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Sample records for impaired nasal breathing

  1. Nasal airway impairment: the oral response in cleft palate patients.

    PubMed

    Warren, D W; Hairfield, W M; Dalston, E T

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the oral response to severe nasal airway impairment in patients with cleft palate. Inductive plethysmography was used to measure the percent of nasal breathing, and the pressure-flow technique was used to estimate nasal area in 15 persons with severe nasal airway impairment. Mean nasal area was 0.17 cm2, and the average percent of nasal breathing was 20%. Analysis revealed a strong correlation (0.87) between nasal size and percent of nasal breathing in this selected group. Modeling studies based on the mean values from the subjects' data indicated that the model "mouth" would have to open 0.5 cm2 to shunt 80% of the airflow orally, an amount equivalent to the mean value of the subjects' respiratory mode. More important, the extrapolated data revealed that upper-airway resistance decreased in the model from 8.7 cm H2O/L/sec to a level of 3.2 cm H2O/L/sec, which is an average value for healthy adults. These data support the concept that the mouth acts as a variable resistor to maintain an optimal respiratory tract resistance when the nasal airway is impaired. PMID:2008894

  2. Nasal airway responses to nasal continuous positive airway pressure breathing: An in-vivo pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, David E; Bartley, Jim; Shakeel, Muhammad; Nates, Roy J; Hankin, Robin K S

    2016-06-14

    The nasal cycle, through variation in nasal airflow partitioning, allows the upper airway to accommodate the contrasting demands of air conditioning and removal of entrapped air contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) breathing has on both nasal airflow partitioning and nasal geometry. Using a custom-made nasal mask, twenty healthy participants had the airflow in each naris measured during normal nasal breathing followed by nCPAP breathing. Eight participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasal region during spontaneous nasal breathing, and then nCPAP breathing over a range of air pressures. During nCPAP breathing, a simultaneous reduction in airflow through the patent airway together with a corresponding increase in airway flow within the congested nasal airway were observed in sixteen of the twenty participants. Nasal airflow resistance is inversely proportional to airway cross-sectional area. MRI data analysis during nCPAP breathing confirmed airway cross-sectional area reduced along the patent airway while the congested airway experienced an increase in this parameter. During awake breathing, nCPAP disturbs the normal inter-nasal airflow partitioning. This could partially explain the adverse nasal drying symptoms frequently reported by many users of this therapy. PMID:27173595

  3. The switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing.

    PubMed

    Niinimaa, V; Cole, P; Mintz, S; Shephard, R J

    1980-10-01

    The switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing during incrementally graded submaximal exercise was determined in 30 (14 M, 16 F) healthy adult volunteers. Nasal airflow was measured by a pneumotachograph attached to a nasal mask. Oral airflow was determined as the difference between nasal airflow and total pulmonary airflow, the latter being measured by a head-out exercise body plethysmograph. The airflow and pressure signals were sampled every 20 msec by a micropressor, which calculated respiratory volumes and nasal work of breathing, and produced an on-line print-out. Twenty of the 30 subjects (normal augmenters) switched from nasal to oronasal breathing at submaximal exercise of 105.0 W (SD = 30.1), four subjects (mouth breathers) breathed habitually oronasally, five subjects (nose breathers) persistently breathed through the nose only, and one subject showed no consistent nose/mouth breathing pattern. In normal augmenters, the onset of oronasal breathing (VE 35.3 +/- 10.81 . min-1) was quite consistent individually, but varied considerably between inividuals without showing a significant sex difference. The factors most closely related to the switching point were rating of perceived exertion of breathing and nasal work of breathing. PMID:7444224

  4. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  5. Breath Powered Nasal Delivery: A New Route to Rapid Headache Relief

    PubMed Central

    Djupesland, Per G; Messina, John C; Mahmoud, Ramy A

    2013-01-01

    The nose offers an attractive noninvasive alternative for drug delivery. Nasal anatomy, with a large mucosal surface area and high vascularity, allows for rapid systemic absorption and other potential benefits. However, the complex nasal geometry, including the narrow anterior valve, poses a serious challenge to efficient drug delivery. This barrier, plus the inherent limitations of traditional nasal delivery mechanisms, has precluded achievement of the full potential of nasal delivery. Breath Powered bi-directional delivery, a simple but novel nasal delivery mechanism, overcomes these barriers. This innovative mechanism has now been applied to the delivery of sumatriptan. Multiple studies of drug deposition, including comparisons of traditional nasal sprays to Breath Powered delivery, demonstrate significantly improved deposition to superior and posterior intranasal target sites beyond the nasal valve. Pharmacokinetic studies in both healthy subjects and migraineurs suggest that improved deposition of sumatriptan translates into improved absorption and pharmacokinetics. Importantly, the absorption profile is shifted toward a more pronounced early peak, representing nasal absorption, with a reduced late peak, representing predominantly gastrointestinal (GI) absorption. The flattening and “spreading out” of the GI peak appears more pronounced in migraine sufferers than healthy volunteers, likely reflecting impaired GI absorption described in migraineurs. In replicated clinical trials, Breath Powered delivery of low-dose sumatriptan was well accepted and well tolerated by patients, and onset of pain relief was faster than generally reported in previous trials with noninjectable triptans. Interestingly, Breath Powered delivery also allows for the potential of headache-targeted medications to be better delivered to the trigeminal nerve and the sphenopalatine ganglion, potentially improving treatment of various types of headache. In brief, Breath Powered bi

  6. Breath powered nasal delivery: a new route to rapid headache relief.

    PubMed

    Djupesland, Per G; Messina, John C; Mahmoud, Ramy A

    2013-09-01

    The nose offers an attractive noninvasive alternative for drug delivery. Nasal anatomy, with a large mucosal surface area and high vascularity, allows for rapid systemic absorption and other potential benefits. However, the complex nasal geometry, including the narrow anterior valve, poses a serious challenge to efficient drug delivery. This barrier, plus the inherent limitations of traditional nasal delivery mechanisms, has precluded achievement of the full potential of nasal delivery. Breath Powered bi-directional delivery, a simple but novel nasal delivery mechanism, overcomes these barriers. This innovative mechanism has now been applied to the delivery of sumatriptan. Multiple studies of drug deposition, including comparisons of traditional nasal sprays to Breath Powered delivery, demonstrate significantly improved deposition to superior and posterior intranasal target sites beyond the nasal valve. Pharmacokinetic studies in both healthy subjects and migraineurs suggest that improved deposition of sumatriptan translates into improved absorption and pharmacokinetics. Importantly, the absorption profile is shifted toward a more pronounced early peak, representing nasal absorption, with a reduced late peak, representing predominantly gastrointestinal (GI) absorption. The flattening and "spreading out" of the GI peak appears more pronounced in migraine sufferers than healthy volunteers, likely reflecting impaired GI absorption described in migraineurs. In replicated clinical trials, Breath Powered delivery of low-dose sumatriptan was well accepted and well tolerated by patients, and onset of pain relief was faster than generally reported in previous trials with noninjectable triptans. Interestingly, Breath Powered delivery also allows for the potential of headache-targeted medications to be better delivered to the trigeminal nerve and the sphenopalatine ganglion, potentially improving treatment of various types of headache. In brief, Breath Powered bi

  7. Nasal and Oral Inspiration during Natural Speech Breathing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…

  8. The effect of breath holding, hyperventilation, and exercise on nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Kern, E B

    1978-12-01

    A group of 51 patients was studied by a technique of active posterior rhinomanometry that assessed the influence of breath holding, hyperventilation, and exercise on nasal resistance. Breath hodling of 30 seconds or longer produced a decrease in nasal resistance in most of the subjects tested. Hyperventilation had variable effects on nasal resistance, and exercise consistently decreased nasal resistance. These observations are consistent with the proposed effect of chemoreceptor stimulation on nasal airway resistance.

  9. Nasal Contribution to Breathing and Fine Particle Deposition in Children Versus Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both the route of breathing, nasal versus oral, and the effectiveness of the nose to filter inhaled, fine particles may differ between children and adults. This study compared (1) the nasal contribution to breathing at rest and during mild to moderate exercise in children (age 6–...

  10. pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Sophie; Hellgren, Johan

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a new method to assess nasal pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate in adults. The study included 19 healthy, non-smoking, adult volunteers without current upper respiratory disease, COPD or asthma. Expiratory breath condensate (EBC) was collected from the nose and mouth respectively. A Jaeger breath condenser was fitted with a transparent facemask and during oral sampling it was fitted with a mouthpiece. The condensates were bubbled with argon gas for 10 minutes to reduce carbon dioxide and the samples were analysed immediately using a calibrated glass electrode and a portable pH-meter. The mean pH in the nasal EBC was 7.0 +/- 0.5 and in oral EBC 6.9 +/- 0.7 (p = 0.6). The nasal EBC-pH was well in agreement with data from previous studies, which measured pH directly on the nasal mucosa with an electrode. In conclusion, this paper describes a method to measure pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in healthy adults during tidal breathing. The nasal EBC-pH related well to previous data from intranasal pH measurements suggesting that nasal EBC-pH could have a role in monitoring pH alterations in the nasal mucosa such as nasal inflammation.

  11. Electromyographic analysis of trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus muscles during nasal and oral inspiration in nasal- and mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E C; Marchiori, S C; Silva, A M T

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate sternocleidomastoideus (SCM) and trapezius (superior fibers) muscle activity patterns in mouth-breathing children, and to compare them with nasal-breathing children. Forty-six children, of both sexes, ranging from 8 to 12 years old, were evaluated through electromyography. The selected children were divided into two groups; Group I, was made up of 26 mouth-breathing children and Group II of 20 nasal-breathing children. Electromyographic recordings were obtained through surface electrodes in the SCM and trapezius muscles, bilaterally, during oral and nasal inspiration. Root-mean-square (RMS) data expressed in microvolts (microV), were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis statistical test. From the results obtained, we concluded that there was a significant difference in the muscle activity between the groups, with higher activity during nasal inspiration in the mouth-breathing group. During oral inspiration, there was no significant difference between groups. Within the groups, only the mouth-breathing group showed higher activity during nasal inspiration.

  12. Nasal vasomotor responses in man to breath holding and hyperventilation recorded by means of intranasal balloons.

    PubMed

    Babatola, F D; Eccles, R

    1986-12-01

    Nasal vasomotor responses were recorded in conscious human subjects by means of water filled balloons. Hyperventilation caused an increase in intranasal balloon pressure associated with vasodilatation whereas breath holding caused a decrease associated with vasoconstriction. The amplitude of the nasal vasomotor response was influenced by the nasal cycle with the greatest response always observed on the congested or low airflow side of the nose. The results suggest that an elevated arterial level of carbon dioxide causes a pronounced vasoconstruction of the nasal blood vessels and that this response may be clinically relevant in controlling nasal bleeding.

  13. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma causing sleep-disordered breathing in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cha Hee; Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon; Bae, Jung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma is an extremely rare neoplasm of the nasal and paranasal sinuses. We present the case of a 10-month-old boy with a huge nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma that was complicated by sleep-disordered breathing. The mass was completely resected by image-guided endoscopic surgery and confirmed histopathologically as a chondromesenchymal hamartoma. In this report, we discuss the characteristics and treatment of this unusual tumor. PMID:26464731

  14. Effects of a Mask on Breathing Impairment During a Fencing Assault: A Case Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Passali, Desiderio; Cambi, Jacopo; Salerni, Lorenzo; Stortini, Giancarlo; Bellussi, Luisa Maria; Passali, Francesco Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fencers often complain of progressive difficulty in breathing during matches, which is generally attributed to restricted air, light and heat circulation from wearing a mask. Physiologically, the nasal structure generates airflow resistance that can reach -50% of the total respiratory resistance. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the presence of nasal obstruction in fencers and the relationship with the use of mask. Materials and Methods: An observational study on 40 fencers (18 males, 22 females) was conducted. Fencers perform a usual assault, wearing the mask and standardized physical exercises (running, sprints and obstacles) without the mask. ENT examination with a nasal flexible fiberscope, Anterior Active Rhinomanometry (AAR) and Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) measurement before and after physical activity with or without the mask was recorded. Results: Before physical exercise, the total nasal airway resistance mean value for AAR was 0.33 ± 0.17 Pa/cm3/s at 150 Pa. After a match with the mask, the mean value was 0.28 ± 0.16 Pa/cm3/s. After normal physical exercises without mask, the mean value was 0.24 ± 0.15 Pa/cm3/s. Using t tests, statistically significant difference between nasal resistance before and after physical activity (P < 0.05) was observed, but no significant difference in nasal resistance between the basal value and that taken after a match wearing the masks (P = 0.1265). PNIF values significantly increase with exercise (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study shows that wearing the mask causes increased breathing impairment in fencers, when compared with similar physical activity without the mask. PMID:26448845

  15. [Nasal obstruction and mouth breathing: the ENT's point of view].

    PubMed

    Leboulanger, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Obstructive diseases of children's upper airways are frequent, mostly caused by tonsils and adenoids hypertrophy. A nasal septum deviation or a lower turbinate hypertrophy may also cause a significant obstruction. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy must be performed in case of clinical obstruction, sometimes documented by a sleep study. A tonsils' hypertrophy without significant obstruction and clinical symptoms is not an indication of adenotonsillectomy, even in case of snoring or if an orthodontic treatment is planned.

  16. Comparison of exhaled nitric oxide and cardiorespiratory indices between nasal and oral breathing during submaximal exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Y; Itoh, T; Miyamura, M; Nishino, H

    1997-10-01

    In order to examine the origin and role of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air during exercise, exhaled NO outputs of 8 healthy human subjects were compared using different breathing methods, through the mouth or nose, at two intensities of bicycle exercise. The concentration of NO in the exhaled air and ventilatory gas exchange variables were measured by a chemiluminescence analyzer and a mixing chamber method, respectively. The concentration and total output of NO in the expired air was significantly higher under nasal breathing than under oral breathing for both exercise intensities, whereas no significant difference was observed in cardiorespiratory variables between them. NO output increased significantly when exercise intensity was increased from unloaded (0 W) to 60 W under nasal breathing, but not under oral breathing. A negative correlation among subjects was found between NO output and minute ventilation in both breathing methods only for unloaded exercise. Data indicate that nasal airways have a large contribution, at least 50% of total NO output in the exhaled air during nasal breathing, but this nasal NO may have no further modulation on respiratory function during submaximal exercise by healthy humans.

  17. Restorative procedures in disturbed function of the upper airways - nasal breathing

    PubMed Central

    Mlynski, Gunter

    2005-01-01

    These days, functional rhinosurgery is almost always taken to mean the improvement of nasal airflow. However, air should not only pass through the nose without obstruction. It needs to be warmed, moistened and filtered. This requires sufficient air/mucous membrane contact by spreading airflow over the entire turbinate region, as well as regulation of nasal airway resistance and the degree of turbulence within the nasal cycle. These factors are not considered enough in the concept of functional rhinosurgery. There cannot be a rigid concept for functional/aesthetic rhinosurgery, the surgical procedure must be adapted to the individual anatomy and pathology. In spite of this, it must be clear (based on evidence) which surgical steps can solve a functional problem of the nose in the long term. This paper cannot explain evidence-based treatment strategies to restore nasal respiratory function because in all branches of rhinosurgery, there are no prospective studies available with a sufficiently high sample size and long-term results objectivized by functional diagnosis. Studies available on septal surgery show better results for SP after Cottle than for SMR after Killian. However, the success rate of a 70 to 80% improvement in nasal breathing is not satisfactory. The incidence of postoperative, dry nasal mucosa is also too high. The task of rhinology is to stress the functional side of rhinosurgery more. This includes preoperative analysis of the causes of disturbed respiratory function using the functional diagnosis methods available, the use of evidence-based surgical techniques and postoperative, objectivized quality control. More research needs to be done on the physiology and pathophysiology of nasal airflow as well as on the effect of rhinosurgery on airflow. Numerical flow simulation can contribute greatly to this because the effects of shape changes on the flow can be visualized. Methods need to be developed which can be used for routine, diagnostic recording of

  18. Restorative procedures in disturbed function of the upper airways - nasal breathing.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Gunter

    2005-01-01

    These days, functional rhinosurgery is almost always taken to mean the improvement of nasal airflow. However, air should not only pass through the nose without obstruction. It needs to be warmed, moistened and filtered. This requires sufficient air/mucous membrane contact by spreading airflow over the entire turbinate region, as well as regulation of nasal airway resistance and the degree of turbulence within the nasal cycle. These factors are not considered enough in the concept of functional rhinosurgery.There cannot be a rigid concept for functional/aesthetic rhinosurgery, the surgical procedure must be adapted to the individual anatomy and pathology. In spite of this, it must be clear (based on evidence) which surgical steps can solve a functional problem of the nose in the long term. This paper cannot explain evidence-based treatment strategies to restore nasal respiratory function because in all branches of rhinosurgery, there are no prospective studies available with a sufficiently high sample size and long-term results objectivized by functional diagnosis. Studies available on septal surgery show better results for SP after Cottle than for SMR after Killian. However, the success rate of a 70 to 80% improvement in nasal breathing is not satisfactory. The incidence of postoperative, dry nasal mucosa is also too high. The task of rhinology is to stress the functional side of rhinosurgery more. This includes preoperative analysis of the causes of disturbed respiratory function using the functional diagnosis methods available, the use of evidence-based surgical techniques and postoperative, objectivized quality control. More research needs to be done on the physiology and pathophysiology of nasal airflow as well as on the effect of rhinosurgery on airflow. Numerical flow simulation can contribute greatly to this because the effects of shape changes on the flow can be visualized. Methods need to be developed which can be used for routine, diagnostic recording of

  19. Diaphragmatic amplitude and accessory inspiratory muscle activity in nasal and mouth-breathing adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Maria Elaine; Boufleur, Jalusa; Soares, Juliana Corrêa; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic activity of the accessory inspiratory muscles and the diaphragmatic amplitude (DA) in nasal and mouth-breathing adults. The study evaluated 38 mouth-breathing (MB group) and 38 nasal-breathing (NB group) adults, from 18 to 30years old and both sexes. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to evaluate the amplitude and symmetry (POC%) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles at rest, during nasal slow inspiration at Lung Total Capacity (LTC) and, during rapid and abrupt inspiration: Sniff, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) and Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP). M-mode ultrasonography assessed the right diaphragm muscle amplitude in three different nasal inspirations: at tidal volume (TV), Sniff and inspiration at LTC. The SCM activity was significantly lower in the MB group during Sniff, PNIF (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney test) and MIP (p<0.01, t-test). The groups did not differ during rest and inspiration at LTC, regarding sEMG amplitude and POC%. DA was significantly lower in the MB group at TV (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney) and TLC (p=0.03, t-test). Mouth breathing reflected on lower recruitment of the accessory inspiratory muscles during fast inspiration and lower diaphragmatic amplitude, compared to nasal breathing.

  20. Improved Pharmacokinetics of Sumatriptan With Breath Powered™ Nasal Delivery of Sumatriptan Powder

    PubMed Central

    Obaidi, Mohammad; Offman, Elliot; Messina, John; Carothers, Jennifer; Djupesland, Per G; Mahmoud, Ramy A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives.— The purpose of this study was to directly compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of 22-mg sumatriptan powder delivered intranasally with a novel Breath Powered™ device (11 mg in each nostril) vs a 20-mg sumatriptan liquid nasal spray, a 100-mg oral tablet, and a 6-mg subcutaneous injection. Background.— A prior PK study found that low doses of sumatriptan powder delivered intranasally with a Breath Powered device were efficiently and rapidly absorbed. An early phase clinical trial with the same device and doses found excellent tolerability with high response rates and rapid onset of pain relief, approaching the benefits of injection despite significantly lower predicted drug levels. Methods.— An open-label, cross-over, comparative bioavailability study was conducted in 20 healthy subjects at a single center in the USA. Following randomization, fasted subjects received a single dose of each of the 4 treatments separated by a 7-day washout. Blood samples were taken pre-dose and serially over 14 hours post-dose for PK analysis. Results.— Quantitative measurement of residuals in used Breath Powered devices demonstrated that the devices delivered 8 ± 0.9 mg (mean ± standard deviation) of sumatriptan powder in each nostril (total dose 16 mg). Although the extent of systemic exposure over 14 hours was similar following Breath Powered delivery of 16-mg sumatriptan powder and 20-mg liquid nasal spray (area under the curve [AUC]0-∞ 64.9 ng*hour/mL vs 61.1 ng*hour/mL), sumatriptan powder, despite a 20% lower dose, produced 27% higher peak exposure (Cmax 20.8 ng/mL vs 16.4 ng/mL) and 61% higher exposure in the first 30 minutes compared with the nasal spray (AUC0-30 minutes 5.8 ng*hour/mL vs 3.6 ng*hour/mL). The magnitude of difference is larger on a per-milligram basis. The absorption profile following standard nasal spray demonstrated bimodal peaks, consistent with lower early followed by higher later absorptions. In

  1. Effects of ozone exposure: a comparison between oral and nasal breathing

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, B.; Silverman, F.; Cole, P.; Corey, P.

    1988-09-01

    Mode of inhalation, by nose or by mouth, as a determinant of pulmonary toxicity to acute inhalant exposure has been investigated incompletely. This communication addresses whether there are significant differences in toxic pulmonary responses to acute ozone (O/sub 3/) exposure between differing modes of inhalation (nasal vs. oral breathing). Changes in the results of pulmonary function tests and symptomatology of healthy young adults were compared following both exclusive nose and exclusive mouth breathing during a 30-min exposure to approximately 0.4 ppm O/sub 3/ under conditions of moderate continuous exercise. In this single-blind, randomized, crossover study, no significant differences in either the results of pulmonary function tests or in symptomatology were found between the two modes of inhalation.

  2. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  3. [The possibility of using соformulated intranasal drugs after surgical correction of nasal breathing].

    PubMed

    Nikiforova, G N; Svistushkin, V M; Zakharova, N M; Shevchik, E A; Zolotova, A V; Dedova, M G

    2016-01-01

    One of the major causes of chronic nasal obstruction is the nasal septum deformation and increase of the lower nasal turbinates. The number of septoplasty--operations ranges from 14% to 44,2% of all ENT-operations. The results of surgery are swelling of the tissues and damaged ciliar epithelium, that leads to the inparament of the mucociliar transport. In the postoperati e period the nasal cavity should be cleaned. Drugs, that are used, should reduce swelling, improve regeneration and should not supress ciliar activity. The results of supervisory, non-interventional study have shown, that application of Nasiс after septoplasty and submucose vasotomy of inferior nasal turbinates increases reparative process and leads to more rapid recovery of respiratory function of nasal cavity.

  4. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more severe climates of

  5. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved “Out of Africa” to explore the more severe climates of

  6. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more severe climates of

  7. Impact of breathing 100% oxygen on radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Kenneth T; Payne, Valerie; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Walb, Matthew C; Munley, Michael T; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J; Robbins, Mike E

    2014-11-01

    Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O(2) during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O(2) for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O(2)) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O(2) received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O(2) was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O(2) during an EVA. PMID:25338095

  8. Impact of Breathing 100% Oxygen on Radiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Payne, Valerie; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Walb, Matthew C.; Munley, Michael T.; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2015-01-01

    Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O2 for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O2) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O2 received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O2 was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. PMID:25338095

  9. [Aerosol deposition in nasal passages of burrowing and ground rodents when breathing dust-laden air].

    PubMed

    Moshkin, M P; Petrovskiĭ, D V; Akulov, A E; Romashchenko, A V; Gerlinskaia, L A; Muchnaia, M I; Ganimedov, V L; Sadovskiĭ, A S; Savelov, A A; Koptiug, I V; Troitskiĭ, S Iu; Bukhtiiarov, V I; Kolchanov, N A; Sagdeev, R Z; Fomin, V M

    2014-01-01

    In subterranean rodents, which dig down the passages with frontal teeth, adaptation to the underground mode of life presumes forming of mechanisms that provide protection against inhaling dust particles of different size when digging. One of such mechanisms can be specific pattern of air flow organization in the nasal cavity. To test this assumption, comparative study of geometry and aerodynamics of nasal passages has been conducted with regard to typical representative of subterranean rodents, the mole vole, and a representative of ground rodents, the house mouse. Numerical modeling of air flows and deposition of micro- and nanoparticle aerosols indicates that sedimentation of model particles over the whole surface of nasal cavity is higher in mole vole than in house mouse. On the contrary, particles deposition on the surface of olfactory epithelium turns out to be substantially less in the burrowing rodent as compared to the ground one. Adaptive significance of the latter observation has been substantiated by experimental study on the uptake ofnanoparticles of hydrated manganese oxide MnO x (H2O)x and Mn ions from nasal cavity into brain. It has been shown with use of magnetic resonance tomography method that there is no difference between studied species with respect to intake of particles or ions by olfactory bulb when they are introduced intranasally. Meanwhile, when inhaling nanoparticle aerosol of MnCl2, deposition of Mn in mouse's olfactory bulbs surpasses markedly that in vole's bulbs. Thereby, the morphology of nasal passages as a factor determining the aerodynamics of upper respiratory tract ensures for burrowing rodents more efficient protection of both lungs and brain against inhaled aerosols than for ground ones. PMID:25771679

  10. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145450

  12. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Thamires Marques; Kazama, Cristiane Mayumi; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Macchione, Mariangela; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Bueno-Garcia, Maria Lucia; Zanetta, Dirce Maria; de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study). RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively). Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers. PMID:24473505

  13. Breathing and upper airway CO2 in reptiles: role of the nasal and vomeronasal systems.

    PubMed

    Coates, E L; Ballam, G O

    1989-01-01

    The ventilatory response of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, to 2% CO2 delivered to the upper airways (UA) was measured before and after the olfactory or vomeronasal nerves were transected. The UA (nasal cavities and mouth) were isolated from the gas source inspired into the lungs by inserting an endotracheal T tube into the glottis. CO2 was administered to the UA via a head chamber. The primary ventilatory response to UA CO2 was a significant decrease in ventilatory frequency (f) and minute ventilation. The decrease in f was caused by a significant increase in the pause duration. Tidal volume, expiratory duration, and inspiratory duration were not altered with UA CO2. The f response to UA CO2 was abolished with olfactory nerve transection, whereas vomeronasal nerve transection significantly increased the magnitude of the f depression. These results indicate that CO2-sensitive receptors are located in the nasal epithelium and that the olfactory nerves must be intact for the UA CO2 f response to be observed. In addition, the vomeronasal system appears to modulate the ventilatory response to UA CO2.

  14. The Effect of Nasal Septal Perforation and its Treatment on Objective Sleep and Breathing Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Boynuegri, Suleyman; Cayonu, Melih; Tuna, Evrim Unsal; Kurukahvecioglu, Selma; Ozcan, Kursat Murat; Turkay, Burak; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasal septal perforation (NSP) may alter nasal airflow patterns and physiology. To the best of our knowledge, no studies in the English literature have investigated the effect of NSP and its treatment on polysomnographic parameters. In this study, we aimed to investigate polysomnographic parameters in patients with NSP as well as changes in those parameters after treatment of NSP. Material/Methods Nineteen patients diagnosed with NSP were included in the study. All patients had baseline and post-procedure polysomnographies (PSG) after insertion of silicone septal button for closure of NSP. Results Both median AHI [5.30 (14.40) vs. 2.40 (14.50)] and median supine AHI [10.00 (42.10) vs. 6.60 (37.00)] decreased after correction of the perforation. There was a large reduction in median supine AHI in patients with a perforation size >66 mm2 [10.10 (34.15) vs. 1.60 (28.30)]. Conclusions We conclude that NSP did not cause any deterioration in objective sleep parameters as determined by PSG, other than a decrease in REM sleep duration and an increase in supine AHI. Correction of NSP did not affect REM duration and supine AHI decreased after treatment. PMID:26878399

  15. [pH values in the pharynx of the patients presenting with compromised nasal breathing of inflammatory and non-inflammatory genesis concomitant with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Subbotina, M V; Temnikova, I V; Onuchina, E V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on the pH values in the pharynx and nose. It included 87 patients at the age varying from 18 to 81 years admitted to the Irkutsk-based Railway Clinical Hospital and allocated to four groups. Group 1 was comprised of 25 patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), group 2 consisted of 29 patients with CRS in the absence of GERD, group 3 included 22 patients with nasal septum deformations (NSD) and GERD, group 4 included 11 patients with NSD and motor rhinitis without GERD. The control group was formed from 10 volunteers. pH was measured by the contact method with the use ofEkokhim indicator paper. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed following the recommendations of the Montreal consensus. It was shown that pH values in the pharynx of the patients with compromised nasal breathing of any origin in combination with GERD were lower than in the absence of GERD and in the healthy volunteers. The study groups did not differ in terms of pH values in the nasal cavity. It is concluded that pH values 4 or lower may serve as the criterion for pharyngo-laryngeal reflux (PLR) concomitant with HERD while pH 5 occurs more frequently in the patients with compromised nasal breathing of any etiology, regardless of the presence or absence of GERD.Disordered nasal breathing of any genesis in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease was associated with the feeling of the lump in the throat, congestion of the respiratory tract and the nose, pain in the ears, cardialgia, and irregular heartbeat. It isrecommended to use pH measurements as a criterion for diagnostics of pharyngo-laryngeal reflux in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  16. Breathing-Impaired Speech after Brain Haemorrhage: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heselwood, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from an auditory and acoustic analysis of the speech of an adult male with impaired prosody and articulation due to brain haemorrhage. They show marked effects on phonation, speech rate and articulator velocity, and a speech rhythm disrupted by "intrusive" stresses. These effects are discussed in relation to the speaker's…

  17. Low-dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized four-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Rustan, Ø G; Tesli, N; Poppy, C L; Smevik, H; Tesli, M; Røine, M; Mahmoud, R A; Smerud, K T; Djupesland, P G; Andreassen, O A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel ‘Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we evaluated dose-dependent effects on social cognition, compared response with intravenous (IV) administration of OT, and assessed nasal cavity dimensions using acoustic rhinometry. We adopted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover design, with 16 healthy male adults completing four single-dose treatments (intranasal 8 IU (international units) or 24 IU OT, 1 IU OT IV and placebo). The primary outcome was social cognition measured by emotional ratings of facial images. Secondary outcomes included the pharmacokinetics of OT, vasopressin and cortisol in blood and the association between nasal cavity dimensions and emotional ratings. Despite the fact that all the treatments produced similar plasma OT increases compared with placebo, there was a main effect of treatment on anger ratings of emotionally ambiguous faces. Pairwise comparisons revealed decreased ratings after 8 IU OT in comparison to both placebo and 24 IU OT. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between nasal valve dimensions and anger ratings of ambiguous faces after 8-IU OT treatment. These findings provide support for a direct nose-to-brain effect, independent of blood absorption, of low-dose OT delivered from a Breath Powered device. PMID:26171983

  18. Low-dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized four-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment.

    PubMed

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Rustan, Ø G; Tesli, N; Poppy, C L; Smevik, H; Tesli, M; Røine, M; Mahmoud, R A; Smerud, K T; Djupesland, P G; Andreassen, O A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel 'Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we evaluated dose-dependent effects on social cognition, compared response with intravenous (IV) administration of OT, and assessed nasal cavity dimensions using acoustic rhinometry. We adopted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover design, with 16 healthy male adults completing four single-dose treatments (intranasal 8 IU (international units) or 24 IU OT, 1 IU OT IV and placebo). The primary outcome was social cognition measured by emotional ratings of facial images. Secondary outcomes included the pharmacokinetics of OT, vasopressin and cortisol in blood and the association between nasal cavity dimensions and emotional ratings. Despite the fact that all the treatments produced similar plasma OT increases compared with placebo, there was a main effect of treatment on anger ratings of emotionally ambiguous faces. Pairwise comparisons revealed decreased ratings after 8 IU OT in comparison to both placebo and 24 IU OT. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between nasal valve dimensions and anger ratings of ambiguous faces after 8-IU OT treatment. These findings provide support for a direct nose-to-brain effect, independent of blood absorption, of low-dose OT delivered from a Breath Powered device. PMID:26171983

  19. [Nursing outcomes for ineffective breathing patterns and impaired spontaneous ventilation in intensive care].

    PubMed

    do Canto, Débora Francisco; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to validate the results of Nursing selected from the link NANDA-I-NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification--NANDA--International) for diagnosis Ineffective Breathing Pattern and Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation in adult intensive care unit. This is a content validation study conducted in a university hospital in southern Brazil with 15 expert nurses with clinical experience and knowledge of the ratings. The instruments contained five-point Likert scales to rate the importance of each outcome (1st step) and indicator (Step 2) for the diagnoses studied. We calculated weighted averages for each outcome/indicator, considering) 1 = 0. 2 = 0.25, 3 = 0.50 4 = 0.75 and 5 = 1. The outcomes suggested by the NOC with averages above 0.8 were considered validated as well as the indicators. The results Respiratory State--airway permeability (Ineffective Breathing Patterns) and 11 indicators, and Response to mechanical ventilation: adult (Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation) with 26 indicators were validated.

  20. The effect of high flow nasal cannula therapy on the work of breathing in infants with bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trang M T; O'Malley, Lee; Mayfield, Sara; Martin, Simon; Schibler, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    The main physiological impact of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is presumed to be a decrease in work of breathing (WOB). To assess this, diaphragmatic electrical activity and esophageal pressure changes were measured off then on HFNC delivered at 2 L/kg/min, in 14 infants with bronchiolitis and 14 cardiac infants. Electrical activity of the diaphragm (Edi) was measured using an Edi catheter with calculations of signal peak (EdiMAX ) and amplitude (EdiAMPL ). Pressure-rate and pressure-time products (PRP, PTP) were calculated from analyses of esophageal pressure. Changes in end-expiratory lung volume were measured using respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIPEEL ). The EdiMAX and EdiAMPL were significantly higher in infants with bronchiolitis than in cardiac infants (P < 0.05). Within the bronchiolitis group, both were significantly reduced between HFNC states from 27.9 µV [20.4, 35.4] to 21.0 µV [14.8, 27.2] and from 25.1 µV [18.0, 32.2] to 19.2 µV [13.3, 25.1], respectively (mean, 95% CI, P < 0.05). A less prominent offload of the diaphragm was observed in cardiac infants (P < 0.05). WOB decreased in both groups with a significant reduction of PRP and PTP (P < 0.05). RIPEEL increased significantly in bronchiolitis only (P < 0.05). HFNC offloads the diaphragm and reduces the WOB in bronchiolitis. A similar effect was demonstrated in cardiac infants, a group without signs of airway-obstruction.

  1. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jason M; Porter, W M Ruger; Ridgely, Ryan C; Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Bell, Phil R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2014-11-01

    The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their small body size (which mitigated allometric concerns) and their tendency to preserve nasal soft tissues within their hypermineralized skulls. Hypermineralization directly preserved portions of the olfactory turbinates along with an internal nasal ridge that we regard as potentially an osteological correlate for respiratory conchae. Fossil specimens were CT-scanned, and nasal cavities were segmented and restored. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the nasal capsule was functionally tested in a virtual environment using computational fluid dynamics by running air through multiple models differing in nasal soft-tissue conformation: a bony-bounded model (i.e., skull without soft tissue) and then models with soft tissues added, such as a paranasal septum, a scrolled concha, a branched concha, and a model combining the paranasal septum with a concha. Deviations in fluid flow in comparison to a phylogenetically constrained sample of extant diapsids were used as indicators of missing soft tissue. Models that restored aspects of airflow found in extant diapsids, such as appreciable airflow in the olfactory chamber, were judged as more likely. The model with a branched concha produced airflow patterns closest to those of extant diapsids. These results from both paleontological observation and airflow modeling indicate that S. validum and other pachycephalosaurids could have had both olfactory and respiratory conchae. Although respiratory conchae have been linked to endothermy, such conclusions require caution in that our re-evaluation of the reptilian nasal apparatus indicates that respiratory conchae may be more widespread

  2. Influence of the respiratory cycle structure on the flow field in human nasal cavity at a fixed level of breath depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosykh, L. Yu.; Ganimedov, V. L.; Muchnaya, M. I.; Sadovskii, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of air flow field in the human nasal cavity has studied during the respiratory cycle. Real tomographic scans of the adult without abnormalities in the upper airway have been used to construct the geometric model. Quiet breathing mode is selected: the duration of the respiratory cycle is 4.3 sec and the depth of breathing is 600 ml, which provides pulmonary ventilation at 8.4 liters of air per minute. The system of Navier - Stokes equations was used to describe the flow. Laminar flow regime was postulated. The Lagrange approach was used for calculation of submicron particles motion. The numerical solution was built on the basis of gas-dynamic solver FLUENT of software package ANSYS 12. Calculations were made for two cases in which the same value of the integral characteristic (the depth of breathing) was reached, but which had different kind of boundary conditions on the exit. In the first case, the velocity was assumed symmetrical with respect to inhalation - exhalation and was approximated by sinusoid. In the second case, the velocity as a function of time is determined by processing of the real person spirogram. For the both variants the flow fields were obtained and compared. Analysis of the results showed that in non-stationary case the use of symmetric boundary condition leads to an underestimation of respiratory effort for the implementation of the required depth of breathing. In cyclic flow the flow fields in acceleration and deceleration phases are, basically, the same as in the corresponding steady flow. At the same time taking into account of non-symmetry of respiratory cycle influences on deposition pattern of particles significantly.

  3. Disorders of the nasal valve area

    PubMed Central

    Bloching, Marc Boris

    2008-01-01

    The nasal valve area is not a singular structure, but a complex three-dimensional construct consisting of several morphological structures. From the physiologic point of view, it is the place of maximum nasal flow resistance (“flow limiting segment”). Therefore, according to Poiseuille’s law, even minor constrictions of this area result in a clinically relevant impairment of nasal breathing for the patient. This narrow passage, also called “ostium internum nasi”, is formed by the mobile lateral nasal wall, the anterior septum with the swell body, the head of the inferior turbinate and the osseous piriform aperture. Within the framework of aetiology, static and dynamic disorders of the nasal valve area have to be distinguished since they result in different therapeutic measures. In the context of diagnosis, the exploration of the case history for assessing the patient’s extent of suffering and the clinical examination are very important. In addition to the presentation of the basics of disorders of the nasal valves, this paper focuses on the treatment of dynamic disorders that mainly constitute the more important therapeutic issue. In this context, we distinguish between stabilisation techniques through grafts or implants and stabilising suture techniques. Following a thorough analysis, the correction of static nasal valve disorders requires various plastic-reconstructive measures using transposition grafting and skin or composite grafts. PMID:22073083

  4. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly ...

  5. [Test using vapourated expired nasal breathing in medicine 100 years ago and in paestum 2 300 years ago].

    PubMed

    Pirsig, W

    2014-11-01

    This historical sketch follows the traces of a mirror, once used to test the last breath of a dying woman. It was found on the fresco of a tomb in Paestum dated about 320 BC. In 1889, Hendrik Zwaardemaker (Utrecht) was the first to present a hygrometric functional test using a cold mirror placed under the nose to estimate the degree of airflow obstruction during exhalation. In 1901, Ernst Glatzel (Berlin) modified Zwaardemaker's concept by engraving a series of equidistant arcs into his metallic mirror to further quantify the amounts of condensed vapour in the expired air. The Glatzel-mirror was used in Germany until after the Second World War. PMID:25369157

  6. Respiratory monitoring system based on the nasal pressure technique for the analysis of sleep breathing disorders: Reduction of static and dynamic errors, and comparisons with thermistors and pneumotachographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves de Mesquita, Jayme; Lopes de Melo, Pedro

    2004-03-01

    Thermally sensitive devices—thermistors—have usually been used to monitor sleep-breathing disorders. However, because of their long time constant, these devices are not able to provide a good characterization of fast events, like hypopneas. Nasal pressure recording technique (NPR) has recently been suggested to quantify airflow during sleep. It is claimed that the short time constants of the devices used to implement this technique would allow an accurate analysis of fast abnormal respiratory events. However, these devices present errors associated with nonlinearities and acoustic resonance that could reduce the diagnostic value of the NPR. Moreover, in spite of the high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this work was twofold: (1) describe the development of a flexible NPR device and (2) evaluate the performance of this device when compared to pneumotachographs (PNTs) and thermistors. After the design details are described, the system static accuracy is evaluated by a comparative analysis with a PNT. This analysis revealed a significant reduction (p<0.001) of the static error when system nonlinearities were reduced. The dynamic performance of the NPR system was investigated by frequency response analysis and time constant evaluations and the results showed that the developed device response was as good as PNT and around 100 times faster (τ=5,3 ms) than thermistors (τ=512 ms). Experimental results obtained in simulated clinical conditions and in a patient are presented as examples, and confirmed the good features achieved in engineering tests. These results are in close agreement with physiological fundamentals, supplying substantial evidence that the improved dynamic and static characteristics of this device can contribute to a more accurate implementation of medical research projects and to improve the

  7. Longitudinal distribution of ozone and chlorine in the human respiratory tract: simulation of nasal and oral breathing with the single-path diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Bush, M L; Zhang, W; Ben-Jebria, A; Ultman, J S

    2001-06-15

    In the single-path model of the respiratory system, gas transport occurs within a conduit of progressively increasing cross-sectional and surface areas by a combination of flow, longitudinal dispersion, and lateral absorption. The purpose of this study was to use bolus inhalation data previously obtained for chlorine (Cl(2)) and for ozone (O(3)) to test the predictive capability of the single-path model and to adjust input parameters for applying the model to other exposure conditions. The data, consisting of uptake fraction as a function of bolus penetration volume, were recorded on 10 healthy nonsmokers breathing orally as well as nasally at alternative air flows of 150, 250, and 1000 ml/s. By employing published data for airway anatomy, gas-phase dispersion coefficients, and gas-phase mass transfer coefficients while neglecting diffusion limitations in the mucus phase, the single-path model was capable of predicting the uptake distribution for O(3) but not the steeper distribution that was observed for Cl(2). To simultaneously explain the data for these two gases, it was necessary to increase gas-phase mass transfer coefficients and to include a finite diffusion resistance of O(3) within the mucous layer. The O(3) reaction rate constants that accounted for this diffusion resistance, 2 x 10(6) s(-1) in the mouth and 8 x 10(6) s(-1) in the nose and lower airways, were much greater than previously reported reactivities of individual substrates found in mucus.

  8. Sleep-disordered breathing, sleep quality, and mild cognitive impairment in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dlugaj, Martha; Weinreich, Gerhard; Weimar, Christian; Stang, Andreas; Dragano, Nico; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Teschler, Helmut; Winkler, Angela; Wege, Natalia; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that sleep disorders are associated with cognitive decline. We, therefore, examined the cross-sectional association of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep quality, and three types of sleep complaints (difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its subtypes. A group of 1,793 participants (51% men; 63.8 ± 7.5 years) of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (total sample n = 4,157) received a screening for SDB and self-report measures of sleep complaints. Group comparisons were used to compare performances among five cognitive subtests. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated to determine the association of MCI (n = 230) and MCI subtypes (amnestic MCI, n = 120; non-amnestic MCI, n = 110) with SDB severity levels, poor sleep quality, and sleep complaints. Severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ≥30/h, n = 143) was not associated with MCI, amnestic MCI, or non-amnestic MCI. Poor sleep quality was associated with MCI (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.03; fully adjusted) as well as frequently reported difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 1.94, 1.20-3.14), difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.27-4.63), and early morning awakening (OR = 2.30, 1.32-4.00). Severe difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.21-4.13) and early morning awakening (OR = 2.88, 1.45-5.73) were solely associated with the amnestic MCI subtype, whereas, severe difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 3.84, 1.13-13.08) were associated with non-amnestic MCI. Our results suggest that poor sleep quality, rather than SDB, is associated with MCI. The selective association of difficulties initiating sleep and early morning awakening with amnestic MCI and of difficulties maintaining sleep with non-amnestic MCI might serve as a marker to improve diagnostic accuracy in the earliest stages of cognitive impairment and will be further

  9. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Breath Powered Nasal Delivery of Sumatriptan Powder (AVP-825) in the Treatment of Acute Migraine (The TARGET Study)

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Roger K; McAllister, Peter J; Spierings, Egilius LH; Messina, John; Carothers, Jennifer; Djupesland, Per G; Mahmoud, Ramy A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AVP-825, a drug–device combination of low-dose sumatriptan powder (22 mg loaded dose) delivered intranasally through a targeted Breath Powered device vs an identical device containing lactose powder (placebo device) in the treatment of migraine headache. Background Early treatment of migraine headaches is associated with improved outcome, but medication absorption after oral delivery may be delayed in migraineurs because of reduced gastric motility. Sumatriptan powder administered with an innovative, closed-palate, Bi-Directional, Breath Powered intranasal delivery mechanism is efficiently absorbed across the nasal mucosa and produces fast absorption into the circulation. Results from a previously conducted placebo-controlled study of AVP-825 showed a high degree of headache relief with an early onset of action (eg, 74% AVP-825 vs 38% placebo device at 1 hour, P < .01). Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in adults with a history of migraine with or without aura, participants were randomized via computer-generated lists to AVP-825 or placebo device to treat a single migraine headache of moderate or severe intensity. The primary endpoint was headache relief (defined as reduction of headache pain intensity from severe or moderate migraine headache to mild or none) at 2 hours post-dose. Results Two hundred and thirty patients (116 AVP-825 and 114 placebo device) were randomized, of whom 223 (112 and 111, respectively) experienced a qualifying migraine headache (their next migraine headache that reached moderate or severe intensity). A significantly greater proportion of AVP-825 patients reported headache relief at 2 hours post-dose compared with those using the placebo device (68% vs 45%, P = .002, odds ratio 2.53, 95% confidence interval [1.45, 4.42]). Between-group differences in headache relief were evident as early as 15 minutes, reached statistical significance at 30

  10. Age and gender effects on nasal respiratory function in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Vig, P S; Zajac, D J

    1993-05-01

    One hundred and ninety-seven normal individuals between the ages of 5 and 73 years were evaluated to determine nasal resistance, nasal cross-sectional area, and respiratory mode during quiet breathing. Subjects were categorized into three age groups. Nasal resistance and respiratory mode were directly determined using posterior rhinomanometry and the SNORT technique, respectively. Nasal cross-sectional area was estimated using the hydrokinetic equation. Results indicated significant effects of age on all variables; significant gender differences were found for respiratory mode. Weak correlations were found between respiratory mode and nasal resistance. The results are presented as normative data on nasorespiratory characteristics to facilitate diagnostic and treatment decisions relative to individuals with normal morphology as well as to patients with craniofacial anomalies. A fundamental issue of both clinical and theoretical importance arising from the study pertains to the definitions of normality and impairment.

  11. Age and gender effects on nasal respiratory function in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Vig, P S; Zajac, D J

    1993-05-01

    One hundred and ninety-seven normal individuals between the ages of 5 and 73 years were evaluated to determine nasal resistance, nasal cross-sectional area, and respiratory mode during quiet breathing. Subjects were categorized into three age groups. Nasal resistance and respiratory mode were directly determined using posterior rhinomanometry and the SNORT technique, respectively. Nasal cross-sectional area was estimated using the hydrokinetic equation. Results indicated significant effects of age on all variables; significant gender differences were found for respiratory mode. Weak correlations were found between respiratory mode and nasal resistance. The results are presented as normative data on nasorespiratory characteristics to facilitate diagnostic and treatment decisions relative to individuals with normal morphology as well as to patients with craniofacial anomalies. A fundamental issue of both clinical and theoretical importance arising from the study pertains to the definitions of normality and impairment. PMID:8292136

  12. Are Nocturnal Breathing, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance Impaired at Moderate Altitude (1,630-2,590 m)?

    PubMed Central

    Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Stöwhas, Anne-Christin; Grimm, Mirjam; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Newcomers at high altitude (> 3,000 m) experience periodic breathing, sleep disturbances, and impaired cognitive performance. Whether similar adverse effects occur at lower elevations is uncertain, although numerous lowlanders travel to moderate altitude for professional or recreational activities. We evaluated the hypothesis that nocturnal breathing, sleep, and cognitive performance of lowlanders are impaired at moderate altitude. Design: Randomized crossover trial. Setting: University hospital at 490 m, Swiss mountain villages at 1,630 m and 2,590 m. Participants: Fifty-one healthy men, median (quartiles) age 24 y (20-28 y), living below 800 m. Interventions: Studies at Zurich (490 m) and during 4 consecutive days at 1,630 m and 2,590 m, respectively, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Polysomnography, psychomotor vigilance tests (PVT), the number back test, several other tests of cognitive performance, and questionnaires were evaluated. Measurements and Results: The median (quartiles) apnea-hypopnea index at 490 m was 4.6/h (2.3; 7.9), values at 1,630 and 2,590 m, day 1 and 2, respectively, were 7.0/h (4.1; 12.6), 5.4/h (3.5; 10.5), 13.1/h (6.7; 32.1), and 8.0/h (4.4; 23.1); corresponding values of mean nocturnal oxygen saturation were 96% (95; 96), 94% (93; 95), 94% (93; 95), 90% (89; 91), 91% (90; 92), P < 0.05 versus 490 m, all instances. Slow wave sleep on the first night at 2,590 m was 21% (18; 25) versus 24% (20; 27) at 490 m (P < 0.05). Psychomotor vigilance and various other measures of cognitive performance did not change significantly. Conclusions: Healthy men acutely exposed during 4 days to hypoxemia at 1,630 m and 2,590 m reveal a considerable amount of periodic breathing and sleep disturbances. However, no significant effects on psychomotor reaction speed or cognitive performance were observed. Clinical Trials Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01130948. Citation: Latshang TD; Lo Cascio CM; Stöwhas AC

  13. Mitek Suspension of the Lateral Nasal Wall.

    PubMed

    White, James R; Hamilton, Grant S

    2016-02-01

    The nasal valve has long been described as the anatomical boundary most likely to inhibit nasal airflow and lead to subsequent nasal obstruction. Although many procedures can address this area to improve the nasal airway, for over 20 years, suture lateralization of the external nasal valve has been described as a minimally invasive technique that can improve nasal breathing. We report our modification of the standard technique in which we lateralize the placement of the bone-anchored suture and incorporate Gore-Tex within the nasal vestibular incision to prevent tissue migration. PMID:26862966

  14. Visual exploration of nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Zachow, Stefan; Muigg, Philipp; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Doleisch, Helmut; Hege, Hans-Christian

    2009-01-01

    Rhinologists are often faced with the challenge of assessing nasal breathing from a functional point of view to derive effective therapeutic interventions. While the complex nasal anatomy can be revealed by visual inspection and medical imaging, only vague information is available regarding the nasal airflow itself: Rhinomanometry delivers rather unspecific integral information on the pressure gradient as well as on total flow and nasal flow resistance. In this article we demonstrate how the understanding of physiological nasal breathing can be improved by simulating and visually analyzing nasal airflow, based on an anatomically correct model of the upper human respiratory tract. In particular we demonstrate how various Information Visualization (InfoVis) techniques, such as a highly scalable implementation of parallel coordinates, time series visualizations, as well as unstructured grid multi-volume rendering, all integrated within a multiple linked views framework, can be utilized to gain a deeper understanding of nasal breathing. Evaluation is accomplished by visual exploration of spatio-temporal airflow characteristics that include not only information on flow features but also on accompanying quantities such as temperature and humidity. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth visual exploration of the physiological function of the nose over several simulated breathing cycles under consideration of a complete model of the nasal airways, realistic boundary conditions, and all physically relevant time-varying quantities. PMID:19834215

  15. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time.

  16. Masticatory Changes in Oral Breath Secondary to Allergic Rhinitis: Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo; Silva, Hilton Justino da; Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Moraes, Klyvia Juliana Rocha de; Cunha, Renata Andrade da; Cunha, Daniele Andrade da; Medeiros, Décio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis (2012) defines allergic rhinitis as a nasal mucosa inflammation, mediated by immunoglobulin E, after exposure to allergens. The classic signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis are nasal obstruction, watery rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment, and mouth breathing (breathing predominantly through the mouth, regardless of the cause, due to a nasal breathing impairment) in some cases. Objective To evaluate the literature on masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing due to allergic rhinitis. Methods We conducted a search of the past 10 years, at Bireme and MEDLINE databases, for articles that covered masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing secondary to allergic rhinitis. Results We found 1,986 articles, including 15 repeated in databases, but only two articles met the inclusion criteria fully. Discussion We found few studies to answer the question raised in this review, and those studies have some methodological limitations. Most articles claimed no have statistically significant differences in masticatory changes in this population. Conclusion A better controlled study (isolating diseases, exposure time), with a larger sample (sample calculation appropriate), would be necessary to examine such changes. PMID:25992077

  17. Taste - impaired

    MedlinePlus

    ... longer. Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu and other viral infections Nasal infection, nasal ... your diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

  18. Different reactions of human nasal and Eustachian tube mucosa after hyperbaric oxygen exposure: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mutzbauer, Till S; Neubauer, Birger; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2013-03-01

    Impairment of Eustachian tube function has been observed after hyperbaric oxygen treatment as well as after diving on oxygen used as breathing gas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of hyperbaric oxygen exposure on Eustachian tube ventilatory function and airflow characteristics of the nose. Six police task force divers performing two consecutive dives within a regular training schedule on oxygen were examined. Middle ear impedance, and nasal airflow velocities before and after diving as well as on the morning after the dive day were measured. Middle ear impedance decreased overnight in comparison to pre-dive values (P = 0.027) as well as compared to the value after the first dive (P = 0.032). Rhinoflowmetry did not reveal any changes of nasal airflow velocities related to the dives. Furthermore, no association between middle ear impedance and nasal airflow velocities was found. An impairment of Eustachian tube ventilatory function was obtained after hyperbaric oxygen exposure during dives employing oxygen as breathing gas. This impairment, however, was not associated with altered airflow characteristics of divers' noses. Thus, it seems unlikely that hyperbaric oxygen exerts an effect on the nasal mucosa similar to that on the Eustachian tube mucosa.

  19. Rational design of nasal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Slütter, Bram; Hagenaars, Niels; Jiskoot, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Nasal vaccination is a promising alternative to classical parental vaccination, as it is non-invasive and, in principle, capable of eliciting strong systemic and local immune responses. However, the protective efficacy of nasally administered antigens is often impaired because of delivery problems: free antigens are readily cleared from the nasal cavity, poorly absorbed by nasal epithelial cells and generally have low intrinsic immunogenicity. In this review paper, we describe the main physiological hurdles to nasal vaccine delivery, survey the progress made in technological approaches to overcome these hurdles and discuss emerging opportunities for improving nasal vaccines. According to current insights, encapsulation of the antigen into bioadhesive (nano)particles is a promising approach towards successful nasal vaccine delivery. These antigen-loaded particles can be tailor made by supplying them with targeting ligands, adjuvants or endosomal escape mediators to form the desired vaccine that provides long-lasting protective immunity.

  20. Non-pharmacological management of nasal polyp: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajiv; Murthy, B T C; Vinudha

    2009-01-01

    Nasal polyp causes difficulty in breathing due to blockage of nasal passage. The pathogenesis of nasal polyposis is not known. The primary medical therapy available for nasal polyposis is steroid administration. Antihistamines, decongestants and cromolyn sodium provide little benefit. With this background of nasal polyp pathophysiology and the existing management, a case of nasal polyp was treated with the cleansing process of yoga i.e. neti kriya and naturopathy with good result. This isolated case report warrants a need for controlled clinical trial of neti kriya to establish its role in the management of nasal polyposis.

  1. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children is Associated with Impairment of Sleep Stage Specific Shift of Cardiac Autonomic Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Duanping; Li, Xian; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Liu, Jiahao; Rodriguez-Colon, Sol; Calhoun, Susan; Bixler, Edward O.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of sleep stages and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on autonomic modulation in 700 children. Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) during one 9-hour nighttime polysomnography was used to define SDB. Sleep stage specific autonomic modulation was measured by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of the first available 5-minute RR intervals from each sleep stage. The mean (SD) age was 112 (21) months (49% male and 25% non-Caucasian). The average AHI was 0.79 (SD=1.03)/hour, while 73.0%, 25.8%, and 1.2% of children had AHI < 1 (No-SDB), 1–5 (Mild-SDB), and ≥ 5 (Moderate-SDB), respectively. In no-SDB group, the HF and RMSSD significantly increased from wake to stage 2, and slow-wave sleep (SWS), and then decreased dramatically when shifting into REM sleep. In moderate-SDB group, the pattern of HRV shift is similar to that of no-SDB. However, the decreases in HF and RMSSD from SWS to REM were more pronounced in moderate-SDB children [between group differences in HF (−24% in moderate-SDB vs. −10% in no-SDB) and RMSSD (−27% vs. −12%) were significant (p < 0.05)]. The REM stage HF is significantly lower in moderate-SDB group compared to no-SDB group [mean (SE): 4.49 (0.43) vs. 5.80 (0.05) ms2, respectively, p < 0.05]. Conclusions: autonomic modulation significantly shifts towards higher parasympathetic modulation from wake to non-REM sleep, and reverses to a less parasympathetic modulation during REM sleep. However, the autonomic modulation is impaired among children with moderate-SDB in the directions of more reduction in parasympathetic modulation from SWS to REM sleep and significantly weaker parasympathetic modulation in REM sleep, which may lead to higher arrhythmia vulnerability, especially during REM sleep. PMID:20337904

  2. Nasal airway and septal variation in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, John M; Friel, Michael T; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Flores, Roberto L; Tholpady, Sunil; Kula, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) affects the dentoalveolar and nasolabial facial regions. Internal and external nasal dysmorphology may persist in individuals born with CLP despite surgical interventions. 7-18 year old individuals born with unilateral and bilateral CLP (n = 50) were retrospectively assessed using cone beam computed tomography. Anterior, middle, and posterior nasal airway volumes were measured on each facial side. Septal deviation was measured at the anterior and posterior nasal spine, and the midpoint between these two locations. Data were evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and post-hoc ANOVA tests. PCA results show partial separation in high dimensional space along PC1 (48.5% variance) based on age groups and partial separation along PC2 (29.8% variance) based on CLP type and septal deviation patterns. MANOVA results indicate that age (P = 0.007) and CLP type (P ≤ 0.001) significantly affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation. ANOVA results indicate that anterior nasal volume is significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.001), whereas septal deviation patterns are significantly affected by CLP type (P ≤ 0.001). Age and CLP type affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation patterns. Nasal airway volumes tend to be reduced on the clefted sides of the face relative to non-clefted sides of the face. Nasal airway volumes tend to strongly increase with age, whereas septal deviation values tend to increase only slightly with age. These results suggest that functional nasal breathing may be impaired in individuals born with the unilateral and bilateral CLP deformity. PMID:24976342

  3. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (P<0.05). Chewing cycle variance during mouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (P<0.05). Mouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  4. Air-conditioning in the human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Elad, David; Wolf, Michael; Keck, Tilman

    2008-11-30

    Healthy humans normally breathe through their nose even though its complex geometry imposes a significantly higher resistance in comparison with mouth breathing. The major functional roles of nasal breathing are defense against infiltrating particles and conditioning of the inspired air to nearly alveolar conditions in order to maintain the internal milieu of the lung. The state-of-the-art of the existing knowledge on nasal air-conditioning will be discussed in this review, including in vivo measurements in humans and computational studies on nasal air-conditioning capacity. Areas where further studies will improve our understanding and may help medical diagnosis and intervention in pathological states will be introduced. PMID:18565805

  5. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad breath. Mouthwashes, mints or chewing gum may make your breath fresher. If you have an underlying disorder, treating it may help eliminate the breath odor.

  6. Nasal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43. Becker SS. Surgical management of polyps in the treatment of nasal airway ...

  7. Nasal Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose is constantly exposed to inhaled debris and microbes (viruses, bacteria, and fungus). The respiratory system has ... Mucus is designed to trap inhaled particles (including microbes) that are subsequently cleared from the airways. Nasal ...

  8. Human respiratory deposition of particles during oronasal breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, David L.; Proctor, Donald F.

    Deposition of particles in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary airways is computed as a function of particle size, correcting for deposition in the parallel nasal and oral airways with oronasal breathing. Thoracic deposition is lower at all sizes for oronasal breathing than for mouth breathing via tube, and is negligible for aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 μm or larger.

  9. Pleomorphic adenoma originates from inferior nasal turbinate causing epiphora.

    PubMed

    Erol, Bekir; Selçuk, Ömer Tarik; Gürses, Cemil; Osma, Üstün; Köroğlu, Mert; Süren, Dinç

    2013-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands. A 62-year-old female patient presented with epiphora and was suffering from breathing difficulties. With the diagnostic nasal endoscopy, a mass, originating from right inferior nasal turbinate and filling the entire nasal cavity, was seen. Originating from the inferior nasal turbinate is a very rare entity. Paranasal sinus computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a mass that fills and expands the right nasal cavity. Mass was hypoechoic in B-mode ultrasonography and hypovascular in color Doppler ultrasonography, and rate of tissue stiffness was high in sonoelastography. These were helpful for the diagnosis.

  10. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Tiina M; Alho, Olli-Pekka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects' reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS. PMID:27196870

  11. Numerical model of a nasal septal perforation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Orla; Bailie, Neil; Watterson, John; Cole, Jonathan; Gallagher, Geraldine; Hanna, Brendan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes numerical simulation of airflow in a nose with a nasal septal perforation. Diseased airflow is compared to airflow in a healthy nasal model. The healthy model has been generated from CT scans from the Antrim Area Hospital ENT clinic and is close to being anatomically accurate. The nasal septal perforation has been superimposed on the healthy geometry using image manipulation software. The flow is modeled as laminar, steady state, with the flow rates corresponding to quiet breathing at rest approximately 165 ml/sec. Healthy flow patterns show that the majority of the flow travels close to nasal septum, in the region close to the middle turbinate. In the diseased case, high shear stresses concentrated at the posterior region of the perforation explain bleeding associated with nasal perforations.

  12. Nasal flaring

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be done include: Arterial blood gas analysis Complete blood count (CBC) ECG Pulse oximetry to measure blood oxygen level X-rays of the chest Oxygen may be given if there is a breathing problem.

  13. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  14. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  15. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies. It is also used to treat nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose). Mometasone ... are using mometasone nasal spray to treat nasal polyps, it is usually sprayed in each nostril once ...

  16. Effects of an external nasal dilator strip (ENDS) compared to xylometazolin nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Høyvoll, L R; Lunde, K; Li, Henrik S; Dahle, S; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Steinsvåg, S K

    2007-11-01

    Nasal blockage is a common complaint in Family Practice. Decongestive nosedrops are frequently employed therapeutic measures. Due to a considerable risk of abuse and side effects, alternatives are wanted. The purpose of this study was to elucidate to what extent ENDS might represent an alternative to decongestive nose sprays (DNS). The effects of DNS (xylometazolin) and ENDS (BreatheRight) on subjective and objective nasal blockage were compared in 89 patients. Main outcome measures were recordings of nasal symptom scores on visual analogue scales (VAS), minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA) and nasal cavity volumes (NCV) as measured by acoustic rhinometry (AR), and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF). ENDS significantly increased the MCA and the NCV in the anterior 0.0-3.0 cm of the nose compared to DNS, but had no effect on MCA from 3.0 to 5.4 cm behind the nostrils. In contrast to DNS, ENDS had no effect on the posterior NCV. ENDS and DNS gave comparable increase in nasal inspiratory flow as measured by PNIF, and in the subject's own experience of nasal obstruction. ENDS may represent an alternative to DNS as a measure against nasal blockage. PMID:17530269

  17. Nasal meatus plasty: a contribution to plastic reconstruction of the nasal valve during midfacial degloving.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kai J; Maier, Heinz; Wilde, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Midfacial degloving is a proven method for easily accessing the midface, the nasal pyramid, the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses, the orbits, as well as the anterior skull base. Indications for this method of access mainly include tumour resections in the area of the midface, the septum, the maxillary sinus, the paranasal to the sphenoidal sinus as well as the clivus. In addition, this method of access allows for the exposure of the bony structures of the midface in the event of extensive fractures. In general, this method of access combines an incision in the oral vestibule and circular incisions in the nasal vestibule area in order to release the nasal pyramid. After removing the facial wall of the maxillary sinus, extensive exposure of the surgical site is possible. One disadvantage of this method of access is the difficult reconstruction of the nasal valve area, which often leads to cicatricial stenoses and difficulties with breathing through the nose. Furthermore, wound healing problems and osteoradionecrosis in the area of the lateral margin of the anterior nasal aperture after replantation of the facial wall of the maxillary sinus have been described, because in this area sufficient soft tissue coverage cannot be ensured when a conventional technique is used. We describe a soft tissue flap pedicled in the cranial and caudal directions in the nasal valve area which makes both the reconstruction of the nasal vestibule and sufficient soft tissue coverage of the anterior nasal aperture possible. PMID:26504717

  18. External nasal dilators: definition, background, and current uses

    PubMed Central

    Dinardi, Ricardo Reis; de Andrade, Cláudia Ribeiro; Ibiapina, Cássio da Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to revise the literature about external nasal dilators (ENDs) as to their definition, history, and current uses. We reviewed journals in the PubMed and MEDLINE databases. The current uses hereby presented and discussed are physical exercise, nasal congestion and sleep, snoring, pregnancy, cancer, and healthy individuals. Numerous studies have shown that ENDs increase the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve, reducing nasal resistance and transnasal inspiratory pressure and stabilizing the lateral nasal vestibule, avoiding its collapse during final inspiration. These effects also facilitate breathing and are beneficial to patients with nasal obstruction. Furthermore, END use is simple, noninvasive, painless, affordable, and bears minimum risk to the user. Most studies have limited sample size and are mainly focused on physical exercise. In conclusion, ENDs seem useful, so further studies involving potential effects on the performance of physical tests and improvements in sleep quality are necessary, especially in children and teenagers. PMID:25419156

  19. Stereoscopic PIV measurements of flow in the nasal cavity with high flow therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C. J. T.; Buchmann, N. A.; Jermy, M. C.; Moore, S. M.

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the airflow characteristics within the nasal cavity with nasal high flow (NHF) therapy and during unassisted breathing is essential to understand the treatment's efficacy. The distribution and velocity of the airflow in the nasal cavity with and without NHF cannula flow has been investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry at steady peak expiration and inspiration. In vivo breathing flows were measured and dimensionally scaled to reproduce physiological conditions in vitro. A scaled model of the complete nasal cavity was constructed in transparent silicone and airflow simulated with an aqueous glycerine solution. NHF modifies nasal cavity flow patterns significantly, altering the proportion of inspiration and expiration through each passageway and producing jets with in vivo velocities up to 17.0 ms-1 for 30 l/min cannula flow. Velocity magnitudes differed appreciably between the left and right sides of the nasal cavity. The importance of using a three-component measurement technique when investigating nasal flows has been highlighted.

  20. Reducing ventilatory response to carbon dioxide by breathing cold air.

    PubMed

    Burgess, K R; Whitelaw, W A

    1984-05-01

    To study the effect of cooling of nasal receptors on breathing we had 10 normal male volunteers rebreathe through their noses 8% CO2 in oxygen at "warm" (23 to 30 degrees C) and at "cold" (-4 to 10 degrees C) temperatures. In order to further examine the effect of nasal receptors on the control of breathing, 11 subjects had their nasal response to CO2 measured at the warm temperature before and after topical nasal anesthesia. To exclude an increase in nasal resistance as the cause of the reduced response to CO2, 10 subjects had their nasal resistance measured before and after nasal rebreathing of cold 8% CO2 in oxygen. To also exclude increased bronchial resistance, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in 12 subjects before and after nasal breathing of cold oxygen for 3 min. The mean ventilatory response to CO2 was reduced from 3.0 +/- 1.6 L/min/mmHg to 2.5 +/- 1.1 L/min/mmHg (p less than 0.05) by the cold air. Topical nasal anesthesia increased the response to CO2 at the warm temperature from 2.4 +/- 0.7 to 2.7 +/- 0.9 L/min/mmHg. The effect of nasal breathing of 8% CO2 in oxygen at the cold temperature was to reduce nasal inspiratory resistance at 1 L/s from 4.3 +/- 3.0 cm H2O L/s to 2.6 +/- 1.0 cm H2O L/s (p less than 0.05). Expiratory resistance at 1 L/s fell from 3.7 +/- 1.5 cm H2O L/s to 2.4 +/- 0.7 cm H2O L/s (p less than 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Automatic Recognition of Breathing Route During Sleep Using Snoring Sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Yohichiro

    This letter classifies snoring sounds into three breathing routes (oral, nasal, and oronasal) with discriminant analysis of the power spectra and k-nearest neighbor method. It is necessary to recognize breathing route during snoring, because oral snoring is a typical symptom of sleep apnea but we cannot know our own breathing and snoring condition during sleep. As a result, about 98.8% classification rate is obtained by using leave-one-out test for performance evaluation.

  2. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    PubMed

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations.

  3. Effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on nasal vasculature and airflow resistance in the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Lung, M A; Wang, J C

    1986-04-01

    The experiments were performed on anaesthetized dogs which breathed spontaneously or were artificially ventilated and paralysed. The spontaneous nasal arterial blood flow was measured on one side of the nose while nasal vascular resistance was determined on the other side simultaneously. Nasal arterial blood flow was measured by means of an electromagnetic flow sensor placed around the terminal branch of the internal maxillary artery, the main arterial supply to the nasal mucosa. Nasal vascular resistance was measured by constant-flow perfusion of the terminal branch of the internal maxillary artery. Nasal airway resistance was assessed by monitoring the transnasal pressure at constant airflow through each side of the nose simultaneously. Hypercapnic gas challenge (8% CO2, 30% O2 in N2) to the lungs increased nasal vascular resistance and decreased nasal airway resistance. Similar gas challenge to the nose did not affect nasal vascular resistance but decreased nasal airway resistance. Hypoxic gas challenge (6% O2 in N2) to the lungs did not affect the nasal vascular resistance but decreased nasal airway resistance only when the nasal vascular bed was under controlled perfusion. Similar gas challenge to the nose did not affect either nasal vascular or airway resistance. Arterial chemoreceptor stimulation by intracarotid injection of sodium cyanide increased nasal vascular resistance and decreased nasal airway resistance. The nasal vascular response to hypercapnia and arterial chemoreceptor stimulation was reflex in nature, being abolished by nasal sympathectomy. The nasal airway response to hypercapnia, hypoxia and arterial chemoreceptor stimulation was reflex in nature, being partially or completely abolished by nasal sympathectomy. Hypercapnia probably induced a local vasodilatatory effect on the capacitance vessels whereas hypoxia had no direct action on the vasculature.

  4. The relationship between particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage and nasal passage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, J; Bascom, R; Laube, B; Swift, D L

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nasal passage characteristics on anterior particle deposition during cyclical breathing. Forty healthy, nonsmoking, adult subjects participated in this study. Nasal passage characteristics such as nostril length, width, angle, ellipticity, and minimum nasal cross-sectional area were measured. The subjects inhaled a polydisperse radioactively tagged aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter = 5.4 microns, geometric standard deviation [GSD] = 1.3) into the nose and exhaled through the mouth. The amount of radioactivity in the nose was measured immediately after inhalation and thereafter for 54 minutes. At 52.5 minutes, subjects wiped the accessible portion of the anterior nose to remove any remaining activity. The difference in activity at 52 and 54 minutes was used as a measure of activity removed during the nose wipe. Percentage of activity in the nasal passage at 52 minutes and percentage of activity removed with the nose wipe were considered surrogates for particles deposited in the anterior nasal passage. A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree of ellipticity of the nostrils was significantly related to particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage. These results suggest that ellipticity of the nostrils may be a determinant of the amount of particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage.

  5. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles are left in your mouth, they can rot ... Flossing once a day helps get rid of particles wedged between your teeth. Also, visit your dentist ...

  6. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray should not be used ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).Unneeded medications should be ...

  7. Nasal Wash Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Make the nasal wash solution. Do not use tap water for the nasal wash (unless boiled or filtered ... water. You may use: Distilled water Sterilized water Tap water that has been boiled for 1 minute (at ...

  8. Post-Nasal Drip

    MedlinePlus

    ... guaifenesin (Humibid®, Robitussin®) may also thin secretions. Nasal irrigations may alleviate thickened secretions. These can be performed ... device or a Water Pik® with a nasal irrigation nozzle. Warm water with baking soda or salt ( ...

  9. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergic rhinitis symptoms , such as congestion, runny nose, sneezing, itching, or swelling of the nasal passageway Nasal ... Repeat these steps for the other nostril. Avoid sneezing or blowing your nose right after spraying.

  10. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is usually done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be done ...

  11. Unsteady flow in the nasal cavity with high flow therapy measured by stereoscopic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C. J. T.; Buchmann, N. A.; Jermy, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) cannulae are used to deliver heated and humidified air to patients at steady flows ranging from 5 to 50 l/min. In this study, the flow velocities in the nasal cavity across the complete respiratory cycle during natural breathing and with NHF has been mapped in vitro using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV). An anatomically accurate silicone resin model of a complete human nasal cavity was constructed using CT scan data and rapid prototyping. Physiological breathing waveforms were reproduced in vitro using Reynolds and Womersley number matching and a piston pump driven by a ball screw and stepper motor. The flow pattern in the nasal cavity with NHF was found to differ significantly from natural breathing. Velocities of 2.4 and 3.3 ms-1 occurred in the nasal valve during natural breathing at peak expiration and inspiration, respectively; however, on expiration, the maximum velocity of 3.8 ms-1 occurred in the nasopharynx. At a cannula flow rate of 30 l/min, maximal velocities of 13.6 and 16.5 ms-1 at peak expiration and inspiration, respectively, were both located in the cannula jet within the nasal valve. Results are presented that suggest the quasi-steady flow assumption is invalid in the nasal cavity during natural breathing; however, it was valid with NHF. Cannula flow has been found to continuously flush the nasopharyngeal dead space, which may enhance carbon dioxide removal and increase oxygen fraction.

  12. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  13. Phonatory Effects of Airway Dehydration: Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Compensation to Oral Breathing in Individuals with a History of Vocal Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Erickson, Elizabeth; Schneider, Sara; Hawes, Ashleigh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Airway drying is detrimental to phonation and is posited to exacerbate vocal fatigue. However, limited research has demonstrated the adverse phonatory effects of dehydration in speakers reporting vocal fatigue. We compared the negative phonatory consequences of short-term oral breathing at low, moderate, and high humidity in individuals…

  14. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant; Singla, Saurabh; Mane, Ranoji; Jagdeesh, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma. PMID:24228209

  15. Subchronic inhalation exposure to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol impairs the mouse olfactory bulb via injury and subsequent repair of the nasal olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Mio; Ito, Yuki; Sawada, Masato; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Himiko; Sakamoto, Tatsuo; Sawamoto, Kazunobu; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2016-08-01

    The olfactory system can be a toxicological target of volatile organic compounds present in indoor air. Recently, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) emitted from adhesives and carpeting materials has been postulated to cause "sick building syndrome." Patients' symptoms are associated with an increased sense of smell. This investigation aimed to characterize the histopathological changes of the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the nasal cavity and the olfactory bulb (OB) in the brain, due to subchronic exposure to 2E1H. Male ICR mice were exposed to 0, 20, 60, or 150 ppm 2E1H for 8 h every day for 1 week, or 5 days per week for 1 or 3 months. After a 1-week exposure, the OE showed inflammation and degeneration, with a significant concentration-dependent reduction in the staining of olfactory receptor neurons and in the numbers of globose basal cells at ≥20 ppm. Regeneration occurred at 1 month along with an increase in the basal cells, but lymphocytic infiltration, expanded Bowman's glands, and a decrease in the olfactory receptor neurons were observed at 3 months. Intriguingly, the OB at 3 months showed a reduction in the diameters of the glomeruli and in the number of olfactory nerves and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, but an increased number of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1-positive microglia in glomeruli. Accordingly, 2E1H inhalation induced degeneration of the OE with the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 ppm. The altered number of functional cell components in the OB suggests that effects on olfactory sensation persist after subchronic exposure to 2E1H. PMID:27055686

  16. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx serve multiple functions in breathing, speaking, mastication and swallowing. Thus, the fine temporal coordination of feeding among breathing, mastication and swallowing is essential to provide proper food nutrition and to prevent pulmonary aspiration. This review paper will review the temporo-spatial coordination of the movements of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal structures during mastication and swallowing, and temporal coordination between breathing, mastication, and swallowing. PMID:20161022

  17. Measurement of nitric oxide in human exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.M.; Spicer, C.W.; Ollison, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    This project was initiated to confirm the reliability of nitric oxide (NO) measurement in the breath matrix, using two different analytical techniques - ozone and luminol chemiluminescence - and to corroborate literature reports of elevated breath NO values. To measure peak oral and nasal NO levels, subjects performed slow vital capacity and breath holding maneuvers directly into the monitors through the mouth and the nose, respectively. Additional measurements were made using normal breathing techniques. Initial interferent tests indicate that measured NO signals are real and are not confounded by measurement artifacts. Similar results were obtained using the two independent analytical methods in dry or humid air. The NO signal was unaffected by maximum concentrations of potential breath interferents, such as sulfur compounds and alkenes. The measured breath NO concentrations were greater than typical room air levels and differed significantly with the breathing technique used. During these tests room air averaged 4-5 ppb NO. Peak oral NO levels were 4.3 {+-} 1.5 ppb during a slow vital capacity maneuver and 8.0 {+-} 5.0 ppb during a breath holding maneuver. By contrast, higher peak nasal NO levels were measured for both slow vital capacity (17.8 {+-} 7.8 ppb) and breath holding maneuvers (45.4 {+-} 29.5 ppb).

  18. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction.

  19. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state. PMID:27711189

  20. [Congenital nasal obstruction due to choanal atresia: case series].

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Adrián; Rodríguez, Hugo; Quiroga, Víctor; Cuestas, Giselle; Tiscornia, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potential fatal condition because of their exclusive nasal breathing. The most common congenital causes include choanal atresia, dermoid cyst, glioma and encephalocele. Choanal atresia is the most common congenital nasal anomaly. When bilateral, it presents with respiratory distress at birth. Unilateral atresia is manifested by respiratory failure and unilateral rhinorrhea, and may go along unnoticed. Diagnosis is suspected in the absence of airfow in the nasal cavity and for the inability to advance a nasogastric tube. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic examination and computed tomography. The definitive treatment is surgical, and there are different techniques and surgical approaches. We describe our experience with 7 patients with this disease, successfully treated by transnasal endoscopic technique. PMID:22451289

  1. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  2. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Garguilo, Marine; Lejaille, Michèle; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Terzi, Nicolas; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Methods Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and with NIV (while ventilated with a modified ventilator allowing the patient to withhold ventilation as desired). Breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, nasal flow recording and inductive plethysmography. Two water-bolus sizes (5 and 10ml) and a textured yogurt bolus were tested in a random order. Results NIV use significantly improved swallowing fragmentation (defined as the number of respiratory interruption of the swallowing of a single bolus) (p = 0.003) and breathing-swallowing synchronization (with a significant increase of swallows followed by an expiration) (p <0.0001). Patient exhibited piecemeal swallowing which was not influenced by NIV use (p = 0.07). NIV use also significantly reduced dyspnea during swallowing (p = 0.04) while preserving swallowing comfort, regardless of bolus type. Conclusion The use of patient controlled NIV improves swallowing parameters in patients with severe neuromuscular respiratory failure requiring daytime NIV, without impairing swallowing comfort. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01519388 PMID:26938617

  3. What Controls Your Breathing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  4. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  5. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... less than a minute before a child regains consciousness and resumes breathing normally. Breath-holding spells can ... spells cause kids to stop breathing and lose consciousness for up to a minute. In the most ...

  6. Comparison of Nasal Acceleration and Nasalance across Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Elias B.; Virnik, Boris T.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Method: Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using…

  7. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  8. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead to ...

  9. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  10. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients. PMID:26802697

  11. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients.

  12. Saline nasal washes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be sure you only use distilled, boiled, or filtered water. While rare, some tap water may contain small ... pot or nasal bulb with distilled, boiled, or filtered water after every use and let it dry. Use ...

  13. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in ... bottles at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Discard used ...

  14. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Nasacort® Allergy 24HR ... watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. Triamcinolone nasal spray should not be used to ... the release of certain natural substances that cause allergy symptoms.

  15. Nasal disease and asthma.

    PubMed

    Marseglia, G L; Merli, P; Caimmi, D; Licari, A; Labó, E; Marseglia, A; Ciprandi, G; La Rosa, M

    2011-10-01

    The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies don’t differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. PMID:22032779

  16. Naloxone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used along with emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or ... this date passes.Naloxone nasal spray may not reverse the effects of certain opiates such as buprenorphine ( ...

  17. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  18. Nasal packing and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue. PMID:22073095

  19. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction. PMID:27400845

  20. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... ingredients in fluticasone nasal spray. Check the package label for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking, or ...

  1. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... hour period. Follow the directions on the package label or on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to ... prescribed by your doctor or directed on the label.If you use oxymetazoline nasal spray for more ...

  2. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bachiega, Joanna Carolina; Guedes, Carolina Cardoso; Laranja, Lorena Tristão; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with the mouth-breathing pattern than girls. A total of 23.6% of the participants had no mouth odor, 12.7% had mild odor, 12.7% had moderate odor and 50.9% had strong odor. There was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of halitosis was high among the children evaluated, and there was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. PMID:21808855

  3. Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth.

    PubMed

    Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michèle; Conjard, Agnès; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M; Jorisch, Renée; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2006-04-26

    Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein, and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated, and died in the first postnatal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the CNS. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that although alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and thus the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior, and neonatal demise.

  4. Nasal tip angiolipoma: the "Pinocchio" nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    De Poortere, David A; De Poortere, Boris M; Cohen, Noam A

    2012-10-01

    Angiolipoma is a rare, benign variant of lipoma; its distinctive feature is its prominent vascularity. It presents as a subcutaneous nodule of white adipose tissue; pain, which may be exacerbated by pressure, is the chief symptom. The anatomic distribution predominantly involves the trunk and extremities. Because of the rarity of this condition in otorhinolaryngology, our understanding of its diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up is limited. Microscopically, two different histopathologic forms of angiolipomas exist: circumscribed and infiltrating. The diagnosis of angiolipoma can be aided by ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision remains the treatment of choice. Sites of previously reported otolaryngologic cases include the cheek, palate, mandible, nasal septum, and cervical area. We describe what we believe to be the second case of a nasal tip angiolipoma in a 78-year-old woman complaining of progressive aesthetic deformity.

  5. Medial Femoral Condyle Free Flap for Nasal Reconstruction: New Technique for Full-Thickness Nasal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Paolo; Turri-Zenoni, Mario; Tamborini, Federico; Giudice, Marco; Sallam, Davide; Corno, Martina; Pietrobon, Giacomo; Valdatta, Luigi; Castelnuovo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The nose is a functionally complex organ implicated in breathing, olfaction, and phonation, with a critical role also in the aesthetic appearance of a person. This latter aspect should be carefully considered whenever a total or subtotal rhinectomy is performed for resection of locally advanced nasal cancer. To reconstruct large nasal defects, several techniques were described, including the use of cartilaginous grafts, bony grafts, local flaps, and free flaps. In cases of extensive full-thickness resections, free flaps probably represent the most adequate option. The aim of this report is to present the functional and aesthetical outcomes of a reconstruction of the nose after rhinectomy, using the medial femoral condyle free flap associated with the forehead flap. PMID:27757320

  6. Oral and oronasal breathing during continuous exercise produce similar responses to ozone inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.C.; Schelegle, E.S.; Shaffrath, J.D. )

    1989-09-01

    Breathing route has a profound effect on sulfur dioxide-induced pulmonary function response in human subjects. There is comparatively little evidence of the effects of oral, nasal, and oronasal breathing on ozone (O3)-induced responses in humans. In this study, six young adult males were exposed on five occasions to 0.40 parts per million (ppm) O3 while exercising continuously at one of two workloads (minute ventilation, VE, of approximately 30 and 75 l/min). The VE exposure time product was similar for all protocols. Four exposures were delivered randomly with a Hans-Rudolph respiratory valve attached to a silicone facemask, with breathing route effected with and without noseclip. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences (p less than .05) across conditions in pulmonary function, exercise ventilatory pattern, or subjective symptoms responses. The fifth exposure, delivered via the same respiratory valve with mouthpiece, but without facemask, revealed significantly greater forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) impairment than that observed for the respiratory valve, facemask with noseclip exposure (-20.4% and -15.9%, respectively). The latter suggests partial O3 reactivity to the facemask and clean shaven facial surface of the subjects, although reduced oral scrubbing by mouthpiece-induced bypassing of the oral vestibule might account, in part, for this difference. Recent O3 uptake evidence from another laboratory, however, supports our conclusion that breathing route during moderate and heavy continuous exercise does not affect acute physiologic responses to 0.40 ppm O3.

  7. Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS1) have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michèle; Conjard, Agnès; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S.; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M.; Jorisch, Renée; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated and died in the first post-natal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the central nervous system. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the Pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that while alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and so the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior and neonatal demise. PMID:16641247

  8. Alterations in Maxillary Sinus Volume among Oral and Nasal Breathers

    PubMed Central

    Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Gulsun, Belgin; Koparal, Mahmut; Atalay, Yusuf; Aksoy, Orhan; Adiguzel, Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral breathing causes many changes in the facial anatomical structures in adult patients. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of long-term oral breathing (>5 years) on the maxillary sinus volumes among adult male patients. Material/Methods We accessed medical records of 586 patients who had undergone cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for any reason between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients who had undergone cone-beam dental volumetric tomography scans for any reason and who had answered a questionnaire about breathing were screened retrospectively. Cone beam dental volumetric tomography (I-Cat, Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) was used to take the images of the maxillo-facial area at a setting of 120 kVp and 3.7 mA. This study involved male patients older than 21 years of age. Results The study included a total of 239 male patients, of which 68 were oral breathers and 171 were nasal breathers. The mean age of the oral breathers was 48.4 years and that of the nasal breathers was 46.7 years and the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean maxillary sinus volumes of the oral and nasal breathers were 9043.49±1987.90 and 10851.77±2769.37, respectively, and the difference in maxillary sinus volume between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions The volume of maxillary sinus in oral breathers (>5 years) was significantly lower than in nasal breathers, but it remains unclear whether this is due to malfunctioning of the nasal cavity or due to the underlying pathological condition. PMID:25553770

  9. Prosthetic Management of a Nasal Septal Defect using a Custom Made Unilateral Intranasal Stent: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Harshakumar; Rodrigues, Sheela Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Various etiologies including congenital malformations, infections, trauma, iatrogenic causes or complications of systemic diseases can result in perforation of the nasal septum. The common symptoms associated with such defects include difficulty in breathing, nasal twang in voice, rhinorrhea, etc. Obturation can be achieved by insertion of a unilateral nasal stent. An attempt has been made in the present report to address the prosthetic management of pateint having nasal septum perforation utilizing a unilateral, custom made heat cured acrylic stent and the details of the technique are presented. PMID:27656584

  10. Deposition of radon progeny in nonhuman primate nasal airways

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.; Su, Y.F. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Morgan, K.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Information on aerosol deposition patterns in the human respiratory tract is needed to improve health risk estimates for exposure to airborne radon progeny. To investigate this, deposition of {sup 220}Rn progeny in Rhesus monkey nasal casts was examined. A substantial fraction of the inhaled ultrafine particles are deposited in the nasal cast. Deposition efficiency increases with decreasing particle size, reaching a maximum value of 80% for particles 1.7 nm in diameter. Breathing flow rate has a minimal effect on deposition efficiency. Deposition efficiencies for particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter are similar for monkey and human nasal casts. Equations based on turbulent diffusion can be fitted to these data for either inspirational or expirational flow. These mathematical expressions will be useful for modifying the inhaled particle deposition and dosimetry models. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab (MHB)

  11. Relationship between Oral Flow Patterns, Nasal Obstruction, and Respiratory Events during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Furukawa, Taiji; Sugimoto, Akira; Katada, Koji; Kotani, Ryosuke; Yoshizawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep breathing patterns are altered by nasal obstruction and respiratory events. This study aimed to describe the relationships between specific sleep oral flow (OF) patterns, nasal airway obstruction, and respiratory events. Methods: Nasal flow and OF were measured simultaneously by polysomnography in 85 adults during sleep. OF was measured 2 cm in front of the lips using a pressure sensor. Results: OF could be classified into three patterns: postrespiratory event OF (postevent OF), during-respiratory event OF (during-event OF), and spontaneous arousal-related OF (SpAr-related OF). Postevent OFs begin at the end of airflow reduction, are preceded by respiratory arousal, and are accompanied by postapneic hyperventilation; during-event OFs occur during nasal flow reduction; and SpAr-related OFs to OF begin during stable breathing, and are preceded by spontaneous arousal but are rarely accompanied by apnea/hypopnea. Multivariate regression showed that nasal obstruction was predictive of SpAr-related OF. The relative frequency of SpAr-related OF events was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. The fraction of SpAr-related OF duration relative to total OF duration was significantly greater in patients with nasal obstruction than in those without. Conclusions: SpAr-related OF was associated with nasal obstruction, but not respiratory events. This pattern thus functions as a “nasal obstruction bypass”, mainly in normal subjects and patients with mild sleep disordered breathing (SDB). By contrast, the other two types were related to respiratory events and were typical patterns seen in patients with moderate and severe SDB. Citation: Suzuki M, Furukawa T, Sugimoto A, Katada K, Kotani R, Yoshizawa T. Relationship between oral flow patterns, nasal obstruction, and respiratory events during sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):855–860. PMID:25766699

  12. Nasal highflow improves ventilation in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bräunlich, Jens; Köhler, Marcus; Wirtz, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasal highflow (NHF) provides a warmed and humidified air stream up to 60 L/min. Recent data demonstrated a positive effect in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, especially when caused by pneumonia. Preliminary data show a decrease in hypercapnia in patients with COPD. Therefore, NHF should be evaluated as a new ventilatory support device. This study was conducted to assess the impact of different flow rates on ventilatory parameters in patients with COPD. Materials and methods This interventional clinical study was performed with patients suffering from severe COPD. The aim was to characterize flow-dependent changes in mean airway pressure, breathing volumes, breathing frequency, and decrease in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Mean airway pressure was measured in the nasopharyngeal space (19 patients). To evaluate breathing volumes, we used a polysomnographic device (18 patients). All patients received 20 L/min, 30 L/min, 40 L/min, and 50 L/min and – to illustrate the effects – nasal continuous positive airway pressure and nasal bilevel positive airway pressure. Capillary blood gas analyses were performed in 54 patients with hypercapnic COPD before and two hours after the use of NHF. We compared the extent of decrease in pCO2 when using 20 L/min and 30 L/min. Additionally, comfort and dyspnea during the use of NHF were surveyed. Results NHF resulted in a minor flow dependent increase in mean airway pressure. Tidal volume increased, and breathing rate decreased. The calculated minute volume decreased under NHF breathing. In spite of this fact, hypercapnia decreased with increasing flow (20 L/min vs 30 L/min). Additionally, an improvement in dyspnea was observed. The rapid shallow breathing index shows a decrease when using NHF. Conclusion NHF leads to a flow-dependent reduction in pCO2. This is most likely achieved by a washout of the respiratory tract and a functional reduction in dead space. In summary, NHF enhances effectiveness of

  13. Effects of short term forced oral breathing in rat pups on weight gain, hydration and stress.

    PubMed

    Padzys, Guy S; Thornton, Simon N; Martrette, Jean-Marc; Trabalon, Marie

    2011-02-01

    Nasal obstruction is a risk factor in sleep-disordered breathing with a negative impact on the quality of life in humans. We investigated hydration changes produced by short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction in young developing rat pups. Physiological parameters of growth (weight gain and gastric content weight) and dehydration were analyzed during two periods; during nasal obstruction at post-natal day 8 (days 9, 11 and 13), plus 7 and 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing (day 15 and adulthood). Body weight gain in oral breathing rat pups was slower compared to controls. Gastric weight was decreased significantly only in oral breathing rat pups on days 9 and 11 while plasma osmolality and vasopressin levels increased (indicators of dehydration). There were no differences between controls and treated rat pups by day 15, or at adulthood. Short term nasal obstruction-induced forced oral breathing, decreased gastric content which had a negative impact on growth and blood glucose concentration in the short term for female rat pups. Plasma corticosterone levels increased during the dehydration but were normal in males by 90 days. This could be a model for blocked nose syndrome in the newborn. Possible long term consequences on development are discussed.

  14. Neuropeptides and nasal secretion.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, J N; Kaliner, M

    1991-10-01

    The nasal mucosa is innervated by the sensory, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems. Nociceptive sensory nerves are stimulated by mucosal injury, inhalation of irritants, or mast cell degranulation and release of the calcitonin gene-related peptide, the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A, and other peptides by the axon response mechanism. Sensory nerve stimulation initiates systemic reflexes, such as the sneeze, and central parasympathetic reflexes which release acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and other peptides and lead to glandular secretion. In concert, these proinflammatory neural responses lead to vasodilation, vascular permeability, and glandular secretion. Sympathetic nerves release neuropeptide Y and norepinephrine, potent vasoconstrictors which act to decompress the nasal mucosa and produce nasal patency. The balance between the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic neurotransmitters may regulate nasal homeostasis, whereas the nociceptive sensory system may be held in reserve as a defense mechanism. Dysfunction of these systems may lead to pathological nasal syndromes. In the future, specific neuropeptide agonists and antagonists may be useful for the treatment of human rhinitic diseases. PMID:1928355

  15. Clinical implications for breath-powered powder sumatriptan intranasal treatment.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Stewart J

    2013-09-01

    The acute treatment of migraine requires matching patient need to drug and formulation. In particular, nausea and vomiting, quick time to peak intensity, and the common gastroparesis of migraineurs, all call for a variety of non-oral formulations for treatment of attacks. A novel breath-powered powder sumatriptan intranasal treatment offers an improvement, at least in pharmacokinetics, over conventional liquid nasal sumatriptan spray. The device for delivery in this breath-powered nasal sumatriptan uses natural nose anatomy to close the soft palate and propel the sumatriptan high up in the nasal cavity on one side with bidirectional airflow coming out the other side. This approach has the potential to reduce adverse events and improve efficacy. Phase 3 data on this system are in press at the time of this writing and results appear promising. The clinical role for a fast acting non-oral nasal formulation will be in those for whom tablets are bound to fail, that is, in the setting of nausea and vomiting or when the time to central sensitization, allodynia, and disabling migraine is too short for the patient to respond to a tablet. This review provides a clinical perspective on the breath-powered powder sumatriptan intranasal treatment. PMID:23809006

  16. [Congenital nasal obstruction due to pyriform aperture stenosis. A case series].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, G; José, G; Demarchi, V; Razetti, J; Boccio, C

    2015-01-01

    Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potentially fatal condition due to their exclusive nasal breathing. The main cause is inflammatory or infectious rhinitis. Congenital, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes are less frequent. Choanal atresia is the most common congenital nasal anomaly. A less common etiology of congenital nasal obstruction is pyriform aperture stenosis. Suspicion might arise in any newborn with varying degrees of stridor and respiratory distress, associated with the difficulty of passing a probe through anterior nares. Diagnosis should be confirmed by a computed tomography of the craniofacial massif. The therapeutic approach will depend on the severity of symptoms. We describe our experience with 5 patients with this condition, treated surgically using a sub-labial approach, and followed by nasal stenting.

  17. [Congenital nasal obstruction due to pyriform aperture stenosis. A case series].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, G; José, G; Demarchi, V; Razetti, J; Boccio, C

    2015-01-01

    Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potentially fatal condition due to their exclusive nasal breathing. The main cause is inflammatory or infectious rhinitis. Congenital, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes are less frequent. Choanal atresia is the most common congenital nasal anomaly. A less common etiology of congenital nasal obstruction is pyriform aperture stenosis. Suspicion might arise in any newborn with varying degrees of stridor and respiratory distress, associated with the difficulty of passing a probe through anterior nares. Diagnosis should be confirmed by a computed tomography of the craniofacial massif. The therapeutic approach will depend on the severity of symptoms. We describe our experience with 5 patients with this condition, treated surgically using a sub-labial approach, and followed by nasal stenting. PMID:24635981

  18. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ...

  19. Nasal fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... tingling Sudden increase in pain or swelling Any open wound or bleeding Injury does not seem to be healing as expected Difficulty breathing that does not go away Any changes in vision or double vision

  20. Snoring and Nasal Congestion

    MedlinePlus

    ... and soft palate. This negative pressure increases the vibration of these "noise-makers" (the uvula and soft ... is generally considered the noisy breathing caused by vibrations of the upper airway during sleep. In contrast ...

  1. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... or staying asleep, loss of coordination,confusion, or hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not ... symptoms, call your doctor immediately: slowed breathing agitation, hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not ...

  2. Skeletal and occlusal characteristics in mouth-breathing pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Sara Elisa M; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T; Valera, Fabiana C P; Matsumoto, Mirian A N

    2004-01-01

    This study verified the influence of chronic mouth breathing on dentofacial growth and developmental in pre-school children. The study evaluated 73 children, both sexes, ranging from 3 to 6 years of age. After the otorhinolaryngological breathing diagnosis, 44 mouth-breathing children and 29 nasal-breathing children were compared according to facial and occlusal characteristics. The skeletal pattern measurements SN.GoGn, BaN.PtGn, PP.PM, Ar-Go, S-Go indicated a tendency to mouth-breathing children presenting a dolicofacial pattern. According to occlusal characteristics, only the intermolar distance showed a significant correlation with a narrow maxillary arch in mouth-breathing subjects. Based on the results of this study, mouth-breathing can influence craniofacial and occlusal development early in childhood.

  3. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  4. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  5. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  6. Click production during breathing in a sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Frantzis, Alexandros; Alexiadou, Paraskevi; Madsen, Peter T.; Møhl, Bertel

    2005-12-01

    A sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) was observed at the surface with above- and underwater video and synchronized underwater sound recordings. During seven instances the whale ventilated its lungs while clicking. From this observation it is inferred that click production is achieved by pressurizing air in the right nasal passage, pneumatically disconnected from the lungs and the left nasal passage, and that air flows anterior through the phonic lips into the distal air sac. The capability of breathing and clicking at the same time is unique among studied odontocetes and relates to the extreme asymmetry of the sperm whale sound-producing forehead.

  7. Click production during breathing in a sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus).

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Frantzis, Alexandros; Alexiadou, Paraskevi; Madsen, Peter T; Møhl, Bertel

    2005-12-01

    A sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) was observed at the surface with above- and underwater video and synchronized underwater sound recordings. During seven instances the whale ventilated its lungs while clicking. From this observation it is inferred that click production is achieved by pressurizing air in the right nasal passage, pneumatically disconnected from the lungs and the left nasal passage, and that air flows anterior through the phonic lips into the distal air sac. The capability of breathing and clicking at the same time is unique among studied odontocetes and relates to the extreme asymmetry of the sperm whale sound-producing forehead.

  8. Modeling the pharyngeal pressure during adult nasal high flow therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Haribalan; Spence, Callum J T; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2015-12-01

    Subjects receiving nasal high flow (NHF) via wide-bore nasal cannula may experience different levels of positive pressure depending on the individual response to NHF. In this study, airflow in the nasal airway during NHF-assisted breathing is simulated and nasopharyngeal airway pressure numerically computed, to determine whether the relationship between NHF and pressure can be described by a simple equation. Two geometric models are used for analysis. In the first, 3D airway geometry is reconstructed from computed tomography images of an adult nasal airway. For the second, a simplified geometric model is derived that has the same cross-sectional area as the complex model, but is more readily amenable to analysis. Peak airway pressure is correlated as a function of nasal valve area, nostril area and cannula flow rate, for NHF rates of 20, 40 and 60 L/min. Results show that airway pressure is related by a power law to NHF rate, valve area, and nostril area.

  9. Zolmitriptan Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea and stomach pain caused by decreased blood flow to the intestines). Your doctor may tell you not to use zolmitriptan nasal spray.tell your doctor if you smoke or are overweight; if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or liver or ...

  10. Sumatriptan Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea and stomach pain caused by decreased blood flow to the intestines). Your doctor may tell you not to use sumatriptan nasal spray.tell your doctor if you smoke or are overweight; if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, seizures, or liver ...

  11. Azelastine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... and replace with the pump unit. Prime the delivery system (pump unit) with four sprays or until a fine mist appears. If 3 days or more have elapsed since your last use of the nasal spray, reprime the pump with two sprays or until a fine mist appears.

  12. Effects of sulfur oxides on nasal and lung function in adolescents with extrinsic asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Morgan, M.S.; Horike, M.; Pierson, W.E.

    1985-12-01

    Ten adolescent subjects with extrinsic asthma were exposed during intermittent exercise to filtered air, 0.5 ppm of sulfur dioxide (SO2), or 100 micrograms/m3 of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on 5 separate days. The purpose of the study was to compare changes in nasal power (the work of nose breathing) with pulmonary functional changes depending on the route of inhalation of the sulfur oxide pollutants, oral inhalation through a rubber mouthpiece or oronasal inhalation via a face mask. Nasal power was measured with a modified skin diving mask equipped with two differential pressure transducers. Statistically significant changes in total respiratory resistance, FEV1, and maximum flow calculated at 50% and 75% vital capacity were observed after all exposures to SO2 and H2SO4. The magnitude of change in FEV1 and maximum flow calculated at 50% vital capacity was higher after oral compared to oronasal inhalation of SO2. The nasal work of breathing increased 32% after SO2 exposure by mouthpiece and 30% after SO2 exposure via face mask (p less than 0.05). The nasal power changes after the H2SO4 exposures were not different from the sham exposures. We conclude that oronasal inhalation of 0.5 ppm of SO2 produces a significant increase in the nasal work of breathing and that the route of exposure reduces but does not eliminate the lower airway reactions observed on oral exposure.

  13. What is normal nasal airflow? A computational study of 22 healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nasal airflow is essential for functioning of the human nose. Given individual variation in nasal anatomy, there is yet no consensus what constitutes normal nasal airflow patterns. We attempt to obtain such information that is essential to differentiate disease-related variations. Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulated nasal airflow in 22 healthy subjects during resting breathing. Streamline patterns, airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, wall stress, turbulence, and vortical flow characteristics under quasi-steady state were analyzed. Patency ratings, acoustically measured minimum cross-sectional area (MCA), and rhinomanometric nasal resistance (NR) were examined for potential correlations with morphological and airflow-related variables. Results Common features across subjects included: >50% total pressure-drop reached near the inferior turbinate head; wall shear stress, NR, turbulence energy, and vorticity were lower in the turbinate than in the nasal valve region. However, location of the major flow path and coronal velocity distributions varied greatly across individuals. Surprisingly, on average, more flow passed through the middle than the inferior meatus and correlated with better patency ratings (r=-0.65, p<0.01). This middle flow percentage combined with peak post-vestibule nasal heat loss and MCA accounted for >70% of the variance in subjective patency ratings and predicted patency categories with 86% success. Nasal index correlated with forming of the anterior dorsal vortex. Expected for resting breathing, the functional impact for local and total turbulence, vorticity, and helicity was limited. As validation, rhinomanometric NR significantly correlated with CFD simulations (r=0.53, p<0.01). Conclusion Significant variations of nasal airflow found among healthy subjects; Key features may have clinically relevant applications. PMID:24664528

  14. The effects of air pollutants on nasal functions of outdoor runners.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Salih; Cingi, Cemal; San, Turhan; Ulusoy, Seçkin; Orhan, Israfil

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays road running is becoming more and more popular in our country. Road running is mostly done under improper conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of running on nasal response combined with the effects of air pollutants. Twenty road runners were enrolled in the study. All subjects were male and between 20 and 41 years of age. They ran for 60 min on the right side of an avenue in the center of the city. It is in a residential area but has heavy traffic. One week later they were invited to run for 60 min through a running course away from traffic that is located outside the city center. Nasal resistances were measured by active anterior rhinomanometry. Nasal transport time was also measured by saccharin transport method. There was a reduction in nasal resistance, which was statistically significant in city center runners but was not statistically significant in those running outside of the city center after the exercise. Although nasal transport times were statistically shorter in both groups, there were no differences between two groups. Nowadays, everyone is advised to do sports. Due to increase in the number of breaths, the depth of breathing, and the reduction in nasal resistance in outdoor runners during exercise, harmful air pollution particles can easily reach the lower respiratory tract. Exercise is important for our health, but it should be noted that the environment in which we run is as important as doing sports for our health, especially in outdoor runners.

  15. Sleep-disordered breathing in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; D Casement, Melynda; Chen, Chiau-Fang; Hoffmann, Robert F; Armitage, Roseanne; Deldin, Patricia J

    2013-08-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder often experience obstructive sleep apnea. However, the relationship between depression and less severe sleep-disordered breathing is unclear. This study examined the rate of sleep-disordered breathing in depression after excluding those who had clinically significant sleep apnea (>5 apneas∙h⁻¹). Archival data collected between 1991 and 2005 were used to assess the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing events in 60 (31 depressed; 29 healthy controls) unmedicated participants. Respiratory events were automatically detected using a program developed in-house measuring thermal nasal air-flow and chest pressure. Results show that even after excluding participants with clinically significant sleep-disordered breathing, individuals with depression continue to exhibit higher rates of sleep-disordered breathing compared with healthy controls (depressed group: apnea-hypopnea index mean = 0.524, SE = 0.105; healthy group: apnea-hypopnea index mean = 0.179, SE = 0.108). Exploratory analyses were also conducted to assess for rates of exclusion in depression studies due to sleep-disordered breathing. Study exclusion of sleep-disordered breathing was quantified based on self-report during telephone screening, and via first night polysomnography. Results from phone screening data reveal that individuals reporting depression were 5.86 times more likely to report a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea than presumptive control participants. Furthermore, all of the participants excluded for severe sleep-disordered breathing detected on the first night were participants with depression. These findings illustrate the importance of understanding the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and depression, and suggest that screening and quantification of sleep-disordered breathing should be considered in depression research.

  16. Management of the Nasal Valve.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Dane M; Casanueva, Fernando J; Cook, Ted A

    2016-08-01

    The nasal valve is an important consideration in patients presenting with nasal obstruction. Controversy exists regarding the anatomy, terminology, evaluation, and management of the nasal valve. Innumerable techniques with variable effects have been described in the literature. The evidence qualifying these techniques has been plentiful, though often lacking in quality. This article reviews the controversial aspects of nasal valve management applying the best available evidence to help clarify potential areas of confusion. Future research using standardized definitions, consistent methodologies, and validated outcome measures are necessary to improve the quality of evidence and impact surgical decision-making. PMID:27400837

  17. Increased oxygen load in the prefrontal cortex from mouth breathing: a vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sano, Masahiro; Sano, Sayaka; Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-12-01

    Individuals who habitually breathe through the mouth are more likely than nasal breathers to have sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. We hypothesized that brain hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might be different for mouth and nasal breathing. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex during mouth breathing and nasal breathing in healthy adults (n=9) using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. The angle k, calculated from changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and indicating the degree of oxygen exchange, was significantly higher during mouth breathing (P<0.05), indicating an increased oxygen load. Mouth breathing also caused a significant increase in deoxyhemoglobin, but oxyhemoglobin did not increase. This difference in oxygen load in the brain arising from different breathing routes can be evaluated quantitatively using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. Phase responses could help to provide an earlier and more reliable diagnosis of a patient's habitual breathing route than a patient interview.

  18. Airflow and nanoparticle deposition in rat nose under various breathing and sniffing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianbo; Zhao, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of nanoparticle (1~100 nm) deposition in the rat nasal cavity is important for assessing the toxicological impact of inhaled nanoparticles as well as for potential therapeutic applications. A quasi-steady assumption has been widely adopted in the past investigations on this topic, yet the validity of such simplification under various breathing and sniffing conditions has not been carefully examined. In this study, both steady and unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in a published rat nasal model under various physiologically realistic breathing and sniffing flow rates. The transient airflow structures, nanoparticle transport and deposition patterns in the whole nasal cavity and the olfactory region were investigated and compared with steady state simulation of equivalent flow rate. The results showed that (1) the quasi-steady flow assumption for cyclic flow was valid for over 70% of the cycle period during all simulated breathing and sniffing conditions in the rat nasal cavity, or the unsteady effect was only significant during the transition between the respiratory phases; (2) yet the quasi-steady assumption for nanoparticle transport was not valid, except in the vicinity of peak respiration. In general, the total deposition efficiency of nanoparticle during cyclic breathing would be lower than that of steady state due to the unsteady effect on particle transport and deposition, and further decreased with the increase of particle size, sniffing frequency, and flow rate. In the contrary, previous study indicated that for micro-scale particles (0.5~4μm), the unsteady effect would increase deposition efficiencies in rat nasal cavity. Combined, these results suggest that the quasi-steady assumption of nasal particle transport during cycling breathing should be used with caution for an accurate assessment of the toxicological and therapeutic impact of particle inhalation. Empirical equations and effective steady

  19. Nasal septum injury in preterm infants using nasal prongs 1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Suely de Fátima Santos Freire; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena; de Sousa, Nayara Francisca Cabral; da Silva, Daiana Vieira Câmara; Leal, Luciana Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with nasal septum injury in premature infants using reused and new nasal prongs. METHOD: the study was a cohort from an open therapeutic intervention. The sample included 70 infants with a gestational age inferior to 37 weeks, who used nasal prongs and were hospitalized at the neonatal service of a hospital in Recife-PE, in the Northeast of Brazil. The data were collected in patient files through the assessment of the application of the device and of the nasal septum. Multinomial Logistic Regression and Survival analyses were applied. RESULTS: the incidence of nasal injury corresponded to 62.9%. In the multiple analysis, only the length of the infant's treatment was a determinant factor for the occurrence and severity of the injuries. CONCLUSION: the type of nasal prong does not serve as a risk factor for the nasal injury. The high incidence of nasal injury indicates the need to adapt the nursing care with emphasis on prevention. PMID:25493679

  20. Nasal Bridge Intramuscular Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Hamir Basah, Zulkifli; Ramza Ramli, Ramiza; Gayadh, Maha Khadum; Mutum, Samarendra Singh

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular haemangioma (IMH) is a benign mesenchymal tumour. It appears as a deep, nontender mass within the soft tissue, particularly in the extremities. This tumour may not be obvious on clinical examination. Head and neck IMHs represent only 13.5% of the total IMHs. The most common site for a head and neck IMH is the masseter muscle, followed by trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and very rarely temporalis muscle. We present a patient with left nasal bridge swelling which was excised and histologically confirmed as intramuscular hemangioma. PMID:25709848

  1. A Real-time Method to Evaluate the Nasal Deposition and Clearance of Acetone in the Human Volunteer

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, Karla D. ); Schwartz, Ronald E.; Weitz, Karl K. ); Soelberg, Jolen J. ); Foureman, Gary L.; Prah, James D.; Timchalk, Charles

    2003-05-01

    Nasal dosimetry models have become increasingly quantitative as insights into tissue deposition/clearance and computational fluid dynamics have become available. Validation of these models requires sufficient experimental data. However, investigations into respiratory deposition, particularly in human volunteers, have been historically limited due to methodological limitations. To overcome this, a method for evaluating the nasal wash-in, wash-out phenomena of a highly water-soluble compound in human volunteers was developed and characterized. This methodology was assessed using controlled human inhalation exposures to uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at approximately 1 ppm concentration for 30 minutes under different breathing maneuvers (inhale nose/exhale nose; inhale nose/exhale mouth; inhale mouth/exhale nose). A small-diameter air-sampling probe inserted in the nasopharyngeal cavity of the volunteer was connected directly to an ion-trap mass spectrometer capable of sampling every 0.8 sec. A second ion-trap mass spectrometer simultaneously sampled from the volunteer?s exhaled breath stream via a breath-inlet device interface. Together, the two mass spectrometers provided real-time appraisal of the 13C-acetone concentrations in the nasopharyngeal region and in the exhaled breath stream before, during, and after the different breathing maneuvers. The breathing cycle (depth and frequency) and heart rate were concurrently monitored throughout the exposure using a heart rate monitor and a human plethysmograph to differentiate inhalation and exhalation. Graphical overlay of the plethysmography results with the mass spectrometer measurements show clear quantifiable differences in 13C-acetone levels at the nasal probe as a function of breathing maneuvers. Breath-by-breath analysis of 13C-acetone concentrations indicate that between 40-75% of the compound is absorbed upon inhalation and nearly all of that absorbed released back into the breath stream during exhalation.

  2. Simulated breath waveform control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Subsystem was developed which provides twelve waveform controls to breath drive mechanism. Twelve position, magnetically actuated rotary switch is connected to one end of crankshaft drive, such that it makes one complete revolution for each simulated breath. Connections with common wired point are included in modifications made to standard motor speed controller.

  3. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs.

  4. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. PMID:25532022

  5. Visualization of nasal airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. J. M.; Mitchell, G.; Bailie, N.; Thornhill, D.; Watterson, J.; Kimbell, J. S.

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between airflow patterns in the nasal cavity and nasal function is poorly understood. This paper reports an experimental study of the interplay between symptoms and airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis. This pathology is characterized by mucosal dryness, fetor, progressive atrophy of anatomical structures, a spacious nasal cavity, and a paradoxical sensation of nasal congestion. A physical replica of the patient's nasal geometry was made and particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize and measure the flow field. The nasal replica was based on computed tomography (CT) scans of the patient and was built in three steps: three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT scans; rapid prototyping of a cast; and sacrificial use of the cast to form a model of the nasal passage in clear silicone. Flow patterns were measured by running a water-glycerol mixture through the replica and evaluating the displacement of particles dispersed in the liquid using PIV. The water-glycerol flow rate used corresponded to an air flow rate representative of a human breathing at rest. The trajectory of the flow observed in the left passage of the nose (more affected by atrophic rhinitis) differed markedly from what is considered normal, and was consistent with patterns of epithelial damage observed in cases of the condition. The data are also useful for validation of computational fluid dynamics predictions.

  6. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  7. Radiological evaluation of facial types in mouth breathing children: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Izuka, E N; Costa, J R; Pereira, S R A; Weckx, L L M; Pignatari, S N; Uema, S F H

    2008-01-01

    Mouth breathing is a condition often associated with a long face, half-open mouth and increased anterior facial height. We performed conventional lateral and frontal cephalograms of eighty-nine children with nasal and mouth breathing and independently measured Total Facial Height using the analysis technique of Ricketts, and the Morphologic Facial Index employing the technique of Avila. It was concluded that dolicofacial following mesofacial were the most frequent patterns found in mouth-breathing children and this suggests that both analyses can be used independently.

  8. The detection of breathing behavior using Eulerian-enhanced thermal video.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Stephanie L; Goubran, Rafik; Knoefel, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The current gold standard for detecting and distinguishing between types of sleep apnea is expensive and invasive. This paper aims to examine the potential of inexpensive and unobtrusive thermal cameras in the identification and distinction between types of sleep apnea. A thermal camera was used to gather video of a subject performing regular nasal breathing, nasal hyperventilation and an additional trial simulating one type of sleep apnea. Simultaneously, a respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) band gathered respiratory data. Thermal video of all three trials were subjected to Eulerian Video Magnification; a procedure developed at MIT for enhancing subtle color variations in video data. Post magnification, nasal regions of interest were defined and mean region intensities were found for each frame of each trial. These signals were compared to determine the best performing region and compared to RIP data to validate breathing behavior. While some regions performed better, all region intensity signals depicted correct breathing behavior. The mean intensity signals for normal breathing and hyperventilation were correct and correlated well with RIP data. Furthermore, the RIP data resulting from the sleep apnea simulation clearly depicted chest movement while the corresponding mean intensity signal depicted lack of cyclical air flow. These results indicate that a subject's breathing behavior can be captured using thermal video and suggest that, with further development and additional equipment, thermal video can be used to detect and distinguish between types of sleep apnea.

  9. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  11. Keratoacanthoma: an unusual nasal mass.

    PubMed

    Sazafi, M S; Salina, H; Asma, A; Masir, N; Primuharsa Putra, S H A

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of keratoacanthoma in a non-sun-exposed nasal vestibule of an 84-year-old man. He presented with a progressively growing left nasal mass that had been present for 8 months. Examination showed a non-tender protruding mass arising from medial vestibular wall of the left nostril. Histopathology indicated it was a keratoacanthoma. In an elderly patient with a history of a progressively growing mass in the nose, a differential diagnosis of malignancy should be ruled out, and histological conformation is essential. To our knowledge, only a very small number of cases of nasal vestibular keratoacanthoma have been reported. PMID:24376301

  12. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  13. Stop, Breathe & Think app.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Natalie

    2014-07-15

    The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives.

  14. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells ( ... tests may be done to check for an iron deficiency. Other tests that may be done include: EKG ...

  15. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon dioxide and not enough oxygen in blood (obesity hypoventilation ... for anemia), and oximetry or blood oxygen or carbon dioxide levels. Your doctor also may obtain a chest ...

  16. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of mucosal nasal lymphocytes by direct ex vivo analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Christin; Rasche, Claudia; Audring, Heike; Wahls, Michael; Worm, Margitta

    2009-05-01

    Cellular inflammation of the nasal mucosa demonstrates a local immune response which plays an important role in allergic rhinitis. The aim of the present study was to characterize nasal mucosal lymphocytes regarding their activation and differentiation state by direct ex vivo flowcytometric analysis. Lymphocytes from the inferior turbinates were isolated by a mechanical method of preparation and, for comparison, from peripheral blood by Ficoll gradient centrifugation. Patients suffering from rhinitis or difficulty in nasal breathing were divided into an allergic (pollen-allergy, n = 13) and non-allergic group (n = 24). Expression of different T- and B-cell markers was determined by flowcytometric analysis. CD4+ T-cells from the nasal mucosa exhibited a memory phenotype (CD45RO+, 97%), were highly activated (CD69+, 43-73%), and showed low expression of the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA+, 5%). Nasal CD20+ B-lymphocytes expressed significantly higher levels of mIgE and lower levels of CD23 and CD80 than peripheral B-cells. Subsets of CD80+ (4%) and CD86+ (6%) CD20+ B-lymphocytes were identified in the nasal mucosa. No significant differences between allergic and non-allergic individuals were determined. As expected, the data show profound phenotypical differences between circulating peripheral blood and nasal mucosal lymphocytes. Activated memory lymphocytes are present in the nasal mucosa from allergic, but also non-allergic patients and may indicate to a significant role of a local inflammatory state without systemic criteria for allergy. In our study, we show that direct ex vivo isolation of lymphocytes is practicable method and offers a new technique to examine the local nasal allergic immune response using a multiparametric phenotypical analysis. PMID:18766360

  17. Numerical simulation of airflow and micro-particle deposition in human nasal airway pre- and post-virtual sphenoidotomy surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahmanzadeh, Hojat; Abouali, Omid; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of endoscopic sphenoidotomy surgery on the flow patterns and deposition of micro-particles in the human nasal airway and sphenoid sinus were investigated. A realistic model of a human nasal passage including nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses was constructed using a series of CT scan images of a healthy subject. Then, a virtual sphenoidotomy by endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in the left nasal passage and sphenoid sinus. Transient airflow patterns pre- and post-surgery during a full breathing cycle (inhalation and exhalation) were simulated numerically under cyclic flow condition. The Lagrangian approach was used for evaluating the transport and deposition of inhaled micro-particles. An unsteady particle tracking was performed for the inhalation phase of the breathing cycle for the case that particles were continuously entering into the nasal airway. The total deposition pattern and sphenoid deposition fraction of micro-particles were evaluated and compared for pre- and post-surgery cases. The presented results show that sphenoidotomy increased the airflow into the sphenoid sinus, which led to increased deposition of micro-particles in this region. Particles up to 25 μm were able to penetrate into the sphenoid in the post-operation case, and the highest deposition in the sphenoid for the resting breathing rate occurred for 10 μm particles at about 1.5%.

  18. [The influence of nasal flow aerodynamics on the nasal physiology].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the human nose to warm and humidify the respiratory air is important to maintaining the internal environment of the lungs, since ambient air is conditioned to nearly alveolar conditions (body temperature and fully saturated with water vapour) upon reaching the nasopharynx. Because of very short time of the inspiratory phase duration, as well as expiratory phase, only the rich vascularization of the nasal mucosa and specific organization of the submucosal vessels are not able to assure such effective physiological activity. Therefore the type of airflow during the respiration is essential to understanding the functional possibilities of the nasal mucosa. Most studies have investigated the airflow only in steady-flow conditions, where the laminar flow was observed. Anatomically accurate physical models of real nasal cavities and particle image velocimetry allow evaluation of the entire flow field in the nasal cavity. In these investigations a partially turbulent flow was observed even at low air velocities in most part of the nasal cavity. From a physiological perspective, a turbulent flow would seem sensible, since it enhances contact between air and the mucosal layer. By doing so, the nasal physiological functions - humidification, cleaning and warming are optimized.

  19. Dosimetry of nasal uptake of water-soluble and reactive gases: a first study of interhuman variability.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Schroeter, Jeffry D; Segal, Rebecca A; Stanek, John; Foureman, Gary L; Kimbell, Julia S

    2009-06-01

    Certain inhaled chemicals, such as reactive, water-soluble gases, are readily absorbed by the nasal mucosa upon inhalation and may cause damage to the nasal epithelium. Comparisons of the spatial distribution of nasal lesions in laboratory animals exposed to formaldehyde with gas uptake rates predicted by computational models reveal that lesions usually occur in regions of the susceptible epithelium where gas absorption is highest. Since the uptake patterns are influenced by air currents in the nose, interindividual variability in nasal anatomy and ventilation rates due to age, body size, and gender will affect the patterns of gas absorption in humans, potentially putting some age groups at higher risk when exposed to toxic gases. In this study, interhuman variability in the nasal dosimetry of reactive, water-soluble gases was investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models in 5 adults and 2 children, aged 7 and 8 years old. Airflow patterns were investigated for allometrically scaled inhalation rates corresponding to resting breathing. The spatial distribution of uptake at the airway walls was predicted to be nonuniform, with most of the gas being absorbed in the anterior portion of the nasal passages. Under the conditions of these simulations, interhuman variability in dose to the whole nose (mass per time per nasal surface area) due to differences in anatomy and ventilation was predicted to be 1.6-fold among the 7 individuals studied. Children and adults displayed very similar patterns of nasal gas uptake; no significant differences were noted between the two age groups.

  20. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, N; Yamaguchi, K; Daimon, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. Masseter muscle activity during chewing of a rice ball was recorded in 45 adult volunteers (three women), identified as nose breathers. Surface electrodes were placed on the skin according to the orientation of the masseter muscle to record the activity of this muscle while the subjects chewed the food until swallowing. Each activity was recorded twice, once with nose breathing and once with mouth breathing induced by nasal obstruction. The integrated and mean electromyography values for mouth breathing were significantly lower than the values for nose breathing (P < 0·05). The resting and total duration of chewing were significantly prolonged (P < 0·05) and the active duration significantly shorter (P < 0·05) when breathing through the mouth compared with the nose. Significantly more chewing strokes were counted for mouth breathing compared with nose breathing (P < 0·05). Taken together, the results indicate that mouth breathing decreases chewing activity and reduces the vertical effect upon the posterior teeth.

  1. Angioleiomyoma of the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Milena Moreira; Monteiro, Daniela Yasbek; Fernandes, Atilio Maximino; Menegatti, Vanessa; Thomazzi, Emerson; Hubner, Ricardo Arthur; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vascular leiomyoma of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor that represents less than 1% of all vascular leiomyomas. It is more prevalent in women between the fourth and sixth decades, reaching primarily the inferior nasal turbinates. Objectives Reporting and assisting the systematization of more accurate diagnostic methods in clinical and complementary investigation of vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity. Resumed Report We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which manifested mainly with nasal obstruction. During investigation, computer tomography was not diagnostic, the cytologic study was not conclusive, and according to the biopsy, it was a squamous papilloma. Conclusion We suggest that the technical difficulty in obtaining an adequate amount of material for preoperative biopsy, associated with the topography of the lesion in the vestibular nasal region, may have contributed to changing the postoperative diagnosis. Thus, pathologic study of the surgical fragment is the more accurate method for diagnosis. PMID:25992133

  2. Human breathing and eye blink rate responses to airborne chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J C; Kendal-Reed, M; Utell, M J; Cain, W S

    2001-01-01

    Increased levels of air pollution have been linked with morbidity and mortality, but mechanisms linking physiologic responses to quality of life and productivity issues remain largely unknown. Individuals often report irritation of the nose and/or eyes upon exposures to environmental contaminants. Evaluation of these self-reports would be greatly aided by the development of valid physiological markers. Chamber studies (unencumbered exposures) of nonsmoker responses to environmental tobacco smoke offer two candidate end points: (a) Tidal volume increases and breathing frequency declines with stimuli that elicit only moderate irritation. (b) Eye blink rate increases only with a concentration sufficiently high to cause progressive worsening of eye irritation with prolonged exposure. Experiments with very brief nasal-only presentations also suggest the value of breathing changes as sensitive markers of irritation: (a) Tidal volume is inversely related to perceived nasal irritation (NI) intensity in both normal and anosmic (lacking olfactory input) individuals, although normals exhibit greater NI sensitivity. (b) Inhalation duration, in both groups, declines only with trigeminal activation sufficient to cause readily perceptible NI in anosmics. Changes in eye blink rate and breathing may be useful in the investigation of irritation and other effects of air pollution, and could be quite useful in investigations of mixtures of volatile organic compounds. PMID:11544155

  3. CPAP and High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ian P; McBride, Antonia K S; Smith, Rachel; Fernandes, Ricardo M

    2015-09-01

    Severe respiratory failure develops in some infants with bronchiolitis because of a complex pathophysiologic process involving increased airways resistance, alveolar atelectasis, muscle fatigue, and hypoxemia due to mismatch between ventilation and perfusion. Nasal CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen may improve the work of breathing and oxygenation. Although the mechanisms behind these noninvasive modalities of respiratory support are not well understood, they may help infants by way of distending pressure and delivery of high concentrations of warmed and humidified oxygen. Observational studies of varying quality have suggested that CPAP and HFNC may confer direct physiologic benefits to infants with bronchiolitis and that their use has reduced the need for intubation. No trials to our knowledge, however, have compared CPAP with HFNC in bronchiolitis. Two randomized trials compared CPAP with oxygen delivered by low-flow nasal cannula or face mask and found some improvements in blood gas results and some physiologic parameters, but these trials were unable to demonstrate a reduction in the need for intubation. Two trials evaluated HFNC in bronchiolitis (one comparing it with headbox oxygen, the other with nebulized hypertonic saline), with the results not seeming to suggest important clinical or physiologic benefits. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of respiratory failure in bronchiolitis, discuss these trials in detail, and consider how future research studies may be designed to best evaluate CPAP and HFNC in bronchiolitis.

  4. CPAP and High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ian P; McBride, Antonia K S; Smith, Rachel; Fernandes, Ricardo M

    2015-09-01

    Severe respiratory failure develops in some infants with bronchiolitis because of a complex pathophysiologic process involving increased airways resistance, alveolar atelectasis, muscle fatigue, and hypoxemia due to mismatch between ventilation and perfusion. Nasal CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen may improve the work of breathing and oxygenation. Although the mechanisms behind these noninvasive modalities of respiratory support are not well understood, they may help infants by way of distending pressure and delivery of high concentrations of warmed and humidified oxygen. Observational studies of varying quality have suggested that CPAP and HFNC may confer direct physiologic benefits to infants with bronchiolitis and that their use has reduced the need for intubation. No trials to our knowledge, however, have compared CPAP with HFNC in bronchiolitis. Two randomized trials compared CPAP with oxygen delivered by low-flow nasal cannula or face mask and found some improvements in blood gas results and some physiologic parameters, but these trials were unable to demonstrate a reduction in the need for intubation. Two trials evaluated HFNC in bronchiolitis (one comparing it with headbox oxygen, the other with nebulized hypertonic saline), with the results not seeming to suggest important clinical or physiologic benefits. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of respiratory failure in bronchiolitis, discuss these trials in detail, and consider how future research studies may be designed to best evaluate CPAP and HFNC in bronchiolitis. PMID:25836649

  5. Response of nasal airway resistance to hypercapnia and hypoxia in man.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, T V; Kern, E B

    1979-01-01

    The response of nasal airway resistance (Rn) to various degrees of hypoxia and hypercapnia was measured in six subjects using active posterior mask rhinomanometry. All resistances were computed during expiration at the flow rate of 0.5 liter/sec. Hypercapnia, induced by breathing gas mixtures of various contents of carbon dioxide, significantly decreased Rn (P less than 0.05, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The reduction in Rn was proportional to the inspired partial pressure of carbon dioxide over a range of 0 to 50 torr. Breathing gas mixtures of high and low contents of oxygen produced no significant change in Rn (P less than 0.05, Wilcoxon signed rank test). These results indicate that the nasal airway is actively involved in the respiratory response to hypercapnia but not to moderate hypoxia.

  6. Separation of factors responsible for change in breathing pattern induced by instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Perez, W; Tobin, M J

    1985-11-01

    Employment of mouthpiece and noseclips (MP + NC) has repeatedly been shown to increase tidal volume (VT), but its effect on respiratory frequency (f) and its subsets is controversial. The mechanisms accounting for this alteration in breathing pattern are poorly understood and may include stimulation of oral or nasal sensory receptors or alteration in the route of breathing. In this study we demonstrated that use of a MP + NC, compared with nonobtrusive measurement with a calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmograph, alters the majority of the volume and time indexes of breathing pattern, with increases in minute ventilation (P less than 0.01), VT (P less than 0.001), inspiratory time (TI, P less than 0.05), expiratory time (TE, P less than 0.05), mean inspiratory flow (P less than 0.05), and mean expiratory flow (P less than 0.05) and a decrease in f(P less than 0.05). Separating the potential mechanisms we found that when the respiratory route was not altered, independent oral stimulation (using an occluded MP) or nasal stimulation (by applying paper clips to the alae nasi) did not change the breathing pattern. In contrast, obligatory oral breathing without additional stimulation of the oral or nasal sensory receptors caused increases in VT (P less than 0.05), TI (P less than 0.05), and TE (P less than 0.01) and a fall in f(P less than 0.05). Heating and humidifying the inspired air did not prevent the alteration in breathing pattern with a MP. Thus change in the respiratory route is the major determinant of the alteration in breathing pattern with a MP + NC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma of Sheep in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, A.O.; Thorsen, J.; Hayes, M.A.; Misener, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of veterinary diagnostic laboratories revealed that intranasal tumors occur in sheep in most provinces of Canada. Tumors were diagnosed in 44 sheep of several breeds including Polled Dorset, Suffolk, Cheviot, Rambouillet and various crossbreeds. Twenty-seven percent of tumors occurred in sheep that were less than two years old. Most tumors were sporadic but 33% of cases occurred in six related flocks, indicating that this disease can be an enzootic problem. The clinical signs were persistent serous, mucous or mucopurulent nasal discharge and stridor. Affected sheep progressively developed anorexia, dyspnea and mouth breathing and most died from effects of asphyxia and inanition within 90 days of the onset of clinical signs. Tumors originated unilaterally or occasionally bilaterally in the olfactory mucosa of the ethmoid turbinates. They were expansive and sometimes locally invasive but metastases were not found. Histologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas or, more frequently, adenocarcinomas. The etiology was not established but retrovirus like particles were observed in tumor tissue from one affected sheep. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422121

  8. Breathing: Rhythmicity, Plasticity, Chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jack L.; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Nattie, Eugene E.

    2010-01-01

    Breathing is a vital behavior that is particularly amenable to experimental investigation. We review recent progress on three problems of broad interest. (i) Where and how is respiratory rhythm generated? The preBötzinger Complex is a critical site, whereas pacemaker neurons may not be essential. The possibility that coupled oscillators are involved is considered. (ii) What are the mechanisms that underlie the plasticity necessary for adaptive changes in breathing? Serotonin-dependent long-term facilitation following intermittent hypoxia is an important example of such plasticity, and a model that can account for this adaptive behavior is discussed. (iii) Where and how are the regulated variables CO2 and pH sensed? These sensors are essential if breathing is to be appropriate for metabolism. Neurons with appropriate chemosensitivity are spread throughout the brainstem; their individual properties and collective role are just beginning to be understood. PMID:12598679

  9. Laser reshaping of nasal septum cartilage: clinical results for 40 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Emil N.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shekhter, Anatoliy B.; Svistushkin, Valeriy M.; Shinaev, Alexander N.

    2000-05-01

    Clinical results on sparing laser reshaping of nasal septum cartilage are reported for the first time. Forty patients have been treated with holmium laser to correct a deformed cartilage. The laser reshaping is a bloodless, painless procedure which takes few minutes to straighten nasal septum. The stability of the new shape and possible side effects have been examined during twelve months. The headache and other negative symptoms have disappeared, as a result of laser treatment for the most of patients. Rhinoscopic examination show an excellent long-term reshaping effects for nasal septum of 23 patients, and, also, good results for other 12 patients. For 5 patients only a little effect takes place. Our rhinomanometric examinations demonstrate a pronounced improvement of the breathing for 35 patients. No visible undesirable side effects were observed for all patients underwent to laser reshaping procedure.

  10. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Chen, D; Wang, P H; Chen, J; Deng, J

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  11. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Chen, D.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, J.; Deng, J.

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  12. Management of the nasal dorsum.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M; Tapias, Vanesa; Kim, Ji-Eon

    2011-04-01

    Profile alignment, including nasal dorsal reduction, is one of the most common maneuvers in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Techniques often include cartilaginous excision and bony hump reduction with a chisel or a rasp. Cartilaginous nasal vault excision can result in separation of the junction between the upper lateral cartilages and the dorsal septum. This separation can cause an inferior-medial repositioning of the upper lateral cartilages and overall weakening of middle vault infrastructure. Furthermore, surgical interruption of this key region can also damage the internal nasal valve configuration and function and create static and dynamic airway obstruction. This article outlines the anatomy and function of the middle nasal vault and internal nasal valve. In addition, it provides an overview of aesthetic complications of dorsal hump removal including inverted-V deformity, saddle nose deformity, hourglass deformity, and their functional consequences. Preoperative individual risk factors for middle-third deformities are mentioned. Preventive and corrective surgical techniques including cartilage grafting and reconstructive sutures are also detailed.

  13. Management alternatives for post-polio respiratory insufficiency. Assisted ventilation by nasal or oral-nasal interface.

    PubMed

    Bach, J R; Alba, A S; Shin, D

    1989-12-01

    Post-poliomyelitis patients may develop insidious respiratory failure. Chronic alveolar hypoventilation symptoms are often misdiagnosed and the condition is frequently treated inappropriately by oxygen therapy. Physicians are often at a loss to offer assisted ventilation by noninvasive methods and tracheostomy and long-term tracheostomy intermittent positive pressure ventilation is often refused. We studied the use of two noninvasive positive airway pressure alternatives for the nocturnal ventilatory support of 31 post-poliomyelitis patients. These methods were intermittent positive pressure ventilation via nasal access (NIPPV) and via a strapless oral-nasal interface (SONI IPPV). The use of custom fabricated interfaces was also evaluated. Practical alternatives for assisted daytime ventilation included glossopharyngeal breathing, the pneumobelt ventilator and mouth intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Overnight sleep monitoring was performed on 10 patients breathing autonomously or with body ventilators then repeated on NIPPV and/or SONI IPPV. The mean sleep oxygen saturation (SaO2) increased from 87.5 +/- 9.1% on unassisted breathing or body ventilators to 96.2 +/- 2.0% (P less than 0.01) on NIPPV or SONI IPPV. Of 12 other patients with a mean vital capacity of 472 +/- 480 ml and no significant free time supine, 11 patients also maintained SaO2 greater than 94% during sleep supine on NIPPV and/or SONI IPPV. Twenty-one patients have been on nocturnal NIPPV for an average of 23 (3-70) months. Six have been on nocturnal SONI IPPV for an average of 35 (5-66) months. All patients' hypoventilation symptoms were relieved. In conclusion, NIPPV and SONI IPPV can improve the nocturnal ventilation of post-poliomyelitis patients with chronic alveolar hypoventilation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Nasal Reconstruction: Extending the Limits

    PubMed Central

    Corsten, Marcus; Haack, Sebastian; Gubisch, Wolfgang M.; Fischer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Reconstructing the 3-dimensional structure of the nose requires the maintenance of its aesthetic form and function. Restoration of the correct dimension, projection, skin quality, symmetrical contour, and function remains problematic. Consequently, modern approaches of nasal reconstruction aim at rebuilding the units rather than just covering the defect. However, revising or redoing a failed or insufficient reconstruction remains very challenging and requires experience and creativity. Here, we present a very particular case with a male patient, who underwent 37 operations elsewhere and presented with a failed nasal reconstruction. We describe and illustrate the complex steps of the nasal rereconstruction, including the reconstruction of the forehead donor site, surgical delay procedures for lining, and the coverage with a third paramedian forehead flap. PMID:27536483

  15. Surgery of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Gunter

    2006-11-01

    Long-term results after septoplasty are not satisfactory. Apart from a recurrence of deviation, there are various reasons for this: false preoperative analysis, complete straightening of the septum, and a disturbed nasal cycle. Preoperative functional diagnostics with a combination of rhinoresistometry, acoustic rhinometry, and long-term rhinoflowmetry are necessary for differentiating between "physiological" and "pathological" septal deviations and recognizing other causes for obstruction. The surgical procedure of septoplasty includes approach, mobilization, resection, reposition, and finally reconstruction of all three layers. The goal of the operation should not be complete straightening of the nasal septum. The space between the septum and turbinates is of utmost importance. It should not be enlarged as much as possible; rather, it must be shaped in such a way as to allow freely congestion and decongestion reciprocal on the two sides during the nasal cycle. PMID:17131264

  16. Nasal Reconstruction: Extending the Limits.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, Farid; Corsten, Marcus; Haack, Sebastian; Gubisch, Wolfgang M; Fischer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Reconstructing the 3-dimensional structure of the nose requires the maintenance of its aesthetic form and function. Restoration of the correct dimension, projection, skin quality, symmetrical contour, and function remains problematic. Consequently, modern approaches of nasal reconstruction aim at rebuilding the units rather than just covering the defect. However, revising or redoing a failed or insufficient reconstruction remains very challenging and requires experience and creativity. Here, we present a very particular case with a male patient, who underwent 37 operations elsewhere and presented with a failed nasal reconstruction. We describe and illustrate the complex steps of the nasal rereconstruction, including the reconstruction of the forehead donor site, surgical delay procedures for lining, and the coverage with a third paramedian forehead flap. PMID:27536483

  17. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  18. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  19. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  20. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of an automatic computer controlled second generation breathing metabolic simulator (BMS). The simulator is used for evaluating and testing respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support, and resuscitation equipment. Any desired sequence of metabolic activities can be simulated on the device for up to 15 hours. The computer monitors test procedures and provides printouts of test results.

  1. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  2. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  3. Nasal Retinoschisis Associated with Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Reddy, Shantan; Kaines, Andrew; Law, Simon

    2010-03-01

    The authors describe a case of nasal and macular retinoschisis in a patient with open angle glaucoma. A 75 year-old female with optic nerve head damage secondary to chronic open angle glaucoma developed macular schisis and a separate area of retinoschisis nasal to her optic disk. There were no other identifiable causes for her retinoschisis. Glaucoma related structural defects offer a plausible explanation for multiple cavities of retinoschisis in favor of multiple occult congenital pits of the optic nerve head. PMID:20337311

  4. [Effect of mouth breathing on the severity of morphological and functional changes of dental system in patients with otolaryngologic pathology].

    PubMed

    Arsenina, O I; Piksaikina, K G; Popova, A V; Popova, N V

    2014-01-01

    The study included 282 patients aged 5 to 14 years with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil. Diagnostic algorithm is presented. The study results allowed elaboration of complex rehabilitation of nasal breathing and miodynamic equilibrium in the maxillofacial region by means of elastopositioner.

  5. Proteomic analysis of nasal epithelial cells from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Ludovic; Guerrera, Ida Chiara; Papon, Jean-François; Chhuon, Cerina; Zadigue, Patricia; Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Amselem, Serge; Escudier, Estelle; Coste, André; Edelman, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease remains incompletely understood. New explanations for the pathogenesis of CF lung disease may be discovered by studying the patterns of protein expression in cultured human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). To that aim, we compared the level of protein expressions in primary cultures of HNEC from nasal polyps secondary to CF (CFNP, n = 4), primary nasal polyps (NP, n = 8) and control mucosa (CTRL, n = 4) using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. The analysis of the data revealed 42 deregulated protein expressions in CFNP compared to NP and CTRL, suggesting that these alterations are related to CF. Overall, AmiGo analysis highlighted six major pathways important for cell functions that seem to be impaired: metabolism, G protein process, inflammation and oxidative stress response, protein folding, proteolysis and structural proteins. Among them, glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways could be impaired in CF with nine deregulated proteins. Our proteomic study provides a reproducible set of differentially expressed proteins in airway epithelial cells from CF patients and reveals many novel deregulated proteins that could lead to further studies aiming to clarify the involvement of such proteins in CF pathophysiology.

  6. Correlation between nasal membrane permeability and nasal absorption rate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hefei; Lin, Chih-Wei; Donovan, Maureen D

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between in vitro permeability (Papp) values obtained from isolated nasal tissues and the absorption rates (ka) of the same compounds following nasal administration in animals and humans. The Papp of a set of 11 drug compounds was measured using animal nasal explants and plasma time-concentration profiles for each of the same compounds following intravenous (IV) and intranasal (IN) administration were experimentally determined or obtained from literature reports. The plasma clearance was estimated from the IV plasma time-concentration profiles, and ka was determined from the IN plasma time-concentration profiles using a deconvolution approach. The level of correlation between Papp and ka was established using Pearson correlation analysis. A good correlation (r=0.77) representing a point-to-point relationship for each of the compounds was observed. This result indicates that the nasal absorption for many drug candidates can be estimated from a readily measured in vitro Papp value. PMID:23225081

  7. Hydrogen sulphide in human nasal air quantified using thermal desorption and selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wondimu, Taddese; Wang, Rui; Ross, Brian

    2014-09-01

    The discovery that hydrogen sulphide (H2S) acts as a gasotransmitter when present at very low concentrations (sub-parts per billion (ppbv)) has resulted in the need to quickly quantify trace amounts of the gas in complex biological samples. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is capable of real-time quantification of H2S but many SIFT-MS instruments lack sufficient sensitivity for this application. In this study we investigate the utility of combining thermal desorption with SIFT-MS for quantifying H2S in the 0.1-1 ppbv concentration range. Human orally or nasally derived breath, and background ambient air, were collected in sampling bags and dried by passing through CaCl2 and H2S pre-concentrated using a sorbent trap optimised for the capture of this gas. The absorbed H2S was then thermally desorbed and quantified by SIFT-MS. H2S concentrations in ambient air, nasal breath and oral breath collected from 10 healthy volunteers were 0.12  ±  0.02 (mean ± SD), 0.40  ±  0.11 and 3.1  ±  2.5 ppbv respectively, and in the oral cavity H2S, quantified by SIFT-MS without pre-concentration, was present at 13.5  ±  8.6 ppbv. The oral cavity H2S correlates well with oral breath H2S but not with nasal breath H2S, suggesting that oral breath H2S derives mainly from the oral cavity but nasal breath is likely pulmonary in origin. The successful quantification of such low concentrations of H2S in nasal air using a rapid analytical procedure paves the way for the straightforward analysis of H2S in breath and may assist in elucidating the role that H2S plays in biological systems.

  8. Denervation of nasal mucosa induced by posterior nasal neurectomy suppresses nasal secretion, not hypersensitivity, in an allergic rhinitis rat model.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Hironobu; Kondo, Kenji; Toma-Hirano, Makiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kikuta, Shu; Fujimoto, Chisato; Ueha, Rumi; Kagoya, Ryoji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    The posterior nasal nerve is the dominant source of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory fibers that innervate the nasal respiratory mucosa. Therefore, a posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) is thought to induce denervation of the nasal mucosa and relieve the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic action of PNN remain unknown. To investigate the impact of PNN-induced denervation of the nasal mucosa on allergic rhinitis, we developed a rat model of PNN and examined the effects of PNN on allergic rhinitis in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. This rat model of PNN was characterized by the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides (eg, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and neuropeptide Y) in the nasal respiratory mucosa. These animals exhibited nasal gland and goblet cell hypertrophy in the septal mucosa and atrophy of the submucosal gland in the lateral nasal wall, as well as reduced nasal secretion due to deficient acetylcholine synthesis. In an ovalbumin-sensitized model of allergic rhinitis, PNN also induced the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides in the nasal mucosa and suppressed nasal secretion. However, PNN did not affect mucosal thickening, eosinophil and mast cell infiltration, interleukin-4 and interferon-γ mRNA expression, and allergic symptoms (ie, sneezing and nasal scratching). These results suggest that the peripheral nerves and corresponding neuropeptides regulate nasal secretion, but not hypersensitivity, in allergic rhinitis, and that allergic rhinitis-related mucosal reactions occur in a highly denervated mucosa after PNN. Posterior nasal neurectomy may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of hyperrhinorrhea, but not allergic rhinitis hypersensitivity. PMID:27322954

  9. Dead space in the breathing apparatus; interaction with ventilation.

    PubMed

    Warkander, D E; Lundgren, C E

    1995-09-01

    Dead space in breathing apparatus may cause increased ventilation and/or CO2 retention. Interactions between ventilation and dead space were tested in the breathing apparatus of three divers: a full face mask with an oro-nasal cup (AGA), a full face mask without an oro-nasal cup (EXO-26) but designed to minimize dead space, and one mouthpiece. Experiments were performed at three depths; 0, 30 and 45 m seawater (msw). The breathing gas was air except at 30 msw where it was 36 O2 in N2. Five certified SCUBA divers were exercised at three levels (0, 50 and 100 W). Ventilation and gas exchange were measured. The dead space in the AGA mask was not influenced by either depth or exercise (mean 0.201). The mean dead space of the EXO-26 was 0.341, but it increased with exercise (p < 0.001) and decreased with depth (p < 0.03). Since the dead space can vary with ventilation levels it is not sufficient to test breathing apparatus only at rest as is required by the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. The mean ventilation with the EXO-26 was higher than with the AGA by 10% at 50 W (p < 0.05) and by 12% (p < 0.01) at 100 W. The same comparison for end-tidal CO2 showed mean increase by 0.30 kPa at the 100-W workload (P < 0.05); changes at other workloads were not statistically significant. Comparisons of the mean inspired PCO2 to the maximum values considered acceptable by various organizations showed that the mouthpiece was always acceptable, the AGA mask was marginally acceptable or better, while sometimes the EXO-26 was not acceptable.

  10. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of CO2 Distribution in the Upper Airways During Nasal High Flow Therapy.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, S C; Storey, J; Adams, C; Dey, K; Geoghegan, P H; Kabaliuk, N; Oldfield, S D; Spence, C J T; Jermy, M C; Suresh, V; Cater, J E

    2016-10-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) therapy is used to treat a variety of respiratory disorders to improve patient oxygenation. A CO2 washout mechanism is believed to be responsible for the observed increase in oxygenation. In this study, experimentally validated Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the CO2 concentration within the upper airway during unassisted and NHF assisted breathing were undertaken with the aim of exploring the existence of this washout mechanism. An anatomically accurate nasal cavity model was generated from a CT scan and breathing was reproduced using a Fourier decomposition of a physiologically measured breath waveform. Time dependent CO2 profiles were obtained at the entrance of the trachea in the experimental model, and were used as simulation boundary conditions. Flow recirculation features were observed in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity upon application of the therapy. This causes the CO2 rich gas to vent from the nostrils reducing the CO2 concentration in the dead space and lowering the inspired CO2 volume. Increasing therapy flow rate increases the penetration depth within the nasal cavity of the low CO2 concentration gas. A 65% decrease in inspired CO2 was observed for therapy flow rates ranging from 0 to 60 L min(-1) supporting the washout mechanism theory. PMID:27059224

  11. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of CO2 Distribution in the Upper Airways During Nasal High Flow Therapy.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, S C; Storey, J; Adams, C; Dey, K; Geoghegan, P H; Kabaliuk, N; Oldfield, S D; Spence, C J T; Jermy, M C; Suresh, V; Cater, J E

    2016-10-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) therapy is used to treat a variety of respiratory disorders to improve patient oxygenation. A CO2 washout mechanism is believed to be responsible for the observed increase in oxygenation. In this study, experimentally validated Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the CO2 concentration within the upper airway during unassisted and NHF assisted breathing were undertaken with the aim of exploring the existence of this washout mechanism. An anatomically accurate nasal cavity model was generated from a CT scan and breathing was reproduced using a Fourier decomposition of a physiologically measured breath waveform. Time dependent CO2 profiles were obtained at the entrance of the trachea in the experimental model, and were used as simulation boundary conditions. Flow recirculation features were observed in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity upon application of the therapy. This causes the CO2 rich gas to vent from the nostrils reducing the CO2 concentration in the dead space and lowering the inspired CO2 volume. Increasing therapy flow rate increases the penetration depth within the nasal cavity of the low CO2 concentration gas. A 65% decrease in inspired CO2 was observed for therapy flow rates ranging from 0 to 60 L min(-1) supporting the washout mechanism theory.

  12. Pinocchio nasal deformity secondary to lymphangioma circumscriptum.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Afşin; Yildiz, Kaya; Kankaya, Yüksel; Oruç, Melike; Sungur, Nezih; Koçer, Uğur; Ozer, Elif

    2007-11-01

    Pinocchio or Cyrano nasal tip deformity is a rare situation that develops secondary to the soft tissue tumors underneath. In literature, there is only one case reported with Pinocchio nasal deformity secondary to cavernous lymphangioma. In this study, we present a Pinocchio or Cyrano nasal deformity with skin involvement secondary to lymphangioma circumscriptum.

  13. Does post septoplasty nasal packing reduce complications?

    PubMed

    Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Naghibzadeh, Ghazal

    2011-01-01

    The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not).Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding. PMID:21425063

  14. Impact of nasal septal perforations of varying sizes and locations on the warming function of the nasal cavity: A computational fluid-dynamics analysis of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Lifeng; Han, Demin; Zhang, Luo; Li, Yunchuan; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Liu, Yingxi

    2016-09-01

    Patients with a nasal septal perforation often exhibit symptoms associated with disturbed airflow, which can have an adverse effect on the warming function of the nasal cavity. The impact of this effect is not fully understood. The warming function is an important factor in the maintenance of nasal physiology. We conducted a study to investigate the impact of septal perforations of various sizes and locations on the warming function during inspiration in 5 patients-3 men and 2 women, aged 25 to 47 years. Three-dimensional computed tomography and computational fluid dynamics were used to model the flux of communication and temperature, and differences among patients were compared. All 5 patients exhibited an impairment of their nasal warming function. As the size of the perforation increased, the flux of communication increased and the warming function decreased. Perforations located in an anterior position were associated with greater damage to the warming function than those in a posterior position. In patients with a large or anteriorly located perforation, airflow temperature in the nasopharynx was decreased. Our findings suggest that septal perforations not only induce airflow disturbance, but they also impair the nasal warming function. Further analysis of warming function is necessary to better explore flow mechanisms in patients with structural abnormalities. PMID:27657327

  15. The impact of expiration on particle deposition within the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wiesmiller, K; Keck, T; Leiacker, R; Sikora, T; Rettinger, G; Lindemann, J

    2003-08-01

    One of the most important functions of the nose is cleansing the inspired air. The aim of this study was to compare the intranasal deposition of particles during inspiration and expiration, applying different breathing manoeuvres. In nine subjects, the non-deposited particles during inhalation of an aerosol of starch particles were laser-optically detected by placing a suction probe transnasally in the anterior nasal segment. The particle deposition was measured during cyclical nose-in/nose-out (nose-only) and nose-in/mouth-out breathing. The deposited fraction was calculated in percentages. Active anterior rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry were performed. The mean deposited fraction in the anterior nasal segment was statistically significantly higher (P < 0.02) during nose-only breathing (46.0%) compared with nose-in/mouth-out breathing (33.0%). Our results suggest that intranasal particle deposition takes place during inspiration as well as during expiration. The period of expiration does not only seem to be important for water and heat recovery, but also for cleansing of the respiratory air.

  16. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory. PMID:24574201

  17. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory.

  18. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It is an ... 49 who want to be protected from the flu virus. Unlike the regular vaccine, it is a live virus. Therefore, it is ...

  19. The total nasal defect and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Steven B; Cook, Ted A; Wax, Mark K

    2009-05-01

    The structures of the nose are arguably the most complex within the face to reconstitute when absent. Total nasal reconstruction has evolved to encompass advanced surgical techniques in an effort to achieve increasingly satisfactory cosmetic results while restoring nasal function that mimics the function of a patient's natural nose. In this article, the history of total nasal defects and their reconstruction, relevant nasal anatomy, etiologies of the defect, and the surgical approaches to reconstructing each of the three-layered structure of the nose (ie, nasal skin, cartilage/bone, and lining mucosa) are explored.

  20. Pathogenesis of nasal polyps: an update.

    PubMed

    Pawliczak, Rafal; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Kowalski, Marek L

    2005-11-01

    The cause of nasal polyp formation is still unknown. Genetic predisposition has been suggested, but there are scanty data to support such theories. Activated epithelial cells may be the major source of mediators inducing influx of inflammatory cells (mostly eosinophils) and proliferation and activation of fibroblasts leading to nasal polyp formation. Infectious agents (including viruses, bacteria, or fungi) may be potential primary factors activating nasal epithelial cells. Proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors play important roles in the persistence of mucosal inflammation associated with nasal polyps. Arachidonic acid metabolites seem to be particularly important in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps in patients with aspirin hypersensitivity rhinosinusitis/asthma syndrome. PMID:16216171

  1. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  2. Lexical confusability and nasal coarticulation in French

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Rebecca

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has revealed a relationship between lexical confusability and degree of coarticulation [Brown (2001); Scarborough (2004)]. In particular, English speakers produce confusable, or ``hard'' words with more nasal and vowel-to-vowel coarticulation than less confusable, ``easy'' ones. Thus, it has been suggested that speakers produce additional coarticulation in order to increase the intelligibility of ``hard'' words. Here, the relation between nasal coarticulation and lexical confusability is investigated for French, a language in which vowel nasality is phonemically contrastive (at least for a subset of vowels) and might constrain such a lexical effect. Acoustic measures of nasality show that ``hard'' words (those with low usage frequencies and many frequent, phonologically similar neighbors) exhibit more nasal coarticulation than ``easy'' ones (those with high frequencies and few, low-frequency neighbors) in French as well. Interestingly, however, the effect emerges only for words containing vowels that can exhibit phonemic oral-nasal contrasts (oral vowels with nasal counterparts). Thus, where the use of nasality in phonological contrast is constrained, coarticulatory nasality is constrained, too. But the existence of phonological contrast does not itself constrain the lexical confusability effect: increased coarticulatory nasality contributes to lexically motivated phonetic enhancement in French, while even more nasality provides the basis for phonemic contrast.

  3. [TMJ, eating and breathing].

    PubMed

    Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    The study of the relationship between temporomandibular joints (TMJ), mastication and ventilation and the involvement of these two functions in the genesis of primary Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and in some dentofacial deformities, was initiated in France, more than 30years, by Professor Raymond Gola. Once criticized the weakness of the scientific literature in this domain, the originality of the TMJ within the masticatory system is recalled with its huge adaptation potential to very different biomechanical constraints according to the age and masticatory activities during the day. But the biomechanics of the masticatory system does not stop at night and the positions of the mandible and head during sleep should be studied carefully. In case of nocturnal mouth breathing with open mouth, the predominant sleeping position (generating small but long-term strengths) may be deleterious to the condyle-disc complex, to the surrounding muscles and the occlusal relationships. Some condyle-disc displacements and asymmetric malocclusions occur in this long portion of life what sleep, especially as oral breathing leads to a lot of dysfunctions (low position of the tongue, labio-lingual dysfunctions, exacerbation of bruxism sleep…). The aim of this work was to share our multidisciplinary experience of the biomechanical consequences of the nocturnal mouth breathing on the face involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, allergists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and radiologists.

  4. [TMJ, eating and breathing].

    PubMed

    Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    The study of the relationship between temporomandibular joints (TMJ), mastication and ventilation and the involvement of these two functions in the genesis of primary Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and in some dentofacial deformities, was initiated in France, more than 30years, by Professor Raymond Gola. Once criticized the weakness of the scientific literature in this domain, the originality of the TMJ within the masticatory system is recalled with its huge adaptation potential to very different biomechanical constraints according to the age and masticatory activities during the day. But the biomechanics of the masticatory system does not stop at night and the positions of the mandible and head during sleep should be studied carefully. In case of nocturnal mouth breathing with open mouth, the predominant sleeping position (generating small but long-term strengths) may be deleterious to the condyle-disc complex, to the surrounding muscles and the occlusal relationships. Some condyle-disc displacements and asymmetric malocclusions occur in this long portion of life what sleep, especially as oral breathing leads to a lot of dysfunctions (low position of the tongue, labio-lingual dysfunctions, exacerbation of bruxism sleep…). The aim of this work was to share our multidisciplinary experience of the biomechanical consequences of the nocturnal mouth breathing on the face involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, allergists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and radiologists. PMID:27554491

  5. Replacement of missing anterior teeth in a patient with chronic mouth breathing and tongue thrusting.

    PubMed

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Al-Qahtani, Ali Saad

    2013-01-01

    The loss of anterior teeth has serious functional, esthetic disabilities, in addition to compromising the patients' quality of life. Various etiologies can be attributed to the anterior tooth loss, including trauma, caries, and periodontal diseases. The chronic mouth breathing due to nasal adenoids is known to enhance the gingival and periodontal diseases. The dental literature proves the association of nasal breathing, tongue thrusting, and anterior open bite. Arch shape and tooth position are primarily determined by the equilibrium of the forces from tongue and perioral musculature. Increased force from tongue musculature in the tongue thrusting patient leads to flaring of anterior teeth, making them susceptible for periodontal and traumatic tooth loss. Replacement of the anterior teeth in this patient will also help in restoration of anterior guidance, which is critical for the health of temporomandibular joint, posterior teeth, and musculature.

  6. Replacement of Missing Anterior Teeth in a Patient with Chronic Mouth Breathing and Tongue Thrusting

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Al-Qahtani, Ali Saad

    2013-01-01

    The loss of anterior teeth has serious functional, esthetic disabilities, in addition to compromising the patients' quality of life. Various etiologies can be attributed to the anterior tooth loss, including trauma, caries, and periodontal diseases. The chronic mouth breathing due to nasal adenoids is known to enhance the gingival and periodontal diseases. The dental literature proves the association of nasal breathing, tongue thrusting, and anterior open bite. Arch shape and tooth position are primarily determined by the equilibrium of the forces from tongue and perioral musculature. Increased force from tongue musculature in the tongue thrusting patient leads to flaring of anterior teeth, making them susceptible for periodontal and traumatic tooth loss. Replacement of the anterior teeth in this patient will also help in restoration of anterior guidance, which is critical for the health of temporomandibular joint, posterior teeth, and musculature. PMID:24490091

  7. Primary Nasal Reconstruction in Self-Inflicted Nasal Injury.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Abizer; John, Jerry R; Gaba, Sunil; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Self-inflicted injury of the nose is extremely rare. It may be associated with severe psychopathology and suicidal ideation. The authors report a case of a 24-year-old man, who presented with soft-tissue loss over both the alae of his nose. He had cut off the alar rims with an ordinary razor blade. He was overtly concerned about his nose being excessively broad and fat. A diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder with nonsuicidal self-injury was made. Patient was observed during 72 hours in hospital with psychiatric support and local dressings. The authors undertook primary nasal reconstruction with nasolabial flaps on both sides for coverage. In conclusion, self-inflicted nasal injury mandates a judicious balancing of psychiatric support and surgical reconstruction. This can prevent untoward sequelae including further self-harm and suicide.

  8. Cardiovascular Biomarkers In Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Cikach, Frank S.; Dweik, Raed A.

    2014-01-01

    With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath giving individuals a “breath-print” that can tell a lot about them and their state of health. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as the new frontier in medical testing. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have arguably witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the constituents of exhaled breath and the development of the field of breath analysis and testing. Thanks to major breakthroughs in new technologies (infrared, electrochemical, chemiluminescence, and others) and the availability of mass spectrometers, the field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century. Several methods are now in clinical use or nearly ready to enter that arena. Breath analysis has the potential to offer relatively inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive methods for detecting and/or monitoring a variety of diseases. Breath analysis also has applications in fields beyond medicine, including environmental monitoring, security and others. This review will focus on exhaled breath as a potential source of biomarkers for medical applications with specific attention to applications (and potential applications) in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22824108

  9. Monitoring breath during oral glucose tolerance tests.

    PubMed

    Ghimenti, S; Tabucchi, S; Lomonaco, T; Di Francesco, F; Fuoco, R; Onor, M; Lenzi, S; Trivella, M G

    2013-03-01

    The evolution of breath composition during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) was analysed by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 16 subjects and correlated to blood glucose levels. The glucose tolerance tests classified five of the subjects as diabetics, eight as affected by impaired glucose tolerance and three as normoglycaemic. Acetone levels were generally higher in diabetics (average concentration values: diabetics, 300 ± 40 ppbv; impaired glucose tolerance, 350 ± 30 ppbv; normoglycaemic, 230 ± 20 ppbv) but the large inter-individual variability did not allow us to identify the three groups by this parameter alone. The exhalation of 3-hydroxy-butan-2-one and butane-2,3-dione, likely due to the metabolization of glucose by bacteria in the mouth, was also observed. Future work will involve the extension of the analyses to other volatile compounds by attempting to improve the level of discrimination between the various classes of subjects. PMID:23446273

  10. Unilateral and bilateral nasal resistances: a supplement.

    PubMed

    Naito, K; Cole, P; Humphrey, D

    1990-06-01

    Three hundred and thirty-four measurements of bilateral and unilateral nasal resistance (at delta P 1.0 cm H2O and by time averaging) in 233 adults were carried out by posterior rhinomanometry with a head-out body plethysmograph. Total nasal resistances, calculated by the equation of Ohm's Law for parallel resistors from measured unilateral resistances, were compared with measured total nasal resistances. The time averaged total nasal resistances calculated by use of Ohm's Law for parallel resistors were closer to direct measurements than resistances at delta P 1.0 cm H2O calculated from the same equation. We attempted to fit calculated total nasal resistance with direct measurements by modification of the equation of Ohm's Law for parallel resistors to T = 0.96[R x L/(R + L)]0.92 in the time averaged nasal resistance and T = 1.07[R x L/(R + L)]0.77 in resistance at delta P 1.0 cm H2O (T: total nasal resistance, R: nasal resistance on the right side, L: nasal resistance on the left side). Calculated total nasal resistances from the above equations agreed closely with direct measurements.

  11. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. PMID:26664051

  12. Nasal diseases and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deping; Luo, Wenlong

    2016-01-01

    A high rate of ENT doctors were murdered by nasal disordered patients in China recently. It is obviously important and urgent to find out whether there is any potential relationship between nasal diseases (ND) and psychological distress that might contribute to violent behavior. For this purpose, we carried out this literature review. There is a complex relationship between ND and psychiatric distress, which is mainly considered as a bidirectional causal relationship with other controversy opinions. However, most of the previous studies were found to be focused on allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis, while reports about other ND were rare. Further study is still needed to uncover the secret aspects in this field, and more attentions need to be paid to other ND. PMID:26095351

  13. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, S; Eder, G; Bolle, I; Tsuda, A; Schulz, H

    2009-10-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-mum sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathing 90-day-old Wistar-Kyoto rats placed in a size-adjusted body plethysmograph box. Instrumental dead space of the system was minimized down to 310 microl (i.e., approximately 20% of respiratory dead space). The system allows continuous monitoring of particle concentration in the respired volume. Breathing parameters, such as respiratory rate (f), tidal volume (Vt), as well as inspiration/expiration times, were also monitored at different levels of anesthesia. The results showed that Vt typically varied between 1.5 and 4.0 ml for regular breathing and between 4.0 and 10.0 ml for single-sigh breaths; f ranged from 40 to 200 breaths/min. Corresponding deposition values varied between 5 and 50%, depending on breath-by-breath breathing patterns. The best fit of deposition (D) was achieved by a bilinear function of Vt and f and found to be D = 11.0 - 0.09.f + 3.75.Vt. We conclude that our approach provides more realistic conditions for the measurement of deposition than conventional models using ventilated animals and allows us to analyze the correlation between breath-specific deposition and spontaneous breathing patterns.

  14. The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Utiyama, Daniela Mitiyo Odagiri; Yoshida, Carolina Tieko; Goto, Danielle Miyuki; de Santana Carvalho, Tômas; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). METHOD: A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. RESULTS: Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation. PMID:27438569

  15. Speech aerodynamics and nasalance in oral cancer patients treated with microvascular transfers.

    PubMed

    Markkanen-Leppänen, Mari; Isotalo, Elina; Mäkitie, Antti A; Suominen, Erkki; Asko-Seljavaara, Sirpa; Haapanen, Marja-Leena

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess speech aerodynamics and nasal acoustic energy during a follow-up period of 12 months in patients having undergone microvascular free flap reconstruction after tumor ablation from the oral cavity or oropharynx, usually followed by radiotherapy. Velopharyngeal function was assessed in terms of velopharyngeal orifice size by a pressure-flow measurement technique as well as by determining the instrumental correlate of perceived nasality (i.e., nasalance) during speech production. Velopharyngeal closure and nasalance were estimated to be adequate before operation both in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer patients. After the operation, at the group level, the oral cavity patients showed adequate velopharyngeal closure and nasalance. In contrast, the postoperative velopharynx orifice size was significantly bigger in the oropharyngeal cancer patients as compared with the oral cavity patients 6 months after operation. However, based on average aerodynamic as well as the nasalance data, the impairment of velopharyngeal function was not regarded clinically significant at the group level in either group of patients. The present treatment protocol served to maintain the prerequisites for normal or close to normal speech physiology.

  16. Nasal Administration of Cholera Toxin as a Mucosal Adjuvant Damages the Olfactory System in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Okada, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) induces severe diarrhea in humans but acts as an adjuvant to enhance immune responses to vaccines when administered orally. Nasally administered CT also acts as an adjuvant, but CT and CT derivatives, including the B subunit of CT (CTB), are taken up from the olfactory epithelium and transported to the olfactory bulbs and therefore may be toxic to the central nervous system. To assess the toxicity, we investigated whether nasally administered CT or CT derivatives impair the olfactory system. In mice, nasal administration of CT, but not CTB or a non-toxic CT derivative, reduced the expression of olfactory marker protein (OMP) in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulbs and impaired odor responses, as determined with behavioral tests and optical imaging. Thus, nasally administered CT, like orally administered CT, is toxic and damages the olfactory system in mice. However, CTB and a non-toxic CT derivative, do not damage the olfactory system. The optical imaging we used here will be useful for assessing the safety of nasal vaccines and adjuvants during their development for human use and CT can be used as a positive control in this test. PMID:26422280

  17. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K. Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  18. Deposition of ultrafine aerosols and thoron progeny in replicas of nasal airways of children

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.S.; Smith, S.M.; Yeh, H.C.; Kim, D.B.; Cheng, K.H.; Swift, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The deposition efficiencies of ultrafine aerosols and thoron progeny were measured in youth nasal replicas. Clear polyester-resin casts of the upper airways of 1.5-yr-old (Cast G), 2.5-yr-old (Cast H), and 4-yr-old (Cast I) children were used. These casts were constructed from series of coronal magnetic resonance images of healthy children. Total deposition was measured for monodisperse NaCl or Ag aerosols between 0.0046 and 0.20 {mu}m in diameter at inspiratory and expiratory flow rates of 3, 7, and 16 L min{sup -1} (covering a near normal range of breathing rates for children of different ages). Deposition efficiency decreased with increasing particle size and flow rate, indicating that diffusion was the main deposition mechanism. Deposition efficiency also decreased with increasing age at a given flow rate and particle size. Based on information obtained and information on minute volumes for different age groups, we predicted nasal deposition in age groups ranging from 1.5- to 20-yr-old at resting breathing rates. Our results showed that the nasal deposition increases with decreasing age for a given particle size between 0.001 to 0.2 {mu}m. This information will be useful in deriving future population-wide models of respiratory tract dosimetry. 24 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Experimental infection of dogs with the nasal mite Pneumonyssoides caninum.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, L; Zakrisson, G; Lilliehook, I; Christensson, D; Rehbinder, C; Uggla, A

    1998-06-15

    A successful experimental transmission of the canine nasal mite, Pneumonyssoides caninum, is described. Some 11 weeks after repeated systemic ivermectin treatment, four Beagles were inoculated via the right nostril with 20 P. caninum mites of different sexes and life stages, obtained at the necropsy of an infected dog. The inoculated dogs and a matching uninoculated control were observed for clinical signs for 14 weeks and then euthanised. Vague upper respiratory signs and a transient minor increase in the number of eosinophils in peripheral blood were recorded in the inoculated dogs. At necropsy 4-12 P. caninum mites were found in the nasal cavities and sinuses of the inoculated dogs, but none in the control. In three out of the four infected dogs mites were found in both the right and left nasal cavities and sinuses of the skull. Since in no case more mites than the number used for inoculation were detected it is not clear if the mites managed to reproduce in the dogs. Inflammatory lesions were seen most consistently in the olfactory mucosa, respiratory mucosa and tonsils, and growth of opportunistic bacteria was observed in the tonsils of the infected dogs. The inflammatory lesions seen in the olfactory mucosa may explain why dogs infected with P. caninum sometimes appear to suffer from impaired scenting ability.

  20. [Unilateral nasal obstruction in children: Pai syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Adrián; Cuestas, Giselle; Oviedo, Maricruz; Tiscorni, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Unilateral obstruction of the nasal cavity in children is mainly caused by the introduction of foreign bodies further stated with rhinorrhea and fetid odor. Less commonly, it can be traumatic, neoplastic, due to congenital malformation or iatrogenic. Symptoms of congenital intranasal mass may present at birth, or go unnoticed and be a finding in a routine pediatric examination. Patient evaluation should include imaging studies to guide the diagnosis and rule out intracranial extension. A syndrome associated with congenital nasal tumor should be suspected when other abnormalities are present. Pai syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. Its manifestations are craniofacial being congenital nasal polyp his main marker. We present a patient with unilateral nasal respiratory failure secondary to congenital nasal lipoma, with craniofacial anomalies belonging to Pai syndrome. Nasal obstruction was successfully surgically resolved. PMID:22042063

  1. Will Septal Correction Surgery for Deviated Nasal Septum Improve the Sense of Smell? A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neelima; Singh, P. P.; Bagla, Rahul Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Nasal obstruction due to deviated nasal septum is a common problem bringing a patient to an otorhinolaryngologist. Occasionally, these patients may also complain of olfactory impairment. We proposed to study the effect of septal deviation on the lateralised olfactory function and the change in olfaction after surgery of the septum (septoplasty). Methods. Forty-one patients with deviated nasal septum were evaluated for nasal airflow, olfactory score, and nasal symptomatology. Septoplasty was done under local anesthesia. Pre- and postoperative olfactory scores, airflow and olfactory scores, and nasal symptomatology and olfactory scores were compared and correlated. Results. The range of preoperative composite olfactory score (COS) on the side of septal deviation was 4–14 (mean 7.90 ± 2.234) and on the nonobstructed side was 9–18 (mean 14.49 ± 2.378). Severity of deviated nasal septum and preoperative COS of diseased side were correlated and the correlation was found to be significant (rho = −0.690, p = 0.000 (<0.001)). The preoperative mean COS (7.90 ± 2.234) was compared with the postoperative mean COS (12.39 ± 3.687) and the improvement was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.000 (<0.001)). Conclusion. We found improvement in olfactory function in 70.6% patients after surgery, no change in 20.1%, and reduced function in 7.6%. With the limitation of a small sample size and a potential repeat testing bias, we would conclude that correction of nasal septal deviation may lead to improvement in sense of smell. PMID:26491724

  2. Vasomotor rhinitis: neglected cause of nasal congestion.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T W

    1980-01-01

    Vasomotor rhinitis is a condition of chronic nasal congestion which is noninfectious and nonallergic. Its cause is thought to be an imbalance of autonomic control to the nasal mucosa. This disorder is a diagnosis of exclusion, and other causes of chronic nasal obstruction must be considered first. Treatment measures include avoidance of nonspecific stimuli which exacerbate symptoms and, for symptomatic relief, use of oral sympathomimetics. Antihistamine-decongestant combinations may be effective in some patients. Topical vasoconstrictors should not be used.

  3. Lessening the Misery of Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Martin, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Nasal polyps are characterized by progressive nasal obstruction, postnasal drip, rhinorrhea, and anosmia. Although their pathogenesis is unknown, key diagnostic signs include appearance, bilaterality, mobility, and insensitivity. Treating allergies and infections is important, while surgery is aimed at maintaining normal nasal structure and improving the airway so that intranasal steroids can be administered to keep the chronic disease under control. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21229039

  4. Does oral prednisolone increase the efficacy of subsequent nasal steroids in treating nasal polyposis?

    PubMed Central

    Wongsritrang, Krongthong; Ruttanaphol, Suwalee

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although combined oral and nasal steroid therapy is widely used in nasal polyposis, a subset of patients show an unfavorable therapeutic outcome. This study aimed to evaluate whether oral prednisolone produces any additive effects on subsequent nasal steroid therapy and to evaluate if any clinical variables can predict therapeutic outcome. Methods: Using a 3:2 randomization ratio, 67 patients with nasal polyposis received 50 mg of prednisolone and 47 patients received placebo daily for 2 weeks, followed by mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) at 200 micrograms twice daily for 10 weeks. Clinical response was evaluated by nasal symptom score (NSS), peak expiratory flow index (PEFI), and total nasal polyps score (TNPS). Potential predictor variables were assessed by clinical history, nasal endoscopy, allergy skin test, and sinus radiography. Results: At the end of the 2-week oral steroid phase, the prednisolone group showed significantly greater improvements in all nasal symptoms, nasal airflow, and polyp size than the placebo group. In the nasal steroid phase, while the MFNS maintained the outcome improvements in the prednisolone group, all outcome variables in the placebo group showed continuing improvements. At the end of the nasal steroid phase, there were no significant differences of most outcome improvements between the two groups, except in hyposmia, PEFI, and TNPS (p = 0.049, p = 0.029, and p = 0.005, respectively). In the prednisolone group, patients with polyps grade 3 and endoscopic signs of meatal discharge showed significantly less improvement in total NSS, PEFI, and TNPS than patients with grade 1–2 size and negative metal discharge. Conclusion: In the 12-week treatment evaluation of nasal polyposis, pretreatment with oral steroids had no significant advantage for most nasal symptoms other than earlier relief; however, combined oral and nasal steroid therapy more effectively improved hyposmia, polyps size, and nasal airflow. Polyps size

  5. Strapless oral-nasal interface for positive-pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bach, J R; McDermott, I G

    1990-10-01

    A custom-fabricated strapless oral-nasal interface (SONI) is described. It was used in the long-term administration of intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) by 18 patients with paralytic or restrictive pulmonary insufficiency. This interface is an acrylic shell which is firmly fixed to an orthodontic bite plate; it is designed to form a seal over the nose and mouth for the entry of IPPV. Eight patients were ventilator dependent 24 hours a day. The ten patients who required only nocturnal aid had improvement in daytime arterial blood gases. Although nine of these patients could manage less than 15 minutes of unassisted breathing (free time) supine, all slept supine on SONI IPPV. The 13 patients who underwent sleep monitoring maintained a mean oxygen saturation of 95.3% +/- 1.7% and acceptable end-tidal pCO2 (30 to 45 mmHg). These 13 patients have used SONI IPPV for an average of 22 months (range = 3 to 63 months). Impediments to successful long-term use of a SONI include the presence of a hyperactive gag reflex or stimulation of excessive oral secretions. When combined with mouth IPPV, glossopharyngeal breathing, the intermittent abdominal pressure ventilator, or the cuirass ventilator for daytime use, SONI IPPV is an option for the patient who prefers total ventilatory support by noninvasive means.

  6. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2014-01-01

    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis. PMID:24385004

  7. Endoscopic laser treatment for pediatric nasal allergy.

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Suzuki, N; Sato, H; Yamaguchi, T; Fujita, H; Umezawa, Y; Suzuki, M

    2000-01-01

    We have used the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser and the gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser with flexible fiber delivery instruments for vaporization of the inferior nasal turbinate in pediatric patients since 1993. Under endoscopic control, the whole inferior turbinate was vaporized by 5-10 W laser output delivered via an optical fiber. Generally, the nasal mucosa changes into normal mucosa, and symptoms improve. The greatest symptomatic improvement was in nasal obstruction. The results obtained by the two laser devices were similar although they have had different characteristics. Endoscopic laser surgery is effective in the treatment of pediatric nasal allergy.

  8. Nasal and Oral Consonant Similarity in Speech Errors: Exploring Parallels with Nasal Consonant Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that "similar" sounds interact in phonological nasal consonant harmony, wherein certain consonants become nasals when the word contains a nasal (e.g., Kikongo: /-kun-idi/ [right arrow] [-kun-ini] "planted"). Across languages, stops and approximants are chiefly affected, especially voiced consonants and ones that match…

  9. Immediate effect of benzalkonium chloride in decongestant nasal spray on the human nasal mucosal temperature.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Leiacker, R; Wiesmiller, K; Rettinger, G; Keck, T

    2004-08-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a preservative commonly used in nasal decongestant sprays. It has been suggested that benzalkonium chloride may be harmful to the nasal mucosa. Decongestion with the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride has been shown to cause a significant reduction of the nasal mucosal temperature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the short-term influence of xylometazoline nasal spray with and without benzalkonium chloride on the nasal mucosal temperature. Healthy volunteers (30) were included in the study. Fifteen volunteers received xylometazoline nasal spray (1.0 mg/mL) containing benzalkonium chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and 15 age-matched subjects, received xylometazoline nasal spray without benzalkonium chloride. Using a miniaturized thermocouple the septal mucosal temperature was continuously measured at defined intranasal detection sites before and after application of the nasal spray. The mucosal temperature values did not significantly differ between the group receiving xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride and the group receiving xylometazoline spray without benzalkonium chloride before and after decongestion (P > 0.05). In both study groups septal mucosal temperatures significantly decreased after decongestion (P < 0.05) because of a reduction of the nasal mucosal blood flow following vasoconstriction. This study indicates that benzalkonium chloride itself does not seem to influence nasal blood flow and nasal mucosal temperature in topical nasal decongestants. PMID:15270822

  10. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  11. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  12. Exhalation of respiratory viruses by breathing, coughing, and talking.

    PubMed

    Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Oliver, Brian G; Blazey, Angus J; Argent, Elizabeth; Newsome, Timothy P; Rawlinson, William D; Tovey, Euan R

    2009-09-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information about the generation of virus aerosols by infected subjects. The exhaled aerosols generated by coughing, talking, and breathing were sampled in 50 subjects using a novel mask, and analyzed using PCR for nine respiratory viruses. The exhaled samples from a subset of 10 subjects who were PCR positive for rhinovirus were also examined by cell culture for this virus. Of the 50 subjects, among the 33 with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, 21 had at least one virus detected by PCR, while amongst the 17 asymptomatic subjects, 4 had a virus detected by PCR. Overall, rhinovirus was detected in 19 subjects, influenza in 4 subjects, parainfluenza in 2 subjects, and human metapneumovirus in 1 subject. Two subjects were co-infected. Of the 25 subjects who had virus-positive nasal mucus, the same virus type was detected in 12 breathing samples, 8 talking samples, and in 2 coughing samples. In the subset of exhaled samples from 10 subjects examined by culture, infective rhinovirus was detected in 2. These data provide further evidence that breathing may be a source of respirable particles carrying infectious virus.

  13. Preventive Audiology: Screening for Hearing Impairment in Children Having Recurrent URTI.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Pannu, M S; Arora, A; Sharma, V

    2016-06-01

    A late detection of hearing impairment in children can affect speech and language development. Otitis media with effusion (OME) associated with risk factors like recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) is considered the most common cause of silent hearing impairment among children. So this study was carried out to screen such at risk children for hearing impairment. The study was conducted on 1000 children in the age group of 2-12 years who presented to the OPD of ENT and Pediatrics Department, Govt Medical College with the complaint of recurrent URTI. The children were screened by history taking, general physical examination and local ENT examination. This was followed by impedance audiometry and pure tone audiometry (PTA, wherever indicated). Children with discharging ears and perforated tympanic membrane (TM) were excluded from the study. The most common presenting complaint was nasal discharge (67.9 %), followed by mouth breathing (66.3 %) and snoring (65 %). Only 16.2 % cases actually complained of some hearing impairment on exploratory history indicating the silent nature of OME. On examination 52.65 % cases had a normal looking TM whereas 41.2 % had a dull retracted TM. Results of impedance audiometry showed Type A graph in 56.75 %, Type B in 33.4 % indicating OME and Type C in 9.85 % indicating Eustachian tube dysfunction. PTA showed a mild conductive hearing loss in 26.7 % cases. OME is quite prevalent in high risk children and incidence of OME resulting in silent hearing impairment is quite high especially in young children having recurrent URTI. Impedance audiometry has been proved to be an objective screening tool for the same with a diagnostic accuracy of 87 % and thus under preventive audiology, it has a definite role in young children having recurrent URTI. PMID:27340630

  14. Yoga breathing, meditation, and longevity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard P; Gerbarg, Patricia L

    2009-08-01

    Yoga breathing is an important part of health and spiritual practices in Indo-Tibetan traditions. Considered fundamental for the development of physical well-being, meditation, awareness, and enlightenment, it is both a form of meditation in itself and a preparation for deep meditation. Yoga breathing (pranayama) can rapidly bring the mind to the present moment and reduce stress. In this paper, we review data indicating how breath work can affect longevity mechanisms in some ways that overlap with meditation and in other ways that are different from, but that synergistically enhance, the effects of meditation. We also provide clinical evidence for the use of yoga breathing in the treatment of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and for victims of mass disasters. By inducing stress resilience, breath work enables us to rapidly and compassionately relieve many forms of suffering.

  15. Oxymetazoline nasal spray three times daily for four weeks in normal subjects is not associated with rebound congestion or tachyphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Foo, T H; Djazaeri, B; Duncombe, P; Mackay, I S; Durham, S R

    2003-09-01

    Topical decongestants are available over the counter and provide rapid relief of nasal obstruction for conditions of short duration, for example the common cold. Manufacturers' recommendations are that topical decongestants should not be used regularly for more than 1 week in view of the risk of rebound mucosal hyperaemia with persistent nasal obstruction and refractoriness to further effects of decongestants. For this reason we performed a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 30 normal adult subjects with 0.05% oxymetazoline nasal spray 2 sprays (0.1 ml/spray) to each nostril 3 times daily over an extended period of 4 weeks. Degree of nasal blockage was assessed before and after 4 weeks treatment and for 2 weeks following discontinuation of treatment. Outcome measures included diary symptom scores and measurements of nasal peak inspiratory flow, airway resistance (using posterior active rhinomanometry) and volume (using acoustic rhinometry). Nasal patency was assessed at baseline and 15 minutes after oxymetazoline challenge at each clinic visit. Results demonstrated no significant increases in subjective nasal blockage throughout the 6 weeks study period in either oxymetazoline- or placebo-treated subjects. No significant differences were observed between groups for baseline measurements of nasal peak inspiratory flow, airway resistance or volume at each clinic visit. A highly significant decongestant effect of oxymetazoline was observed at each clinic visit with changes in all 3 measurements for both treatment groups, again with no significant differences between groups. In summary, in normal subjects, we identified no significant nasal blockage or impaired decongestant response to oxymetazoline following 4 weeks treatment with oxymetazoline compared to matched placebo nasal spray.

  16. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Haribalan; Jain, Ravi; Douglas, Richard G.; Tawhai, Merryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic surgery is performed on patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects. Transient air flow through the nasal passage during calm breathing was simulated. Subject-specific differences in ventilation of the nasal passage were observed. Velocity magnitude at ostium was different between left and right airway. In FESS, airflow in post-surgical subjects, airflow at the maxillary sinus ostium was upto ten times higher during inspiration. In a Lothrop procedure, airflow at the frontal sinus ostium can be upto four times higher during inspiration. In both post-operative subjects, airflow at ostium was not quasi-steady. The subject-specific effect (of surgery) on sinonasal interaction evaluated through airflow simulations may have important consequences for pre- and post-surgical assessment and surgical planning, and design for improvement of the delivery efficiency of nasal therapeutics. PMID:27249219

  17. Nasal obstruction in neonates and infants.

    PubMed

    Chirico, G; Beccagutti, F

    2010-10-01

    The main functions of the nasal airway are respiration and olfaction. The nose and sinuses condition air before reaching the lower respiratory tract by providing almost 100% humidification, warming, filtering and trapping of foreign particles. The airway epithelium contributes to the host defense system. Any alteration of this clearance system may produce significant problems, particularly in neonates, who are obligate nasal breathers until they are at least two months old. Nasal obstruction, and the inability to remove nasal secretion by nose blowing, may have serious consequences, such as respiratory distress or discomfort, altered sleep cycle, increased risk of obstructive apnoea and feeding difficulties. Most cases of nasal obstruction in neonates and infants are due to generalized nasal airway obstruction associated with neonatal rhinitis, viral upper respiratory tract infections, and possibly milk/soy allergies. Saline nasal lavage is recommended as an adjunct therapy for rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis, and in most cases of nasal congestion or obstruction in newborns, infants and children. In two recent experiences, was deemed to be the Narhinel method safe and effective for treatment of nasal congestion in babies with viral infections of the upper respiratory tract, or for the prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and acute rhinosinusitis (AR) in children. Due to the efficacy, ease of use, tolerability and the lack of alternative medications in children younger than 12 years of age, nasal irrigation with physiological saline solution, followed by gentle aspiration, represent an effective method for the prevention and control of nasal congestion or obstruction in term or preterm neonates, infants and children.

  18. Rapid shallow breathing index

    PubMed Central

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  19. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    PubMed

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  20. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  1. Growth of breath figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.; Knobler, C. M.

    1986-09-01

    Measurements are reported of the growth of breath figures, the patterns that form when a vapor is condensed onto a cold surface. Water vapor was condensed on glass slides and the pattern was studied by direct observation and light scattering as a function of the contact angle theta, flux F, degree of supersaturation ΔT, and time t. When theta=0°, a uniform layer forms whose thickness grows as t at constant F and ΔT. For theta=90°, droplets are formed; at constant F and T, the radius of an isolated droplet grows as t0.23, but, as a result of coalescences, the average droplet radius grows as t0.75. The droplet growth process is self-similar-coalescences simply rescale the distances and leave the basic droplet pattern unaltered.

  2. [The nasal valve area: structure, function, clinical aspects and treatment. Sulsenti's technic for correction of valve deformities].

    PubMed

    Sulsenti, G; Palma, P

    1989-01-01

    The nasal valve and nasal valve area are two entities which should not be confused. The nasal valve area is the narrowest portion of the nasal passage. It is bounded: medially by the septum; superiorly and laterally by the caudal margin of the upper lateral cartilage and its fibro-adipose attachment to the pyriform aperture ('empty triangle'); inferiorly by the floor of the pyriform aperture. The nasal valve, on the other hand, is the specific slit-like segment between the caudal margin of the upper lateral cartilage and the septum. From a physiological and surgical point of view, this distinction is fundamental. The nasal valve area is the site of the highest nasal resistance. Therefore, small deformities of the valve area may severely impair the dynamics of nasal air flow. Rhinomanometry and nasal endoscopy permit the best definition of valve pathophysiology. After having discussed the various surgical techniques reported in the literature, the authors present an original technique for the surgical correction of valvular deformities. It is completely performed through Cottle's hemitransfixion incision. The technique has several advantages: a) performance of only one incision, sufficient to visualize the entire nasal valve and cartilaginous vault, thus minimizing the risk of scar tissue formation; b) through the space thus created it is possible not only to correct the entire septum, but also to inspect and easily reach the structures constituting the nasal valve area; c) it is possible to use various types of grafts to support or reconstruct the valve area; d) it is possible to reach the key area as well as to do lateral osteotomies: all variations in shape and position of the nasal pyramid may be performed in order to normalize direction and pressures of nasal air flow: e) through the retrograde undermining of the lower lateral cartilages the resistance of the cul-de-sacs may be optimally adjusted; f) it is possible to change the shape, size and position of the

  3. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  4. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P.

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  5. [Stertor in the newborn due to congenital nasal pyriform aperture estenosis: case series].

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Adrián; Rodríguez, Hugo; Cuestas, Giselle; Tiscornia, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Stertor is a noise generated by the disturbance of the air flow passing through the nose. Its main cause -in newborns and infants- is inflammatory or infectious rhinitis. Congenital, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes are less frequent. Congenital stenosis of the pyriform aperture is a rare etiology of nasal obstruction in the neonates. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential because of their exclusive nasal breathing. Suspicion might arise when a difficulty or even an impossibility to pass a probe of 2.8 mm (K30 tube) through anterior nares, exists. Diagnosis should be confirmed by a computed tomography of the craniofacial massif. The therapeutic behavior will depend on the severity of symptoms. We describe our experience with nine patients with this condition whose surgical correction was successful. PMID:21132253

  6. Pythiosis in the Nasal Cavity of Horses.

    PubMed

    Souto, E P F; Maia, L A; Olinda, R G; Galiza, G J N; Kommers, G D; Miranda-Neto, E G; Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of nasal pythiosis are reported in horses from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. From January 1986 to December 2015, the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Campina Grande received 830 equine samples, 156 (18.79%) of which were diagnosed with pythiosis. Of these, two horses (1.28%), a male and a female adult cross-breed, had lesions in the nasal cavity. Both horses had access to water reservoirs. Clinically, they had swelling in the rhinofacial region and a serosanguineous nasal discharge. Macroscopically, in case 1, the lesion affected the nasal vestibule, extending to the alar cartilage and nasal septum. In case 2, the lesion extended through the turbinates and the meatuses of the nasal cavity, as well as the ethmoid region. In both cases, the lesions were characterized by having a yellow-grey granular surface with cavitations of different sizes containing coral-like masses of necrotic tissue (kunkers). Histologically, multifocal necrotizing eosinophilic rhinitis associated with hyphae (2-8 μm) similar to Pythium insidiosum were observed. In case 2, the lesions extended to the muscle, cartilage and bone adjacent to the nasal cavity and lungs. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. It is concluded that nasal pythiosis occurs sporadically in horses in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil where cutaneous pythiosis is prevalent. PMID:27406311

  7. Nasal Airway Resistance: Its Measurement and Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lyle H.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of regulation of nasal airway resistance (Rn). Describes methods of calculating Rn by measuring pressure-flow relationship. Data are presented on improved methods for measuring Rn and effects for expiratory and inspiratory Rn after topical application of phenylephrine nasal decongestant spray. (Author/SA)

  8. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and deposited these data in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (Bioproject: PRJNA248297). In our initial analysis, we compared the bacterial communities of the nasal cavity and the oral cavity from ten of these subjects. The nasal cavity bacterial communities were dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria and were statistically distinct from those on the tongue and buccal mucosa. For example, the same Staphylococcaceae operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was present in all of the nasal cavity samples, comprising up to 55% of the community, but Staphylococcaceae was comparatively uncommon in the oral cavity. Conclusions There are clear differences between nasal cavity microbiota and oral cavity microbiota in healthy adults. This study expands our knowledge of the nasal cavity microbiota and the relationship between the microbiota of the nasal and oral cavities. PMID:25143824

  9. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  12. Mechanisms of nasal high flow on ventilation during wakefulness and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Mündel, Toby; Feng, Sheng; Tatkov, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) has been shown to increase expiratory pressure and reduce respiratory rate but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Ten healthy participants [age, 22 ± 2 yr; body mass index (BMI), 24 ± 2 kg/m2] were recruited to determine ventilatory responses to NHF of air at 37°C and fully saturated with water. We conducted a randomized, controlled, cross-over study consisting of four separate ∼60-min visits, each 1 wk apart, to determine the effect of NHF on ventilation during wakefulness (NHF at 0, 15, 30, and 45 liters/min) and sleep (NHF at 0, 15, and 30 liters/min). In addition, a nasal cavity model was used to compare pressure/air-flow relationships of NHF and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) throughout simulated breathing. During wakefulness, NHF led to an increase in tidal volume from 0.7 ± 0.1 liter to 0.8 ± 0.2, 1.0 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.2 liters, and a reduction in respiratory rate (fR) from 16 ± 2 to 13 ± 3, 10 ± 3, and 8 ± 3 breaths/min (baseline to 15, 30, and 45 liters/min NHF, respectively; P < 0.01). In contrast, during sleep, NHF led to a ∼20% fall in minute ventilation due to a decrease in tidal volume and no change in fR. In the nasal cavity model, NHF increased expiratory but decreased inspiratory resistance depending on both the cannula size and the expiratory flow rate. The mechanisms of action for NHF differ from those of CPAP and are sleep/wake-state dependent. NHF may be utilized to increase tidal breathing during wakefulness and to relieve respiratory loads during sleep. PMID:23412897

  13. Fluid mechanics based classification of the respiratory efficiency of several nasal cavities.

    PubMed

    Lintermann, Andreas; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    The flow in the human nasal cavity is of great importance to understand rhinologic pathologies like impaired respiration or heating capabilities, a diminished sense of taste and smell, and the presence of dry mucous membranes. To numerically analyze this flow problem a highly efficient and scalable Thermal Lattice-BGK (TLBGK) solver is used, which is very well suited for flows in intricate geometries. The generation of the computational mesh is completely automatic and highly parallelized such that it can be executed efficiently on High Performance Computers (HPCs). An evaluation of the functionality of nasal cavities is based on an analysis of pressure drop, secondary flow structures, wall-shear stress distributions, and temperature variations from the nostrils to the pharynx. The results of the flow fields of three completely different nasal cavities allow their classification into ability groups and support the a priori decision process on surgical interventions.

  14. Chronic Rhinosinusitis without Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong Ho; Kim, Dae Woo; Gevaert, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is more prevalent than chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Certain diseases predispose to whereas others are associated with CRSsNP. Predisposing diseases include allergic and nonallergic upper and lower airway diseases, epithelial cell disorders, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and some infectious diseases. In addition, environmental and host factors, examples of which include smoking, a higher incidence of abnormal biofilms, and innate immune defects, play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. CRSsNP is characterized by histologic abnormalities, including basement membrane thickening (fibrosis) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Neutrophils and several chemokines, TGF-β and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)-8, play a role in CRSsNP remodeling. However, there are conflicting data about CRSsNP endotypes, for example, whether it is characterized by neutrophilia or eosinophilia or both. In spite of advancements and the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, additional study is necessary to better comprehend its underlying mechanisms, endotypes, and evidence-based treatment strategies. PMID:27393771

  15. Evaluation of nasal tip surgery.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W H; Biller, H F

    1975-09-01

    Nasal tip surgery has been evaluated with respect to correction of the lower lateral cartilages. Indications, techniques, results, and complications related to three generic approaches to the lower lateral cartilages are described. In 673 consecutive rhinoplasties the commonest type of nasal tip surgery was excisional, utilizing either a marginal or cartilage splitting technique. These techniques were utilized: 1. to accomplish debulking, and 2. to accomplish the installation of facets. The excisional technique found its greatest utility in primary rhinoplasties. The version technique, utilizing a change of direction of the thrust of the lower lateral cartilages was utilized in a variety of situations, particularly for the correction of moderately congenitally hypoplastic tip cartilages. It also found great utility in surgery of the Negro or cleft palate nose, increasing tip projection, correcting unacceptable bifidity, and in revision rhinoplasty. Augmentation rhinoplasty, utilizing conchal cartilage as an elastic strut was particularly useful for severe hypoplastic cartilage deficits, the Negro nose, columellar retraction, and alar rim deficits. The overall complication rate of lower lateral rhinoplasty was 17.4 percent. The rate of unacceptable complications related to lower lateral rhinoplasty was 2.7 percent.

  16. SCUBA Diving for Blind and Visually Impaired People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candela, Anthony R.

    1982-01-01

    The author, a trained scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) diver who is severely visually impaired provides an orientation to scuba diving as a leisure and career activity. (Author/SB)

  17. Subjective Nasal Fullness and Objective Congestion

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.

    2011-01-01

    How well do subjective descriptions of the sensation of nasal closure or absence of nasal patency agree with objective measures of nasal geometry and airflow? Problems with this concept begin with terminology. “Congestion” has been applied to both the subjective and objective measures. Therefore, the term “fullness” will be used to describe perceptions of nasal mucosal heaviness or blockage that subjects with allergic rhinitis articulate. “Congestion” will refer to the objective measures used to assess patency. Sensations attributed to the nasal mucosa are highly integrated interpretations summed from multiple subsets of nociceptive and other neurons. Activation of sensor systems is required to depolarize afferent neurons. These sensors and other receptor proteins can be modulated by inflammation as part of the neural plasticity that leads to increased sensitivity to nasal stimuli. This plasticity and hyperalgesia may extend from the afferent neuron to spinal cord dorsal horn synapses, and regulatory and analytical regions of the brainstem and cerebrum. Although glandular hypersecretion can deliver obstructing material into the nasal cavities, the dilation of deep venous sinusoids is the strongest factor regulating nasal airspace volumes. There is a long history of attempts to correlate subjective sensations to objective measurements such as airflow resistance (rhinomanometry), nasal wall geometry (acoustic rhinometry), and peak nasal inspiratory flow. The medical evidence supporting each method has been analyzed on the basis of the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system. These results provide a starting point for linking the outcomes of pathophysiological processes with a patient's psychometrically calibrated sensation of airflow. PMID:21364223

  18. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  19. Oxygen application by a nasal probe prevents hypoxia but not rebreathing of carbon dioxide in patients undergoing eye surgery under local anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Schlager, A.; Luger, T.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM—Hypoxia and carbon dioxide rebreathing are potential problems during eye surgery in spontaneously breathing patients. The aim of the present study was to determine effectiveness of nasal application of oxygen to prevent hypoxia and carbon dioxide accumulation in spontaneously breathing patients undergoing cataract surgery.
METHODS—Oxygenation and carbon dioxide rebreathing were examined in 40 elderly patients using two different methods of oxygen supply—nasal v ambient air—with a constant flow of 2 l/min. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide under ophthalmic drapes, transcutaneous pressure of carbon dioxide, and the respiratory rate were measured during 25 minutes while oxygen was supplied via a nasal cannula or into the ambient air under the drapes.
RESULTS—In both groups carbon dioxide accumulation under the drapes, carbon dioxide rebreathing, tachypnoea, and an increase in peripheral oxygen saturation occurred. No significant differences were found between the two methods.
CONCLUSION—Nasal application of oxygen prevented hypoxia but did not prevent carbon dioxide accumulation in patients undergoing eye surgery under retrobulbar anaesthesia. Additionally, as a side effect when using nasal probes, irritation of the nose was described in half of the patients investigated.

 PMID:10729298

  20. [Nasal endoscope surgery of acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland on nasal septum: a case report].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiuzhen; Wang, Jizhe

    2016-02-01

    A 67-year-old male patient was admitted because of "the right side nasal obstruction repeatedly for 4 years". He got nasal obstruction 4 years ago, especially for the right side nasal cavity, sometimes got blood in his nasal discharge, then the symptom relieved after accepting treatment in local hospital. During the 4 years, the symptom repeatedly occurrence. Three days before hospitalization, the CT examination indicated abnormal things in his nasal cavity and the bone of his nasal sinus had been destroyed. Some abnormal organism were sent to pathological examination, and the report indicated it is acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland. During the nasal endoscope surgery, a red goiter was found in his nose with its surface crude and brittle. Then we cut the goiter by nasal endoscope, during the operation we find the bottom of the goiter is on the nasal septum. Two weeks after the operation, the patient received the radiation therapy. One year after the operation he doesn't get the abnormal symptom and the nasal MRI not found recidivation. PMID:27373103

  1. Sleep-disordered breathing and stroke.

    PubMed

    Ali, Latisha K; Avidan, Alon Y

    2008-01-01

    Sleep and stroke have an important and fascinating interaction. Patients with sleep-disordered breathing present with cardiovascular heart disease, cognitive decline, and increased risk of stroke. Stroke adversely affects sleep and factors such as prolonged immobilization, chronic pain, nocturnal hypoxia, and depression, which can also adversely impact sleep quality. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), one of the most common and serious sleep disturbances, manifests itself in almost 50% of all stroke patients. Sleep apnea patients who experience a stroke may be at a greater impairment in their rehabilitation potential and have increased risk of secondary stroke and mortality. Given these factors, the practicing neurologist should possess the skills to appropriately recognize, rapidly diagnose, and properly manage stroke patients with OSA.

  2. Does nasal decongestion improve obstructive sleep apnea?

    PubMed

    Clarenbach, Christian F; Kohler, Malcolm; Senn, Oliver; Thurnheer, Robert; Bloch, Konrad E

    2008-12-01

    Whether nasal congestion promotes obstructive sleep apnea is controversial. Therefore, we performed a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial on the effects of topical nasal decongestion in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and nasal congestion. Twelve OSA patients with chronic nasal congestion (mean +/- SD age 49.1 +/- 11.1 years, apnea/hypopnea index 32.6 +/- 24.5/h) were treated with nasal xylometazoline or placebo for 1 week each. At the end of treatment periods, polysomnography including monitoring of nasal conductance by an unobtrusive technique, vigilance by the OSLER test, and symptom scores were assessed. Data from xylometazoline and placebo treatments were compared. Mean nocturnal nasal conductance on xylometazoline was significantly higher than on placebo (8.6 +/- 5.3 versus 6.3 +/- 5.8 mL s(-1)Pa(-1), P < 0.05) but the apnea/hypopnea index was similar (29.3 +/- 32.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 32.8/h, P = NS). However, 30-210 min after application of xylometazoline, at the time of the maximal pharmacologic effect, the apnea/hypopnea index was slightly reduced (27.3 +/- 30.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 33.9/h, P < 0.05). Xylometazoline did not alter sleep quality, sleep resistance time (33.6 +/- 8.8 versus 33.4 +/- 10.1 min, P = NS) and subjective sleepiness (Epworth score 10.5 +/- 3.8 versus 11.8 +/- 4.4, P = NS). The reduced apnea/hypopnea index during maximal nasal decongestion by xylometazoline suggests a pathophysiologic link but the efficacy of nasal decongestion was not sufficient to provide a clinically substantial improvement of OSA. PMID:18710420

  3. Nasal high flow reduces hypercapnia by clearance of anatomical dead space in a COPD patient.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Kathrin; Tatkov, Stanislav; Domanski, Ulrike; Franke, Karl-Josef; Nilius, Georg; Schneider, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with hypercapnia is associated with increased mortality. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can lower hypercapnia and ventilator loads but is hampered by a low adherence rate leaving a majority of patients insufficiently treated. Recently, nasal high flow (NHF) has been introduced in the acute setting in adults, too. It is an open nasal cannula system for delivering warm and humidified air or oxygen at high flow rates (2-50 L/min) assisting ventilation. It was shown that this treatment can improve hypercapnia. The mechanism of reducing arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) is proposed through a reduction in nasal dead space ventilation, but there are no studies in which dead space volume was measured in spontaneously breathing subjects. In our case report we measured in a tracheostomized COPD patient CO2 and pressure via sealed ports in the tracheostomy cap and monitored transcutaneous CO2 and tidal volumes. NHF (30 L/min mixed with 3 L/min oxygen) was administered repeatedly at 15-minutes intervals. Inspired CO2 decreased instantly with onset of NHF, followed by a reduction in transcutaneous/arterial CO2. Minute ventilation on nasal high flow was also reduced by 700 ml, indicating that nasal high flow led to a reduction of dead space ventilation thereby improving alveolar ventilation. In conclusion, NHF assist ventilation through clearance of anatomical dead space, which improves alveolar ventilation. Since the reduction in hypercapnia was similar to that reported with effective NIV treatment NHF may become an alternative to NIV in hypercapnic respiratory failure. PMID:27668173

  4. Micro and nanoparticle deposition in human nasal passage pre and post virtual maxillary sinus endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Abouali, Omid; Keshavarzian, Erfan; Farhadi Ghalati, Pejman; Faramarzi, Abolhasan; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi

    2012-05-31

    Realistic 3-D models of the human nasal passages were developed pre and post virtual uncinectomy and Middle Meatal Antrostomy. A 3-D computational domain was constructed by a series of coronal CT scan images from a healthy subject. Then a virtual uncinectomy intervention and maxillary antrostomy were performed on the left nasal passage by removing the uncinate process and exposing the maxillary sinus antrum. For several breathing rates corresponding to low or moderate activities, the airflows in the nasal passages were simulated numerically pre and post virtual routine maxillary sinus endoscopic surgery. The airflow distribution in the nasal airway, maxillary and frontal sinuses were analyzed and compared between pre and post surgery cases. A Lagrangian trajectory analysis approach was used for evaluating the path and deposition of microparticles in the nasal passages and maxillary sinuses. A diffusion model was used for nanoparticle transport and deposition analysis. The deposition rate of the inhaled micro and nanoparticles in the sinuses were evaluated and compared for pre and post operation conditions. The results showed that after maxillary sinus endoscopic surgery, the inhaled nano and microparticles can easily enter this sinus due to penetration of the airflow into the sinus cavity. This was in contrast to the preoperative condition in which almost no particles entered the sinuses. These results could be of importance for a better understanding of the effect of sinus endoscopic surgery on patient exposure to particulate pollution and inhalation drug delivery. The significantly higher airflow rate and particle deposition in the sinus could be a reason for the discomfort reported by some patient after maxillary sinus endoscopic surgery. PMID:22465001

  5. Effects of surgical correction of nasal obstruction in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sériès, F; St Pierre, S; Carrier, G

    1992-11-01

    Negative upper airway pressure is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea. Because nasal resistance contributes to the increase of the transpharyngeal pressure gradient, we evaluated the effects of nasal surgery on sleep-related breathing abnormalities in 20 adults with obstructive sleep apnea. Polysomnographic studies were done before (baseline), and 2 to 3 mo after surgery (septoplasty, turbinectomy, and/or polypectomy). Nasal resistances were measured at these visits in 14 patients. Cephalometric measurements were obtained before surgery. Cephalometric abnormalities consisted in an increase in the distance from the mandibular plane to the hyoid bone (MP-H), a decrease in the space between the base of the tongue and the posterior soft tissues (PAS), a retroposition of the mandibule, and an increase in the length of the soft palate. Body weight did not change between the two studies. Nasal resistance decreased significantly after nasal surgery. The composition of the total sleep time spent in the rapid eye movement stage increased from 11.5 +/- 1.3% (mean +/- SEM) to 14 +/- 1.2% after surgery. For the group as the whole, there was no difference between baseline and postsurgical values in the frequency of respiratory disturbances (39.8 +/- 6.1, 36.8 +/- 5.9 n/h), the total apnea time (17.8 +/- 4.2, 15.4 +/- 2.8), the distribution of the apnea time within the different apnea types (obstructive and nonobstructive), and the severity of the nocturnal desaturations. Interestingly, apnea and apnea plus hypopnea indices returned to normal values (< 5 and 10, respectively) in four subjects with normal posterior soft tissues and mandibular plane to the hyoid bone distances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  7. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  8. Case report: unilateral mydriasis following nasal cautery.

    PubMed

    Koo Ng, Nigel K F; Calder, Nick

    2010-12-01

    We report a case of unilateral mydriasis following nasal electrocautery presumed to be the result of retrograde flow of adrenaline and/or xylometazoline hydrochloride (Otrivine) through the nasolacrimal duct into the eye. We review the literature and highlight the importance of correct interpretation of finding a dilated pupil post-operatively. To our knowledge. we report the first such case involving xylometazoline hydrochloride and also following nasal electrocautery. Unilateral mydriasis is alarming after nasal surgery but must be interpreted with caution. During minimally invasive procedures it is likely to be due to the effects of topical medication to the nose rather than surgical trauma. PMID:21158576

  9. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  10. Catecholamine concentrations in rat nasal mucus are modulated by trigeminal stimulation of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Lucero, M T; Squires, A

    1998-10-01

    Olfactory mucus provides the perireceptor environment in which the initial steps of olfactory signal transduction occur [5]. Extrinsic autonomic and trigeminal innervation controls mucus secretion and may release neurotransmitters into nasal mucus [13]. We quantitated catecholamines in rat nasal mucus and found that catecholamine levels first increased and then declined with trigeminal stimulation. These data indicate that catecholamine levels are regulated in nasal mucus and could modulate the odor sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons.

  11. [Disturbances of nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum and the rationale for its surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T

    2011-01-01

    Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.

  12. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  13. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Mpaltatzidis, Angelos; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tzioufa, Valentini

    2009-05-15

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of the tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.

  14. Nasal toxicity of cocaine: a hypercoagulable effect?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R.; Shah, R.; Baredes, S.; Spillert, C. R.; Lazaro, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Nasal insufflation of cocaine injures the nasal mucosa and can perforate the septum. Cocaine-induced vasoconstriction resulting in ischemia is one of the methods that may be responsible for this damage. We are determining whether cocaine also produces a hypercoagulable state that may compound factors which have been previously established to cause damage to the nasal mucosa and septum. This study uses Modified Recalcification Time (MRT), a test developed in our laboratory that has the ability to measure the overall coagulation process. Our study revealed no connection between cocaine and enhanced platelet function or monocyte-released tissue factor. The coagulation process was unaffected by the addition of the drug, so we conclude that cocaine does not cause a hypercoagulable state and cannot assist in the explanation regarding the ischemic changes of the nasal septum. PMID:10800286

  15. Nasal foreign body: an unexpected discovery.

    PubMed

    Yasny, Jeffrey S; Stewart, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nasal foreign bodies may result from the abundant availability of tiny objects in our society and a curious child exploring his or her nasal cavities. An inserted object that is not witnessed or retrieved can remain relatively asymptomatic or cause local tissue damage and potentially yield more serious consequences. An unusual case of a young child who presented for dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia is described. Immediately prior to the nasotracheal intubation, an unanticipated foreign body was detected and safely removed before any injury occurred. This case report discusses the presentation and pathophysiology of nasal foreign bodies. Moreover, applicable suggestions are provided to aid in the prevention and management of the unexpected discovery of a nasal foreign body after the induction of general anesthesia.

  16. Nasal Mucociliary Transport Before and After Jogging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Anna; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of nasal mucociliary transport in 11 healthy subjects before and after they jogged 8-10 kilometers indicated that the transport time was significantly longer after jogging than before jogging. (Author/CB)

  17. Management of the cleft lip nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    Dutton, J M; Bumsted, R M

    2001-02-01

    Management of the cleft lip nasal deformity offers a unique and ongoing challenge in facial plastic surgery. Although there has been no consensus regarding the optimal timing and technique for surgical repair of this deformity, the authors have found a three-tiered approach to be satisfactory. This approach involves a primary rhinoplasty performed at the time of the initial cleft lip repair to address reconstruction of the nasal floor and sill, columellar lengthening, repositioning of the alar base, and repositioning of the skin and mucosa of the lower lateral cartilage. Following alveolar bone grafting, an intermediate rhinoplasty is often performed at 6 to 10 years of age through an open approach to correct the cartilaginous lower nasal deformity. A delayed rhinoplasty is then performed in the later teenage years to correct the bony dorsal deformity and the various causes of nasal obstruction.

  18. Development of the cetacean nasal skull.

    PubMed

    Klima, M

    1999-01-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to aquatic life habits is reflected, in their nasal region, in three marked changes from the original relations found in land mammals. These changes include (1) the loss of the sense of smell, (2) translocation of the nostrils from the tip of the rostrum to the vertex of the head, and (3) elongation of the anterior head to form a rostrum protruding far towards anterior. The morphogenetic processes taking place during embryogenesis of the nasal skull play a decisive part in the development of all these changes. The lateral parts of the embryonic nasal capsule, encompassing the nasal passages, change their position from horizontal to vertical. At the same time, the structures of the original nasal floor (the solum nasi) are shifted in front of the nasal passages towards the rostrum. The structures of the original nasal roof (the tectum nasi) and of the nasal side wall (the paries nasi) are translocated behind the nasal passages towards the neurocranium. The medial nasal septum (the septum nasi) mostly loses its connection to the nasal passages and is produced into a point protruding far towards anterior. The transformed embryonic nasal skull of the Cetacea can be divided into three sections: 1. The median structures. These include the cartilaginous structures, viz., the rostrum nasi, the septum interorbitale and the spina mesethmoidalis, which are accompanied by the dermal bones, the vomer and the praemaxillare. In adult cetaceans the rostrum nasi is mostly preserved as a robust cartilage of the skull, which may possibly serve as a sound transmitting structure of the sonar system, or it may be responsible for the sensing of water streams and vibrations. 2. The posterior side wall structures. These include the following cartilaginous structures that are mostly heavily reduced or mutually fused: the cupula nasi anterior, the tectum nasi, the lamina cribrosa, the paries nasi, the commissura orbitonasalis, the cupula nasi posterior, the

  19. Deposition of radon progeny in nonhuman primate nasal airways

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.; Morgan, K.T.

    1992-12-31

    Radon progeny are usually associated with ultrafine particles ranging in diameter from 0.001 to 0.005 {mu}m for {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} progeny and from 0.005 to 0.2 {mu}m for those attached to indoor aerosols. To assess the health effects of inhaling indoor radon progeny, it is necessary to study the regional deposition of these inhaled ultrafine particles. Laboratory animals are often used in studies of the toxicity of inhaled particles and vapors. Information on the deposition of particles larger than 0.2 {mu}m in the nasal passages of laboratory animals is available; however, there is little information on the deposition of particles smaller than 0.2 {mu}m. In this report, we describe the use of nasal casts of a rhesus monkey to measure total deposition of ultrafine aerosols, including unattached {sup 220}Rn progeny, in a unidirectional-flow inhalation exposure system. Deposition data were obtained for monodisperse silver aerosols with particle sizes ranging from 0.005 to 0.2 {mu}m, at several inspiratory and expiratory flow rates that represented normal breathing as well as hypo- and hyperventiliation. In addition, we studied the deposition of unattached {sup 22-}Rn progeny, at particle sizes from 0.001 to 0.003 {mu}m. The deposition efficiency decreased with increasing particle size, indicating that diffusion was the dominant deposition mechanism. The effect of flow rate was essentially negligible. Based on assumptions that turbulent flow and complete mixing of aerosols occur in the nasal airways, a general equation E = 1-exp (-a D{sup b}Q{sup c}) for d{sub p} {<=} 0.2 {mu}m, was derived, where E is the deposition efficiency, d{sub p} is the particle diameter, D is the diffusion coefficient, and Q is the flow rate. Constants a, b, and c are estimated from experimental data, for either inspiration or expiration. This mathematical expression will be useful for making modifications to both deposition and dosimetry models.

  20. [Diagnostic methods of nasal respiratory function].

    PubMed

    Mlynski, G; Beule, A

    2008-01-01

    Objective assessment of nasal obstruction may help with preoperative planning for rhinosurgery and indicate different aspects of endonasal pathology. To improve quality control, preoperative and postoperative objective assessment is desirable. This review presents objective functional diagnostic tools and explains their appropriate uses, the information obtained, and their limitations. An algorithm is presented for analysing nasal obstruction by means of objective functional assessment. Examples illustrate how to use this information for preoperative planning in rhinosurgery. PMID:18210011

  1. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Chen, K T

    1982-01-01

    A case of necrotizing sialometaplasia involving the mucous membrane of a nasal turbinate is described. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign, self-limited process characterized by necrosis and squamous metaplasia of the salivary or mucous glands. Typically, the lesion manifests as an ulcer of the hard palate. Nonulcerated lesions and involvement of sites other than the hard palate have also been reported. This case appears to be the second reported case of involvement of the nasal cavity by necrotizing sialometaplasia.

  2. Powered nasal polypectomy in the office setting.

    PubMed

    Krouse, J H; Christmas, D A

    1996-09-01

    The use of powered instrumentation has revolutionized the practice of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. We have expanded the role of the instrument to the treatment of polypoid disease of the nose within the office setting. We have found the technique to be both safe and effective, and to allow thorough exenteration of nasal polyps with minimal bleeding and discomfort. We recommend the use of the powered device as the primary tool in the surgical treatment of nasal polyps in the office.

  3. Effect on the nasal mucosa of long-term treatment with oxymetazoline, benzalkonium chloride, and placebo nasal sprays.

    PubMed

    Graf, P; Hallén, H

    1996-05-01

    A parallel, randomized, double-blind study was performed in 30 healthy subjects to investigate the effects on the nasal mucosa of a 1-month treatment with nasal sprays. Ten subjects received oxymetazoline nasal spray; 10 subjects used a nasal spray containing the preservative benzalkonium chloride, and the others were treated with a placebo nasal spray. The three variables that were studied --nasal mucosal swelling, symptom scores, and nasal reactivity-- were estimated by histamine challenge before and after 28 days of treatment. Rhinostereometry was used to measure nasal mucosal swelling and nasal reactivity. After 28 days of use, benzalkonium chloride spray alone induced an increase in nasal mucosal swelling. At the end of the month, the score for nasal stuffiness was significantly higher for the group treated with oxymetazoline than for those treated with benzalkonium chloride. Oxymetazoline nasal spray induced a pronounced increase in nasal reactivity, which was significantly greater than that induced in the placebo group. Long-term use of placebo and benzalkonium chloride nasal sprays also caused an increase in nasal reactivity, but not to the same extent as with the nasal sprays containing oxymetazoline. The authors concluded that long-term use of oxymetazoline induces a sensation of nasal stuffiness, which may be due to unconscious exaggeration of the degree of nasal stuffiness, induced nasal hyperreactivity, or a combination of both. These factors are probably the main reasons for the prolonged use of nasal decongestive sprays and the development of rhinitis medicamentosa. Benzalkonium chloride induces mucosal swelling, which explains why the presence of this preservative in a decongestant spray aggravates rhinitis medicamentosa.

  4. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  5. Hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  6. A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

  7. Acute theophylline exposure modulates breathing activity through a cervical contusion.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Kevin C; Alilain, Warren J

    2015-09-01

    Cervical spinal contusion injuries are the most common form of spinal cord injury (>50%) observed in humans. These injuries can result in the impaired ability to breathe. In this study we examine the role of theophylline in the rescue of breathing behavior after a cervical spinal contusion. Previous research in the C2 hemisection model has shown that acute administration of theophylline can rescue phrenic nerve activity and diaphragmatic EMG on the side ipsilateral to injury. However, this effect is dependent on intact and uninjured pathways. In this study we utilized a cervical contusion injury model that more closely mimics the human condition. This injury model can determine the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, in this case theophylline, on the isolated contused pathways of the spinal cord. Three weeks after a 150 kD C3/4 unilateral contusion subjects received a 15 mg/kg dose of theophylline prior to a contralateral C2 hemisection. Subjects that received theophylline were able to effectively utilize damaged pathways to breathe for up to 2 min, while subjects treated with saline were unable to support ventilation. Through these experiments, we demonstrate that theophylline can make injured pathways that mediate breathing more effective and therefore, suggest a potential therapeutic role in the critical time points immediately after injury.

  8. Facial and dental alterations according to the breathing pattern

    PubMed Central

    RETAMOSO, Luciana Borges; KNOP, Luégya Amorin Henriques; GUARIZA FILHO, Odilon; TANAKA, Orlando Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy in the literature about possible interaction of the respiratory mode with the facial and dental structures. Objectives The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment of the changes in facial and dental structures in Angle’s Class II, division 1 malocclusion individuals, divided according to the respiratory pattern (predominantly nasal or mouth), at two distinct moments of craniofacial development. Material and Methods Pogonium and nose measurements were made on the lateral cephalometric tracings (LS’-Pog’, LS’-B’, B’-Pog’, Pog’-PogTeg’, Line NB, Pog-NB, N'-Prn, Prn-NPog, N-Prn-Sn, Prn-Sn-LS). Dental measurements were made on the plaster models (distances between the tips of the canine cusps and the tips of mesial cusps of the first molars) of 40 individuals aged 10 to 14 years (moment 1) and 13 to 16 years (moment 2), 23 being nose breathers (NB) and 17 being predominantly mouth breathers (MB). Results The Student’s-t test and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were applied to indicate differences between the mean values of these variables according to the moments and/or respiratory mode. Conclusions There were alterations in the facial measurements, without interference of the breathing pattern. However, the breathing pattern influenced dental alterations. PMID:21552720

  9. Airborne Fine Particulate Matter Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhicong; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ruxin; Xu, Jian; Dong, Weiyang; Zhuang, Guoshun; Deng, Congrui

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or smaller than 2.5 μm is abbreviated as PM2.5, which is one of the main components in air pollution. Exposure to PM2.5 is associated with increased risk of many human diseases, including chronic and allergic rhinitis, but the underlying molecular mechanism for its toxicity has not been fully elucidated. We have hypothesized that PM2.5 may cause oxidative stress and enhance inflammatory responses in nasal epithelial cells. Accordingly, we used human RPMI 2650 cells, derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal septum, as a model of nasal epithelial cells, and exposed them to PM2.5 that was collected at Fudan University (31.3°N, 121.5°E) in Shanghai, China. PM2.5 exposure decreased the viability of RPMI 2650 cells, suggesting that PM2.5 may impair the barrier function of nasal epithelial cells. Moreover, PM2.5 increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Importantly, PM2.5 also decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Pretreatment with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (an anti-oxidant) reduced the degree of the PM2.5-induced oxidative stress in RPMI 2650 cells. In addition, PM2.5 increased the production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-13 and eotaxin (C-C motif chemokine ligand 11), each of which initiates and/or augments local inflammation. These results suggest that PM2.5 may induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in human nasal epithelial cells, thereby leading to nasal inflammatory diseases. The present study provides insights into cellular injury induced by PM2.5. PMID:27246665

  10. Airborne Fine Particulate Matter Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhicong; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ruxin; Xu, Jian; Dong, Weiyang; Zhuang, Guoshun; Deng, Congrui

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or smaller than 2.5 μm is abbreviated as PM2.5, which is one of the main components in air pollution. Exposure to PM2.5 is associated with increased risk of many human diseases, including chronic and allergic rhinitis, but the underlying molecular mechanism for its toxicity has not been fully elucidated. We have hypothesized that PM2.5 may cause oxidative stress and enhance inflammatory responses in nasal epithelial cells. Accordingly, we used human RPMI 2650 cells, derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal septum, as a model of nasal epithelial cells, and exposed them to PM2.5 that was collected at Fudan University (31.3°N, 121.5°E) in Shanghai, China. PM2.5 exposure decreased the viability of RPMI 2650 cells, suggesting that PM2.5 may impair the barrier function of nasal epithelial cells. Moreover, PM2.5 increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Importantly, PM2.5 also decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Pretreatment with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (an anti-oxidant) reduced the degree of the PM2.5-induced oxidative stress in RPMI 2650 cells. In addition, PM2.5 increased the production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-13 and eotaxin (C-C motif chemokine ligand 11), each of which initiates and/or augments local inflammation. These results suggest that PM2.5 may induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in human nasal epithelial cells, thereby leading to nasal inflammatory diseases. The present study provides insights into cellular injury induced by PM2.5.

  11. Nasal reconstruction in heminasal deficiency (proboscis lateralis): two case reports, with airway reconstruction in one case.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Helmut; Eppstein, Ron Julius; von Gregory, Henning Freiherr; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Proboscis lateralis is a very rare congenital malformation with heminasal hypoplasia or aplasia. The affected side is represented by a trunk (proboscis) which can be positioned from the upper eyelid down to the alar base. We present two cases of proboscis lateralis, one in which we reconstructed an airway. The first case is a 16-year-old male patient who presented with heminasal aplasia. Immediately after birth, a proboscis lateralis was resected from the right upper eyelid as primary treatment elsewhere. We reconstructed the nose using costal cartilage as framework. A paramedian forehead flap was transposed to give the patient a nose with adult dimensions. We made no attempt to reconstruct an airway in this case as unilateral nasal breathing appeared adequate. The second case is a 14-year-old male patient who presented with heminasal aplasia on his right side, where a nodule-like appendix was existent with a fistula underneath. A computed tomographic scan revealed an existing hypoplastic posterior nasal airway and a complete ventilated sinus system. The fact that there was an existing posterior airway encouraged us to construct an anterior airway to create an airflow passage. Costal cartilage was taken for framework reconstruction and nasal skin was completely replaced by a paramedian forehead flap. The reconstructed airflow passage was stable. PMID:24918715

  12. Hypertonic fluids are secreted by medial and lateral segments in duck (Anas platyrhynchos) nasal salt glands.

    PubMed

    Butler, David G

    2002-05-01

    Indwelling catheters were used to collect fluid directly from the medial and lateral segments of duck nasal salt glands showing, for the first time, that the secretions are fully hypertonic before reaching the medial and lateral drainage ducts. Using this method it was possible to show that (a) there is a functional symmetry between the left and right salt glands, (b) the medial segment always secretes fluid at approximately twice the rate of the lateral segment and (c) fluid secreted by the medial segment has the same ionic composition but variable ion concentrations when compared with fluid from the lateral segment. A 12 % increase in post-segmental fluid osmolality was probably due to the evaporation of water from epithelial surfaces in the nasal cavities during breathing. A post-segmental outflux of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Cl(-) in the medial and lateral collecting ducts and/or nasal epithelium may be of adaptive significance when birds inhabit calcium- and magnesium-rich marine environments. PMID:11986388

  13. Hypertonic fluids are secreted by medial and lateral segments in duck (Anas platyrhynchos) nasal salt glands

    PubMed Central

    Butler, David G

    2002-01-01

    Indwelling catheters were used to collect fluid directly from the medial and lateral segments of duck nasal salt glands showing, for the first time, that the secretions are fully hypertonic before reaching the medial and lateral drainage ducts. Using this method it was possible to show that (a) there is a functional symmetry between the left and right salt glands, (b) the medial segment always secretes fluid at approximately twice the rate of the lateral segment and (c) fluid secreted by the medial segment has the same ionic composition but variable ion concentrations when compared with fluid from the lateral segment. A 12 % increase in post-segmental fluid osmolality was probably due to the evaporation of water from epithelial surfaces in the nasal cavities during breathing. A post-segmental outflux of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl− in the medial and lateral collecting ducts and/or nasal epithelium may be of adaptive significance when birds inhabit calcium- and magnesium-rich marine environments. PMID:11986388

  14. Correlations of nasal responses to leukotriene D4 and histamine nasal provocation with quality of life in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Xia, Shu; Shi, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) greatly affect the quality of life (QoL) in the patients with AR. The correlations of nasal response to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and histamine nasal provocation with health related QoL in AR are not clear. Objective To evaluate the correlations of nasal response to LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge with QoL in AR. Methods Patients randomly underwent LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge tests, completed the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQoLQ), and rating the symptom severity score (total symptom score 4, TSS4) in the previous week. The correlations between nasal challenge tests induced nasal responses and QoL in RQoLQ were analyzed. Results A total of 25 eligible AR patients enrolled and finished both LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge and completed the questionnaire of RQoLQ. Histamine nasal challenge induced sneezing, increased nasal resistant were correlated with most of the dimensions (general, practical, nasal, eye problems, and quality of sleep, p < 0.05), while LTD4 nasal challenge induced sneeze, increased nasal resistant only correlated with nasal and ocular problems. On the contrary, the severity of the sneeze assessed by TSS4, was not correlated with QoL, while the severity of rhinorrhea, congestion, and nasal pruritus were correlated with nasal and practical problems, and nasal congestion was also correlated with ocular problems (r = 0.60, p = 0.01). Conclusion LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge induced nasal responses were correlated with different clinical symptoms severity and QoL, which can be used as a good diagnosis and evaluation methods for the management of AR. PMID:27803885

  15. Numerical study of the effect of the nasal cycle on unilateral nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Jo, Gyehwan; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Na, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We used computational fluid dynamics to study the effects of the nasal cycle on the modification of unilateral nasal resistance using nasal cavity models from 2 different patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. A steady airflow field with an inspiratory flow rate of 250 mL/s was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT v14.5. The distribution of local unilateral nasal resistance showed different shapes of variation and magnitudes of resistance depending on the distribution of cross-sectional area in the nasal cavity models. The highest local resistance on the congested side was found near the nasal valve area in the first patient, whereas the highest value was found in the nasal vestibule for the second patient. The relative importance of nasal resistance in the turbinated air passage differed for the 2 patients. The unilateral resistance of the congested state was in the range of 0.0229-0.221 Pas/mL. In the inferior meatus, greater flow rate was allowed during the congested state than during the decongested state if an extensive backflow developed.

  16. Objective Measures in Aesthetic and Functional Nasal Surgery – Perspectives on Nasal Form and Function

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sachin S.; Garcia, Guilherme J.M.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Rhee, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The outcomes of aesthetic and functional nasal surgery are difficult to assess objectively due to the intricate balance between nasal form and function. Despite historical emphasis on patient-reported subjective measures, objective measures are gaining importance in both research and the current outcomes-driven healthcare environment. Objective measures presently available have several shortcomings which limit their routine clinical use. In particular, the low correlation between objective and subjective measures poses a major challenge. However, advances in computer, imaging, and bioengineering technology are now setting the stage for the development of innovative objective assessment tools for nasal surgery that can potentially address some of the current limitations. Assessment of nasal form following aesthetic surgery is evolving from two-dimensional analysis to more sophisticated three-dimensional analysis. Similarly, assessment of nasal function is evolving with the introduction of computational fluid dynamics techniques, which allow for a detailed description of the biophysics of nasal airflow. In this paper, we present an overview of objective measures in both aesthetic and functional nasal surgery and discuss future trends and applications that have the potential to change the way we assess nasal form and function. PMID:20665410

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics Investigation of Human Aspiration in Low Velocity Air: Orientation Effects on Nose-Breathing Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kimberly R.; Anthony, T. Renée

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how particles are inhaled into the human nose is important for developing samplers that measure biologically relevant estimates of exposure in the workplace. While previous computational mouth-breathing investigations of particle aspiration have been conducted in slow moving air, nose breathing still required exploration. Computational fluid dynamics was used to estimate nasal aspiration efficiency for an inhaling humanoid form in low velocity wind speeds (0.1–0.4 m s−1). Breathing was simplified as continuous inhalation through the nose. Fluid flow and particle trajectories were simulated over seven discrete orientations relative to the oncoming wind (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 135, 180°). Sensitivities of the model simplification and methods were assessed, particularly the placement of the recessed nostril surface and the size of the nose. Simulations identified higher aspiration (13% on average) when compared to published experimental wind tunnel data. Significant differences in aspiration were identified between nose geometry, with the smaller nose aspirating an average of 8.6% more than the larger nose. Differences in fluid flow solution methods accounted for 2% average differences, on the order of methodological uncertainty. Similar trends to mouth-breathing simulations were observed including increasing aspiration efficiency with decreasing freestream velocity and decreasing aspiration with increasing rotation away from the oncoming wind. These models indicate nasal aspiration in slow moving air occurs only for particles <100 µm. PMID:24665111

  18. Effects of nasal allergen challenge on dynamic viscoelasticity of nasal mucus.

    PubMed

    Hattori, M; Majima, Y; Ukai, K; Sakakura, Y

    1993-04-01

    The effects of nasal provocation on the rheologic properties of nasal mucus were investigated in patients with allergic rhinitis provoked by house dust. The elastic modulus (G') and the dynamic viscosity (eta') of nasal mucus were determined by an oscillating sphere magnetic rheometer. Before and after the allergen challenge, G' increased, whereas eta' decreased with increasing oscillatory frequency; these findings indicate that the nasal mucus under these conditions is a non-newtonian fluid and has the cross-linked gel-like nature typical of mucus. Both G' and eta' values after nasal provocation were significantly lower than before. The values of G' and eta' after allergen challenge were in the optimal viscoelasticity range for mucociliary transport. PMID:8476173

  19. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-01-01

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health. PMID:24713325

  20. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  1. Air entry in infant resuscitation: oral or nasal routes?

    PubMed

    Wilson-Davis, S L; Tonkin, S L; Gunn, T R

    1997-01-01

    The current recommendation for resuscitation of infants is to blow air into both the nose and mouth. We have observed that mothers cannot cover both the nose and mouth of their infants. We compared postmortem tracheal and esophageal air entry by using the nose, combined nose and mouth, and mouth routes in eight infants. Air entry into the trachea occurred at lower pressures (P < 0.05) via a nose mask than via a combined nose and mouth mask or via a mouth mask. Air entry into the trachea occurred at lower pressures (P < 0.05) via the nose route in the neutral and extended neck positions compared with the flexed position. We were unable to demonstrate an effect of the route of air entry on esophageal air entry. The findings indicate that the nasal route of air entry is more effective than the combined nose and mouth or mouth routes and that neck flexion impedes air entry. We recommend that parents are taught to blow air into their infants' noses if the infant stops breathing.

  2. The contribution of nasal receptors to the cardiac response to diving in restrained and unrestrained redhead ducks (Aythya americana).

    PubMed

    Furilla, R A; Jones, D R

    1986-03-01

    In restrained redhead ducks, forced submergence caused heart rate to fall from 100 +/- 3 beats min-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., N = 12) to a stable underwater rate of 35 +/- 4 beats min-1 (N = 12) within 5 s after submergence. Bradycardia was unaffected by breathing oxygen before a dive, but was virtually eliminated by local anaesthesia of the narial region. In contrast, in a dabbling duck (Anas platyrhynchos) bradycardia in short dives was eliminated by breathing oxygen before a dive. In unrestrained diving, on a man-made pond, heart rate in redheads diving voluntarily (y) was related to pre-dive heart rate (x) by the equation y = 76 + 0.29 +/- 0.05x +/- 17 (r2 = 0.71). Chasing, to induce submergence, had variable effects on this relationship. Local anaesthesia of the narial region inhibited voluntary diving but heart rates in chase-induced dives after nasal blockade were significantly higher, by 10-30%, than those obtained from untreated ducks in chase-induced dives. Breathing oxygen before voluntary dives had no apparent effect on heart rate after 2-5 s submergence. Voluntary head submersion by dabbling ducks caused no change in heart rate. We conclude that nasal receptors make only a minor contribution to cardiac responses in unrestrained dives, compared with forced dives, in diving ducks. Furthermore, these results show that little can be learned about cardiac responses in free diving ducks from studies of forced dives in dabblers or divers. PMID:3958677

  3. Immunolocalization of aquaporins 1, 3, and 5 in the nasal respiratory mucosa of a panting species, the sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Vesterdorf, Kristine; Blache, Dominique; Maloney, Shane K

    2014-07-01

    The nasal respiratory mucosa is the primary site for evaporative water loss in panting species, necessitating the movement of water across the nasal epithelium. Aquaporins (AQP) are protein channels that facilitate water movement in various fluid transporting tissues of non-panting species. Whether the requirement for enhanced capacity for transepithelial water movement in the nasal respiratory mucosa of panting species has led to differences in AQP localization is unknown. Using immunohistochemistry, we report the localization of AQP1, 3, and 5 in the nasal respiratory mucosa of sheep being exposed to ambient temperatures of ~21 °C or ~38 °C for 4.5 h before death (n=3/treatment). Exposure to either treatment resulted in panting. While exposure to ~38 °C resulted in a higher respiratory frequency (mean difference: 82 breaths min(-1); P<0.001) than exposure to ~21 °C, there was no difference in the localization of AQPs. Connective tissue and vascular endothelial cells expressed AQP1. Glandular acini expressed AQP1 and apically localized AQP5, which was also present in glandular duct cells. Ciliated columnar epithelial cells expressed AQP5 apically and AQP3 basolaterally. Basal cells expressed AQP3. The distribution and co-localization of AQPs in the ovine nasal respiratory mucosa is different to that reported in non-panting species and may reflect the physiological demands associated with enhanced respiratory evaporation. We propose that AQP1, 3, and 5 may constitute a transepithelial water pathway via glandular secretions and across the surface epithelium, which provides a possible means for rapid and controllable water movement in the nasal respiratory mucosa of a panting species. PMID:24956959

  4. Histamine, norepinephrine and serotonin content of nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Bumsted, R M; El-Ackad, T; Smith, J M; Brody, M J

    1979-05-01

    Histamine, norepinephrine and serotonin were assayed and localized by fluorescence histochemistry in normal mucosa and nasal polyps because of their possible role in the development of inflammation and edema. Histamine was present in greater concentration in nasal polyps than in normal mucosa. Norepinephrine was present primarily in the base of nasal polyps and in greater concentration than in normal mucosa. Patients with aspirin sensitivity and asthma had much lower histamine concentrations in their nasal polyps than all other patients with nasal polyps. A proposal for a possible mechanism of formation of nasal polyps based on vascular and inflammatory mechanisms and incorporative roles for histamine and norepinephrine is presented.

  5. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  6. Functional analysis and intervention for breath holding.

    PubMed

    Kern, L; Mauk, J E; Marder, T J; Mace, F C

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome. The results showed that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. The intervention, consisting of extinction, scheduled attention, and use of a picture card communication system, resulted in decreased breath holding.

  7. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-06-16

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection.

  8. Nasal Involvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Daniel de Sousa; Rodrigues, Amanda da Mota Silveira; Nakanishi, Márcio; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected. PMID:25548569

  9. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  10. Nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Influence on waking respiratory muscle function.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, W S; Tangel, D J; Fox, A M; Ballard, R D; White, D P

    1994-10-01

    Patients with COPD often have reduced inspiratory muscle strength and endurance as well as poor exercise tolerance. Increased inspiratory work during sleep (probably due to increased upper airway resistance) may further strain these compromised respiratory muscles in COPD patients. We hypothesized that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) might reduce respiratory work during sleep in COPD patients and thereby improve waking inspiratory muscle function. To test this hypothesis, eight male COPD patients were treated with sustained nocturnal nasal CPAP. Inspiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory pressure) and endurance (sustained inspiratory pressure) as well as clinical performance (12-min walk) were assessed before and after therapy. We observed that compared with matched controls, COPD patients treated with nocturnal nasal CPAP had significant and substantial improvement in inspiratory muscle strength and endurance as well as functional ability as assessed by the 12-min walk. In addition, CPAP did not significantly alter sleep quality or oxygenation in the patients studied. We conclude that nocturnal nasal CPAP improves inspiratory muscle performance during wakefulness in COPD patients, which is very likely a product of the reduced work of breathing during sleep while these individuals received CPAP.

  11. Septoplasty and decongestant improve distribution of nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jiaoping; Fan, Yunping; Feng, Shaoyan; Xia, Wentong; Wang, Jingqing; Li, Huabin

    2011-12-01

    This study prospectively examined the intranasal distribution of nasal spray after nasal septal correction and decongestant administration. A cohort of 20 patients was assessed for the distribution of nasal spray before and after nasal septum surgery. Sprays were dyed and administered one puff per nostril when patients hold their head up in an upright position. Before and after decongestant administration, the intranasal distribution was semi-quantitatively determined by nasal endoscopy. The results showed that the dyed drug was preferentially sprayed onto the nasal vestibule, the head of the inferior turbinate, the anterior part of septum and nasal floor. As far as the anterior-inferior segment of the nasal cavity was concerned, the distribution was found to be influenced neither by the decongestant nor by the surgery (P>0.05). However, both the decongestant and surgery expanded the distribution to the anatomical structures in the superior and posterior nasal cavity such as olfactory fissure, middle turbinate head and middle nasal meatus. No distribution was observed in the sphenoethmoidal recess, posterior septum, tail of inferior turbinate and nasopharynx. It was concluded that nasal septum surgery and decongestant administration significantly improves nasal spray distribution in the nasal cavity. PMID:22173509

  12. [Nasal Highflow (NHF): A New Therapeutic Option for the Treatment of Respiratory Failure].

    PubMed

    Bräunlich, J; Nilius, G

    2016-01-01

    The therapy of choice in hypoxemic respiratory failure (type 1) is the application of supplemental oxygen at flow rates of 1 to 15 l/min via nasal prongs or mask. Non-invasive or invasive positive pressure ventilation will be initiated when the oxygen therapy effects are not sufficient or if hypercapnic respiratory failure (type 2) is the underlying problem. Recently, an alternative therapy option is available, from the pathophysiology it can be classified between oxygen therapy and positive pressure ventilation. The therapy called Nasal High Flow (NHF) is based on the nasal application of a heated and humidified air oxygen mixture with a flow range of up to 60 l/min. The precise pathophysiological principles of NHF are only partly understood, yet various aspects are well studied already: it is possible to deliver high oxygen concentrations, airway dryness can be avoided, dead space ventilation reduced and clearance of nasal dead space is achieved. Additionally, an end expiratory positive pressure is built up, which helps to prevent airway collapse, thus resulting in an improvement of respiratory efficiency and reduction of breathing work. Current studies demonstrate improvement in gas exchange and reduction of reintubation rate when applying the NHF treatment in acute respiratory failure. Thus the NHF therapy attracts attention in intensive care medicine. The application in other fields like chronic respiratory insufficiency is less well clarified. The objectives of this review are to present the pathophysiological effects and mechanisms of NHF, as far as understood, and to give an overview over the current state of relevant studies. PMID:26789432

  13. Nasal and oral flow-volume loops in normal subjects and patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Shepard, J W; Burger, C D

    1990-12-01

    Because flow-volume loops (FVLs) are clinically useful in evaluating upper airway (UA) obstruction and the fact that patency of the nasopharyngeal ventilatory pathway is important to the prevention of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the present study examined the role of nasal compared with oral FVLs in evaluating patients with OSA. Fourteen obese male patients 56 +/- 3 yr of age with a mean apnea plus hypopnea index (AHI) of 51 +/- 9/h were studied along with 14 nonobese, healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects whose mean AHI was 6 +/- 1/h. Nasal and oral FVLs obtained in the normal subjects indicated the nose behaved like a variable resistor, with flow limitation during inspiration but not during expiration. In the patient group, flow limitation was observed during expiration as well as inspiration indicating nondistensibility of the nasopharyngeal ventilatory pathway in the patients compared to the control subjects. A change in body position from upright to supine in the OSA group was associated with small reductions in expiratory but not inspiratory flow rates. The area under the nasal supine flow-volume loop (FVLANaSup) was found to be highly correlated with awake resting PaO2 (r = 0.80) and PaCO2 (r = -0.83) in the patient group. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that PaO2 and the area under the nasal FVLs independently contributed to the prediction of AHI with a multiple R of 0.89. These results suggest that limitations to ventilation via the nasopharynx may significantly influence both gas exchange and the frequency of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2252246

  14. Drive mechanism for production of simulated human breath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Lambert, J. W.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Simulated breath drive mechanism was developed as subsystem to breathing metabolic simulator. Mechanism reproduces complete range of human breath rate, breath depth, and breath waveform, as well as independently controlled functional residual capacity. Mechanism was found capable of simulating various individual human breathing characteristics without any changes of parts.

  15. Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogera, Umesha; Sagade, Abhay A.; George, Subi J.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2014-02-01

    Measuring humidity in dynamic situations calls for highly sensitive fast response sensors. Here we report, a humidity sensor fabricated using solution processed supramolecular nanofibres as active resistive sensing material. The nanofibres are built via self- assembly of donor and acceptor molecules (coronene tetracarboxylate and dodecyl methyl viologen respectively) involved in charge transfer interactions. The conductivity of the nanofibre varied sensitively over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) with unprecedented fast response and recovery times. Based on UV-vis, XRD and AFM measurements, it is found that the stacking distance in the nanofibre decreases slightly while the charge transfer band intensity increases, all observations implying enhanced charge transfer interaction and hence the conductivity. It is demonstrated to be as a novel breath sensor which can monitor the respiration rate. Using two humidity sensors, a breath flow sensor was made which could simultaneously measure RH and flow rate of exhaled nasal breath. The integrated device was used for monitoring RH in the exhaled breath from volunteers undergoing exercise and alcohol induced dehydration.

  16. Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow

    PubMed Central

    Mogera, Umesha; Sagade, Abhay A.; George, Subi J.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring humidity in dynamic situations calls for highly sensitive fast response sensors. Here we report, a humidity sensor fabricated using solution processed supramolecular nanofibres as active resistive sensing material. The nanofibres are built via self- assembly of donor and acceptor molecules (coronene tetracarboxylate and dodecyl methyl viologen respectively) involved in charge transfer interactions. The conductivity of the nanofibre varied sensitively over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) with unprecedented fast response and recovery times. Based on UV-vis, XRD and AFM measurements, it is found that the stacking distance in the nanofibre decreases slightly while the charge transfer band intensity increases, all observations implying enhanced charge transfer interaction and hence the conductivity. It is demonstrated to be as a novel breath sensor which can monitor the respiration rate. Using two humidity sensors, a breath flow sensor was made which could simultaneously measure RH and flow rate of exhaled nasal breath. The integrated device was used for monitoring RH in the exhaled breath from volunteers undergoing exercise and alcohol induced dehydration. PMID:24531132

  17. CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159535.html CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective Agency advisors say the product has lost ... without the easier, nasal spray form of flu vaccine next flu season, a panel of experts decided ...

  18. Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine Shot far more effective against current influenza strains, ... 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The nasal spray flu vaccine is ineffective and should not be used in ...

  19. Acute exposure to acid fog: influence of breathing pattern on effective dose.

    PubMed

    Bowes, S M; Francis, M; Laube, B L; Frank, R

    1995-02-01

    Concern about the possible adverse health effects of acid fog has been fed by two observations: air pollution disasters earlier in this century were typically associated with fog, and current samples of fog water can be strongly acid. To study the acute effects of acid fog on the lung, the authors generated a monodisperse 10 microM MMAD aerosol of H2SO4 with a pH of 2.0 and a nominal concentration of 500 micrograms/m3. They exposed seven healthy young men on alternate days to acid or control equiosmolar NaCl aerosol during 40 min of resting ventilation and 20 min of exercise; the latter was sufficiently intense to induce oronasal breathing. Exposure was by means of a head dome, a head-only exposure device that permitted continuous measurement (unfettered breathing) of Vr, f, VE, and the onset and persistence of oronasal breathing. In this article the authors compare the relative importance of parameters contributing to the between-subject variability in estimated hydrogen ion dose to the lower airways (H+LAW), based on analysis of variance. Physiologic parameters accounted for 70% of the variability, of which 34% was due to differences in duration of oronasal breathing (tON) and 36% to differences in ventilation rate during oronasal breathing (VE(ON)); inhaled hydrogen ion concentration [H+], the environmental parameter, contributed only 30%. Minute ventilation at the time of transition from nasal to oronasal breathing varied significantly among subjects even if normalized to FVC, an index of lung size.

  20. Hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronidases in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Panogeorgou, T; Tserbini, E; Filou, S; Vynios, D H; Naxakis, S S; Papadas, T A; Goumas, P D; Mastronikolis, N S

    2016-07-01

    Nasal polyps (NPs) are benign lesions of nasal and paranasal sinuses mucosa affecting 1-4 % of all adults. Nasal polyposis affects the quality of patient's life as it causes nasal obstruction, postnasal drainage, purulent nasal discharge, hyposmia or anosmia, chronic sinusitis, facial pain and snoring. Without treatment, the disease can alter the craniofacial skeleton in cases of extended growth of polyps. The development of NPs is caused by the hyperplasia of nasal or paranasal sinuses mucosa, and edema of extracellular matrix. This is usually the result of high concentration of high molecular mass hyaluronan (HA) which is either overproduced or accumulated from blood supply. The size of HA presents high diversity and, especially in pathologic conditions, chains of low molecular mass can be observed. In NPs, chains of about 200 kDa have been identified and considered to be responsible for the inflammation. The purpose of the present study was the investigation, in NPs and normal nasal mucosa (NM), of the expression of the wild-type and alternatively spliced forms of hyaluronidases, their immunolocalization, and the expression of HA synthases to examine the isoform(s) responsible for the increased amounts of HA in NPs. Hyaluronidases' presence was examined on mRNA (RT-PCR analysis) and protein (immunohistochemistry) levels. Hyaluronan synthases' presence was examined on mRNA levels. Hyaluronidases were localized in the cytoplasm of epithelial and inflammatory cells, as well as in the matrix. On mRNA level, it was found that hyal-1-wt was decreased in NPs compared to NM and hyal-1-v3, -v4 and -v5 were substantially increased. Moreover, HAS2 and HAS3 were the only hyaluronan synthases detected, the expression of which was almost similar in NPs and NM. Overall, the results of the present study support that hyaluronidases are the main enzymes responsible for the decreased size of hyaluronan observed in NPs; thus they behave as inflammatory agents. Therefore, they

  1. Nasal phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis.

    PubMed

    Koshi, G; Anandi, V; Kurien, M; Kirubakaran, M G; Padhye, A A; Ajello, L

    1987-12-01

    A bilateral nasal phaeohyphomycotic infection caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis in an immunocompromised woman from India is described. Repeated direct microscopic examinations of the nasal scrapings revealed the presence of septate, branched, pigmented hyphal fragments intermingled with cells that divided internally by one transverse septum and a few cells that were chestnut brown dividing internally by septa in different planes to become muriform. Cultures of the scrapings yielded B. hawaiiensis. Local excision of the crusted lesion followed by application of 0.03% nystatin solution four times a day for 3 weeks cured the infection. PMID:3325631

  2. Strengthening Impaired-Driving Enforcement in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Progress in reducing alcohol-impaired driving crash fatalities in the United States has stagnated over the last 15 years. This paper reviews two current U.S. driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) laws and their enforcement with an aim toward generating opportunities to improve their enforcement approaches. Methods Impaired-driving enforcement methods in Europe and Australia are compared with those in the United States, and the legal basis for current DWI criminal procedures is examined. Results An examination of relevant U.S. Supreme Court decisions and current legal practices indicates that the requirements for use of breath-test technology to determine blood alcohol concentrations of drivers on public roads are not entirely clear. Several potential methods for using field breath-test technology to improve the detection of impaired drivers are suggested. These include (a) breath testing all drivers stopped for certain violations that have a high probability of involving an impaired driver, (b) breath testing all drivers at sobriety checkpoints, and (c) breath testing all drivers involved in fatal and serious injury crashes. Conclusions Breath-test technology has enabled other countries around the world to adopt and implement enforcement strategies that serve as both general and specific deterrents to alcohol-impaired driving. Many of these enforcement strategies have been shown to be effective. If any one of these strategies can be adopted in the United States, further progress in reducing impaired driving is probable. It may be necessary to provide the U.S. Supreme Court with a test case of breath testing all drivers at a sobriety checkpoint, depending upon whether or not a police agency is willing to use that strategy. PMID:23944649

  3. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis. PMID:27366187

  4. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis.

  5. Absorption of acetylsalicylic acid from the rat nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A A; Iseki, K; Kagoshima, M; Dittert, L W

    1992-04-01

    The fate of salicylate in the plasma of rats was followed after nasal, intravenous, and oral administration of 2.0-mg doses of aspirin. Aspirin was well absorbed following nasal administration of a neutralized, nonirritating solution containing triethanolamine. The rate of absorption was slower than that of other nasally administered drugs, such as propranolol or progesterone. The bioavailability of aspirin following nasal administration was 100%, whereas the oral bioavailability was only 58.8% at the dose studied. PMID:1501071

  6. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  7. Secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: breath study on a control group.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lozano, P; Zingaro, L; Finiguerra, A; Cristoni, S

    2011-03-01

    A series of fatty acids among other compounds have recently been detected in breath in real time by secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) (Martínez-Lozano P and Fernández de la Mora J 2008 Anal. Chem. 80 8210). Our main aim in this work was to (1) quantify their abundance in breath calibrating the system with standard vapors and (2) extend the study to a control group for several days, both under fasting conditions and after sucrose intake. For the quantitative study, we fed our system with controlled amounts (∼140-1440 ppt) of fatty acid vapors (i.e. propanoic, butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids). As a result, we found sensitivities ranging between 1 and 2.2 cps/ppt. Estimated concentrations of these particular acids in the breath of a fasting subject were in the order of 100 ppt. These values were in reasonable agreement with those expected from reported typical plasma concentrations and Henry constants. A second set of experiments on three fasting individuals before and after ingesting 15 g of sucrose showed that the concentration of propionic and butanoic acids increased rapidly in breath for two subjects. This response was attributed to bacterial activity in mouth and pharynx. In contrast, a third subject showed no response to the administration of sucrose. In addition, we performed a survey among six fasting subjects comparing nasal and mouth exhalations during 11 days, 4 months apart. The signal intensity was comparable for mouth and nose breath. This observation, in conjunction with the quantitative study, suggests that these compounds are mostly systemic when measured under fasting conditions. We finally used the NIST MS search algorithm to evaluate the possibility of recognizing a breathing subject based on his/her breath signature. The global recognition score was 63% (41 out of 65), while the probability by chance alone was 6 × 10(-17). This indicates that (i) there are statistically recognizable differences in

  8. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. Joe

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  9. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  10. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  11. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  12. Asthma: vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) and other dysfunctional breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Balkissoon, Ron; Kenn, Klaus

    2012-12-01

    . DB is a poorly understood disorder with features that overlap with VCD and asthma. The dysfunctional pattern may reflect abnormalities in the rate or depth of breathing or in breathing mechanics that may involve the nasal passages, oropharynx, larynx, or chest wall muscles. Not unlike VCD, patients with DB are often diagnosed with asthma, and their symptoms do not improve on asthma medicines. There is no consensus regarding diagnostic criteria or appropriate testing for DB. The pathophysiology of DB is poorly understood, but psychological or physiological stress may precipitate episodes in some patients. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach (including speech therapy and psychological support). Prognosis is usually good. PMID:23047311

  13. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine.

  14. Self-contained breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Giorgini, E. A.; Simmonds, M. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A self-contained breathing apparatus with automatic redundant fluid pressure controls and a facemask mounted low pressure whistle alarm is described. The first stage of the system includes pair of pressure regulators connected in parallel with different outlet pressures, both of which reduce the pressure of the stored supply gas to pressures compatible with the second stage breathing demand regulator. A primary regulator in the first stage delivers a low output pressure to the demand regulator. In the event of a failure closed condition of the primary regulator an automatic transfer valve switches on the backup regulator. A warning that the supply pressure has been depleted is also provided by a supply pressure actuated transfer valve which transfers the output of the first stage pressure regulators from the primary to the backup regulator. The alarm is activated in either the failure closed condition or if the supply pressure is reduced to a dangerously low level.

  15. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  16. Nasal nitric oxide in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Capaccio, P; Pignataro, L

    2016-01-01

    Recently, reduced Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) nNO levels have been reported in children with adenoidal hypertrophy predisposing to chronic nasosinusal inflammation. Given the strict anatomic and physiopathologic link between the nasopharyngeal and middle ear compartments, and considering the high prevalence of otitis prone children among those affected with chronic adenoiditis, we designed a study aimed to test any possible difference in nNO levels between non-allergic children with and without recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) associated with chronic adenoiditis. The study involved 54 children with RAOM (44.4% males; mean age= 7.5±3.5 years) and 51 children without RAOM (47.4% males; mean age= 7.0±3.8 years). nNO levels were significantly reduced in children with RAOM compared to children without RAOM (676.9±250.7 ppb vs 831.8±320.4 ppb, respectively; p= 0.02). Our results could be related to reduced NO production by the ciliated paranasal, nasopharyngeal and middle ear epithelium and the impaired sinusal ostial and Eustachian tube patency due to chronic inflammation, and seem to confirm the involvement of NO pathway in recurrent upper airway infections related to impaired ciliated respiratory mucosa.

  17. Entendre, lire et prononcer les voyelles nasales (Hearing, Reading, and Pronouncing Nasal Vowels).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noir, Pascal; Peifer, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Describes techniques used for teaching French language students to recognize, discriminate between, and pronounce the four French nasal vowels. Includes twenty tongue-twisting sentences exemplifying the different vowels. (MSE)

  18. Risk factors for nasal malignancies in German men: the South-German Nasal cancer study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are few studies of the effects of nasal snuff and environmental factors on the risk of nasal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the impact of using nasal snuff and of other risk factors on the risk of nasal cancer in German men. Methods A population-based case–control study was conducted in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. Tumor registries and ear, nose and throat departments provided access to patients born in 1926 or later. Results Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 cases (mean age 62.1 years) and 2.401 population-based controls (mean age 60.8 years). Ever-use of nasal snuff was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for nasal cancer of 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–2.38) in the total study population, whereas OR in smokers was 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.02) and in never smokers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.43–2.80). The OR in ever-smokers vs. never-smokers was 1.60 (95% CI 1.24–2.07), with an OR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.05–1.07) per pack-year smoked, and the risk was significantly decreased after quitting smoking. Exposure to hardwood dust for at least 1 year resulted in an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.40–3.91) in the total population, which was further increased in never-smokers (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.92–12.49) in analyses stratified by smoking status. The OR for nasal cancer after exposure to organic solvents for at least 1 year was 1.53 (1.17–2.01). Ever-use of nasal sprays/nasal lavage for at least 1 month rendered an OR of 1.59 (1.04–2.44). The OR after use of insecticides in homes was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04–2.11). Conclusions Smoking and exposure to hardwood dust were confirmed as risk factors for nasal carcinoma. There is evidence that exposure to organic solvents, and in-house use of insecticides could represent novel risk factors. Exposure to asbestos and use of nasal snuff were risk factors in smokers only. PMID:23130889

  19. Four-week use of oxymetazoline nasal spray (Nezeril) once daily at night induces rebound swelling and nasal hyperreactivity.

    PubMed

    Graf, P; Hallén, H; Juto, J E

    1995-01-01

    A randomized double-blind parallel study with 20 healthy volunteers was performed to examine the effect of oxymetazoline nasal spray on the development of rhinitis medicamentosa. For 30 days, 10 subjects were given oxymetazoline nasal spray once daily at night and placebo in the morning and at noon, while the others used oxymetazoline nasal spray three times daily. Before and after the course of treatment, the mucosal surface positions were determined with rhinostereometry, followed by histamine challenge tests. In the morning and the evening just before use of the nasal spray, symptoms of nasal stuffiness were evaluated on visual analogue scales (0-100). After 30 days, rebound swelling and nasal stuffiness were found in both groups. In the group receiving oxymetazoline nasal spray once daily at night, the mean rebound swelling was 0.8 mm (p < 0.01) and the estimated mean symptom score for nasal stuffiness in the evening was 43 (p < 0.05). In the group receiving the same nasal spray three times daily, the mean rebound swelling was 1.1 mm (p < 0.01) and the mean evening symptom score was 43 (p < 0.05). The finding of an increase in histamine sensitivity in both groups was taken to indicate nasal hyperreactivity. There was no significant difference in the investigated variables between the two groups. It is concluded that the risk of developing rebound swelling and nasal hyperreactivity remains, whether oxymetazoline nasal spray is used once or three times a day for 30 days.

  20. Clinical Efficacy of a Spray Containing Hyaluronic Acid and Dexpanthenol after Surgery in the Nasal Cavity (Septoplasty, Simple Ethmoid Sinus Surgery, and Turbinate Surgery)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. This prospective, controlled, parallel-group observational study investigated the efficacy of a spray containing hyaluronic acid and dexpanthenol to optimise regular treatment after nasal cavity surgery in 49 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods. The control group received standard therapy. Mucosal regeneration was determined using rhinoscopy sum score (RSS). Pre- and postoperative nasal patency was tested using anterior rhinomanometry. The participants were questioned about their symptoms. Results. Regarding all RSS parameters (dryness, dried nasal mucus, fibrin deposition, and obstruction), mucosal regeneration achieved good final results in both groups, tending to a better improvement through the spray application, without statistically significant differences during the whole assessment period, the mean values being 7.04, 5.00, 3.66, and 3.00 (intervention group) and 7.09, 5.14, 4.36, and 3.33 (control group). No statistically significant benefit was identified for nasal breathing, foreign body sensation, and average rhinomanometric volume flow, which improved by 12.31% (control group) and 11.24% (nasal spray group). Conclusion. The investigational product may have additional benefit on postoperative mucosal regeneration compared to standard cleaning procedures alone. However, no statistically significant advantage could be observed in this observational study. Double-blind, controlled studies with larger populations will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:25104962

  1. The interaction of reflexes elicited by stimulation of carotid body chemoreceptors and receptors in the nasal mucosa affecting respiration and pulse interval in the dog.

    PubMed

    Angell-James, J E; Daly, M de B

    1973-02-01

    1. The effects on respiration and pulse interval of stimulation of the carotid body chemoreceptors before, during and after stimulation of receptors in the nose have been studied in the anaesthetized dog.2. Stimulation of a carotid body by infusion of cyanide into the ipsi-lateral common carotid artery causes hyperpnoea and either an increase, decrease or no change in pulse interval.3. Excitation of receptors in the nasal mucosa leads to reflex apnoea or a reduction in breathing, and an increase in pulse interval.4. When the carotid bodies are excited by the same dose of cyanide during stimulation of the nasal mucosa, the chemoreceptor-respiratory response is abolished or reduced in size compared with the control effect. On the other hand, the chemoreceptor-cardio-inhibitory response is considerably enhanced.5. The potentiated cardio-inhibitory response of combined chemoreceptor and nasal stimulation could not be accounted for by the change in pulmonary ventilation, arterial P(O2) or P(CO2), or mean arterial blood pressure.6. These results indicate that excitation of the nasal reflex inhibits the chemoreceptor-respiratory reflex response but facilitates the chemoreceptor-cardio-inhibitory reflex response. The possible sites of these interactions between the nasal and chemoreceptor reflexes are discussed.

  2. Clinical efficacy of a spray containing hyaluronic Acid and dexpanthenol after surgery in the nasal cavity (septoplasty, simple ethmoid sinus surgery, and turbinate surgery).

    PubMed

    Gouteva, Ina; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Meiser, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background. This prospective, controlled, parallel-group observational study investigated the efficacy of a spray containing hyaluronic acid and dexpanthenol to optimise regular treatment after nasal cavity surgery in 49 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods. The control group received standard therapy. Mucosal regeneration was determined using rhinoscopy sum score (RSS). Pre- and postoperative nasal patency was tested using anterior rhinomanometry. The participants were questioned about their symptoms. Results. Regarding all RSS parameters (dryness, dried nasal mucus, fibrin deposition, and obstruction), mucosal regeneration achieved good final results in both groups, tending to a better improvement through the spray application, without statistically significant differences during the whole assessment period, the mean values being 7.04, 5.00, 3.66, and 3.00 (intervention group) and 7.09, 5.14, 4.36, and 3.33 (control group). No statistically significant benefit was identified for nasal breathing, foreign body sensation, and average rhinomanometric volume flow, which improved by 12.31% (control group) and 11.24% (nasal spray group). Conclusion. The investigational product may have additional benefit on postoperative mucosal regeneration compared to standard cleaning procedures alone. However, no statistically significant advantage could be observed in this observational study. Double-blind, controlled studies with larger populations will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:25104962

  3. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  4. [Nasal drops addiction--the case report].

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska, Katarzyna; Simon, Karolina; Jabłecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the case of 34-years old man, who has used nasal drops with xylomethazoline for three years. Health consequence of uncontrolled use of the drops and treatment were prescribed. Described problem confirms the need of physicians and pharmacists cooperation to limit the problem of drug-addiction. PMID:23421118

  5. Coblation nasal septal swell body reduction for treatment of nasal obstruction: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Jeong; Kim, Hee Tae; Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon; Bae, Jung Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present the results of coblation nasal septal swell body (NSB) reduction for the treatment of nasal obstruction in patients with abnormally thickened NSB. The study design was a retrospective clinical series conducted at a single tertiary medical center. Eight patients underwent coblation NSB reduction. Pre-operative and post-operative nasal functions were evaluated by acoustic rhinometry and subjective symptom scales. We also analyzed pre-operative CT scan images and nasal endoscopic findings. The mean maximal NSB width was 16.4 ± 2.2 mm on pre-operative coronal CT scan images. The mean visual analog scale score for nasal obstruction was decreased from preoperative 7.63 ± 0.99 points to 3.88 ± 0.92 points (postoperative 3 months), 4.16 ± 0.78 points (postoperative 6 months), and 4.63 ± 0.69 points (postoperative 1 year). Six out of the eight patients were satisfied with the clinical outcome at 1 year after the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, coblation NSB reduction has not yet been reported in the medical literature. Our results show that it can be an effective treatment modality for nasal valve narrowing in patients with abnormally thickened NSB.

  6. Histamine antagonist Bepotastine suppresses nasal symptoms caused by Japanese cedar and cypress pollen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Sho; Hashiguchi, Kazuhiro; Wakabayashi, Ken-ichiro; Suematsu, Kiyochika; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the efficacy of the antihistamine bepotastine on treating nasal symptoms in patients with Japanese cedar and cypress pollinosis, based on two previous studies that looked at bepotastine OD’s inhibitory effect on symptom onset after exposure. Design and methods: Randomized double-blind placebo controlled, parallel study. Twenty-eight volunteers with Japanese cedar and cypress pollinosis were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: a bepotastine-treated or a placebo control group. Subjects received either 10 mg bepotastine tablets or placebo tablets 1 day before entering an artificial exposure pollen chamber (OHIO Chamber) and also for three or more consecutive days. They were exposed to Japanese cedar and cypress pollen for 3 h per day for 2 days. Nasal and ocular symptoms were self-rated by each patient at regular intervals in addition to being objectively measured. Possible cognitive impairment was assessed by using the digit cancellation test (D-CAT). Results: In Study 1, under controlled conditions, there were no significant differences (p > .05) between subjects exposed to Japanese cedar pollen and those exposed to cypress pollen in terms of total nasal symptom score (TNSS). In Study 2, in the placebo group, the amount of nasal discharge and the number of sneezes did not diminish before cypress pollen exposure on the second day (p < .05). This suggests that an antihistamine can suppress the symptoms of hang over. No deterioration of work performance was observed in the bepotastine group after pollen exposure for 2 days, as measured by D-CAT (p > .05). Conclusion: We conclude that bepotastine can suppress allergy-related symptoms without impairing work performance in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by Japanese cedar pollen or cypress pollen. PMID:27785375

  7. Frontal mucocoele secondary to nasal polyposis: an unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Chew, Y K; Noorizan, Y; Khir, A; Brito-Mutunayagam, S; Prepageran, N

    2009-11-01

    The incidence of mucocoeles associated with a non-surgically treated nasal polyposis is rare. We report a rare case of nasal polyposis with asymptomatic frontal mucocoeles in a 28-year-old Malay man who presented with bilateral nasal obstruction with anosmia. Physical examination revealed bilateral grade III nasal polyps causing obstruction. Computed tomography revealed paranasal polyposis with a large polyp extending and expanding the posterior table of the frontal sinus causing erosion and thinning of its wall. Marsupialisation of the mucocoele and nasal polypectomy were done. Endoscopic sinus surgery and marsupialisation should be the treatment of choice for asymptomatic frontal mucocoele.

  8. Effect of environmental contaminants on nasal lysozyme secretions.

    PubMed

    Noble, Rudolf E

    2002-02-01

    Human nasal secretions are comprised of lysozyme and albumin as their main protein components. Lysozyme, an anti-microbial substance, is produced by nasal serous cells while albumin is obtained, primarily, from increased nasal vasculature permeability. We measured lysozyme levels in nasal secretions following challenge by a variety of non-infectious environmental contaminants. The methodology given presents a simple and rapid method of collecting nasal secretions and determining their lysozyme content, a technique which can be used for a host of environmental irritants.

  9. Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Presenting as the Rudolph Sign.

    PubMed

    Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Ucuncu, Harun

    2015-09-01

    Nasal furunculosis is a deep infection of hair follicle within the nasal vestibule. In this report, the authors presented a 49-year-old woman with 4-day history of focal red area and tender swelling on the tip of her nose. On physical examination, together with a swelling at nasal vestibulum, erythema, and edema on the skin of nasal tip were observed, which is called the Rudolph Sign. The patient was treated with intranasal topical mupirocin and oral sodium fusidate. Because nasal furunculosis may lead to serious complications such as ophthalmic vein thrombosis and cavernous sinus thrombosis, early diagnosis and effective treatment is essential. PMID:26335324

  10. External Fixation of Unstable, “Flail” Nasal Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Anastassov, George E.; Payami, Ali; Manji, Zain

    2012-01-01

    Nasal bone fractures are the most common among facial fractures. Usually these are adequately treated with closed reduction and internal and/or external stabilization with splints. However, there are clinical situations where the nasal bones are severely displaced, the nasal septum fractured and displaced, or there are external drape lacerations which preclude the use of nasal splints. If the nasal bones are reducible but unstable we consider them “flail” and in this case transmucosal, endonasal Kirschner wires are used for dorsal support until sufficient healing occurs. The technique is simple, quick, and predictable and causes minimal discomfort to the patients. PMID:23730426

  11. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  12. Free Auricular Composite Graft for Acquired Nasal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Charles A.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Gray, Mingyang Liu; Graham, H. Devon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acquired nasal stenosis poses a reconstructive challenge for the facial plastic surgeon. Many surgical options are available, ranging from primary closure to skin grafts to free flap reconstruction for complex defects. The free auricular composite graft is a single-stage procedure that can be used to repair nasal vestibular stenosis causing nasal obstruction. Case Report: We present the case of a patient with acquired nasal stenosis as a result of prolonged nasal tampon placement secondary to severe epistaxis and subsequent nasal vestibular infection. Repair via auricular composite graft was successful, and we provide a thorough explanation of graft design and operative technique. Conclusion: Free auricular composite grafts can produce desirable functional and aesthetic outcomes and should be considered in patients presenting with acquired nasal stenosis. PMID:27303225

  13. Breath Tests to Assess Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Furnari, Manuele; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Erpecum, Karel J van; Savarino, Vincenzo; Giannini, Edoardo G

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Alcohol related Liver Disease (ALD) continues to rise all over the world due to changing drinking behaviour of the population. Liver disease due to excessive alcohol consumption causes significant morbidity and mortality, and poses a substantial economic burden to the health care resources. Early diagnosis and treatment of ALD may help prevent progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The last decade has seen a rising interest in potential use of non-invasive tests in clinical practice, including diagnosis and monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Over the past few decades, breath testing has been investigated extensively in the diagnosis of ALD, and has shown promising results in predicting the early stages of ALD. A variety of breath tests have been utilised in this regard including the13Clabelled breath tests, aminopyrine breath test , galactose breath test , methacetin breath test, and keto-isocaproic acid breath test. These tests have demonstrated good results in identification of both significant and severe liver disease among patients with ALD. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) are chemicals, which can be quantified in breath and other biological fluids, and represent physio-pathological activities within an individual. Alteration in the pattern of breath VOCs can be correlated with a number of diseases including ALD. Early stages of ALD can be detected using these breath tests, which can lead to adoption of preventive measures to reduce the progression of liver disease. This review focuses on the clinical utility of current and future breath tests, including breath VOC, as a non-invasive means of predicting early stages of ALD. PMID:27515960

  14. Qigong--Chinese breathing exercise.

    PubMed

    Koh, T C

    1982-01-01

    Qigong is an ancient Chinese breathing exercise with meditation which is being developed today for therapy of chronic illnesses in the People's Republic of China. It is claimed to cure gastric ulcers, hypertension, anxiety neurosis, otitis media, cancer and has even been used as a form of anaesthesia. Although the physiological effects produced by Qigong resemble those of meditation, there are certain features that are unique and often mysterious. Research in the future may prove Qigong to be a useful adjunct in the practice of medicine.

  15. Breathing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... size of the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and ... volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, while the pressure within it increases. As a result, the lungs ...

  16. Association between respiratory and postural adaptations and self-perception of school-aged children with mouth breathing in relation to their quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Uhlig, Suélen E.; Marchesi, Laís M.; Duarte, Halina; Araújo, Maria T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the respiratory and postural adaptations associated with mouth and nasal breathing and to evaluate the associations of such adaptations in mouth breathers' self-perceived quality of life. Method: Cross-sectional study with mouth breathers (initial n=116 and final n=48) and nasal breathers (initial n=131 and final n=24) from elementary school, aged between 7 and 14 years. Chest expansion, using cirtometry, the breathing pattern and the use of accessory muscles, by means of clinical evaluations and photogrammetry, and flexibility tests were evaluated in both groups. Subsequently, the mouth breathers were asked to complete the quality of life questionnaire. Statistical tests: Chi-square, odds ratio, Mann-Whitney, and binomial tests were first applied followed by logistic regressions. Results: Thoracic breathing (p=0.04), using of accessory muscles (p=0.03) and reductions in flexibility (p=0.001) increased the chances of an individual being a mouth breather when compared to nasal breathers. Subsequently, using of accessory muscles decreased the chances of snoring among mouth breathers (p=0.03); the presence of shoulder asymmetry reduced the chances of experiencing quiet sleep (p=0.05) and increased the chances of coughing or being tired when playing or running (p=0.008). Finally, forward head position reduced the chances of waking up at night (p=0.04) and experiencing shortness of breath (p=0.05). Conclusions: Respiratory and postural adaptations increased the chances of individuals persisting with mouth breathing. Additionally, these adaptations could be associated with mouth breathers' self-perceived quality of life. PMID:26083601

  17. Shoulder and hip roll differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Psycharakis, Stelios G; McCabe, Carla

    2011-06-01

    The effects of breathing on body roll have been previously investigated for the roll of the whole trunk only. The purposes of this study were: to calculate separately the shoulder roll (SR) and hip roll (HR) of swimmers during front crawl for non-breathing and preferred-side breathing conditions; to assess the differences in the magnitude and temporal characteristics of these variables between non-breathing and preferred-side breathing conditions; and to examine their association with swimming performance (indicated by swimming speed). Twelve male swimmers who competed at national and international level performed two maximum 25 m front crawl trials: one non-breathing and one with breathing to their preferred side. Performance was recorded with four below and two above water synchronised cameras. SR and HR in both trials were calculated for the breathing and non-breathing sides. The timings of SR and HR peaks to each side and at the positions of neutral roll were also calculated. Swimming speed was significantly slower in the breathing trial (p < 0.01). Swimmers rolled their shoulders and hips to the breathing side significantly more in the breathing than in the non-breathing trial (SR: p < 0.01; HR: p = 0.03). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the overall SR or HR between these trials. In the breathing trial, SR was higher in the breathing than in the non-breathing side (p < 0.01) but HR was not significantly different (p = 0.07). There was no evidence to suggest that temporal characteristics of SR or HR were associated with swimming performance.

  18. Treatment of Sleep Disordered Breathing Reverses Low Fetal Activity Levels in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Blyton, Diane M.; Skilton, Michael R.; Edwards, Natalie; Hennessy, Annemarie; Celermajer, David S.; Sullivan, Colin E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Preeclampsia affects 5% to 7% of pregnancies, is strongly associated with low birth weight and fetal death, and is accompanied by sleep disordered breathing. We hypothesized that sleep disordered breathing may link preeclampsia with reduced fetal movements (a marker of fetal health), and that treatment of sleep disordered breathing might improve fetal activity during sleep. Design, Setting, and Participants: First, a method of fetal movement recording was validated against ultrasound in 20 normal third trimester pregnancies. Second, fetal movement was measured overnight with concurrent polysomnography in 20 patients with preeclampsia and 20 control subjects during third trimester. Third, simultaneous polysomnography and fetal monitoring was done in 10 additional patients with preeclampsia during a control night and during a night of nasal CPAP. Intervention: Overnight continuous positive airway pressure. Measurements and Results: Women with preeclampsia had inspiratory flow limitation and an increased number of oxygen desaturations during sleep (P = 0.008), particularly during REM sleep. Preeclampsia was associated with reduced total fetal movements overnight (319 [SD 32]) versus controls (689 [SD 160], P < 0.0001) and a change in fetal movement patterns. The number of fetal hiccups was also substantially reduced in preeclampsia subjects (P < 0.0001). Continuous positive airway pressure treatment increased the number of fetal movements and hiccups (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Conclusions: The effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure in improving fetal movements suggests a pathogenetic role for sleep disordered breathing in the reduced fetal activity and possibly in the poorer fetal outcomes associated with preeclampsia. Citation: Blyton DM; Skilton MR; Edwards N; Hennessy A; Celermajer DS; Sullivan CE. Treatment of sleep disordered breathing reverses low fetal activity levels in preeclampsia. SLEEP 2013;36(1):15–21

  19. Rapid increase to double breathing rate appears during REM sleep in synchrony with REM - a higher CNS control of breathing? -.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinichi; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Kondo, Hideaki; Matsubuchi, Namiko; Ono, Kyoichi; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    Breathing rate (BR) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is known to fluctuate largely, while increases in BR during REM sleep reported were small. In our mice experiments, we found that mice exhibit a rapid increase in instantaneous BR (RIBR) of >2 fold during natural sleep with accompanying atonia, laying their sides down. The RIBR was further found in a sleeping mouse attached with EEG electrodes when the EEG amplitude and delta wave power were lower. Therefore, it is likely that mice show RIBRs during REM sleep. Interestingly, similar RIBRs accompanied by atonia and REM burst during REM sleep were also found in humans by standard polysomnographic studies in 11 healthy volunteers (age: 22.3 +/- 2.8) with BR measurement by nasal/oral airflow sensors and chest/abdomen belt sensors. All subjects underwent RIBR of doubled BR at least once a night. As SpO(2) before RIBRs was a level not effective to be a respiratory stimulant (96.7 +/- 1.6 %, n = 63), the RIBR seems to be controlled by higher central nervous system rather than autonomic nervous system control on response to central and peripheral chemical sensors. In fact, tachypnea with suppressed amplitude during RIBR resulted in a slight fall in SpO(2) (96.4 +/- 1.7 %, p = 0.0007). In the present study, RIBRs accompanied by atonia and REM were not necessarily consistent in change in rate and/or amplitude, therefore, these various pattern of RIBRs may be potential indices of dreams with various emotional contents. Analysis of instantaneous BR, thus, may be a helpful tool for understanding the neural control of breathing during REM sleep. PMID:20217359

  20. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-05-23

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  1. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

  2. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

  3. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

  4. THE ESSENTIAL ROLE OF THE COM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND DISCUSSION.

    PubMed

    Frey, Lorraine; Green, Shari; Fabbie, Paula; Hockenbury, Dana; Foran, Marge; Elder, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    The origins of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy began in the early 1960's by orthodontists who recognized the importance of functional nasal breathing, proper swallowing, and more ideal oral rest postures. Re-patterning these functions through myofunctional therapy assisted with better orthodontic outcomes and improved stability. Experts in orofacial myology have concluded that improper oral rest postures and tongue thrusting may be the result of hypertrophy of the lymphatic tissues in the upper airway. Orthodontists are aware of the deleterious effects these habits have on the developing face and dentition. Sleep disordered breathing is a major health concern that affects people from infancy into adulthood. Physicians who treat sleep disorders are now referring patients for orofacial myofunctional therapy. Researchers have concluded that removal of tonsils and adenoids, along with expansion orthodontics, may not fully resolve the upper airway issues that continue to plague patients' health. Sleep researchers report that the presence of mouth breathing, along with hypotonia of the orofacial muscular complex, has been a persistent problem in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing. Orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMDs) coexist in a large population of people with sleep disordered breathing and sleep apnea. Advances in 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging offer the dental and medical communities the opportunity to identify, assess, and treat patients with abnormal growth patterns. These undesirable changes in oral structures can involve the upper airway, as well as functional breathing, chewing and swallowing. Leading researchers have advocated a multidisciplinary team approach. Sleep physicians, otolaryngologists, dentists, myofunctional therapists, and other healthcare professionals are working together to achieve these goals. The authors have compiled research articles that support incorporating the necessary education on sleep disordered

  5. Efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray for nasal symptoms, quality of life, rhinitis-disturbed sleep, and nasal nitric oxide in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takechiyo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Kubo, Seita; Sakashita, Masafumi; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Susuki, Dai; Narita, Norihiko; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kanno, Masafumi; Yamashita, Shinji; Terasawa, Yuko; Kayano, Yuichiro; Masada, Mikio; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal corticosteroid therapy has exhibited effectiveness for improving nasal symptoms and quality of life (QOL) scores associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis. We prospectively investigated the efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) for improving the total nasal symptom score, QOL score, and sleep quality in subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Nasal airway conditions were also objectively assessed by measuring nasal nitric oxide (NO). Fifty-seven patients with PAR were randomized to MFNS or placebo for a 14-day, double-blind, crossover study. The subjects recorded their symptoms on nasal symptom forms and a visual analog scale. QOL and sleep quality were surveyed in accordance with the Japanese version of the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JRQLQ) and the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Nasal NO was measured during a single exhalation using a chemiluminescence analyzer. MFNS treatment achieved significant reductions versus placebo for total nasal symptoms (p < 0.001). There were significant decreases of the usual daily activity domain (p < 0.005), outdoor activities (p < 0.01), social function (p < 0.05), and the overall QOL score (p < 0.05) of JRQLQ with MFNS therapy versus placebo. A significant reduction of the sleepiness scale was also observed in the MFNS group with high sleep disturbance (p < 0.01). A significant decrease of nasal NO was found in the MFNS group (p < 0.01), especially among patients with severe nasal symptoms (p < 0.005). This prospective study indicated that MFNS therapy significantly improves nasal symptoms, QOL, sleep quality, and upper airway condition in Japanese subjects with PAR.

  6. Alae nasi activation and nasal resistance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Strohl, K P; O'Cain, C F; Slutsky, A S

    1982-06-01

    To investigate the effect of alae nasi (AN) activation on nasal resistance, we monitored AN electromyographic (EMG) activity in 17 healthy subjects using surface electrodes placed on either side of the external nares and measured inspiratory nasal resistance utilizing the method of posterior rhinometry. With CO2 inhalation (6 subj), AN EMG activity increased as nasal resistance fell 23 +/- 5% (P less than 0.01). In the same subjects, voluntary flaring of the external nares also increased AN EMG and decreased nasal resistance by 29 +/- 5% (P less than 0.01). Nasal resistance was altered by nasal flaring and CO2 inhalation even after administration of a topical nasal vasoconstrictive spray (8 subj). In six subjects, voluntary nasal flaring or inhibition with the mouth closed produced a 21 +/- 12% change (P less than 0.01) in total airway resistance as measured by body plethysmography. We conclude that activation of the alae nasi will decrease nasal and total airway resistance during voluntary nasal flaring and during CO2 inhalation and thus should be considered in any studies of upper airway resistance.

  7. Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    London, Nyall R; Reh, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Nasal polyps are semi-translucent mucosal outgrowths of the paranasal sinuses which typically arise in the setting of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Nasal polyps are also associated with asthma, aspirin sensitivity, cystic fibrosis and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFS). The majority of nasal polyps are bilateral and characterized by tissue edema and eosinophil infiltration. Patients with nasal polyps often present with complaints including nasal obstruction, congestion, rhinorrhea or altered sense of smell. The differential diagnosis ranges from benign masses such as schneiderian papilloma, antrochoanal polyp, angiofibroma and encephalocele to malignant neoplasms such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), esthesioneuroblastoma, nasal lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. These lesions may have a similar appearance as nasal polyps and particular attention to an alternative diagnosis for nasal polyps should be entertained if the mass is unilateral or congenital in nature. Workup for patients with a unilateral mass should include radiographic imaging, possible biopsy and careful follow-up when appropriate. Here, we review the disease etiology of nasal polyps and describe the approach to the patient with nasal polyps with emphasis on differential diagnosis and workup. PMID:27466841

  8. Patient experience with mupirocin or povidone-iodine nasal decolonization.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Led by the federal government, the payers of health care are enacting policies designed to base provider reimbursement on the quality of care they render. This study evaluated and compared patient experiences and satisfaction with nasal decolonization with either nasal povidone-iodine (PI) or nasal mupirocin ointment (MO). A total of 1903 patients were randomized to undergo preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal MO or PI solution. All randomized patients were also given 2% chlorhexidine gluconate topical wipes. Patients were interviewed prior to discharge to assess adverse events and patient experience with their assigned preoperative antiseptic protocol. Of the 1903 randomized patients, 1679 (88.1%) were interviewed prior to discharge. Of patients receiving PI, 3.4% reported an unpleasant or very unpleasant experience, compared with 38.8% of those using nasal MO (P<.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients using nasal MO believed it to be somewhat or very helpful in reducing surgical site infections, compared with 71% of patients receiving PI (P>.05). Being recruited as an active participant in surgical site infection prevention was a positive experience for 87.2% of MO patients and 86.3% of PI patients (P=.652). Those assigned to receive PI solution preoperatively reported significantly fewer adverse events than the nasal MO group (P<.01). Preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal PI or MO was considered somewhat or very helpful by more than two-thirds of patients. PMID:24972440

  9. Airflow patterns in a human nasal model

    SciTech Connect

    Hornung, D.E.; Leopold, D.A.; Youngentob, S.L.; Sheehe, P.R.; Gagne, G.M.; Thomas, F.D.; Mozell, M.M.

    1987-02-01

    Nasal airflow patterns were studied by using xenon 133 gas to image the course taken by air as it flowed through a plastic model of the human nasal cavity. The model was produced from the head of a human cadaver, and was anatomically correct. A needle catheter was used to infuse the radioactive xenon into a continuous flow of room air maintained through the model by a variable vacuum source connected to the nasopharynx. The radioactive gas was infused at one of five release sites in the nostril, and the distribution of the radioactivity was imaged in the sagittal plane with a scintillation camera. The data were organized to show the activity in six contiguous regions of the midnose. For each catheter, release site activity patterns were determined for three flow rates. The results of this experiment showed that both catheter position and flow rate had significant and reproducible effects on the distribution of radioactivity within the model.

  10. Surgery of the nasal septum and turbinates

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The following article presents nasal septum and turbinate surgery. First an overview with special consideration of the anatomical and physiological background is given followed by indications for surgical procedures. Key steps of the gold standard procedure first described by Cottle and common variations are presented. Furthermore, some techniques dealing with special problems of the septumplasty are discussed followed by an overview on complications and long term results. However, it should be mentioned that studies on surgical procedures of the nasal septum are still not sufficient as higher evidence levels are very rare. Within a separated chapter techniques for closure of septum perforations are presented and indications particularly in the background of the standard procedure of bridge flaps forwarded by Schultz-Coulon are discussed. The second part focusses on turbinate surgery. Accordingly, anatomical and physiological basics are presented followed by indications for surgical procedures and the surgical steps of different procedures as well as postsurgical treatment and long term results. PMID:22073086

  11. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  12. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  13. Assessment of the effect of deviated nasal septum on the structure of nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junguo; Dou, Xin; Liu, Dingding; Song, Panpan; Qian, Xiaoyun; Wang, Shoulin; Gao, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of DNS on the structure of nasal cavity. The paranasal sinus coronal view CT of 108 patients with DNS and 129 hospitalized patients without DNS was retrospectively analyzed. The transverse diameter of nasal cavity (a), transverse diameter of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (b), angle between maxillary and palatal bone, interalveolar distance, and maxillary rotation distance were measured. The ratio of a/b in experimental group was 0.367 ± 0.006 which was significantly (P = 0.0023) less than that in control group (0.391 ± 0.005). For the angle between maxillary and palatal bone, there was no significant difference found between DNS and control group for both right and left sides. The interalveolar distance was 40.75 mm in experimental group, and 38.8 mm in control (P = 0.0002). For the maxillary rotation distance, findings were considered as significant (P < 0.0001) in experimental group (11.25 mm) compared with control (10.1 mm). The present study demonstrates that long-term DNS affects the development of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, as well as increases the interalveolar distance and maxillary rotation distance. These influences may be caused by the alteration of airflow inside the nasal cavities.

  14. Superficial nasal mucosal blood flow and nasal patency following topical oxymetazoline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Witek, T J; Canestrari, D A; Hernandez, J R; Miller, R D; Yang, J Y; Riker, D K

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 60 micrograms oxymetazoline on nasal mucosal blood flow (NMBF) measured by laser Doppler velocimetry. Nasal airflow (measured by anterior rhinomanometry) and subjectively perceived airflow (measured by visual analog scales) were also evaluated. A reduction of NMBF (mL/100 g tissue/min) was observed following local application of 60 micrograms oxymetazoline that was not observed after the vehicle was applied. For example, NMBF at baseline was measured at 78.8 +/- 10.3 mL/100 g tissue/min (mean +/- SEM). During the five minutes following vehicle application, mean values remained at 81.8 +/- 8.8 mL/100 g tissue/min. Five minutes after topical oxymetazoline treatment, NMBF was reduced 49% to 38.3 +/- 10.2 mL/100 g tissue/min. Nasal airflow (mL/sec), which was measured before and after LDV probe placement, was not significantly increased in either the ipsilateral (281.4 +/- 33.1 to 314.3 +/- 31.6) or contralateral nostril (335.7 +/- 26.9 to 262.1 +/- 36.4), probably due to the limited surface application of drug. Subjective assessments of congestion by both the investigator and the subject showed significant improvements in the ipsilateral nostril. We conclude that, under the conditions of our study, localized application of 60 micrograms oxymetazoline significantly reduces superficial nasal blood flow and provides subjectively perceived improvements in nasal stuffiness.

  15. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Adults: Physiological Benefits, Indication, Clinical Benefits, and Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masaji

    2016-04-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is carried out using an air/oxygen blender, active humidifier, single heated tube, and nasal cannula. Able to deliver adequately heated and humidified medical gas at flows up to 60 L/min, it is considered to have a number of physiological advantages compared with other standard oxygen therapies, including reduced anatomical dead space, PEEP, constant F(IO2), and good humidification. Although few large randomized clinical trials have been performed, HFNC has been gaining attention as an alternative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Published data are mostly available for neonates. For critically ill adults, however, evidence is uneven because the reports cover various subjects with diverse underlying conditions, such as hypoxemic respiratory failure, exacerbation of COPD, postextubation, preintubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, and conditions entailing do-not-intubate orders. Even so, across the diversity, many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces the need for respiratory support escalation. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as definitive indications for HFNC and criteria for timing the starting and stopping of HFNC and for escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC has emerged as an innovative and effective modality for early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases. PMID:27016353

  16. Misuse of xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Salamon, Marek; Habrat, Boguslaw; Scinska, Anna; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2008-12-01

    Six male prisoners who misused xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation were interviewed by a prison physician in 2006. The prisoners received xylometazoline drops during regular visits in the prison ambulatory service. In order to get the medication, the subjects reported false symptoms of rhinosinusitis and allergic reactions. Psychoactive effects of inhaled xylometazoline were described as "stimulation," "excitation," and "feeling of strength." Although preliminary, our findings suggest that topical adrenergic decongestants can produce rewarding effects when administered by inhalation. PMID:19085441

  17. Targeted Lung Delivery of Nasally Administered Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2014-01-01

    Using the nasal route to deliver pharmaceutical aerosols to the lungs has a number of advantages including co-administration during non-invasive ventilation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and deposition characteristics of nasally administered aerosol throughout the conducting airways based on delivery with streamlined interfaces implementing two forms of controlled condensational growth technology. Characteristic conducting airways were considered including a nose-mouth-throat (NMT) geometry, complete upper tracheobronchial (TB) model through the third bifurcation (B3), and stochastic individual path (SIP) model to the terminal bronchioles (B15). Previously developed streamlined nasal cannula interfaces were used for the delivery of submicrometer particles using either enhanced condensational growth (ECG) or excipient enhanced growth (EEG) techniques. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations predicted aerosol transport, growth and deposition for a control (4.7 μm) and three submicrometer condensational aerosols with budesonide as a model insoluble drug. Depositional losses with condensational aerosols in the cannula and NMT were less than 5% of the initial dose, which represents an order-of-magnitude reduction compared to the control. The condensational growth techniques increased the TB dose by a factor of 1.1–2.6x, delivered at least 70% of the dose to the alveolar region, and produced final aerosol sizes ≥2.5 μm. Compared to multiple commercial orally inhaled products, the nose-to-lung delivery approach increased dose to the biologically important lower TB region by factors as large as 35x. In conclusion, nose-to-lung delivery with streamlined nasal cannulas and condensational aerosols was highly efficient and targeted deposition to the lower TB and alveolar regions. PMID:24932058

  18. [Myoepithelioma of nasal cavity: a case report].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Tu, Xiang; Jiang, Hongqun

    2015-03-01

    Myoepithelioma is an uncommon benign tumor that most likely occurs in the salivary gland. Extra-salivary myoepithelioma are sporadic and rare, especially the quantities occur in the sinonasal cavity are fewer in related literature reported. In this paper, we present a rare case of benign myoepithelioma that occurred in the nasal cavity, and the related process of pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  19. Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Jassar, P; Stafford, N D; MacDonald, A W

    1999-05-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest benign tumour of the major salivary glands. It can also occur in minor salivary glands, mainly in the oral cavity, but also in other sites in the head and neck both within and outwith the upper aerodigestive tract. We present a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum with consideration of the clinical management and a review of the literature.

  20. The influence of vegetative stimuli on the human nasal mucous membrane.

    PubMed

    Simon, H; Schmidt-Kloiber, H

    1985-03-01

    Measuring probes were inserted into the inferior nasal meatus in humans to record the effects of certain defined vegetative stimuli on the cavernous state and the temperature of the mucous membrane. An unilateral carotis compression induces a bilateral reactivity of the mucous membrane in the sense of a sympathicus stimulus. An unilateral bulbus pressure causes a bilateral reaction of the mucous membrane opposite to that of carotis compression. Blocking of the stellate ganglion produces a tonus reduction of the nervus sympathicus as was also found in animal experiments by other authors. Trigeminus stimulation induces a swelling of the nasal mucous membrane, whereas a voluntary breathing stop causes decongestion. Facial blushing, the only undefined and involuntary stimulus, is followed by an unswelling and a decrease of mucous membrane temperature. The results of our investigations are in agreement with analogous animal experiments. This is not surprising as man has a vegetative nervous system which is essentially unchanged from the beginning of evolutionary development. Only blushing is an expression of a reaction behaviour characteristic of human beings only. PMID:4001756

  1. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  2. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  3. Naphazoline nasal drops intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    Vitezić, D; Rozmanić, V; Franulović, J; Ahel, V; Matesić, D

    1994-03-01

    Naphazoline, a sympathomimetic and an imidazoline derivative, is used as 0.05-0.1% solution for local decongestion of the nasal and ocular mucosa. In excessive dosage, or if ingested by accident, may cause depression of the central nervous system (disturbances of consciousness progressing to coma), hypothermia, bradycardia and sweating. These naphazoline effects are particularly strongly pronounced in children. Anglo-Saxon pharmacotherapy excludes the application of naphazoline nasal drops in children younger than six years, whereas the Croatian pharmacotherapeutic literature (and practice) allows its use even in infancy. At the Kantrida Paediatric Clinic, Clinical Hospital Centre in Rijeka, 11 children with signs of intoxication with naphazoline nasal drops were hospitalized from 1990 to 1992. The symptoms pertaining to the central nervous system i.e. disturbances of consciousness in the form of somnolence were clearly marked in all children. Some children developed skin pallor, bradycardia, bradypnoea and hypothermia. Resolution occurred within 24 hours and the findings returned to normal values. Clinical picture followed by rapid resolution and normal findings, with a personal history of drug taking, is a safe indication for diagnosis. There are several reasons to account for intoxication (drops difficult to use with children, containers inadequate for proper dosage), but the major factor is the age of the patient--all hospitalized children were younger than six years. It is pointed out that administration of naphazoline drops at an early age is not advisable.

  4. Minimally Invasive Procedures for Nasal Aesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Redaelli, Alessio; Limardo, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Nose has an important role in the aesthetics of face. It is easy to understand the reason of the major interest that has revolved around the correction of its imperfections for several centuries, or even from the ancient times. In the last decade, all the surgical or medical minimal-invasive techniques evolved exponentially. The techniques of rejuvenation and corrections of nasal imperfections did not escape this development that is much widespread in the medicine of the third millennium. In many cases, the techniques of surgical correction involve invasive procedure that necessitates, for the majority of cases, hospitalisation. The author, using a different approach, has developed mini-invasive techniques using botulinum toxin A (BTxA) and absorbable fillers for the correction of nasal imperfections. BTxA allows to reduce the imperfections due to hypertension of muscles, while the absorbable fillers allow to correct all the imperfections of the nasal profile from the root to the tip in total safety. The correction is based on the precise rules that allow avoiding the majority of side effects. Results are long lasting and well appreciated by patients. PMID:23060706

  5. Surgical Nasal Implants: Indications and Risks.

    PubMed

    Genther, Dane J; Papel, Ira D

    2016-10-01

    Rhinoplasty often requires the use of grafting material, and the goal of the specific graft dictates the ideal characteristics of the material to be used. An ideal material would be biologically inert, resistant to infection, noncarcinogenic, nondegradable, widely available, cost-effective, readily modifiable, and easily removable, have compatible biomechanical characteristics, retain physical properties over time, and not migrate. Unfortunately, no material currently in existence meets all of these criteria. In modern rhinoplasty, autologous grafts are the gold standard against which all other nasal implants are measured and offer the safest long-term results for most patients. They are easily manipulated, have inherent stability and biomechanical characteristics similar to the native nasal framework, and confer minimal risk of complications. Modern homologous and alloplastic materials have gained considerable support in recent years because they are readily available in endless quantity, do not require a second surgical site for harvest, and are generally considered safe if most circumstances, but they confer additional risk and have biomechanical characteristics different from that of the native nasal framework. To address some of these issues, we provide a contemporary review of autologous, homologous, and alloplastic materials commonly used in rhinoplasty surgery. PMID:27680520

  6. Azelastine and fluticasone nasal spray: any advantage?

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis affects over 20% of the UK population. It can have a significant impact on quality of life and interferes with both attendance and performance at school and at work.1 Intranasal corticosteroids are widely recognised as the most effective symptomatic treatment available, but oral or intranasal new generation antihistamines are usually offered as first-line treatment for intermittent symptoms.1,2 Patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis may require a combination of drugs, and many patients only achieve limited control of their symptoms.3 Dymista is described as a novel intranasal formulation combining the antihistamine azelastine hydrochloride with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate.3 It is licensed for the relief of symptoms of moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and adolescents if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or glucocorticoid is not considered sufficient.4 The manufacturer claims that compared with fluticasone or azelastine alone, Dymista is twice as effective (when placebo effect is excluded) in providing relief from both nasal and ocular symptoms, and leads to greater overall relief from nasal symptoms. It also claims that Dymista controls nasal symptoms up to 6 days faster than fluticasone.5 Here we consider the evidence for Dymista and whether it represents a significant advantage in the management of patients with allergic rhinitis.

  7. Azelastine and fluticasone nasal spray: any advantage?

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis affects over 20% of the UK population. It can have a significant impact on quality of life and interferes with both attendance and performance at school and at work.1 Intranasal corticosteroids are widely recognised as the most effective symptomatic treatment available, but oral or intranasal new generation antihistamines are usually offered as first-line treatment for intermittent symptoms.1,2 Patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis may require a combination of drugs, and many patients only achieve limited control of their symptoms.3 Dymista is described as a novel intranasal formulation combining the antihistamine azelastine hydrochloride with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate.3 It is licensed for the relief of symptoms of moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and adolescents if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or glucocorticoid is not considered sufficient.4 The manufacturer claims that compared with fluticasone or azelastine alone, Dymista is twice as effective (when placebo effect is excluded) in providing relief from both nasal and ocular symptoms, and leads to greater overall relief from nasal symptoms. It also claims that Dymista controls nasal symptoms up to 6 days faster than fluticasone.5 Here we consider the evidence for Dymista and whether it represents a significant advantage in the management of patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:24504481

  8. Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

  9. Airflow dynamics of human jets: sneezing and breathing - potential sources of infectious aerosols.

    PubMed

    Tang, Julian W; Nicolle, Andre D; Klettner, Christian A; Pantelic, Jovan; Wang, Liangde; Suhaimi, Amin Bin; Tan, Ashlynn Y L; Ong, Garrett W X; Su, Ruikun; Sekhar, Chandra; Cheong, David D W; Tham, Kwok Wai

    2013-01-01

    Natural human exhalation flows such as coughing, sneezing and breathing can be considered as 'jet-like' airflows in the sense that they are produced from a single source in a single exhalation effort, with a relatively symmetrical, conical geometry. Although coughing and sneezing have garnered much attention as potential, explosive sources of infectious aerosols, these are relatively rare events during daily life, whereas breathing is necessary for life and is performed continuously. Real-time shadowgraph imaging was used to visualise and capture high-speed images of healthy volunteers sneezing and breathing (through the nose - nasally, and through the mouth - orally). Six volunteers, who were able to respond to the pepper sneeze stimulus, were recruited for the sneezing experiments (2 women: 27.5±6.36 years; 4 men: 29.25±10.53 years). The maximum visible distance over which the sneeze plumes (or puffs) travelled was 0.6 m, the maximum sneeze velocity derived from these measured distances was 4.5 m/s. The maximum 2-dimensional (2-D) area of dissemination of these sneezes was 0.2 m(2). The corresponding derived parameter, the maximum 2-D area expansion rate of these sneezes was 2 m(2)/s. For nasal breathing, the maximum propagation distance and derived velocity were 0.6 m and 1.4 m/s, respectively. The maximum 2-D area of dissemination and derived expansion rate were 0.11 m(2) and 0.16 m(2)/s, respectively. Similarly, for mouth breathing, the maximum propagation distance and derived velocity were 0.8 m and 1.3 m/s, respectively. The maximum 2-D area of dissemination and derived expansion rate were 0.18 m(2) and 0.17 m(2)/s, respectively. Surprisingly, a comparison of the maximum exit velocities of sneezing reported here with those obtained from coughing (published previously) demonstrated that they are relatively similar, and not extremely high. This is in contrast with some earlier estimates of sneeze velocities, and some reasons for this difference are discussed.

  10. Airflow Dynamics of Human Jets: Sneezing and Breathing - Potential Sources of Infectious Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Julian W.; Nicolle, Andre D.; Klettner, Christian A.; Pantelic, Jovan; Wang, Liangde; Suhaimi, Amin Bin; Tan, Ashlynn Y. L.; Ong, Garrett W. X.; Su, Ruikun; Sekhar, Chandra; Cheong, David D. W.; Tham, Kwok Wai

    2013-01-01

    Natural human exhalation flows such as coughing, sneezing and breathing can be considered as ‘jet-like’ airflows in the sense that they are produced from a single source in a single exhalation effort, with a relatively symmetrical, conical geometry. Although coughing and sneezing have garnered much attention as potential, explosive sources of infectious aerosols, these are relatively rare events during daily life, whereas breathing is necessary for life and is performed continuously. Real-time shadowgraph imaging was used to visualise and capture high-speed images of healthy volunteers sneezing and breathing (through the nose – nasally, and through the mouth - orally). Six volunteers, who were able to respond to the pepper sneeze stimulus, were recruited for the sneezing experiments (2 women: 27.5±6.36 years; 4 men: 29.25±10.53 years). The maximum visible distance over which the sneeze plumes (or puffs) travelled was 0.6 m, the maximum sneeze velocity derived from these measured distances was 4.5 m/s. The maximum 2-dimensional (2-D) area of dissemination of these sneezes was 0.2 m2. The corresponding derived parameter, the maximum 2-D area expansion rate of these sneezes was 2 m2/s. For nasal breathing, the maximum propagation distance and derived velocity were 0.6 m and 1.4 m/s, respectively. The maximum 2-D area of dissemination and derived expansion rate were 0.11 m2 and 0.16 m2/s, respectively. Similarly, for mouth breathing, the maximum propagation distance and derived velocity were 0.8 m and 1.3 m/s, respectively. The maximum 2-D area of dissemination and derived expansion rate were 0.18 m2 and 0.17 m2/s, respectively. Surprisingly, a comparison of the maximum exit velocities of sneezing reported here with those obtained from coughing (published previously) demonstrated that they are relatively similar, and not extremely high. This is in contrast with some earlier estimates of sneeze velocities, and some reasons for this difference are discussed. PMID

  11. Mouth breathing increases the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice: a role for ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Niaki, Seyed Esfandiar Akhavan; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Shakiba, Bijan; Fakhimi, Ali; Dehpour, Ahamd Reza

    2008-08-01

    Nasal obstruction and consequent mouth breathing have been shown to change the acid-base balance, producing respiratory acidosis. Additionally, there exists a large body of evidence maintaining that acidosis affects the activity of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, which play a crucial role in the function of the central nervous system (CNS), for example, in modulating seizure threshold. Thus, in the study described here, we examined whether mouth breathing, induced by surgical ligation of nostrils, could affect the seizure threshold induced by pentylenetetrazole in male NMRI mice. Using the selective K(ATP) channel opener (diazoxide) and blocker (glibenclamide), we also evaluated the possible role of K(ATP) channels in this process. Our data revealed that seizure threshold was increased 6 to 72 hours after nasal obstruction, reaching a peak 48 hours afterward, compared with either control or sham-operated mice (P<0.01). There was a significant decrease in pH of arterial blood samples and increase in CO(2) partial pressure (PCO(2)) during this time. Systemic injection of glibenclamide (1 and 2mg/kg, ip, daily) significantly prevented the increase in seizure threshold in 48-hour bilaterally nasally obstructed mice, whereas it had no effect on seizure threshold in sham-operated mice. Systemic injection of diazoxide (25mg/kg, ip, daily) had no effect on seizure threshold in all groups, whereas higher doses (50 and 100mg/kg, ip, daily) significantly increased seizure threshold in both 48-hour-obstructed and sham-operated mice. The decrease in seizure threshold induced by glibenclamide (2mg/kg, ip, daily) was prevented by diazoxide (25mg/kg, ip, daily). These results demonstrate for the first time that mouth breathing, which could result in respiratory acidosis, increases seizure threshold in mice and K(ATP) channels may play a role in this effect.

  12. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  13. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  14. BREATHING PATTERN DISORDERS AND FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Dr. Esformes, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Experimental design Background: Normal breathing mechanics play a key role in posture and spinal stabilization. Breathing Pattern Disorders (BPD) have been shown to contribute to pain and motor control deficits, which can result in dysfunctional movement patterns. The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) has been shown to accurately predict injury in individuals who demonstrate poor movement patterns. The role BPD play on functional movement is not well established. Furthermore, there is currently no single test to clinically diagnose BPD. A variety of methods are used, but correlations between them are poor. Purpose: To examine the relationship between BPD and functional movement and identify correlations between different measures of BPD. Methods: Breathing was assessed in 34 healthy individuals using a multi‐dimensional approach that included biomechanical, biochemical, breathing related symptoms, and breathing functionality measures. Movement was assessed using the FMS™. Analysis, involving independent t‐tests and Pearson correlation were performed to identify associations between measures. Results: Individuals who exhibited biochemical and biomechanical signs of BPD were significantly more likely to score poorly on the FMS™. These studied measures of BPD correlated highly with each other. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the importance of diaphragmatic breathing on functional movement. Inefficient breathing could result in muscular imbalance, motor control alterations, and physiological adaptations that are capable of modifying movement. These findings provide evidence for improved breathing evaluations by clinicians. Level of Evidence: 2B PMID:24567853

  15. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  16. Persistent rhinitis and epithelial remodeling induced by cyclic ozone exposure in the nasal airways of infant monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ballinger, Carol A.; Plopper, Charles G.; McDonald, Ruth J.; Bartolucci, Alfred A.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Harkema, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to high levels of ozone (O3), the principal oxidant pollutant in photochemical smog, are more vulnerable to respiratory illness and infections. The specific factors underlying this differential susceptibility are unknown but may be related to air pollutant-induced nasal alterations during postnatal development that impair the normal physiological functions (e.g., filtration and mucociliary clearance) serving to protect the more distal airways from inhaled xenobiotics. In adult animal models, chronic ozone exposure is associated with adaptations leading to a decrease in airway injury. The purpose of our study was to determine whether cyclic ozone exposure induces persistent morphological and biochemical effects on the developing nasal airways of infant monkeys early in life. Infant (180-day-old) rhesus macaques were exposed to 5 consecutive days of O3 [0.5 parts per million (ppm), 8 h/day; “1-cycle”] or filtered air (FA) or 11 biweekly cycles of O3 (FA days 1–9; 0.5 ppm, 8 h/day on days 10–14; “11-cycle”). The left nasal passage was processed for light microscopy and morphometric analysis. Mucosal samples from the right nasal passage were processed for GSH, GSSG, ascorbate (AH2), and uric acid (UA) concentration. Eleven-cycle O3 induced persistent rhinitis, squamous metaplasia, and epithelial hyperplasia in the anterior nasal airways of infant monkeys, resulting in a 39% increase in the numeric density of epithelial cells. Eleven-cycle O3 also induced a 65% increase in GSH concentrations at this site. The persistence of epithelial hyperplasia was positively correlated with changes in GSH. These results indicate that early life ozone exposure causes persistent nasal epithelial alterations in infant monkeys and provide a potential mechanism for the increased susceptibility to respiratory illness exhibited by children in polluted environments. PMID:21131400

  17. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep - an underdiagnosed phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Anttalainen, Ulla; Tenhunen, Mirja; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli; Rauhala, Esa; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a well-recognized disorder conventionally diagnosed with an elevated apnea-hypopnea index. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction is a common phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which however is still largely underreported. The major reasons for this are that cyclic breathing pattern coupled with arousals and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation are easy to detect and considered more important than prolonged episodes of increased respiratory effort with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the absence of cycling breathing pattern and repetitive arousals. There is also a growing body of evidence that prolonged partial obstruction is a clinically significant form of SDB, which is associated with symptoms and co-morbidities which may partially differ from those associated with OSAS. Partial upper airway obstruction is most prevalent in women, and it is treatable with the nasal continuous positive pressure device with good adherence to therapy. This review describes the characteristics of prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep in terms of diagnostics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and comorbidity to improve recognition of this phenotype and its timely and appropriate treatment. PMID:27608271

  18. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep – an underdiagnosed phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Anttalainen, Ulla; Tenhunen, Mirja; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli; Rauhala, Esa; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a well-recognized disorder conventionally diagnosed with an elevated apnea–hypopnea index. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction is a common phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which however is still largely underreported. The major reasons for this are that cyclic breathing pattern coupled with arousals and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation are easy to detect and considered more important than prolonged episodes of increased respiratory effort with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the absence of cycling breathing pattern and repetitive arousals. There is also a growing body of evidence that prolonged partial obstruction is a clinically significant form of SDB, which is associated with symptoms and co-morbidities which may partially differ from those associated with OSAS. Partial upper airway obstruction is most prevalent in women, and it is treatable with the nasal continuous positive pressure device with good adherence to therapy. This review describes the characteristics of prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep in terms of diagnostics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and comorbidity to improve recognition of this phenotype and its timely and appropriate treatment. PMID:27608271

  19. The relationship between aminopyrine breath test and severity of liver disease in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Morelli, A.; Narducci, F.; Pelli, M.A.; Farroni, F.; Vedovelli, A.

    1981-08-01

    Twenty-two patients with cirrhosis were evaluated by the 2 hr.-(C14)-aminopyrine breath test, the conventional liver tests and two systems for grading the severity of liver disease. Twenty-three patients with noncirrhotic liver disease and 15 controls were also studied. Reduced 14CO2 values were found in 21 of the 22 cirrhotic patients and seven of those had noncirrhotic liver disease associated with severe functional reserve impairment. The values in patients with minor liver diseases or cholestasis were normal. In the cirrhotic patients 2 hr.-(C14)-aminopyrine breath test scores correlated with prothrombin time, retention of bromosulfalein, fasting serum bile acid, albumin, bilirubin, serum aspartate aminotransferase and, above all, with the scores of the two clinical rating systems. The 2 hr.-(C14)-aminopyrine breath test was superior to conventional tests in quantifying the degree of hepatic functional reserve and forecasting the prognosis.

  20. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  1. Postrhinoplasty nasal cysts and the use of petroleum-based ointments and nasal packing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Edmund S; Kridel, Russell W H

    2003-07-01

    Nasal cysts are rare complications of rhinoplasty, and numerous theories exist regarding their cause. The term "paraffinoma" has been used to describe cyst formation observed after topical antibiotic ointment application with nasal packing in the immediate postoperative period. Such complications are rare but may occur because of the inherent properties of the agent used or a lack of meticulous technique (in the placement of incisions and nasal packing). Three cases of postrhinoplasty cysts with a variety of presentations, including incidental intraoperative findings, bilateral medial canthal masses, and a draining dorsal cyst, are described. Although such cysts are uncommon, techniques to prevent these unwanted sequelae should routinely be used, with the judicious application of non-petroleum-based topical antibiotic preparations.

  2. [Language tests for the examination of nasal resonance].

    PubMed

    Gasiorek, J; Pruszewicz, A; Obrebowski, A

    1996-01-01

    A set of 7 word tests with different number of nasal phonemes was prepared. These tests are adjusted to technical possibilities of nasal resonance examination by means of own construction apparatus. The VII-th test consisting only oral speech sounds appeared to be most important for estimating physiological nasal resonance characteristic for the Polish language and gave individual timbre of the voice. For Polish language these resonance rate is 15.2%. It is useful as reference data to evaluate patients with pathological nasal resonance. The VII-th test together with the V-th one which contain 6.3% of nasal consonants, and the VI-th with 33.3% of them were used for detailed evaluation of nasal resonance.

  3. Rapid eye movement sleep in breath holders.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, J; Hasegawa, T; Shimohira, M; Fukumizu, M; Iwakawa, Y

    2000-07-01

    One-night polysomnography was performed on seven subjects suffering from breath-holding spells, including one whose death was suggested to be a consequence of a breath-holding spell. The fatal case showed no rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep, although he exhibited REMs during wakefulness. The average numbers of both REMs and bursts of REMs in REM sleep in the other six breath holders were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The breath holders showed no airway obstruction, desaturation, or sleep fragmentation. Since the rapid ocular activity in REM sleep is generated in the brain stem, we hypothesized that a functional brainstem disturbance is involved in the occurrence of breath-holding spells.

  4. Breathing evaluation and retraining in manual therapy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Laurie

    2009-07-01

    Patients with back and neck pain commonly seek body work yet there are some who do not experience full recovery with the typical tool kit of manual therapy, education and exercise, suggesting the need for additional clinical approaches. Epidemiological literature linking back pain with breathing difficulties suggests one possibility. Altered motor control associated with back and neck pain appears to negatively impact breathing mechanics, which may have negative consequences on respiratory chemistry. Changes in respiratory chemistry can have profound effects on body system function. Altered breathing has been recognized for many years as a potential source of a wide variety of unexplained symptoms. There has been controversy around accurate diagnosis with symptoms and questionnaires often being the only methods used. Capnography, which is routinely used in critical care settings, offers an objective measure of respiratory chemistry providing physiological data on which to base a diagnosis of poor breathing. Capnography can also be used as biofeedback to guide breathing retraining.

  5. Computer simulation of breathing systems for divers

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, P.G.; Nuckols, M.L.

    1983-02-01

    A powerful new tool for the analysis and design of underwater breathing gas systems is being developed. A versatile computer simulator is described which makes possible the modular ''construction'' of any conceivable breathing gas system from computer memory-resident components. The analysis of a typical breathing gas system is demonstrated using this simulation technique, and the effects of system modifications on performance of the breathing system are shown. This modeling technique will ultimately serve as the foundation for a proposed breathing system simulator under development by the Navy. The marriage of this computer modeling technique with an interactive graphics system will provide the designer with an efficient, cost-effective tool for the development of new and improved diving systems.

  6. Slow breathing influences cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver: Slow breathing and HRV.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Giovanna Ana de Paula; Tavares, Bruna S; Garner, David M; Porto, Andrey A; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-05-01

    Chronic slow breathing has been reported to improve Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in patients with cardiovascular disorders. However, it is not clear regarding its acute effects on HRV responses on autonomic analysis. We evaluated the acute effects of slow breathing on cardiac autonomic responses to postural change manoeuvre (PCM). The study was conducted on 21 healthy male students aged between 18 and 35 years old. In the control protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 15 min under spontaneous breathing and quickly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. In the slow breathing protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 10 min under spontaneous breath, then performed slow breathing for 5 min and rapidly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. Slow breathing intensified cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver. PMID:27157952

  7. Web-based analysis of nasal sound spectra.

    PubMed

    Seren, Erdal

    2005-10-01

    The spectral analysis of the nasal sound is an indicator of the nasal airflow pattern. We investigated a new technique for nasal sound analysis via Internet. This study includes 27 patients and 22 healthy people. Patients were treated by septoplasty operation for septal deviation. Postoperation 10(th) day, this technique was applied to follow nasal airflow course. The patients recorded the nasal sound by microphone into the computer as a .wav file and sent us via internet, all those records were evaluated by us. The results were sent back to themselves. The 11 patients who had nasal obstruction symptoms (group A) were called to the hospital to check. In the nasal sound analyses e-mails of those patients, the sound intensity was at high frequencies (2-4 kHz, 4-6 kHz) above 30 dB, but low (500-1000 Hz) and medium frequencies (1-2 kHz), are below then 10 dB. In the patients without nasal obstruction symptom (group B), the sound intensity was at high frequencies below 10 dB, but low and medium frequencies are above 20 dB. There was a statistically significant difference in sound intensity between group A and group B. In the endoscopical examination of those obstructions, which decreases the nasal airway, crusting formation in the nasal cavity was found. Web-based nasal sound analysis is an important method to follow the postoperative course and the nasal airflow evaluation. The new method will save time and money, avoiding a return visit to the hospital unnecessarily.

  8. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  9. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... commencement of diving operations, at the umbilical or underwater breathing apparatus connection point for the... underwater breathing apparatus connection point for the diver, for percentage of oxygen....

  10. Particle concentration in exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, C.I.; Stampfer, J.F.

    1987-11-01

    Measurements were made of the number of concentration of particles in exhaled breath under various conditions of exercise. A laser light scattering particle spectrometer was used to count particles exhaled by test subjects wearing respirators in a challenge environment of clean, dry air. Precautions were taken to ensure that particles were not generated by the respirators and that no extraneous water or other particles were produced in the humid exhaled air. The number of particles detected in exhales air varied over a range from <0.10 to approx. 4 particles/cm/sup 3/ depending upon the test subject and his activity. Subjects at rest exhaled the lowest concentration of particles, whereas exercises producing a faster respiration rate caused increased exhalation of particles. Exhaled particle concentration can limit the usefulness of nondiscriminating, ambient challenge aerosols for the fit testing of highly protective respirators.

  11. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. Images p398-a p399-a PMID:9769764

  12. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  13. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T T; Kirkeby, L P; Poulsen, K; Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal microbiota was dominated by species of the genera Corynebacterium, Aureobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, including S. epidermis, S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis and S. warneri. These studies show that the microbiota of the nasal cavity of adults is strikingly different from that of the pharynx, and that the nasal cavity is a primary habitat for several species of diphtheroids recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Under special circumstances, single species, including IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, may become predominant in a restricted area of the nasal mucosa. PMID:11200821

  14. What's New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers What’s new in nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer research ... Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research? ...

  15. Take a breath and take the turn: how breathing meets turns in spontaneous dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Physiological rhythms are sensitive to social interactions and could contribute to defining social rhythms. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the implications of breathing in conversational turn exchanges remains limited. In this paper, we addressed the idea that breathing may contribute to timing and coordination between dialogue partners. The relationships between turns and breathing were analysed in unconstrained face-to-face conversations involving female speakers. No overall relationship between breathing and turn-taking rates was observed, as breathing rate was specific to the subjects' activity in dialogue (listening versus taking the turn versus holding the turn). A general inter-personal coordination of breathing over the whole conversation was not evident. However, specific coordinative patterns were observed in shorter time-windows when participants engaged in taking turns. The type of turn-taking had an effect on the respective coordination in breathing. Most of the smooth and interrupted turns were taken just after an inhalation, with specific profiles of alignment to partner breathing. Unsuccessful attempts to take the turn were initiated late in the exhalation phase and with no clear inter-personal coordination. Finally, breathing profiles at turn-taking were different than those at turn-holding. The results support the idea that breathing is actively involved in turn-taking and turn-holding. PMID:25385777

  16. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    SciTech Connect

    Gagel, Bernd . E-mail: BGagel@UKAachen.de; Demirel, Cengiz M.P.; Kientopf, Aline; Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc; Stanzel, Sven; Breuer, Christian; Asadpour, Branka; Jansen, Thomas; Holy, Richard; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Eble, Michael J.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins.

  17. Take a breath and take the turn: how breathing meets turns in spontaneous dialogue.

    PubMed

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2014-12-19

    Physiological rhythms are sensitive to social interactions and could contribute to defining social rhythms. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the implications of breathing in conversational turn exchanges remains limited. In this paper, we addressed the idea that breathing may contribute to timing and coordination between dialogue partners. The relationships between turns and breathing were analysed in unconstrained face-to-face conversations involving female speakers. No overall relationship between breathing and turn-taking rates was observed, as breathing rate was specific to the subjects' activity in dialogue (listening versus taking the turn versus holding the turn). A general inter-personal coordination of breathing over the whole conversation was not evident. However, specific coordinative patterns were observed in shorter time-windows when participants engaged in taking turns. The type of turn-taking had an effect on the respective coordination in breathing. Most of the smooth and interrupted turns were taken just after an inhalation, with specific profiles of alignment to partner breathing. Unsuccessful attempts to take the turn were initiated late in the exhalation phase and with no clear inter-personal coordination. Finally, breathing profiles at turn-taking were different than those at turn-holding. The results support the idea that breathing is actively involved in turn-taking and turn-holding.

  18. Delayed feedback applied to breathing in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, N. B.; Pototsky, A.; Parkes, C.

    2013-10-01

    We studied the response of healthy volunteers to the delayed feedback generated from the breathing signals. Namely, in the freely-breathing volunteers the breathing signal was recorded, delayed by τ seconds and fed back to the same volunteer in real time in the form of a visual and auditory stimulus of low intensity, i.e. the stimulus was crucially non-intrusive. In each case volunteers were instructed to breathe in the way which was most comfortable for them, and no explanation about the kind of applied stimulus was provided to them. Each volunteer experienced 10 different delay times ranging between 10% and 100% of the average breathing period without external stimulus. It was observed that in a significant proportion of subjects (11 out of 24) breathing was slowed down in the presence of delayed feedback with moderate delay. Also, in 6 objects out of 24 the delayed feedback was able to induce transition from nearly periodic to irregular breathing. These observations are consistent with the phenomena observed in numerical simulation of the models of periodic and chaotic self-oscillations with delays, and also in experiments with simpler self-oscillating systems.

  19. An ultrasonic contactless sensor for breathing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  20. Parameters of nasal airway anatomy on magnetic resonance imaging correlate poorly with subjective symptoms of nasal patency.

    PubMed

    Saunders, M W; Jones, N S; Kabala, J E

    1999-09-01

    Forty-four patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head scans for non-nasal disease were asked to complete a questionnaire immediately after the scan. Subjective patency was scored for each nasal airway, patients were also asked about other nasal symptoms, hay fever, upper respiratory tract infections, medication and any history of nasal surgery or trauma. The following measurements from MRI scans were made: the cross-sectional area of the nasal airway at the anterior end of the middle turbinate, the horizontal width of the inferior turbinate and maximum septal mucosal thickness. In addition the presence of any septal deviation and the thickness or the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses was assessed. Correlation between subjective airway patency and the anatomical parameters studied was generally very weak. However, patients with sinus mucosal thickening on MRI scanning had significantly lower subjective patency scores (left P = 0.003, right P = 0.029) for both nasal airways. Assessment of the nasal airway on MRI correlates poorly with symptoms of nasal obstruction. However, patients with sinus mucosal thickening (> 5 mm) had significantly more symptoms of nasal obstruction on both sides.

  1. Immediate effects of breath holding maneuvers onto composition of exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2014-09-01

    Rapid concentration changes due to physiological or pathophysiological effects rather than appearance of unique disease biomarkers are important for clinical application of breath research. Simple maneuvers such as breath holding may significantly affect breath biomarker concentrations. In this study, exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed in real time before and after different breath holding maneuvers. Continuous breath-resolved measurements (PTR-ToF-MS-8000) were performed in 31 healthy human subjects in a side-stream sampling mode. After 1 min of tidal breathing participants held their breath for 10, 20, 40, 60 s and as long as possible. Afterwards they continued to breathe normally for another minute. VOC profiles could be monitored in real time by assigning online PTR-ToF-MS data to alveolar or inspired phases of breath. Sudden and profound changes of exhaled VOC concentrations were recorded after different breath holding maneuvers. VOC concentrations returned to base line levels 10-20 s after breath holding. Breath holding induced concentration changes depended on physico-chemical properties of the substances. When substance concentrations were normalized onto end-tidal CO2 content, variation of acetone concentrations decreased, whereas variations of isoprene concentrations were not affected. As the effects of breathing patterns on exhaled substance concentrations depend on individual substance properties, sampling procedures have to be validated for each compound by means of appropriate real-time analysis. Normalization of exhaled concentrations onto exhaled CO2 is only valid for substances having similar physico-chemical properties as CO2.

  2. Adults with ADHD and Sleep Complaints: A Pilot Study Identifying Sleep-Disordered Breathing Using Polysomnography and Sleep Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surman, Craig B. H.; Thomas, Robert J.; Aleardi, Megan; Pagano, Christine; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing are both prevalent in adulthood. Because both conditions may be responsible for similar symptoms of cognitive impairment, the authors investigate whether their presentation may overlap in adults diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Data are collected from six adults with sleep complaints who were diagnosed…

  3. Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Roopa G; Rajanna, Konandur; Mahapatra, Roy D; Dorasala, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (-0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ≤0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice.

  4. Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Roopa G.; Mahapatra, Roy D.; Dorasala, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (−0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ≤0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519

  5. Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

  6. Necrotizing sialometaplasia involving the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Maisel, R H; Johnston, W H; Anderson, H A; Cantrell, R W

    1977-03-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a disease process which affects minor salivary glands. It may clinically and microscopically resemble squamous cell or mucoepidermoid carcinoma but is histologically benign. Thirteen patients with this process occurring on the hard palate have been reported in the past two years. We describe two cases in the nasal cavity and propose that compromise of the blood supply contributed to the occurrence of these lesions. This apparently benign lesion may represent nonspecific reaction of salivary and mucous glands to ischemic injury and must be distinguished from carcinoma.

  7. Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S B; Kennedy, K S; Parker, G S; Tatum, S A

    1990-11-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of glandular tissue occurring in the head and neck region. There have been several reports of metastasis of this benign-appearing tumor from the salivary glands to distant sites, suggesting hematogenous spread and implantation. Although occurrence of pleomorphic adenoma on the nasal septum has been described, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of recurrent septal pleomorphic adenoma with histologically benign tissue in an enlarged metastatic ipsilateral submandibular lymph node, suggesting lymphatic spread. The literature concerning the subject is reviewed. Wide septal excision and modified neck dissection is the recommended treatment.

  8. Cephalometric Pattern and Nasal Patency in Children with Primary Snoring: The Evidence of a Direct Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Zicari, Anna Maria; Duse, Marzia; Occasi, Francesca; Luzzi, Valeria; Ortolani, Emanuela; Bardanzellu, Flaminia; Bertin, Serena; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) might affect craniofacial growth and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome present an increase in total and lower anterior heights of the face and a more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone when compared to nasal breathers. Objective To investigate the correlation between rhinomanometric and cephalometric parameters in children with primary snoring (PS), without apnea or gas exchange abnormalities. Materials and Methods Thirty children with habitual snoring (16 females and 14 males) aged 4–8 years (mean age 6.85±1.51 years) were selected by a SDB validate questionnaire. All subjects underwent lateral cephalometric, panoramic radiographies. Results In our sample 10 children (33%) had snoring 3 nights/week, 11 (37%) 4–6 nights/week and 9 (30%) every night/week. Overall 7 patients (23.3%) were affected by adenoid hypertrophy (AH), 4 (13.3%) by tonsillar hypertrophy (TH) and 13 (43.3%) by AH and TH. We found a more vertical position of the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H⊥VT) in patients with a higher frequency (7.3±2.7 vs 7.6±3.7 vs 10.9±2.5 in children snoring 3 nights/week, 4–6 nights/week and every night/week respectively; p = 0.032). Concerning nasal patency significant correlations were found with ANB (maxillary and jaw position with respect to the cranial base), NS∧Ar (growth predictor), sumangle, FMA (total divergence), SnaSnp∧GoMe (inferior divergence), BaN∧PtGn (facial growth pattern), Phw1_PsP (posterosuperior airway space), AHC3H (the horizontal distance between the most anterosuperior point of the hyoid bone and the third cervical vertebra). Conclusion The present study supports the relationship between nasal obstruction and specific craniofacial characteristics in children with primary snoring and lead us to hypothesize that nasal obstruction might explain the indirect link between snoring and cephalometric alterations. PMID:25360610

  9. Polyvinyl siloxane: novel material for external nasal splinting.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, N K; Rathnaprabhu, V; Ramesh, S; Parameswaran, A

    2016-01-01

    External nasal splinting is performed routinely after nasal bone fracture reductions, osteotomies, and rhinoplasties. Materials commonly used include plaster of Paris (POP), thermoplastic splints, self-adhesive padded aluminium splints, and Orthoplast, among many others. The disadvantages of these materials are described in this paper, and polyvinyl siloxane is recommended as an effective and more readily available alternative material to counter these pitfalls.

  10. Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Casettari, Luca; Illum, Lisbeth

    2014-09-28

    There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations. PMID:24818769

  11. MRSA nasal colonization burden and risk of MRSA infection

    PubMed Central

    Stenehjem, Edward; Rimland, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization burden has been identified as a risk factor for infection. This study evaluates methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) nasal burden, as defined by the cycle threshold (Ct) and risk of subsequent infection. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, United States veterans were classified into 3 MRSA nasal colonization groups: noncarriers, low burden (Ct > 24 cycles), and high burden (Ct ≤ 24 cycles). MRSA infections were identified prospectively, and clinical information was obtained by chart review. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association of MRSA nasal burden and risk of MRSA infection. Results During 4-years of follow-up, 4.3% of noncarriers, 18.5% of low burden, and 17.2% of high burden developed a MRSA infection. In multivariate analysis, MRSA nasal colonization was a risk factor for MRSA infection (P = .008) with low burden (risk ratio [RR], 3.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47–8.93) and high burden (RR, 2.71; 95% CI: 0.95–7.72) associated with subsequent MRSA infection when compared with noncarriers. When compared with low burden, high burden nasal carriers were not at increased risk of infection (RR, 0.75; 95% CI 0.36–1.55). Conclusion MRSA nasal colonization was a risk factor for MRSA infection. High nasal burden of MRSA did not increase the risk of infection. PMID:23261345

  12. NASAL FILTERING OF FINE PARTICLES IN CHILDREN VS. ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nasal efficiency for removing fine particles may be affected by developmental changes in nasal structure associated with age. In healthy Caucasian children (age 6-13, n=17) and adults (age 18-28, n=11) we measured the fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (1 and 2um MMAD)...

  13. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Ding, Xinxin

    1995-12-01

    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  14. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  15. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  16. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  17. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  18. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  19. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  20. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  1. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  2. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  3. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  4. Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Casettari, Luca; Illum, Lisbeth

    2014-09-28

    There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations.

  5. Correlation between Objective and Subjective Assessment of Nasal Patency

    PubMed Central

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Gera, Roberto; Bulgheroni, Chiara; Ambrogi, Federico; Schindler, Antonio; Ottaviani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study was performed to evaluate the correlation between the objective and subjective sensation of nasal patency, assessed through a validated questionnaire, the Italian version of the NOSE scale, and the rhinomanometric results in a large cohort of patients complaining about nasal obstruction. Materials and Methods: Data was obtained from a total of 233 adult patients, (123 males, 110 females, with a mean age of 43.7 years) with a diagnosis of septal deviation and complaining about nasal obstruction. Anterior active rhinomanometry was used for objective assessment, while the I-NOSE scale and a visual analog scale (VAS) were used for subjective evaluation. Results: Positive correlations between I-NOSE scores and VAS and rhinomanometric results were found. The higher correlation was demonstrated between the HUNR (higher unilateral nasal resistance) parameter of rhinomanometry and the second item of the I-NOSE scale (Nasal blockage or obstruction). No significant correlation was found between the fourth item of the I-NOSE (Trouble sleeping) and the VAS score. The VAS score appeared mildly, but still significantly, correlated with the HUNR parameter of rhinomanometry. Conclusion: The correlation between the subjective sensation of nasal patency and the rhinomanometric data proved to be significant. No correlation between subjective sensation of trouble sleeping and rhinomanometric assessment was found. In counselling with patients complaining of nasal obstruction trouble in sleeping should not be considered as a symptom related to nasal obstruction. PMID:27738607

  6. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  7. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  8. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  9. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  10. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  11. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  12. Dialectical Effects on Nasalance: A Multicenter, Cross-Continental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Bressmann, Tim; Poburka, Bruce; Roy, Nelson; Sharp, Helen; Watts, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated nasalance in speakers from six different dialectal regions across North America using recent versions of the Nasometer. It was hypothesized that many of the sound changes observed in regional dialects of North American English would have a significant impact on measures of nasalance. Method: Samples of the Zoo…

  13. SUBMUCOSAL DISSECTION OF THE RETROPHARYNGEAL SPACE DURING NASAL INTUBATION.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Mumin; Cartabuke, Richard S; Krishna, Senthil G; Veneziano, Giorgio; Syed, Ahsan; Lind, Meredith N Merz; Tobias, Qoseph D

    2015-10-01

    Various complications have been reported with nasal endotracheal intubation including bleeding, epistaxis, bacteremia, damage to intranasal structures, and even intracranial penetration. We present two cases that required general anesthesia for dental surgery. Submucosal dissection of the retropharyngeal tissues occurred during attempted nasal endotracheal intubation. Previous reports of this complication are reviewed, treatment strategies presented, and potential maneuvers to prevent this complication suggested. PMID:26860021

  14. Angiolipoma presenting as a nasal mass: how rare a presentation?

    PubMed

    Rao, Sridhara Suryanarayan; Panda, Naresh K; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Saravanan, Karuppiah

    2008-07-01

    Angiolipomas are benign adipose tumors. There are two types: infiltrating and noninfiltrating. An angiolipoma presenting as a nasal mass is rare. To our knowledge, this is only the second documented case of angiolipoma presenting in the nasal dorsum. Total surgical excision by an external rhinoplasty technique with close follow-up is advised. Recurrence is not common.

  15. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  16. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  17. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  18. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  19. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  20. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  1. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  3. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  4. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes...

  5. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes...

  6. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes...

  7. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes...

  8. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes...

  9. An introduction to the psychophysiology of breathing.

    PubMed

    Ley, R

    1994-06-01

    Breathing can be viewed as an independent variable which affects emotion, cognition, and behavior as well as a dependent variable which reflects changes in emotion, cognition, and behavior. This bidirectional interaction is basic to an appreciation of the significance of breathing in terms of its relevance in research and application. The underlying premise of the present article is that since breathing is a behavior that is under voluntary as well as reflexive control, it can be modified according to the principles of both instrumental training (operant conditioning) and Pavlovian (classical) conditioning. The implications of this premise are relevant to theory, diagnosis, and treatment of stress and anxiety-related disorders (e.g., panic disorder, phobias, test anxiety, occupational strain, and related psychosomatic disorders), and to basic and applied research in the psychophysiology of breathing.

  10. Portable breathing apparatus for coal mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandolah, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The state of the art in portable oxygen breathing equipment is reported. Considered are self-containing as well as chemically generating oxygen sources and their effectiveness and limitations in mine rescue operations.

  11. Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... overnight on the surface of the tongue when saliva production is diminished." ; Tips to combat halitosis: ; 1. Drink ... after meals can help keep bad breath away. Saliva production increases during chewing and this can help neutralize ...

  12. Alcohol breath test: gas exchange issues.

    PubMed

    Hlastala, Michael P; Anderson, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    The alcohol breath test is reviewed with a focus on gas exchange factors affecting its accuracy. The basis of the alcohol breath test is the assumption that alveolar air reaches the mouth during exhalation with no change in alcohol concentration. Recent investigations have shown that alcohol concentration is altered during its transit to the mouth. The exhaled alcohol concentration is modified by interaction with the mucosa of the pulmonary airways. Exhaled alcohol concentration is not an accurate indicator of alveolar alcohol concentration. Measuring alcohol concentration in the breath is very different process than measuring a blood level from air equilibrated with a blood sample. Airway exchange of alcohol leads to a bias against certain individuals depending on the anatomic and physiologic characteristics. Methodological modifications are proposed to improve the accuracy of the alcohol breath test to become fair to all. PMID:27197859

  13. Epidemiology and differential diagnosis of nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Mohamad R.; Walsh, Erika M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common chronic medical conditions, with a significant impact on patient quality of life. CRS is broadly classified into two groups: CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) and CRS without NP (CRSsNP). Clinically, the major subtypes of CRSwNP may be divided into eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (e.g., allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease [AERD]) and nasal polyps associated with neutrophilic inflammation (e.g., cystic fibrosis [CF]). CF is characterized by mutation of the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is usually required for most NP patients with increased frequency in patients with AERD. This study provides a review of the epidemiology and major classification of CRSwNP. Methods: A review was performed of the literature regarding different subtypes of CRSwNP. Results: Many definitions of CRSwNP exist and estimates of prevalence vary. Conclusion: CRSwNP is a clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous inflammatory profile. Of the subtypes associated with eosinophilic inflammation, AERD remains the most recalcitrant to medical and surgical therapeutic interventions. PMID:24274222

  14. The nasal distribution of metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Newman, S P; Morén, P F; Clarke, S W

    1987-02-01

    The intranasal distribution of aerosol from a metered dose inhaler has been assessed using a radiotracer technique. Inhalers were prepared by adding 99Tcm-labelled Teflon particles (simulating the drug particles) to chlorofluorocarbon propellants, and scans of the head (and chest) taken with a gamma camera. Ten healthy subjects (age range 19-29 years) each performed two radioaerosol studies with the inhaler held in two different ways: either in a single position (vial pointing upwards) or in two positions (vial pointing upwards and then tilted by 30 degrees in the sagittal plane). The vast majority of the dose (82.5 +/- 2.8 (mean +/- SEM) per cent and 80.7 +/- 3.1 per cent respectively for one-position and two-position studies) was deposited on a single localized area in the anterior one-third of the nose, the initial distribution pattern being identical for each study. No significant radioaerosol was detected in the lungs. Only 18.0 +/- 4.7 per cent and 15.4 +/- 4.1 per cent of the dose had been removed by mucociliary action after 30 minutes, and it is probable that the remainder had not penetrated initially beyond the vestibule. Since the deposition pattern was highly localized and more than half the dose probably failed to reach the turbinates it is possible that the overall effect of nasal MDIs is suboptimal for the treatment of generalized nasal disorders.

  15. Sphenochoanal polyp presenting with concomitant nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Tysome, James R; Saleh, Hesham A

    2007-01-01

    A sphenochoanal polyp is a rare lesion that originates in the sphenoid sinus. It occurs most often in adolescents and young adults. We present what to the best of our knowledge is the first reported case of a sphenochoanal polyp associated with concomitant nasal polyps. The patient was a 54-year-old man who presented with bilateral nasal obstruction, possible obstructive sleep apnea, and an altered voice, all of which had likely been caused by the presence of a massive left sphenochoanal polyp and bilateral grade III anterior and posterior ethmoid polyps. Because the patient had dilated cardiomyopathy, he was not a good candidate for general anesthesia. Therefore, the polyps were removed endoscopically under local anesthesia. The sphenochoanal polyp measured 7.5 cm in its greatest dimension and weighed 41 g. The patient remained symptom-free at the 1-year follow-up. The presentation of a sphenochoanal polyp is similar to that of the more common antrochoanal polyp, but the two can usually be differentiated on computed tomography. Endoscopic sinus surgery allows for complete removal of the polyp, including its site of origin, which minimizes the risk of recurrence.

  16. [Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the nasal cavity].

    PubMed

    Deubel, M; Meister, F; Podvinec, M; Stamm, B

    1994-11-01

    In the present paper we report two cases of "necrotizing sialometaplasia" in uncommon locations. The relevant literature is reviewed. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is self-limiting and is characterized by necrosis and squamous pseudohypertrophy. Typically occurring in the minor salivary glands of the oral mucosa, our cases appear to be the sixth and seventh cases of involvement of the nasal cavity reported in the literature. Owing to the similarity of histological findings, the term "sialometaplasia" is also used for this disorder. This rare disease is a benign process but may be misdiagnosed as mucoepidermoid or squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, the possibility of this disease in the nose should again be presented. Both of our cases show that with a histological examination considering defined morphological findings, the diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia can be verified and a diagnosis of a carcinoma can be excluded. Especially with regard to radical and possibly unnecessary invasive therapeutic procedures we emphasize the importance of considering "necrotizing sialometaplasia" as part of the differential diagnosis of nasal lesions.

  17. Early Stage Relapsing Polychondritis Diagnosed by Nasal Septum Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Moody, Sandra; Komori, Masafumi; Jibatake, Akira; Yaegashi, Makito

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammation of cartilaginous tissues, the diagnosis of which is usually delayed by a mean period of 2.9 years from symptom onset. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with nasal pain and fever. Physical examination of the nose was grossly unremarkable, but there was significant tenderness of the nasal bridge. Acute sinusitis was initially diagnosed due to thickened left frontal sinus mucosa on computed tomography (CT); however, there was no improvement after antibiotic intake. Repeat CT showed edematous inflammation of the nasal septum; biopsy of this site demonstrated erosion and infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils in the hyaline cartilage. Relapsing polychondritis was confirmed by the modified McAdam's criteria and can be diagnosed at an early stage by nasal septum biopsy; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with nasal symptoms alone or persistent sinus symptoms. PMID:26843866

  18. [Pharmacological and clinical evalutation of nasal obstruction: application to xylometazoline].

    PubMed

    Pradalier, André

    2006-01-01

    Nasal obstruction, a prominent feature of rhinitis, may be quantified in humans by haemodynamic techniques (measuring local blood flux), static methods (measuring the geometry of nasal cavities) and dynamic methods (assessing the patency of nasal airways through the measure of resistance to air flow). These methods demonstrated the nasal decongestant activity of xylometazoline in healthy volunteers and rhinitis patients. Controlled double-blind studies established the clinical efficacy of xylometazoline in infectious and allergic (seasonal and perennial) rhinitis versus placebo and in comparison with various reference substances. The effects on nasal epithelium ciliary activity which are observed in vitro are modest and even less pronounced in vivo owing to dilution in situ and protective physiological processes. PMID:16792148

  19. New maneuver for fixation of pediatric nasal bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Aldelaimi, Tahrir N

    2011-07-01

    Surgical treatment of nasal bone fractures in children is a complex and challenging task not only to maxillofacial surgeons but exceeding to ears, nose, and throat and plastic surgeons. Twelve child patients including 9 boys (75%) and 3 girls (25%) with nasal bone fractures were seen at the Maxillofacial Surgery Department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital during the period of December 2009 to December 2010. Fractured nasal bone is reduced to its anatomic position with Walsham forceps, and the dislocated or disrupted nasal septum with Asch forceps. The most common cause of the injury was road traffic accident and motorcycle accident 5 (42%); nasal deviation was found in 9 cases (75%), and depression in 2 (17%). In 9 patients (75%), injuries were isolated, and 3 (25%) were associated with other facial bone fractures. Significant advances have been made in the management of these injuries, decreasing the incidence of secondary deformities.

  20. Early reexploration after closed reduction of nasal bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Hong Sik

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cases that were reexplored shortly after closed reduction of the nasal bone fracture. From 1996 to 2009, 955 patients (757 males and 198 females) were operated on for the nasal bone fractures. The nasal splints were applied and removed 1 week postoperatively, and the results of nasal reduction were reviewed. Indications for reexploration were undercorrection or deviation of the reduced nasal bone.Of the 955 patients, 13 (11 males and 2 females; 1.36%) were reexplored. The recorrection was done 7.78 +/- 4.77 days after the initial surgery. Mostly local anesthesia was carried out on the reoperation of 11 patients. All 13 patients were satisfied with the final result.If any undercorrection or deviation is persistent, the corrective reexploration should be discussed with the patient in detail and corrective reexploration should be planned soon.