evaluation of the functionality of nasal cavities is based on an analysis of pressure drop, secondary flow structures, wall-shear stress distributions, and temperature variations from the nostrils to the pharynx. The results of the flow fields of three completely different nasal cavities allow their classification into ability groups and support the a priori decision process on surgical interventions.

  11. Tension pneumocephalus induced by high-flow nasal cannula ventilation in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Deus, Alicia; Pérez-Muñuzuri, Alejandro; López-Suárez, Olalla; Crespo, Pilar; Couce, Maria-Luz

    2017-03-01

    The use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy as respiratory support for preterm infants has increased rapidly worldwide. The evidence available for the use of HFNC is as an alternative to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and in particular to prevent postextubation failure. We report a case of tension pneumocephalus in a preterm infant as a complication during HFNC ventilation. Significant neurological impairment was detected and support was eventually withdrawn. Few cases of pneumocephalus as a complication of positive airway pressure have been reported in the neonatal period, and they all have been related to CPAP. This report reinforces the need to be aware of this rare but possible complication during HFNC therapy, as timely diagnosis and treatment can prevent neurological sequelae. We also stress the importance of paying close attention to flow rate, nasal cannula size and insertion, and mouth position, and of regularly checking insertion depth.

  12. Assessment of nasalance and nasality in patients with a repaired cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Sinko, Klaus; Gruber, Maike; Jagsch, Reinhold; Roesner, Imme; Baumann, Arnulf; Wutzl, Arno; Denk-Linnert, Doris-Maria

    2017-03-15

    In patients with a repaired cleft palate, nasality is typically diagnosed by speech language pathologists. In addition, there are various instruments to objectively diagnose nasalance. To explore the potential of nasalance measurements after cleft palate repair by NasalView(®), we correlated perceptual nasality and instrumentally measured nasalance of eight speech items and determined the relationship between sensitivity and specificity of the nasalance measures by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analyses and AUC (area under the curve) computation for each single test item and specific item groups. We recruited patients with a primarily repaired cleft palate receiving speech therapy during follow-up. During a single day visit, perceptive and instrumental assessments were obtained in 36 patients and analyzed. The individual perceptual nasality was assigned to one of four categories; the corresponding instrumental nasalance measures for the eight specific speech items were expressed on a metric scale (1-100). With reference to the perceptual diagnoses, we observed 3 nasal and one oral test item with high sensitivity. However, the specificity of the nasality indicating measures was rather low. The four best speech items with the highest sensitivity provided scores ranging from 96.43 to 100%, while the averaged sensitivity of all eight items was below 90%. We conclude that perceptive evaluation of nasality remains state of the art. For clinical follow-up, instrumental nasalance assessment can objectively document subtle changes by analysis of four speech items only. Further studies are warranted to determine the applicability of instrumental nasalance measures in the clinical routine, using discriminative items only.

  13. Fabrication of a provisional nasal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Evan B; Golden, Marjorie; Huryn, Joseph M

    2014-11-01

    A technique for making a provisional nasal prosthesis for interim use after the ablation of a midface tumor is described. The technique is especially useful for the re-creation of a nasal form in an expedient and cost-effective manner. A preoperative definitive cast, or moulage, of the patient that includes a nasal form is used to fabricate a vacuum form of the midface. The vacuum form is evaluated on the patient, the extension is adjusted, and an external adhesive knit liner is applied to give the appearance of a contoured nasal bandage. The provisional nasal prosthesis is attached with medical adhesive tape and removed daily by the patient. The prosthesis is easily replaced during the course of treatment and has been found to be functional and esthetically acceptable to those patients receiving care from the Dental Service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

  14. Nasal foreign body removal in children.

    PubMed

    Kiger, James R; Brenkert, Timothy E; Losek, Joseph D

    2008-11-01

    Nasal foreign bodies in children are often managed in the pediatric emergency department. The child is usually between 2 and 4 years old, and the foreign body is most commonly a plastic toy or bead. Nasal foreign bodies are removed by a number of techniques. Positive-pressure expulsion is accomplished by orally applied pressure via a parent's mouth or an Ambu bag or by nasally applied pressure via a catheter or an oxygen source. The object can be washed out with nasally applied saline. Direct mechanical extraction is possible with a variety of tools, including forceps, hooks, or balloon-tipped catheters. Each method carries its own risks and benefits. Serious complications of nasal foreign bodies include posterior dislodgement and aspiration, trauma caused by the object itself or removal attempts, infection, and choanal stenosis. Magnets and button batteries require emergent removal as they carry the risk of septal perforation or necrosis, which may develop within a relatively short time.

  15. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  16. Functional nasal morphology of chimaerid fishes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lauren E; Holmes, William M; Ferrando, Sara; Maclaine, James S; Kelsh, Robert N; Ramsey, Andrew; Abel, Richard L; Cox, Jonathan P L

    2013-09-01

    Holocephalans (chimaeras) are a group of marine fishes comprising three families: the Callorhinchidae (callorhinchid fishes), the Rhinochimaeridae (rhinochimaerid fishes) and the Chimaeridae (chimaerid fishes). We have used X-ray microcomputed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to characterise in detail the nasal anatomy of three species of chimaerid fishes: Chimaera monstrosa, C. phantasma and Hydrolagus colliei. We have shown that the nasal chamber of these three species is linked to the external environment by an incurrent channel and to the oral cavity by an excurrent channel via an oral groove. A protrusion of variable morphology is present on the medial wall of the incurrent channel in all three species, but is absent in members of the two other holocephalan families that we inspected. A third nasal channel, the lateral channel, functionally connects the incurrent nostril to the oral cavity, by-passing the nasal chamber. From anatomical reconstructions, we have proposed a model for the circulation of water, and therefore the transport of odorant, in the chimaerid nasal region. In this model, water could flow through the nasal region via the nasal chamber or the lateral channel. In either case, the direction of flow could be reversed. Circulation through the entire nasal region is likely to be driven primarily by the respiratory pump. We have identified several anatomical features that may segregate, distribute, facilitate and regulate flow in the nasal region and have considered the consequences of flow reversal. The non-sensory cilia lining the olfactory sensory channels appear to be mucus-propelling, suggesting that these cilia have a common protective role in cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays and chimaeras). The nasal region of chimaerid fishes shows at least two adaptations to a benthic lifestyle, and suggests good olfactory sensitivity, with secondary folding enhancing the hypothetical flat sensory surface area by up to 70%.

  17. Nasal Septal Agenesis and Attenuated Lower and Upper Lateral Cartilages in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Sporadic Finding

    PubMed Central

    Aldaghri, Faris; Mrad, Mohamed Amir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cartilaginous nasal septal agenesis is a rare finding. In fact, just one case has been reported to have congenital agenesis of all nasal cartilages in a 6-year-old child by Bakhshaee et al. The literature review shows another case that was reported by Ozek et al in Turkey, where they reported a case of total nasal agenesis that was associated with Tessier no. 30. We could not find a similar case in the literature where only agenesis of the nasal cartilaginous septum was present. Methods/Case Report: This is a case report of a 5-year-old child presenting to our clinic with agenesis of his nasal septum and attenuation of the upper and lower lateral cartilages. His parents were seeking a corrective procedure to improve the shape of his nose. He was a male child with a right unilateral cleft lip and palate that were corrected surgically in 2009 (lip repair) and 2010 (palate repair), respectively. Results: On postoperative week 3, the patient's mother brought him to the emergency department with a history of falling on his face while playing at home. Examination revealed swelling of the nose but no breathing difficulties. He still had an acceptable augmented nose but with sings of deviation and collapse. Discussion: We report this case to find an answer to how such cases can be approached in the future in terms of the surgical intervention required and to study the options of redoing such cases. PMID:28101289

  18. Review of computational fluid dynamics in the assessment of nasal air flow and analysis of its limitations.

    PubMed

    Quadrio, Maurizio; Pipolo, Carlotta; Corti, Stefano; Lenzi, Riccardo; Messina, Francesco; Pesci, Chiara; Felisati, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Nasal breathing difficulties (NBD) are a widespread medical condition, yet decisions pertaining to the surgical treatment of chronic NBD still imply a significant degree of subjective judgement of the surgeon. The current standard objective examinations for nasal flow, e.g., rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinomanometry, do not suffice to reliably direct the surgeon on the extent of any necessary surgery. In the last two decades, several groups have therefore considered the numerical simulation of nasal airflow. Currently, these analyses take many hours of labor from the operator, and require a huge amount of computer time and the use of expensive commercial software. Most often, their results are insufficiently validated so that virtual surgery, which is the eventual application, is still absent in clinical practice. Very recently, however, attempts at considering the finest details of the flow are beginning to appear, for example unsteady turbulent simulations validated through laboratory measurements through particle image velocimetry. In this paper, we first discuss recent developments in how computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is helping surgeons improve their understanding of nasal physiology and the effect of surgical modifications on the airflow in the nasal cavity. In a second part, the procedural and modeling challenges that still prevent CFD from being routinely used in clinical practice are surveyed and critically discussed.

  19. Facial and dental alterations according to the breathing pattern

    PubMed Central

    RETAMOSO, Luciana Borges; KNOP, Luégya Amorin Henriques; GUARIZA FILHO, Odilon; TANAKA, Orlando Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy in the literature about possible interaction of the respiratory mode with the facial and dental structures. Objectives The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment of the changes in facial and dental structures in Angle’s Class II, division 1 malocclusion individuals, divided according to the respiratory pattern (predominantly nasal or mouth), at two distinct moments of craniofacial development. Material and Methods Pogonium and nose measurements were made on the lateral cephalometric tracings (LS’-Pog’, LS’-B’, B’-Pog’, Pog’-PogTeg’, Line NB, Pog-NB, N'-Prn, Prn-NPog, N-Prn-Sn, Prn-Sn-LS). Dental measurements were made on the plaster models (distances between the tips of the canine cusps and the tips of mesial cusps of the first molars) of 40 individuals aged 10 to 14 years (moment 1) and 13 to 16 years (moment 2), 23 being nose breathers (NB) and 17 being predominantly mouth breathers (MB). Results The Student’s-t test and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were applied to indicate differences between the mean values of these variables according to the moments and/or respiratory mode. Conclusions There were alterations in the facial measurements, without interference of the breathing pattern. However, the breathing pattern influenced dental alterations. PMID:21552720

  20. Visual Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Visual Impairment KidsHealth > For Teens > Visual Impairment Print A ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  1. Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163342.html Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier? New technology may also spot esophageal ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A breath test to detect stomach and esophageal cancers shows promise, researchers say. The ...

  2. Polypoidal Lesions in the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kumari M.K., Kalpana; K.C., Mahadeva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nasal polyps are polypoidal masses arising from mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinuses. They are overgrowths of the mucosa that frequently accompany allergic rhinitis. They are freely movable and nontender. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to study the histopathologic spectrum of polypoidal lesions of the nasal cavity. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 100 consecutive cases of polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity, received in the department of pathology. The age and sex of the patients were recorded. The tissues were routinely processed for histopathologic sections and stained with haematoxylin and eosin stains. Special stains like Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) was done wherever applicable. The cases were classified into neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. The neoplastic lesions were further classified according to WHO classification on histopathologic examination. Results: Analysis of 100 polypoidal lesions in the nose and paranasal sinuses with clinical diagnosis of nasal polyps, revealed 66 cases were nonneoplastic and 34 were neoplastic;17 (50%)were benign and 17(50%) were malignant. True nasal polyps both inflammatory and allergic together comprised 44 cases of the 100 polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity. Angiofibroma and inverted papilloma were the most frequent benign tumour accounting for 12/17(0.7%). The most common malignant tumour was anaplastic carcinoma 7/17(0.4%). Nonneoplastic and benign tumours were common in younger age groups whereas malignant tumours were most common in older males. Conclusion: The majority of polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity are nonneoplastic. PMID:23905098

  3. Phenotype and function of nasal dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haekyung; Ruane, Darren; Law, Kenneth; Ho, Yan; Garg, Aakash; Rahman, Adeeb; Esterházy, Daria; Cheong, Cheolho; Goljo, Erden; Sikora, Andrew G.; Mucida, Daniel; Chen, Benjamin; Govindraj, Satish; Breton, Gaëlle; Mehandru, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal vaccination generates immunity across local, regional and distant sites. However, nasal dendritic cells (DC), pivotal for the induction of intranasal vaccine- induced immune responses, have not been studied in detail. Here, using a variety of parameters, we define nasal DCs in mice and humans. Distinct subsets of “classical” DCs, dependent on the transcription factor zbtb46 were identified in the murine nose. The murine nasal DCs were FLT3 ligand-responsive and displayed unique phenotypic and functional characteristics including the ability to present antigen, induce an allogeneic T cell response and migrate in response to LPS or live bacterial pathogens. Importantly, in a cohort of human volunteers, BDCA-1+ DCs were observed to be the dominant nasal DC population at steady state. During chronic inflammation, the frequency of both BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3hi DCs was reduced in the nasal tissue, associating the loss of these immune sentinels with chronic nasal inflammation. The present study is the first detailed description of the phenotypic, ontogenetic and functional properties of nasal DCs and will inform the design of preventative immunization strategies as well as therapeutic modalities against chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:25669151

  4. Adjuncts to Improve Nasal Reconstruction Results.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shayna Lee; Hurst, Eva A

    2017-02-01

    The final cosmetic appearance of nasal reconstruction scars is of paramount importance to both the patient and surgeon. Ideal postreconstruction nasal scars are flat and indistinguishable from surrounding skin. Unfortunately, even with meticulous surgical execution, nasal scars can occasionally be suboptimal. Abnormal fibroblast response can lead to hypertrophic nasal scars, and excessive angiogenesis may lead to telangiectasias or an erythematous scar. Imperfect surgical closure or poor postoperative management can lead to surgical outcomes with step-offs, depressions, suture marks, or dyspigmentation. Aesthetically unacceptable nasal scars can cause pruritus, tenderness, pain, sleep disturbance, and anxiety and depression in postsurgical patients. Fortunately, there are several minimally invasive or noninvasive techniques that allow for enhancement and improvement of cosmetic results with minimal risk and associated downtime. This article provides an overview of adjuncts to improve nasal reconstruction with a focus on techniques to be used in the postoperative period. Armed with an understanding of relevant available therapies, skillful surgeons may drastically improve the final cosmesis and outcome of nasal reconstruction scars.

  5. Canine and feline nasal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Christine

    2006-05-01

    Dogs and cats of our society have outgrown their status as merely pets and are now considered our close companions and even family members. This shift in their roles has led to pet owners seeking improved preventative medicine for their four-legged friends. Subsequently, dogs and cats are living longer lives than ever before and developing more old-age-related diseases. One of the most devastating diseases of older animals is cancer. Once a veterinarian has detected cancer in a pet, pet owners seek advice on their next course of action. This article is intended to provide concise information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of intranasal tumors of the dog and cat. This article outlines the forms of nasal tumors that are the most common, the recommended imaging and biopsy techniques to diagnose the tumor, and the most appropriate treatments of them.

  6. [Could mouth breathing lead to obstructive sleep apnea syndromes. A preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Raskin, S; Limme, M; Poirrier, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary work is to determine an easy method to diagnose "buccal breather" children and "nasal breather" children. Then, to establish a possible connection with the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea. 22 children agreed to participate. Clinical, orthophonic, orthodontic, postural and polysomnographical exams have been carried out. The proposed clinical exam turns out to be a good means of diagnosing between buccal breathers and nasal breathers. The aerophonoscope reveals velar inadequacies in buccal breathers. The latter also present osseous discrepancies mainly in the mandible. The polysomnography reveals a higher apnea/hypopnea index and more agitated sleep in buccal breathers. Mandibular lowering movements are more frequent and similar to those of adults suffering from apnea. These elements similar to those encountered in adults suffering from apnea make us think that buccal breathing could be the origin of obstructive sleep apnea, several decades later.

  7. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  8. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  9. Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

  10. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  11. Computational fluid dynamics investigation of human aspiration in low velocity air: orientation effects on nose-breathing simulations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kimberly R; Anthony, T Renée

    2014-06-01

    An understanding of how particles are inhaled into the human nose is important for developing samplers that measure biologically relevant estimates of exposure in the workplace. While previous computational mouth-breathing investigations of particle aspiration have been conducted in slow moving air, nose breathing still required exploration. Computational fluid dynamics was used to estimate nasal aspiration efficiency for an inhaling humanoid form in low velocity wind speeds (0.1-0.4 m s(-1)). Breathing was simplified as continuous inhalation through the nose. Fluid flow and particle trajectories were simulated over seven discrete orientations relative to the oncoming wind (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 135, 180°). Sensitivities of the model simplification and methods were assessed, particularly the placement of the recessed nostril surface and the size of the nose. Simulations identified higher aspiration (13% on average) when compared to published experimental wind tunnel data. Significant differences in aspiration were identified between nose geometry, with the smaller nose aspirating an average of 8.6% more than the larger nose. Differences in fluid flow solution methods accounted for 2% average differences, on the order of methodological uncertainty. Similar trends to mouth-breathing simulations were observed including increasing aspiration efficiency with decreasing freestream velocity and decreasing aspiration with increasing rotation away from the oncoming wind. These models indicate nasal aspiration in slow moving air occurs only for particles <100 µm.

  12. Pharmacology of Nasal Medications: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Martin, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    The author of this article reviews the pharmacology of nasal medication, focusing on the indications and side-effects. The newer group of non-sedating antihistamines proves to be a useful supplement to disodium cromoglycate and the traditional antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The topical steroids (flunisolide and beclomethasone dipropionate) did not produce a significant incidence of adrenal suppression, mucosal atrophy, or nasal candidiasis. The anticholinergic ipatropium bromide shows promise in the treatment of rhinorrhea. The author also reviews the use of decongestants and emollients and remarks on the factors that affect patient compliance when nasal medications are prescribed. PMID:20469495

  13. Microsurgery in nasal polyposis transnasal ethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Bagatella, F; Mazzoni, A

    1986-01-01

    Transnasal ethmoidectomy is a current treatment in selected cases of nasal polyposis, and with its complicated anatomy offers a proper opportunity for microsurgery. Ten years' experience of microsurgical ethmoidectomy in 155 patients with nasal polyposis is reported. The surgical anatomy of the ethmoid sinus is reviewed with attention to the requirements of the microsurgical approach, and the operative procedure is described. The microsurgical approach is discussed both as a part of the treatment of nasal polyposis and as a new development in rhinologic surgery. Advantages of the technique are the objective safety against risks of the ethmoid area and enhanced sense of security for the surgeon.

  14. Evaluation and Reduction of Nasal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Brian P.; Downey, Cara R.; Stal, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Nasal trauma plays a large and important role in the field of craniofacial trauma. The resulting aesthetic, structural, and functional sequelae associated with these injuries necessitate a thorough understanding of the topic. This includes an appreciation for the unique anatomic features of the region, the important aspects of the initial history and examination, nasal injury classification, and subsequent treatment timing and options. While a large body of literature has accumulated on the topic, the purpose of this article is to focus on both clinically relevant information and pearls of management. Additionally, age-specific concerns, secondary procedures, and nasal fracture grafting, will be addressed as well. PMID:22550458

  15. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  16. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  1. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  2. Drive mechanism for production of simulated human breath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Lambert, J. W.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Simulated breath drive mechanism was developed as subsystem to breathing metabolic simulator. Mechanism reproduces complete range of human breath rate, breath depth, and breath waveform, as well as independently controlled functional residual capacity. Mechanism was found capable of simulating various individual human breathing characteristics without any changes of parts.

  3. [Disturbances of nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum and the rationale for its surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T

    2011-01-01

    Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.

  4. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Blacker, Kara; Luo, Yuehao; Bryant, Bruce; Jiang, Jianbo

    2011-01-01

    Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  5. Nasal polyposis: microsurgical ethmoidectomy and interruption of autonomic innervation vs conventional surgery.

    PubMed

    Rucci, L; Bocciolini, C; Casucci, A

    2003-02-01

    Nasal polyposis is an invalidating disease which develops through chronic inflammation which leads to tissue oedema and eventually polyps. Treatment is aimed at eliminating polyps, resolving rhinitis symptoms, re-establishing nasal breathing and olfaction and preventing recurrence. The pathogenesis can be explained, in part, by degranulation of mast cells and release of mediators attracting eosinophils which, in turn, can cause tissue damage and oedema. Neurovascular reflexes and factors related to the complex anatomy of ethmoidal labyrinth may be responsible for the onset and persistence of oedema. This would offer a rationale to treatments modifying ethmoid anatomy and blocking neurovascular reflexes in the management of nasal polyposis. The advent of microsurgery and of diagnostic and operative endoscopy has led, over the last twenty years, to earlier detection and to less traumatic and more precise surgical treatment of nasal polyps. With these techniques resection of parasympathetic innervation is also possible, which is in keeping with the proposed rationale and cannot be easily achieved by conventional surgery. To evaluate the impact of this resection on the management of nasal polyposis a review of data has been made in a series of patients with diagnosis of nasal polyposis established by clinical examination, resistant to pharmacological therapy and treated between 1983 and 1998 at the Oto-Neuro-Ophthalmology Department of Florence University (Italy). Patients were treated by conventional surgery (386 cases), by microsurgery without resection of the parasympathetic component of the vidian nerve (97 cases), or by microsurgery with resection of this latter component (94 cases). The rate of recurrence and of major post-operative complications, respectively, were: 39.9% and 4.4% for patients treated by conventional surgery; 37.1% and 6.2% with microsurgery without resection of parasympathetic innervation; and 25.5% and 2.1% with resection of this innervation

  6. Effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Dávila, I; Sastre, J; Mullol, J; Montoro, J; Jáuregui, I; Ferrer, M; del Cuvillo, A; Bartra, J; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    H1 antihistamines constitute one of the main references for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Classically, these drugs have been considered effective in controlling sneezing, rhinorrhea and itching, though they have not been regarded as particularly effective in application to nasal obstruction. The most recent studies, involving second-generation H1 antihistamines (desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, rupatadine), have shown these drugs to offer effects upon nasal obstruction significantly superior to those of placebo. The present review examines the effect of bilastine, a new, potent and highly specific H1 antihistamine without sedative effects or cardiac toxicity, upon nasal obstruction. The analysis of the data from the different clinical trials indicates that in patients with allergic rhinitis, the effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction is superior to that of placebo and similar to that of other second-generation H1 antihistamines, manifesting within 24 hours after the start of treatment.

  7. Development of the cetacean nasal skull.

    PubMed

    Klima, M

    1999-01-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to aquatic life habits is reflected, in their nasal region, in three marked changes from the original relations found in land mammals. These changes include (1) the loss of the sense of smell, (2) translocation of the nostrils from the tip of the rostrum to the vertex of the head, and (3) elongation of the anterior head to form a rostrum protruding far towards anterior. The morphogenetic processes taking place during embryogenesis of the nasal skull play a decisive part in the development of all these changes. The lateral parts of the embryonic nasal capsule, encompassing the nasal passages, change their position from horizontal to vertical. At the same time, the structures of the original nasal floor (the solum nasi) are shifted in front of the nasal passages towards the rostrum. The structures of the original nasal roof (the tectum nasi) and of the nasal side wall (the paries nasi) are translocated behind the nasal passages towards the neurocranium. The medial nasal septum (the septum nasi) mostly loses its connection to the nasal passages and is produced into a point protruding far towards anterior. The transformed embryonic nasal skull of the Cetacea can be divided into three sections: 1. The median structures. These include the cartilaginous structures, viz., the rostrum nasi, the septum interorbitale and the spina mesethmoidalis, which are accompanied by the dermal bones, the vomer and the praemaxillare. In adult cetaceans the rostrum nasi is mostly preserved as a robust cartilage of the skull, which may possibly serve as a sound transmitting structure of the sonar system, or it may be responsible for the sensing of water streams and vibrations. 2. The posterior side wall structures. These include the following cartilaginous structures that are mostly heavily reduced or mutually fused: the cupula nasi anterior, the tectum nasi, the lamina cribrosa, the paries nasi, the commissura orbitonasalis, the cupula nasi posterior, the

  8. Anterior rhinomanometry in nasal allergen challenges.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M B; Carlos, A G

    1998-11-01

    Even simple and relatively safe provocation procedures like nasal allergen challenges, should aim to allow detection of positivity with the less possible discomfort to the patient. The objective of this work was to evaluate if the use of rhinomanometric measurements during nasal provocation procedures could allow a decrease in the total administered allergen dose, causing less symptoms to the patients but without increasing the number of false-negatives, comparatively to clinical scores or nasal peak-flow measurements. Our results showed that performing rhinomanometric measurements during nasal HDM challenge procedures can lead in many patients to a reduction in the total dose of allergen administered during the challenge, without loss of sensitivity or specificity. This allergen dose reduction translates in less time consumed during the provocation and less patients' discomfort.

  9. Primary nasal tuberculosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Ravi C; Al Kaabi, Juma; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2004-03-01

    During the past 2 decades, tuberculosis--both pulmonary and extrapulmonary--has re-emerged as a major health problem worldwide. Nasal tuberculosis--either primary or secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis or facial lupus--is rare, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal granulomas. We describe a case of primary nasal tuberculosis in an adult male who presented with a polypoid lesion in one nasal cavity. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the patient's successful response to antituberculous drug treatment. Given the rising incidence of tuberculosis, it is prudent that otolaryngologists remain cognizant of this infection as a potential cause of unusual lesions in the head and neck.

  10. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Mpaltatzidis, Angelos; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tzioufa, Valentini

    2009-05-15

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of the tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.

  11. Comparison of the Upper Airway Dynamics of Oronasal and Nasal Masks with Positive Airway Pressure Treatment using cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ebben, Matthew R.; Milrad, Sara; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Phillips, C. Douglas; Krieger, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It is known that oronasal masks are not as effective at opening the upper airway compared to nasal only continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) masks in patients with sleep disordered breathing. However, the physiological mechanism for this difference in efficacy is not known; although, it has been hypothesized to involve the retroglossal and/or retropalatal region of the upper airway. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in retroglossal and retropalatal anterior-posterior space with the use of oronasal vs. nasal CPAP masks using real-time cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (cMRI). Methods 10-Subjects (8-men, 2-women) with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were given cMRI with both nasal and oronasal CPAP masks. Each subject was imaged with each interface at pressures of 5, 10 and 15 cm of H2O, while in the supine position along the sagittal plane. Results The oronasal mask produced significantly less airway opening in the retropalatal region of the upper airway compared to the nasal mask interface. During exhalation, mask style had a significant effect on anterior-posterior distance p=0.016. No differences were found in the retroglossal region between mask styles. Conclusions Our study confirmed previous findings showing differences in treatment efficacy between oronasal and nasal mask styles. We have shown anatomic evidence that the nasal mask is more effective in opening the upper airway compared to the oronasal mask in the retropalatal region. PMID:25924934

  12. A Novel Approach for Full-Thickness Defect of the Nasal Alar Rim: Primary Closure of the Defect and Reduction of the Contralateral Normal Ala for Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Min-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In full-thickness defects of the nasal alar rim, to achieve projection and maintain airway patency, cartilage graft is frequently needed. However, cartilage graft presents a challenge in considerations such as appropriate donor site, skeletal shape and size, and healing of the donor area. To avoid these demerits, we tried primary closure of alar rim defects by also making the contralateral normal ala smaller. We treated two patients who had a full-thickness nasal alar defect after tumor excision. Cartilage graft was considered for the reconstruction. However, their alar rims were overly curved and their nostril openings were large. To utilize their nasal shape, we did primary closure of the defect rather than cartilage graft, and then downsized the contralateral nasal ala by means of wedge resection to make the alae symmetric. Both patients were satisfied with their aesthetic results, which showed a smaller nostril and nearly straight alar rims. Moreover, functionally, there was no discomfort during breathing in both patients. We propose our idea as one of the reconstruction options for nasal alar defects. It is a simple and easy-to-perform procedure, in addition to enhancing the nasal contour. This method would be useful for patients with a large nostril and an overly curved alar rim. PMID:26719646

  13. Brain responses to emotional stimuli during breath holding and hypoxia: an approach based on the independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Danilo; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Bedini, Remo; Pingitore, Alessandro; Passera, Mirko; Landi, Alberto; L'Abbate, Antonio; Sebastiani, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary breath holding represents a physiological model of hypoxia. It consists of two phases of oxygen saturation dynamics: an initial slow decrease (normoxic phase) followed by a rapid drop (hypoxic phase) during which transitory neurological symptoms as well as slight impairment of integrated cerebral functions, such as emotional processing, can occur. This study investigated how breath holding affects emotional processing. To this aim we characterized the modulation of event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by emotional-laden pictures as a function of breath holding time course. We recorded ERPs during free breathing and breath holding performed in air by elite apnea divers. We modeled brain responses during free breathing with four independent components distributed over different brain areas derived by an approach based on the independent component analysis (ICASSO). We described ERP changes during breath holding by estimating amplitude scaling and time shifting of the same components (component adaptation analysis). Component 1 included the main EEG features of emotional processing, had a posterior localization and did not change during breath holding; component 2, localized over temporo-frontal regions, was present only in unpleasant stimuli responses and decreased during breath holding, with no differences between breath holding phases; component 3, localized on the fronto-central midline regions, showed phase-independent breath holding decreases; component 4, quite widespread but with frontal prevalence, decreased in parallel with the hypoxic trend. The spatial localization of these components was compatible with a set of processing modules that affects the automatic and intentional controls of attention. The reduction of unpleasant-related ERP components suggests that the evaluation of aversive and/or possibly dangerous situations might be altered during breath holding.

  14. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Sen, I; Sikder, B; Sinha, R; Paul, R

    2004-04-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it' s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it' s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  15. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:22073112

  16. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  17. Metabolism of dopamine by the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chemuturi, Nagendra V; Donovan, Maureen D

    2006-11-01

    The nasal route of administration offers several advantages over oral and intravenous administration, including the ability to avoid hepatic first pass metabolism. Dopamine deficiency has been associated with several neurological disorders; it has been shown to have good systemic bioavailability and significant uptake into the CNS following intranasal administration. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the limiting role of mucosal metabolism of dopamine during nasal absorption. In vitro transport and initial rate studies were carried out using nasal mucosal explants to study dopamine permeability and metabolism. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was the only metabolite detected. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), the enzyme responsible for DOPAC formation, was localized to the submucosal region of the nasal explants. The amount of DOPAC formed during the transport studies was less than 0.5% of the initial amount of dopamine placed into the system. Iproniazid, an MAO inhibitor, blocked DOPAC formation but had no effect on dopamine transport. The limited extent of dopamine metabolism compared to its mucosal transport demonstrates that nasal dopamine transport is not significantly reduced by mucosal metabolism and suggests that the nasal route may be promising for the efficient delivery of dopamine to the CNS.

  18. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  19. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  20. Acute exposure to acid fog: influence of breathing pattern on effective dose.

    PubMed

    Bowes, S M; Francis, M; Laube, B L; Frank, R

    1995-02-01

    Concern about the possible adverse health effects of acid fog has been fed by two observations: air pollution disasters earlier in this century were typically associated with fog, and current samples of fog water can be strongly acid. To study the acute effects of acid fog on the lung, the authors generated a monodisperse 10 microM MMAD aerosol of H2SO4 with a pH of 2.0 and a nominal concentration of 500 micrograms/m3. They exposed seven healthy young men on alternate days to acid or control equiosmolar NaCl aerosol during 40 min of resting ventilation and 20 min of exercise; the latter was sufficiently intense to induce oronasal breathing. Exposure was by means of a head dome, a head-only exposure device that permitted continuous measurement (unfettered breathing) of Vr, f, VE, and the onset and persistence of oronasal breathing. In this article the authors compare the relative importance of parameters contributing to the between-subject variability in estimated hydrogen ion dose to the lower airways (H+LAW), based on analysis of variance. Physiologic parameters accounted for 70% of the variability, of which 34% was due to differences in duration of oronasal breathing (tON) and 36% to differences in ventilation rate during oronasal breathing (VE(ON)); inhaled hydrogen ion concentration [H+], the environmental parameter, contributed only 30%. Minute ventilation at the time of transition from nasal to oronasal breathing varied significantly among subjects even if normalized to FVC, an index of lung size.

  1. Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow.

    PubMed

    Mogera, Umesha; Sagade, Abhay A; George, Subi J; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2014-02-17

    Measuring humidity in dynamic situations calls for highly sensitive fast response sensors. Here we report, a humidity sensor fabricated using solution processed supramolecular nanofibres as active resistive sensing material. The nanofibres are built via self- assembly of donor and acceptor molecules (coronene tetracarboxylate and dodecyl methyl viologen respectively) involved in charge transfer interactions. The conductivity of the nanofibre varied sensitively over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) with unprecedented fast response and recovery times. Based on UV-vis, XRD and AFM measurements, it is found that the stacking distance in the nanofibre decreases slightly while the charge transfer band intensity increases, all observations implying enhanced charge transfer interaction and hence the conductivity. It is demonstrated to be as a novel breath sensor which can monitor the respiration rate. Using two humidity sensors, a breath flow sensor was made which could simultaneously measure RH and flow rate of exhaled nasal breath. The integrated device was used for monitoring RH in the exhaled breath from volunteers undergoing exercise and alcohol induced dehydration.

  2. Sucrose malabsorption in children: noninvasive diagnosis by interval breath hydrogen determination.

    PubMed

    Perman, J A; Barr, R G; Watkins, J B

    1978-07-01

    To assess whether malabsorption of specific sugars is easily detected in a pediatric population by interval measurement of breath hydrogen excretion, hydrogen concentration was determined following administration of oral sucrose to six sucrose-intolerant children with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency and in 16 sucrose-tolerant control subjects. Breath samples were collected by means of a newly devised nasal prong technique not requiring active patient cooperation and suitable for use in all age groups. Breath hydrogen concentrations obtained by samples collected by this method correlated highly (r = 0.94) with the previously validated modified Haldane-Priestley tube method for sampling alveolar air. Identification of sucrose-intolerant individuals was achieved on the basis of hydrogen excretion: peak values, expressed as parts per million above baseline (deltappm), equalled 114 +/- 63 (mean +/- SD) versus 2.4 +/- 3.6 deltappm in control subjects (P = 0.007). Best discrimination between the groups occurred at 90 minutes postingestion. The findings validate this simple method for collection of expired air and demonstrate that breath hydrogen determination permits the noninvasive detection of sucrose malabsorption in children.

  3. Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow

    PubMed Central

    Mogera, Umesha; Sagade, Abhay A.; George, Subi J.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring humidity in dynamic situations calls for highly sensitive fast response sensors. Here we report, a humidity sensor fabricated using solution processed supramolecular nanofibres as active resistive sensing material. The nanofibres are built via self- assembly of donor and acceptor molecules (coronene tetracarboxylate and dodecyl methyl viologen respectively) involved in charge transfer interactions. The conductivity of the nanofibre varied sensitively over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) with unprecedented fast response and recovery times. Based on UV-vis, XRD and AFM measurements, it is found that the stacking distance in the nanofibre decreases slightly while the charge transfer band intensity increases, all observations implying enhanced charge transfer interaction and hence the conductivity. It is demonstrated to be as a novel breath sensor which can monitor the respiration rate. Using two humidity sensors, a breath flow sensor was made which could simultaneously measure RH and flow rate of exhaled nasal breath. The integrated device was used for monitoring RH in the exhaled breath from volunteers undergoing exercise and alcohol induced dehydration. PMID:24531132

  4. Effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on pulmonary function in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Yun-Seob

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the feedback breathing exercise group and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group. The feedback breathing exercise group was asked to breathe with feedback breathing device, and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group was asked to perform diaphragm respiration. Respiratory function was evaluated when a subject sat on a chair comfortably. [Results] There was a significant difference in the functional vital capacity and slow vital capacity before and after all breathing exercises. There was a significant between-group difference in functional vital capacity. However, no between-group difference was found in slow vital capacity. [Conclusion] Diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise can affect respiratory function.

  5. Effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on pulmonary function in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Yun-Seob

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the feedback breathing exercise group and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group. The feedback breathing exercise group was asked to breathe with feedback breathing device, and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group was asked to perform diaphragm respiration. Respiratory function was evaluated when a subject sat on a chair comfortably. [Results] There was a significant difference in the functional vital capacity and slow vital capacity before and after all breathing exercises. There was a significant between-group difference in functional vital capacity. However, no between-group difference was found in slow vital capacity. [Conclusion] Diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise can affect respiratory function. PMID:28210046

  6. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  7. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  8. Asthma: vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) and other dysfunctional breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Balkissoon, Ron; Kenn, Klaus

    2012-12-01

    . DB is a poorly understood disorder with features that overlap with VCD and asthma. The dysfunctional pattern may reflect abnormalities in the rate or depth of breathing or in breathing mechanics that may involve the nasal passages, oropharynx, larynx, or chest wall muscles. Not unlike VCD, patients with DB are often diagnosed with asthma, and their symptoms do not improve on asthma medicines. There is no consensus regarding diagnostic criteria or appropriate testing for DB. The pathophysiology of DB is poorly understood, but psychological or physiological stress may precipitate episodes in some patients. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach (including speech therapy and psychological support). Prognosis is usually good.

  9. Septal suturing following nasal septoplasty, a valid alternative for nasal packing?

    PubMed

    Lemmens, W; Lemkens, P

    2001-01-01

    Septal suturing following nasal septoplasty, a valid alternative for nasal packing? After septal surgery most surgeons still routinely perform nasal packing since this is generally recommended. The aims of packing are numerous: haemostasis, prevention of haematoma, increase septal flap apposition, closure of dead space and prevention of displacement of the replaced cartilage. However, nasal packing is not an innocuous procedure and may lead to cardiovascular changes, continued bleeding, nasal injury, hypoxia, foreign body reaction or infection. The major disadvantage of nasal packing is patient discomfort--usually necessitating hospital stay--and the need to administer antibiotics. Therefore alternatives were sought. Sessions, Lee and Vukovic conceived and reported in the eighties forms of continuous septal suturing, but are not widely used. A similar technique of septal suturing after nasal septoplasty without nasal packing was used in 226 consecutive surgical procedures and reviewed retrospectively. Complications like postoperative episodes of bleeding, infections, septal haematomas, septal perforations or synechia were not noted. On one patient a recurrence of the septal deviation occurred. Patients reported almost no discomfort. Moreover, the septal surgery procedure could be carried out on a day-surgery basis. Readmission of a patient was never necessary. Based on these observations the septal suturing technique is a valid alternative to intranasal packing following septal surgery.

  10. Correlations of nasal responses to leukotriene D4 and histamine nasal provocation with quality of life in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Xia, Shu; Shi, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) greatly affect the quality of life (QoL) in the patients with AR. The correlations of nasal response to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and histamine nasal provocation with health related QoL in AR are not clear. Objective To evaluate the correlations of nasal response to LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge with QoL in AR. Methods Patients randomly underwent LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge tests, completed the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQoLQ), and rating the symptom severity score (total symptom score 4, TSS4) in the previous week. The correlations between nasal challenge tests induced nasal responses and QoL in RQoLQ were analyzed. Results A total of 25 eligible AR patients enrolled and finished both LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge and completed the questionnaire of RQoLQ. Histamine nasal challenge induced sneezing, increased nasal resistant were correlated with most of the dimensions (general, practical, nasal, eye problems, and quality of sleep, p < 0.05), while LTD4 nasal challenge induced sneeze, increased nasal resistant only correlated with nasal and ocular problems. On the contrary, the severity of the sneeze assessed by TSS4, was not correlated with QoL, while the severity of rhinorrhea, congestion, and nasal pruritus were correlated with nasal and practical problems, and nasal congestion was also correlated with ocular problems (r = 0.60, p = 0.01). Conclusion LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge induced nasal responses were correlated with different clinical symptoms severity and QoL, which can be used as a good diagnosis and evaluation methods for the management of AR. PMID:27803885

  11. Strengthening Impaired-Driving Enforcement in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Progress in reducing alcohol-impaired driving crash fatalities in the United States has stagnated over the last 15 years. This paper reviews two current U.S. driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) laws and their enforcement with an aim toward generating opportunities to improve their enforcement approaches. Methods Impaired-driving enforcement methods in Europe and Australia are compared with those in the United States, and the legal basis for current DWI criminal procedures is examined. Results An examination of relevant U.S. Supreme Court decisions and current legal practices indicates that the requirements for use of breath-test technology to determine blood alcohol concentrations of drivers on public roads are not entirely clear. Several potential methods for using field breath-test technology to improve the detection of impaired drivers are suggested. These include (a) breath testing all drivers stopped for certain violations that have a high probability of involving an impaired driver, (b) breath testing all drivers at sobriety checkpoints, and (c) breath testing all drivers involved in fatal and serious injury crashes. Conclusions Breath-test technology has enabled other countries around the world to adopt and implement enforcement strategies that serve as both general and specific deterrents to alcohol-impaired driving. Many of these enforcement strategies have been shown to be effective. If any one of these strategies can be adopted in the United States, further progress in reducing impaired driving is probable. It may be necessary to provide the U.S. Supreme Court with a test case of breath testing all drivers at a sobriety checkpoint, depending upon whether or not a police agency is willing to use that strategy. PMID:23944649

  12. Nasal glioma or nasal glial heterotopia? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Nicolás, M; Sanchez Fernandez de Sevilla, C; Lopez-Ginés, C; Peydro-Olaya, A; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2002-01-01

    The term nasal glioma has been used to describe a congenital benign tumor of the nasal region containing neural tissue. The nature of these lesions remains open to controversy, because of the different locations of the heterotopic neural tissue involved, the deficient development of the bony structures and the persistence or not of the structural relations with the central nervous system. More recent terms define these lesions as ectopic nervous tissue. A clinical, morphological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study is made of two cases of nasal glioma, one associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In this case, the mother had been treated with clomiphene. In such cases, morphological and immunohistochemical findings support that "nasal glioma" remain valid as a descriptive term defining a congenital benign tumor composed of heterotopic neural tissue within the nasal region and covered by skin, that may recur following incomplete surgical resection.

  13. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  14. Use of Nasal Bubble CPAP in Children with Hypoxemic Clinical Pneumonia—Report from a Resource Limited Set-Up

    PubMed Central

    KiranBabu, HB; Singhi, Sunit; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Nasal bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is preferred in developing economies for easy applicability and low cost. Because its use in older children is unexplored, we sought to evaluate its utility in hypoxemic clinical pneumonia. Methods: Of 330 children (1 month–12 years) with clinical pneumonia enrolled prospectively over 1 year, those with increased work of breathing and/or SpO2 <92% received bCPAP delivered via an underwater ‘T' tube through nasal prongs. Proportion requiring intubation despite bCPAP constituted primary outcome. Incidence of complications, duration of bCPAP and emergency stay were secondary outcomes. Results: Oxygen was initiated by nasal prongs (NPO2) in 204 (61.8%), and by bCPAP in 110 (33.3%). Sixteen (4.8%) were intubated at the outset. Fifty-three (25.9%) on NPO2 were shifted to bCPAP for worsening distress and hypoxemia. Only three (1.8%) from bCPAP group required intubation, of which one died. Failure rate and complications were negligent. The median emergency stay was 4 days. Conclusions: Nasal bCPAP was safe and effective in children with hypoxemic clinical pneumonia. PMID:26428195

  15. Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Salam, Badar; Camilleri, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Nasal septal abscess is an uncommon condition. Most commonly it is secondary to nasal trauma, which leads to haematoma, and subsequent abscess formation. There are other less common causes like sinusitis, dental infections and furunculosis. Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess has also been reported in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of non-traumatic, spontaneous nasal septal abscess, in a healthy immunocompetent patient with no evidence of sinusitis or other localized infections. Using Medline and Google.co.uk search applications, there has been one previous report of such a condition. We stress the importance of excluding nasal septal abscess in patients presenting with nasal obstruction especially with signs of toxaemia.

  16. Same noses, different nasalance scores: data from normal subjects and cleft palate speakers for three systems for nasalance analysis.

    PubMed

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences. The nasalance distance was largest for the Nasometer and smallest for the OroNasal System. When the calculation was based on nasalance magnitudes, results for sensitivity ranged from 57.9% to 81.8% and results for specificity ranged from 62.0% to 76.0%. When the calculation was based on nasalance distances, results for sensitivity ranged from 84.2% to 100.0% and results for specificity ranged from 82.0% to 100.0%. Results suggest that nasalance scores from the three systems are not interchangeable. Diagnostic efficacy improved when the calculations were based on nasalance distances rather than magnitudes, but further research is warranted to corroborate these findings.

  17. Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty Executive Summary.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2017-02-01

    knowledge gaps, practice variations, and clinical concerns associated with this surgical procedure; it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for improving nasal form and function after rhinoplasty. Recommendations in this guideline concerning education and counseling to the patient are intended to include the caregiver if the patient is <18 years of age. Action Statements The Guideline Development Group made the following recommendations: (1) Clinicians should ask all patients seeking rhinoplasty about their motivations for surgery and their expectations for outcomes, should provide feedback on whether those expectations are a realistic goal of surgery, and should document this discussion in the medical record. (2) Clinicians should assess rhinoplasty candidates for comorbid conditions that could modify or contraindicate surgery, including obstructive sleep apnea, body dysmorphic disorder, bleeding disorders, or chronic use of topical vasoconstrictive intranasal drugs. (3) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, should evaluate the rhinoplasty candidate for nasal airway obstruction during the preoperative assessment. (4) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, should educate rhinoplasty candidates regarding what to expect after surgery, how surgery might affect the ability to breathe through the nose, potential complications of surgery, and the possible need for future nasal surgery. (5) The clinician, or the clinician's designee, should counsel rhinoplasty candidates with documented obstructive sleep apnea about the impact of surgery on nasal airway obstruction and how obstructive sleep apnea might affect perioperative management. (6) The surgeon, or the surgeon's designee, should educate rhinoplasty patients before surgery about strategies to manage discomfort after surgery. (7) Clinicians should document patient satisfaction with their nasal appearance and with their nasal function at a minimum of 12 months after rhinoplasty. The guideline development group

  18. [Nasal Highflow (NHF): A New Therapeutic Option for the Treatment of Respiratory Failure].

    PubMed

    Bräunlich, J; Nilius, G

    2016-01-01

    The therapy of choice in hypoxemic respiratory failure (type 1) is the application of supplemental oxygen at flow rates of 1 to 15 l/min via nasal prongs or mask. Non-invasive or invasive positive pressure ventilation will be initiated when the oxygen therapy effects are not sufficient or if hypercapnic respiratory failure (type 2) is the underlying problem. Recently, an alternative therapy option is available, from the pathophysiology it can be classified between oxygen therapy and positive pressure ventilation. The therapy called Nasal High Flow (NHF) is based on the nasal application of a heated and humidified air oxygen mixture with a flow range of up to 60 l/min. The precise pathophysiological principles of NHF are only partly understood, yet various aspects are well studied already: it is possible to deliver high oxygen concentrations, airway dryness can be avoided, dead space ventilation reduced and clearance of nasal dead space is achieved. Additionally, an end expiratory positive pressure is built up, which helps to prevent airway collapse, thus resulting in an improvement of respiratory efficiency and reduction of breathing work. Current studies demonstrate improvement in gas exchange and reduction of reintubation rate when applying the NHF treatment in acute respiratory failure. Thus the NHF therapy attracts attention in intensive care medicine. The application in other fields like chronic respiratory insufficiency is less well clarified. The objectives of this review are to present the pathophysiological effects and mechanisms of NHF, as far as understood, and to give an overview over the current state of relevant studies.

  19. Extra intestinal influences on exhaled breath hydrogen measurements during the investigation of gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D G; Binfield, P; De Belder, A; O'Brien, J; Warren, S; Wilson, M

    1985-12-01

    During the clinical investigation of patients with gastrointestinal disease by exhaled breath hydrogen measurement, the occurrence of inexplicable variations in recorded hydrogen values led to a search for extra intestinal factors which were capable of adversely influencing breath hydrogen concentration and impairing the diagnostic accuracy of the test. Serial breath samples were collected from normal subjects under a variety of conditions which might occur during routine clinical study, including, hyperventilation, exercise, cigarette smoking, and carbohydrate ingestion. Breath hydrogen concentrations were consistently reduced by hyperventilation (p less than 0.01) and exercise (p less than 0.05). Cigarette smoking, in contrast, caused a marked rise in measured breath hydrogen (p less than 0.01), as did oral carbohydrate (p less than 0.05). Prior bactericidal mouthwash abolished this carbohydrate associated rise, suggesting that the hydrogen was the result of fermentation by oropharyngeal bacteria. Because, in all instances, the changes in breath hydrogen were of sufficient magnitude to interfere with data interpretation, it is recommended that these factors are eliminated, whenever possible, from conditions of study.

  20. A new strategy for respiration compensation, applied toward 3D free-breathing cardiac MRI.

    PubMed

    Madore, Bruno; Farnebäck, Gunnar; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Durán-Mendicuti, Alejandra

    2006-07-01

    In thorax and abdomen imaging, image quality may be affected by breathing motion. Cardiac MR images are typically obtained while the patient holds his or her breath, to avoid respiration-related artifacts. Although useful, breath-holding imposes constraints on scan duration, which in turn limits the achievable resolution and SNR. Longer scan times would be required to improve image quality, and effective strategies are needed to compensate for respiratory motion. A novel approach at respiratory compensation, targeted toward 3D free-breathing cardiac MRI, is presented here. The method aims at suppressing the negative effects of respiratory-induced cardiac motion while capturing the heart's beating motion. The method is designed so that the acquired data can be reconstructed in two different ways: First, a time series of images is reconstructed to quantify and correct for respiratory motion. Then, the corrected data are reconstructed a final time into a cardiac-phase series of images to capture the heart's beating motion. The method was implemented, and initial results are presented. A cardiac-phase series of 3D images, covering the entire heart, was obtained for two free-breathing volunteers. The present method may prove especially useful in situations where breath-holding is not an option, for example, for very sick, mentally impaired or infant patients.

  1. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-06-16

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection.

  2. Nasonasal reflexes, the nasal cycle, and sneeze.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, James N; Kim, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is a complex tissue that interacts with its environment and effects local and systemic changes. Receptors in the nose receive signals from stimuli, and respond locally through afferent, nociceptive, type C neurons to elicit nasonasal reflex responses mediated via cholinergic neurons. This efferent limb leads to responses in the nose (eg, rhinorrhea, glandular hyperplasia, hypersecretion with mucosal swelling). Anticholinergic agents appear useful against this limb for symptomatic relief of a "runny nose." Chronic exposure to allergens can lead to hyperresponsiveness of the nasal mucosa. As a result, receptors upregulate specific ion channels to increase the sensitivity and potency of their reflex response. Nasal stimuli also affect distant parts of the body. Nerves in the sinus mucosa cause vasodilation; the lacrimal glands can be stimulated by nasal afferent triggers. Even the cardiopulmonary system can be affected via the trigeminal chemosensory system, where sensed irritants can lead to changes in tidal volume, respiratory rate, and blink frequency. The sneeze is an airway defense mechanism that removes irritants from the nasal epithelial surface. It is generally benign, but can lead to problems in certain circumstances. The afferent pathway involves histamine-mediated depolarization of H1 receptor-bearing type C trigeminal neurons and a complex coordination of reactions to effect a response.

  3. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  4. What's New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer What’s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research ... About Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers? What’s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research ...

  5. Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap for nasal lining in reconstruction of large full thickness lateral nasal defects.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-12-01

    Obviously, restoring the nasal lining is a great challenge in the reconstruction of nasal defects. Full thickness nasal defects usually require special flaps for reconstructing the nasal lining. Intranasal mucosal flaps, hinge over flaps, perinasal second flaps, folded or second forehead flaps and finally free flaps are examples that can be used for this purpose. Moreover, the case presented in this article expresses a new role for the superiorly based Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap in this topic. Furthermore, mucosal island variant of this flap is presented to reduce the tension on this flap while restoring the nasal lining in large full thickness nasal defect.

  6. The failure of feedback on alcohol impairment to reduce impaired driving.

    PubMed Central

    Nau, P A; Van Houten, R; Rolider, A; Jonah, B A

    1993-01-01

    We examined the effects of rules to govern drinking, individual feedback on blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and public posting of group data on impaired driving on the incidence of impaired driving. Level of impairment was determined from breath samples taken from tavern patrons. Following baseline, an intervention package consisting of (a) cards to guide patrons in pacing their drinking to stay under the legal limit, (b) individual feedback on BAC, and (c) posted group feedback on the percentage of patrons driving while impaired the preceding week was introduced in two taverns. Results indicated that the intervention package did not reduce the percentage of impaired drivers departing either tavern. The addition of a brief intensive police enforcement program directed at impaired driving produced a short-term reduction in impaired driving. PMID:8407684

  7. The failure of feedback on alcohol impairment to reduce impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Nau, P A; Van Houten, R; Rolider, A; Jonah, B A

    1993-01-01

    We examined the effects of rules to govern drinking, individual feedback on blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and public posting of group data on impaired driving on the incidence of impaired driving. Level of impairment was determined from breath samples taken from tavern patrons. Following baseline, an intervention package consisting of (a) cards to guide patrons in pacing their drinking to stay under the legal limit, (b) individual feedback on BAC, and (c) posted group feedback on the percentage of patrons driving while impaired the preceding week was introduced in two taverns. Results indicated that the intervention package did not reduce the percentage of impaired drivers departing either tavern. The addition of a brief intensive police enforcement program directed at impaired driving produced a short-term reduction in impaired driving.

  8. [Breath-analysis tests in gastroenetrological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Caspary, W F

    1975-12-01

    The introduction of a simple method for analysis of 14CO2 in breath allowed a more widely application of breath-tests in the diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases. During a breath-test a 14C-labelled compound is administered orally and 14CO2 is subsequently measured in breath by discontinuous samplings of 14CO2 by virtue of a trapping solution (hyamine hydroxide). Most helpful tests in gastroenterology are the 14C-glycyl-cholate breath test for detecting increased deconjugation of bile acids due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or bile acid malabsorption in ileal resection or Crohn's disease of the ileum, the 14C-lactose breath test in lactase deficiency, whereas the 14C-tripalmitin test seems less helpful in the diagnosis of fat malabsorption. A 14C-aminopyrine breath test may turn out to be a simple and valuable liver function test. Oral loading tests with breath analysis of H2 have shown to be helpful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, determination of intestinal transit time and intestinal gas production. Due to technical reasons (gas-chromatographie analysis) H2-breath analysis is still limited to research centers. Despite low radiation doses after oral administration of 14C-labelled compounds oral loading tests with H2- or 13C-analysis might be preferable in the future.

  9. Breath ammonia measurement in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kearney, David J; Hubbard, Todd; Putnam, David

    2002-11-01

    Our aim was to define the utility of breath ammonia measurement in assessing Helicobacter pylori infection. Volunteers breathed into a device containing three fiberoptic NH3 sensors at baseline and after ingesting 300 mg of urea. Breath ammonia levels were compared to the [14C]urea breath test. Thirteen subjects were tested. Before urea ingestion, H. pylori-positive subjects had significantly lower breath ammonia levels than negative subjects (mean +/- SD, 0.04 ppm +/- 0.09 vs 0.49 ppm +/- 0.24, P = 0.002) and had a significantly greater increases in breath ammonia after urea ingestion (range 198-1,494% vs 6-98%). One H. pylori-positive subject underwent treatment and breath ammonia levels shifted from the pattern seen in positive subjects to that seen in negative subjects. In conclusion, breath ammonia measurement for H. Pylori-positive and negative subjects showed distinct patterns. Breath ammonia measurement may be feasible as a diagnostic test for H. pylori.

  10. Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

    2000-12-01

    Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

  11. [Experiences with therapy of pediatric sleep apnea syndrome and obstructive nasopharyngeal respiratory pattern with nasal BIPAP and CPAP therapy].

    PubMed

    Zwacka, G; Scholle, S

    1995-03-01

    Sleep-apnea in childhood shows a frequency similar to adults but it is caused by many other reasons. Therapeutic effects of nasal CPAP and BIPAP can replace surgical ENT-Therapy in large extent mainly in ages at 2-5 years. But also in older children is it possible to treat obstructive sleep apnea and hypoventilation neuromuscular diseases by BIPAP. Examples for treatment of children by BIPAP who are two years old were given. Other demonstrated cases cover children with stridor congenitus, obstructive sleep apnea, hypoventilation, adenoidal breathing disturbances with primary surgical treated tonsillar hyperplasia and one case of thoracal postobstructive malformation with therapeutic BIPAP options.

  12. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  13. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  14. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  15. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  16. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  17. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  18. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  19. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  20. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  1. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  2. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  3. Breathing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... size of the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and ... volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, while the pressure within it increases. As a result, the lungs ...

  4. Comparison of functional results after ethmoidectomy and nasalization for diffuse and severe nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, R; Pigret, D; Decroocq, F

    1997-07-01

    Taking advantage of a natural experimental situation, we compared, retrospectively, functional results after nasalization and ethmoidectomy for diffuse nasal polyposis. Nasalization was a radical ethmoidectomy systematically removing all the bony lamellae and mucosa within the labyrinth, with large antrostomy, sphenoidotomy, frontotomy, and middle turbinectomy (Surgeon 1, 39 consecutive patients operated on between March and September 1991). Ethmoidectomy was a less systematic procedure, that was adapted to the extent of the pathology (Surgeon 2, 37 consecutive patients, operated on between October 1991 and November 1994). In May 1994, a third physician mailed a questionnaire simultaneously to all patients including 10-point visual analog scales 34/39 patients in the nasalization group (age: 28-71 years: 20 asthmatics; follow-up: 32-36 months), and 29/37 patients in the ethmoidectomy group (age: 26-65 years: 9 asthmatics: follow-up: 18-31 months) participated in the study. The overall nasal improvement was 8.8 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SEM) after nasalization and 5.9 +/- 0.6 after ethmoidectomy (p = 0.0001). Olfaction improvement was similar in both groups 6 months after surgery, remained at the same level 36 months after nasalization (6.9 +/- 0.7), but decreased to 4.2 +/- 1 points 24 months after ethmoidectomy (p = 0.02). Asthma improvement remained significantly better after nasalization (p = 0.05), and the need for systemic steroids was also lower (p = 0.03). Results of this study suggest that when dealing with nasal polyposis, the more radical the surgery, the better the functional results.

  5. Reduced breath holding index in patients with chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Akgün, Hakan; Taşdemir, Serdar; Ulaş, Ümit Hıdır; Alay, Semih; Çetiz, Ahmet; Yücel, Mehmet; Öz, Oğuzhan; Odabaşı, Zeki; Demirkaya, Şeref

    2015-09-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by autonomic nervous system dysfunction and severe headache attacks. Studies have shown that changes in the intracranial vessels during migraine have an important role in the pathophysiology. Many studies have been conducted on the increased risk of stroke in patients with migraine, but insufficient data are available on the mechanism underlying the increase. This study aimed to evaluate basal cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity in patients with chronic migraine. We evaluated 38 patients with chronic migraine. Three of them were excluded because they had auras and four of them were excluded because of their use of medication that can affect cerebral blood flow velocity and breath holding index (beta or calcium channel blockers). Our study population consisted of 31 patients with chronic migraine without aura and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals who were not taking any medication. The mean blood flow velocity and breath holding index were measured on both sides from the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery, with temporal window insonation. The breath holding index for middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery was significantly lower in the migraine group compared to that of the control group (p < 0.05).The vasomotor reactivity indicates the dilatation potential of a vessel, and it is closely related to autoregulation. According to our results, the vasodilator response of cerebral arterioles to hypercapnia was lower in patients with chronic migraine. These findings showed the existence of impairments in the harmonic cerebral hemodynamic mechanisms in patients with chronic migraine. This finding also supports the existing idea of an increased risk of stroke in patients with chronic migraine due to impaired vasomotor reactivity.

  6. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84.81 Section 84.81 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... liquefied breathing gas containers shall meet the minimum requirements of the Department of...

  7. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84.81 Section 84.81 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... liquefied breathing gas containers shall meet the minimum requirements of the Department of...

  8. A grading system for nasal dorsal deformities.

    PubMed

    Kienstra, Matthew A; Gassner, Holger G; Sherris, David A; Kern, Eugene B

    2003-01-01

    There is no uniform grading system for nasal dorsal deformities currently in general use among surgeons who perform rhinoplasty. Given the popularity of this procedure among both the general public and surgeons, it is time that there was a uniform system describing dorsal deformities. Such a system has value in the education of students of rhinology and cosmetic nasal surgery. We have developed one such system, and applied it to 100 cases. In all cases it accurately describes the major pathological conditions of the dorsum, if present, as noted on physical examination. We have found application of this system to be facile.

  9. Bilateral Nasoalveolar Cyst Causing Nasal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yildizoglu, Uzeyir; Polat, Bahtiyar; Durmaz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Nasoalveolar cysts, which originate from epithelial remnants of nasolacrimal duct, are nonodontogenic soft tissue lesions of the upper jaw. These cysts are thought to be developmental and are presented with fullness in the upper lip and nose, swelling on the palate, and sometimes nasal obstruction. Because of cosmetic problems, they are often diagnosed at an early stage. These lesions are mostly revealed unilaterally but also can be seen on both sides. In this case report, a patient who complained of nasal obstruction and then diagnosed with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts and treated by sublabial excision is presented and clinical features and treatment approaches are discussed with the review of literature. PMID:27980871

  10. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  11. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  12. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  13. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  14. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen cannula is a two-pronged device used to administer oxygen to a patient...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril...

  5. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. Joe

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  6. Extradural frontal abscess complicating nasal septal abscess in a child.

    PubMed

    Thomson, C J; Berkowitz, R G

    1998-10-02

    Nasal septal abscess (NSA) is an uncommon sequel to minor nasal trauma. Abscess extension beyond the nasal cavity is rarely documented. A case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with a NSA associated with a large extradural frontal abscess is presented and indications for CT scanning in the workup of pediatric patients with NSA is discussed.

  7. Association between respiratory and postural adaptations and self-perception of school-aged children with mouth breathing in relation to their quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Uhlig, Suélen E.; Marchesi, Laís M.; Duarte, Halina; Araújo, Maria T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the respiratory and postural adaptations associated with mouth and nasal breathing and to evaluate the associations of such adaptations in mouth breathers' self-perceived quality of life. Method: Cross-sectional study with mouth breathers (initial n=116 and final n=48) and nasal breathers (initial n=131 and final n=24) from elementary school, aged between 7 and 14 years. Chest expansion, using cirtometry, the breathing pattern and the use of accessory muscles, by means of clinical evaluations and photogrammetry, and flexibility tests were evaluated in both groups. Subsequently, the mouth breathers were asked to complete the quality of life questionnaire. Statistical tests: Chi-square, odds ratio, Mann-Whitney, and binomial tests were first applied followed by logistic regressions. Results: Thoracic breathing (p=0.04), using of accessory muscles (p=0.03) and reductions in flexibility (p=0.001) increased the chances of an individual being a mouth breather when compared to nasal breathers. Subsequently, using of accessory muscles decreased the chances of snoring among mouth breathers (p=0.03); the presence of shoulder asymmetry reduced the chances of experiencing quiet sleep (p=0.05) and increased the chances of coughing or being tired when playing or running (p=0.008). Finally, forward head position reduced the chances of waking up at night (p=0.04) and experiencing shortness of breath (p=0.05). Conclusions: Respiratory and postural adaptations increased the chances of individuals persisting with mouth breathing. Additionally, these adaptations could be associated with mouth breathers' self-perceived quality of life. PMID:26083601

  8. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Elmiro, Nathália S.; Velloso, Marcelo; Britto, Raquel R.; Parreira, Verônica F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using the optoelectronic plethysmography system in a supine position with a trunk inclination of 45° during quiet breathing and the breathing exercises. The order of the breathing exercises was randomized. Statistical analysis was performed by the Friedman test and an ANOVA for repeated measures with one factor (breathing exercises), followed by preplanned contrasts and Bonferroni correction. A p<0.005 value was considered significant. RESULTS: All breathing exercises significantly increased the tidal volume of the chest wall (Vcw) and reduced the respiratory rate (RR) in comparison to quiet breathing. The diaphragmatic breathing exercise was responsible for the lowest Vcw, the lowest contribution of the rib cage, and the highest contribution of the abdomen. The sustained maximal inspiration exercise promoted greater reduction in RR compared to the diaphragmatic and intercostal exercises. Inspiratory sighs and intercostal exercises were responsible for the highest values of minute ventilation. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony variables increased significantly during diaphragmatic breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the breathing exercises investigated in this study produced modifications in the breathing pattern (e.g., increase in tidal volume and decrease in RR) as well as in thoracoabdominal motion (e.g., increase in abdominal contribution during diaphragmatic breathing), among others. PMID:25590447

  9. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  10. Clinical Efficacy of a Spray Containing Hyaluronic Acid and Dexpanthenol after Surgery in the Nasal Cavity (Septoplasty, Simple Ethmoid Sinus Surgery, and Turbinate Surgery)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. This prospective, controlled, parallel-group observational study investigated the efficacy of a spray containing hyaluronic acid and dexpanthenol to optimise regular treatment after nasal cavity surgery in 49 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods. The control group received standard therapy. Mucosal regeneration was determined using rhinoscopy sum score (RSS). Pre- and postoperative nasal patency was tested using anterior rhinomanometry. The participants were questioned about their symptoms. Results. Regarding all RSS parameters (dryness, dried nasal mucus, fibrin deposition, and obstruction), mucosal regeneration achieved good final results in both groups, tending to a better improvement through the spray application, without statistically significant differences during the whole assessment period, the mean values being 7.04, 5.00, 3.66, and 3.00 (intervention group) and 7.09, 5.14, 4.36, and 3.33 (control group). No statistically significant benefit was identified for nasal breathing, foreign body sensation, and average rhinomanometric volume flow, which improved by 12.31% (control group) and 11.24% (nasal spray group). Conclusion. The investigational product may have additional benefit on postoperative mucosal regeneration compared to standard cleaning procedures alone. However, no statistically significant advantage could be observed in this observational study. Double-blind, controlled studies with larger populations will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:25104962

  11. Clinical efficacy of a spray containing hyaluronic Acid and dexpanthenol after surgery in the nasal cavity (septoplasty, simple ethmoid sinus surgery, and turbinate surgery).

    PubMed

    Gouteva, Ina; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Meiser, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background. This prospective, controlled, parallel-group observational study investigated the efficacy of a spray containing hyaluronic acid and dexpanthenol to optimise regular treatment after nasal cavity surgery in 49 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods. The control group received standard therapy. Mucosal regeneration was determined using rhinoscopy sum score (RSS). Pre- and postoperative nasal patency was tested using anterior rhinomanometry. The participants were questioned about their symptoms. Results. Regarding all RSS parameters (dryness, dried nasal mucus, fibrin deposition, and obstruction), mucosal regeneration achieved good final results in both groups, tending to a better improvement through the spray application, without statistically significant differences during the whole assessment period, the mean values being 7.04, 5.00, 3.66, and 3.00 (intervention group) and 7.09, 5.14, 4.36, and 3.33 (control group). No statistically significant benefit was identified for nasal breathing, foreign body sensation, and average rhinomanometric volume flow, which improved by 12.31% (control group) and 11.24% (nasal spray group). Conclusion. The investigational product may have additional benefit on postoperative mucosal regeneration compared to standard cleaning procedures alone. However, no statistically significant advantage could be observed in this observational study. Double-blind, controlled studies with larger populations will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  12. The Effect of the Treatment with Heated Humidified High-Flow Nasal Cannula on Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome in China: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ge; Huang, Xiao-qiu; Zhao, Hui-hui; Jin, Guo-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Background. Noninvasive respiratory support is considered the optimal method of providing assistance to preterm babies with breathing problems, including nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and humidified high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC). The evidence of the efficacy and safety of HHHFNC used as the primary respiratory support for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is insufficient in low- and middle-income countries. Objective. To investigate the effect of heated humidified high flow nasal cannula on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was performed at a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in suburban Wenzhou, China, in the period between January 2014 and December 2015. Results. A total of 128 infants were enrolled in the study: 65 in the HHHFNC group and 63 in the NCPAP group. The respiratory support with HHHFNC was similar to that with NCPAP with regard to the primary outcome. There is no significant difference between two groups in secondary outcomes. Comparing with NCPAP group, the incidence of nasal damage was lower in HHHFNC group. Conclusions. HHHFNC is an effective and well-tolerated strategy as the primary treatment of mild to moderate RDS in preterm infants older than 28 weeks of GA. PMID:28167860

  13. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  14. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  15. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  16. Two-piece nasal septum prosthesis for a large nasal septum perforation: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Sashi Purna, C R; Annapurna, P D; Ahmed, Syed Basheer; Vurla, Samyuktha; Nalla, Sandeep; Abhishek, S M

    2013-02-01

    Nasal septum perforation presents with the symptoms of epistaxis and crusting. Obturation of the defect will decrease the symptoms and increase patient comfort. Prosthetic closure is more predictable and thus the treatment of choice in larger defects. This article describes a procedure for construction of a magnet-retained, heat-processed acrylic nasal septum prosthesis. The two-piece nasal septum prosthesis was processed and joined together in situ by magnets. Each piece of the septum prosthesis conforms to the remaining medial wall of each nostril and forms the missing half of the nasal septum. The prosthesis not only alleviates symptoms, but also provides structural support to the saddle-shaped nose and improves esthetics.

  17. 3-D nasal cultures: Systems toxicological assessment of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Anita R; Mathis, Carole; Martin, Florian; Leroy, Patrice; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Trivedi, Keyur; Grandolfo, Davide; Cabanski, Maciej; Guedj, Emmanuel; Merg, Celine; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In vitro toxicology approaches have evolved from a focus on molecular changes within a cell to understanding of toxicity-related mechanisms in systems that can mimic the in vivo environment. The recent development of three dimensional (3-D) organotypic nasal epithelial culture models offers a physiologically robust system for studying the effects of exposure through inhalation. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with nasal inflammation; thus, the nasal epithelium is relevant for evaluating the pathophysiological impact of CS exposure. The present study investigated further the application of in vitro human 3-D nasal epithelial culture models for toxicological assessment of inhalation exposure. Aligned with 3Rs strategy, this study aimed to explore the relevance of a human 3-D nasal culture model to assess the toxicological impact of aerosols generated from a candidate modified risk tobacco product (cMRTP), the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, as compared with smoke generated from reference cigarette 3R4F. A series of experimental repetitions, where multiple concentrations of THS2.2 aerosol and 3R4F smoke were applied, were conducted to obtain reproducible measurements to understand the cellular/molecular changes that occur following exposure. In agreement with "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century - a Vision and a Strategy", this study implemented a systems toxicology approach and found that for all tested concentrations the impact of 3R4F smoke was substantially greater than that of THS2.2 aerosol in terms of cytotoxicity levels, alterations in tissue morphology, secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators, impaired ciliary function, and increased perturbed transcriptomes and miRNA expression profiles.

  18. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-11-01

    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (<1 min) and on site breath acetone measurement can be used for diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  19. Nasalance Changes Following Various Endonasal Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Hazem Saeed; Elaassar, Ahmed Shaker; Anany, Ahmad Mohammad; Quriba, Amal Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is change in nasalance post endonasal surgery which is not permanent. Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term nasalance changes following different types of endonasal surgeries. Methods We included in this study patients who underwent sinonasal surgery at the Otorhinolaryngology Department in Zagazig University Hospitals from February 2015 until March 2016. We divided the patients into two groups according to the surgeries they underwent: Group (A) was the FESS group and group (B), the septoturbinoplasty group. We checked nasalance using a nasometer before and after the sinonasal surgery. Results Nasalance increased at one month after the operation in both groups. However, it returned to nearly original levels within three months postoperatively. Conclusion FESS, septoplasty, and turbinate surgery may lead to hypernasal speech. This hypernasal speech can be a result of change in the shape and diameter of the resonating vocal tract. Hypernasal speech in these circumstances may be a temporary finding that can decrease with time. Surgeons should inform their patients about the possibility of hypernasality after such types of surgery, especially if they are professional voice users. PMID:28382115

  20. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  1. An Unusual Case of a Nasal Foreign Body in a Cat with Chronic Nasal Discharge.

    PubMed

    Bellei, Emma; Pisoni, Luciano; Joechler, Monika; Pietra, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a cat infected with the feline infectious virus and a 1 yr history of unilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. Intraoral radiography and endoscopic examination revealed the presence of a large fragment of tooth root in the right nasal cavity. The cat had previously undergone maxillary canine tooth (104) extraction. The root was successfully removed by an endoscopic-assisted procedure, and follow-up examination 1 yr later documented complete disappearance of the respiratory signs.

  2. Sensory properties of selected terpenes. Thresholds for odor, nasal pungency, nasal localization, and eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S; Abraham, M H; Kumarsingh, R

    1998-11-30

    We tested four normosmics and four anosmics in detection thresholds for six terpenes commonly found indoors: cumene, p-cymene, delta-3-carene, linalool, 1,8-cineole and geraniol. Normosmics provided odor thresholds and anosmics provided nasal pungency thresholds. All subjects provided nasal localization (i.e., right/left nostril) and eye irritation thresholds. Each type of threshold was measured eight times per subject-stimulus combination. Stimuli were presented from squeeze bottles in a two-alternative forced-choice procedure via an ascending method of limits. Odor thresholds ranged between 0.1 and 1.0 parts per million (ppm, by volume). Nasal pungency thresholds lay about three orders of magnitude above odor thresholds. Nasal localization and eye irritation thresholds did not differ between normosmics and anosmics, and fell close to nasal pungency thresholds. Olfactory thresholds could be obtained for all stimuli in all repetitions using the criterion of five correct choices in a row. Trigeminal thresholds (i.e., pungency, localization and eye irritation) could be obtained on all repetitions only for some terpenes using that same criterion. Carene and cineol produced nasal pungency and eye irritation on all repetitions. None of the terpenes could be localized on all repetitions, but cineol was localized a higher percentage of instances than were the other stimuli. At the other extreme, geraniol failed to evoke any of the three trigeminal responses in most instances. Overall, the results indicate that the three trigeminal thresholds produce a uniform view of the potency of these terpenes, with nasal pungency and eye irritation being slightly more sensitive than nasal localization. Furthermore, application of a previously derived linear solvation energy relationship to the results reinforced the view that physicochemical properties can predict the chemesthetic impact of volatile organic compounds.

  3. Slow breathing influences cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver: Slow breathing and HRV.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Giovanna Ana de Paula; Tavares, Bruna S; Garner, David M; Porto, Andrey A; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-05-01

    Chronic slow breathing has been reported to improve Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in patients with cardiovascular disorders. However, it is not clear regarding its acute effects on HRV responses on autonomic analysis. We evaluated the acute effects of slow breathing on cardiac autonomic responses to postural change manoeuvre (PCM). The study was conducted on 21 healthy male students aged between 18 and 35 years old. In the control protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 15 min under spontaneous breathing and quickly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. In the slow breathing protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 10 min under spontaneous breath, then performed slow breathing for 5 min and rapidly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. Slow breathing intensified cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver.

  4. Computer simulation of breathing systems for divers

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, P.G.; Nuckols, M.L.

    1983-02-01

    A powerful new tool for the analysis and design of underwater breathing gas systems is being developed. A versatile computer simulator is described which makes possible the modular ''construction'' of any conceivable breathing gas system from computer memory-resident components. The analysis of a typical breathing gas system is demonstrated using this simulation technique, and the effects of system modifications on performance of the breathing system are shown. This modeling technique will ultimately serve as the foundation for a proposed breathing system simulator under development by the Navy. The marriage of this computer modeling technique with an interactive graphics system will provide the designer with an efficient, cost-effective tool for the development of new and improved diving systems.

  5. The relationship between aminopyrine breath test and severity of liver disease in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Morelli, A.; Narducci, F.; Pelli, M.A.; Farroni, F.; Vedovelli, A.

    1981-08-01

    Twenty-two patients with cirrhosis were evaluated by the 2 hr.-(C14)-aminopyrine breath test, the conventional liver tests and two systems for grading the severity of liver disease. Twenty-three patients with noncirrhotic liver disease and 15 controls were also studied. Reduced 14CO2 values were found in 21 of the 22 cirrhotic patients and seven of those had noncirrhotic liver disease associated with severe functional reserve impairment. The values in patients with minor liver diseases or cholestasis were normal. In the cirrhotic patients 2 hr.-(C14)-aminopyrine breath test scores correlated with prothrombin time, retention of bromosulfalein, fasting serum bile acid, albumin, bilirubin, serum aspartate aminotransferase and, above all, with the scores of the two clinical rating systems. The 2 hr.-(C14)-aminopyrine breath test was superior to conventional tests in quantifying the degree of hepatic functional reserve and forecasting the prognosis.

  6. Airflow dynamics of human jets: sneezing and breathing - potential sources of infectious aerosols.

    PubMed

    Tang, Julian W; Nicolle, Andre D; Klettner, Christian A; Pantelic, Jovan; Wang, Liangde; Suhaimi, Amin Bin; Tan, Ashlynn Y L; Ong, Garrett W X; Su, Ruikun; Sekhar, Chandra; Cheong, David D W; Tham, Kwok Wai

    2013-01-01

    Natural human exhalation flows such as coughing, sneezing and breathing can be considered as 'jet-like' airflows in the sense that they are produced from a single source in a single exhalation effort, with a relatively symmetrical, conical geometry. Although coughing and sneezing have garnered much attention as potential, explosive sources of infectious aerosols, these are relatively rare events during daily life, whereas breathing is necessary for life and is performed continuously. Real-time shadowgraph imaging was used to visualise and capture high-speed images of healthy volunteers sneezing and breathing (through the nose - nasally, and through the mouth - orally). Six volunteers, who were able to respond to the pepper sneeze stimulus, were recruited for the sneezing experiments (2 women: 27.5±6.36 years; 4 men: 29.25±10.53 years). The maximum visible distance over which the sneeze plumes (or puffs) travelled was 0.6 m, the maximum sneeze velocity derived from these measured distances was 4.5 m/s. The maximum 2-dimensional (2-D) area of dissemination of these sneezes was 0.2 m(2). The corresponding derived parameter, the maximum 2-D area expansion rate of these sneezes was 2 m(2)/s. For nasal breathing, the maximum propagation distance and derived velocity were 0.6 m and 1.4 m/s, respectively. The maximum 2-D area of dissemination and derived expansion rate were 0.11 m(2) and 0.16 m(2)/s, respectively. Similarly, for mouth breathing, the maximum propagation distance and derived velocity were 0.8 m and 1.3 m/s, respectively. The maximum 2-D area of dissemination and derived expansion rate were 0.18 m(2) and 0.17 m(2)/s, respectively. Surprisingly, a comparison of the maximum exit velocities of sneezing reported here with those obtained from coughing (published previously) demonstrated that they are relatively similar, and not extremely high. This is in contrast with some earlier estimates of sneeze velocities, and some reasons for this difference are discussed.

  7. Airflow Dynamics of Human Jets: Sneezing and Breathing - Potential Sources of Infectious Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Julian W.; Nicolle, Andre D.; Klettner, Christian A.; Pantelic, Jovan; Wang, Liangde; Suhaimi, Amin Bin; Tan, Ashlynn Y. L.; Ong, Garrett W. X.; Su, Ruikun; Sekhar, Chandra; Cheong, David D. W.; Tham, Kwok Wai

    2013-01-01

    Natural human exhalation flows such as coughing, sneezing and breathing can be considered as ‘jet-like’ airflows in the sense that they are produced from a single source in a single exhalation effort, with a relatively symmetrical, conical geometry. Although coughing and sneezing have garnered much attention as potential, explosive sources of infectious aerosols, these are relatively rare events during daily life, whereas breathing is necessary for life and is performed continuously. Real-time shadowgraph imaging was used to visualise and capture high-speed images of healthy volunteers sneezing and breathing (through the nose – nasally, and through the mouth - orally). Six volunteers, who were able to respond to the pepper sneeze stimulus, were recruited for the sneezing experiments (2 women: 27.5±6.36 years; 4 men: 29.25±10.53 years). The maximum visible distance over which the sneeze plumes (or puffs) travelled was 0.6 m, the maximum sneeze velocity derived from these measured distances was 4.5 m/s. The maximum 2-dimensional (2-D) area of dissemination of these sneezes was 0.2 m2. The corresponding derived parameter, the maximum 2-D area expansion rate of these sneezes was 2 m2/s. For nasal breathing, the maximum propagation distance and derived velocity were 0.6 m and 1.4 m/s, respectively. The maximum 2-D area of dissemination and derived expansion rate were 0.11 m2 and 0.16 m2/s, respectively. Similarly, for mouth breathing, the maximum propagation distance and derived velocity were 0.8 m and 1.3 m/s, respectively. The maximum 2-D area of dissemination and derived expansion rate were 0.18 m2 and 0.17 m2/s, respectively. Surprisingly, a comparison of the maximum exit velocities of sneezing reported here with those obtained from coughing (published previously) demonstrated that they are relatively similar, and not extremely high. This is in contrast with some earlier estimates of sneeze velocities, and some reasons for this difference are discussed. PMID

  8. Nasal septum giant pyogenic granuloma after a long lasting nasal intubation: case report.

    PubMed

    Neves-Pinto, Roberto M; Carvalho, Adolpho; Araujo, Elizabeth; Alberto, Carlos; Basilio-De-Oliveira; De Carvalho, Gustavo Adolpho

    2005-03-01

    The authors present a case of Pyogenic Granuloma (PG) arising from the nasal septum in the posterior nasal cavity of a patient male sex, caucasian, 32 years old, with a previous history of cranioencephalic trauma, several neurosurgeries for different subsequent neurological problems and the use of a nasogastric tube for feeding (nasal intubation) during 30 days. He underwent surgery in St. Vincent de Paul Hospital (Rio de Janeiro) on May 18, 1993, for the tumor removal and straightening of the nasal septum. Under endoscopic guidance the complete excision of the tumor mass was perfectly done thanks to the excellent exposure of the lesion, provided by the enlarged telescopic view, and the wide access afforded by the septum straighttening plus the cartilaginous septum mobilization through the maxilla-premaxilla approach of Cottle, allied to the lateralization and volume reduction of the right inferior nasal concha, simultaneously performed, thus making lateral rhinotomy or "degloving" unnecessary. The patient is until now (2004) completely free of the lesion operated on. This is the first report in the literature of such a lesion associated to nasal intubation as the triggering agent.

  9. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. Images p398-a p399-a PMID:9769764

  10. The effects of prosodic boundaries on nasality in Taiwan Min.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ho-hsien

    2007-06-01

    This study explores the effects of prosodic boundaries on nasality at intonational phrase, word, and syllable boundaries. The subjects were recorded saying phrases that contained a syllable-final nasal consonant followed by a syllable-initial stop. The timing, duration, and magnitude of the nasal airflows measured were used to determine the extent of nasality across boundaries. Nasal amplitudes were found to vary in a speaker-dependent manner among boundary types. However, the patterns of nasal contours and temporal aspects of the airflow parameters consistently varied with boundary type across all the speakers. In general, the duration of nasal airflow and nasal plateau were the longest at the intonational phrase boundary, followed by word boundary and then syllable boundary. In addition to the hierarchical influence of boundary strength, there were unique phonetic markings associated with individual boundaries. In particular, two nasal rises interrupted by nasal inhalation occurred only across an intonation phrase boundary. Also, unexpectedly, a word boundary was marked by the longest postboundary vowel, whereas a syllable boundary was marked with the shortest nasal duration. The results here support the hierarchical effect of boundary on both domain-edge strengthening and cross-boundary coarticulation.

  11. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  12. Dialectal and gender differences in nasalance for a Mandarin population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha-Kyung; Yu, Xiao-meng; Cao, Yan-jing; Liu, Xiao-ming; Huang, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are dialectal and gender related differences in nasalance of main Mandarin vowels and three sentences in 400 Chinese normal adults. The mean nasalance score difference for dialect and gender was significant (p < .001) in all speech materials. For different dialects, the average nasalance scores show that Chongqing > Beijing > Shanghai > Guangzhou for the nasal sentence, oro-nasal sentence, /a/, /i/ and /u/. In addition, the average nasalance scores of females were higher than those of males for all speech materials in all dialects. The clinical significance of this study can be helpful in making nasalance clinical decisions for Chinese people with cleft palate, hearing disorders and dysarthria with resonance disorders. It also shows the theoretical and socio-cultural features for linguists considering dialects and gender.

  13. Nasalance measures in German-speaking cleft patients.

    PubMed

    Swennen, Gwen R J; Grimaldi, Hannes; Upheber, Juliane; Kramer, Franz-Josef; Dempf, Rupert

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate nasalance measures in German-speaking patients with different types of repaired cleft lip and palate and to find out if significant nasalance gender differences exist in the different cleft groups. A total of 125 German-speaking cleft patients (74 male and 51 female) were included in this study: 18 patients with isolated unilateral cleft lip (UCL; mean age: 13.00 +/- 2.03 years), 66 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP; mean age: 14.80 +/- 3.45 years), 25 patients with isolated cleft palate (CP; mean age: 14.60 +/- 3.48 years), and 16 patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP; mean age: 14.30 +/- 3.61 years). Nasalance data were collected and computed using the NasalView hardware/software system (Fa. Tiger Electronics, Seattle, WA). Speech stimuli according to a modified Heidelberg Rhinophonia Assessment Form (sustained vowels "a," "e," "i," "o," and "u"; oral and nasal sentences; and three oral-nasal reading passages) were used to obtain nasalance scores. Nasalance distance and ratio were also calculated for the oral and nasal sentences and for one of the oral-nasal reading passages. Unpaired t tests showed no significant gender nasalance differences in each cleft group. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in mean nasalance distance and ratio. For the nasal sentence, a significant difference (P = 0.032) in mean nasalance scores was found between the UCL and UCLP groups.

  14. Prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in patients treated for asthma in primary care: cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mike; McKinley, R K; Freeman, Elaine; Foy, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in adults with asthma treated in the community. Design Postal questionnaire survey using Nijmegen questionnaire. Setting One general practice with 7033 patients. Participants All adult patients aged 17-65 with diagnosed asthma who were receiving treatment. Main outcome measure Score ⩾23 on Nijmegen questionnaire. Results 227/307 patients returned completed questionnaires; 219 (71.3%) questionnaires were suitable for analysis. 63 participants scored ⩾23. Those scoring ⩾23 were more likely to be female than male (46/132 (35%) v 17/87 (20%), P=0.016) and were younger (mean (SD) age 44.8 (14.7) v 49.0 (13.8, (P=0.05). Patients at different treatment steps of the British Thoracic Society asthma guidelines were affected equally. Conclusions About a third of women and a fifth of men had scores suggestive of dysfunctional breathing. Although further studies are needed to confirm the validity of this screening tool and these findings, these prevalences suggest scope for therapeutic intervention and may explain the anecdotal success of the Buteyko method of treating asthma. What is already known on this topicAbnormal breathing patterns may cause characteristic symptoms and impair quality of lifeEffective interventions exist for dysfunctional breathingDysfunctional breathing has been described in patients attending hospital respiratory clinicsWhat this study adds29% of adults treated for asthma in primary care had symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathingAffected patients were more likely to be female and younger, but no differences were found with severity of asthmaSome patients with asthma may benefit from breathing therapy PMID:11337441

  15. Take a breath and take the turn: how breathing meets turns in spontaneous dialogue.

    PubMed

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2014-12-19

    Physiological rhythms are sensitive to social interactions and could contribute to defining social rhythms. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the implications of breathing in conversational turn exchanges remains limited. In this paper, we addressed the idea that breathing may contribute to timing and coordination between dialogue partners. The relationships between turns and breathing were analysed in unconstrained face-to-face conversations involving female speakers. No overall relationship between breathing and turn-taking rates was observed, as breathing rate was specific to the subjects' activity in dialogue (listening versus taking the turn versus holding the turn). A general inter-personal coordination of breathing over the whole conversation was not evident. However, specific coordinative patterns were observed in shorter time-windows when participants engaged in taking turns. The type of turn-taking had an effect on the respective coordination in breathing. Most of the smooth and interrupted turns were taken just after an inhalation, with specific profiles of alignment to partner breathing. Unsuccessful attempts to take the turn were initiated late in the exhalation phase and with no clear inter-personal coordination. Finally, breathing profiles at turn-taking were different than those at turn-holding. The results support the idea that breathing is actively involved in turn-taking and turn-holding.

  16. Take a breath and take the turn: how breathing meets turns in spontaneous dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Physiological rhythms are sensitive to social interactions and could contribute to defining social rhythms. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the implications of breathing in conversational turn exchanges remains limited. In this paper, we addressed the idea that breathing may contribute to timing and coordination between dialogue partners. The relationships between turns and breathing were analysed in unconstrained face-to-face conversations involving female speakers. No overall relationship between breathing and turn-taking rates was observed, as breathing rate was specific to the subjects' activity in dialogue (listening versus taking the turn versus holding the turn). A general inter-personal coordination of breathing over the whole conversation was not evident. However, specific coordinative patterns were observed in shorter time-windows when participants engaged in taking turns. The type of turn-taking had an effect on the respective coordination in breathing. Most of the smooth and interrupted turns were taken just after an inhalation, with specific profiles of alignment to partner breathing. Unsuccessful attempts to take the turn were initiated late in the exhalation phase and with no clear inter-personal coordination. Finally, breathing profiles at turn-taking were different than those at turn-holding. The results support the idea that breathing is actively involved in turn-taking and turn-holding. PMID:25385777

  17. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    SciTech Connect

    Gagel, Bernd . E-mail: BGagel@UKAachen.de; Demirel, Cengiz M.P.; Kientopf, Aline; Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc; Stanzel, Sven; Breuer, Christian; Asadpour, Branka; Jansen, Thomas; Holy, Richard; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Eble, Michael J.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins.

  18. Breath hydrogen excretion in infants with colic.

    PubMed

    Miller, J J; McVeagh, P; Fleet, G H; Petocz, P; Brand, J C

    1989-05-01

    Breath hydrogen excretion as an index of incomplete lactose absorption was measured in 118 healthy infants who were either breast fed or given a formula feed containing lactose, some of whom had colic. Infants with colic (n = 65) were selected on the basis of the mother's report of a history of inconsolable crying lasting several hours each day. Infants in the control group (n = 53) were not reported to cry excessively by their mothers. Breath samples were collected using a face mask sampling device preprandially, and 90 and 150 minutes after the start of a feed. Normalised breath hydrogen concentrations were higher in the group with colic than in the control group at each time point. The median maximum breath hydrogen concentration in the colic group was 29 ppm, and in the control group 11 ppm. The percentage of infants with incomplete lactose absorption (breath hydrogen concentration more than 20 ppm) in the colic group was 62% compared with 32% in the control group. The clinical importance of the observed association between increased breath hydrogen excretion and infantile colic remains to be determined. Increased breath hydrogen excretion indicative of incomplete lactose absorption may be either a cause or an effect of colic in infants.

  19. Breathing and sleep at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Philip N; Lucas, Samuel J E; Burgess, Keith R

    2013-09-15

    We provide an updated review on the current understanding of breathing and sleep at high altitude in humans. We conclude that: (1) progressive changes in pH initiated by the respiratory alkalosis do not underlie early (<48 h) ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) because this still proceeds in the absence of such alkalosis; (2) for VAH of longer duration (>48 h), complex cellular and neurochemical re-organization occurs both in the peripheral chemoreceptors as well as within the central nervous system. The latter is likely influenced by central acid-base changes secondary to the extent of the initial respiratory responses to initial exposure to high altitude; (3) sleep at high altitude is disturbed by various factors, but principally by periodic breathing; (4) the extent of periodic breathing during sleep at altitude intensifies with duration and severity of exposure; (5) complex interactions between hypoxic-induced enhancement in peripheral and central chemoreflexes and cerebral blood flow--leading to higher loop gain and breathing instability--underpin this development of periodic breathing during sleep; (6) because periodic breathing may elevate rather than reduce mean SaO2 during sleep, this may represent an adaptive rather than maladaptive response; (7) although oral acetazolamide is an effective means to reduce periodic breathing by 50-80%, recent studies using positive airway pressure devices to increase dead space, hyponotics and theophylline are emerging but appear less practical and effective compared to acetazolamide. Finally, we suggest avenues for future research, and discuss implications for understanding sleep pathology.

  20. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate acidity.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tamás; Barta, Imre; Antus, Balázs; Horváth, Ildikó

    2008-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate analysis is a developing method for investigating airway pathology. Impact of food and drink on breath condensate composition has not been systematically addressed. The aim of the study was to follow exhaled breath condensate pH after drinking an acidic and a neutral beverage. Breath condensate, capillary blood, and urine of 12 healthy volunteers were collected before and after drinking either 1 l of coke or 1 l of mineral water. The pH of each sample was determined with a blood gas analyzer. The mean difference between the pH of two breath condensate samples collected within 15 min before drinking was 0.13+/-0.03. Condensate pH decreased significantly from 6.29+/-0.02 to 6.24+/-0.02 (p<0.03) after drinking coke and from 6.37+/-0.03 to 6.22+/-0.04 (p<0.003) after drinking water. Drinking coke induced significant changes in blood and urine pH as well. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate composition and may contribute to the variability of exhaled breath condensate pH.

  1. Delayed feedback applied to breathing in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, N. B.; Pototsky, A.; Parkes, C.

    2013-10-01

    We studied the response of healthy volunteers to the delayed feedback generated from the breathing signals. Namely, in the freely-breathing volunteers the breathing signal was recorded, delayed by τ seconds and fed back to the same volunteer in real time in the form of a visual and auditory stimulus of low intensity, i.e. the stimulus was crucially non-intrusive. In each case volunteers were instructed to breathe in the way which was most comfortable for them, and no explanation about the kind of applied stimulus was provided to them. Each volunteer experienced 10 different delay times ranging between 10% and 100% of the average breathing period without external stimulus. It was observed that in a significant proportion of subjects (11 out of 24) breathing was slowed down in the presence of delayed feedback with moderate delay. Also, in 6 objects out of 24 the delayed feedback was able to induce transition from nearly periodic to irregular breathing. These observations are consistent with the phenomena observed in numerical simulation of the models of periodic and chaotic self-oscillations with delays, and also in experiments with simpler self-oscillating systems.

  2. Facilitation of breathing by leptin effects in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bassi, M; Furuya, W I; Zoccal, D B; Menani, J V; Colombari, D S A; Mulkey, D K; Colombari, E

    2016-03-15

    With the global epidemic of obesity, breathing disorders associated with excess body weight have markedly increased. Respiratory dysfunctions caused by obesity were originally attributed to mechanical factors; however, recent studies have suggested a pathophysiological component that involves the central nervous system (CNS) and hormones such as leptin produced by adipocytes as well as other cells. Leptin is suggested to stimulate breathing and leptin deficiency causes an impairment of the chemoreflex, which can be reverted by leptin therapy. This facilitation of the chemoreflex may depend on the action of leptin in the hindbrain areas involved in the respiratory control such as the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), a site that receives chemosensory afferents, and the ventral surface of the medulla that includes the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a central chemosensitive area, and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Although the mechanisms and pathways activated by leptin to facilitate breathing are still not completely clear, evidence suggests that the facilitatory effects of leptin on breathing require the brain melanocortin system, including the POMC-MC4R pathway, a mechanism also activated by leptin to modulate blood pressure. The results of all the studies that have investigated the effect of leptin on breathing suggest that disruption of leptin signalling as caused by obesity-induced reduction of central leptin function (leptin resistance) is a relevant mechanism that may contribute to respiratory dysfunctions associated with obesity.

  3. Facilitation of breathing by leptin effects in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, W. I.; Zoccal, D. B.; Menani, J. V.; Colombari, D. S. A.; Mulkey, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With the global epidemic of obesity, breathing disorders associated with excess body weight have markedly increased. Respiratory dysfunctions caused by obesity were originally attributed to mechanical factors; however, recent studies have suggested a pathophysiological component that involves the central nervous system (CNS) and hormones such as leptin produced by adipocytes as well as other cells. Leptin is suggested to stimulate breathing and leptin deficiency causes an impairment of the chemoreflex, which can be reverted by leptin therapy. This facilitation of the chemoreflex may depend on the action of leptin in the hindbrain areas involved in the respiratory control such as the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), a site that receives chemosensory afferents, and the ventral surface of the medulla that includes the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a central chemosensitive area, and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Although the mechanisms and pathways activated by leptin to facilitate breathing are still not completely clear, evidence suggests that the facilitatory effects of leptin on breathing require the brain melanocortin system, including the POMC–MC4R pathway, a mechanism also activated by leptin to modulate blood pressure. The results of all the studies that have investigated the effect of leptin on breathing suggest that disruption of leptin signalling as caused by obesity‐induced reduction of central leptin function (leptin resistance) is a relevant mechanism that may contribute to respiratory dysfunctions associated with obesity. PMID:26095748

  4. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Adults: Physiological Benefits, Indication, Clinical Benefits, and Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masaji

    2016-04-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is carried out using an air/oxygen blender, active humidifier, single heated tube, and nasal cannula. Able to deliver adequately heated and humidified medical gas at flows up to 60 L/min, it is considered to have a number of physiological advantages compared with other standard oxygen therapies, including reduced anatomical dead space, PEEP, constant F(IO2), and good humidification. Although few large randomized clinical trials have been performed, HFNC has been gaining attention as an alternative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Published data are mostly available for neonates. For critically ill adults, however, evidence is uneven because the reports cover various subjects with diverse underlying conditions, such as hypoxemic respiratory failure, exacerbation of COPD, postextubation, preintubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, and conditions entailing do-not-intubate orders. Even so, across the diversity, many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces the need for respiratory support escalation. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as definitive indications for HFNC and criteria for timing the starting and stopping of HFNC and for escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC has emerged as an innovative and effective modality for early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases.

  5. Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

  6. Adults with ADHD and Sleep Complaints: A Pilot Study Identifying Sleep-Disordered Breathing Using Polysomnography and Sleep Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surman, Craig B. H.; Thomas, Robert J.; Aleardi, Megan; Pagano, Christine; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing are both prevalent in adulthood. Because both conditions may be responsible for similar symptoms of cognitive impairment, the authors investigate whether their presentation may overlap in adults diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Data are collected from six adults with sleep complaints who were diagnosed…

  7. Effect of deep breathing at six breaths per minute on the frequency of premature ventricular complexes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, E Sankaranarayanan; Ravindra, Pattanashetty N; Madanmohan; Anilkumar, R; Balachander, J

    2006-08-28

    Although the effect of reflex increase in vagal tone on the frequency of premature ventricular complexes (PVC) is known, the effect of timed deep breathing on the frequency of PVC has not been reported. We serendipitously discovered that deep breathing at six breaths per minute abolished PVC in an 18-year-old female with frequent PVC, anxiety, and palpitations. In five of a series of 10 consecutive patients with frequent (> or = 10/min) unifocal PVC, deep breathing at 6 breaths/min reduced the frequency of PVC by at least 50%. This is possibly due to increased vagal modulation of sinoatrial and atrioventricular node. However, factors predicting the response to deep breathing, and the mechanisms involved need to be studied in a larger number of patients.

  8. Fundus imaging with a nasal endoscope.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh; Mishra, K C Divyansh

    2015-01-01

    Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.

  9. Fundus imaging with a nasal endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh; Mishra, KC Divyansh

    2015-01-01

    Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes. PMID:25686069

  10. Patient experience with mupirocin or povidone-iodine nasal decolonization.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Led by the federal government, the payers of health care are enacting policies designed to base provider reimbursement on the quality of care they render. This study evaluated and compared patient experiences and satisfaction with nasal decolonization with either nasal povidone-iodine (PI) or nasal mupirocin ointment (MO). A total of 1903 patients were randomized to undergo preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal MO or PI solution. All randomized patients were also given 2% chlorhexidine gluconate topical wipes. Patients were interviewed prior to discharge to assess adverse events and patient experience with their assigned preoperative antiseptic protocol. Of the 1903 randomized patients, 1679 (88.1%) were interviewed prior to discharge. Of patients receiving PI, 3.4% reported an unpleasant or very unpleasant experience, compared with 38.8% of those using nasal MO (P<.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients using nasal MO believed it to be somewhat or very helpful in reducing surgical site infections, compared with 71% of patients receiving PI (P>.05). Being recruited as an active participant in surgical site infection prevention was a positive experience for 87.2% of MO patients and 86.3% of PI patients (P=.652). Those assigned to receive PI solution preoperatively reported significantly fewer adverse events than the nasal MO group (P<.01). Preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal PI or MO was considered somewhat or very helpful by more than two-thirds of patients.

  11. Simulating the nasal cycle with computational fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ruchin G.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Frank-Ito, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Rhee, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) Develop a method to account for the confounding effect of the nasal cycle when comparing pre- and post-surgery objective measures of nasal patency. (2) Illustrate this method by reporting objective measures derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models spanning the full range of mucosal engorgement associated with the nasal cycle in two subjects. Study Design Retrospective Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods A cohort of 24 nasal airway obstruction patients was reviewed to select the two patients with the greatest reciprocal change in mucosal engorgement between pre- and post-surgery computed tomography (CT) scans. Three-dimensional anatomic models were created based on the pre- and post-operative CT scans. Nasal cycling models were also created by gradually changing the thickness of the inferior turbinate, middle turbinate, and septal swell body. CFD was used to simulate airflow and to calculate nasal resistance and average heat flux. Results Before accounting for the nasal cycle, Patient A appeared to have a paradoxical worsening nasal obstruction in the right cavity postoperatively. After accounting for the nasal cycle, Patient A had small improvements in objective measures postoperatively. The magnitude of the surgical effect also differed in Patient B after accounting for the nasal cycle. Conclusion By simulating the nasal cycle and comparing models in similar congestive states, surgical changes in nasal patency can be distinguished from physiological changes associated with the nasal cycle. This ability can lead to more precise comparisons of pre and post-surgery objective measures and potentially more accurate virtual surgery planning. PMID:25450411

  12. Assessment of the effect of deviated nasal septum on the structure of nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junguo; Dou, Xin; Liu, Dingding; Song, Panpan; Qian, Xiaoyun; Wang, Shoulin; Gao, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of DNS on the structure of nasal cavity. The paranasal sinus coronal view CT of 108 patients with DNS and 129 hospitalized patients without DNS was retrospectively analyzed. The transverse diameter of nasal cavity (a), transverse diameter of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (b), angle between maxillary and palatal bone, interalveolar distance, and maxillary rotation distance were measured. The ratio of a/b in experimental group was 0.367 ± 0.006 which was significantly (P = 0.0023) less than that in control group (0.391 ± 0.005). For the angle between maxillary and palatal bone, there was no significant difference found between DNS and control group for both right and left sides. The interalveolar distance was 40.75 mm in experimental group, and 38.8 mm in control (P = 0.0002). For the maxillary rotation distance, findings were considered as significant (P < 0.0001) in experimental group (11.25 mm) compared with control (10.1 mm). The present study demonstrates that long-term DNS affects the development of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, as well as increases the interalveolar distance and maxillary rotation distance. These influences may be caused by the alteration of airflow inside the nasal cavities.

  13. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating a ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, ...

  14. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 25.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) Fixed (stationary, or built in) protective breathing equipment must be installed for the use of the flightcrew, and at least one portable protective breathing equipment shall...

  16. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  17. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  18. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  19. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that is attached to a closed breathing...

  1. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  2. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  3. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  4. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  5. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337... Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate holder shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the equipment, breathing gas, and communication requirements contained in...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 25.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) Fixed (stationary, or built in) protective breathing equipment must be installed for the use of the flightcrew, and at least one portable protective breathing equipment shall...

  7. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337... Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate holder shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the equipment, breathing gas, and communication requirements contained in...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that is attached to a closed breathing...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that is attached to a closed breathing...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that is attached to a closed breathing...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  12. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  13. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  14. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  16. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  17. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337... Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate holder shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the equipment, breathing gas, and communication requirements contained in...

  18. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  19. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that is attached to a closed breathing...

  2. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337... Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate holder shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the equipment, breathing gas, and communication requirements contained in...

  3. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  5. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  6. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  7. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337... Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate holder shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the equipment, breathing gas, and communication requirements contained in...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 25.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) Fixed (stationary, or built in) protective breathing equipment must be installed for the use of the flightcrew, and at least one portable protective breathing equipment shall...

  9. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  15. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes...

  16. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes...

  17. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes...

  18. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes...

  19. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes...

  20. Surgical Nasal Implants: Indications and Risks.

    PubMed

    Genther, Dane J; Papel, Ira D

    2016-10-01

    Rhinoplasty often requires the use of grafting material, and the goal of the specific graft dictates the ideal characteristics of the material to be used. An ideal material would be biologically inert, resistant to infection, noncarcinogenic, nondegradable, widely available, cost-effective, readily modifiable, and easily removable, have compatible biomechanical characteristics, retain physical properties over time, and not migrate. Unfortunately, no material currently in existence meets all of these criteria. In modern rhinoplasty, autologous grafts are the gold standard against which all other nasal implants are measured and offer the safest long-term results for most patients. They are easily manipulated, have inherent stability and biomechanical characteristics similar to the native nasal framework, and confer minimal risk of complications. Modern homologous and alloplastic materials have gained considerable support in recent years because they are readily available in endless quantity, do not require a second surgical site for harvest, and are generally considered safe if most circumstances, but they confer additional risk and have biomechanical characteristics different from that of the native nasal framework. To address some of these issues, we provide a contemporary review of autologous, homologous, and alloplastic materials commonly used in rhinoplasty surgery.

  1. Nasal nitric oxide in unilateral sinus disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chia-Hsiang; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Huang, Chi-Che; Chang, Po-Hung; Chen, Yi-Wei; Lee, Ta-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral sinus disease (USD) can sometimes be difficult to accurately diagnose before surgery. The application of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) for USD diagnosis and its surgical outcome in USD has not been reported in the literature. We prospectively enrolled sixty-six USD patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for fungal rhinosinusitis (n = 19), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without nasal polyps (n = 13), CRS with nasal polyps (n = 12) and sinonasal mass lesions (n = 22). nNO levels were measured preoperatively and at three and six months postoperatively. Correlations between nNO levels and potential clinical parameters, type of disease, disease severity, and disease-related quality of life (QOL) were assessed. Unlike bilateral CRS, in USD, nNO levels did not correlate with disease severity or postoperative QOL improvements. Except for fungus group, there were no differences in nNO levels between lesion and non-lesion sides in all the other groups. nNO levels on both sides were significantly elevated six months postoperatively in all groups. Fungal rhinosinusitis patients had the lowest preoperative nNO levels, and a cutoff of 239.3 ppb had the best sensitivity (79.0%) and specificity (87.2%) for preoperative diagnosis. While preoperative nNO levels cannot serve as an alternative marker for disease severity of USD, they were lower in fungal rhinosinusitis patients than in other USD patients and may be useful for more accurate diagnosis prior to surgery. PMID:28199369

  2. [Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer].

    PubMed

    Peyraga, G; Lafond, C; Pointreau, Y; Giraud, P; Maingon, P

    2016-09-01

    The nasal cavity and parasinusal cancer are rare (10% of tumors of the head and neck) and are mainly represented by squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity or the maxillary sinus and adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus (occupational disease, wood dust). The most common clinical sign is nasal obstruction, but tumors can also manifest as rhinorrhea and/or epistaxis (usually unilateral signs). A magnetic resonance imaging of the facial structure is systematic for staging before treatment. The treatment consists of a first surgery if the patient is operable with a resectable tumor. If it is not the case, the treatment consists of radiotherapy (RT) associated with chemotherapy (CT) according to the initial data (T3/T4 or N+). After first surgery, RT is indicated (except T1N0 with complete resection) associated with a CT based on postoperative data (capsular effraction or incomplete resection). Lymph node irradiation is considered case by case, but is indicated in any nodal involvement. RT must be an intensity modulated RT (IMRT), static or dynamic, and must be imagery guided (IGRT). According to ICRU 83, doses to organs at risk and target volumes must be carried. Finally, after a post-treatment baseline imaging between 2 and 4 months, monitoring will be alternated with the ENT surgeon every 2 or 3 months for 2 years, then every 4 to 6 months for 5 years.

  3. Standardization of Malaysian adult female nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih Fang; Abdullah, Mohd Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females.

  4. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breathing Problems URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breathingproblems.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  5. Portable breathing apparatus for coal mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandolah, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The state of the art in portable oxygen breathing equipment is reported. Considered are self-containing as well as chemically generating oxygen sources and their effectiveness and limitations in mine rescue operations.

  6. Healthy Living: Helping Your Child Breathe Easier

    MedlinePlus

    ... cystic fibrosis. In terms of childhood disease, the respiratory system is the most critical. Here are some tips ... or “irritants” can cause the muscles of the respiratory system to contract, narrowing the airways. Breathing through these ...

  7. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness.

  8. Fetal cardiac autonomic control during breathing and non-breathing epochs: the effect of maternal exercise.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Kathleen M; May, Linda E; Yeh, Hung-wen; Million, Stephanie K; Allen, John J B

    2012-07-01

    We explored whether maternal exercise during pregnancy moderates the effect of fetal breathing movements on fetal cardiac autonomic control assessed by metrics of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Thirty women were assigned to Exercise or Control group (n=15/group) based on the modifiable physical activity questionnaire (MPAQ). Magnetocardiograms (MCG) were recorded using a dedicated fetal biomagnetometer. Periods of fetal breathing activity and apnea were identified using the fetal diaphragmatic magnetomyogram (dMMG) as a marker. MCG R-waves were marked. Metrics of fetal HR and HRV were compared using 1 breathing and 1 apneic epoch/fetus. The main effects of group (Exercise vs. Control) and condition (Apnea vs. Breathing) and their interactions were explored. Fetal breathing resulted in significantly lower fetal HR and higher vagally-mediated HRV. Maternal exercise resulted in significantly lower fetal HR, higher total HRV and vagally-mediated HRV with no difference in frequency band ratios. Significant interactions between maternal exercise and fetal breathing were found for metrics summarizing total HRV and a parasympathetic metric. Post hoc comparison showed no group difference during fetal apnea. Fetal breathing was associated with a loss of Total HRV in the Control group and no difference in the Exercise group. Both groups show enhanced vagal function during fetal breathing; greater in the Exercise group. During in utero breathing movements, the fetus of the exercising mother has enhanced cardiac autonomic function that may give the offspring an adaptive advantage.

  9. Controlled Frequency Breathing Reduces Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Burtch, Alex R; Ogle, Ben T; Sims, Patrick A; Harms, Craig A; Symons, Thorburn B; Folz, Rodney J; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2016-08-16

    Controlled frequency breathing (CFB) is a common swim training modality involving holding one's breath for about 7 to 10 strokes before taking another breath. We sought to examine the effects of CFB training on reducing respiratory muscle fatigue. Competitive college swimmers were randomly divided into either the CFB group that breathed every 7 to 10 strokes, or a control group that breathed every 3-4 strokes. Twenty swimmers completed the study. The training intervention included 5-6 weeks (16 sessions) of 12x50-m repetitions with breathing 8-10 breaths per 50m (control group), or 2-3 breaths per 50-m (CFB group). Inspiratory muscle fatigue was defined as the decrease in maximal inspiratory mouth-pressure (MIP) between rest and 46s after a 200 yard free-style swimming race [115s (SD 7)]. Aerobic capacity, pulmonary diffusing capacity, and running economy were also measured pre and post-training. Pooled results demonstrated a 12% decrease in MIP at 46s post-race [-15 (SD 14) cm H2O, Effect size = -0.48, p < 0.01]. After four weeks of training, only the CFB group prevented a decline in MIP values pre to 46 s post-race [-2 (13) cm H2O, p > 0.05]. However, swimming performance, aerobic capacity, pulmonary diffusing capacity, and running economy did not improve (p > 0.05) post-training in either group. In conclusion, CFB training appears to prevent inspiratory muscle fatigue yet no difference was found in performance outcomes.

  10. [Sleep-disordered breathing and dentofacial development].

    PubMed

    Cobo Plana, Juan; de Carlos Villafranca, Félix

    2010-12-01

    Humans breathe an average of 20 times per minute, totalling about 30,000 times a day, and swallow nearly 2,000 times a day. These functions are vital for life. Growing children must adapt their developing structures to various destabilizing processes. When these factors outweigh the compensatory mechanisms, growth may become unbalanced by favoring the development of pathological processes such as sleep breathing disorders.

  11. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

  12. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise.

  13. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  14. Monitoring breath markers under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Righettoni, Marco; Ragnoni, Alessandro; Güntner, Andreas T; Loccioni, Claudio; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Risby, Terence H

    2015-10-15

    Breath analysis has the potential to detect and monitor diseases as well as to reduce the corresponding medical costs while improving the quality of a patient's life. Herein, a portable prototype, consisting of a commercial breath sampler modified to work as a platform for solid-state gas sensors was developed. The sensor is placed close to the mouth (<10 cm) and minimizes the mouth-to-sensor path to avoid contamination and dilution of the target breath marker. Additionally with an appropriate cooling concept, even high sensor operating temperatures (e.g. 350 °C) could be used. Controlled sampling is crucial for accurate repeatable analysis of the human breath and these concerns have been addressed by this novel prototype. The device helps a subject control their exhaled flow rate which increases reproducibility of intra-subject breath samples. The operation of this flame-made selective chemo-resistive gas sensor is demonstrated by the detection of breath acetone.

  15. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  16. Infective endocarditis of native valve after anterior nasal packing.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Suriya; Eisdorfer, Jacob; Indulkar, Shalaka; Zarkaria, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient who was previously treated for spontaneous epistaxis with a petroleum jelly gauze (0.5 in x 72 in) anterior nasal packing filled with an antibiotic ointment, along with prophylactic oral clindamycin. The patient presented with fever and hypotension 3 days after the nasal packing. Her blood cultures grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the transesophageal echocardiography showed vegetation on the atrial surface of the posterior mitral valve leaflet, confirming the diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis attributable to nasal packing. Several case reports discuss toxic shock syndrome after nasal packing, but none describe endocarditis of the native heart valves subsequent to anterior nasal packing. Current guidelines on endocarditis prophylaxis produced by the American Heart Association, European Cardiac Society, and British Cardiac Society together with published evidence do not recommend endocarditis prophylaxis for patients with native heart valves undergoing anterior nasal packing.

  17. Osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap in subtotal nasal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alexander Michael; Montgomery, Jenny; McMahon, Jeremy; Sheikh, Saghir

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with a large squamous cell carcinoma of the right nasal vestibule. He underwent partial rhinectomy and medial maxillectomy followed by staged reconstruction. Reconstruction of a full-thickness nasal defect requires repair of three distinct layers: the skin–soft tissue envelope, subsurface framework and intranasal lining. We report the first use in the UK of an osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap in the reconstruction of a subtotal nasal deficit. The skin of the radial forearm free flap was tubed to recreate the nasal lining and the radial bone reconstructed the dorsal contour of the nose. A full-thickness paramedian forehead flap supplied external coverage. The osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap and forehead flap is a viable option for large nasal defects requiring reconstruction of framework, nasal lining and external covering. PMID:25427933

  18. Management of the middle nasal third in revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M

    2008-08-01

    The middle nasal third is often the source of both aesthetic and functional problems with primary rhinoplasty. Weakness of the middle nasal vault can occur from overresection of the upper lateral cartilages or cartilaginous nasal septum, malposition of the upper lateral cartilages, or from secondary scarring from the primary rhinoplasty. These functional and aesthetic problems can be avoided by maintaining an adequate infrastructure to the middle nasal vault. If secondary problems occur in the middle nasal third, precise anatomic reconstruction can be performed in the form of cartilage grafting and/or suture reconstitution. This reconstruction requires an in-depth knowledge of the functional nasal anatomy and the ability to re-create the infrastructure so that it withstands the forces of scarring and wound contraction. This article outlines the anatomy of the middle third of the nose, the conditions that cause secondary middle-third problems, and the surgical management of these deformities.

  19. [Nasal septal abscess complicating acute sinusitis in a child].

    PubMed

    Hassani, R; Aderdour, L; Maliki, O; Boumed, A; Elfakiri, M M; Bouchoua, F; Raji, A

    2011-01-01

    Nasal septal abscess is a rare complication of acute sinusitis in children. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl who presented at the emergency unit with a bilateral eyelid edema evolving over 2 days, associated with bilateral rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction. Clinical examination found a tumefied nasal septum and nasal obstruction. A computed tomography scan of the nose and paranasal sinuses showed pansinusitis with an abscess of the nasal septum. Treatment consisted in the evacuation of the abscess associated with a triple antibiotic therapy. Progression was favorable. Acute sinusitis is seldom complicated by an abscess of the nasal septum, and very few cases are reported in the literature. Early diagnosis and treatment can avoid complications, which engage not only the functional but also the vital prognosis.

  20. Change in nasal congestion index after treatment in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Sahin-Onder, Serap; Oysu, Cagatay; Deveci, Ildem; Sahin, Samil; Aktas, Betul

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) involves both surgical and medical approaches, and remains a controversial subject. Objective: The objective of this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was to compare the medical and surgical treatments of CRSwNP in terms of their effect on the nasal congestion index (NCI). Methods: Forty-eight patients with CRSwNP were randomized either to medical or surgical therapy. Pretreatment and 3- and 6-month posttreatment assessments of the visual analog scale score, the 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test, saccharine clearance time, nasal endoscopy, and NCI measurement with acoustic rhinometry were performed. Forty-one subjects were included in the analysis. Results: Both the medical and surgical interventions for CRSwNP resulted in significant improvement in the visual analog scale score, 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test, saccharine clearance time, and nasal endoscopic examination scores. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of the percentage change from baseline for any of the parameters at the 6-month posttreatment assessment. NCI showed no significant difference from baseline. Similarly, no significant difference was found between the medical and surgical groups in terms of their effect on the NCI (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Because NCI does not correlate with standard subjective measures in outcomes for this group of patients, it cannot be used as an outcome measurement of treatment of subjects with CRSwNP. Results of this prospective randomized study did not find any additional benefit of surgical therapy over medical therapy in subjects with CRSwNP.