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Sample records for implanted detection structures

  1. [Preparation and structural detection of antibacterial hydroxyapatite coating material on Ti implant].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zi-Yuan; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Zheng, Xue-Bin

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the method for preparing antibacterial hydroxyapatite coating material on Ti implant,and detect its surface feature, chemical composition and the crystal structure. The antibacterial hydroxyapatite coating material which contained silver-zirconium phosphate antimicrobial was prepared on the Ti implant by using vacuum plasma spraying technology. Samples were divided into 4 groups according to weight percent of the antimicrobial: group A (0), group B (2%), group C (5%) and group D (10%). The surface feature of each sample was observed under scanning electric microscope. The chemical composition and the crystal structure was detected by electronic probe and X-ray diffraction method respectively. The surface feature of each sample showed globular granule with caky structure and air pore. The crystal structure of group A, B, C mainly showed characteristic absorption band of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6 which degraded while antimicrobial content increased. Except Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6 and CaZr (PO4)2, Na6CaP2O09 also appeared in group D. Ag+ could not be detected by electronic probe in group A and B. The contents of Ag+ in group C and D were similar. The antibacterial hydroxyapatite coating material which contained silver can be prepared on the Ti implant by using vacuum plasma spraying technology. The appropriate weight percent of the antimicrobial was 5%.

  2. Detection of degradation in polyester implants by analysing mode shapes of structure vibration.

    PubMed

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on using vibration analysis to detect degradation in degrading polyesters. A numerical model of a degrading plate sample is considered. The plate is assumed to degrade following the typical behaviour of amorphous copolymers of polylactide and polyglycolide. Due to the well-known autocatalytic effect in the degradation of these polyesters, the inner core of the plate degrades faster than outer surface region, forming layers of materials with varying Young׳s modulus. Firstly the change in molecular weight and corresponding change in Young׳s modulus at different times are calculated using the mathematical models developed in our previous work. Secondly the first four mode shapes of transverse vibration of the plate are calculated using the finite element method. Finally the curvature of the mode shapes are calculated and related to the spatial distribution of the polymer degradation. It is shown that the curvature of the mode shapes can be used to detect the onset and distribution of polymer degradation. The level of measurement accuracy required in an experiment is presented to guide practical applications of the method. At the end of this paper a demonstration case of coronary stent is presented showing how the method can be used to detect degradation in an implant of sophisticated structure.

  3. Frequency modulation detection in cochlear implant subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongbin; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-10-01

    Frequency modulation (FM) detection was investigated in acoustic and electric hearing to characterize cochlear-implant subjects' ability to detect dynamic frequency changes and to assess the relative contributions of temporal and spectral cues to frequency processing. Difference limens were measured for frequency upward sweeps, downward sweeps, and sinusoidal FM as a function of standard frequency and modulation rate. In electric hearing, factors including electrode position and stimulation level were also studied. Electric hearing data showed that the difference limen increased monotonically as a function of standard frequency regardless of the modulation type, the modulation rate, the electrode position, and the stimulation level. In contrast, acoustic hearing data showed that the difference limen was nearly a constant as a function of standard frequency. This difference was interpreted to mean that temporal cues are used only at low standard frequencies and at low modulation rates. At higher standard frequencies and modulation rates, the reliance on the place cue is increased, accounting for the better performance in acoustic hearing than for electric hearing with single-electrode stimulation. The present data suggest a speech processing strategy that encodes slow frequency changes using lower stimulation rates than those typically employed by contemporary cochlear-implant speech processors. .

  4. Detection of Orthopaedic Implants by Airport Metal Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Abbassian, Ali; Datla, Balarama; Brooks, RA

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We performed a questionnaire study to establish the frequency and consequences of the detection of orthopaedic implants by airport security and to help us advise patients correctly. All published literature on this subject is based on experimental studies and no ‘real-life’ data are available. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 200 patients with a variety of implants were identified. All patients were sent a postal questionnaire enquiring about their experience with airport security since their surgery. RESULTS Of the cohort, 154 (77%) patients responded. About half of the implants (47%) were detected, but the majority of patients (72%) were not significantly inconvenienced. When detected, only 9% of patients were asked for documentary evidence of their implant. We also found that patients with a total knee replacement (TKR) had a greater chance of detection as compared to those with a total hip replacement (THR; 71% versus 31%; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS All patients, and in particular those with a TKR, can be re-assured that, although they have a fair chance of detection by airport security, a major disruption to their journey is unlikely. We advise that documentation to prove the presence of an orthopaedic implant should be offered to those who are concerned about the potential for inconvenience, but such documentation is not required routinely. PMID:17394716

  5. In Vivo Ultrasonic Detection of Polyurea Crosslinked Silica Aerogel Implants

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Firouzeh; Sebelik, Merry E.; Meacham, Ryan; Boughter, John D.; Challis, Mitchell J.; Leventis, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyurea crosslinked silica aerogels are highly porous, lightweight, and mechanically strong materials with great potential for in vivo applications. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the biocompatibility of this type of aerogel. The highly porous nature of aerogels allows for exceptional thermal, electric, and acoustic insulating capabilities that can be taken advantage of for non-invasive external imaging techniques. Sound-based detection of implants is a low cost, non-invasive, portable, and rapid technique that is routinely used and readily available in major clinics and hospitals. Methodology In this study the first in vivo ultrasound response of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants was investigated by means of a GE Medical Systems LogiQe diagnostic ultrasound machine with a linear array probe. Aerogel samples were inserted subcutaneously and sub-muscularly in a) fresh animal model and b) cadaveric human model for analysis. For comparison, samples of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were also imaged under similar conditions as the aerogel samples. Conclusion/significance Polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel (X-Si aerogel) implants were easily identified when inserted in either of the regions in both fresh animal model and cadaveric model. The implant dimensions inferred from the images matched the actual size of the implants and no apparent damage was sustained by the X-Si aerogel implants as a result of the ultrasonic imaging process. The aerogel implants demonstrated hyperechoic behavior and significant posterior shadowing. Results obtained were compared with images acquired from the PDMS implants inserted at the same location. PMID:23799093

  6. Post-market surveillance to detect adverse events associated with Melody® valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin D; Goldstein, Bryan H; Angtuaco, Michael J; Chu, Patricia Y; Fleming, Gregory A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe previously unrecognised or under-recognised adverse events associated with Melody® valve implantation. In rare diseases and conditions, it is typically not feasible to conduct large-scale safety trials before drug or device approval. Therefore, post-market surveillance mechanisms are necessary to detect rare but potentially serious adverse events. We reviewed the United States Food and Drug Administration's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database and conducted a structured literature review to evaluate adverse events associated with on- and off-label Melody® valve implantation. Adverse events were compared with those described in the prospective Investigational Device Exemption and Post-Market Approval Melody® transcatheter pulmonary valve trials. We identified 631 adverse events associated with "on-label" Melody® valve implants and 84 adverse events associated with "off-label" implants. The most frequent "on-label" adverse events were similar to those described in the prospective trials including stent fracture (n=210) and endocarditis (n=104). Previously unrecognised or under-recognised adverse events included stent fragment embolisation (n=5), device erosion (n=4), immediate post-implant severe valvar insufficiency (n=2), and late coronary compression (n=2 cases at 5 days and 3 months after implantation). Under-recognised adverse events associated with off-label implantation included early valve failure due to insufficiency when implanted in the tricuspid position (n=7) and embolisation with percutaneous implantation in the mitral position (n=5). Post-market passive surveillance does not demonstrate a high frequency of previously unrecognised serious adverse events with "on-label" Melody® valve implantation. Further study is needed to evaluate safety of "off-label" uses.

  7. Structural and Optical Behaviour of Ar+ Implanted Polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhawat, Nidhi; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu; Deshpande, S. K.; Nair, K. G. M.

    2011-07-01

    Effects of 130 keV Ar+ ion implantation on the structural and optical properties of polycarbonate specimens have been studied using Raman, UV-Visible spectroscopy and glancing angle X-ray diffraction techniques. Formation of disordered carbonaceous network in the implanted layers has been observed using Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopy. A sharp decline in band gap values (4.1 eV to 0.63 eV) with increase in implantation dose has been observed. This decrease in optical band gap has been correlated with the formation of disordered structures in the implanted layers of polycarbonate.

  8. Detection of bacteria in healthy middle ears during cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Tonnaer, Edith L; Mylanus, Emmanuel A; Mulder, Jef J; Curfs, Jo H

    2009-03-01

    To assess whether free-living and/or biofilm bacteria are present in the putative sterile middle ear cavity before insertion of the electrode array during cochlear implantation. Prospective study. Tertiary academic hospital. The study included 45 healthy children (with or without a history of otitis media) undergoing cochlear implantation. Transmission electron microscopy or scanning electron microscopy was used to detect the presence of bacteria. Presence of both free-living bacteria and biofilm bacteria on the epithelial surface of biopsy specimens of middle ear mucosa. A majority of all mucosal specimens from clinically healthy tympanic cavities displayed inflammatory areas as well as dispersed, nonmatrix-enclosed bacteria. Also, rarely, fragments of biofilms were found. The presence of bacteria in the tympanic cavity, which is generally assumed to be sterile in healthy individuals, may provide an explanation for infectious complications after cochlear implantation. However, the possibility that the electrode array of a cochlear implant will actually become contaminated during insertion is unlikely because of the small amounts and dispersed presence of bacteria, which may account for the relatively low incidence of infectious complications after cochlear implantation.

  9. Application of nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation to titanium nasal implants with nanonetwork surface structure

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ying-Sui; Yang, Wei-En; Zhang, Lan; Zhu, Hongqin; Lan, Ming-Ying; Lee, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2016-07-15

    In nasal reconstruction, the response of cells to titanium (Ti) implants is mainly determined by surface features of the implant. In a pilot study, the authors applied electrochemical anodization to Ti surfaces in an alkaline solution to create a network of nanoscale surface structures. This nanonetwork was intended to enhance the responses of primary human nasal epithelial cell (HNEpC) to the Ti surface. In this study, the authors then treated the anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surface using nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (NPIII) in order to further improve the HNEpC response to the Ti surface. Subsequently, surface characterization was performed to elucidate morphology, roughness, wettability, and chemistry of specimens. Cytotoxicity, blood, and HNEpC responses were also evaluated. Our results demonstrate that NPIII treatment led to the formation of a noncytotoxic TiN-containing thin film (thickness <100 nm) on the electrochemically anodized Ti surface with a nanonetwork-structure. NPIII treatment was shown to improve blood clotting and the adhesion of platelets to the anodized Ti surface as well as the adhesion and proliferation of hNEpC. This research spreads our understanding of the fact that a TiN-containing thin film, produced using NPIII treatment, could be used to improve blood and HNEpC responses to anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surfaces in nasal implant applications.

  10. Investigation of NMR limits of detection for implantable microcoils.

    PubMed

    Baxan, N; Rengle, A; Pasquet, G; Châteaux, J-F; Briguet, A; Morin, P; Fakri-Bouchet, L

    2007-01-01

    Although NMR has the ability to investigate biological systems non-destructively, its low sensitivity primarily has hampered their investigation compared to other analytical techniques. Therefore, optimi zing radio frequency (RF) coils to improve sensitivity do offer benefits in MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sensitivity may be improved for mass- and volume-limited samples if the size of the detection RF coils matches the sample size. In this paper, the mass- and concentration-limit of detection (LOD(m), LOD(c)) for an implantable microcoil will be estimated by MRS measurements and then compared with their analytical values. For a sample containing a solution of several cerebral metabolites, for the Choline case, the LODm is 5.7 . 10(-9)mol and LODc of 3.8 mM. These preliminary results enable to open largely the biomedical applications based on cerebral metabolism investigation on small animal experiments.

  11. Detection and removal of pathogenic biofilms on medical implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Patrick; Oliver, Louise; Byrne, Tony; McAdams, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Advances in sensor technology have had a significant impact in medical research and practice in the last decade. However, within the hospital environment problems still exist where the application of sensing technology could provide the solution. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria within hospitals and the risk of serious infection that they pose is a cause for concern. This paper describes a research project that has recently started at the University of Ulster investigating the potential of "Sense and Destroy" tactics to reduce the spread of medical device related infections. It is proposed that Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) probes implanted within a catheter may be used to detect subclinical biofilm formation. Furthermore, if the presence of a biofilm is detected, activation of a photocatalytic coating on the catheter wall may be used to inactivate the responsible microorganisms.

  12. MIS diode structure in As/+/ implanted CdS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchby, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Structure made by As implantation of carefully prepared high-conductivity CdS surfaces followed by Pt deposition and 450 C anneal display rectifying, although substantially different, I-V characteristics in the dark and during illumination with subband-gap light. Structures prepared in the same way on an unimplanted portion of the substrate have similar I-V characteristics, except that the forward turnover voltage for an illuminated unimplanted diode is much smaller than that for an implanted diode. It is suggested that the charge conduction in both structures is dominated by hole and/or electron tunneling through a metal-semiconductor potential barrier. The tunneling processes appear to be quite sensitive to subband-gap illumination, which causes the dramatic decreases of turnover voltages and apparent series resistances. The difference in turnover voltage appears to be caused by interface states between the Pt electrode and the implanted layer, which suggests a MIS model.

  13. Spectrotemporal Modulation Detection and Speech Perception by Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Ho; Moon, Il Joon; Jin, Sunhwa; Park, Heesung; Woo, Jihwan; Cho, Yang-Sun; Chung, Won-Ho; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Spectrotemporal modulation (STM) detection performance was examined for cochlear implant (CI) users. The test involved discriminating between an unmodulated steady noise and a modulated stimulus. The modulated stimulus presents frequency modulation patterns that change in frequency over time. In order to examine STM detection performance for different modulation conditions, two different temporal modulation rates (5 and 10 Hz) and three different spectral modulation densities (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cycles/octave) were employed, producing a total 6 different STM stimulus conditions. In order to explore how electric hearing constrains STM sensitivity for CI users differently from acoustic hearing, normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners were also tested on the same tasks. STM detection performance was best in NH subjects, followed by HI subjects. On average, CI subjects showed poorest performance, but some CI subjects showed high levels of STM detection performance that was comparable to acoustic hearing. Significant correlations were found between STM detection performance and speech identification performance in quiet and in noise. In order to understand the relative contribution of spectral and temporal modulation cues to speech perception abilities for CI users, spectral and temporal modulation detection was performed separately and related to STM detection and speech perception performance. The results suggest that that slow spectral modulation rather than slow temporal modulation may be important for determining speech perception capabilities for CI users. Lastly, test–retest reliability for STM detection was good with no learning. The present study demonstrates that STM detection may be a useful tool to evaluate the ability of CI sound processing strategies to deliver clinically pertinent acoustic modulation information. PMID:26485715

  14. Spectrotemporal Modulation Detection and Speech Perception by Cochlear Implant Users.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Ho; Moon, Il Joon; Jin, Sunhwa; Park, Heesung; Woo, Jihwan; Cho, Yang-Sun; Chung, Won-Ho; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Spectrotemporal modulation (STM) detection performance was examined for cochlear implant (CI) users. The test involved discriminating between an unmodulated steady noise and a modulated stimulus. The modulated stimulus presents frequency modulation patterns that change in frequency over time. In order to examine STM detection performance for different modulation conditions, two different temporal modulation rates (5 and 10 Hz) and three different spectral modulation densities (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cycles/octave) were employed, producing a total 6 different STM stimulus conditions. In order to explore how electric hearing constrains STM sensitivity for CI users differently from acoustic hearing, normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners were also tested on the same tasks. STM detection performance was best in NH subjects, followed by HI subjects. On average, CI subjects showed poorest performance, but some CI subjects showed high levels of STM detection performance that was comparable to acoustic hearing. Significant correlations were found between STM detection performance and speech identification performance in quiet and in noise. In order to understand the relative contribution of spectral and temporal modulation cues to speech perception abilities for CI users, spectral and temporal modulation detection was performed separately and related to STM detection and speech perception performance. The results suggest that that slow spectral modulation rather than slow temporal modulation may be important for determining speech perception capabilities for CI users. Lastly, test-retest reliability for STM detection was good with no learning. The present study demonstrates that STM detection may be a useful tool to evaluate the ability of CI sound processing strategies to deliver clinically pertinent acoustic modulation information.

  15. Suburothelial Bladder Contraction Detection with Implanted Pressure Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Fletter, Paul C.; Ferry, Elizabeth K.; Zhu, Hui; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Damaser, Margot S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims Managing bladder pressure in patients with neurogenic bladders is needed to improve rehabilitation options, avoid upper tract damage, incontinence, and their associated co-morbidities and mortality. Current methods of determining bladder contractions are not amenable to chronic or ambulatory settings. In this study we evaluated detection of bladder contractions using a novel piezoelectric catheter-free pressure sensor placed in a suburothelial bladder location in animals. Methods Wired prototypes of the pressure monitor were implanted into 2 nonsurvival (feline and canine) and one 13-day survival (canine) animal. Vesical pressures were obtained from the device in both suburothelial and intraluminal locations and simultaneously from a pressure sensing catheter in the bladder. Intravesical pressure was monitored in the survival animal over 10 days from the suburothelial location and necropsy was performed to assess migration and erosion. Results In the nonsurvival animals, the average correlation between device and reference catheter data was high during both electrically stimulated bladder contractions and manual compressions (r = 0.93±0.03, r = 0.89±0.03). Measured pressures correlated strongly (r = 0.98±0.02) when the device was placed in the bladder lumen. The survival animal initially recorded physiologic data, but later this deteriorated. However, endstage intraluminal device recordings correlated (r = 0.85±0.13) with the pressure catheter. Significant erosion of the implant through the detrusor was found. Conclusions This study confirms correlation between suburothelial pressure readings and intravesical bladder pressures. Due to device erosion during ambulatory studies, a wireless implant is recommended for clinical rehabilitation applications. PMID:28060842

  16. Fast element mapping of titanium wear around implants of different surface structures.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Ulrich; Bühner, Martin; Büchter, Andre; Kruse-Lösler, Birgit; Stamm, Thomas; Wiesmann, Hans Peter

    2006-04-01

    The effect of unintended titanium release around oral implants remains a biological concern. The current study was undertaken to evaluate a new detection system of element mapping in biological probes. A new scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy detection method was used to map the features of titanium contamination in peri-implant bone around implants with different surface structures. The amount of titanium wear was highest adjacent to titanium-plasma-sprayed surfaces, followed by sandblastered large grid acid-etched and smooth surfaces. A high sensitivity of titanium detection over large areas of bone tissue was observed. A high spatial resolution of titanium wear particles (20 nm) could be reached and correlated to the ultrastructural morphological features of peri-implant tissue. Cells adjacent to titanium wear revealed no signs of morphological alterations on a nanoscale level at early periods of implant/bone interaction. The new technique may serve as a fast and effective tool to evaluate titanium release effects in biological probes.

  17. A New Ion Implant Monitor Electrical Test Structure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a new Ion Implant Monitor test structure and measurement method is reported. A direct measurement of the sheet resistance of the...probe measurements. Voltage measurements are directly converted to sheet resistance , thus measurements may be performed rapidly.

  18. Method for fabricating MNOS structures utilizing hydrogen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saks, N. S.

    1984-05-01

    An improved method for reducing the density of electronic trapping states and fixed insulator charge in the thin oxide layer of an MNOS structure is discussed. The method includes the steps of implanting hydrogen ions in field region of the oxide layer and annealing the MNOS structure at 400 deg C to cause the ions to diffuse laterally into the gate region of the oxide layer.

  19. Label-free detection of antigens using implantable SERS nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Honggang; Baum, Caitlin E.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2005-11-01

    Monitoring the presence, production and transport of proteins inside individual living cells can provide vital information about cellular signaling pathways and the overall biological response of an organism. For example, cellular response to external stimuli, such as biological warfare (BW) agents, can be monitored by measuring interleukin-II (IL-2) expression inside T-cells as well as other chemical species associated with T-cell activation. By monitoring such species, pre-symptomatic detection of exposure to BW agents can be achieved, leading to significantly increased post-exposure survival rates. To accomplish such monitoring, we have developed and optimized implantable nanosphere-based nanosensors for the intracellular analysis of specific proteins in a label-free fashion. These sensors consist of 300-520 nm diameter silica spheres that have been coated with silver and antibodies to allow for trace protein detection via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). They have been optimized for SERS response by evaluating the size of the nanospheres best suited to 632.8 nm laser excitation, as well as the various nanosensor fabrication steps (i.e., silver deposition process, antibody binding, etc.). During usage, the presence of the specific protein of interest is monitored by either directly measuring SERS signals associated with the protein and/or changes in the SERS spectrum of the antibodies resulting from conformational changes after antigen binding. In this work, human insulin was used as a model compound for initial studies into the sensitivity of these optimized nanosensors.

  20. Electrically detected magnetic resonance in ion-implanted Si:P nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCamey, D. R.; Huebl, H.; Brandt, M. S.; Hutchison, W. D.; McCallum, J. C.; Clark, R. G.; Hamilton, A. R.

    2006-10-01

    The authors present the results of electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) experiments on ion-implanted Si:P nanostructures at 5K, consisting of high-dose implanted metallic leads with a square gap, in which phosphorus is implanted at a nonmetallic dose corresponding to 1017cm-3. By restricting this secondary implant to a 100×100nm2 region, the EDMR signal from less than 100 donors is detected. This technique provides a pathway to the study of single donor spins in semiconductors, which is relevant to a number of proposals for quantum information processing.

  1. Compositional, structural, and optical changes of polyimide implanted by 1.0 MeV Ni+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikšová, R.; Macková, A.; Pupikova, H.; Malinský, P.; Slepička, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2017-09-01

    The ion irradiation leads to deep structural and compositional changes in the irradiated polymers. Ni+ ions implanted polymers were investigated from the structural and compositional changes point of view and their optical properties were investigated. Polyimide (PI) foils were implanted with 1.0 MeV Ni+ ions at room temperature with fluencies of 1.0 × 1013-1.0 × 1015 cm-2 and two different ion implantation currents densities (3.5 and 7.2 nA/cm2). Rutherford Back-Scattering (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) were used for determination of oxygen and hydrogen escape in implanted PI. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to follow surface roughness modification after the ion implantation and UV-Vis spectroscopy was employed to check the optical properties of the implanted PI. The implanted PI structural changes were analysed using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). High energy Ni-ion implantation causes only a minor release of hydrogen and oxygen close to the polymer sub-surface region in about 60 nm thick layer penetrated by the ion beam; especially at ion fluencies below 1.0 × 1014 cm-2. The mostly pronounced structural changes of the Ni implanted PI were found for the samples implanted above ion fluence 1.0 × 1015 cm-2 and at the ion current density 7.2 nA/cm2, where the optical band gap significantly decreases and the reduction of more complex structural unit of PI monomer was observed.

  2. Microbial Profiles and Detection Techniques in Peri-Implant Diseases: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Padial-Molina, Miguel; López-Martínez, Jesús; O’Valle, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To describe the microbial profiles of peri-implant diseases and the main detection methods. Material and Methods A literature search was performed in MEDLINE via PubMed database to identify studies on microbial composition of peri-implant surfaces in humans published in the last 5 years. Studies had to have clear implant status definition for health, peri-implant mucositis and/or peri-implantitis and specifically study microbial composition of the peri-implant sulcus. Results A total of 194 studies were screened and 47 included. Peri-implant sites are reported to be different microbial ecosystems compared to periodontal sites. However, differences between periodontal and peri-implant health and disease are not consistent across all studies, possibly due to the bias introduced by the microbial detection technique. New methods non species-oriented are being used to find ‘unexpected’ microbiota not previously described in these scenarios. Conclusions Microbial profile of peri-implant diseases usually includes classic periodontopathogens. However, correlation between studies is difficult, particularly because of the use of different detection methods. New metagenomic techniques should be promoted for future studies to avoid detection bias. PMID:27833735

  3. Sensing and detection in Medtronic implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark L; Swerdlow, Charles D

    2016-09-01

    Ensuring sensing and detection of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) was a prerequisite for the clinical trials that established the survival benefit of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). However, for decades, a high incidence of unnecessary shocks limited patients' and physicians' acceptance of ICD therapy. Oversensing, misclassification of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) as VT, and self-terminating VT accounted for the vast majority of unnecessary shocks. Medtronic ICDs utilize sensitive baseline settings with minimal blanking periods to ensure accurate sensing of VF, VT, and SVT electrograms. Programmable algorithms reject oversensing caused by far-field R waves, T waves, and non-physiologic signals caused by lead failure. A robust hierarchy of SVT-VT discriminators minimize misclassification of SVT as VT. These features, combined with evidence-based programming, have reduced the 1‑year inappropriate shock rate to 1.5 % for dual-/triple-chamber ICDs and to 2.5 % for single-chamber ICDs.

  4. Defect engineering in the MOSLED structure by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prucnal, S.; Wójtowicz, A.; Pyszniak, K.; Drozdziel, A.; Zuk, J.; Turek, M.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.

    2009-05-01

    When amorphous SiO2 films are bombarded with energetic ions, various types of defects are created as a consequence of ion-solid interaction (peroxy radicals POR, oxygen deficient centres (ODC), non-bridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHC), E‧ centres, etc.). The intensity of the electroluminescence (EL) from oxygen deficiency centres at 2.7 eV, non-bridging oxygen hole centres at 1.9 eV and defect centres with emission at 2.07 eV can be easily modified by the ion implantation of the different elements (H, N, O) into the completely processed MOSLED structure. Nitrogen implanted into the SiO2:Gd layer reduces the concentration of the ODC and NBOHC while the doping of the oxygen increases the EL intensity observed from POR defect and NBOHC. Moreover, after oxygen or hydrogen implantation into the SiO2:Ge structure fourfold or fifth fold increase of the germanium related EL intensity was observed.

  5. Magnetic and structural properties of manganese ion implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awo-Affouda, Chaffra A.

    2007-12-01

    This thesis focuses on semiconductor based spin electronics. The integration of ferromagnetic regions into semiconductor "spintronic" devices to produce spin polarized current is a dynamic research area. One avenue is to make conventional semiconductors ferromagnetic by doping with a transition metal impurity such as Mn. For this, we first investigated the magnetic properties of Mn-implanted Si. We were able to measure above room temperature ferromagnetic hysteresis loops. The high Curie temperature obtained (>400 K), indicated that the synthesis of a technologically useful Si-based magnetic semiconductor is possible. We then focused on studying the structure of the implanted samples in order to establish a correlation between the magnetic and structural properties. The structural investigation involved secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as the main characterization techniques. The combination of the structural and magnetic studies allowed us to isolate an "active" region from which the ferromagnetism originates. We then found that the magnetic properties of the samples are strongly dependant on the interaction of the Mn atoms with the residual implant damage. The evolution of the Mn concentration profiles was also found to be closely related to the distribution of the Si lattice defects. We also observed the formation of Mn rich secondary phases at high enough annealing temperatures >800°C. However, we argued that theses crystallites cannot account for all the observed magnetic properties due to the low Curie temperature of these compounds in bulk form. We concluded that achieving a room temperature Si-based DMS has great potential but careful synthesis of this material system is needed to prevent secondary phase formation.

  6. Structural and electrical properties of In-implanted Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R. Kremer, F.; Mirzaei, S.; Medling, S. A.; Ridgway, M. C.; Sprouster, D. J.; Decoster, S.; Glover, C. J.; Russo, S. P.

    2015-10-28

    We report on the effects of dopant concentration on the structural and electrical properties of In-implanted Ge. For In concentrations of ≤ 0.2 at. %, extended x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements demonstrate that all In atoms occupy a substitutional lattice site while metallic In precipitates are apparent in transmission electron micrographs for In concentrations ≥0.6 at. %. Evidence of the formation of In-vacancy complexes deduced from extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements is complimented by density functional theory simulations. Hall effect measurements of the conductivity, carrier density, and carrier mobility are then correlated with the substitutional In fraction.

  7. Structural and electrical properties of In-implanted Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R.; Kremer, F.; Sprouster, D. J.; Mirzaei, S.; Decoster, S.; Glover, C. J.; Medling, S. A.; Russo, S. P.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2015-10-22

    Here, we report on the effects of dopant concentration on the structural and electrical properties of In-implanted Ge. For In concentrations of ≤ 0.2 at. %, extended x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements demonstrate that all In atoms occupy a substitutional lattice site while metallic In precipitates are apparent in transmission electron micrographs for In concentrations ≥0.6 at. %. Evidence of the formation of In-vacancy complexes deduced from extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements is complimented by density functional theory simulations. Hall effect measurements of the conductivity, carrier density, and carrier mobility are then correlated with the substitutional In fraction.

  8. Structural and electrical properties of In-implanted Ge

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, R.; Kremer, F.; Sprouster, D. J.; ...

    2015-10-22

    Here, we report on the effects of dopant concentration on the structural and electrical properties of In-implanted Ge. For In concentrations of ≤ 0.2 at. %, extended x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements demonstrate that all In atoms occupy a substitutional lattice site while metallic In precipitates are apparent in transmission electron micrographs for In concentrations ≥0.6 at. %. Evidence of the formation of In-vacancy complexes deduced from extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements is complimented by density functional theory simulations. Hall effect measurements of the conductivity, carrier density, and carrier mobility are then correlated withmore » the substitutional In fraction.« less

  9. Assessing the hierarchical structure of titanium implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Jesse L; Greenspan, David C; Tighe, Timothy B; Gilfoy, Nathan; Stapleton, Joshua J

    2016-08-01

    The physical texture of implant surfaces are known to be one important factor in creating a stable bone-implant interface. Simple roughness parameters (for e.g., Sa or Sz) are not entirely adequate when characterizing surfaces possessing hierarchical structure (macro, micro, and nano scales). The aim of this study was to develop an analytical approach to quantify hierarchical surface structure of implant surfaces possessing nearly identical simple roughness. Titanium alloys with macro/micro texture (MM) and macro/micro/nano texture (MMN) were chosen as model surfaces to be evaluated. There was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in either Sa (13.56 vs. 13.43 µm) or Sz (91.74 vs. 92.39 µm) for the MM and MMN surfaces, respectively. However, when advanced filtering algorithms were applied to these datasets, a statistical difference in roughness was found between MM (Sa = 0.54 µm) and MMN (Sa = 1.06 µm; p < 0.05). Additionally, a method was developed to specifically quantify the density of surface features appearing similar in geometry to natural osteoclastic pits. This analysis revealed a significantly greater numbers of these features (i.e., valleys) on the MMN surface as compared to the MM surface. Finally, atomic force microscopy showed a rougher nano-texture on the MMN surface compared with the MM surface (p < 0.05). The results support recent published studies that show a combination of appropriate micron and nano surface results in a more robust cellular response and increased osteoblast differentiation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1083-1090, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Detection of Intracochlear Damage During Cochlear Implant Electrode Insertion using Extracochlear Measurements in the Gerbil

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Faisal I.; Choudhury, Baishakhi; DeMason, Christine E.; Adunka, Oliver F.; Finley, Charles C.; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives An intraoperative monitoring algorithm during cochlear implant electrode insertion could be used to detect trauma and guide electrode placement relative to surviving hair cells. The aim of this report was to assess the feasibility of using extracochlear recording sites to monitor acoustically evoked responses from surviving hair cells and neural elements during implantation in an animal model. Design The normal-hearing gerbil was used. Two recording methods, one using a lock in amplifier and another using Fourier analysis of recorded signals were used to obtain frequency specific information about the responses to tones. Amplitude and threshold determinations were made at the round window and at three extracochlear sites. To induce intracochlear damage, a platinum-iridium wire was inserted through the round window. The wire was advanced and changes in the potentials were correlated with cochlear contact. Anatomical integrity was assessed using cochlea whole mount preparations. Results In general, the lock-in amplifier showed greater sensitivity and lower thresholds at higher frequencies relative to the Fourier method. Also, the lock-in amplifier was more resistant to masking effects. Both systems were able to detect loss of cochlear potentials secondary to intracochlear trauma. Histological damage was seen in all cases and corresponded to electrophysiological changes. Conclusions Impact of electrodes on cochlear structures affecting cochlear performance could be detected from several extracochlear sites. The lock-in amplifier demonstrated greater sensitivity and resistance to noise when compared to the FFT recording paradigm. The latter showed greater flexibility of detecting and separating hair cell and neural potentials. PMID:22252968

  11. Real World Experience With Ion Implant Fault Detection at Freescale Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, David C.; Breeden, Terry; Fakhreddine, Hassan; Gladwin, Steven; Locke, Jason; McHugh, Jim; Rendon, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The Freescale automatic fault detection and classification (FDC) system has logged data from over 3.5 million implants in the past two years. The Freescale FDC system is a low cost system which collects summary implant statistics at the conclusion of each implant run. The data is collected by either downloading implant data log files from the implant tool workstation, or by exporting summary implant statistics through the tool's automation interface. Compared to the traditional FDC systems which gather trace data from sensors on the tool as the implant proceeds, the Freescale FDC system cannot prevent scrap when a fault initially occurs, since the data is collected after the implant concludes. However, the system can prevent catastrophic scrap events due to faults which are not detected for days or weeks, leading to the loss of hundreds or thousands of wafers. At the Freescale ATMC facility, the practical applications of the FD system fall into two categories: PM trigger rules which monitor tool signals such as ion gauges and charge control signals, and scrap prevention rules which are designed to detect specific failure modes that have been correlated to yield loss and scrap. PM trigger rules are designed to detect shifts in tool signals which indicate normal aging of tool systems. For example, charging parameters gradually shift as flood gun assemblies age, and when charge control rules start to fail a flood gun PM is performed. Scrap prevention rules are deployed to detect events such as particle bursts and excessive beam noise, events which have been correlated to yield loss. The FDC system does have tool log-down capability, and scrap prevention rules often use this capability to automatically log the tool into a maintenance state while simultaneously paging the sustaining technician for data review and disposition of the affected product.

  12. Self-powered instrumented knee implant for early detection of postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Almouahed, Shaban; Gouriou, Manuel; Hamitouche, Chafiaa; Stindel, Eric; Roux, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In-vivo measurement of tibiofemoral forces transmitted through Total Knee Replacement (TKR) during normal walking allows the early detection of postoperative complications such as the tibiofemoral misalignment and soft-tissue imbalance. In addition, the in-vivo data can help to improve the design of TKR in order to reduce polyethylene wear and consequently to increase the lifespan of knee implant. A self-powered custom-designed tibial implant instrumented with four piezoceramics has been developed in order to detect the aforementioned complications by measuring the relative change in pressure center (COP) position for different levels of eccentric compressive loading. Moreover, the energy harvested by the piezoceramics can be used to power a transmission system located at the stem of knee implant to wirelessly transmit the in-vivo data outside the implant for further processing and display.

  13. Influence of the chemical nature of implanted ions on the structure of a silicon layer damaged by implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbachev, K. D. Voronova, M. I.; Bublik, V. T.; Mordkovich, V. N. Pazhin, D. M.; Zinenko, V. I.; Agafonov, Yu. A.

    2013-12-15

    The influence of the implantation of silicon single crystals by fluorine, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon ions on the distribution of strain and the static Debye-Waller factor in the crystal lattice over the implanted-layer depth has been investigated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction. The density depth distribution in the surface layer of native oxide has been measured by X-ray reflectometry. Room-temperature implantation conditions have ensured the equality of the suggested ranges of ions of different masses and the energies transferred by them to the target. It is convincingly shown that the change in the structural parameters of the radiation-damaged silicon layer and the native oxide layer depend on the chemical activity of the implanted ions.

  14. Structural defects induced by Fe-ion implantation in TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedahl, B.; Zatsepin, D. A.; Boukhvalov, D. W.; Green, R. J.; McLeod, J. A.; Kim, S. S.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Zhidkov, I. S.; Gavrilov, N. V.; Cholakh, S. O.; Moewes, A.

    2014-02-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy measurements of pellet and thin film forms of TiO2 with implanted Fe ions are presented and discussed. The findings indicate that Fe-implantation in a TiO2 pellet sample induces heterovalent cation substitution (Fe2+ → Ti4+) beneath the surface region. But in thin film samples, the clustering of Fe atoms is primarily detected. In addition to this, significant amounts of secondary phases of Fe3+ are detected on the surface of all doped samples due to oxygen exposure. These experimental findings are compared with density functional theory calculations of formation energies for different configurations of structural defects in the implanted TiO2:Fe system. According to our calculations, the clustering of Fe-atoms in TiO2:Fe thin films can be attributed to the formation of combined substitutional and interstitial defects. Further, the differences due to Fe doping in pellet and thin film samples can ultimately be attributed to different surface to volume ratios.

  15. A hardware-algorithm co-design approach to optimize seizure detection algorithms for implantable applications.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Shriram; Gupta, Sumeet K; Markandeya, Himanshu S; Roy, Kaushik; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2010-10-30

    Implantable neural prostheses that deliver focal electrical stimulation upon demand are rapidly emerging as an alternate therapy for roughly a third of the epileptic patient population that is medically refractory. Seizure detection algorithms enable feedback mechanisms to provide focally and temporally specific intervention. Real-time feasibility and computational complexity often limit most reported detection algorithms to implementations using computers for bedside monitoring or external devices communicating with the implanted electrodes. A comparison of algorithms based on detection efficacy does not present a complete picture of the feasibility of the algorithm with limited computational power, as is the case with most battery-powered applications. We present a two-dimensional design optimization approach that takes into account both detection efficacy and hardware cost in evaluating algorithms for their feasibility in an implantable application. Detection features are first compared for their ability to detect electrographic seizures from micro-electrode data recorded from kainate-treated rats. Circuit models are then used to estimate the dynamic and leakage power consumption of the compared features. A score is assigned based on detection efficacy and the hardware cost for each of the features, then plotted on a two-dimensional design space. An optimal combination of compared features is used to construct an algorithm that provides maximal detection efficacy per unit hardware cost. The methods presented in this paper would facilitate the development of a common platform to benchmark seizure detection algorithms for comparison and feasibility analysis in the next generation of implantable neuroprosthetic devices to treat epilepsy.

  16. Detecting internally symmetric protein structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhoon; Basner, Jodi; Lee, Byungkook

    2010-06-03

    Many functional proteins have a symmetric structure. Most of these are multimeric complexes, which are made of non-symmetric monomers arranged in a symmetric manner. However, there are also a large number of proteins that have a symmetric structure in the monomeric state. These internally symmetric proteins are interesting objects from the point of view of their folding, function, and evolution. Most algorithms that detect the internally symmetric proteins depend on finding repeating units of similar structure and do not use the symmetry information. We describe a new method, called SymD, for detecting symmetric protein structures. The SymD procedure works by comparing the structure to its own copy after the copy is circularly permuted by all possible number of residues. The procedure is relatively insensitive to symmetry-breaking insertions and deletions and amplifies positive signals from symmetry. It finds 70% to 80% of the TIM barrel fold domains in the ASTRAL 40 domain database and 100% of the beta-propellers as symmetric. More globally, 10% to 15% of the proteins in the ASTRAL 40 domain database may be considered symmetric according to this procedure depending on the precise cutoff value used to measure the degree of perfection of the symmetry. Symmetrical proteins occur in all structural classes and can have a closed, circular structure, a cylindrical barrel-like structure, or an open, helical structure. SymD is a sensitive procedure for detecting internally symmetric protein structures. Using this procedure, we estimate that 10% to 15% of the known protein domains may be considered symmetric. We also report an initial, overall view of the types of symmetries and symmetric folds that occur in the protein domain structure universe.

  17. Detecting internally symmetric protein structures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many functional proteins have a symmetric structure. Most of these are multimeric complexes, which are made of non-symmetric monomers arranged in a symmetric manner. However, there are also a large number of proteins that have a symmetric structure in the monomeric state. These internally symmetric proteins are interesting objects from the point of view of their folding, function, and evolution. Most algorithms that detect the internally symmetric proteins depend on finding repeating units of similar structure and do not use the symmetry information. Results We describe a new method, called SymD, for detecting symmetric protein structures. The SymD procedure works by comparing the structure to its own copy after the copy is circularly permuted by all possible number of residues. The procedure is relatively insensitive to symmetry-breaking insertions and deletions and amplifies positive signals from symmetry. It finds 70% to 80% of the TIM barrel fold domains in the ASTRAL 40 domain database and 100% of the beta-propellers as symmetric. More globally, 10% to 15% of the proteins in the ASTRAL 40 domain database may be considered symmetric according to this procedure depending on the precise cutoff value used to measure the degree of perfection of the symmetry. Symmetrical proteins occur in all structural classes and can have a closed, circular structure, a cylindrical barrel-like structure, or an open, helical structure. Conclusions SymD is a sensitive procedure for detecting internally symmetric protein structures. Using this procedure, we estimate that 10% to 15% of the known protein domains may be considered symmetric. We also report an initial, overall view of the types of symmetries and symmetric folds that occur in the protein domain structure universe. PMID:20525292

  18. Carbon nanotubes implanted manganese-based MOFs for simultaneous detection of biomolecules in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Qiang; Ye, Cui; Bao, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Ya-Nan; Xu, Mao-wen

    2016-02-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently attracted much interest in electrochemical fields due to their controlled porosity, large internal surface area, and countless structural topologies. However, the direct application of single component MOFs is limited since they also exhibit poor electronic conductivity, low mechanical stability, and inferior electrocatalytic ability. To overcome these problems, we implanted multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into manganese-based metal-organic frameworks (Mn-BDC) using a one-step solvothermal method and found that the introduction of MWCNTs can initiate the splitting of bulky Mn-BDC into thin layers. This splitting is highly significant in that it enhances the electronic conductivity and electrocatalytic ability of Mn-BDC. The constructed Mn-BDC@MWCNT composites were utilized as an electrode modifying material in the fabrication of an electrochemical sensor and then were used successfully for the determination of biomolecules in human body fluid. The sensor displayed successful detection performance with wide linear detection ranges (0.1-1150, 0.01-500, and 0.02-1100 μM for AA, DA and UA, respectively) and low limits of detection (0.01, 0.002, and 0.005 μM for AA, DA and UA, respectively); thus, this preliminary study presents an electrochemical biosensor constructed with a novel electrode modifying material that exhibits superior potential for the practical detection of AA, DA and UA in urine samples.

  19. The relationship between structures and in vitro properties of a polyanhydride implant containing gentamicin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Deng, J S; Li, L; Tian, Y; Meisters, M; Chang, H C; Stephens, D; Chen, S; Robinson, D

    2001-11-01

    Laboratory scale injection-molding equipment was utilized to fabricate an implant consisting of poly(FAD:SA 1:1) and 20% (w/w) gentamicin sulfate. Characterizations were performed to determine the molecular weight and glass transition temperature of poly(FAD:SA 1:1). A study was carried out to investigate the relationships between the in vitro performance, morphology, and micro-structures of the molded implants. It was found that implants produced with different structures exhibited different physical integrities in water, i.e., cracking or non-cracking. For the non-cracking implants, a skin-core structure formed by an oriented skin layer was observed under a polarized light microscope. The same morphology was not seen in the cracking implants. The crystal orientation in the skin layer of the non-cracking implants was further identified using a wide-angle x-ray diffraction method (WAXD). No crystal orientation could be found in the cracking implants by WAXD. Furthermore, studies were carried out to evaluate the in vitro drug release for implants showing different degrees of integrity in water. The in vitro drug release of the cracking implants was markedly faster than that of the non-cracking implants due to the pronounced initial drug-burst effect as a result of crack formation in the implants.

  20. Seizure detection methods using a cascade architecture for real-time implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehoon; Artan, N Sertac; Selesnick, Ivan W; Chao, H Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Implantable high-accuracy, and low-power seizure detection is a challenge. In this paper, we propose a cascade architecture to combine different seizure detection algorithms to optimize power and accuracy of the overall seizure detection system. The proposed architecture consists of a cascade of two seizure detection stages. In the first-stage detector, a lightweight (low-power) algorithm is used to detect seizure candidates with the understanding that there will be a high number of false positives. In the second-stage detector-and only for the seizure candidates detected in the first detector-a high-accuracy algorithm is used to eliminate the false positives. We show that the proposed cascade architecture can reduce power consumption of seizure detection by 80% with high accuracy, offering a suitable option for real-time implantable seizure detectors.

  1. Detection and manipulation of sychronization processes during depth electrode implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiek, Michael; Zimmermann, Egon; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Sturm, Volker; Tass, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Population of phase oscillators can effectively be desynchronized with composite stimulation techniques using stochastic phase resetting principles [1]. This approach is used to design the first model-based demand controlled deep brain stimulation techniques for the therapy of neurological diseases like Parkinson's disease. We report on first tests of these novel techniques performed in patients during electrode implantation. [1] P.A. Tass: Europhys.Lett. 53(2001) 15-21; 55(2001) 171-177; Biol. Cybern. 85(2001) 343-354

  2. Compatibility of Radiofrequency Surgical Sponge Detection Technology with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices and Temporary Pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Jonathan D; Pretorius, Victor G; Hsu, Jonathan C; Lalani, Gautam G; Schricker, Amir A; Hebsur, Shrinivas M; McGARRY, Thomas J; Hunter, Jessica A; Lewis, Kathryn E; Krummen, David E; Feld, Gregory K; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika

    2016-11-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) technology has improved detection of retained surgical sponges with a reported 100% sensitivity and specificity. However, the potential for interactions of the RF signals emitted by the detection system with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) or temporary pacemakers may limit its use in those patients with these devices. This study investigated whether RF detection technology causes interference or clinically significant changes in the programmed settings of implanted pacemakers and defibrillators or temporary epicardial pacemakers. Fifty patients who were scheduled either for CIED removal or placement of a temporary epicardial pacemaker (at the time of open heart surgery) were recruited for this study. Device settings and measurements from separate interrogations before and after scanning with the RF detection system were compared. For the temporary pacemakers, we observed for any changes in hemodynamics or signs of pacing interference. Twenty (40%) pacemakers, 20 (40%) implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and 10 (20%) temporary pacemakers were analyzed in this study. During scanning, no signal interference was detected in any permanent device, and there were no significant changes in programmed settings after scanning with the RF detection system. However, pacing inhibition was detected with temporary pacing systems when programmed to a synchronous mode (DDD). RF detection technology can be safely used to scan for retained surgical sponges in patients with permanent CIEDs and temporary pacemakers set to asynchronous mode. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The generation, detection and measurement of laser-induced carbon plasma ions and their implantation effects on brass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia; Shahid Rafique, M.; Yousaf, Daniel; Ahmad, Riaz

    2016-05-01

    The generation, detection and measurement of laser-induced carbon plasma ions and their implantation effects on brass substrate have been investigated. Thomson parabola technique was employed to measure the energy and flux of carbon ions. The magnetic field of strength 80 mT was applied on the graphite plasma plume to provide an appropriate trajectory to the generated ions. The energy of carbon ions is 678 KeV for laser fluence of 5.1 J/cm2 which was kept constant for all exposures. The flux of ions varies from 32 × 1011 to 72 × 1014 ions/cm2 for varying numbers of laser pulses from 3000 to 12,000. In order to explore the ion irradiation effects on brass, four brass substrates were irradiated by carbon ions of different flux. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) are used to analyze the surface morphology and crystallographic structure of ion-implanted brass, respectively. SEM analysis reveals the formation and growth of nano-/micro-sized cavities, pores and pits for the various ion flux for varying numbers of laser pulses from 3000 to 12,000. By increasing ion flux by increasing the number of pulses up to 9000 shots, the dendritic structures initiate to grow along with cavities and pores. At the maximum ion flux for 12,000 shots, the unequiaxed dendritic structures become distinct and the distance between the dendrites is decreased, whereas cavities, pores and pits are completely finished. The XRD analysis reveals that a new phase of ZnC (0012) is formed in the brass substrate after ion implantation. Universal tensile testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester are used to explore the yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and microhardness of ion-implanted brass substrate. The mechanical properties monotonically increase by increasing the ion flux. Variations in mechanical properties are correlated with surface and structural modifications of brass.

  4. The effect of breast implants on the radiographic detection of microcalcification and soft-tissue masses.

    PubMed

    Gumucio, C A; Pin, P; Young, V L; Destouet, J; Monsees, B; Eichling, J

    1989-11-01

    Current implants for breast augmentation containing silicone gel, saline, or both can totally obscure mammographic detection of microcalcifications and soft-tissue masses. To investigate the possibility of developing a more radiolucent implant, radiographs were obtained of silicone shells that contained silicone gel, saline, silicone gel and saline, polyurethane-covered silicone gel, gelatin, sunflower oil, and peanut oil. All radiographs were obtained using a Siemens Mammomat by placing the implant over an American College of Radiology mammography phantom. Results were measured by the ability to visualize or resolve the artifacts in the mammography phantom. The silicone shell alone minimally altered artifact resolution. Silicone shells filled with silicone gel, silicone gel and saline, saline alone, polyurethane-covered silicone gel, and gelatin were equal in radiodensity and completely obscured all phantom artifacts. Silicone shells filled with peanut oil and sunflower oil had equal radiodensity and allowed visualization of large microcalcifications and some soft-tissue masses. Current implants used for augmentation mammaplasty can totally obscure mammographic detection of microcalcifications and soft-tissue masses. A more radiolucent breast implant is possible, and further research is needed to define the best filler material and test its biocompatibility.

  5. True bipolar and integrated bipolar sensing and detection by implantable defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Verga, Trevor A; Gillberg, Jeffrey M; Greenberg, Richard M; Deger, Florin T

    2011-11-01

    Sensing and detection can be performed in true bipolar or integrated bipolar configuration by implantable defibrillators. New Medtronic generators (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) can be configured so that the sensing function of the device can be either true bipolar or integrated bipolar. We compared the sinus rhythm R-wave amplitude and detection time of induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) at implant (acute phase), and sinus rhythm R-wave amplitude 3 months or more after the implant (chronic phase) in these two configurations. Twenty-eight patients were studied in the acute phase, and a subgroup of 15 patients was tested in the chronic phase. The generators were Medtronic model numbers D224VRC, D224TRK, D224DRG, D284VRC, D284TRK, and D284DRG. The leads were Medtronic 6947 or 6935. Sensing was evaluated by recording the electrogram and measuring the R-wave peak-to-peak amplitude in the two configurations. Detection was evaluated by measuring the detection time in the two configurations in two consecutive inductions. The detection time was measured on programmer paper from the marker of the T shock to the marker of VF. The acute-phase values were: R wave in true bipolar configuration 13.9 ± 7.1 mV, R wave in integrated bipolar configuration 13.6 ± 6.9 mV (p = 0.38),VF detection time in true bipolar configuration 3.12 ± 0.39 seconds, and VF detection time in integrated bipolar configuration 3.17 ± 0.39 seconds (p = 0.52). Sensing and detection at implant were not significantly different between the true bipolar and the integrated bipolar configurations for the tested leads and generators.

  6. SIMS depth profiling of implanted helium in pure iron using CsHe+ detection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefaix-Jeuland, H.; Moll, S.; Legendre, F.; Jomard, F.

    2013-01-01

    Helium distribution in implanted monocrystalline and polycrystalline Fe samples has been measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The use of Cs+ primary ions in conjunction with the detection of CsHe+ molecular ions was shown to be an efficient method to overcome the very high first ionization potential of helium. The implantation ranges of 60 keV He ions in samples are measured about 220 nm in agreement with projected ranges calculated by TRIM. He concentrations at or above 5 × 1018 at/cm3 (˜60 ppm) were measured. This study confirms the paramount interest of SIMS as a direct He depth profiling technique.

  7. Charge transport and storage in ion implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augulis, L.; Pranevičius, L.; Vosylius, J.

    A physical model that predicts charge accumulation in MOS structures with implanted SiO 2 is investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that, to achieve memory effects, MOS structures have to include a SiO 2 layer with different conduction mechanism along its thickness. The sign of the flat-band voltage shift depends on the localization of traps in oxide created by ion implantation. The time characteristics of charge accumulation and discharging of implanted SiO 2 by the pulses of applied voltage are similar to those observed in MNOS structures.

  8. Electrochemical detection of arsenic(III) using iridium-implanted boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Sato, Rika; Makide, Yoshihiro; Fujishima, Akira; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2006-09-15

    Iridium-modified, boron-doped diamond electrodes fabricated by an ion implantation method have been developed for electrochemical detection of arsenite (As(III)). Ir+ ions were implanted with an energy of 800 keV and a dose of 10(15) ion cm(-2). An annealing treatment at 850 degrees C for 45 min in H2 plasma (80 Torr) was required to rearrange metastable diamond produced by an implantation process. Characterization was investigated by SEM, AFM, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and flow injection analysis with amperometric detection were used to study the electrochemical reaction. The electrodes exhibited high catalytic activity toward As(III) oxidation with the detection limit (S/N = 3), sensitivity, and linearity of 20 nM (1.5 ppb), 93 nA microM(-1) cm(-2), and 0.999, respectively. The precision for 10 replicate determinations of 50 microM As(III) was 4.56% relative standard deviation. The advantageous properties of the electrodes were its inherent stability with a very low background current. The electrode was applicable for analysis of spiked arsenic in tap water containing a significant amount of various ion elements. The results indicate that the metal-implanted method could be promising for controlling the electrochemical properties of diamond electrodes.

  9. Interference detection in implantable defibrillators induced by therapeutic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Uiterwaal, G.J.; Springorum, B.G.F.; Scheepers, E.; de Ruiter, G.S.; Hurkmans, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Electromagnetic fields and ionising radiation during radiotherapy can influence the functioning of ICDs. Guidelines for radiotherapy treatment were published in 1994, but only based on experience with pacemakers. Data on the influence of radiotherapy on ICDs is limited. Objectives We determined the risk to ICDs of interference detection induced by radiotherapy. Methods In our study we irradiated 11 ICDs. The irradiation was performed with a 6 megavolt photon beam. In each individual device test, a total of 20 Gray was delivered in a fractionated fashion. During each irradiation the output stimulation rate was monitored and electrogram storage was activated. In case of interference the test was repeated with the ICD outside and the lead(s) inside and outside the irradiation field. Results With the ICD inside the irradiation field, interference detection was observed in all ICDs. This caused pacing inhibition or rapid ventricular pacing. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) detection occurred, which would have caused tachycardia-terminating therapy. If the ICD was placed outside the irradiation field, no interference was observed. Conclusion Interference by ionising radiation on the ICDs is demonstrated both on bradycardia and tachycardia therapy. This can have consequences for patients. Recommendations for radiotherapy are presented in this article. ImagesFigure 1Figure 5 PMID:25696559

  10. Detection and classification of multiple finger movements using a chronically implanted Utah Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joshua; Baker, Justin; House, Paul; Greger, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    The ability to detect and classify individual and combined finger movements from neural data is rapidly advancing. The work that has been done has demonstrated the feasibility of decoding finger movements from acutely recorded neurons. There is a need for a recording model that meets the chronic requirements of a neuroprosthetic application and to address this need we have developed an algorithm that can detect and classify individual and combined finger movements using neuronal data acquired from a chronically implanted Utah Electrode Array (UEA). The algorithm utilized the firing rates of individual neurons and performed with an average sensitivity and an average specificity that were both greater than 92% across all movement types. These results lend further support that a chronically implanted UEA is suitable for acquiring and decoding neuronal data and also demonstrate a decoding method that can detect and classify finger movements without any a priori knowledge of the data, task, or behavior.

  11. Structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline alumina implanted with Ti + and Cr +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halitim, F.; Ikhlef, N.; Mesghouni, T.; Kherrat, R.; Fantozzi, G.

    1997-01-01

    In ion implantation, the interaction between the ions and target atoms result in modifications to the crystallographic structure of the implanted substrate. The chemical nature of the implanted ion can in certain cases, if thermal treatments after implantation are done, produce a chemical composite of two oxides types. The crystallographic modifications can produce an enhancement of the surface mechanical properties. Polycrystalline alumina was implanted with Ti or Cr ions at 110 keV and heat treated at a series of temperatures. We have examined the resulting implanted layers by the following analysis techniques: Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), to obtain the as-implanted profiles, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), for investigation the chemical composite formation on the surface, and finally grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GXRD), for determination of the crystallographic nature of the precipitates. By the Vickers indentation method, using different loads we determined the hardness and the fracture toughness of the implanted layer. The residual surface compressive stresses produced by these implantations, were measured by the Lawn and Fuller [1] technique.

  12. Amplitude Modulation Detection and Speech Recognition in Late-Implanted Prelingually and Postlingually Deafened Cochlear Implant Users.

    PubMed

    De Ruiter, Anke M; Debruyne, Joke A; Chenault, Michelene N; Francart, Tom; Brokx, Jan P L

    2015-01-01

    Many late-implanted prelingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) patients struggle to obtain open-set speech understanding. Because it is known that low-frequency temporal-envelope information contains important cues for speech understanding, the goal of this study was to compare the temporal-envelope processing abilities of late-implanted prelingually and postlingually deafened CI users. Furthermore, the possible relation between temporal processing abilities and speech recognition performances was investigated. Amplitude modulation detection thresholds were obtained in eight prelingually and 18 postlingually deafened CI users, by means of a sinusoidally modulated broadband noise carrier, presented through a loudspeaker to the CI user's clinical device. Thresholds were determined with a two-down-one-up three-interval oddity adaptive procedure, at seven modulation frequencies. Phoneme recognition (consonant-nucleus-consonant [CNC]) scores (percentage correct at 65 dB SPL) were gathered for all CI users. For the prelingually deafened group, scores on two additional speech tests were obtained: (1) a closed-set monosyllable-trochee-spondee test (percentage correct scores at 65 dB SPL on word recognition and categorization of the suprasegmental word patterns), and (2) a speech tracking test (number of correctly repeated words per minute) with texts specifically designed for this population. The prelingually deafened CI users had a significantly lower sensitivity to amplitude modulations than the postlingually deafened CI users, and the attenuation rate of their temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) was greater. None of the prelingually deafened CI users were able to detect modulations at 150 and 200 Hz. High and significant correlations were found between the results on the amplitude modulation detection test and CNC phoneme scores, for the entire group of CI users. In the prelingually deafened group, CNC phoneme scores, word scores on the monosyllable

  13. Towards a bimodal proximity sensor for in situ neurovascular bundle detection during dental implant surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jessie R.; Baribeau, François; Grenier, Paul; Émond, Frédéric; Dubois, Sylvain; Duchesne, François; Girard, Marc; Pope, Timothy; Gallant, Pascal; Mermut, Ozzy; Moghadam, Hassan Ghaderi

    2013-01-01

    Proof of concept results are presented towards an in situ bimodal proximity sensor for neurovascular bundle detection during dental implant surgery using combined near infrared absorption (NIR) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques. These modalities are shown to have different sensitivity to the proximity of optical contrast from neurovascular bundles. NIR AC and DC signals from the pulsing of an artery enable qualitative ranging of the bundle in the millimeter range, with best sensitivity around 0.5-3mm distance in a custom phantom setup. OCT provides structural mapping of the neurovascular bundle at sub-millimeter distances in an ex vivo human jaw bone. Combining the two techniques suggests a novel ranging system for the surgeon that could be implemented in a “smart drill.” The proximity to the neurovascular bundle can be tracked in real time in the range of a few millimeters with NIR signals, after which higher resolution imaging OCT to provide finer ranging in the sub-millimeter distances. PMID:24466473

  14. Structure analysis of bimetallic Co-Au nanoparticles formed by sequential ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-jian; Wang, Yu-hua; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Song, Shu-peng; chen, Hong; Zhang, Ke; Xiong, Zu-zhao; Ji, Ling-ling; Dai, Hou-mei; Wang, Deng-jing; Lu, Jian-duo; Wang, Ru-wu; Zheng, Li-rong

    2016-08-01

    Co-Au alloy Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are formed by sequential ion implantation of Co and Au into silica glass at room temperature. The ion ranges of Au ions implantation process have been displayed to show the ion distribution. We have used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to study the local structural information of bimetallic nanoparticles. With the increase of Au ion implantation, the local environments of Co ions are changed enormously. Hence, three oscillations, respectively, Co-O, Co-Co and Co-Au coordination are determined.

  15. Shallow nitrogen ion implantation: Evolution of chemical state and defect structure in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manojkumar, P. A.; Chirayath, V. A.; Balamurugan, A. K.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Ilango, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Amarendra, G.; Tyagi, A. K.; Raj, Baldev

    2016-09-01

    Evolution of chemical states and defect structure in titanium during low energy nitrogen ion implantation by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) process is studied. The underlying process of chemical state evolution is investigated using secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The implantation induced defect structure evolution as a function of dose is elucidated using variable energy positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (PAS) and the results were corroborated with chemical state. Formation of 3 layers of defect state was modeled to fit PAS results.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of early detection of atrial fibrillation via remote control of implanted devices.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, Giulia; Folino, Franco; Soriani, Nicola; Iliceto, Sabino; Gregori, Dario

    2014-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent risk factor for stroke, and its incidence is high in patients implanted with pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The aim of our study is to evaluate the potential benefit of remote control (RC) on the incidence of stroke related to AF in patients with new-onset AF implanted with PMs and ICDs and to evaluate the impact of RC on the consumption of medical resources. The study consisted of two cohorts of patients: group AMB (patients attending ambulatory care clinics from August to October 2013) and group RC (patients followed remotely). All detected cases of new-onset AF were confirmed by the electrogram stored in the device's memory or by standard electrocardiogram recording. Monte Carlo simulations were performed in order to evaluate the potential risk reduction of stroke related to AF. The costs were estimated from the perspectives of the hospital, the patients and the National Health Service. We enrolled 223 patients in group RC and 359 in group AMB. We detected 20 new-onset cases of AF, and the median time to AF detection was 2 days in the RC and 78 days in the ambulatory care clinic control. Management of patients was more efficient with RC, with an average savings in direct costs of €40.88 per year per patient. Through the use of Monte Carlo simulations, we showed that the early detection of new-onset AF may provide a relative risk reduction of 94.3% for stroke in PM-implanted patients older than 55 years. RC potentially provides a risk reduction for stroke because it allows an early detection of new-onset AF. Moreover, it is also a cost-saving means of follow-up. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Integrated contour detection and pose estimation for fluoroscopic analysis of knee implants.

    PubMed

    Prins, A H; Kaptein, B L; Stoel, B C; Nelissen, R G H H; Reiber, J H C; Valstar, E R

    2011-08-01

    With fluoroscopic analysis of knee implant kinematics the implant contour must be detected in each image frame, followed by estimation of the implant pose. With a large number of possibly low-quality images, the contour detection is a time-consuming bottleneck. The present paper proposes an automated contour detection method, which is integrated in the pose estimation. In a phantom experiment the automated method was compared with a standard method, which uses manual selection of correct contour parts. Both methods demonstrated comparable precision, with a minor difference in the Y-position (0.08 mm versus 0.06 mm). The precision of each method was so small (below 0.2 mm and 0.3 degrees) that both are sufficiently accurate for clinical research purposes. The efficiency of both methods was assessed on six clinical datasets. With the automated method the observer spent 1.5 min per image, significantly less than 3.9 min with the standard method. A Bland-Altman analysis between the methods demonstrated no discernible trends in the relative femoral poses. The threefold increase in efficiency demonstrates that a pose estimation approach with integrated contour detection is more intuitive than a standard method. It eliminates most of the manual work in fluoroscopic analysis, with sufficient precision for clinical research purposes.

  18. Structural characterization of high-dose C ++N + ion-implanted (1 1 1) Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbadillo, L.; Hernández, M. J.; Cervera, M.; Rodríguez, P.; Piqueras, J.; Molina, S. I.; Morales, F. M.; Araújo, D.

    2001-11-01

    (1 1 1) silicon wafers were implanted with high ion doses of C +,N + and C ++N +, from 1×10 16 to 6.7×10 17 cm-2, well over the amorphization dose. For the largest dose, the mean impurity concentration in the implanted region (of about 1000 Å) at 30 keV is expected to be similar to the Si atom density. Silicon nitride and silicon carbide formation is detected in the as-implanted samples. After annealing at 1200 °C a trend to segregation of Si 3N 4 and SiC in separated layers is observed, and a polycrystalline Si overlayer is formed.

  19. A micro-structured ion-implanted magnonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Obry, Bjoern; Pirro, Philipp; Chumak, Andrii V.; Ciubotaru, Florin; Serga, Alexander A.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Braecher, Thomas; Osten, Julia; Fassbender, Juergen

    2013-05-20

    We investigate spin-wave propagation in a microstructured magnonic-crystal waveguide fabricated by localized ion implantation. The irradiation caused a periodic variation in the saturation magnetization along the waveguide. As a consequence, the spin-wave transmission spectrum exhibits a set of frequency bands, where spin-wave propagation is suppressed. A weak modification of the saturation magnetization by 7% is sufficient to decrease the spin-wave transmission in the band gaps by a factor of 10. These results evidence the applicability of localized ion implantation for the fabrication of efficient micron- and nano-sized magnonic crystals for magnon spintronic applications.

  20. Structural transformations in austenitic stainless steel induced by deuterium implantation: irradiation at 100 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleksandr; Zhurba, Volodymyr; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mats, Oleksandr; Rud, Aleksandr; Chernyak, Nikolay; Progolaieva, Viktoria

    2015-03-01

    Deuterium thermal desorption spectra were investigated on the samples of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi preimplanted at 100 K with deuterium ions in the dose range from 3 × 1015 to 5 × 1018 D/cm2. The kinetics of structural transformation development in the implantation steel layer was traced from deuterium thermodesorption spectra as a function of implanted deuterium concentration. At saturation of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi with deuterium by means of ion implantation, structural-phase changes take place, depending on the dose of implanted deuterium. The maximum attainable concentration of deuterium in steel is C = 1 (at.D/at.met. = 1/1). The increase in the implanted dose of deuterium is accompanied by the increase in the retained deuterium content, and as soon as the deuterium concentration attains C ≈ 0.5 the process of shear martensitic structural transformation in steel takes place. It includes the formation of bands, body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. Upon reaching the deuterium concentration C > 0.5, the presence of these molecules causes shear martensitic structural transformations in the steel, which include the formation of characteristic bands, bcc crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. At C ≥ 0.5, two hydride phases are formed in the steel, the decay temperatures of which are 240 and 275 K. The hydride phases are formed in the bcc structure resulting from the martensitic structural transformation in steel.

  1. Implantable defibrillators with enhanced detection algorithms: detection performance and safety results from the PainFree SST study.

    PubMed

    Wollmann, Christian G; Lawo, Thomas; Kühlkamp, Volker; Becker, Rüdiger; Garutti, Claudio; Jackson, Troy; Brown, Mark L; Mayr, Harald

    2014-09-01

    Implantable defibrillators (ICD) are highly effective in reducing arrhythmia-related mortality. ICD shock therapy has been shown to increase psychological distress, health care utilization, and is associated with increased mortality. The Protecta ICDs (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) have algorithms designed to reduce unnecessary and inappropriate shock therapy. The PainFree SmartShock™ Technology (PainFree SST) study is a prospective, multicenter, clinical trial with two consecutive phases, a premarket phase safety study and a postmarket phase effectiveness study. We report the results of the PainFree SST safety study. The premarket phase aimed to investigate safety in the first year postimplant, and to determine if the novel algorithms (T-wave discrimination, right ventricular lead noise discrimination and confirmation+) affect appropriate ventricular fibrillation (VF) detection. Patients (total: n = 246 [male 78%, mean age 63 year, primary prevention indication in 76%]) were implanted either with a Protecta XT dual-chamber ICD (n = 114 [46%]) or a defibrillator with cardiac resynchronization therapy (n = 132 [54%]). Appropriate VF detection was measured during VF induction at implantation when the novel algorithms were programmed ON. A two-second delay in VF detection was classified as clinically significant. No delay in VF detection was observed with all algorithms programmed ON. No unanticipated serious adverse device effects occurred during first year postimplant. The results of the premarket phase of the PainFree SST trial demonstrate the safety of the Protecta XT defibrillators. Detection of induced VF was not delayed with SmartShock™ algorithms ON. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The local structure and ferromagnetism in Fe-implanted SrTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobacheva, O.; Chavarha, M.; Yiu, Y. M.; Sham, T. K.; Goncharova, L. V.

    2014-07-01

    We report a connection between the local structure of low-level Fe impurities and vacancies as the cause of ferromagnetic behavior observed in strontium titanate single crystals (STO), which were implanted with Fe and Si ions at different doses then annealed in oxygen. The effects of Fe doping and post-implantation annealing of STO were studied by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device magnetometry. XANES spectra for Fe and Ti K- and L-edge reveal the changes in the local environment of Fe and Ti following the implantation and annealing steps. The annealing in oxygen atmosphere partially healed implantation damages and changed the oxidation state of the implanted iron from metallic Fe0 to Fe2+/Fe3+ oxide. The STO single crystals were weak ferromagnets prior to implantation. The maximum saturation moment was obtained after our highest implantation dose of 2 × 1016 Fe atom/cm2, which could be correlated with the metallic Fe0 phases in addition to the presence of O/Ti vacancies. After recrystallization annealing, the ferromagnetic response disappears. Iron oxide phases with Fe2+ and Fe3+ corresponding to this regime were identified and confirmed by calculations using Real Space Multiple Scattering program (FEFF9).

  3. The local structure and ferromagnetism in Fe-implanted SrTiO₃ single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lobacheva, O. Chavarha, M.; Yiu, Y. M.; Sham, T. K.; Goncharova, L. V.

    2014-07-07

    We report a connection between the local structure of low-level Fe impurities and vacancies as the cause of ferromagnetic behavior observed in strontium titanate single crystals (STO), which were implanted with Fe and Si ions at different doses then annealed in oxygen. The effects of Fe doping and post-implantation annealing of STO were studied by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device magnetometry. XANES spectra for Fe and Ti K- and L-edge reveal the changes in the local environment of Fe and Ti following the implantation and annealing steps. The annealing in oxygen atmosphere partially healed implantation damages and changed the oxidation state of the implanted iron from metallic Fe⁰ to Fe²⁺/Fe³⁺ oxide. The STO single crystals were weak ferromagnets prior to implantation. The maximum saturation moment was obtained after our highest implantation dose of 2×10¹⁶ Fe atom/cm², which could be correlated with the metallic Fe⁰ phases in addition to the presence of O/Ti vacancies. After recrystallization annealing, the ferromagnetic response disappears. Iron oxide phases with Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ corresponding to this regime were identified and confirmed by calculations using Real Space Multiple Scattering program (FEFF9).

  4. Implantable neural spike detection using lifting-based stationary wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuning; Mason, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Spike detection from high data rate neural recordings is desired to ease the bandwidth bottleneck of bio-telemetry. An appropriate spike detection method should be able to detect spikes under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) while meeting the power and area constraints of implantation. This paper introduces a spike detection system utilizing lifting-based stationary wavelet transform (SWT) that decomposes neural signals into 2 levels using 'symmlet2' wavelet basis. This approach enables accurate spike detection down to an SNR of only 2. The lifting-based SWT architecture permits a hardware implementation consuming only 6.6 μW power and 0.07 mm(2) area for 32 channels with 3.2 MHz master clock.

  5. Analysis of ion-implanted surface and interface structures by computer-simulated backscattering spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Y.; Kakeno, M.; Yamada, K.; Kawamoto, J.; Ohsawa, H.

    1985-10-01

    Computer codes for synthesizing random and channeling backscattering spectra have been elaborated to characterize the surface and interface structures formed or modified by ion implantation. Both effects of isotopes and energy fluctuation are taken into account in the spectrum simulation. This backscattering measurement combined with the simulation method is applied to characterization of the N(+)-implanted Al films and to quantitative analysis of chemical reaction and interdiffusion induced by ion-beam mixing. An ion-beam-induced damage profile and its epitaxial recovery of crystallinity are analyzed by the simulation of channeling spectra from ion-implanted Al2O3 substrates.

  6. Detection of atrial fibrillation during sinus tachycardia induced by exercise in patients with implantable atrial defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Tse, H F; Lau, C P; Ayers, G M

    1999-01-01

    Accurate detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) is essential for appropriate operation of an implantable atrial defibrillator (IAD). However, during episodes of sinus tachycardia, distinction between AF and sinus rhythm (SR) using the "quiet interval" and "baseline crossing" analysis in the detection algorithm of the IAD may be difficult. The efficacy of this AF detection algorithm was tested in five patients implanted with an IAD (METRIX, Model 3000 or 3020, InControl Inc.) during treadmill exercise testing. The IADs were programmed to Monitor Mode with a wake up cycle of 1 minute for AF detection using the device nominal parameters or modified parameters, and to mark rhythms appropriate for shock delivery. A mean peak heart rate of 137 +/- 26 beats/min was reached during maximum exercise, and one patient developed transient AF. Seventy-eight (75 in SR, 3 in AF) and 91 (89 in SR, 2 in AF) runs of AF detection were performed using the nominal and modified parameters, respectively. The IAD detected AF and SR accurately, except for one episode of false-positive AF detection during sinus tachycardia at the nominal settings, but inappropriate shocks were prevented by minimum RR interval criteria that limited discharge at high heart rate. These results indicate that the AF detection algorithm in the IAD may become more vulnerable to false-positive AF detection during sinus tachycardia, which were avoided by reprogramming the Quiet Interval and minimum RR interval criteria for AF detection. Exercise testing appeared useful to program optimal settings of the IAD in preparation for daily activities.

  7. Formation of SIMOX-SOI structure by high-temperature oxygen implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Yasushi; Kamikawa, Tomohiro; Nakata, Jyoji

    2015-12-01

    We have performed oxygen ion implantation in silicon at very high substrate-temperatures (⩽1000 °C) for the purpose of forming silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure. We have expected that the high-temperature implantation can effectively avoids ion-beam-induced damages in the SOI layer and simultaneously stabilizes the buried oxide (BOX) and SOI-Si layer. Such a high-temperature implantation makes it possible to reduce the post-implantation annealing temperature. In the present study, oxygen ions with 180 keV are incident on Si(0 0 1) substrates at various temperatures from room temperature (RT) up to 1000 °C. The ion-fluencies are in order of 1017-1018 ions/cm2. Samples have been analyzed by atomic force microscope, Rutherford backscattering, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. It is found in the AFM analysis that the surface roughness of the samples implanted at 500 °C or below are significantly small with mean roughness of less than 1 nm, and gradually increased for the 800 °C-implanted sample. On the other hand, a lot of dents are observed for the 1000 °C-implanted sample. RBS analysis has revealed that stoichiometric SOI-Si and BOX-SiO2 layers are formed by oxygen implantation at the substrate temperatures of RT, 500, and 800 °C. However, SiO2-BOX layer has been desorbed during the implantation. Raman spectra shows that the ion-beam-induced damages are fairly suppressed by such a high-temperatures implantation.

  8. Tribological properties and surface structures of ion implanted 9Cr18Mo stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengbin, Liu; Guohao, Fu; Yan, Cui; Qiguo, Sun; Min, Qu; Yi, Sun

    2013-07-01

    The polished quenched-and-tempered 9Cr18Mo steels were implanted with N ions and Ti ions respectively at a fluence of 2 × 1017 ions/cm2. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by using nanoindenter and tribometer. The results showed that the ion implantations would improve the nanohardness and tribological property, especially N ion implantation. The surface analysis of the implanted samples was carried out by using XRD, XPS and AES. It indicated that the surface exhibits graded layers after ion implantation. For N ion implantation, the surface about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of supersaturated interstitial N solid solution, oxynitrides, CrxCy phase and metal nitrides. In the subsurface region, the metal nitrides dominate and the other phases disappear. For Ti ion implantation, the surface of about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of titanium oxides and carbon amorphous phase, the interstitial solid solution of Ti in Fe is abundant in the subsurface region. The surface components and structures have significant contributions to the improved mechanical properties.

  9. Applications of Fault Detection in Vibrating Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eure, Kenneth W.; Hogge, Edward; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Russell, Andrew; Hill, Boyd L.

    2012-01-01

    Structural fault detection and identification remains an area of active research. Solutions to fault detection and identification may be based on subtle changes in the time series history of vibration signals originating from various sensor locations throughout the structure. The purpose of this paper is to document the application of vibration based fault detection methods applied to several structures. Overall, this paper demonstrates the utility of vibration based methods for fault detection in a controlled laboratory setting and limitations of applying the same methods to a similar structure during flight on an experimental subscale aircraft.

  10. Dual-chamber versus single-chamber detection enhancements for implantable defibrillator rhythm diagnosis: the detect supraventricular tachycardia study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Paul A; McClelland, Robyn L; Bamlet, William R; Acosta, Helbert; Kessler, David; Munger, Thomas M; Kavesh, Neal G; Wood, Mark; Daoud, Emile; Massumi, Ali; Schuger, Claudio; Shorofsky, Stephen; Wilkoff, Bruce; Glikson, Michael

    2006-06-27

    Delivery of inappropriate shocks caused by misdetection of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) remains a substantial complication of implanted cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) therapy. Whether use of optimally programmed dual-chamber ICDs lowers this risk compared with that in single-chamber ICDs is not clear. Subjects with a clinical indication for ICD (n=400) at 27 participating centers received dual-chamber ICDs and were randomly assigned to strictly defined optimal single- or dual-chamber detection in a single-blind manner. Programming minimized ventricular pacing. The primary end point was the proportion of SVT episodes inappropriately detected from the time of programming until crossover or end of study. On a per-episode basis, 42% of the episodes in the single-chamber arm and 69% of the episodes in the dual-chamber arm were due to SVT. Mortality (3.5% in both groups) and early study withdrawal (14% single-chamber, 11% dual-chamber) were similar in both groups. The rate of inappropriate detection of SVT was 39.5% in the single-chamber detection arm compared with 30.9% in the dual-chamber arm. The odds of inappropriate detection were decreased by almost half with the use of the dual-chamber detection enhancements (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.94; P=0.03). Dual-chamber ICDs, programmed to optimize detection enhancements and to minimize ventricular pacing, significantly decrease inappropriate detection.

  11. Brief ultrasonication improves detection of biofilm-formative bacteria around a metal implant.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Bauer, Thomas W; Tuohy, Marion J; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Procop, Gary W

    2007-04-01

    Biofilms are complex microenvironments produced by microorganisms on surfaces. Ultrasonication disrupts biofilms and may make the microorganism or its DNA available for detection. We determined whether ultrasonication could affect our ability to detect bacteria adherent to a metal substrate. A biofilm-formative Staphylococcus aureus strain was used for an in vitro implant infection model (biofilm-formative condition). We used quantitative culture and real time-polymerase chain reaction to determine the influence of different durations of ultrasound on bacterial adherence and viability. Sonication for 1 minute increased the yield of bacteria. Sonication longer than 5 minutes led to fewer bacterial colonies by conventional culture but not by polymerase chain reaction. This suggests short periods of sonication help release bacteria from the metal substrate by disrupting the biofilm, but longer periods of sonication lyse bacteria prohibiting their detection in microbiologic cultures. A relatively short duration of sonication may be desirable for maximizing detection of biofilm-formative bacteria around implants by culture or polymerase chain reaction.

  12. Structural Transformations in Austenitic Stainless Steel Induced by Deuterium Implantation: Irradiation at 295 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleksandr; Zhurba, Volodymir; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mats, Oleksandr; Progolaieva, Viktoria; Boshko, Valerian

    2016-02-01

    Deuterium thermal desorption spectra were investigated on the samples of austenitic steel 18Cr10NiTi pre-implanted at 295 K with deuterium ions in the dose range from 8 × 1014 to 2.7 × 1018 D/cm2. The kinetics of structural transformation development in the steel layer was traced from deuterium thermodesorption spectra as a function of deuterium concentration. Three characteristic regions with different low rates of deuterium amount desorption as the implantation dose increases were revealed: I—the linear region of low implantation doses (up to 1 × 1017 D/cm2); II—the nonlinear region of medium implantation doses (1 × 1017 to 8 × 1017 D/cm2); III—the linear region of high implantation doses (8 × 1017 to 2.7 × 1018 D/cm2). During the process of deuterium ion irradiation, the coefficient of deuterium retention in steel varies in discrete steps. Each of the discrete regions of deuterium retention coefficient variation corresponds to different implanted-matter states formed during deuterium ion implantation. The low-dose region is characterized by formation of deuterium-vacancy complexes and solid-solution phase state of deuterium in the steel. The total concentration of the accumulated deuterium in this region varies between 2.5 and 3 at.%. The medium-dose region is characterized by the radiation-induced action on the steel in the presence of deuterium with the resulting formation of the energy-stable nanosized crystalline structure of steel, having a developed network of intercrystalline boundaries. The basis for this developed network of intercrystalline boundaries is provided by the amorphous state, which manifests itself in the thermodesorption spectra as a widely temperature-scale extended region of deuterium desorption (structure formation with a varying activation energy). The total concentration of the accumulated deuterium in the region of medium implantation doses makes 7 to 8 at.%. The resulting structure shows stability against the action of

  13. Structural Transformations in Austenitic Stainless Steel Induced by Deuterium Implantation: Irradiation at 295 K.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Oleksandr; Zhurba, Volodymir; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mats, Oleksandr; Progolaieva, Viktoria; Boshko, Valerian

    2016-12-01

    Deuterium thermal desorption spectra were investigated on the samples of austenitic steel 18Cr10NiTi pre-implanted at 295 K with deuterium ions in the dose range from 8 × 10(14) to 2.7 × 10(18) D/cm(2). The kinetics of structural transformation development in the steel layer was traced from deuterium thermodesorption spectra as a function of deuterium concentration. Three characteristic regions with different low rates of deuterium amount desorption as the implantation dose increases were revealed: I-the linear region of low implantation doses (up to 1 × 10(17) D/cm(2)); II-the nonlinear region of medium implantation doses (1 × 10(17) to 8 × 10(17) D/cm(2)); III-the linear region of high implantation doses (8 × 10(17) to 2.7 × 10(18) D/cm(2)). During the process of deuterium ion irradiation, the coefficient of deuterium retention in steel varies in discrete steps. Each of the discrete regions of deuterium retention coefficient variation corresponds to different implanted-matter states formed during deuterium ion implantation. The low-dose region is characterized by formation of deuterium-vacancy complexes and solid-solution phase state of deuterium in the steel. The total concentration of the accumulated deuterium in this region varies between 2.5 and 3 at.%. The medium-dose region is characterized by the radiation-induced action on the steel in the presence of deuterium with the resulting formation of the energy-stable nanosized crystalline structure of steel, having a developed network of intercrystalline boundaries. The basis for this developed network of intercrystalline boundaries is provided by the amorphous state, which manifests itself in the thermodesorption spectra as a widely temperature-scale extended region of deuterium desorption (structure formation with a varying activation energy). The total concentration of the accumulated deuterium in the region of medium implantation doses makes 7 to 8 at.%. The

  14. Structural disorder in hard amorphous carbon films implanted with nitrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Freire, F.L. Jr.; Franceschini, D.F.; Achete, C.A.; Brusa, R.S.; Mariotto, G.; Karwasz, G.P.; Canteri, R.

    1996-12-31

    Hard amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited by self-bias glow discharge were implanted at room temperature with 70 keV-nitrogen ions at fluences between 2.0 and 9.0 {times} 10{sup 16} N/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, SIMS and positron annihilation spectroscopy (Doppler broadening technique with the determination of the parameter S). For samples implanted with 2.0 {times} 10{sup 16} N/cm{sup 2} the S parameter follows the vacancies depth profile predicted by Monte Carlo simulation. For higher fluences the authors observed a reduction in the measured value of S. This result is discussed in terms of both hydrogen loss and structural modifications (increase of disorder at local scale and of the number of graphitic domains) induced in the carbon film by ion implantation.

  15. Oxygen Implant Isolation of n-GaN Field-Effect Transistor Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, G.; Cao, X.A.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Han, J.; Baca, A.G.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-07-20

    Multiple-energy (30-325 keV) O{sup +} implantation into GaN field-effect transistor structures (n {approximately} 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}, 3000 {angstrom} thick) can produce as-implanted sheet resistances of 4 x 10{sup 12} {Omega}/{open_square}, provided care is taken to ensure compensation of the region up to the projected range of the lowest energy implant. The sheet resistance remains above 10{sup 7} {Omega}/{open_square} to annealing temperatures of {approximately} 650 C and displays an activation energy of 0.29 eV. No diffusion of the implanted oxygen was observed for anneals up to 800 C.

  16. Remote structural damage detection via substructuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, William B.; Ibanez, Paul; Yessaie, George

    1988-01-01

    An approach to structural damage detection which utilizes the concept of a substructure transfer function matrix is proposed. The major advantage of this approach is that structural changes localized within a small volume can be detected by studying the changes in the transfer function for a relatively small substructure containing the damaged portion.

  17. Offline Impedance Measurements for Detection and Mitigation of Dangerous Implant Interactions: An RF Safety Prescreen

    PubMed Central

    Ellenor, Christopher W; Stang, Pascal P; Etezadi-Amoli, Maryam; Pauly, John M; Scott, Greig C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The concept of a “radiofrequency safety prescreen” is investigated, wherein dangerous interactions between radiofrequency fields used in MRI, and conductive implants in patients are detected through impedance changes in the radiofrequency coil. Theory The behavior of coupled oscillators is reviewed, and the resulting, observable impedance changes are discussed. Methods A birdcage coil is loaded with a static head phantom and a wire phantom with a wire close to its resonant length, the shape, position, and orientation of which can be changed. Interactions are probed with a current sensor and network analyzer. Results Impedance spectra show dramatic, unmistakable splitting in cases of strong coupling, and strong correlation is observed between induced current and scattering parameters. Conclusions The feasibility of a new, low-power prescreening technique has been demonstrated in a simple phantom experiment, which can unambiguously detect resonant interactions between an implanted wire and an imaging coil. A new technique has also been presented which can detect parallel transmit null modes for the wire. Magn Reson Med 73:1328–1339, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24623586

  18. Detection of underground structures and tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.M.; Moses, R.W.; Kelly, R.E.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H.; Cogbill, A.H.; Stolarczyk, L.G.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There is a continuing need in the United States defense and drug interdiction for effective over, convert, and standoff means of detecting underground tunnels, structures, and objects. This project sought to begin an assessment of electromagnetic and gravitational gradient detection approaches to the detection of underground structures and tunnels.

  19. LADAR for structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosa, Adil G.; Fu, Gongkang

    1999-12-01

    LADAR here stands for laser radar, using laser reflectivity for measurement. This paper presents a new technique using LADAR for structure evaluation. It is experimentally investigated in the laboratory. With cooperation of the US Federal Highway Administration, a recently developed LADAR system was used to measure structural deformation. The data were then treated for reducing noise and used to derive multiple features for diagnosis. The results indicate a promising direction of nondestructive evaluation using LADAR.

  20. Plasma immersion ion implantation for surface treatment of complex branched structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, Oleg A.; Lotkov, Alexander I.; Borisov, Dmitry P.; Slabodchikov, Vladimir A.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir M.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.; Krukovsky, Konstantin V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents experimental results demonstrating the capabilities of plasma immersion ion implantation of silicon (Si) for surface treatment of complex branched structures such are self-expanding intravascular nickel-titanium (NiTi) stents. Using NiTi stents of diameter 4 and 8 mm, it is shown that plasma immersion ion implantation can provide rather homogeneous doping of their outer and inner surfaces with Si atoms. Also presented are research data on the processes that determine the thickness, composition, and structure of surface layers subjected to this type of treatment.

  1. Anomalous diffusion of isoelectronic antimony implant induced defects in GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, E. V. K.; Krauz, Ph.; Thibierge, H.; Azoulay, R.; Vieu, C.

    1994-03-01

    We present here evidence on the deep diffusion of isoelectronic Sb implant induced defects in thick GaAs-AlGaAs multiquantum well structures (MQW) to depths as far as ˜30 times the implant projected range (Rp). This observation has been confirmed by performing low temperature photoluminescence depth scanning measurements and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) analysis on room temperature Sb implanted thick MQW samples. An explanation based on the isoelectronic nature of Sb and its substitution on As site (SbAs) has been proposed to understand the anomalous diffusion of defects during implant and their contribution to Al/Ga disordering during post-implant annealing.

  2. Structural Changes in Polymer Films by Fast Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, M. A.; Minamisawa, R. A.; Muntele, C.; Muntele, I.; De Almeida, A.; Ila, D.

    2006-11-01

    In applications from food wrapping to solar sails, polymers films can be subjected to intense charged panicle bombardment and implantation. ETFE (ethylenetetrafluoroethylene) with high impact resistance is used for pumps, valves, tie wraps, and electrical components. PFA (tetrafluoroethylene-per-fluoromethoxyethylene) and FEP (tetrafluoroethylene-hexa-fluoropropylene) are sufficiently biocompatible to be used as transcutaneous implants since they resist damage from the ionizing space radiation, they can be used in aerospace engineering applications. PVDC (polyvinyllidene-chloride) is used for food packaging, and combined with others plastics, improves the oxygen barrier responsible for the food preservation. Fluoropolymers are also known for their radiation dosimetry applications, dependent on the type and energy of the radiation, as well as of the beam intensity. In this work ETFE, PFA, FEP and PVDC were irradiated with ions of keV and MeV energies at several fluences and were analyzed through techniques as RGA, OAP, FTIR, ATR and Raman spectrophotometry. CF3 is the main specie emitted from PFA and FEP when irradiated with MeV protons. H and HF are released from ETFE due to the broken C-F and C-H bonds when the polymer is irradiated with keV Nitrogen ions and protons. At high fluence, especially for keV Si and N, damage due to carbonization is observed with the formation of hydroperoxide and polymer dehydroflorination. The main broken bonds in PVDC are C-O and C-Cl, with the release of Cl and the formation of double carbon bonds. The ion fluence that causes damage, which could compromise fluoropolymer film applications, has been determined.

  3. Structural characterization of dual ion implantation in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, B.; Franco, N.; Botelho do Rego, A. M.; Alves, E.; Colaço, R.

    2015-12-01

    <1 0 0> Si wafers were dual implanted at room temperature with Fe + C and Ti + C with fluences of 2 × 1017 cm-2. The samples were annealed in vacuum at 800 °C and 1000 °C respectively, and characterized in scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The scanning electron microscopy characterization showed that both annealings generated precipitates, with sizes within the range of 10-100 nm at 800 °C and 1-10 μm for the 1000 °C annealing. The GIXRD measurements revealed the presence of different silicides phases. For the Fe + C implantation β-FeSi2 was observed at 800 °C while at 1000 °C α-FeSi2 and SiC were found. The Ti + C sample at 800 °C showed simultaneously the presence of four different phases, both metastable C49 and stable C54 silicide TiSi2, poly-Si and SiC. At higher temperatures the metastable C49-TiSi2 silicide phase was no longer observed, all the others remaining. The XPS analysis confirmed the existence of the SiC at 1000 °C temperature, and showed that the initial carbon clusters get richer in Si with the increase of temperature to form SiC. It was also possible to see that among all present species, C was the one that oxidized the most with increasing temperature.

  4. Infrared Structural Biology: Detect Functionally Important Structural Motions of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Aihua

    Proteins are dynamic. Lack of dynamic structures of proteins hampers our understanding of protein functions. Infrared structural biology (IRSB) is an emerging technology. There are several advantages of IRSB for mechanistic studies of proteins: (1) its excellent dynamic range (detecting structural motions from picoseconds to >= seconds); (2) its high structural sensitivity (detect tiny but functionally important structural motions such as proton transfer and changes in hydrogen bonding interaction); (3) its ability to detect different structural motions simultaneously. Successful development of infrared structural biology demands not only new experimental techniques (from infrared technologies to chemical synthesis and cell biology), but also new data processing (how to translate infrared signals into quantitative structural information of proteins). These topics will be discussed as well as examples of how to use IRSB to study structure-function relationship of proteins. This work was supported by NSF DBI1338097 and OCAST HR10-078.

  5. Structural transformations in austenitic stainless steel induced by deuterium implantation: irradiation at 100 K.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Oleksandr; Zhurba, Volodymyr; Neklyudov, Ivan; Mats, Oleksandr; Rud, Aleksandr; Chernyak, Nikolay; Progolaieva, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium thermal desorption spectra were investigated on the samples of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi preimplanted at 100 K with deuterium ions in the dose range from 3 × 10(15) to 5 × 10(18) D/cm(2). The kinetics of structural transformation development in the implantation steel layer was traced from deuterium thermodesorption spectra as a function of implanted deuterium concentration. At saturation of austenitic stainless steel 18Cr10NiTi with deuterium by means of ion implantation, structural-phase changes take place, depending on the dose of implanted deuterium. The maximum attainable concentration of deuterium in steel is C = 1 (at.D/at.met. = 1/1). The increase in the implanted dose of deuterium is accompanied by the increase in the retained deuterium content, and as soon as the deuterium concentration attains C ≈ 0.5 the process of shear martensitic structural transformation in steel takes place. It includes the formation of bands, body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. Upon reaching the deuterium concentration C > 0.5, the presence of these molecules causes shear martensitic structural transformations in the steel, which include the formation of characteristic bands, bcc crystal structure, and the ferromagnetic phase. At C ≥ 0.5, two hydride phases are formed in the steel, the decay temperatures of which are 240 and 275 K. The hydride phases are formed in the bcc structure resulting from the martensitic structural transformation in steel.

  6. Influence of Si ion implantation on structure and morphology of g-C3N4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varalakshmi, B.; Sreenivasulu, K. V.; Asokan, K.; Srikanth, V. V. S. S.

    2016-07-01

    Effect of Si ion implantation on structural and morphological features of graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was investigated. g-C3N4 was prepared by using a simple atmospheric thermal decomposition process. The g-C3N4 pellets were irradiated with a Si ion beam of energy 200 keV with different fluencies. Structural, morphological and elemental, and phase analysis of the implanted samples in comparison with the pristine samples was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques, respectively. The observations revealed that Si ion implantation results in a negligible change in the crystallite size and alteration of the network-like to the sheet-like morphology of g-C3N4 and Si ions in the g-C3N4 network.

  7. Troublesome Crystal Structures: Prevention, Detection, and Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    A large number of incorrect crystal structures is being published today. These structures are proving to be a particular problem to those of us who are interested in comparing structural moieties found in the databases in order to develop structure-property relationships. Problems can reside in the input data, e.g., wrong unit cell or low quality intensity data, or in the structural model, e.g., wrong space group or atom types. Many of the common mistakes are, however, relatively easy to detect and thus should be preventable; at the very least, suspicious structures can be flagged, if not by the authors then by the referees and, ultimately, the crystallographic databases. This article describes some of the more common mistakes and their effects on the resulting structures, lists a series of tests that can be used to detect incorrect structures, and makes a strong plea for the publication of higher quality structures. PMID:27805169

  8. Troublesome Crystal Structures: Prevention, Detection, and Resolution.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Richard L

    1996-01-01

    A large number of incorrect crystal structures is being published today. These structures are proving to be a particular problem to those of us who are interested in comparing structural moieties found in the databases in order to develop structure-property relationships. Problems can reside in the input data, e.g., wrong unit cell or low quality intensity data, or in the structural model, e.g., wrong space group or atom types. Many of the common mistakes are, however, relatively easy to detect and thus should be preventable; at the very least, suspicious structures can be flagged, if not by the authors then by the referees and, ultimately, the crystallographic databases. This article describes some of the more common mistakes and their effects on the resulting structures, lists a series of tests that can be used to detect incorrect structures, and makes a strong plea for the publication of higher quality structures.

  9. Modal damping factor detected with an impulse-forced vibration method provides additional information on osseointegration during dental implant healing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sheng-Wei; Chang, Wei-Jen; Lin, Che-Tong; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Teng, Nai-Chia; Huang, Haw-Ming

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether resonance frequency (RF) analysis combined with modal damping factor (MDF) analysis provides additional information on dental implant healing status. In in vitro tests, epoxy resin was used to simulate the implant healing process. The RF and MDF values of the implants were measured during the entire polymerization process. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) and Periotest values (PTVs) from Ostell and Periotest devices were used to validate the apparatus. In in vivo experiments, vibrational analysis was performed on 17 dental implants in 12 patients. The RF and MDF values of the tested implants were recorded during the first 10 weeks after surgery. The effects of jaw types and primary stability on MDF healing curves were analyzed. In the in vitro model, the RF values obtained from the apparatus used in this study were similar to those obtained from the Osstell device. Unlike the Periotest healing curve, the MDF curve showed a 1.8-fold increase during the early phase. In clinical experiments, the mean RF values were unchanged during the first 2 weeks and increased continuously until 6 weeks. The corresponding mean MDF value decreased over time and reached 0.045 ± 0.011 at 10 weeks, which is approximately 50% lower than the initial value. Although the RF values of the implants with higher initial frequency remained unchanged during the healing period, the MDF values decreased significantly. Analysis of RF combined with MDF provides additional information on dental implant healing status. MDF analysis can detect changes in the implant/bone complex during the healing period even in implants with higher RF values.

  10. Fast Track ultrasound protocol to detect acute complications after totally implantable venous access device placement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Yu; Lin, Feng-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Chia; Chou, Wei-Han; Lin, Wen-Ying; Sun, Wei-Zen; Lin, Chih-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The role of ultrasound examination in detection of postprocedure complications from totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD) placement is still uncertain. In a cohort of 665 cancer outpatients, we assessed a quick ultrasound examination protocol in early detection of mechanical complications of catheterization. Immediately after TIVAD placement, an ultrasound examination and chest radiography were performed to detect hemothorax, pneumothorax, and catheter malposition. The two methods were compared. Of the 668 catheters inserted, 628 were placed into axillary veins and 40 into internal jugular veins. The ultrasound examination took 2.5 ± 1.1 min. No hemothorax was detected, and neither pneumothorax nor catheter malposition was evident among the 40 internal jugular vein cannulations. Ultrasound and chest radiography examinations of the 628 axillary vein cannulations detected five and four instances of pneumothorax, respectively. Ultrasound detected all six catheter malpositions into the internal jugular vein. However, ultrasound failed to detect two out of three malpositions in the contralateral brachiocephalic vein and one kinking inside the superior vena cava. Without revision surgery, the operating time was 34.1 ± 15.6 min. With revision surgery, the operating time was shorter when ultrasound detected catheter malposition than when chest radiography was used (96.8 ± 12.9 vs. 188.8 ± 10.3 min, p < 0.001). Postprocedure ultrasound examination is a quick and sensitive method to detect TIVAD-related pneumothorax. It also precisely detects catheter malposition to internal jugular vein thus reduces time needed for revision surgery while chest radiography remains necessary to confirm catheter final position.

  11. Ion implantation enhanced intermixing of Al-free 980 nm laser structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piva, P. G.; Charbonneau, S.; Goldberg, R. D.; Mitchell, I. V.; Hillier, G.; Miner, C.

    1998-07-01

    An investigation of the intermixing enhancement in an InGaAs/InGaAsP/InGaP partial laser structure following phosphorous implantation at 30, 80, and 7000 keV was carried out. We find that for the 30 and 80 keV implant energies, band gap shifts in excess of 80 meV could be imparted to a single embedded 8.5 nm InGaAs quantum well (QW) lying several thousand angstroms beyond the maximum ion range. As both the 30 and 80 keV implants kept the end of range damage spatially separate from optical mode region, the optical quality (inferred from photoluminescence intensity measurements) of the QW material was preserved to a greater extent than that resulting from the 7000 keV implants (where implant damage was directly created in the QW during ion bombardment). This result suggests that device structures containing InGaP cladding layers are well suited for monolithic integration as the masking of low energy ions with high lateral resolution can be achieved using routinely available masking techniques.

  12. Detecting community structure in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M. E. J.

    2004-03-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in algorithms for finding communities in networks—groups of vertices within which connections are dense, but between which connections are sparser. Here we review the progress that has been made towards this end. We begin by describing some traditional methods of community detection, such as spectral bisection, the Kernighan Lin algorithm and hierarchical clustering based on similarity measures. None of these methods, however, is ideal for the types of real-world network data with which current research is concerned, such as Internet and web data and biological and social networks. We describe a number of more recent algorithms that appear to work well with these data, including algorithms based on edge betweenness scores, on counts of short loops in networks and on voltage differences in resistor networks.

  13. Probability of detection of internal voids in structural ceramics using microfocus radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, G. Y.; Roth, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of microfocus x-radiography for detecting subsurface voids in structural ceramic test specimens was statistically evaluated. The microfocus system was operated in the projection mode using low X-ray photon energies (20 keV) and a 10 micro m focal spot. The statistics were developed for implanted subsurface voids in green and sintered silicon carbide and silicon nitride test specimens. These statistics were compared with previously-obtained statistics for implanted surface voids in similar specimens. Problems associated with void implantation are discussed. Statistical results are given as probability-of-detection curves at a 95 percent confidence level for voids ranging in size from 20 to 528 micro m in diameter.

  14. Tachycardia detection in modern implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Thomas; Dahlke, Daniel; Chebbo, Amin; Neumann, Ilka

    2016-09-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) have to reliably sense, detect, and treat malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Inappropriate treatment of non life-threatening tachyarrhythmias should be avoided. This article outlines the functionality of ICDs developed and manufactured by BIOTRONIK. Proper sensing is achieved by an automatic sensitivity control which can be individually tailored to solve special under- and oversensing situations. The programming of detection zones for ventricular fibrillation (VF), ventricular tachycardia (VT), and zones to monitor other tachyarrhythmias is outlined. Dedicated single-chamber detection algorithms based on average heart rate, cycle length variability, sudden rate onset, and changes in QRS morphology as used in ICDs by BIOTRONIK are described in detail. Preconditions and confirmation algorithms for therapy deliveries as antitachycardia pacing (ATP) and high energy shocks are explained. Finally, a detailed description of the dual-chamber detection algorithm SMART is given. It comprises additional detection criteria as stability of atrial intervals, 1:1 conduction, atrial-ventricular (AV) multiplicity, AV trend, and AV regularity to differentiate between ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias.

  15. Implantable self-reset CMOS image sensor and its application to hemodynamic response detection in living mouse brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Takehara, Hiroaki; Sunaga, Yoshinori; Haruta, Makito; Motoyama, Mayumi; Ohta, Yasumi; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-04-01

    A self-reset pixel of 15 × 15 µm2 with high signal-to-noise ratio (effective peak SNR ≃64 dB) for an implantable image sensor has been developed for intrinsic signal detection arising from hemodynamic responses in a living mouse brain. For detecting local conversion between oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbR) in brain tissues, an implantable imaging device was fabricated with our newly designed self-reset image sensor and orange light-emitting diodes (LEDs; λ = 605 nm). We demonstrated imaging of hemodynamic responses in the sensory cortical area accompanied by forelimb stimulation of a living mouse. The implantable imaging device for intrinsic signal detection is expected to be a powerful tool to measure brain activities in living animals used in behavioral analysis.

  16. Effect of doping concentration on point defect structure in As-implanted ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan-hua; Yuan, Mengyao

    2017-08-01

    The effect of doping concentration on the point defect structure of As-implanted ZnO single crystal was investigated using diffuse x-ray scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Based on the assumption that the low-dose ion implantation did not shift the phonon dispersion of the lattice, Huang diffuse scattering signals were obtained by subtracting thermal diffuse scattering intensities. We found that the point defects aggregate into defect clusters after annealing, and their average size decreases and concentration increases with increasing the doping concentration. The underlying mechanisms of this counter-intuition result were suggested.

  17. Bone bonding strength of diamond-structured porous titanium-alloy implants manufactured using the electron beam-melting technique.

    PubMed

    Hara, Daisuke; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Sato, Taishi; Hirata, Masanobu; Kanazawa, Masayuki; Kohno, Yusuke; Yoshimoto, Kensei; Yoshihara, Yusuke; Nakamura, Akihiro; Nakao, Yumiko; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the bone bonding strength of diamond-structured porous titanium-alloy (Porous-Ti-alloy) manufactured using the electron beam-melting technique in comparison with fiber mesh-coated or rough-surfaced implants. Cylindrical implants with four different pore sizes (500, 640, 800, and 1000μm) of Porous-Ti-alloy, titanium fiber mesh (FM), and surfaces roughened by titanium arc spray (Ti-spray) were implanted into the distal femur of rabbits. Bone bonding strength and histological bone ingrowth were evaluated at 4 and 12weeks after implantation. The bone bonding strength of Porous-Ti-alloy implants (640μm pore size) increased over time from 541.4N at 4weeks to 704.6N at 12weeks and was comparable to that of FM and Ti-spray implants at both weeks. No breakage of the porous structure after mechanical testing was found with Porous-Ti-alloy implants. Histological bone ingrowth that increased with implantation time occurred along the inner structure of Porous-Ti-alloy implants. There was no difference in bone ingrowth in Porous-Ti-alloy implants with pore sizes among 500, 640, and 800μm; however, less bone ingrowth was observed with the 1000μm pore size. These results indicated Porous-Ti-alloy implants with pore size under 800μm provided biologically active and mechanically stable surface for implant fixation to bone, and had potential advantages for weight bearing orthopedic implants such as acetabular cups.

  18. Synergistic effects of surface chemistry and topologic structure from modified microarc oxidation coatings on Ti implants for improving osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Wei, Daqing; Cao, Jianyun; Feng, Wei; Cheng, Su; Du, Qing; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-04-29

    Microarc oxidation (MAO) coating containing Ca, P, Si, and Na elements on a titanium (Ti) implant has been steam-hydrothermally treated and further mediated by post-heat treatment to overcome the compromised bone-implant integration. The bone regeneration, bone-implant contact, and biomechanical push-out force of the modified Ti implants are discussed thoroughly in this work. The best in vivo performances for the steam-hydrothermally treated one is attributed to the synergistic effects of surface chemistry and topologic structure. Through post-heat treatment, we can decouple the effects of surface chemistry and the nanoscale topologic structure easily. Attributed to the excellent in vivo performance of the surface-modified Ti implant, the steam-hydrothermal treatment could be a promising strategy to improve the osseointegration of the MAO coating covered Ti implant.

  19. Compositional and Structural Study of Gd Implanted ZnO Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, Peter P.; Kennedy, John V.; Markwitz, Andreas; Ruck, Ben J.

    2009-07-01

    We report a compositional and structural study of ZnO films implanted with 30 keV Gd ions. The depth profile of the implanted ions, measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, matches predictions of DYNAMIC-TRIM calculations. However, after annealing at temperatures above 550° C the Gd ions are observed to migrate towards the bulk, and at the same time atomic force microscope images of the film surfaces show significant roughening. Raman spectroscopy shows that the annealed films have a reduced number of crystalline defects. The overall results are useful for developing an implantation-annealing regime to produce well characterized samples to investigate magnetism in the ZnO:Gd system.

  20. Compositional and Structural Study of Gd Implanted ZnO Films

    SciTech Connect

    Murmu, Peter P.; Kennedy, John V.; Markwitz, Andreas; Ruck, Ben J.

    2009-07-23

    We report a compositional and structural study of ZnO films implanted with 30 keV Gd ions. The depth profile of the implanted ions, measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, matches predictions of DYNAMIC-TRIM calculations. However, after annealing at temperatures above 550 deg. C the Gd ions are observed to migrate towards the bulk, and at the same time atomic force microscope images of the film surfaces show significant roughening. Raman spectroscopy shows that the annealed films have a reduced number of crystalline defects. The overall results are useful for developing an implantation-annealing regime to produce well characterized samples to investigate magnetism in the ZnO:Gd system.

  1. Damage detection in a framed building structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Pines, Darryll J.

    1999-05-01

    Interest in infrastructure health monitoring and damage detection has received a considerable amount of attention over the past two decades. Previous approaches to non- destructive evaluation of structures to assess their integrity typically involved some form of human interaction. Recent advances in smart materials and structures technology has resulted in a renewed interest in developing advanced self-diagnostic capability for assessing the state of a structure without any human interaction. The goal is to reduce human interaction while at the same time monitor the integrity of a structure. With this goal in mind, many researchers have made significant strides in developing damage detection methods for civil structures based on traditional modal analysis techniques. These techniques are of the well suited for structures which can be modeled by discrete lumped-parameter elements where the presence of damage leads to some low frequency change in the global behavior of the system. On the other hand small defects such as cracks are obscured by modal approaches since such phenomena are high frequency effects not easily discovered by examining changes in modal mass, stiffness or damping parameters. This is because at high frequency modal structural models are subject to uncertainty. This uncertainty can be reduced by increasing the spatial order of discrete model, however, this increases the computational effort of modal-based damage detection schemes. On the other hand, wave propagation models of structures have higher spatial order model fidelity. Thus, they are better suited for detecting and global wave propagation models to detect damage in a discrete model of a farmed building structure, consisting of discrete structural elements. Simulated damage in the form of mass or stiffness loss is used to determine the effect on the resonant and incident wave response of the structure. Examination of the incident transfer function response of the structure reveals the

  2. Monopolar Detection Thresholds Predict Spatial Selectivity of Neural Excitation in Cochlear Implants: Implications for Speech Recognition

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to (1) investigate the potential of using monopolar psychophysical detection thresholds for estimating spatial selectivity of neural excitation with cochlear implants and to (2) examine the effect of site removal on speech recognition based on the threshold measure. Detection thresholds were measured in Cochlear Nucleus® device users using monopolar stimulation for pulse trains that were of (a) low rate and long duration, (b) high rate and short duration, and (c) high rate and long duration. Spatial selectivity of neural excitation was estimated by a forward-masking paradigm, where the probe threshold elevation in the presence of a forward masker was measured as a function of masker-probe separation. The strength of the correlation between the monopolar thresholds and the slopes of the masking patterns systematically reduced as neural response of the threshold stimulus involved interpulse interactions (refractoriness and sub-threshold adaptation), and spike-rate adaptation. Detection threshold for the low-rate stimulus most strongly correlated with the spread of forward masking patterns and the correlation reduced for long and high rate pulse trains. The low-rate thresholds were then measured for all electrodes across the array for each subject. Subsequently, speech recognition was tested with experimental maps that deactivated five stimulation sites with the highest thresholds and five randomly chosen ones. Performance with deactivating the high-threshold sites was better than performance with the subjects’ clinical map used every day with all electrodes active, in both quiet and background noise. Performance with random deactivation was on average poorer than that with the clinical map but the difference was not significant. These results suggested that the monopolar low-rate thresholds are related to the spatial neural excitation patterns in cochlear implant users and can be used to select sites for more optimal speech

  3. Structural and optical properties of vanadium ion-implanted GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Jagerová, A.; Sofer, Z.; Klímová, K.; Sedmidubský, D.; Mikulics, M.; Lorinčík, J.; Veselá, D.; Böttger, R.; Akhmadaliev, S.

    2017-09-01

    The field of advanced electronic and optical devices searches for a new generation of transistors and lasers. The practical development of these novel devices depends on the availability of materials with the appropriate magnetic and optical properties, which is strongly connected to the internal morphology and the structural properties of the prepared doped structures. In this contribution, we present the characterisation of V ion-doped GaN epitaxial layers. GaN layers, oriented along the (0 0 0 1) crystallographic direction, grown by low-pressure metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on c-plane sapphire substrates were implanted with 400 keV V+ ions at fluences of 5 × 1015 and 5 × 1016 cm-2. Elemental depth profiling was accomplished by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to obtain precise information about the dopant distribution. Structural investigations are needed to understand the influence of defect distribution on the crystal-matrix recovery and the desired structural and optical properties. The structural properties of the ion-implanted layers were characterised by RBS-channelling and Raman spectroscopy to get a comprehensive insight into the structural modification of implanted GaN and to study the influence of subsequent annealing on the crystalline matrix reconstruction. Photoluminescence measurement was carried out to check the optical properties of the prepared structures.

  4. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Gd implanted ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, P. P.; Mendelsberg, R. J.; Kennedy, J.; Carder, D. A.; Ruck, B. J.; Markwitz, A.; Reeves, R. J.; Malar, P.; Osipowicz, T.

    2011-08-01

    We present the structural and photoluminescence properties of 30 keV gadolinium implanted and subsequently annealed zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystals. Rutherford backscattering and channeling results reveal a low surface region defect density which was reduced further upon annealing. For low implantation fluence, around 85% of the Gd atoms are estimated to be in sites aligned with the ZnO lattice, while for higher fluences the Gd is largely disordered and likely forms precipitates. The Raman spectra of the implanted samples show defect-induced modes, which match the one-phonon density of states for the most heavily implanted samples. Annealing eliminates these features implying the removal of Gd-associated lattice disorder. Low temperature photoluminescence spectra revealed a red-shift in the defect emission, from green to orange/yellow, indicating the suppression of a deep level, which is thought to be due to oxygen vacancies. It is suggested that the orange/yellow emission is unmasked when the green emission is quenched by the presence of the implanted Gd atoms.

  5. In silico modeling of structural and porosity properties of additive manufactured implants for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Brünler, Ronny; Aibibu, Dilbar; Wöltje, Michael; Anthofer, Anna-Maria; Cherif, Chokri

    2017-07-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies are a promising technology towards patient-specific implants for applications in regenerative medicine. The Net-Shape-Nonwoven technology is used to manufacture structures from short fibers with interconnected pores and large functional surfaces that are predestined for cell adhesion and growth. The present study reports on a modeling approach with a particular focus on the specific structural properties. The overall porosities and mean pore-sizes of the digital models are simulated according to liquid-displacement porosity in a tool implemented in the modeling software. This allows adjusting the process parameters fiber length and fiber diameter to generate biomimetic structures with pore-sizes adapted to the requirements of the tissue that is to be replaced. Modeling the structural and porosity properties of scaffolds and implants leads to an efficient use of the processed biomaterials as the trial-and-error method is avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Cochlear Implant Candidates using a Non-linguistic Spectrotemporal Modulation Detection Test

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Eun; Hong, Sung Hwa; Won, Jong Ho; Park, Hee-Sung; Cho, Young Sang; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun; Moon, Il Joon

    2016-01-01

    Adults who score 50% correct or less in open-set sentence recognition test under the best aided listening condition may be considered as candidates for cochlear implant (CI). However, the requirement for ‘the best aided listening condition’ needs significant time and clinical resources to ensure such condition. As speech signals are composed of dynamic spectral and temporal modulations, psychoacoustic sensitivity to the combinations of spectral and temporal modulation cues may be a strong predictor for aided speech recognition. In this study, we tested 27 adults with moderately severe to profound hearing loss to explore the possibility that a non-linguistic unaided spectrotemporal modulation (STM) detection test might be a viable option as a surrogate measure to evaluate CI candidacy. Our results showed that STM detection thresholds were significantly correlated with aided sentence recognition scores for the 27 hearing impaired listeners. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that the CI candidacy evaluation by both unaided STM detection test and the traditional best-aided sentence recognition test was fairly consistent. More specifically, our results demonstrated that the STM detection test using a low spectral and temporal modulation rate might provide an efficient process for CI candidacy evaluation. PMID:27731425

  7. Structural Damage Detection Using Virtual Passive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Juang, Jer-Nan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents novel approaches for structural damage detection which uses the virtual passive controllers attached to structures, where passive controllers are energy dissipative devices and thus guarantee the closed-loop stability. The use of the identified parameters of various closed-loop systems can solve the problem that reliable identified parameters, such as natural frequencies of the open-loop system may not provide enough information for damage detection. Only a small number of sensors are required for the proposed approaches. The identified natural frequencies, which are generally much less sensitive to noise and more reliable than the identified natural frequencies, are used for damage detection. Two damage detection techniques are presented. One technique is based on the structures with direct output feedback controllers while the other technique uses the second-order dynamic feedback controllers. A least-squares technique, which is based on the sensitivity of natural frequencies to damage variables, is used for accurately identifying the damage variables.

  8. Directional structures detection using steerable pyramid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Florence; Baskurt, Atilla M.

    2003-04-01

    The object of the work described in this paper concerns directional structures detection for particular aspects of inspection, such as scratches and marbling defect detection in leather images. Because of the very specific geometry of these structures, we intend to apply a multiscale and orientation-shiftable method. Scratches and marbling have various shapes and sizes. Multiscale approaches using oriented filters have proved to be efficient to detect such curvilinear patterns. We first use the information given by the increase of gray levels in the image to locate suspicious regions. The detection is then based on steerable filters, which can be steered to any orientation fixed by the user, and are synthesized using a limited number of basic filters. These filters are used in a recursive multi-scale transform: the steerable pyramid. Then, the curvilinear structures are extracted from the directional images at different scales.

  9. Detecting Structural Failures Via Acoustic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Joshi, Sanjay S.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced method of acoustic pulse reflectivity testing developed for use in determining sizes and locations of failures within structures. Used to detect breaks in electrical transmission lines, detect faults in optical fibers, and determine mechanical properties of materials. In method, structure vibrationally excited with acoustic pulse (a "ping") at one location and acoustic response measured at same or different location. Measured acoustic response digitized, then processed by finite-impulse-response (FIR) filtering algorithm unique to method and based on acoustic-wave-propagation and -reflection properties of structure. Offers several advantages: does not require training, does not require prior knowledge of mathematical model of acoustic response of structure, enables detection and localization of multiple failures, and yields data on extent of damage at each location.

  10. The Structure of Sapphire Implanted with Carbon at Room Temperature and 1000 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, E.; Marques, C.; Safran, G.; McHargue, Carl J.

    2009-03-10

    Carbon was implanted into sapphire at various temperatures as part of a study of the different defect structures produced by a series of light ions. Implantations were made with 150 keV ions to fluences of 1x10{sup 16} and 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature (RT) and 1000 deg. C. The defect structures were characterized using Rutherford backscattering-channeling (RBS-C) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RBS-C spectra indicated low residual disorder for RT implantation at 1x10{sup 16} C{sup +}/cm{sup 2}. The de-channeling approached the random value at 1x10{sup 17} C{sup +}/cm{sup 2} and the TEM examination revealed a buried amorphous layer containing embedded sapphire nanocrystals. Damaged layers containing planar defects generally aligned parallel to the surface surrounded this layer. The RBS-C spectra for the sample implanted at 1000 deg. C with 1x10{sup 17} C{sup +}/cm{sup 2} suggested a highly damaged but crystalline surface that was confirmed by TEM micrographs.

  11. Direct observation of enhanced emission sites in nitrogen implanted hybrid structured ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Kalpataru; Sundaravel, B.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Chen, Huang-Chin; Lin, I.-Nan

    2013-02-07

    A hybrid-structured ultrananocrystalline diamond (h-UNCD) film, synthesized on Si-substrates by a two-step microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MPECVD) process, contains duplex structure with large diamond aggregates evenly dispersed in a matrix of ultra-small grains ({approx}5 nm). The two-step plasma synthesized h-UNCD films exhibit superior electron field emission (EFE) properties than the one-step MPECVD deposited UNCD films. Nitrogen-ion implantation/post-annealing processes further improve the EFE properties of these films. Current imaging tunnelling spectroscopy in scanning tunnelling spectroscopy mode directly shows increased density of emission sites in N implanted/post-annealed h-UNCD films than as-prepared one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show increased sp{sup 2} phase content and C-N bonding fraction in N ion implanted/post-annealed films. Transmission electron microscopic analysis reveals that the N implantation/post-annealing processes induce the formation of defects in the diamond grains, which decreases the band gap and increases the density of states within the band gap of diamond. Moreover, the formation of nanographitic phase surrounding the small diamond grains enhanced the conductivity at the diamond grain boundaries. Both of the phenomena enhance the EFE properties.

  12. Magnesium from bioresorbable implants: Distribution and impact on the nano- and mineral structure of bone.

    PubMed

    Grünewald, T A; Rennhofer, H; Hesse, B; Burghammer, M; Stanzl-Tschegg, S E; Cotte, M; Löffler, J F; Weinberg, A M; Lichtenegger, H C

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility is a key issue in the development of new implant materials. In this context, a novel class of biodegrading Mg implants exhibits promising properties with regard to inflammatory response and mechanical properties. The interaction between Mg degradation products and the nanoscale structure and mineralization of bone, however, is not yet sufficiently understood. Investigations by synchrotron microbeam x-ray fluorescence (μXRF), small angle x-ray scattering (μSAXS) and x-ray diffraction (μXRD) have shown the impact of degradation speed on the sites of Mg accumulation in the bone, which are around blood vessels, lacunae and the bone marrow. Only at the highest degradation rates was Mg found at the implant-bone interface. The Mg inclusion into the bone matrix appeared to be non-permanent as the Mg-level decreased after completed implant degradation. μSAXS and μXRD showed that Mg influences the hydroxyl apatite (HAP) crystallite structure, because markedly shorter and thinner HAP crystallites were found in zones of high Mg concentration. These zones also exhibited a contraction of the HAP lattice and lower crystalline order. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal Fine Structure and Applications to Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xing

    2013-01-01

    Complex broadband sounds are decomposed by the auditory filters into a series of relatively narrowband signals, each of which conveys information about the sound by time-varying features. The slow changes in the overall amplitude constitute envelope, while the more rapid events, such as zero crossings, constitute temporal fine structure (TFS).…

  14. Temporal Fine Structure and Applications to Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xing

    2013-01-01

    Complex broadband sounds are decomposed by the auditory filters into a series of relatively narrowband signals, each of which conveys information about the sound by time-varying features. The slow changes in the overall amplitude constitute envelope, while the more rapid events, such as zero crossings, constitute temporal fine structure (TFS).…

  15. Acoustic temporal modulation detection and speech perception in cochlear implant listeners.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Ho; Drennan, Ward R; Nie, Kaibao; Jameyson, Elyse M; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2011-07-01

    The goals of the present study were to measure acoustic temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) in cochlear implant listeners and examine the relationship between modulation detection and speech recognition abilities. The effects of automatic gain control, presentation level and number of channels on modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) were examined using the listeners' clinical sound processor. The general form of the TMTF was low-pass, consistent with previous studies. The operation of automatic gain control had no effect on MDTs when the stimuli were presented at 65 dBA. MDTs were not dependent on the presentation levels (ranging from 50 to 75 dBA) nor on the number of channels. Significant correlations were found between MDTs and speech recognition scores. The rates of decay of the TMTFs were predictive of speech recognition abilities. Spectral-ripple discrimination was evaluated to examine the relationship between temporal and spectral envelope sensitivities. No correlations were found between the two measures, and 56% of the variance in speech recognition was predicted jointly by the two tasks. The present study suggests that temporal modulation detection measured with the sound processor can serve as a useful measure of the ability of clinical sound processing strategies to deliver clinically pertinent temporal information.

  16. Study for a portable IR sensor to detect the blood temperature during coronary bypass implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Hartwig, Valentina; Francesconi, Raffaello; Landini, Luigi; Benassi, Antonio

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the possibility of using an infrared prototype device for the detection of the blood temperature during a surgical operation for coronary bypass implantation. The correlation between the fluid temperature time behavior and the fluid flow rate was demonstrated. Each blood vessel acts like a thermal wave emitter, so the amount of heat is proportional to the blood flow detected by the IR sensor. The idea was to design a low cost portable device with the advantage that it can be placed near the region of interest. We chose a pyroelectric sensor for its high-quality cost ratio. Because this kind of sensor detects only a variable infrared source, we used an electromechanical chopper for modulating the radiation. It consists of an electronic shutter whose opening speed is controlled by an astable multivibrator. The output signal was analyzed using a dedicated electronic circuit including a bandpass filter and an amplifier; then an acquisition board was employed for capturing and displaying the signal using a PC. Prototype assessment was made with laboratory equipment and in vivo measurements were made during surgical operation on a small pig.

  17. Preservation of Rhythmic Clocking in Cochlear Implant Users: A Study of Isochronous Versus Anisochronous Beat Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Irene; Yang, Eunice; Donnelly, Patrick J.; Limb, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    The capacity for internal rhythmic clocking involves a relationship between perceived auditory input and subsequent cognitive processing by which isochronous auditory stimuli induce a temporal beat expectancy in a listener. Although rhythm perception has previously been examined in cochlear implant (CI) users through various tasks based primarily on rhythm pattern identification, such tasks may not have been sufficiently nuanced to detect defects in internal rhythmic clocking, which requires temporal integration on a scale of milliseconds. The present study investigated the preservation of such rhythmic clocking in CI participants through a task requiring detection of isochronicity in the final beat of a four-beat series presented at different tempos. Our results show that CI users performed comparably to normal hearing (NH) participants in all isochronous rhythm detection tasks but that professionally trained musicians (MUS) significantly outperformed both NH and CI participants. These results suggest that CI users have intact rhythm perception even on a temporally demanding task that requires tight preservation of timing differences between a series of auditory events. Also, these results suggest that musical training might improve rhythmic clocking in CI users beyond normal hearing levels, which may be useful in light of the deficits in spectral processing commonly observed in CI users. PMID:21109551

  18. Noise improves modulation detection by cochlear implant listeners at moderate carrier levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Monita; Oba, Sandra I.

    2005-08-01

    Envelope detection and processing are very important for cochlear implant (CI) listeners, who must rely on obtaining significant amounts of acoustic information from the time-varying envelopes of stimuli. In previous work, Chatterjee and Robert [JARO 2(2), 159-171 (2001)] reported on a stochastic-resonance-type effect in modulation detection by CI listeners: optimum levels of noise in the envelope enhanced modulation detection under certain conditions, particularly when the carrier level was low. The results of that study suggested that a low carrier level was sufficient to evoke the observed stochastic resonance effect, but did not clarify whether a low carrier level was necessary to evoke the effect. Modulation thresholds in CI listeners generally decrease with increasing carrier level. The experiments in this study were designed to investigate whether the observed noise-induced enhancement is related to the low carrier level per se, or to the poor modulation sensitivity that accompanies it. This was done by keeping the carrier amplitude fixed at a moderate level and increasing modulation frequency so that modulation sensitivity could be reduced without lowering carrier level. The results suggest that modulation sensitivity, not carrier level, is the primary factor determining the effect of the noise.

  19. Acoustic temporal modulation detection and speech perception in cochlear implant listeners1

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Ho; Drennan, Ward R.; Nie, Kaibao; Jameyson, Elyse M.; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to measure acoustic temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) in cochlear implant listeners and examine the relationship between modulation detection and speech recognition abilities. The effects of automatic gain control, presentation level and number of channels on modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) were examined using the listeners’ clinical sound processor. The general form of the TMTF was low-pass, consistent with previous studies. The operation of automatic gain control had no effect on MDTs when the stimuli were presented at 65 dBA. MDTs were not dependent on the presentation levels (ranging from 50 to 75 dBA) nor on the number of channels. Significant correlations were found between MDTs and speech recognition scores. The rates of decay of the TMTFs were predictive of speech recognition abilities. Spectral-ripple discrimination was evaluated to examine the relationship between temporal and spectral envelope sensitivities. No correlations were found between the two measures, and 56% of the variance in speech recognition was predicted jointly by the two tasks. The present study suggests that temporal modulation detection measured with the sound processor can serve as a useful measure of the ability of clinical sound processing strategies to deliver clinically pertinent temporal information. PMID:21786906

  20. Morphological detection method with girdle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Yan, Gao-shi; Huo, Yu

    2013-09-01

    A flat structure element is usually used in the traditional morphological detection. In this processing method, the infrared target is regarded as a single point without considering the imaging characteristics of infrared dim and small target. There is a gray transition zone between target and background. It is unreasonable that the transition region processed as background in the traditional morphological method. So, the infrared dim target detection results are not ideal by using the traditional morphological processing method. Aimed at this problem, the imaging characteristic of infrared dim and small target is analyzed. The Spatial distribution of infrared target gray scale is calculated. The result shows it is a tip package structure. The top peak is the target. Based on theoretical research on the morphological detection, the girdle structure elements are designed. This structure is composed of two circles. The target neighborhood zones are protected in this structure. They do not participate in the morphological calculation. The sixteen external zones are only participated in the calculation. The morphology of infrared target detection method is established based on this neighborhood zoned structure. The designed girdle structure is used in the opening operation and the traditional flat structure is used in the closing operation. The traditional Top-Hat algorithm is improved according to the girdle structure morphology method. And used the real infrared target image, the improved algorithm is simulated. The processed result shows that the girdle structure morphology method is effective in the background noise restraining. In order to evaluate the image processed result quantitatively, the signal noise ratio and signal noise ratio gain factor are used. Accordingly to the calculated result, the improved algorithm compared with the traditional morphological methods, inhibition of complex background with better.

  1. Electrically detected magnetic resonance of ion-implantation damage centers in silicon large-scale integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, T.; Mochizuki, Y.; Okonogi, K.; Hamada, K.

    2003-12-01

    We used electrically detected magnetic resonance to study the microscopic structure of ion-implantation-induced point defects that remained in large-scale Si integrated circuits (Si LSIs). Two types of defects were detected in the source/drain (n+-type) region of 0.25-μm-gate-length n-channel metal oxide semiconductor field-effect-transistors on LSIs: (i) a spin-1 Si dangling-bond (DB) pair in divacancy-oxygen complexes (DB-DB distance, R≈0.6 nm); and (ii) a series of larger Si vacancies involving distant Si DBs (R⩾1.4 nm). These vacancy-type defects were much more thermally stable in Si LSIs than those in bulk Si crystals. We suggested two physical mechanisms for this enhanced stability: internal mechanical stress and oxygen incorporation in the active regions of LSIs. After examining the relationship between the defects and current-voltage characteristics, we concluded that these defects are distributed in the near-surface n+-type region close to the gate and that they are the source of the gate-induced drain leakage currents.

  2. Real-time detection of implant-associated neutrophil responses using a formyl peptide receptor-targeting NIR nanoprobe

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Weng, Hong; Tang, Ewin N; Nair, Ashwin; Davé, Digant P; Tang, Liping

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in implant-mediated inflammation and infection. Unfortunately, current methods which monitor neutrophil activity, including enzyme measurements and histological evaluation, require many animals and cannot be used to accurately depict the dynamic cellular responses. To understand the neutrophil interactions around implant-mediated inflammation and infection it is critical to develop methods which can monitor in vivo cellular activity in real time. In this study, formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-targeting near-infrared nanoprobes were fabricated. This was accomplished by conjugating near-infrared dye with specific peptides having a high affinity to the FPRs present on activated neutrophils. The ability of FPR-targeting nanoprobes to detect and quantify activated neutrophils was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. As expected, FPR-targeting nanoprobes preferentially accumulated on activated neutrophils in vitro. Following transplantation, FPR-targeting nanoprobes preferentially accumulated at the biomaterial implantation site. Equally important, a strong relationship was observed between the extent of fluorescence intensity in vivo and the number of recruited neutrophils at the implantation site. Furthermore, FPR-targeting nanoprobes may be used to detect and quantify the number of neutrophils responding to a catheter-associated infection. The results show that FPR-targeting nanoprobes may serve as a powerful tool to monitor and measure the extent of neutrophil responses to biomaterial implants in vivo. PMID:22619542

  3. Detection of lesions in mammographic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Arthur E.; Jacobson, Francine L.; Judy, Philip F.

    1999-05-01

    This paper is a report on very surprising results from recent work on detection of real lesions in digitized mammograms. The experiments were done using a novel experimental procedure with hybrid images. The lesions (signals) were real tumor masses extracted from breast tissue specimen radiographs. In the detection experiments, the tumors were added to digitized normal mammographic backgrounds. The results of this new work have been both novel and very surprising. Contrast thresholds increased with increasing lesion size for lesions larger than approximately 1 mm in diameter. Earlier work with white noise, radiographic image noise, computed tomography (CT) noise and some types of patient structure have accustomed us to a particular relationship between lesion size and contrast for constant detectability. All previous contrast/detail (CD) diagrams have been similar, the contrast threshold decreases as lesion size increases and flattens at large lesion sizes. The CD diagram for lesion detection in mammographic structure is completely different. It will be shown that this is a consequence of the power-law dependence of the projected breast tissue structure spectral density on spatial frequency. Mammographic tissue structure power spectra have the form P(f) equals B/f(beta ), with an average exponent of approximately 3 (range from 2 to 4), and are approximately isotropic (small angular dependence). Results for two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) signal detection experiments using 4 tumor lesions and one mathematically generated signal will be presented. These results are for an unbiased selection of mammographic backgrounds. It is possible that an additional understanding of the effects of breast structure on lesion detectability can be obtained by investigating detectability in various classes of mammographic backgrounds. This will be the subject of future research.

  4. Rate discrimination, gap detection and ranking of temporal pitch in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Stefano; Carlyon, Robert P; Deeks, John M; Parkinson, Wendy; Bierer, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have poor temporal pitch perception, as revealed by two key outcomes of rate discrimination tests: (i) rate discrimination thresholds (RDTs) are typically larger than the corresponding frequency difference limen for pure tones in normal hearing listeners, and (ii) above a few hundred pulses per second (i.e. the "upper limit" of pitch), CI users cannot discriminate further increases in pulse rate. Both RDTs at low rates and the upper limit of pitch vary across listeners and across electrodes in a given listener. Here, we compare across-electrode and across-subject variation in these two measures with the variation in performance on another temporal processing task, gap detection, in order to explore the limitations of temporal processing in CI users. RDTs were obtained for 4-5 electrodes in each of 10 Advanced Bionics CI users using two interleaved adaptive tracks, corresponding to standard rates of 100 and 400 pps. Gap detection was measured using the adaptive procedure and stimuli described by Bierer et al. (JARO 16:273-284, 2015), and for the same electrodes and listeners as for the rate discrimination measures. Pitch ranking was also performed using a mid-point comparison technique. There was a marginal across-electrode correlation between gap detection and rate discrimination at 400 pps, but neither measure correlated with rate discrimination at 100 pps. Similarly, there was a highly significant across-subject correlation between gap detection and rate discrimination at 400, but not 100 pps, and these two correlations differed significantly from each other. Estimates of low-rate sensitivity and of the upper limit of pitch, obtained from the pitch ranking experiment, correlated well with rate discrimination for the 100- and 400-pps standards, respectively. The results are consistent with the upper limit of rate discrimination sharing a common basis with gap detection. There was no evidence that this limitation also applied to rate

  5. Erbium ion implantation into diamond - measurement and modelling of the crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Cajzl, Jakub; Nekvindová, Pavla; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Sedmidubský, David; Hušák, Michal; Remeš, Zdeněk; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Böttger, Roman; Oswald, Jiří

    2017-02-22

    Diamond is proposed as an extraordinary material usable in interdisciplinary fields, especially in optics and photonics. In this contribution we focus on the doping of diamond with erbium as an optically active centre. In the theoretical part of the study based on DFT simulations we have developed two Er-doped diamond structural models with 0 to 4 carbon vacancies in the vicinity of the Er atom and performed geometry optimizations by the calculation of cohesive energies and defect formation energies. The theoretical results showed an excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental cohesive energies for the parent diamond. The highest values of cohesive energies and the lowest values of defect formation energies were obtained for models with erbium in the substitutional carbon position with 1 or 3 vacancies in the vicinity of the erbium atom. From the geometry optimization the structural model with 1 vacancy had an octahedral symmetry whereas the model with 3 vacancies had a coordination of 10 forming a trigonal structure with a hexagonal ring. In the experimental part, erbium doped diamond crystal samples were prepared by ion implantation of Er(+) ions using ion implantation fluences ranging from 1 × 10(14) ions per cm(2) to 5 × 10(15) ions per cm(2). The experimental results revealed a high degree of diamond structural damage after the ion implantation process reaching up to 69% of disordered atoms in the samples. The prepared Er-doped diamond samples annealed at the temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C in a vacuum revealed clear luminescence, where the 〈110〉 cut sample has approximately 6-7 times higher luminescence intensity than the 〈001〉 cut sample with the same ion implantation fluence. The reported results are the first demonstration of the Er luminescence in the single crystal diamond structure for the near-infrared spectral region.

  6. Autonomous assembly of epithelial structures by subrenal implantation of dissociated embryonic inner-ear cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Kaiqing; Zhu, Helen He; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-05-27

    Microenvironment and cell-cell interactions play an important role during embryogenesis and are required for the stemness and differentiation of stem cells. The inner-ear sensory epithelium, containing hair cells and supporting cells, is derived from the stem cells within the otic vesicle at early embryonic stages. However, whether or not such microenvironment or cell-cell interactions within the embryonic otic tissue have the capacity to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells and to autonomously reassemble the cells into epithelial structures is unknown. Here, we report that on enzymatic digestion and dissociation to harvest all the single cells from 13.5-day-old rat embryonic (E13.5) inner-ear tissue as well as on implantation of these cells under renal capsules; the dissociated cells are able to reassemble themselves to form epithelial structures as early as 7 days after implantation. By 25 days after implantation, more mature epithelial structures are formed. Immunostaining with cell-type-specific markers reveals that hair cells and supporting cells are not only formed, but are also well aligned with the hair cells located in the apical layer surrounded by the supporting cells. These findings suggest that microenvironment and cell-cell interactions within the embryonic inner-ear tissue have the autonomous signals to induce the formation of sensory epithelial structures. This method may also provide a useful system to study the potential of stem cells to differentiate into hair cells in vivo.

  7. Detecting Curvilinear Features Using Structure Tensors.

    PubMed

    Vicas, Cristian; Nedevschi, Sergiu

    2015-11-01

    Few published articles on curvilinear structures exist compared with works on detecting lines or corners with high accuracy. In medical ultrasound imaging, the structures that need to be detected appear as a collection of microstructures correlated along a path. In this paper, we investigated techniques that extract meaningful low-level information for curvilinear structures, using techniques based on structure tensor. We proposed a novel structure tensor enhancement inspired by bilateral filtering. We compared the proposed approach with five state-of-the-art curvilinear structure detectors. We tested the algorithms against simulated images with known ground truth and real images from three different domains (medical ultrasound, scanning electron microscope, and astronomy). For the real images, we employed experts to delineate the ground truth for each domain. Techniques borrowed from machine learning robustly assessed the performance of the methods (area under curve and cross validation). As a practical application, we used the proposed method to label a set of 5000 ultrasound images. We conclude that the proposed tensor-based approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in providing magnitude and orientation information for curvilinear structures. The evaluation methodology ensures that the employed feature-detection method will yield reproducible performance on new, unseen images. We published all the implemented methods as open-source software.

  8. Impact of implantation geometry and fluence on structural properties of AlxGa1-xN implanted with thulium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialho, M.; Magalhães, S.; Chauvat, M. P.; Ruterana, P.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.

    2016-10-01

    AlxGa1-xN (x = 0.15 and 0.77) films, grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy, were implanted with 300 keV Tm ions. Implantation damage accumulation is investigated with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry/channeling (RBS/C), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD). Distinct damage behavior for samples with different AlN contents was found. Surface nanocrystallization occurs for samples with x = 0.15, similar to implantation effects observed in GaN. Samples with x = 0.77 approach the behavior of AlN. In particular, surface nanocrystallization is suppressed and the depth range of the stacking fault network, typical for implanted III-nitrides, is decreased. The crystalline quality of the sample with x = 0.15 was investigated to compare random and channeled implantation, showing less concentration of damage but with a higher range for channeled implantation. Surprisingly, the strain field caused by the implantation reaches much deeper into the sample than the defect profiles measured by RBS/C and TEM. This is attributed to the fact that XRD is much more sensitive to low defect densities caused by ions which are channeled to deep regions of the sample.

  9. Eigenstructure assignment approach for structural damage detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, David C.; Kaouk, Mohamed

    1992-01-01

    In this work, a methodology for incorporating measured modal data into an existing refined finite element model is examined with the objective of detecting and locating structural damage. The algorithm is based on the partial inverse problem, in that only partial spectral information is required. The technique utilizes a symmetric eigenstructure assignment algorithm to perform the partial spectral assignment. Algorithms to enhance mode shape assignability and to preserve sparsity in the damaged FEM are developed. The sparsity preservation is of particular importance when considering damage detection in trusslike structures. Several examples are presented to highlight the key points made within the paper.

  10. Investigation of the structural properties of ferromagnetic Mn-implanted Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolduc, M.; Awo-Affouda, C.; Stollenwerk, A.; Huang, M. B.; Ramos, F.; LaBella, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    The structural properties of Si crystals that were made ferromagnetic through Mn-ion implantation are studied. 300-keV Mn+ ions were implanted at 350 °C at doses of 1-10 × 1015 cm-2 reaching peak concentrations of 0.1-0.8 at.%. Ferromagnetic hysteresis loops were obtained using a SQUID magnetometer at temperature of 300 K, yielding a saturation magnetization of 0.2 emu/g after annealing at 800 °C for 5 min. The Curie temperature for all samples was found to be greater than 400 K. After annealing, a pronounced redistribution of Mn is observed in the depth profiles as measured through SIMS profiling. The quality of the resulting crystal structure has been investigated by RBS in the channeling mode.

  11. ECV investigation of ion-implanted photosensitive silicon structures for backside illuminated CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, G.; Frolov, D.; Zubkova, A.; Zubkov, V.

    2016-11-01

    Boron implanted Si structures used in back-side illuminated and electron bombarded charge coupled devices (CCD) were investigated by means of electrochemical capacitance- voltage (ECV) profiling. A set of test structures were specially fabricated using various energies and doses of boron implantation, as well as different materials were used as their coating layers: Al and silicon oxide. The concentration profiles of free charge carriers across the sample were experimentally obtained. Further, using Poisson equation and Fredholm equation of the first kind the distribution of free charge carrier concentration and electric field intensity in depth of the samples were calculated. By analyzing and comparison of simulated and experimentally obtained concentration profiles, the recommendations for optimization of sample parameters were proposed aiming at increase of sweeping field and decrease of surface potential impact on charge carrier transport.

  12. Laser annealing of Al implanted silicon carbide: Structural and optical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutopoulos, C.; Terzis, P.; Zergioti, I.; Kontos, A. G.; Zekentes, K.; Giannakopoulos, K.; Raptis, Y. S.

    2007-07-01

    Pulsed-laser-based methods have been applied for post-implant annealing of p-type Al-doped 4H-SiC wafers in order to restore the crystal structure and to electrically activate the doping species. The annealing was performed with the third harmonic (355 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser at 4 ns pulse duration. The epilayers were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy under surface and cross-sectional backscattering. Changes in the phonon mode-intensity were related to the laser annealing induced recrystallization of the implanted material. The results were compared with changes in the infrared reflectivity across the Reststrahlen band. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the formation of columnar polycrystalline structure after the laser annealing process.

  13. A new microtomographic technique for non-invasive evaluation of the bone structure around implants.

    PubMed

    Sennerby, L; Wennerberg, A; Pasop, F

    2001-02-01

    A new X-ray microtomographic technique for non-invasive assessment of the structure of bone surrounding implants was tested. Three titanium microimplants retrieved directly (n = 2) or 6 months (n = 1) after insertion in 3 patients were used as test samples. Two samples were used dry and one was embedded in plastic resin prior to microtomography. The technique provided high-resolution consecutive cross-sectional X-ray images of the specimens with a slice-to-slice distance of 4.4 to 11.0 microns. The pictures could be imported into an image analysing software with which semiautomatic quantitative measurement of the bone area and three-dimensional images of the specimens could be made. It is suggested that the technique may be used for non-invasive assessment of the bone structure around implants. Further studies are needed to evaluate the accuracy of the technique, for instance by comparing tomographic sections with histologic ones.

  14. EXAFS study of the structural properties of In and In + C implanted Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, R.; Kremer, F.; Sprouster, D. J.; Mirzaei, S.; Decoster, S.; Glover, C. J.; Medling, S. A.; Russo, S. P.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2016-05-01

    The structural configurations of In implanted Ge have been studied via x-ray absorption spectroscopy with and without the codoping of C. In the case of In singly implanted Ge, while the In atoms occupy an substitutional site in Ge (InGe4) at low In concentration (≤ 2 at. %), they precipitate into a metallic phase (In metal) and form complexes composed of one vacancy and three Ge atoms (InVGe3) at concentration ≥ 0.6 at. %. This behaviour can be suppressed by the addition of C leading to In-C pairing to form InCGe3 complexes. This cluster enables In atoms to recover a four-fold coordinated structure and has the potential to improve the electrical activation of In atoms in Ge.

  15. Structural and magnetic studies of Co and Fe implanted BaTiO 3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalitov, N. I.; Khaibullin, R. I.; Valeev, V. F.; Dulov, E. N.; Ivoilov, N. G.; Tagirov, L. R.; Kazan, S.; Şale, A. G.; Mikailzade, F. A.

    2012-02-01

    Singly-charged Co or Fe ions with energy 40 keV were implanted into single-domain ferroelectric plates of barium titanate (BaTiO 3) with high fluences in the range of (0.5-1.5) × 10 17 ion/cm 2 to create new magnetoelectric materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) studies have shown that high-fluence implantation with 3d-ions results in formation of cobalt or iron nanoparticles in the near-surface irradiated region of perovskite-type crystal. With increasing the fluence, the both Co- and Fe-implanted BaTiO 3 samples reveal at first superparamagnetic, and then ferromagnetic properties at room temperature. Analysis of magnetic hysteresis loops measured in the in-plane and out-of-plane geometries have shown that ferromagnetic BaTiO 3:Co(Fe) nanocomposite layers display the "easy plane" magnetic anisotropy similar to that found for thin granular magnetic films. Together with our previous observation of the magnetoelectric effect in these samples, our structural and magnetic investigations show that the ion implantation is suitable to synthesize the desired magnetoelectric nanocomposite materials.

  16. Shaping scaffold structures in rapid manufacturing implants: a modeling approach toward mechano-biologically optimized configurations for large bone defect.

    PubMed

    Razi, Hajar; Checa, Sara; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Duda, Georg N

    2012-10-01

    Large segmental bone defects remain a clinical challenge. Titanium lattice-structured implants in combination with laser sintering technology promises to be an alternative to bone grafting in the treatment of critical sized bone defects. Laser sintering allows the rapid manufacturing of patient specific 3D-structured scaffolds with highly interconnected macroporous networks and tunable mechanical properties. Unknown remains to what degree the mechanical properties of these implants could be tuned, without leading to mechanical failure but still providing adequate mechanical stimuli for tissue ingrowth. The aim of this study was to evaluate various implant designs for their mechanical potential towards (a) optimized safety against stress failure and (b) optimal intrastructural straining for bone ingrowth. Finite element analyses of several lattice-structured configurations were performed. Results illustrated a strong influence of the configuration on the load carrying capacity of the constructs. The likelihood of mechanical failure was predicted to be highly dependent on structure configuration with little influence of implant porosity. Increasing porosity did not result in an increase in the implant intrastructural straining in all configurations; however, the lattice configuration was the determinant factor for implant load transfer capacity. This study provides a framework for the design of effective implants with open pore structures to ensure mechanical stability as well as promote mechanical stimulation and encourage in vivo osseointegration.

  17. Effects of stimulation rate, mode and level on modulation detection by cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2005-09-01

    In cochlear implant (CI) patients, temporal processing is often poorest at low listening levels, making perception difficult for low-amplitude temporal cues that are important for consonant recognition and/or speech perception in noise. It remains unclear how speech processor parameters such as stimulation rate and stimulation mode may affect temporal processing, especially at low listening levels. The present study investigated the effects of these parameters on modulation detection by six CI users. Modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) were measured as functions of stimulation rate, mode, and level. Results show that for all stimulation rate and mode conditions, modulation sensitivity was poorest at quiet listening levels, consistent with results from previous studies. MDTs were better with the lower stimulation rate, especially for quiet-to-medium listening levels. Stimulation mode had no significant effect on MDTs. These results suggest that, although high stimulation rates may better encode temporal information and widen the electrode dynamic range, CI patients may not be able to access these enhanced temporal cues, especially at the lower portions of the dynamic range. Lower stimulation rates may provide better recognition of weak acoustic envelope information.

  18. Osteoinduction of porous Ti implants with a channel structure fabricated by selective laser melting.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, A; Takemoto, M; Saito, T; Fujibayashi, S; Neo, M; Pattanayak, Deepak K; Matsushita, T; Sasaki, K; Nishida, N; Kokubo, T; Nakamura, T

    2011-05-01

    Many studies have shown that certain biomaterials with specific porous structures can induce bone formation in non-osseous sites without the need for osteoinductive biomolecules, however, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon (intrinsic osteoinduction of biomaterials) remain unclear. In particular, to our knowledge the type of pore structure suitable for osteoinduction has not been reported in detail. In the present study we investigated the effects of interconnective pore size on osteoinductivity and the bone formation processes during osteoinduction. Selective laser melting was employed to fabricate porous Ti implants (diameter 3.3mm, length 15 mm) with a channel structure comprising four longitudinal square channels, representing pores, of different diagonal widths, 500, 600, 900, and 1200 μm (termed p500, p600, p900, and p1200, respectively). These were then subjected to chemical and heat treatments to induce bioactivity. Significant osteoinduction was observed in p500 and p600, with the highest observed osteoinduction occurring at 5mm from the end of the implants. A distance of 5mm probably provides a favorable balance between blood circulation and fluid movement. Thus, the simple architecture of the implants allowed effective investigation of the influence of the interconnective pore size on osteoinduction, as well as the relationship between bone quantity and its location for different pore sizes.

  19. Detecting structure of haplotypes and local ancestry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present a two-layer hidden Markov model to detect the structure of haplotypes for unrelated individuals. This allows us to model two scales of linkage disequilibrium (one within a group of haplotypes and one between groups), thereby taking advantage of rich haplotype information to infer local an...

  20. Implantable vaccine development using in vitro antigen-pulsed macrophages absorbed on laser micro-structured Si scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zerva, Ioanna; Simitzi, Chara; Siakouli-Galanopoulou, Alexandra; Ranella, Anthi; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Fotakis, Costas; Athanassakis, Irene

    2015-06-17

    To overcome the limiting antigenic repertoire of protein sub-units and the side effects of adjuvants applied in second generation vaccines, the present work combined in vitro and in vivo manipulations to develop biomaterials allowing natural antigen-loading and presentation in vitro and further activation of the immune response in vivo. 3-dimensional laser micro-textured implantable Si-scaffolds supported mouse macrophage adherence, allowed natural seeding with human serum albumin (antigen) and specific antibody and inflammatory cytokine production in vitro. Implantation of Si-scaffolds loaded with antigen-activated macrophages induced an inflammatory reaction along with antigen-specific antibody production in vivo, which could be detected even 30 days post implantation. Analysis of implant histology using scanning electron microscopy showed that Si-scaffolds could be stable for a 6-month period. Such technology leads to personalized implantable vaccines, opening novel areas of research and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy for detecting internal voids in structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of 100 MHz scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) for detecting internal voids in sintered specimens of silicon nitride and silicon carbide was evaluated. The specimens contained artificially implanted voids and were positioned at depths ranging up to 2 mm below the specimen surface. Detection probability of 0.90 at a 0.95 confidence level was determined as a function of material, void diameter, and void depth. The statistical results presented for void detectability indicate some of the strengths and limitations of SLAM as a nondestructive evaluation technique for structural ceramics.

  2. Bio-mimicking nano and micro-structured surface fabrication for antibacterial properties in medical implants.

    PubMed

    Jaggessar, Alka; Shahali, Hesam; Mathew, Asha; Yarlagadda, Prasad K D V

    2017-10-02

    Orthopaedic and dental implants have become a staple of the medical industry and with an ageing population and growing culture for active lifestyles, this trend is forecast to continue. In accordance with the increased demand for implants, failure rates, particularly those caused by bacterial infection, need to be reduced. The past two decades have led to developments in antibiotics and antibacterial coatings to reduce revision surgery and death rates caused by infection. The limited effectiveness of these approaches has spurred research into nano-textured surfaces, designed to mimic the bactericidal properties of some animal, plant and insect species, and their topographical features. This review discusses the surface structures of cicada, dragonfly and butterfly wings, shark skin, gecko feet, taro and lotus leaves, emphasising the relationship between nano-structures and high surface contact angles on self-cleaning and bactericidal properties. Comparison of these surfaces shows large variations in structure dimension and configuration, indicating that there is no one particular surface structure that exhibits bactericidal behaviour against all types of microorganisms. Recent bio-mimicking fabrication methods are explored, finding hydrothermal synthesis to be the most commonly used technique, due to its environmentally friendly nature and relative simplicity compared to other methods. In addition, current proposed bactericidal mechanisms between bacteria cells and nano-textured surfaces are presented and discussed. These models could be improved by including additional parameters such as biological cell membrane properties, adhesion forces, bacteria dynamics and nano-structure mechanical properties. This paper lastly reviews the mechanical stability and cytotoxicity of micro and nano-structures and materials. While the future of nano-biomaterials is promising, long-term effects of micro and nano-structures in the body must be established before nano-textures can

  3. Three-Dimensional High-Frequency Ultrasonography for Early Detection and Characterization of Embryo Implantation Site Development in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Peavey, Mary C.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Szwarc, Maria M.; Gibbons, William E.; Valdes, Cecilia T.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a powerful tool to non-invasively monitor in real time the development of the human fetus in utero. Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy progression, such studies usually require sacrifice of parous mice for subsequent phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction in silico of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their development in utero. With HFUS imaging followed by 3-D reconstruction, we were able to precisely quantify embryo implantation site number and embryonic developmental progression in pregnant C57BL6J/129S mice from as early as 5.5 days post coitus (d.p.c.) through to 9.5 d.p.c. using a VisualSonics Vevo 2100 (MS550S) transducer. In addition to measurements of implantation site number, location, volume and spacing, embryo viability via cardiac activity monitoring was also achieved. A total of 12 dams were imaged with HFUS with approximately 100 embryos examined per embryonic day. For the post-implantation period (5.5 to 8.5 d.p.c.), 3-D reconstruction of the gravid uterus in mesh or solid overlay format enabled visual representation in silico of implantation site location, number, spacing distances, and site volume within each uterine horn. Therefore, this short technical report describes the feasibility of using 3-D HFUS imaging for early detection and analysis of post-implantation events in the pregnant mouse with the ability to longitudinally monitor the development of these early pregnancy events in a non-invasive manner. As genetically engineered mice continue to be used to characterize female reproductive phenotypes, we believe this reliable and non-invasive method to detect, quantify, and characterize early implantation events will prove to be an invaluable investigative tool for the study of female

  4. Appropriate use of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound to detect early silicone gel breast implant rupture in postmastectomy reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rietjens, Mario; Villa, Gaetano; Toesca, Antonio; Rizzo, Stefania; Raimondi, Sara; Rossetto, Fabio; Sangalli, Claudia; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Manconi, Andrea; Gustavo, Angelo; Matthes, Zucca; Chahuan, Badir; Brenelli, Fabricio; Bellomi, Massimo; Petit, Jean Yves

    2014-07-01

    Implant rupture is one of the most important sequelae of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The primary aim of this study was to compare magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound evaluation with intraoperative findings and provide a reliable description of the occurrence of each radiological sign. The authors prospectively recruited a consecutive series of 102 postmastectomy patients requiring implant change for aesthetic purposes. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound evaluation results were compared with intraoperative findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and the overall accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound in detecting ruptured implants were calculated, along with their corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging performs better than ultrasound for diagnosis of breast implant rupture, with overall accuracies of 94 and 72 percent, respectively. The negative predictive value of ultrasound was 85 percent, meaning that in the case of negative ultrasound findings, magnetic resonance imaging may be avoided. Teardrop sign and water droplets are the most common findings on magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging should be considered the method of choice for investigating silicone gel implant rupture in postmastectomy patients, and the standardization of magnetic resonance imaging criteria may improve magnetic resonance imaging accuracy. The authors therefore suggest a strategy of screening asymptomatic women with ultrasound every year and with magnetic resonance imaging every 5 years. Diagnostic, II.

  5. Fourier transform spectral imaging microscopy (FT-SIM) and scanning Raman microscopy for the detection of indoor common contaminants on the surface of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Lutin, Anna; Bulatov, Valery; Jadwat, Yusuf; Wood, Neil H; Feller, Liviu; Schechter, Israel

    2015-03-01

    Endosteal dental implants are used routinely with high success rates to rehabilitate the integrity of the dentition. However if implant surfaces become contaminated by foreign material, osseointegration may not occur and the dental implant will fail because of the lack of mechanical stability. Detection and characterization of dental implant surface contaminants is a difficult task. In this article we investigate the application of several spectral microscopy methods to detect airborne contaminants on dental implant surfaces. We found that Fourier Transform Spectral Imaging Microscopy (FT-SIM) and scanning Raman microscopy provided the most useful information. Some implants possess weak and homogeneous auto-fluorescence and are best analyzed using FT-SIM methods, while others are Raman inactive and can be analyzed using scanning Raman microscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of Arrhythmic Events Detected by Implantable Loop Recorders in Renal Transplant Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rodrigo Tavares; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Peixoto, Giselle de Lima; de Lima, José Jayme Galvão; de Siqueira, Sérgio Freitas; Costa, Roberto; Gowdak, Luís Henrique Wolff; de Paula, Flávio Jota; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Ramires, José Antônio Franchini

    2015-01-01

    Background The recording of arrhythmic events (AE) in renal transplant candidates (RTCs) undergoing dialysis is limited by conventional electrocardiography. However, continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring seems to be more appropriate due to automatic detection of arrhythmia, but this method has not been used. Objective We aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of AE in RTCs using an implantable loop recorder (ILR). Methods A prospective observational study conducted from June 2009 to January 2011 included 100 consecutive ambulatory RTCs who underwent ILR and were followed-up for at least 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to define predictors of AE. Results During a mean follow-up of 424 ± 127 days, AE could be detected in 98% of patients, and 92% had more than one type of arrhythmia, with most considered potentially not serious. Sustained atrial tachycardia and atrial fibrillation occurred in 7% and 13% of patients, respectively, and bradyarrhythmia and non-sustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred in 25% and 57%, respectively. There were 18 deaths, of which 7 were sudden cardiac events: 3 bradyarrhythmias, 1 ventricular fibrillation, 1 myocardial infarction, and 2 undetermined. The presence of a long QTc (odds ratio [OR] = 7.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01–26.35; p = 0.002), and the duration of the PR interval (OR = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.08; p < 0.001) were independently associated with bradyarrhythmias. Left ventricular dilatation (LVD) was independently associated with non-sustained VT (OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.01–7.96; p = 0.041). Conclusions In medium-term follow-up of RTCs, ILR helped detect a high incidence of AE, most of which did not have clinical relevance. The PR interval and presence of long QTc were predictive of bradyarrhythmias, whereas LVD was predictive of non-sustained VT. PMID:26351983

  7. Extended contrast detection on fluoroscopy and angiography for image-guided trans-catheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yinxiao; Liao, Rui; Lv, Xudong

    2012-02-01

    Navigation and deployment of the prosthetic valve during trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can be greatly facilitated with 3-D models showing detailed anatomical structures. Fast and robust automatic contrast detection at the aortic root on X-ray images is indispensable for automatically triggering a 2-D/3-D registration to align the 3-D model. Previously, we have proposed an automatic method for contrast detection at the aortic root on fluoroscopic and angiographic sequences [4]. In this paper, we extend that algorithm in several ways, making it more robust to handle more general and difficult cases. Specifically, the histogram likelihood ratio test is multiplied with the histogram portion computation to handle faint contrast cases. Histogram mapping corrects sudden changes in the global brightness, thus avoiding potential false positives. Respiration and heart beating check further reduces the false positive rate. In addition, a probe mask is introduced to enhance the contrast feature curve when the dark ultrasound probe partially occludes the aortic root. Lastly, a semi-global registration method for aligning the aorta shape model is implemented to improve the robustness of the algorithm with respect to the selection of region of interest (ROI) containing the aorta. The extended algorithm was evaluated on 100 sequences, and improved the detection accuracy from 94% to 100%, compared to the original method. Also, the robustness of the extended algorithm was tested with 20 different shifts of the ROI, and the error rate was as low as 0.2%, in comparison to 6.6% for the original method.

  8. The structural, chemical, and electrical properties of He-implantation-induced nanocavities in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, C.H.; Myers, S.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Stein, H.J.; Wampler, W.R.

    1993-11-01

    Si implanted with He to doses of about 2 {times} 10{sup 16}cm{sup {minus}2} and greater and annealed at high temperatures develops a layer of internal nanocavities near the end of the He range. Above an annealing temperature of 700 C, all the implanted He escapes from these implanted samples, and the resultant internal cavity surfaces can be shown to possess a high density of chemically reactive Si dangling orbitals. These structures, in addition to possessing a variety of interesting electronic properties, have recently been shown to hold great promise as getters for removing undesirable impurities from the silicon matrix. Here the authors describe some of the structural features of these nanocavities and studies which have been used to accurately determine the binding energy of H and Cu to Si atoms at the cavity walls. Recently, they have also demonstrated that these nanocavities capture large densities of majority carriers in n- and p-type silicon. These electrical measurements have demonstrated that the nanocavity electronic states possess both acceptor and donor levels in the Si forbidden gap. The approximate location of these levels has been determined by a variety of different types of capacitance transient spectroscopy.

  9. Au3+ ion implantation on FTO coated glasses: Effect on structural, electrical, optical and phonon properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Bindu; Dey, Ranajit; Bajpai, P. K.

    2017-06-01

    Effects of 11.00 MeV Au3+ ions implanted in FTO coated (thickness ≈300 nm) silicate glasses on structural, electrical optical and phonon behavior have been explored. It has been observed that metal clustering near the surface and sub-surface region below glass-FTO interface changes electrical and optical properties significantly. Ion implantation does not affect the crystalline structure of the coated films; however, the unit cell volume decreases with increase in fluence and the tetragonal distortion (c/a ratio) also decreases systematically in the implanted samples. The sheet resistivity of the films increases from 11 × 10-5 ohm-cm (in pristine) to 7.5 × 10-4 ohm-cm for highest ion beam fluence ≈1015 ions/cm2. The optical absorption decreases with increasing fluence whereas, the optical transmittance as well as reflectance increases with increasing fluence. The Raman spectra are observed at ∼530 cm-1 and ∼1103 cm-1 in pristine sample. The broad band at 530 cm-1 shifts towards higher wave number in the irradiated samples. This may be correlated with increased disorder and strain relaxation in the samples as a result of ion beam irradiation.

  10. High Structural Stability of Textile Implants Prevents Pore Collapse and Preserves Effective Porosity at Strain

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, Uwe; Otto, Jens; Mühl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement of tissues by use of textiles is encouraged by the reduced rate of recurrent tissue dehiscence but for the price of an inflammatory and fibrotic tissue reaction to the implant. The latter mainly is affected by the size of the pores, whereas only sufficiently large pores are effective in preventing a complete scar entrapment. Comparing two different sling implants (TVT and SIS), which are used for the treatment of urinary incontinence, we can demonstrate that the measurement of the effective porosity reveals considerable differences in the textile construction. Furthermore the changes of porosity after application of a tensile load can indicate a structural instability, favouring pore collapse at stress and questioning the use for purposes that are not “tension-free.” PMID:25973427

  11. The acquisition of grammatical and lexical structures in children with cochlear implants: a developmental psycholinguistic approach.

    PubMed

    Szagun, G

    2000-01-01

    The acquisition of grammatical and lexical structures was studied in a sample of 10 young German-speaking children with cochlear implants (mean implantation age 2 years 3 months). Spontaneous speech samples were collected covering the first 18 months after first tune-up. At the end of this period, 8 children were able to produce two- or multi-word utterances. Furthermore, 8 children had acquired plural inflections on nouns, and 5 children had acquired a substantial portion of verb inflectional morphology. Children did less well acquiring case-marked articles, forms of the copula and modal verbs. Articles were acquired better when they functioned as pronouns. Children had good vocabularies (type/token ratios >/=0.25), and all but one child started language with a preference for content words as opposed to function words. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Critical issues in the formation of quantum computer test structures by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, T.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schuh, A.; Persaud, A.; Bokor, J.

    2009-04-06

    The formation of quantum computer test structures in silicon by ion implantation enables the characterization of spin readout mechanisms with ensembles of dopant atoms and the development of single atom devices. We briefly review recent results in the characterization of spin dependent transport and single ion doping and then discuss the diffusion and segregation behaviour of phosphorus, antimony and bismuth ions from low fluence, low energy implantations as characterized through depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Both phosphorus and bismuth are found to segregate to the SiO2/Si interface during activation anneals, while antimony diffusion is found to be minimal. An effect of the ion charge state on the range of antimony ions, 121Sb25+, in SiO2/Si is also discussed.

  13. Effects of nickel ions implantation and subsequent thermal annealing on structural and magnetic properties of titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakhitov, I. R.; Lyadov, N. M.; Valeev, V. F.; Nuzhdin, V. I.; Tagirov, L. R.; Khaibullin, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    Wide bandgap semiconducting rutile (TiO2) doped with 3d-elements is a promising material for spintronic applications. In our work a composite material of TiO2:Ni has been formed by using implantation of Ni+ ions into single-crystalline (100)- and (001)- plates of TiO2. Sub-micron magnetic layers of TiO2 containing nickel dopant have been obtained at high implantation fluence of 1×1017 ion/cm2. A part of the implanted samples was then annealed in vacuum at different temperatures Tann = 450-1200 K for 30 min. The influence of the implantation fluence, crystalline orientation, as well as subsequent annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of the nickel-implanted TiO2 have been investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and coil magnetometry techniques.

  14. Detection of changes in DNA methylation induced by low-energy ion implantation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haichan; Zhao, Jin; Xu, Jing; Li, Xiaoqu; Zhang, Fengshou; Wang, Yugang; Carr, Christopher; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Genfa

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated changes in DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown from seeds implanted with low-energy N(+) and Ar(+) ions. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) testing revealed altered DNA methylation patterns after ion implantation at doses of 1 × 10(14) to 1 × 10(16) ions/cm(2). Comparison of the MSAP electrophoretic profiles revealed nine types of polymorphisms in ion-implanted seedlings relative to control seedlings, among which four represented methylation events, three represented demethylation events, and the methylation status of two was uncertain. The diversity of plant DNA methylation was increased by low-energy ion implantation. At the same time, total genomic DNA methylation levels at CCGG sites were unchanged by ion implantation. Moreover, a comparison of polymorphisms seen in N(+) ion-implanted, Ar(+) ion-implanted, and control DNA demonstrated that the species of incident ion influenced the resulting DNA methylation pattern. Sequencing of eight isolated fragments that showed different changing patterns in implanted plants allowed their mapping onto variable regions on one or more of the five Arabidopsis chromosomes; these segments included protein-coding genes, transposon and repeat DNA sequence. A further sodium bisulfite sequencing of three fragments also displayed alterations in methylation among either different types or doses of incident ions. Possible causes for the changes in methylation are discussed.

  15. Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis to Detect Stress Distribution in Spiral Implants and Surrounding Bone

    PubMed Central

    Danza, Matteo; Palmieri, Annalisa; Farinella, Francesca; Brunelli, Giorgio; Carinci, Francesco; Girardi, Ambra; Spinelli, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of research was to study spiral family implant by finite element analysis (FEA) inserted in different bone qualities connected with abutments of different angulations. Methods: The biomechanical behaviour of 4.2 × 13 mm dental implants, connecting screw, straight and 15° and 25° angulated abutments subjected to static loads, in contact with high and poor bone qualities was evaluated by FEA. Results: The lowest stress value was found in the system composed by implants and straight abut-ments loaded with a vertical force, while the highest stress value was found in implants with 15° angulated abutment loaded with an angulated force. In addition, we found the lower the bone quality, the higher the distribution of the stress within the bone. Conclusion: Spiral family implants can be used successfully in low bone quality but applying a straight force is recommended. PMID:21528032

  16. Three dimensional finite element analysis to detect stress distribution in spiral implants and surrounding bone.

    PubMed

    Danza, Matteo; Palmieri, Annalisa; Farinella, Francesca; Brunelli, Giorgio; Carinci, Francesco; Girardi, Ambra; Spinelli, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of research was to study spiral family implant by finite element analysis (FEA) inserted in different bone qualities connected with abutments of different angulations. The biomechanical behaviour of 4.2 × 13 mm dental implants, connecting screw, straight and 15° and 25° angulated abutments subjected to static loads, in contact with high and poor bone qualities was evaluated by FEA. The lowest stress value was found in the system composed by implants and straight abut-ments loaded with a vertical force, while the highest stress value was found in implants with 15° angulated abutment loaded with an angulated force. In addition, we found the lower the bone quality, the higher the distribution of the stress within the bone. Spiral family implants can be used successfully in low bone quality but applying a straight force is recommended.

  17. Impact of nucleation of carbonaceous clusters on structural, electrical and optical properties of Cr+-implanted PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Shafaq; Rafique, M. Shahid; Saleemi, Farhat; Naab, Fabian; Toader, Ovidiu; Mahmood, Arshad; Aziz, Uzma

    2016-09-01

    Specimens of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been implanted with 400 keV Cr+ ions at different ion fluences ranging from 5 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The possible chemical reactions involved in the nucleation of conjugated carbonaceous clusters in implanted PMMA are discussed. Furthermore, impact of formation of carbonaceous clusters on structural, optical, electrical and morphological properties of implanted PMMA has been examined. The structural modifications in implanted PMMA are observed by Raman spectroscopy. The variation in optical band gap and Urbach energy is measured using UV-visible spectroscopic analysis. The effects of Cr+ ion implantation on electrical and morphological properties are investigated by four-probe apparatus and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The Raman spectroscopic analysis confirmed the formation of carbonaceous clusters with the transformation of implanted layer of PMMA into amorphous carbon. Simultaneously, the optical band gap of implanted PMMA has reduced from 3.13 to 0.85 eV. The increase in Urbach energy favors the decline in band gap together with the structural modification in implanted PMMA. As a result of Cr+ ion implantation, the electrical conductivity of PMMA has improved from 2.14 ± 0.06 × 10-10 S/cm (pristine) to 7.20 ± 0.36 × 10-6 S/cm. The AFM images revealed a decrease in surface roughness with an increment in ion fluence up to 5 × 1014 ions/cm2. The modification in the electrical, optical and structural properties makes the PMMA a promising candidate for its future utilization, as a semiconducting and optically active material, in various fields like plastic electronics and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Optimization of an acoustic telemetry array for detecting transmitter-implanted fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clements, S.; Jepsen, D.; Karnowski, M.; Schreck, C.B.

    2005-01-01

    The development of miniature acoustic transmitters and economical, robust automated receivers has enabled researchers to study the movement patterns and survival of teleosts in estuarine and ocean environments, including many species and age-classes that were previously considered too small for implantation. During 2001-2003, we optimized a receiver mooring system to minimize gear and data loss in areas where current action or wave action and acoustic noise are high. In addition, we conducted extensive tests to determine (1) the performance of a transmitter and receiver (Vemco, Ltd.) that are widely used, particularly in North America and Europe and (2) the optimal placement of receivers for recording the passage of fish past a point in a linear-flow environment. Our results suggest that in most locations the mooring system performs well with little loss of data; however, boat traffic remains a concern due to entanglement with the mooring system. We also found that the reception efficiency of the receivers depends largely on the method and location of deployment. In many cases, we observed a range of 0-100% reception efficiency (the percentage of known transmissions that are detected while the receiver is within range of the transmitter) when using a conventional method of mooring. The efficiency was improved by removal of the mounting bar and obstructions from the mooring line. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  19. Porous Tantalum Structures for Bone Implants: Fabrication, Mechanical and In vitro Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Relatively high cost of manufacturing and inability to produce modular all tantalum implants has limited its widespread acceptance, in spite of its excellent in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. In this article, we report how to process Ta to create net shape porous structures with varying porosity using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) for the first time. Porous Ta samples with relative densities between 45 to 73% have been successfully fabricated and characterized for their mechanical properties. In vitro cell materials interactions, using human osteoblast cell line hFOB, have been accessed on these porous Ta structures and compared with porous Ti control samples. The results show that the Young’s modulus of porous Ta can be tailored between 1.5 to 20 GPa by changing the pore volume fraction between 27 and 55%. In vitro biocompatibility in terms of MTT assay and immunochemistry study showed excellent cellular adherence, growth and differentitation with abundant extracellular matrix formation on porous Ta structures compared to porous Ti control. These results indicate that porous Ta structures can promote enhanced/early biological fixation. The enhanced in vitro cell-materials interactions on porous Ta surface are attributed to chemistry and its high wettability and surface energy relative to porous Ti. Our results show that these laser processed porous Ta structures can find numerous applications, particularly among older patients, for metallic implants because of their excellent bioactivity. PMID:20132912

  20. Perception of Interaural Phase Differences With Envelope and Fine Structure Coding Strategies in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Susan; Aschendorff, Antje; Laszig, Roland; Wesarg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect a target signal masked by noise is improved in normal-hearing listeners when interaural phase differences (IPDs) between the ear signals exist either in the masker or in the signal. To improve binaural hearing in bilaterally implanted cochlear implant (BiCI) users, a coding strategy providing the best possible access to IPD is highly desirable. In this study, we compared two coding strategies in BiCI users provided with CI systems from MED-EL (Innsbruck, Austria). The CI systems were bilaterally programmed either with the fine structure processing strategy FS4 or with the constant rate strategy high definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS). Familiarization periods between 6 and 12 weeks were considered. The effect of IPD was measured in two types of experiments: (a) IPD detection thresholds with tonal signals addressing mainly one apical interaural electrode pair and (b) with speech in noise in terms of binaural speech intelligibility level differences (BILD) addressing multiple electrodes bilaterally. The results in (a) showed improved IPD detection thresholds with FS4 compared with HDCIS in four out of the seven BiCI users. In contrast, 12 BiCI users in (b) showed similar BILD with FS4 (0.6 ± 1.9 dB) and HDCIS (0.5 ± 2.0 dB). However, no correlation between results in (a) and (b) both obtained with FS4 was found. In conclusion, the degree of IPD sensitivity determined on an apical interaural electrode pair was not an indicator for BILD based on bilateral multielectrode stimulation. PMID:27659487

  1. Nanopore sequencing detects structural variants in cancer.

    PubMed

    Norris, Alexis L; Workman, Rachael E; Fan, Yunfan; Eshleman, James R; Timp, Winston

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in sequencing, structural variants (SVs) remain difficult to reliably detect due to the short read length (<300 bp) of 2nd generation sequencing. Not only do the reads (or paired-end reads) need to straddle a breakpoint, but repetitive elements often lead to ambiguities in the alignment of short reads. We propose to use the long-reads (up to 20 kb) possible with 3rd generation sequencing, specifically nanopore sequencing on the MinION. Nanopore sequencing relies on a similar concept to a Coulter counter, reading the DNA sequence from the change in electrical current resulting from a DNA strand being forced through a nanometer-sized pore embedded in a membrane. Though nanopore sequencing currently has a relatively high mismatch rate that precludes base substitution and small frameshift mutation detection, its accuracy is sufficient for SV detection because of its long reads. In fact, long reads in some cases may improve SV detection efficiency. We have tested nanopore sequencing to detect a series of well-characterized SVs, including large deletions, inversions, and translocations that inactivate the CDKN2A/p16 and SMAD4/DPC4 tumor suppressor genes in pancreatic cancer. Using PCR amplicon mixes, we have demonstrated that nanopore sequencing can detect large deletions, translocations and inversions at dilutions as low as 1:100, with as few as 500 reads per sample. Given the speed, small footprint, and low capital cost, nanopore sequencing could become the ideal tool for the low-level detection of cancer-associated SVs needed for molecular relapse, early detection, or therapeutic monitoring.

  2. Unsupervised Structure Detection in Biomedical Data.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Julia E

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in computational biology is to find simple representations of high-dimensional data that best reveal the underlying structure. In this work, we present an intuitive and easy-to-implement method based on ranked neighborhood comparisons that detects structure in unsupervised data. The method is based on ordering objects in terms of similarity and on the mutual overlap of nearest neighbors. This basic framework was originally introduced in the field of social network analysis to detect actor communities. We demonstrate that the same ideas can successfully be applied to biomedical data sets in order to reveal complex underlying structure. The algorithm is very efficient and works on distance data directly without requiring a vectorial embedding of data. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate the validity of this approach. Comparisons with state-of-the-art clustering methods show that the presented method outperforms hierarchical methods as well as density based clustering methods and model-based clustering. A further advantage of the method is that it simultaneously provides a visualization of the data. Especially in biomedical applications, the visualization of data can be used as a first pre-processing step when analyzing real world data sets to get an intuition of the underlying data structure. We apply this model to synthetic data as well as to various biomedical data sets which demonstrate the high quality and usefulness of the inferred structure.

  3. Relationship Between Peripheral and Psychophysical Measures of Amplitude Modulation Detection in Cochlear Implant Users.

    PubMed

    Tejani, Viral D; Abbas, Paul J; Brown, Carolyn J

    This study investigates the relationship between electrophysiological and psychophysical measures of amplitude modulation (AM) detection. Prior studies have reported both measures of AM detection recorded separately from cochlear implant (CI) users and acutely deafened animals, but no study has made both measures in the same CI users. Animal studies suggest a progressive loss of high-frequency encoding as one ascends the auditory pathway from the auditory nerve to the cortex. Because the CI speech processor uses the envelope of an ongoing acoustic signal to modulate pulse trains that are subsequently delivered to the intracochlear electrodes, it is of interest to explore auditory nerve responses to modulated stimuli. In addition, psychophysical AM detection abilities have been correlated with speech perception outcomes. Thus, the goal was to explore how the auditory nerve responds to AM stimuli and to relate those physiologic measures to perception. Eight patients using Cochlear Ltd. Implants participated in this study. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) were recorded using a 4000 pps pulse train that was sinusoidally amplitude modulated at 125, 250, 500, and 1000 Hz rates. Responses were measured for each pulse over at least one modulation cycle for an apical, medial, and basal electrode. Psychophysical modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) were also measured via a three-alternative forced choice, two-down, one-up adaptive procedure using the same modulation frequencies and electrodes. ECAPs were recorded from individual pulses in the AM pulse train. ECAP amplitudes varied sinusoidally, reflecting the sinusoidal variation in the stimulus. A modulated response amplitude (MRA) metric was calculated as the difference in the maximal and minimum ECAP amplitudes over the modulation cycles. MRA increased as modulation frequency increased, with no apparent cutoff (up to 1000 Hz). In contrast, MDTs increased as the modulation frequency increased. This

  4. Angular velocity-based structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yizheng; Kiremidjian, Anne S.; Rajagopal, Ram; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2016-04-01

    Damage detection is an important application of structural health monitoring. With the recent development of sensing technology, additional information about structures, angular velocity, has become available. In this paper, the angular velocity signals obtained from gyroscopes are modeled as an autoregressive (AR) model. The damage sensitive features (DSFs) are defined as a function of the AR coefficients. It is found that the mean values of the DSF for the damaged and undamaged signals are different. Also, we show that the angular velocity- based AR model has a linear relationship with the acceleration-based AR model. To test the proposed damage detection method, the algorithm has been tested with the experimental data from a recent shake table test where the damage is introduced systemically. The results indicate that the change of DSF means is statistically significant, and the angular velocity-based DSFs are sensitive to damage.

  5. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Examining Factors Influencing Outcomes with Cochlear Implant in Mandarin-Speaking Children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L N; Zhu, Shufeng; Xi, Xin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the direct and indirect effects of demographical factors on speech perception and vocabulary outcomes of Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). 115 participants implanted before the age of 5 and who had used CI before 1 to 3 years were evaluated using a battery of speech perception and vocabulary tests. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses proposed. Early implantation significantly contributed to speech perception outcomes while having undergone a hearing aid trial (HAT) before implantation, maternal educational level (MEL), and having undergone universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) before implantation had indirect effects on speech perception outcomes via their effects on age at implantation. In addition, both age at implantation and MEL had direct and indirect effects on vocabulary skills, while UNHS and HAT had indirect effects on vocabulary outcomes via their effects on age at implantation. A number of factors had indirect and direct effects on speech perception and vocabulary outcomes in Mandarin-speaking children with CIs and these factors were not necessarily identical to those reported among their English-speaking counterparts.

  6. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Examining Factors Influencing Outcomes with Cochlear Implant in Mandarin-Speaking Children

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L. N.; Zhu, Shufeng; Xi, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the direct and indirect effects of demographical factors on speech perception and vocabulary outcomes of Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). Methods 115 participants implanted before the age of 5 and who had used CI before 1 to 3 years were evaluated using a battery of speech perception and vocabulary tests. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses proposed. Results Early implantation significantly contributed to speech perception outcomes while having undergone a hearing aid trial (HAT) before implantation, maternal educational level (MEL), and having undergone universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) before implantation had indirect effects on speech perception outcomes via their effects on age at implantation. In addition, both age at implantation and MEL had direct and indirect effects on vocabulary skills, while UNHS and HAT had indirect effects on vocabulary outcomes via their effects on age at implantation. Conclusion A number of factors had indirect and direct effects on speech perception and vocabulary outcomes in Mandarin-speaking children with CIs and these factors were not necessarily identical to those reported among their English-speaking counterparts. PMID:26348360

  7. Leak detection using structure-borne noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen D. (Inventor); Chimenti, Dale E. (Inventor); Roberts, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for detection and location of air leaks in a pressure vessel, such as a spacecraft, includes sensing structure-borne ultrasound waveforms associated with turbulence caused by a leak from a plurality of sensors and cross correlating the waveforms to determine existence and location of the leak. Different configurations of sensors and corresponding methods can be used. An apparatus for performing the methods is also provided.

  8. Ion Implantation Metallurgy: A Study of the Composition, Structure and Corrosion Behavior of Surface Alloys Formed by Ion Implantation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Composition of 304 Stainless Steel %Cr ’Y Ni % Mn % Si % Mo % C % N % S % P 18.18 8.48 1.75 0.5 0.36 0.051 0.05 0.005 0.028 Coupons of 7x7xl mm were cut from...anodic- ally dissolved metal and subsequent incorporation into the passive film via a bridging bond with the bound water at the nearby passive film...IMPLANTATION - INDUCED AMORPHICITY IN GOLD Ion implantation has been shown to produce highly metastable phases similar to those formed by ultra-rapid

  9. Growth of surface structures correlated with structural and mechanical modifications of brass by laser-induced Si plasma ions implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, M. Shahid; Yousaf, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Laser-produced Si plasma is employed as an ion source for implantation on the brass substrate for its surface, structural, and mechanical modifications. Thomson parabola technique is employed for the measurement of energy and flux of Si ions using CR-39. In response to stepwise increase in number of laser pulses from 3000 to 12000, four brass substrates were implanted by laser-induced Si plasma ions of energy 290 keV at different fluxes ranging from 45 × 1012 to 75 × 1015 ions/cm2. SEM analysis reveals the formation of nano/micro-sized irregular shaped cavities and pores for the various ion fluxes for varying numbers of laser pulses from 3000 to 9000. At the maximum ion flux for 12,000 pulses, distinct and organized grains with hexagonal and irregular shaped morphology are revealed. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis exhibits that a new phase of CuSi (311) is identified which confirms the implantation of Si ions in brass substrate. A significant decrease in mechanical properties of implanted brass, such as Yield Stress (YS), Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), and hardness, with increasing laser pulses from 3000 to 6000 is observed. However, with increasing laser pulses from 9000 to a maximum value of 12,000, an increase in mechanical properties like hardness, YS, and UTS is observed. The generation as well as annihilation of defects, recrystallization, and intermixing of Si precipitates with brass matrix is considered to be responsible for variations in surface, structural, and mechanical modifications of brass.

  10. Silicate antibodies in women with silicone breast implants: development of an assay for detection of humoral immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, G Q; Ojo-Amaize, E A; Agopian, M S; Peter, J B

    1996-01-01

    Silicon, in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), adsorbed onto bovine serum albumin (BSA)-precoated plates served as the solid-phase antigen in an enzyme immunoassay to detect silicate-reactive antibodies in the plasma of 40 symptomatic women with silicone breast implants, 91 asymptomatic women with silicone breast implants, 50 healthy control women, and 52 women with rheumatic diseases and without silicone breast implants, Silicate-reactive antibodies of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM isotypes were detected in the plasma of 30% (12 of 40) of the symptomatic women with silicone breast implants; 9% (8 of 91) of the asymptomatic women with silicone breast implants; 5% (1 of 20) of the women without implants who had systemic lupus erythematosus; and 0% (0 of 32) of the women without implants who had either Sjögren syndrome, scleroderma, or rheumatoid arthritis. Only 2% (1 of 50) of the sera from the healthy control women contained silicate-reactive antibodies. Preincubation of sera with silicate and eight other metal compounds (including SiO2) demonstrated that the IgG and IgM antibodies bound specifically to silicate, because preincubation with Na2SiO3 inhibited more than 90% of the activity, whereas CrO3, Li2SO4, MgSO4, NiSO4, HgCl2, ZrOCl2, BeSO4, and SiO2 failed to inhibit the IgG or IgM antibody binding to the silicate-BSA plates. Furthermore, the F(ab')2 portion and not the Fc portion of the silicate-reactive IgG was reactive with BSA-bound silicate in the enzyme immunoassay. The assay for silicate-reactive antibodies was quantified by assigning arbitrary units to a standard curve composed of serial twofold dilutions of high-positive (ten times higher than the cutoff) silicate antibody sera. This novel assay is a useful method for detecting and quantifying humoral immune response to silicate. PMID:8991630

  11. Quantum structures for multiband photon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, A. G. U.

    2006-06-01

    The work describes multiband photon detectors based on semiconductor micro-and nano-structures. The devices considered include quantum dot, homojunction, and heterojunction structures. In the quantum dot structures, transitions are from one state to another, while free carrier absorption and internal photoemission play the dominant role in homo or heterojunction detectors. Quantum dots-in-a-well (DWELL) detectors can tailor the response wavelength by varying the size of the well. A tunnelling quantum dot infrared photodetector (T-QDIP) could operate at room temperature by blocking the dark current except in the case of resonance. Photoexcited carriers are selectively collected from InGaAs quantum dots by resonant tunnelling, while the dark current is blocked by AlGaAs/InGaAs tunnelling barriers placed in the structure. A two-colour infrared detector with photoresponse peaks at ˜6 and ˜17 μm at room temperature will be discussed. A homojunction or heterojunction interfacial workfunction internal photoemission (HIWIP or HEIWIP) infrared detector, formed by a doped emitter layer, and an intrinsic layer acting as the barrier followed by another highly doped contact layer, can detect near infrared (NIR) photons due to interband transitions and mid/far infrared (MIR/FIR) radiation due to intraband transitions. The threshold wavelength of the interband response depends on the band gap of the barrier material, and the MIR/FIR response due to intraband transitions can be tailored by adjusting the band offset between the emitter and the barrier. GaAs/AlGaAs will provide NIR and MIR/FIR dual band response, and with GaN/AlGaN structures the detection capability can be extended into the ultraviolet region. These detectors are useful in numerous applications such as environmental monitoring, medical diagnosis, battlefield-imaging, space astronomy applications, mine detection, and remote-sensing.

  12. Quantum structures for multiband photon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, A. G. U.

    2005-09-01

    The work describes multiband photon detectors based on semiconductor micro- and nano-structures. The devices considered include quantum dot, homojunction, and heterojunction structures. In the quantum dot structures, transitions are from one state to another, while free carrier absorption and internal photoemission play the dominant role in homo or heterojunction detectors. Quantum Dots-in-a-Well (DWELL) detectors can tailor the response wavelength by varying the size of the well. A tunneling Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (T-QDIP) could operate at room temperature by blocking the dark current except in the case of resonance. Photoexcited carriers are selectively collected from InGaAs quantum dots by resonant tunneling, while the dark current is blocked by AlGaAs/InGaAs tunneling barriers placed in the structure. A two-color infrared detector with photoresponse peaks at ~6 and ~17 μm at room temperature will be discussed. A Homojunction or HEterojunction Interfacial Workfunction Internal Photoemission (HIWIP or HEIWIP) infrared detector, formed by a doped emitter layer, and an intrinsic layer acting as the barrier followed by another highly doped contact layer, can detect near infrared (NIR) photons due to interband transitions and mid/far infrared (MIR/FIR) radiation due to intraband transitions. The threshold wavelength of the interband response depends on the band gap of the barrier material, and the MIR/FIR response due to intraband transitions can be tailored by adjusting the band offset between the emitter and the barrier. GaAs/AlGaAs will provide NIR and MIR/FIR dual band response, and with GaN/AlGaN structures the detection capability can be extended into the ultraviolet region. These detectors are useful in numerous applications such as environmental monitoring, medical diagnosis, battlefield-imaging, space astronomy applications, mine detection, and remote-sensing.

  13. Pre-clinical detection of amiodarone-induced acute fibrosing alveolitis by intra-thoracic impedance monitor of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Long; Chin, Chun-Shih; Lin, Tung-Chao; Liao, Ying-Chieh; Ting, Chih-Tai; Wu, Tsu-Juey

    2011-01-01

    A 66-year-old male received an implant of a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and was prescribed amiodarone (400 mg/day). The intra-thoracic impedance monitor in the ICD antecedently detected amiodarone-induced acute fibrosing alveolitis >3 months prior to clinical symptoms.

  14. Cochlear implants with fine structure processing improve speech and tone perception in Mandarin-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueqing; Liu, Bo; Liu, Sha; Mo, Lingyan; Li, Yuling; Kong, Ying; Zheng, Jun; Li, Yongxin; Gong, Shusheng; Han, Demin

    2013-07-01

    This study indicates that Mandarin-speaking subjects acquire significant benefit from a cochlear implant (CI) and audio processor with the fine structure processing (FSP) coding strategy. It can take adult Mandarin CI users time to become accustomed to their CI and appreciate the benefits. This study aimed to determine speech perception outcomes in Mandarin-speaking adults who received the FSP coding strategy. This was a prospective study. Ten adults who were implanted unilaterally with a PULSARCI(100), and received an OPUS 1 or OPUS 2 speech processor, were included in this study. The mean age at implantation was 31.1 years. We determined the benefit to postlingually deafened Mandarin-speaking adults with a severe to profound hearing loss using the tests: monosyllables in quiet, sentences in quiet and the Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test (MHINT). Tone perception was evaluated using a tone perception test. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to score sound quality and ease of listening. The results showed a significant improvement between first fitting and 6 months in all speech tests and in tone perception. The VAS scores showed a significant improvement over 6 months in sound quality and an immediate benefit in ease of listening.

  15. Intelligent-based Structural Damage Detection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yu, K.F.

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents the application of a novel Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the diagnosis of structural damage. The ANN model, denoted as the GRNNFA, is a hybrid model combining the General Regression Neural Network Model (GRNN) and the Fuzzy ART (FA) model. It not only retains the important features of the GRNN and FA models (i.e. fast and stable network training and incremental growth of network structure) but also facilitates the removal of the noise embedded in the training samples. Structural damage alters the stiffness distribution of the structure and so as to change the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system. The measured modal parameter changes due to a particular damage are treated as patterns for that damage. The proposed GRNNFA model was trained to learn those patterns in order to detect the possible damage location of the structure. Simulated data is employed to verify and illustrate the procedures of the proposed ANN-based damage diagnosis methodology. The results of this study have demonstrated the feasibility of applying the GRNNFA model to structural damage diagnosis even when the training samples were noise contaminated.

  16. Processing and mechanical behavior of lamellar structured degradable magnesium-hydroxyapatite implants.

    PubMed

    Ratna Sunil, B; Ganapathy, C; Sampath Kumar, T S; Chakkingal, Uday

    2014-12-01

    Multilayered (laminated) composites exhibit tunable mechanical behavior compared to bulk materials due to the presence of more interfaces and therefore magnesium based composites are gaining wide popularity as biodegradable materials targeted for temporary implant applications. The objective of the present work is to fabricate magnesium based lamellar metal matrix composites (MMCs) for degradable implant applications. Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) powder was selected as the secondary phase and lamellar structured magnesium-nano-hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA) composites of 8, 10 and 15wt% HA were fabricated by ball milling and spark plasma sintering. It was found that HA particles were coated on the Mg flakes after 20h of ball milling carried out using tungsten carbide (WC) as the milling media. Spark plasma sintering of the milled powders resulted in the formation of lamellar structure of Mg with the presence of HA and magnesium oxide (MgO) at the inter-lamellar sites of the composites. Phase analysis of the milled powder by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) method confirms the presence of HA and MgO along with Mg after sintering. Corrosion behavior of the composites investigated by potentiodynamic polarization tests shows a reduction in the inter-lamellar corrosion with increase in HA content and the best corrosion resistance is found for the Mg-10% HA composite. This composite also exhibits maximum Vickers hardness. Young׳s modulus and fracture toughness measured by nano-indentation method were higher for the Mg-8% HA composite. The results thus suggest that lamellar structured Mg composites with 8% and 10% HA show promise for temporary degradable orthopedic implant applications because of their improved corrosion resistance and superior mechanical properties.

  17. The “accumulation effect” of positrons in the stack of foils, detected by measurements of the positron implantation profile

    SciTech Connect

    Dryzek, Jerzy; Siemek, Krzysztof

    2013-12-14

    The profiles of positrons implanted from the radioactive source {sup 22}Na into a stack of foils and plates are the subject of our experimental and theoretical studies. The measurements were performed using the depth scanning of positron implantation profile method, and the theoretical calculations using the phenomenological multi-scattering model (MSM). Several stacks consisting of silver, gold and aluminum foils, and titanium and germanium plates were investigated. We notice that the MSM describes well the experimental profiles; however when the stack consisting of silver and gold foils, the backscattering and linear absorption coefficients differ significantly from those reported in the literature. We suggest the energy dependency of the backscattering coefficient for silver and gold. In the stacks which comprise titanium and germanium plates, there were observed the features, which indicate the presence of the “accumulation effect” in the experimental implantation profile. This effect was previously detected in implantation profiles in Monte Carlo simulations using the GEANT4 tool kit, and it consists in higher localization of positrons close the interface. We suppose that this effect can be essential for positron annihilation in any heterogeneous materials.

  18. Optical waveguides in oxygen-implanted buried-oxide silicon-on-insulator structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdi, B. N.; Hall, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis is made of the waveguiding properties of the oxygen-implanted, buried-oxide, silicon-on-insulator structures currently being developed for use in microelectronics. It is found that in spite of the fact that the buried-oxide layer is only a few tenths of a micrometer thick, the single-crystal overlayer can support TEo guided-wave propagation, at subbandgap wavelengths, with losses due to substrate radiation leakage at or below the benchmark level of 1 dB/cm.

  19. Structure and properties of ion-implanted Al sub 2 O sub 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHargue, C. J.; Farlow, G. C.; White, C. W.; Appleton, B. R.; Angelini, P.; Naramoto, H.

    1984-11-01

    The effects of implantation parameters temperature (77 to 640 K), ion species (Cr, Zr, Nb, Al+C, Xe), and fluence (1 x 10(14) to 1 x 10(17) ions.cm(-2)) on the structure and surface hardness of Al2O3 were studied. Low temperatures favor the rapid accumulation of damage and formation of an amorphous layer. Except for zirconium, fluences in excess of 1 x 10(17) ions/cm (-2) are required to amorphize Al2O3 at 300 K. The amorphous phase has a hardness about 65% of that of the crystalline phase.

  20. 3D finite element analysis to detect stress distribution: spiral family implants.

    PubMed

    Danza, Matteo; Zollino, Ilaria; Paracchini, Luigi; Riccardo, Guidi; Fanali, Stefano; Carinci, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Spiral family implants are a root-form fixtures with increasing thickness of tread. This characteristic gives a self-tapping and self-condensing bone properties to implants. To study spiral family implant inserted in different bone quality and connected with abutments of different angulations a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed. Once drawn the systems that were object of the study by CAD (Computer Aided Design), the FEA discretized solids composing the system in many infinitesimal little elementary solids defined finite elements. This lead to a mesh formation where the single finite elements were connected among them by nodes. For the 3 units bone-implant-abutments several thousand of tetrahedral elements having 10 parabolic nodes were employed. The biomechanical behaviour of 4.2 mm × 13 mm dental implants, connecting screw, straight and 15° and 25° angulated abutment subjected to static loads, in contact with high and poor bone quality was evaluated by FEA. A double system was analyzed: a) FY strength acting along Y axis and having 200 N intensity; b) FY and FZ couple of strengths applied along Y and Z directions and having respectively 200N and 140N intensity. The materials were considered as homogeneous, linear and isotropic. Then the FEA simulation was performed hypothesizing a linearity between loads and deformations. The lowest stress value was found in the system composed by implants and straight abutments loaded with a vertical strength, while the highest stress value were found in implants and 15° angulated abutment loaded with a angulated strength. In addition, the lower is the bone quality (i.e. D4) the higher is the distribution of the stress within the bone. Spiral family implants can be used successfully in low bone quality but a straight force is recommended.

  1. Optimal wireless receiver structure for omnidirectional inductive power transmission to biomedical implants.

    PubMed

    Gougheri, Hesam Sadeghi; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    In order to achieve omnidirectional inductive power transmission to biomedical implants, the use of several orthogonal coils in the receiver side (Rx) has been proposed in the past. In this paper, the optimal Rx structure for connecting three orthogonal Rx coils and the power management is found to achieve the maximum power delivered to the load (PDL) in the presence of any Rx coil tilting. Unlike previous works, in which a separate power management has been used for each coil to deliver power to the load, different resonant Rx structures for connecting three Rx coils to a single power management are studied. In simulations, connecting three Rx coils with the diameters of 3 mm, 3.3 mm, and 3.6 mm in series and resonating them with a single capacitor at the operation frequency of 100 MHz led to the maximum PDL for large loads when the implant was tilted for 45o. This optimal Rx structure achieves higher PDL in worst-case scenarios as well as reduces the number of power managements to only one.

  2. Nonparametric Detection of Geometric Structures Over Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shaofeng; Liang, Yingbin; Poor, H. Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Nonparametric detection of existence of an anomalous structure over a network is investigated. Nodes corresponding to the anomalous structure (if one exists) receive samples generated by a distribution q, which is different from a distribution p generating samples for other nodes. If an anomalous structure does not exist, all nodes receive samples generated by p. It is assumed that the distributions p and q are arbitrary and unknown. The goal is to design statistically consistent tests with probability of errors converging to zero as the network size becomes asymptotically large. Kernel-based tests are proposed based on maximum mean discrepancy that measures the distance between mean embeddings of distributions into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. Detection of an anomalous interval over a line network is first studied. Sufficient conditions on minimum and maximum sizes of candidate anomalous intervals are characterized in order to guarantee the proposed test to be consistent. It is also shown that certain necessary conditions must hold to guarantee any test to be universally consistent. Comparison of sufficient and necessary conditions yields that the proposed test is order-level optimal and nearly optimal respectively in terms of minimum and maximum sizes of candidate anomalous intervals. Generalization of the results to other networks is further developed. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed tests.

  3. Evaluation of suction detection during different pumping states in an implantable rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Ng, Siew-Cheok; Lim, Einly; Mason, David G; Avolio, Alberto P; Lovell, Nigel H

    2013-08-01

    In recent times, the problem of noninvasive suction detection for implantable rotary blood pumps has attracted substantial research interest. Here, we compare the performance of various suction indices for different types of suction and non-suction events based on pump speed irregularity. A total of 171 different indices that consist of previously proposed as well as newly introduced suction indices are tested using regularized logistic regression. These indices can be classified as amplitude based (derived from the mean, maximum, and minimum values of a cycle), duration based (derived from the duration of a cycle), gradient based (derived from the first order as well as higher order differences) and frequency based (derived from the power spectral density). The non-suction event data consists of ventricular ejection with or without arrhythmia and intermittent and continuous non-opening of the aortic valve. The suction event data consists of partial ventricular collapse that occurs intermittently as well as continuously with or without arrhythmia. In addition, we also attempted to minimize the usage of multiple indices by applying the sequential forward floating selection method to find which combination of indices gives the best performance. In general, the amplitude-based and gradient-based indices performed quite well while the duration-based and frequency-based indices performed poorly. By having only two indices ([i] the maximum gradient change in positive slope; and [ii] the standard deviation of the maximum value in a cycle), we were able to achieve a sensitivity of 98.9% and a specificity of 99.7%.

  4. Structural damage detection using information fusion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H. Y.

    2006-07-01

    In order to precisely identify the multiple damage locations of a structure, an information fusion technique is proposed in this paper. First, the frequency data and the mode shape data are regarded as two different information sources, and local decisions can be obtained using the multiple damage location assurance criterion (MDLAC) method and the frequency change damage detection method (FCDDM), respectively. Then, the local decisions are sent to a fusion centre. In the fusion centre, three main fusion approaches are applied to integrate all the local decisions. Finally, a global decision is acquired. The measurement errors are also taken into account in the fusion process. The numerical example and analysis demonstrate that the identification results of the three information fusion methods are better than those of the MDLAC method and the frequency change damage detection method.

  5. Development of oral and extra-oral endosseous craniofacial implants by using a mesh structure for connective tissue attachment.

    PubMed

    Mita, Atsushi; Yagihara, Atsushi; Wang, Wei; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2014-03-19

    Connective tissue attachment to a mesh structure incorporated on the surface of oral implants and extra-oral endosseous craniofacial implants (EOECI) was investigated. Two types of implants were prepared: TI and TI-Mesh. TI was composed of an upper and a lower component, both comprised of a titanium cylinder, which could be connected using a titanium screw. The composition of the TIMesh was similar, but the lower cylinder had a lateral groove that was covered with a titanium mesh. In animal experiments performed using rat calvaria, the lower component was first implanted and was left submerged for 3 weeks, then the upper component was mounted percutaneously. After an additional 2 weeks, each implant and the surrounding tissues were harvested and evaluated. Histological observations revealed collagen fibers originating from surrounding hypodermal tissues anchored to the mesh structures of the TI-Mesh whereas no such collagen fibers were observed around TI. Significantly greater values of the attachment strength, the thickness of the dermal tissue, the thickness of hypodermal tissue, and the attachment lengths were observed in TI-Mesh than those of TI. Thus connective tissue attachment with collagen fibers anchored to the mesh was achieved by incorporating mesh structures into the percutaneously placed implants.

  6. In vitro and in vivo studies of surface-structured implants for bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lu; Feng, Bo; Wang, Peizhi; Ding, Siyang; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Micronanoscale topologies play an important role in implant osteointegration and determine the success of an implant. We investigated the effect of three different implant surface topologies on osteoblast response and bone regeneration. In this study, implants with nanotubes and micropores were used, and implants with flat surfaces were used as the control group. Results Our in vitro studies showed that the nanostructured topologies improved the proliferation, differentiation, and development of the osteoblastic phenotype. Histological analysis further revealed that the nanotopology increased cell aggregation at the implant-tissue interfaces and enhanced bone-forming ability. Pushout testing indicated that the nanostructured topology greatly increased the bone-implant interfacial strength within 4 weeks of implantation. Conclusion Nanotopography may improve regeneration of bone tissue and shows promise for dental implant applications. PMID:23028216

  7. Detection of metallic implant-associated infections with FDG PET in patients with trauma: correlation with microbiologic results.

    PubMed

    Schiesser, Marc; Stumpe, Katrin D M; Trentz, Otmar; Kossmann, Thomas; Von Schulthess, Gustav K

    2003-02-01

    To prospectively evaluate the value of positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the detection of metallic implant-associated infections in patients with trauma. Twenty-nine partial-body FDG PET scans in 22 patients suspected of having metallic implant-associated infections were obtained prior to surgery. In two of the 22 patients, data were acquired with a combined PET-CT in-line system. Soft-tissue and bone infections were evaluated. PET scans were analyzed by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians first separately and then in consensus. Disease status was defined on the basis of the results of microbiologic evaluation of surgical specimens together with intraoperative findings. Sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, interobserver variability (determination of kappa values), and receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained. Of 29 PET scans, 14 were true-positive, 14 were true-negative, and one was false-positive. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 93.3%, and 97%, respectively, for all PET data; 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, for the central skeleton; and 100%, 87.5%, and 95%, respectively, for the peripheral skeleton. The degree of overall interobserver concordance was high (kappa = 0.96). FDG PET appears to be a sensitive and specific method for the detection of infectious foci due to metallic implants in patients with trauma.

  8. Wrong detection of ventricular fibrillation in an implantable cardioverter defibrillator caused by the movement near the MRI scanner bore.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Eugenio; Censi, Federica; Triventi, Michele; Mancini, Matteo; Napolitano, Antonio; Genovese, Elisabetta; Cannata, Vittorio; Falsaperla, Rosaria; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The static magnetic field generated by MRI systems is highly non-homogenous and rapidly decreases when moving away from the bore of the scanner. Consequently, the movement around the MRI scanner is equivalent to an exposure to a time-varying magnetic field at very low frequency (few Hz). For patients with an implanted cardiac stimulators, such as an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the movements inside the MRI environment may thus induce voltages on the loop formed by the leads of the device, with the potential to affect the behavior of the stimulator. In particular, the ICD's detection algorithms may be affected by the induced voltage and may cause inappropriate sensing, arrhythmia detections, and eventually inappropriate ICD therapy.We performed in-vitro measurements on a saline-filled humanshaped phantom (male, 170 cm height), equipped with an MRconditional ICD able to transmit in real-time the detected cardiac activity (electrograms). A biventricular implant was reproduced and the ICD was programmed in standard operating conditions, but with the shock delivery disabled. The electrograms recorded in the atrial, left and right ventricle channels were monitored during rotational movements along the vertical axis, in close proximity of the bore. The phantom was also equipped with an accelerometer and a magnetic field probe to measure the angular velocity and the magnetic field variation during the experiment. Pacing inhibition, inappropriate detection of tachyarrhythmias and of ventricular fibrillation were observed. Pacing inhibition began at an angular velocity of about 7 rad/s, (dB/dt of about 2 T/s). Inappropriate detection of ventricular fibrillation occurred at about 8 rad/s (dB/dt of about 3 T/s). These findings highlight the need for a specific risk assessment of workers with MR-conditional ICDs, which takes into account also effects that are generally not considered relevant for patients, such as the movement around the scanner bore.

  9. Shot detection combining Bayesian and structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung H.; Kweon, In-So

    2000-12-01

    There are a number of shots in a video, each of which has boundary types, such as cut, fade, dissolve and wipe. Many previous approaches can find the cut boundary without difficulty. However, most of them often produce false alarms for the videos with large motions of camera and objects. We propose a shot boundary detection method combining Bayesian and structural information. In the Bayesian approach, a probability distribution function models each transition type, e.g., normal, abrupt, gradual transition, and also models shot length. But inseparability between those distributions causes unwanted results and degrades the precision. In this paper, we demonstrate that the shape of the filtered frame difference, called the structural information, provides an important cue to distinguish fade and dissolve effects form cut effects and gradual changes caused by motion of camera and objects. The proposed method has been tested for a few golf video segments and shown good performances in detecting fade and dissolve effects as well as cut.

  10. Structural outlier detection for automatic landmark extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattes, Julian; Demongeot, Jacques

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a structural dissimilarity measure which allows to detect outliers in automatically extracted landmark pairs in two images. In previous work, to extract landmarks automatically, candidate points have been defined using invariance criteria coming from differential geometry such as maximum curvature; or they are statistical entities such as gravity centers of confiners, where the confiners are defined as the connected components of the level sets. After a first estimation of the semi-rigid transformation (representing translation, rotation, and scaling) relating the candidate point sets, outliers are detected applying the euclidian distance between corresponding points. However, this approach does not allow to distinguish between real deformations and outliers coming from noise or additional features in one of the images. In this paper, we define a structural dissimilarity measure which we use to decide if two associated candidate points come from two corresponding confiners. We select landmarks pairs with a dissimilarity value smaller than a given threshold and we calculate the affine transformation relating best all selected landmark pairs. We evaluated our technique on successive slices of a MRI image of the human brain and show that we obtain a significantly sharper error diminution using the new dissimilarity measure instead of the euclidian distance for outlier rejection.

  11. Isolation blocking voltage of nitrogen ion-implanted AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C. F.; Kang, Tsung Sheng; Liu, L.; Chang, C. Y.; Pearton, S. J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Laboutin, O.; Johnson, Wayne J.; Ren, F.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen ion-implanted AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures showed an isolation blocking voltage of 900 V with a leakage current at 1 A/mm across an implanted isolation-gap of 10 m between two Ohmic pads. The effect of implanted gap distance 1.7, 5, or 10 m between two Ohmic contact pads was evaluated. The isolation current density was determined to be solely dependent on the applied field between the contact pads. A model using a combination of resistive current and Poole Frenkel current is consistent with the experimental data. The resistance of the isolation implantation region significantly decreased after the sample was annealed at temperatures above 600 C.

  12. Mechanisms of formation of nonlinear optical light guide structures in metal cluster composites produced by ion beam implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkisov, S.S.; Williams, E.K.; Curley, M.; Smith, C.C.; Ila, D.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    1997-11-01

    Ion implantation has been shown to produce a high density of metal colloids in glasses and crystalline materials. The high-precipitate volume fraction and small size of metal nanoclusters formed leads to values for the third-order susceptibility much greater than those for metal doped solids. This has stimulated interest in use of ion implantation to make nonlinear optical materials. On the other side, LiNbO{sub 3} has proved to be a good material for optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation. Light confinement in these waveguides is produced by refractive index step difference between the implanted region and the bulk material. Implantation of LiNbO{sub 3} with MeV metal ions can therefore result into nonlinear optical waveguide structures with great potential in a variety of device applications. The authors describe linear and nonlinear optical properties of a waveguide structure in LiNbO{sub 3}-based composite material produced by silver ion implantation in connection with mechanisms of its formation.

  13. The structure and tribological properties of gradient layers prepared by plasma-based ion implantation on 2024 Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J. X.; Xia, L. F.; Sun, M. R.; Liu, W. M.; Xu, T.; Xue, Q. J.

    2004-02-01

    Using plasma-based ion implantation, two types of gradient layers have been prepared on 2024 Al alloy. One is prepared by N-implantation then C-deposition, the other adds an interlayer composed of a Ti layer and a Ti-N layer between N-implantation and C-deposition. C-deposition is carried out at various implanting voltages or C2H2/H2 ratios. The composition depth profiles of these layers were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The structure, morphologies and microstructure of the C layers were studied using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The surface hardness was measured with a Knoop tester and a mechanical property microprobe. The dry ball-on-disc wear tests were performed in ambient air. The gradient layer without interlayer is composed of an N-implanted layer rich in AlN and a diamond-like carbon (DLC) layer (film), and the two layers are connected with a C-Al transition layer containing Al4C3. The Ti layer rich in agr -Ti and the N-implanted layer are connected by a Ti-Al transition layer containing TiAl3, while the Ti-N layer rich in TiN and the DLC film are connected by a C-Ti transition layer containing TiC, TiCN, etc. Thus, the gradient layer with interlayers has optimized the gradient structure. DLC films are compact and amorphous, contain high sp3/sp2 ratios and depend on the implanting voltage and the C2H2/H2 ratio. Similarly, these gradient layers exhibit significant improvement in morphologies, surface hardness and tribological properties; the interlayer, the implanting voltage and the C2H2/H2 ratio all have prominent effects on these properties.

  14. Feasibility of Structural and Functional MRI Acquisition with Unpowered Implants in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Patients: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Samantha I.; Shi, Yonggang; Weiland, James D.; Falabella, Paulo; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C.; Zacks, David N.; Tjan, Bosco S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can measure the effects of vision loss and recovery on brain function and structure. In this case study, we sought to determine the feasibility of acquiring anatomical and functional MRI data in recipients of the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system. Methods Following successful implantation with the Argus II device, two retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients completed MRI scans with their implant unpowered to measure primary visual cortex (V1) functional responses to a tactile task, whole-brain morphometry, V1 cortical thickness, and diffusion properties of the optic tract and optic radiation. Measurements in the subjects with the Argus II implant were compared to measurements obtained previously from RP patients and sighted individuals. Results The presence of the Argus II implant resulted in artifacts that were localized around the patient's implanted eye and did not extend into cortical regions or white matter tracts associated with the visual system. Structural data on V1 cortical thickness and the retinofugal tract obtained from the two Argus II subjects fell within the ranges of sighted and RP groups. When compared to the RP and sighted subjects, Argus II patients' tactile-evoked cross-modal functional MRI (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in V1 also fell within the range of either sighted or RP groups, apparently depending on time since implantation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that successful acquisition and quantification of structural and functional MR images are feasible in the presence of the inactive implant and provides preliminary information on functional changes in the brain that may follow sight restoration treatments. Transitional Relevance Successful MRI and fMRI acquisition in Argus II recipients demonstrates feasibility of using MRI to study the effect of retinal prosthesis use on brain structure and function. PMID:26693097

  15. Feasibility of Structural and Functional MRI Acquisition with Unpowered Implants in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Patients: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Samantha I; Shi, Yonggang; Weiland, James D; Falabella, Paulo; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C; Zacks, David N; Tjan, Bosco S

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can measure the effects of vision loss and recovery on brain function and structure. In this case study, we sought to determine the feasibility of acquiring anatomical and functional MRI data in recipients of the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system. Following successful implantation with the Argus II device, two retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients completed MRI scans with their implant unpowered to measure primary visual cortex (V1) functional responses to a tactile task, whole-brain morphometry, V1 cortical thickness, and diffusion properties of the optic tract and optic radiation. Measurements in the subjects with the Argus II implant were compared to measurements obtained previously from RP patients and sighted individuals. The presence of the Argus II implant resulted in artifacts that were localized around the patient's implanted eye and did not extend into cortical regions or white matter tracts associated with the visual system. Structural data on V1 cortical thickness and the retinofugal tract obtained from the two Argus II subjects fell within the ranges of sighted and RP groups. When compared to the RP and sighted subjects, Argus II patients' tactile-evoked cross-modal functional MRI (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in V1 also fell within the range of either sighted or RP groups, apparently depending on time since implantation. This study demonstrates that successful acquisition and quantification of structural and functional MR images are feasible in the presence of the inactive implant and provides preliminary information on functional changes in the brain that may follow sight restoration treatments. Successful MRI and fMRI acquisition in Argus II recipients demonstrates feasibility of using MRI to study the effect of retinal prosthesis use on brain structure and function.

  16. Implantable polymer/metal thin film structures for the localized treatment of cancer by Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Theriault, Christian; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an implantable polymer/metal alloy thin film structure for localized post-operative treatment of breast cancer. A combination of experiments and models is used to study the temperature changes due to Joule heating by patterned metallic thin films embedded in poly-dimethylsiloxane. The heat conduction within the device and the surrounding normal/cancerous breast tissue is modeled with three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). The FEM simulations are used to explore the potential effects of device geometry and Joule heating on the temperature distribution and lesion (thermal dose). The FEM model is validated using a gel model that mimics biological media. The predictions are also compared to prior results from in vitro studies and relevant in vivo studies in the literature. The implications of the results are discussed for the potential application of polymer/metal thin film structures in hyperthermic treatment of cancer.

  17. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration. PMID:27790598

  18. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neha; Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration.

  19. Fine structure processing improves telephone speech perception in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Javier; Lassaletta, Luis; Mora, Rosa Pérez; Castro, Alejandro; Bastarrica, Marta; Gavilán, Javier

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare telephone speech perception and subjective preferences in cochlear implant users with two different speech-processing strategies: high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) and fine structure processing (FSP). A randomized double-blind study was designed for intra-individual comparison of HDCIS and FSP. Twenty-five post-lingually deafened patients with either the PulsarCI(100) or SonataTI(100) and Opus2 acoustic processor were tested consecutively with both coding strategies, assigned in a random order. Disyllabic word speech perception was tested 6 weeks after each fitting under the following conditions: landline use with (LWN) and without (LWoN) background noise, mobile use with (MWN), and without (MWoN) background noise and mobile use with a Bluetooth magnetic field transmitter necklace (MB). Changes in health-related quality of life (QoL) were assessed using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) and Faber's questionnaire. Personal preferences between strategies were surveyed upon completion of the study. All subjects included in this study performed better with FSP in the landline tests. There was an improvement of 11.5 % in LWN use (p = 0.014; CI 95 % = 3-20 %) and 10 % in LWoN use (p = 0.001; CI 95 % = 5-15 %). MWoN showed an improvement of 6.3 % with FSP (p = 0.03; CI 95 % = 0-13 %). MB tests showed an improvement of 11 % with FSP (p < 0.05; CI 95 % = 1.5-22 %). Quality of life was significantly better using FSP. Eighty-four percent of participants preferred FSP. The FSP speech coding strategy improved the speech recognition of cochlear implant users when using the telephone compared to HDCIS. Cochlear implantation with FSP coding improved QoL.

  20. Effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the structural and optical properties of indium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, Riti; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Kumar, Pravin; Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2016-06-10

    : We report here synthesis and subsequent nitrogen ion implantation of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films. The films were implanted with 25 keV N{sup +} beam for different ion doses between 3E15 to 1E16 ions/cm{sup 2}. The resulting changes in structural and optical properties were investigated using XRD, SEM-EDAX and UV-Vis Spectrometry. XRD studies reveal decrease in crystallite size from 20.06 to 12.42 nm with increase in ion dose. SEM micrographs show an increase in the grain size from 0.8 to 1.35 µm with increase in ion dose because of the agglomeration of the grains. Also, from EDAX data on pristine and N-implanted thin films the presence of indium and oxygen without any traces of impurity elements could be seen. However, at lower ion doses such as 3E15 and 5E15 ions/cm{sup 2}, no evidence of the presence of nitrogen ion was seen. However, for the ion dose of 1E16 ions/cm{sup 2}, evidence of presence of nitrogen can be seen in the EDAX data. Band gap calculations reveal a decrease in band gap from 3.54 to 3.38 eV with increasing ion dose. However, the band gap was found to again show an increase to 3.58 eV at the highest ion dose owing to quantum confinement effect.

  1. A novel bionic design of dental implant for promoting its long-term success using nerve growth factor (NGF): Utilizing nano-springs to construct a stress-cushioning structure inside the implant

    PubMed Central

    He, Hao; Yao, Yang; Wang, Yanying; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yang; Gong, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Summary The absence of periodontium causes masticatory load in excess of the self-repairing potential of peri-implant bone; peri-implant bone loss caused by occlusal overload is not uncommon in patients and greatly diminishes chances of long-term success. Regenerative treatments may be useful in inducing peri-implant bone regeneration, but are only stopgap solutions to the aftermaths caused by the imperfect biomechanical compatibility of the dental implant. Despite promising success, the tissue-engineered periodontal ligament still needs a period of time to be perfected before being clinically applied. Hence, we propose a novel design of dental implant that utilizes nano-springs to construct a stress-cushioning structure inside the implant. Many studies have shown that NGF, a neurotrophin, is effective for nerve regeneration in both animal and clinical studies. Moreover, NGF has the potential to accelerate bone healing in patients with fracture and fracture nonunion and improve osseointegration of the implant. The key point of the design is to reduce stress concentrated around peri-implant bone by cushioning masticatory forces and distributing them to all the peri-implant bone through nano-springs, and promote osseoperception and osseointegration by NGF-induced nerve regeneration and new bone formation. This design, which transfers the main biomechanical interface of the implant from outside to inside, if proven to be valid, may to some extent compensate for the functions of lost periodontium in stress cushioning and proprioception. PMID:22847209

  2. Cellular Ti-6Al-4V structures with interconnected macro porosity for bone implants fabricated by selective electron beam melting.

    PubMed

    Heinl, Peter; Müller, Lenka; Körner, Carolin; Singer, Robert F; Müller, Frank A

    2008-09-01

    Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) was successfully used to fabricate novel cellular Ti-6Al-4V structures for orthopaedic applications. Micro computer tomography (microCT) analysis demonstrated the capability to fabricate three-dimensional structures with an interconnected porosity and pore sizes suitable for tissue ingrowth and vascularization. Mechanical properties, such as compressive strength and elastic modulus, of the tested structures were similar to those of human bone. Thus, stress-shielding effects after implantation might be avoided due to a reduced stiffness mismatch between implant and bone. A chemical surface modification using HCl and NaOH induced apatite formation during in vitro bioactivity tests in simulated body fluid under dynamic conditions. The modified bioactive surface is expected to enhance the fixation of the implant in the surrounding bone as well as to improve its long-term stability.

  3. Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, Bertrand; Chazelas, Jean; Bonniau, Philippe; Lecuellet, Jerome; Turpin, Marc J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the progress of an ongoing research program at Thomson-CSF and Bertin & Cie which addresses an optical fiber system dedicated to the assessment of impact induced damages on airborne multilayered structures. The method is based on the use of embedded high birefringence optical fiber sensors and distributed white light interfero-polarimetry. The first part is devoted to the transduction process efficiency within optical fibers depending on the applied force intensity, direction versus the fiber eigen axes and the interaction length. To understand the behavior of these optical fibers and calibrate the detection system, experiments have been conducted on elliptical core fibers, `bow-tie' fibers and side-hole fibers and showed a wide range of available sensitivities. The second step is related to the inclusion of optical fibers in a sandwich structure representative of an airborne dome, and composed of foam between glass/epoxy composite skins. Different designs of grooves in the foam and tube sheathings have been investigated to support and protect the optical fiber. Impacts have been performed on the structure in the 1 to 10 Joules energy range. Experimental impact location and energy measurements have been achieved for a variety of stress fields.

  4. Nano-structured silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation and integration of silver metallization with thin film silicide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitan, Martin M.

    Nano-structured silicide formation was mediated through ion implantation. Silicide structures with dimensions of 170 nm were produced on (100) silicon substrates by ion implantation of 200 KeV As++ through a thin cobalt film on SiO2/Si structure. A selective reaction barrier at the Si/Co interface comprising of a thin (˜2 nm) oxide (SiO 2) prevents unwanted reactions. Ion-beam mixing was instrumental in the fracturing of the oxide layer, thereby allowing the migration of metal atoms across the SiO2/Co boundary for the silicidation reaction to proceed during subsequent rapid thermal anneal (RTA) treatments. A threshold dose of 3 x 1015 cm-2 was required for process initiation. Four-terminal resistance test structures were formed for electrical measurements. Resistivity values obtained ranged from 12 to 23 muO-cm, improving with increased ion dose. Application of this method can facilitate a wide variety of silicide structures. Part two of this study focused on the reliability study of silver metalization with silicides. Silicide thin films of CoSi2 and NiSi were prepared by solid phase reactions utilizing the bi-layer technique. Silver thin films were then deposited on the silicides to evaluate the thermal stability of the films during vacuum annealing. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry of annealed films revealed Ag film changes to occur at 700°C. No changes in the silicide thin films could be detected. Scanning electron microscopy of annealed films shows grain coarsening of the Ag film with increasing anneal temperature. At 650°C, voids begin to appear in the film. Increasing anneal temperature up to 700°C agglomerates the film. X-ray diffraction glancing angle scans revealed no phase changes in annealed films. The as-deposited case and 700°C both show the same reflection peaks being present. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiling revealed trace amounts of Ag at the silicide/silicon interface following a heat treatment. This occurrence appears to

  5. Variability and detection of invariant structure.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rebecca L

    2002-09-01

    Two experiments investigated learning of nonadjacent dependencies by adults and 18-month-olds. Each learner was exposed to three-element strings (e.g., pel-kicey-jic) produced by one of two artificial languages. Both languages contained the same adjacent dependencies, so learners could distinguish the languages only by acquiring dependencies between the first and third elements (the nonadjacent dependencies). The size of the pool from which the middle elements were drawn was systematically varied to investigate whether increasing variability (in theform of decreasing predictability between adjacent elements) would lead to better detection of nonadjacent dependencies. Infants and adults acquired nonadjacent dependencies only when adjacent dependencies were least predictable. The results point to conditions that might lead learners to focus on nonadjacent versus adjacent dependencies and are importantfor suggesting how learning might be dynamically guided by statistical structure.

  6. Topological detection of Lagrangian coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Allshouse, Michael

    2011-11-01

    In many applications, particularly in geophysics, we often have fluid trajectory data from floats, but little or no information about the underlying velocity field. The standard techniques for finding transport barriers, based for example on finite-time Lyapunov exponents, are then inapplicable. However, if there are invariant regions in the flow this will be reflected by a `bunching up' of trajectories. We show that this can be detected by tools from topology. The method relies on examining a large number of topological loops, encoded symbolically. These loops wrap around the trajectories, which are viewed as topological obstacles. As the trajectories move around, they cause most loops to grow. The few loops that do not grow, or grow slowly, can be associated with coherent structures. Supported by NSF grant DMS-0806821

  7. 3D silicon shapes through bulk nano structuration by focused ion beam implantation and wet etching.

    PubMed

    Salhi, Billel; Troadec, David; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2017-05-19

    The work presented in this paper concerns the synthesis of silicon (Si) 2D and 3D nanostructures using the delayed effect, caused by implanted Ga ions, on the dissolution of Si in aqueous solutions of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The crystalline silicon substrates (100) are first cleaned and then hydrogenated by immersion in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. The ion implantation is then carried out by a focused ion beam by varying the dose and the exposure time. Chemical etching in aqueous solutions of TMAH at 80 °C leads to the selective dissolution of the Si planes not exposed to the ions. The preliminary results obtained in the laboratory made it possible to optimize the experimental conditions for the synthesis of 2D and 3D nanoobjects of controlled shape and size. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray showed the amorphous nature of the nanostructures obtained and the presence of 5%-20% Ga in these nanoobjects. The first experiments of recrystallization by rapid thermal annealing allowed to reconstitute the crystal structure of these nanoobjects.

  8. High Mobility SiGe/Si Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates Using Ion Implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Mueller, C. H.; Croke, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    High mobility n-type SiGe/Si transistor structures have been fabricated on sapphire substrates by ion implanting phosphorus ions into strained 100 Angstrom thick silicon channels for the first time. The strained Si channels were sandwiched between Si(sub 0.7)Ge(sub 0.3) layers, which, in turn, were deposited on Si(sub 0.7)Ge(sub 0.3) virtual substrates and graded SiGe buffer layers. After the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) film growth process was completed, ion thick silicon channels implantation and post-annealing were used to introduce donors. The phosphorous ions were preferentially located in the Si channel at a peak concentration of approximately 1x10(exp 18)/cu cm. Room temperature electron mobilities exceeding 750 sq cm/V-sec at carrier densities of 1x10(exp 12)/sq cm were measured. Electron concentration appears to be the key factor that determines mobility, with the highest mobility observed for electron densities in the 1 - 2x10(exp 12)/sq cm range.

  9. Electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si1–xGex alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Ruixing; Kremer, F.; Sprouster, D. J.; ...

    2016-01-14

    Here, we report on the effects of dopant concentration and substrate stoichiometry on the electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si1–xGex alloys. Correlating the fraction of electrically active In atoms from Hall Effect measurements with the In atomic environment determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we observed the transition from electrically active, substitutional In at low In concentration to electrically inactive metallic In at high In concentration. The In solid-solubility limit has been quantified and was dependent on the Si1–xGex alloy stoichiometry; the solid-solubility limit increased as the Ge fraction increased. This result was consistent with density functional theory calculations ofmore » two In atoms in a Si1–xGex supercell that demonstrated that In–In pairing was energetically favorable for x ≲ 0.7 and energetically unfavorable for x ≳ 0.7. Transmission electron microscopy imaging further complemented the results described earlier with the In concentration and Si1–xGex alloy stoichiometry dependencies readily visible. We have demonstrated that low resistivity values can be achieved with In implantation in Si1–xGex alloys, and this combination of dopant and substrate represents an effective doping protocol.« less

  10. Doping of Graphene by Low-Energy Ion Beam Implantation: Structural, Electronic, and Transport Properties.

    PubMed

    Willke, Philip; Amani, Julian A; Sinterhauf, Anna; Thakur, Sangeeta; Kotzott, Thomas; Druga, Thomas; Weikert, Steffen; Maiti, Kalobaran; Hofsäss, Hans; Wenderoth, Martin

    2015-08-12

    We investigate the structural, electronic, and transport properties of substitutional defects in SiC-graphene by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and magnetotransport experiments. Using ion incorporation via ultralow energy ion implantation, the influence of different ion species (boron, nitrogen, and carbon) can directly be compared. While boron and nitrogen atoms lead to an effective doping of the graphene sheet and can reduce or raise the position of the Fermi level, respectively, (12)C(+) carbon ions are used to study possible defect creation by the bombardment. For low-temperature transport, the implantation leads to an increase in resistance and a decrease in mobility in contrast to undoped samples. For undoped samples, we observe in high magnetic fields a positive magnetoresistance that changes to negative for the doped samples, especially for (11)B(+)- and (12)C(+)-ions. We conclude that the conductivity of the graphene sheet is lowered by impurity atoms and especially by lattice defects, because they result in weak localization effects at low temperatures.

  11. Optimization of a low noise detection circuit for probing the structure of damage cascades with IBIC

    DOE PAGES

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Bielejec, Edward; ...

    2015-06-18

    Optimal detector / pre-amplifier combinations have been identified for the use of light ion IBIC (ion beam induced charge) to probe the physical structure of electrically active defects in damage cascades caused by heavy ion implantation. The ideal detector must have a sufficiently thin dead layer that incident ions will produce the majority of damage cascades in the depletion region of the detector rather than the dead layer. Detector and circuit noise must be low enough to detect the implantation of a single heavy ion as well as the decrease in the light ion IBIC signal caused by Shockley-Read-Hall recombinationmore » when the beam scans regions of the detector damaged by the heavy ion. The IBIC signals from three detectors irradiated with 750 keV He⁺ ions are measured with commercial and bespoke charge sensitive pre-amplifiers to identify the combination with the lowest noise.« less

  12. Optimization of a low noise detection circuit for probing the structure of damage cascades with IBIC

    SciTech Connect

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Wampler, William R.

    2015-06-18

    Optimal detector / pre-amplifier combinations have been identified for the use of light ion IBIC (ion beam induced charge) to probe the physical structure of electrically active defects in damage cascades caused by heavy ion implantation. The ideal detector must have a sufficiently thin dead layer that incident ions will produce the majority of damage cascades in the depletion region of the detector rather than the dead layer. Detector and circuit noise must be low enough to detect the implantation of a single heavy ion as well as the decrease in the light ion IBIC signal caused by Shockley-Read-Hall recombination when the beam scans regions of the detector damaged by the heavy ion. The IBIC signals from three detectors irradiated with 750 keV He⁺ ions are measured with commercial and bespoke charge sensitive pre-amplifiers to identify the combination with the lowest noise.

  13. Finite element analysis and cellular studies on advanced, controlled porous structures with subsurface continuity in bio-implantable titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Lambert, P; Ankem, S; Wyatt, Z; Ferlin, K M; Fisher, J

    2014-01-01

    Highly-porous metallic implant onlay materials (specifically those containing surface pores that intersect beneath the onlay surface) have been investigated recently for their potential to reduce bone resorption and to improve the overall stability of the implant. In the current study, sub-surface interconnectivity of high-aspect-ratio pores was created directly in the substrate of an implant material using wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). This technique was used to produce intersecting pores with diameters of 180-250 μm on a clinically relevant implant material—commercially pure (CP) Grade 4 Ti—with a very high degree of control over pore morphology. These pores resulted in no significant microstructural modification to the surrounding Ti, and the inner pore surfaces could be thermally oxidized to produce a microrough, bioactive TiO2 layer. Finite element analysis of Ti models containing these EDM-attainable intersecting pore geometries suggested they produce higher bone/implant interface strengths and lower susceptibility to stress shielding of the surrounding bone as compared with models containing simpler surface geometries. In vitro experiments using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) demonstrated mineralized tissue ingrowth of ∼ 300 μm into EDM-produced pores. This amount of ingrowth is expected to allow for full interlocking of mineralized tissue and implant given the proper pore structure design. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  14. The photoluminescence response to structural changes of Yb implanted ZnO crystals subjected to non-equilibrium processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, R.; Prucnal, S.; Guziewicz, E.; Mieszczynski, C.; Snigurenko, D.; Stachowicz, M.; Skorupa, W.; Turos, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present the detailed study of optical and structural properties of Yb implanted single ZnO crystals. Hydrothermally grown wurtzite (0001) ZnO crystals were implanted with 150 keV Yb ions to fluencies of 5 × 1014 and 1 × 1015 at/cm2. After ion implantation, two different types of annealing were performed: rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and millisecond range flash lamp annealing (FLA). Crystalline quality, damage recovery, and Yb lattice site location were evaluated by the Channeling Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS/c). It is shown that independent of the used annealing technique, defects formed in ZnO during ion implantation can be removed. Upon RTA performed at the temperature higher than 800 °C, strong out-diffusion of implanted Yb atoms and precipitation on the surface takes place. Consequently, the degradation of the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency is observed. The diffusion of implanted Yb during millisecond range FLA does not occur for such experimental conditions. Moreover, FLA treatment for 20 ms leads to the formation of single crystalline ZnO layer with Yb incorporated in the substitutional lattice sites. According to RBS/c and PL data, Yb atoms substituted in the Zn sublattice are predominantly in the 2+ oxidation state. The most intensive PL has been observed after annealing at 800 °C for 20 min which is accompanied with the reduction of Yb substitutional fraction and formation of octahedron Yb-oxygen clusters within ZnO.

  15. Thermal migration of deuterium implanted in graphite: Influence of free surface proximity and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guillou, M.; Moncoffre, N.; Toulhoat, N.; Pipon, Y.; Ammar, M. R.; Rouzaud, J. N.; Deldicque, D.

    2016-03-01

    This paper is a contribution to the study of the behavior of activation products produced in irradiated nuclear graphite, graphite being the moderator of the first French generation of CO2 cooled nuclear fission reactors. This paper is focused on the thermal release of Tritium, a major contributor to the initial activity, taking into account the role of the free surfaces (open pores and graphite surface). Two kinds of graphite were compared. On one hand, Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite (HOPG), a model well graphitized graphite, and on the other hand, SLA2, a porous less graphitized nuclear graphite. Deuterium ion implantation at three different energies 70, 200 and 390 keV allows simulating the presence of Tritium at three different depths, corresponding respectively to projected ranges Rp of 0.75, 1.7 and 3.2 μm. The D isotopic tracing is performed thanks to the D(3He,p)4He nuclear reaction. The graphite structure is studied by Raman microspectrometry. Thermal annealing is performed in the temperature range 200-1200 °C up to 300 h annealing time. As observed in a previous study, the results show that the D release occurs according to three kinetic regimes: a rapid permeation through open pores, a transient regime corresponding to detrapping and diffusion of D located at low energy sites correlated to the edges of crystallites and finally a saturation regime attributed to detrapping of interstitial D located at high energy sites inside the crystallites. Below 600 °C, D release is negligible whatever the implantation depth and the graphite type. The present paper clearly puts forward that above 600 °C, the D release decreases at deeper implantation depths and strongly depends on the graphite structure. In HOPG where high energy sites are more abundant, the D release is less dependent on the surface proximity compared to SLA2. In SLA2, in which the low energy sites prevail, the D release curves are clearly shifted towards lower temperatures when D is located

  16. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    SciTech Connect

    Allshouse, Michael R.; Peacock, Thomas

    2015-09-15

    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.

  17. An ontology-based annotation of cardiac implantable electronic devices to detect therapy changes in a national registry.

    PubMed

    Rosier, Arnaud; Mabo, Philippe; Chauvin, Michel; Burgun, Anita

    2015-05-01

    The patient population benefitting from cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is increasing. This study introduces a device annotation method that supports the consistent description of the functional attributes of cardiac devices and evaluates how this method can detect device changes from a CIED registry. We designed the Cardiac Device Ontology, an ontology of CIEDs and device functions. We annotated 146 cardiac devices with this ontology and used it to detect therapy changes with respect to atrioventricular pacing, cardiac resynchronization therapy, and defibrillation capability in a French national registry of patients with implants (STIDEFIX). We then analyzed a set of 6905 device replacements from the STIDEFIX registry. Ontology-based identification of therapy changes (upgraded, downgraded, or similar) was accurate (6905 cases) and performed better than straightforward analysis of the registry codes (F-measure 1.00 versus 0.75 to 0.97). This study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of ontology-based functional annotation of devices in the cardiac domain. Such annotation allowed a better description and in-depth analysis of STIDEFIX. This method was useful for the automatic detection of therapy changes and may be reused for analyzing data from other device registries.

  18. Detecting slab structure beneath the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Sun, Daoyuan; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    The presence of subducted slabs in the Mediterranean has been well documented with seismic tomography, however, these images, which are produced by smoothed, damped inversions, underestimate the sharpness of the structures. The position and extent of the slabs and the presence possible tears or gaps in the subducted lithosphere are still debated, yet the shape and location these structures are important for kinematic reconstructions and evolution of the entire subduction zone system. Extensive distribution of broadband seismic instrumentation in the Mediterranean (Italian National Seismic Network in Italy and the NSF-PICASSO project in Spain and Morocco) has allowed us to use alternative methodologies to detect the position of the slabs and slab tears beneath the Central and Western Mediterranean. Using S receiver functions we are able to identify S-to-p conversions from the bottom of the subducted slab and a lack of these signals where there are gaps or tears in the slab. We also analyze broadband waveforms for changes in P wave coda from deep (> 300 km depth) local earthquakes. The waveform records for stations in southern Italy and around the Betic-Rif show large amplitude, high frequency (f > 5 Hz) late arrivals with long coda after relatively low-frequency onset. High frequency arrivals are the strongest from events whose raypaths travel within the slab to the stations where they are recorded allowing for mapping of where the subducted material is located within the upper mantle. These two methods, along with inferring the slab position from fast P-wave velocity perturbations in tomography and intermediate depth seismicity, provide additional geophysical evidence to aid in interpretation of the complex, segmented slab structure beneath the Mediterranean.

  19. Feasibility of fully automated detection of fiducial markers implanted into the prostate using electronic portal imaging: A comparison of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Emma J. . E-mail: eharris@icr.ac.uk; McNair, Helen A.; Evans, Phillip M.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of fully automated detection of fiducial markers implanted into the prostate using portal images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device. Methods and Materials: We have made a direct comparison of 4 different methods (2 template matching-based methods, a method incorporating attenuation and constellation analyses and a cross correlation method) that have been published in the literature for the automatic detection of fiducial markers. The cross-correlation technique requires a-priory information from the portal images, therefore the technique is not fully automated for the first treatment fraction. Images of 7 patients implanted with gold fiducial markers (8 mm in length and 1 mm in diameter) were acquired before treatment (set-up images) and during treatment (movie images) using 1MU and 15MU per image respectively. Images included: 75 anterior (AP) and 69 lateral (LAT) set-up images and 51 AP and 83 LAT movie images. Using the different methods described in the literature, marker positions were automatically identified. Results: The method based upon cross correlation techniques gave the highest percentage detection success rate of 99% (AP) and 83% (LAT) set-up (1MU) images. The methods gave detection success rates of less than 91% (AP) and 42% (LAT) set-up images. The amount of a-priory information used and how it affects the way the techniques are implemented, is discussed. Conclusions: Fully automated marker detection in set-up images for the first treatment fraction is unachievable using these methods and that using cross-correlation is the best technique for automatic detection on subsequent radiotherapy treatment fractions.

  20. Impaired perception of temporal fine structure and musical timbre in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Heng, Joseph; Cantarero, Gabriela; Elhilali, Mounya; Limb, Charles J

    2011-10-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users demonstrate severe limitations in perceiving musical timbre, a psychoacoustic feature of sound responsible for 'tone color' and one's ability to identify a musical instrument. The reasons for this limitation remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to examine the relative contributions of temporal envelope and fine structure for timbre judgments, in light of the fact that speech processing strategies employed by CI systems typically employ envelope extraction algorithms. We synthesized "instrumental chimeras" that systematically combined variable amounts of envelope and fine structure in 25% increments from two different source instruments with either sustained or percussive envelopes. CI users and normal hearing (NH) subjects were presented with 150 chimeras and asked to determine which instrument the chimera more closely resembled in a single-interval two-alternative forced choice task. By combining instruments with similar and dissimilar envelopes, we controlled the valence of envelope for timbre identification and compensated for envelope reconstruction from fine structure information. Our results show that NH subjects utilize envelope and fine structure interchangeably, whereas CI subjects demonstrate overwhelming reliance on temporal envelope. When chimeras were created from dissimilar envelope instrument pairs, NH subjects utilized a combination of envelope (p = 0.008) and fine structure information (p = 0.009) to make timbre judgments. In contrast, CI users utilized envelope information almost exclusively to make timbre judgments (p < 0.001) and ignored fine structure information (p = 0.908). Interestingly, when the value of envelope as a cue was reduced, both NH subjects and CI users utilized fine structure information to make timbre judgments (p < 0.001), although the effect was quite weak in CI users. Our findings confirm that impairments in fine structure processing underlie poor perception of musical timbre in CI

  1. [Methods for geometric and nonlinear optimization of the structure of interstitial implants for interstitial x-ray therapy of malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Klepper, L Ia

    2007-01-01

    In 1990 G. K. Edmundson suggested a geometric optimization method for determination of the effective structure of interstitial implants. In 1997 Y. Anacak, M. Essassolak, A. Aydin, et al. used this method for two-level interstitial implantation. It was shown in their work that the geometric optimization method provided higher efficiency of the dose distribution than conventionally used dose distributions produced by interstitial implants with equal exposure times. In 1983 the problem of optimization of the interstitial implant structure was formulated in our works. Its mathematical interpretation was also suggested. The goal of this work was to show that the geometric optimization method does not always provide high efficiency of the dose distribution, even in comparison with conventionally used dose distributions produced by interstitial implants with equal exposure times. The interstitial implant structure can be optimized by solving special mathematical programming problems.

  2. Characterization of porous glass fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) implant structures: porosity and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Ylä-Soininmäki, Anne; Moritz, Niko; Lassila, Lippo V J; Peltola, Matti; Aro, Hannu T; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the microstructure and mechanical properties of porous fiber-reinforced composites (FRC). Implants made of the FRC structures are intended for cranial applications. The FRC specimens were prepared by impregnating E-glass fiber sheet with non-resorbable bifunctional bis-phenyl glycidyl dimethacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate resin matrix. Four groups of porous FRC specimens were prepared with a different amount of resin matrix. Control group contained specimens of fibers, which were bound together with sizing only. Microstructure of the specimens was analyzed using a micro computed tomography (micro-CT) based method. Mechanical properties of the specimens were measured with a tensile test. The amount of resin matrix in the specimens had an effect on the microstructure. Total porosity was 59.5 % (median) in the group with the lowest resin content and 11.2 % (median) in the group with the highest resin content. In control group, total porosity was 94.2 % (median). Correlations with resin content were obtained for all micro-CT based parameters except TbPf. The tensile strength of the composites was 21.3 MPa (median) in the group with the highest resin content and 43.4 MPa (median) in the group with the highest resin content. The tensile strength in control group was 18.9 MPa (median). There were strong correlations between the tensile strength of the specimens and most of the micro-CT based parameters. This experiment suggests that porous FRC structures may have the potential for use in implants for cranial bone reconstructions, provided further relevant in vitro and in vivo tests are performed.

  3. Assessing the role of spectral and intensity cues in spectral ripple detection and discrimination in cochlear-implant users.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth S; Oxenham, Andrew J; Nelson, Peggy B; Nelson, David A

    2012-12-01

    Measures of spectral ripple resolution have become widely used psychophysical tools for assessing spectral resolution in cochlear-implant (CI) listeners. The objective of this study was to compare spectral ripple discrimination and detection in the same group of CI listeners. Ripple detection thresholds were measured over a range of ripple frequencies and were compared to spectral ripple discrimination thresholds previously obtained from the same CI listeners. The data showed that performance on the two measures was correlated, but that individual subjects' thresholds (at a constant spectral modulation depth) for the two tasks were not equivalent. In addition, spectral ripple detection was often found to be possible at higher rates than expected based on the available spectral cues, making it likely that temporal-envelope cues played a role at higher ripple rates. Finally, spectral ripple detection thresholds were compared to previously obtained speech-perception measures. Results confirmed earlier reports of a robust relationship between detection of widely spaced ripples and measures of speech recognition. In contrast, intensity difference limens for broadband noise did not correlate with spectral ripple detection measures, suggesting a dissociation between the ability to detect small changes in intensity across frequency and across time.

  4. Damage Detection in Electrically Conductive Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Todd A.

    2002-12-01

    High-technology systems are in need of structures that perform with increased functionality and a reduction in weight, while simultaneously maintaining a high level of performance and reliability. To accomplish this, structural elements must be designed more efficiently and with increased functionality, thereby creating multifunctional structures (MFS). Through the addition of carbon fibers, nanotubes, or particles, composite structures can be made electrically conductive while simultaneously increasing their strength and stiffness to weight ratios. Using the electrical properties of these structures for the purpose of damage detection and location for health and usage monitoring is of particular interest for aerospace structures. One such method for doing this is Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). With EIT, an electric current is applied through a pair of electrodes and the electric potential is recorded at other monitoring electrodes around the area of study. An inverse solution of the governing Maxwell equations is then required to determine the conductivities of discrete areas within the region of interest. However, this method is nearly ill-posed and computationally intensive as it focuses on imaging small changes in conductivity within the region of interest. For locating damage in a medium with an otherwise homogeneous conductivity, an alternative approach is to search for parameters such as the damage location and size. Towards those ends, this study develops an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to determine the state of an electrically conductive region based on applied reference current and electrical potentials at electrodes around the periphery of the region. A significant benefit of the ANN approach is that once trained, the solution of an inverse problem does not require costly computations of the inverse problem. This method also takes advantage of the pattern recognition abilities of neural networks and is a robust solution method in the presence

  5. Creation of wear-resistant near-surface-layers with inhomogeneous structure on NiTi alloy by ion implantation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiatek, Z.; Levintant-Zayonts, N.; Michalec, M.; Czeppe, T.; Lipinski, M.; Bonchyk, O.; Savitskij, G.

    In the present study we report the changes in the modified near-surface layer on NiTi shape memory alloy, caused by ion implantation as well as their influence on the structure and mechanical properties of this material. Experimental results of an inhomogeneous structure and tribological properties of implanted NiTi are discussed in this paper.

  6. Structural changes in ceramic veneered three-unit implant-supported restorations as a consequence of static and dynamic loading.

    PubMed

    Karl, Matthias; Fischer, Horst; Graef, Friedrich; Wichmann, Manfred G; Taylor, Thomas D; Heckmann, Siegfried M

    2008-04-01

    Static implant loading caused by non-passive restorations may cause technical complications. As metal-ceramic restorations are most common in implant prosthodontics, the objective of the study was to investigate the effect of static and dynamic loading upon the stability of the ceramic veneer of implant-supported fixed partial dentures (FPDs). A total of 10 groups of three-unit implant FPDs with five samples each were investigated in the conditions after fabrication, static loading and dynamic loading (chewing simulator, 20,000 cycles, 100N). The fluorescent penetrant method (FPM) was applied to detect microcracks at the cervical and occlusal aspects of the FPD abutments. Statistical analysis was performed based on the number of microcracks (t-test) and the presence of chipping fractures (Exact Fisher test) with the level of significance set at alpha=0.05. Static and dynamic loading led to an increase both in number of microcracks and frequency of chipping fractures. After static loading, the screw-retained FPDs cast in one piece revealed significantly lower numbers of cervical microcracks than did the cementable restorations fabricated from repositioning technique impressions (p=0.003). The screw-retained FPDs which were fabricated using premachined gold cylinders showed the highest numbers of cracks and chipping fractures both after static and dynamic loading. Static loading may damage the ceramic layer of implant-supported restorations. The use of prefabricated components may cause increased numbers of microcracks due to the lack of bonding oxides.

  7. Comparative study of morphological and histological changes between differently structured expanded polytetrafluoroethylene implants in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Heui; Lee, Jung Min; Ju, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jun Ho; Jun, Ah Young; Park, Chan Hum

    2013-01-01

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) is a popular graft material used in augmentation rhinoplasty. New e-PTFE has thicker fibrils and is more compact than first developed e-PTFE. This study aimed to compare morphological and histological changes between differently structured e-PTFE implants in a rat model. Two types of e-PTFE were implanted in the cranial region of 30 adult male rats. En bloc specimens containing the implants and surrounding soft tissues were sampled 1, 3, and 6 months after implantation. We measured the three-dimensional size of the implants over time and evaluated histological changes using light and electron microscopy. Grossly, no implants were extruded, and there was no evidence of wound infection. All first developed e-PTFE samples were fixed to surrounding tissues after 1 month, whereas new e-PTFE samples tended to migrate and were easily separated from surrounding tissues until 3 months after implantation. The first developed e-PTFE height diminution rate was 14.7% of the initial value after 6 months; however, new e-PTFE size was not changed. Diameter and height diminution rates for first developed e-PTFE were significantly greater than those for new e-PTFE after 6 months. Histologically, connective tissue in growth was observed in first developed e-PTFE after 1 month, and the internodal space decreased over time; however, connective tissue did not infiltrate into new e-PTFE until 6 months and the internodal space was not significantly changed. First developed e-PTFE should be carefully trimmed in augmentation because of its potential to decrease in size over time, whereas new e-PTFE is more likely to show migration and instability.

  8. Remotely powered multichannel microprocessor-based telemetry systems for smart implantable devices and smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Christopher P.; Arms, Steven W.; Hamel, Michael J.

    1999-07-01

    The development of improved implantable devices and materials require knowledge of their in vivo behavior. However, little is known about the actual loads borne by implanted devices in vivo. Direct load measurement would provide extremely valuable information, for the improvement of device designs, and for the rapid rehabilitation of individuals in which devices have been implanted. Multichannel telemetry systems, combined with strain gauges, can provide this information.

  9. Structural and Functional Evaluations for the Early Detection of Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lucy, Katie A; Wollstein, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    The early detection of glaucoma is imperative in order to preserve functional vision. Structural and functional methods are utilized to detect and monitor glaucomatous damage and the vision loss it causes. The relationship between these detection measures is complex and differs between individuals, especially in early glaucoma. Using both measures together is advised in order to ensure the highest probability of glaucoma detection, and new testing methods are continuously developed with the goals of earlier disease detection and improvement of disease monitoring. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationship between structural and functional glaucoma detection and discuss important technological advances for early glaucoma detection.

  10. Structural and Functional Evaluations for the Early Detection of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lucy, Katie A.; Wollstein, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    The early detection of glaucoma is imperative in order to preserve functional vision. Structural and functional methods are utilized to detect and monitor glaucomatous damage and the vision loss it causes. The relationship between these detection measures is complex and differs between individuals, especially in early glaucoma. Using both measures together is advised in order to ensure the highest probability of glaucoma detection, and new testing methods are continuously developed with the goals of earlier disease detection and improvement of disease monitoring. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationship between structural and functional glaucoma detection and discuss important technological advances for early glaucoma detection. PMID:28603546

  11. Structural and Optical Properties Studies Of Ar{sup 2+} Ion Implanted Mn Deposited GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Tripthi, S.; Dubey, R. L.; Dubey, S. K.; Yadav, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    Mn thin film deposited GaAs samples were implanted with 250 keV Ar{sup +2} ions for various fluences 5x10{sup 15}, 1x10{sup 16} and 5x10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. Optical and structural properties of the samples have been investigated by using ultraviolet spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Optical absorbance of the implanted samples was found to decrease with increase in argon ion fluence. XRD spectra of the samples implanted for ion fluences 5x10{sup 15} and 1x10{sup 16} showed the formation of (GaMn)As at 2{theta} value of 65.34 deg. The XRD spectrum of sample 1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} annealed at 450 deg. C showed the formation of magnetic phases.

  12. Structural and electrical properties of oxygen complexes in Cz and FZ silicon crystals implanted with carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, Boris; Melnik, Victor; Popov, Valentin; Babich, Vilik; Kladko, Vasyl; Gudymenko, Olexandr; Ilchenko, Volodimir; Vasyliev, Iegor; Goriachko, Andrii

    2014-12-01

    We present a comparative study of thermal donor (TD) center formation mechanisms as a result of carbon ion implantation into float zone (FZ-Si) and Czochralski (Cz-Si) silicon crystals. The kinetics of the TD center formation and transformation of their structure during annealing have been investigated. Also, the TD center formation takes place after additional oxygen implantation into FZ/Cz-Si, and an important role of recoil oxygen atoms (from the screen oxide) has been demonstrated for the FZ-Si case. Their concentration in the Si surface layer depends on the implantation dose and the screen oxide thickness, reaching up to values 1018 to 1019 cm-3, which is comparable with the oxygen concentration in Cz-Si. These oxygen atoms can lead to additional thermal donor centers generation, especially in the FZ-Si.

  13. Changes in local surface structure and Sr depletion in Fe-implanted SrTiO3 (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobacheva, O.; Yiu, Y. M.; Chen, N.; Sham, T. K.; Goncharova, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    Local surface structure of single crystal strontium titanate SrTiO3 (001) samples implanted with Fe in the range of concentrations between 2 × 1014 to 2 × 1016 Fe/cm2 at 30 keV has been investigated. In order to facilitate Fe substitution (doping), implanted samples were annealed in oxygen at 350 °C. Sr depletion was observed from the near-surface layers impacted by the ion-implantation process, as revealed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Hydrocarbon contaminations on the surface may contribute to the mechanisms of Sr depletion, which have important implications for Sr(Ti1-xFex)O3-δ materials in gas sensing applications.

  14. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Fe and Au Ion-Implanted Al2O3 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Ryosuke; Sakamoto, Isao; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Nomura, Kiyoshi; Honda, Shigeo; Ishida, Tomoya; Iio, Satoshi; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Toriyama, Tamotsu

    2011-01-01

    Au ion implantation in Fe ion-implanted Al2O3 (Fe/Al2O3) has been performed in order to tailor the structural, magnetic and optical properties of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix. After Au ion implantation, Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements indicate the decrease and the redistribution of retained Fe atoms with the inclusion of Au atoms, and the patterns of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show the formation of Au granules in the Fe/Al2O3. Besides, the magnetization curves of the Fe/Al2O3 after Au ion implantation show still the superparamagnetic characteristics and the decrease of saturation magnetization, and the optical absorption measurements indicate the formation of Au granules in the Fe/Al2O3 in accordance with the XRD result. In addition, we investigated a behavior of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), which indicates the decrease of superparamagnetic state as a function of Au ion dose. As a result, it is suggested that Au ion implantation has potentialities to tailor the physical properties of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix.

  15. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of highly-resistive Sm-implanted GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Fang-Yuh Huang, Cheng-De; Chou, Kai-Chieh; Guo, Jhong-Yu; Liu, Hsiang-Lin; Chia, Chi-Ta; Ney, Verena; Ney, Andreas; Shvarkov, Stepan; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Chern, Ming-Yau; Massies, Jean

    2014-07-28

    Samarium ions of 200 keV in energy were implanted into highly-resistive molecular-beam-epitaxy grown GaN thin films with a focused-ion-beam implanter at room temperature. The implantation doses range from 1 × 10{sup 14} to 1 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}. Structural properties studied by x-ray diffraction and Raman-scattering spectroscopy revealed Sm incorporation into GaN matrix without secondary phase. The optical measurements showed that the band gap and optical constants changed very slightly by the implantation. Photoluminescence measurements showed emission spectra similar to p-type GaN for all samples. Magnetic investigations with a superconducting quantum interference device identified magnetic ordering for Sm dose of and above 1 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2} before thermal annealing, while ferromagnetism was only observed after thermal annealing from the sample with highest Sm dose. The long-range magnetic ordering can be attributed to interaction of Sm ions through the implantation-induced Ga vacancy.

  16. Application of laser engineered net shaping (LENS) to manufacture porous and functionally graded structures for load bearing implants.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Krishna, B V; Xue, Weichang; Bose, Susmita

    2009-12-01

    Fabrication of net shape load bearing implants with complex anatomical shapes to meet desired mechanical and biological performance is still a challenge. In this article, an overview of our research activities is discussed focusing on application of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) toward load bearing implants to increase in vivo life time. We have demonstrated that LENS can fabricate net shape, complex metallic implants with designed porosities up to 70 vol.% to reduce stress-shielding. The effective modulus of Ti, NiTi, and other alloys was tailored to suit the modulus of human cortical bone by introducing 12-42 vol.% porosity. In addition, laser processed porous NiTi alloy samples show a 2-4% recoverable strain, a potentially significant result for load bearing implants. To minimize the wear induced osteolysis, unitized structures with functionally graded Co-Cr-Mo coating on porous Ti6Al4V were also made using LENS, which showed high hardness with excellent bone cell-materials interactions. Finally, LENS is also being used to fabricate porous, net shape implants with a functional gradation in porosity characteristics.

  17. Structural and surface property characterization of titanium dioxide nanotubes for orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokuhfar, Tolou

    This research focused on the to modification of the surface structure of titanium implants with nanostructured morphology of TiO2 nanotubes and studied the interaction of nanotubes with osteoblast cells to understand the parameters that affect the cell growth. The electrical, mechanical, and structural properties of TiO2 nanotubes were characterized to establish a better understanding on the properties of such nanoscale morphological structures. To achieve the objectives of this research work I transformed the titanium and its alloys, either in bulk sheet form, bulk machined form, or thin film deposited on another substrate into a surface of titania nanotubes using a low cost and environmentally friendly process. The process requires only a simple electrolyte, low cost electrode, and a DC power supply. With this simple approach of scalable nanofabrication, a typical result is nanotubes that are each approximately 100nm in diameter and have a wall thickness of about 20nm. By changing the fabrication parameters, independent nanotubes can be fabricated with open volume between them. Titanium in this form is termed onedimensional since electron transport is narrowly confined along the length of the nanotube. My Ph.D. accomplishments have successfully shown that osteoblast cells, the cells that are the precursors to bone, have a strong tendency to attach to the inside and outside of the titanium nanotubes onto which they are grown using their filopodia -- cell's foot used for locomotion -- anchored to titanium nanotubes. In fact it was shown that the cell prefers to find many anchoring sites. These sites are critical for cell locomotion during the first several weeks of maturity and upon calcification as a strongly anchored bone cell. In addition I have shown that such a surface has a greater cell density than a smooth titanium surface. My work also developed a process that uses a focused and controllably rastered ion beam as a nano-scalpel to cut away sections of the

  18. Design of a Corrosion Detection System for a Shelter Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    any damage detection method. Heuristically placing many sensors on a structure does not guarantee damage will be detected. By design, optimally...detection method. Heuristically placing many sensors on a structure does not guarantee damage will be detected. By design, optimally placed sensors...Optimized SHM has demonstrated 6-7 times the sensitivity with 50 percent fewer sensor than heuristically designed systems with the same design goals

  19. ZnO thin films implanted with Al, Sb and P: optical, structural and electrical characterization.

    PubMed

    Viseu, T; Ayres de Campos, J; Rolo, A G; de Lacerda-Arôso, T; Cerqueira, M F; Alves, E

    2009-06-01

    In this work we report a study on the structure, optical and electrical properties of P, Sb and Al implanted ZnO thin films that had been produced by r.f. magnetron sputtering. The influence of the different replacing atoms on the structure and properties of the films has been explored. Looking for the best annealing conditions, two different annealing temperatures (300 degrees C and 500 degrees C) have been employed. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction, transmittance and d.c conductivity measurements have been used to characterize the samples. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering patterns confirm that after annealing, doped films keep a polycrystalline nature with (002) preferred orientation. These films remain very transparent and the electrical conductivity increases significantly after the 500 degrees C annealing, reaching 10.90 (Omegacm)(-1) in the P-doped, 10.33 (Omegacm)(-1) in the Al-doped and 0.56 (Omegacm)(-1) in the Sb-doped samples.

  20. Fabrication, pore structure and compressive behavior of anisotropic porous titanium for human trabecular bone implant applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuping; Li, Jinshan; Xu, Guangsheng; Liu, Gejun; Kou, Hongchao; Zhou, Lian

    2015-06-01

    Porous titanium with average pore size of 100-650 μm and porosity of 30-70% was fabricated by diffusion bonding of titanium meshes. Pore structure was characterized by Micro-CT scan and SEM. Compressive behavior of porous titanium in the out-of-plane direction was studied. The effect of porosity and pore size on the compressive properties was also discussed based on the deformation mode. The results reveal that the fabrication process can control the porosity precisely. The average pore size of porous titanium can be tailored by adjusting the pore size of titanium meshes. The fabricated porous titanium possesses an anisotropic structure with square pores in the in-plane direction and elongated pores in the out-of-plane direction. The compressive Young's modulus and yield stress are in the range of 1-7.5 GPa and 10-110 MPa, respectively. The dominant compressive deformation mode is buckling of mesh wires, but some uncoordinated buckling is present in porous titanium with lower porosity. Relationship between compressive properties and porosity conforms well to the Gibson-Ashby model. The effect of pore size on compressive properties is fundamentally ascribed to the aspect ratio of titanium meshes. Porous titanium with 60-70% porosity has potential for trabecular bone implant applications.

  1. Cochlear implant speech intelligibility outcomes with structured and unstructured binary mask errors.

    PubMed

    Kressner, Abigail A; Westermann, Adam; Buchholz, Jörg M; Rozell, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that intelligibility can be improved for cochlear implant (CI) recipients with the ideal binary mask (IBM). In realistic scenarios where prior information is unavailable, however, the IBM must be estimated, and these estimations will inevitably contain errors. Although the effects of both unstructured and structured binary mask errors have been investigated with normal-hearing (NH) listeners, they have not been investigated with CI recipients. This study assesses these effects with CI recipients using masks that have been generated systematically with a statistical model. The results demonstrate that clustering of mask errors substantially decreases the tolerance of errors, that incorrectly removing target-dominated regions can be as detrimental to intelligibility as incorrectly adding interferer-dominated regions, and that the individual tolerances of the different types of errors can change when both are present. These trends follow those of NH listeners. However, analysis with a mixed effects model suggests that CI recipients tend to be less tolerant than NH listeners to mask errors in most conditions, at least with respect to the testing methods in each of the studies. This study clearly demonstrates that structure influences the tolerance of errors and therefore should be considered when analyzing binary-masking algorithms.

  2. Laser beam melting 3D printing of Ti6Al4V based porous structured dental implants: fabrication, biocompatibility analysis and photoelastic study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Chen, Chen; Zhou, QianRong; Gong, YiMing; Li, RuiXue; Li, ChiChi; Klämpfl, Florian; Freund, Sebastian; Wu, XingWen; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiang; Schmidt, Michael; Ma, Duan; Yu, YouCheng

    2017-03-28

    Fabricating Ti alloy based dental implants with defined porous scaffold structure is a promising strategy for improving the osteoinduction of implants. In this study, we use Laser Beam Melting (LBM) 3D printing technique to fabricate porous Ti6Al4V dental implant prototypes with three controlled pore sizes (200, 350 and 500 μm). The mechanical stress distribution in the surrounding bone tissue is characterized by photoelastography and associated finite element simulation. For in-vitro studies, experiments on implants' biocompatibility and osteogenic capability are conducted to evaluate the cellular response correlated to the porous structure. As the preliminary results, porous structured implants show a lower stress-shielding to the surrounding bone at the implant neck and a more densed distribution at the bottom site compared to the reference implant. From the cell proliferation tests and the immunofluorescence images, 350 and 500 μm pore sized implants demonstrate a better biocompatibility in terms of cell growth, migration and adhesion. Osteogenic genes expression of the 350 μm group is significantly increased alone with the ALP activity test. All these suggest that a pore size of 350 μm provides an optimal provides an optimal potential for improving the mechanical shielding to the surrounding bones and osteoinduction of the implant itself.

  3. Community structure detection based on the neighbor node degree information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li-Ying; Li, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-11-01

    Community structure detection is of great significance for better understanding the network topology property. By taking into account the neighbor degree information of the topological network as the link weight, we present an improved Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) method for detecting community structure. The results for empirical networks show that the largest improved ratio of the Normalized Mutual Information value could reach 63.21%. Meanwhile, for synthetic networks, the highest Normalized Mutual Information value could closely reach 1, which suggests that the improved method with the optimal λ can detect the community structure more accurately. This work is helpful for understanding the interplay between the link weight and the community structure detection.

  4. Osseointegration of zirconia implants: an SEM observation of the bone-implant interface

    PubMed Central

    Depprich, Rita; Zipprich, Holger; Ommerborn, Michelle; Mahn, Eduardo; Lammers, Lydia; Handschel, Jörg; Naujoks, Christian; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Kübler, Norbert R; Meyer, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Background The successful use of zirconia ceramics in orthopedic surgery led to a demand for dental zirconium-based implant systems. Because of its excellent biomechanical characteristics, biocompatibility, and bright tooth-like color, zirconia (zirconium dioxide, ZrO2) has the potential to become a substitute for titanium as dental implant material. The present study aimed at investigating the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surface at an ultrastructural level. Methods A total of 24 zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and 24 titanium implants all of similar shape and surface structure were inserted into the tibia of 12 Göttinger minipigs. Block biopsies were harvested 1 week, 4 weeks or 12 weeks (four animals each) after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed at the bone implant interface. Results Remarkable bone attachment was already seen after 1 week which increased further to intimate bone contact after 4 weeks, observed on both zirconia and titanium implant surfaces. After 12 weeks, osseointegration without interposition of an interfacial layer was detected. At the ultrastructural level, there was no obvious difference between the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and titanium implants with a similar surface topography. Conclusion The results of this study indicate similar osseointegration of zirconia and titanium implants at the ultrastructural level. PMID:18990214

  5. Experimental and theoretical investigations of electronic and atomic structure of Si-nanocrystals formed in sapphire by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainstein, D.; Kovalev, A.; Tetelbaum, D.; Mikhailov, A.; Bulutay, C.; Aydinli, A.

    2008-03-01

    The semiconductor nanocomposites based on Si nanocrystals in dielectric matrices attract a great amount of attention due to their ability for luminescence in visible and near-IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Si nanocrystals in sapphire matrix were formed by Si+ ion implantation with doses from 5×1016 to 3×1017 cm-2 at an accelerating voltage 100 kV and post-implantation annealing at 500 - 1100 °C for 2 hours. Depth distribution of lattice defects, impurities and Si nanocrystals, the peculiarities of interband electronic transitions were investigated by XPS and HREELS. The molecular orbitals and local electronic structure of the Al2O3 matrix with Si nanocrystals was calculated using an atomistic pseudopotential technique. The electronic structure of Si nanocrystals as determined from HREELS measurements is in good agreement with the theoretically calculated electronic structure for Si nanocrystals.

  6. The Effect of Thermal Annealing on Structural-phase Changes in the Ni-Ti Alloy Implanted with Krypton Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavtseva, V. P.; Kislitsin, S. B.; Ghyngazov, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of thermal annealing within the temperature range 100-300°C on the structural-phase state of a Ni-Ti alloy with shape memory effect (SME) implanted with 84Kr ions at the energies E = 280 keV and 1.75 MeV/nucl and the fluences within 5·1012-1·1020 ion/m2 is investigated. For the samples modified by 84Kr ions at E = 1.75 MeV/nucl up to the fluences 1·1020 and 5·1012 ion/m2, the formation of a martensitic NiTi phase with the B19 ' structure, responsible for the SME, is revealed at the annealing temperatures 100 and 300°C, respectively, in the near-surface region corresponding to the outrange area. This is accompanied by the formation of nanosized NiTi particles in the R-phase. As the implantation fluence increases, the probability of their formation decreases. It is shown that annealing of the implanted structures can increase the strength of the Ni-Ti alloy. The degree of hardening is determined by the value of annealing temperature, and an increase in strength is primarily due to ordering of the radiation-induced defect structures (phases). A correlation between the onset temperature of a forward martensitic transition and the structural-phase state of the thermally annealed Ni-Ti alloy is established.

  7. Case report and brief review of literature on sonographic detection of accidentally implanted wooden foreign body causing persistent sinus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in imaging techniques, the detection of vegetative foreign bodies in soft tissues remains a difficult and sometimes even a challenging task. Clinical evaluation of such patient may present several months or even years after the initial injury and clinician may fail to elicit an antecedent skin puncture. X-ray examination will miss radiolucent foreign bodies. A 15-year-old boy presented with a draining non-healing sinus at the lateral aspect of his right thigh for 9 months. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography was ordered after ruling out chronic osteomyelitis to detect possible lesions around the thigh. High-frequency linear ultrasonic probe readily detected an elongated foreign body within the vastus lateralis muscle. A long piece of wood was confirmed at surgery. Non-healing sinus with normal finding in radiograph following old trauma should raise the suspicion of implanted radiolucent foreign body/bodies. The role of diagnostic ultrasound as a valuable screening tool for the detection of foreign body is briefly reviewed. PMID:22871025

  8. Detection of common motifs in RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed Central

    Margalit, H; Shapiro, B A; Oppenheim, A B; Maizel, J V

    1989-01-01

    We describe a novel computerized system for comparison of RNA secondary structures and demonstrate its use for experimental studies. The system is able to screen a very large number of structures, to cluster similar structures and to detect specific structural motifs. In particular, the system is useful for detecting mutations with specific structural effects among all possible point mutations, and for predicting compensatory mutations that will restore the wild type structure. The algorithms are independent of the folding rules that are used to generate the secondary structures. PMID:2473442

  9. Implantable multiprogrammable microstimulator dedicated to bladder control.

    PubMed

    Arabi, K; Sawan, M

    1996-01-01

    An implantable multiprogrammable microstimulator that is intended to restore normal bladder functions (retention and incontinence) to spinal cord injured patients is presented. The implantable microstimulator circuitry is externally controlled and is powered by a single encoded radio frequency carrier and has four bipolar (eight monopolar) independently controlled channels. It offers a higher degree of reprogrammability and flexibility and can be used in any neuromuscular applications. The implant system is adaptable to the patient's needs and to future developments in stimulation algorithms, without changing the implant. Features of the microstimulator include its capabilities to generate a wide range of waveforms and to combine up to four different programmable frequencies in each wave train. By using a forward error detection and correction communication protocol, the reliability of the implant is increased. The chip has been designed for structural testability by means of a scan-based test approach and uses circuit techniques to reduce power consumption and ensure long-term stability.

  10. Development of high impedance measurement system for water leakage detection in implantable neuroprosthetic devices.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Aziz; Kelly, Shawn K

    2016-08-01

    There has been a push for a greater number of channels in implantable neuroprosthetic devices; but, that number has largely been limited by current hermetic packaging technology. Microfabricated packaging is becoming reality, but a standard testing system is needed to prepare these devices for clinical trials. Impedance measurements of electrodes built into the packaging layers may give an early warning of device failure and predict device lifetime. Because the impedance magnitudes of such devices can be on the order of gigaohms, a versatile system was designed to accommodate ultra-high impedances and allow future integrated circuit implementation in current neural prosthetic technologies. Here we present the circuitry, control software, and preliminary testing results of our designed system.

  11. Structural and Qualitative Bone Remodeling Around Repetitive Loaded Implants in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kuroshima, Shinichiro; Yasutake, Munenori; Tsuiki, Kotaro; Nakano, Takayoshi; Sawase, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Bone mechanical function is regulated by bone quality and bone mineral density (BMD) that reflect bone strength. The preferential alignment of biological apatite (BAp) c-axis/collagen fibers and osteocytes is a determinant factor of bone quality. However, the effect of mechanical loading on bone quality around dental implants is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of mechanical loading on osseointegration, bone volume BMD, and bone quality around dental implants. Twenty anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy implants (KYOCERA Co., Kyoto, Japan) were placed in the proximal tibial metaphysis of 10 rabbits. Twelve weeks after surgery, mechanical loading was applied along the long axis of the implant (50 N, 3 Hz, 1,800 cycles, 2 days/week) for 8 weeks. Osseointegration, bone volume, BMD, and bone quality were evaluated using light microscopy, microcomputed tomography, polarized light microscopy, and microbeam X-ray diffractometer. Mechanical loading increased osseointegration, bone volume, and BMD. Bone quality around dental implant was altered with increased osteocyte numbers and the preferential alignment direction and degree of BAp c-axis/collagen fibers. These findings suggest that mechanical loading effectively induces bone anabolic responses around dental implants. Altered bone quality may upregulate bone strength, contributing to long-term implant stability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Tachycardia detection performance of implantable loop recorders: results from a large 'real-life' patient cohort and patients with induced ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Volosin, Kent; Stadler, Robert W; Wyszynski, Ryan; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2013-08-01

    Implantable loop recorders (ILRs) are valuable for diagnosing arrhythmias. We evaluated tachycardia detection performance of the Medtronic Reveal(®) ILR with FullView™ Software. The rate of occurrence of tachycardia detection [supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia (VT), and ventricular fibrillation (VF)] and the percentage of appropriately detected tachycardias were determined from all 2190 ILR patients that transmitted to CareLink over a 4-month period (total follow-up = 135.6 patient-years). All 1909 tachycardia episodes were reviewed. Episodes with actual heart rate above the programmed tachycardia detection rate were classified as appropriate. Sensitivity to detect true ventricular arrhythmias was assessed in another group of 215 patients undergoing implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implant testing. Skin electrodes represented ILR electrodes. Induced VF (404 episodes) and VT (93 episodes) were processed by an emulation of FullView Software. Generalized estimation equation analysis adjusted for multiple episodes per patient. In the CareLink cohort, 68.7% (63.9% adjusted) of detected episodes had tachycardia above the detection rate. Of 1642 episodes detected in the VT zone (12.1 episodes/patient-year), 78.8% (79.0% adjusted) had tachycardia above the detection rate. Of 267 episodes detected in the fast VT zone (1.9 episodes/patient-year), 6.7% (9.4% adjusted) had tachycardia above the detection rate. Twelve true VT/VF episodes were observed in 10 patients. In the ICD patient cohort, 95.9% (96.5% adjusted) of induced VT/VF segments were correctly detected at nominal rate cutoffs. When VT detection was set to 130 b.p.m. (to include the slowest VT), 99.0% (99.3% adjusted) were correctly detected. The majority (63.9%) of detected tachycardias contained true tachycardia. Sensitivity to detect induced VT/VF was 99.3%.

  13. Structures and optical properties of \\text{H}_{2}^{+} -implanted GaN epi-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B. S.; Wang, Z. G.

    2015-06-01

    The implantation damage build-up and optical properties of GaN epitaxial films under \\text{H}2+ ion implantation have been investigated by a combination of Rutherford backscattering in channeling geometry, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. GaN epitaxial films were implanted with 134 keV \\text{H}2+ ions to doses ranging from 3.75   ×   1016 to 1.75   ×   1017 \\text{H}2+  cm-2 at room temperature or the same dose of 1.5   ×   1017 \\text{H}2+  cm-2 at room temperature, 573 and 723 K. The dependence of lattice disorder induced by \\text{H}2+ -implantation on the ion dose can be divided into a three-step damage process. A strong influence of the H concentration on the defect accumulation is discussed. The decrease in relative Ga disorder induced by \\text{H}2+ -implantation is linear with increasing implantation temperature. The absorption coefficient of GaN epitaxial films increases with increasing ion dose, leading to the decrease in Raman scattering spectra of Ga-N vibration. With increasing implantation doses up to 5   ×   1016 \\text{H}2+  cm-2, nanoscale hydrogen bubbles are observed in the H deposition peak region. Interstitial-type dislocation loops are observed in the damaged layer located near the damage peak region, and the geometry of the dislocation loops produced by H implantation is analyzed. The surface layer is almost free of lattice disorder induced by \\text{H}2+ -implantation.

  14. Biomaterials from blends of fluoropolymers and corn starch-implant and structural aspects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, João D A S; Camargo, Regina C T; Filho, José C S C; Alves, Neri; Rodriguez-Perez, Miguel A; Constantino, Carlos J L

    2014-03-01

    The development of polymeric blends to be used as matrices for bone regeneration is a hot topic nowadays. In this article we report on the blends composed by corn starch and poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, or poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), to obtain biocompatible materials. Blends were produced by compressing/annealing and chemically/structurally characterized by micro-Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopies, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), besides in vivo study to evaluate the tissue response. Vibrational spectroscopy reveals no chemical interaction between the polymers and starch, absence of material degradation due to compressing/annealing process or organism implantation, and maintenance of α and ferroelectric crystalline phases of PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE), respectively. As a consequence of absence of interaction between polymers and starch, it was possible to identify by SEM each material, with starch acting as filler. Elastic modulus (E') obtained from DMA measurement, independent of the material proportion used in blends, reaches values close to those of cancellous bone. Finally, the in vivo study in animals shows that the blends, regardless of the composition, were tolerated by cancellous bone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity of bilateral cochlear implant users to fine-structure and envelope interaural time differences.

    PubMed

    Noel, Victor A; Eddington, Donald K

    2013-04-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant users have poor sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs) of high-rate pulse trains, which precludes use of these stimuli to convey fine-structure ITD cues. However, previous reports of single-neuron recordings in cats demonstrated good ITD sensitivity to 1000 pulses-per-second (pps) pulses when the pulses were sinusoidally amplitude modulated. The ability of modulation to restore ITD sensitivity to high-rate pulses in humans was tested by measuring ITD thresholds for three conditions: ITD encoded in the modulated carrier pulses alone, in the envelope alone, and in the whole waveform. Five of six subjects were not sensitive to ITD in the 1000-pps carrier, even with modulation. One subject's 1000-pps carrier ITD sensitivity did significantly improve due to modulation. Sensitivity to ITD encoded in the envelope was also measured as a function of modulation frequency, including at frequencies from 4 to 16 Hz where much of the speech envelope's energy and information resides. Sensitivity was best at the modulation frequency of 100 Hz and degraded rapidly outside of a narrow range. These results provide little evidence to support encoding ITD in the carrier of current bilateral processors, and suggest envelope ITD sensitivity is poor for an important segment of the speech modulation spectrum.

  16. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weilin; Jung, Hee Joon; Kovarik, Libor; Wang, Zhaoying; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Zhu, Zihua; Edwards, Danny J.; Hu, Shenyang; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-03-01

    As a candidate material for fusion reactor applications, silicon carbide (SiC) undergoes transmutation reactions under high-energy neutron irradiation with magnesium as the major metallic transmutant; the others include aluminum, beryllium and phosphorus in addition to helium and hydrogen gaseous species. The impact of these transmutants on SiC structural stability is currently unknown. This study uses ion implantation to introduce Mg into SiC. Multiaxial ion-channeling analysis of the as-produced damage state indicates a lower dechanneling yield observed along the <1 0 0> axis. The microstructure of the annealed sample was examined using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results show a high concentration of likely non-faulted tetrahedral voids and possible stacking fault tetrahedra near the damage peak. In addition to lattice distortion, dislocations and intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults are also observed. Magnesium in 3C-SiC prefers to substitute for Si and it forms precipitates of cubic Mg2Si and tetragonal MgC2. The diffusion coefficient of Mg in 3C-SiC single crystal at 1573 K has been determined to be 3.8 ± 0.4 × 10-19 m2/s.

  17. Sensitivity of bilateral cochlear implant users to fine-structure and envelope interaural time differencesa

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Victor A.; Eddington, Donald K.

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant users have poor sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs) of high-rate pulse trains, which precludes use of these stimuli to convey fine-structure ITD cues. However, previous reports of single-neuron recordings in cats demonstrated good ITD sensitivity to 1000 pulses-per-second (pps) pulses when the pulses were sinusoidally amplitude modulated. The ability of modulation to restore ITD sensitivity to high-rate pulses in humans was tested by measuring ITD thresholds for three conditions: ITD encoded in the modulated carrier pulses alone, in the envelope alone, and in the whole waveform. Five of six subjects were not sensitive to ITD in the 1000-pps carrier, even with modulation. One subject's 1000-pps carrier ITD sensitivity did significantly improve due to modulation. Sensitivity to ITD encoded in the envelope was also measured as a function of modulation frequency, including at frequencies from 4 to 16 Hz where much of the speech envelope's energy and information resides. Sensitivity was best at the modulation frequency of 100 Hz and degraded rapidly outside of a narrow range. These results provide little evidence to support encoding ITD in the carrier of current bilateral processors, and suggest envelope ITD sensitivity is poor for an important segment of the speech modulation spectrum. PMID:23556598

  18. Dual-carrier processing to convey temporal fine structure cues: Implications for cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Apoux, Frédéric; Youngdahl, Carla L.; Yoho, Sarah E.; Healy, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Speech intelligibility in noise can be degraded by using vocoder processing to alter the temporal fine structure (TFS). Here it is argued that this degradation is not attributable to the loss of speech information potentially present in the TFS. Instead it is proposed that the degradation results from the loss of sound-source segregation information when two or more carriers (i.e., TFS) are substituted with only one as a consequence of vocoder processing. To demonstrate this segregation role, vocoder processing involving two carriers, one for the target and one for the background, was implemented. Because this approach does not preserve the speech TFS, it may be assumed that any improvement in intelligibility can only be a consequence of the preserved carrier duality and associated segregation cues. Three experiments were conducted using this “dual-carrier” approach. All experiments showed substantial sentence intelligibility in noise improvements compared to traditional single-carrier conditions. In several conditions, the improvement was so substantial that intelligibility approximated that for unprocessed speech in noise. A foreseeable and potentially promising implication for the dual-carrier approach involves implementation into cochlear implant speech processors, where it may provide the TFS cues necessary to segregate speech from noise. PMID:26428784

  19. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Jung, Hee Joon; Kovarik, Libor; Wang, Zhaoying; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Zhu, Zihua; Edwards, Danny J.; Hu, Shenyang; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-03-01

    As a candidate material for fusion reactor applications, silicon carbide (SiC) undergoes transmutation reactions under high-energy neutron irradiation with magnesium as the major metallic transmutant; the others include aluminum, beryllium and phosphorus in addition to helium and hydrogen gaseous species. The impact of these transmutants on SiC structural stability is currently unknown. This study uses ion implantation to introduce Mg into SiC. Multiaxial ion-channeling analysis of the as-produced damage state suggests that there are preferred Si <100> interstitial splits. The microstructure of the annealed sample was examined using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The results show a high concentration of likely non-faulted tetrahedral voids and possible stacking fault tetrahedra near the damage peak. In addition to lattice distortion, dislocations and intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults are also observed. Magnesium in 3C-SiC prefers to substitute for Si and it forms precipitates of cubic Mg2Si and tetragonal MgC2. The diffusion coefficient of Mg in 3C-SiC single crystal at 1573 K has been determined to be 3.8±0.4×10e-19 m2/sec.

  20. Simulation of fracture of the bone implant with the porous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobenkov, M. V.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches to bone defects reconstruction with the use of ceramic materials have been developed recently. Ceramics are identical with bone matrix, provide biomedical compatibility with bone tissue and possess high strength. But with an overall high strength ceramic implants destruct in dynamic mode. The paper presents a study of the effect of the porosity gradient on the destruction of the bone implants under dynamic loading. It is shown that the fracture behavior of the bone implants is changed with increasing levels of the gradient of porosity.

  1. Visible and near-infrared planar waveguide structure of polycrystalline zinc sulfide from C ions implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Lian; Zhou, Yu-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2013-02-25

    We report the fabrication of a planar waveguide in polycrystalline zinc sulfide by 6.0 MeV C ions implantation with a fluence of 5 × 10¹⁴ ion/cm² at room temperature. The near-field light intensity profiles in the visible and near-infrared bands are measured by the end-face coupling method with different laser sources. Investigation of the Raman spectra demonstrates that the microstructure of the polycrystalline zinc sulfide has no significant change after C ion implantation. The absorption spectra show that the implantation processes have no influence on the visible and infrared bands.

  2. Structural damage detection using active members and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, R. A.

    1994-06-01

    The detection of damage in structures is a topic which has considerable interest in many fields. In the past many methods for detecting damage in structures has relied on finite element model refinement methods. This note presents a structural damage methodology in which only active member transfer function data are used in conjunction with an artificial neural network to detect damage in structures. Specifically, the method relies on training a neural network using active member transfer function pole/zero information to classify damaged structure measurements and to predict the degree of damage in the structure. The method differs from many of the past damage detection algorithms in that no attempt is made to update a finite element model or to match measured data with new finite element analyses of the structure in a damaged state.

  3. Detection of slime and methicillin resistance genes in Staphylococci isolated from nasal samples of patients with orthopaedic implants.

    PubMed

    Duran, Nizami; Dogramaci, Yunus; Demir, Cemil; Ozer, Burcin; Kalaci, Aydiner

    2010-08-01

    The purposes of the present study were (1) to determine the prevalence of mecA and femA genes, (2) to investigate the presence of icaA and icaD genes responsible for slime synthesis, and (3) to search in vitro slime synthesis by staphylococcal strains isolated from the nares of patients with orthopaedic implants using the Congo red agar (CRA) plate test. Staphylococci strains were defined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to determine intercellular adhesion genes icaA and icaD. Slime production capability was searched by the CRA plate test, phenotypically. Also, the presence of mecA and femA genes was determined by PCR in all strains. The presence of icaA and icaD was detected in 101 isolates of 134 (75.4%) strains. This ratio was 74.8% (89 of 119) among the Staphylococcus epidermidis and 80% (12 of 15) among the Staphylococcus aureus isolates. A total of 63.4% of all the strains were found to be icaA and icaD positive as well as slime-forming on the CRA plate test. The percentage of icaA- and icaD-negative strains was 36.6%, and all of them were negative on the CRA plate test. Although femA presence was detected in all 15 (11.2%) S. aureus isolates, a total of 5 (3.7%) isolates carried the mecA gene. The frequency of icaA and icaD genes was determined to be of high prevalence among staphylococcal isolates. The staphylococcal strains that were found in the nasal flora of patients with orthopaedic implants may be important potential sources of infection for these patients.

  4. Airport and superficial femoral artery obstruction due to a wandering coronary stent: the possibility of airport detection of modern implant metals.

    PubMed

    Teijink, J A W; van Herwaarden, J A; van den Berg, J C; Overtoom, T C; Moll, F L

    2004-06-01

    In the treatment of coronary artery disease, peripheral loss of a coronary stent is an unusual complication. We present the case of a patient who suggested that his right leg claudication was caused by a slipped coronary stent 2 years previously. The patient was convinced about this unusual finding based on an airport security check. Examination proved him to be right. However, the ability to detect an object using eddy currents is dependent on the object's permeability and its conductivity. Ferrous (iron) content is not the critical factor. Modern implant materials and processing techniques result in implants that are difficult to magnetize i.e. their permeability is very low. In addition their conductivity is very low. This enables modern implants to escape detection at airports. For this reason the event at the airport, as described by our patient, is considered coincidental.

  5. Detection of entrapped moisture in honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallmark, W. B.

    1967-01-01

    Thermal neutron moisture detection system detects entrapped moisture in intercellular areas of bonded honeycomb sandwich structures. A radium/beryllium fast neutron source bombards a specimen. The emitted thermal neutrons from the target nucleus are detected and counted by a boron trifluoride thermal neutron detector.

  6. Structural phase states in nickel-titanium surface layers doped with silicon by plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, Oleg A.; Lotkov, Aleksandr I.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.; Krukovsky, Konstantin V.; Ostapenko, Marina G.; Neiman, Alexey A.; Borisov, Dmitry P.

    2015-10-01

    The paper reports on a study of NiTi-based alloys used for manufacturing self-expanding intravascular stents to elucidate how the technological modes of plasma immersion ion implantation with silicon influence the chemical and phase composition of their surface layers. It is shown that two types of surface structure can be obtained depending on the mode of plasma immersion implantation: quasi-amorphous Si coating and Si-doped surface layer. The Si-doped surface layer contains new phases: a phase structured as the main B2 phase of NiTi but with a lower lattice parameter, R phase, and phase of highly dispersed SiO2 precipitates.

  7. Stress influenced trapping processes in Si based multi-quantum well structures and heavy ions implanted Si

    SciTech Connect

    Ciurea, Magdalena Lidia Lazanu, Sorina

    2014-10-06

    Multi-quantum well structures and Si wafers implanted with heavy iodine and bismuth ions are studied in order to evaluate the influence of stress on the parameters of trapping centers. The experimental method of thermostimullatedcurrents without applied bias is used, and the trapping centers are filled by illumination. By modeling the discharge curves, we found in multilayered structures the parameters of both 'normal' traps and 'stress-induced' ones, the last having a Gaussian-shaped temperature dependence of the cross section. The stress field due to the presence of stopped heavy ions implanted into Si was modeled by a permanent electric field. The increase of the strain from the neighborhood of I ions to the neighborhood of Bi ions produces the broadening of some energy levels and also a temperature dependence of the cross sections for all levels.

  8. Investigating the structure and biocompatibility of niobium and titanium oxides as coatings for orthopedic metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, D; Wren, A W; Misture, S T; Mellott, N P

    2016-01-01

    Applying sol gel based coatings to orthopedic metallic implant materials can significantly improve their properties and lifespan in vivo. For this work, niobium (Nb2O5) and titanium (TiO2) oxides were prepared via solution processing in order to determine the effect of atomic arrangement (amorphous/crystalline) on bioactivity. Thermal evaluation on the synthesized materials identified an endotherm for Nb2O5 at 75 °C with 40% weight loss below 400 °C, and minimal weight loss between 400 and 850 °C. Regarding TiO2 an endotherm was present at 92 °C with 25% weight loss below 400 °C, and 4% between 400 and 850 °C. Phase evolution was determined using High Temperature X-ray Diffraction (HT-XRD) where amorphous-Nb2O5 (450 °C), hexagonal-Nb2O5 (525 °C), orthorhombic-Nb2O5 (650 °C), amorphous-TiO2 (275 °C) and tetragonal TiO2 (500 °C) structures were produced. Simulated body fluid (SBF) testing was conducted over 1, 7 and 30 days and resulted in positive chemical and morphological changes for crystalline Nb2O5 (525 °C) and TiO2 (500 °C) after 30 days of incubation. Rod-like CaP deposits were observed on the surfaces using Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Grazing Incidence-X-ray Diffraction (GI-XRD) shows that the deposits were X-ray amorphous. Cell viability was higher with the TiO2 (122%) samples when compared to the growing cell population while Nb2O5 samples exhibited a range of viability (64-105%), partially dependent on materials atomic structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optical Detection Properties of Silicon-Germanium Quantum Well Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-18

    AFIT/DS/ENP/96-07 OPTICAL DETECTION PROPERTIES OF SILICON-GERMANIUM QUANTUM WELL STRUCTURES DISSERTATION Michael R. Gregg, Captain, USAF AFIT/DS/ENP...96 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited DTC Qr. ~r AFIT/DS/ENP/96-07 Optical Detection Properties of Silicon-Germanium Quantum Well ...release; distribution unlimited AFIT/DS/ENP/96-07 Optical Detection Properties of Silicon-Germanium Quantum Well Structures Michael R. Gregg, BA, MS

  10. Laser beam melting 3D printing of Ti6Al4V based porous structured dental implants: fabrication, biocompatibility analysis and photoelastic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fei; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Qianrong; Gong, Yiming; Li, Ruixue; Li, Chichi; Klämpfl, Florian; Freund, Sebastian; Wu, Xingwen; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiang; Schmidt, Michael; Ma, Duan; Yu, Youcheng

    2017-03-01

    Fabricating Ti alloy based dental implants with defined porous scaffold structure is a promising strategy for improving the osteoinduction of implants. In this study, we use Laser Beam Melting (LBM) 3D printing technique to fabricate porous Ti6Al4V dental implant prototypes with three controlled pore sizes (200, 350 and 500 μm). The mechanical stress distribution in the surrounding bone tissue is characterized by photoelastography and associated finite element simulation. For in-vitro studies, experiments on implants’ biocompatibility and osteogenic capability are conducted to evaluate the cellular response correlated to the porous structure. As the preliminary results, porous structured implants show a lower stress-shielding to the surrounding bone at the implant neck and a more densed distribution at the bottom site compared to the reference implant. From the cell proliferation tests and the immunofluorescence images, 350 and 500 μm pore sized implants demonstrate a better biocompatibility in terms of cell growth, migration and adhesion. Osteogenic genes expression of the 350 μm group is significantly increased alone with the ALP activity test. All these suggest that a pore size of 350 μm provides an optimal provides an optimal potential for improving the mechanical shielding to the surrounding bones and osteoinduction of the implant itself.

  11. Chemical and structural analysis of the bone-implant interface by TOF-SIMS, SEM, FIB and TEM: Experimental study in animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmquist, Anders; Emanuelsson, Lena; Sjövall, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Although bone-anchored implants are widely used in reconstructive medicine, the mechanism of osseointegration is still not fully understood. Novel analytical tools are needed to further understand this process, where both the chemical and structural aspects of the bone-implant interface are important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of combining time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) with optical (LM), scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques for studying the bone-implant interface of bone-anchored implants. Laser-modified titanium implants with surrounded bone retrieved after 8 weeks healing in rabbit were dehydrated and resin embedded. Three types of sample preparation were studied to evaluate the information gained by combining TOF-SIMS, SEM, FIB and TEM. The results show that imaging TOF-SIMS can provide detailed chemical information, which in combination with structural information from microscopy methods provide a more complete characterization of anatomical structures at the bone-implant interface. By investigating various sample preparation techniques, it is shown that grinded cross section samples can be used for chemical imaging using TOF-SIMS, if careful consideration of potential preparation artifacts is taken into account. TOF-SIMS analysis of FIB-prepared bone/implant cross section samples show distinct areas corresponding to bone tissue and implant with a sharp interface, although without chemical information about the organic components.

  12. Laser beam melting 3D printing of Ti6Al4V based porous structured dental implants: fabrication, biocompatibility analysis and photoelastic study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei; Chen, Chen; Zhou, QianRong; Gong, YiMing; Li, RuiXue; Li, ChiChi; Klämpfl, Florian; Freund, Sebastian; Wu, XingWen; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiang; Schmidt, Michael; Ma, Duan; Yu, YouCheng

    2017-01-01

    Fabricating Ti alloy based dental implants with defined porous scaffold structure is a promising strategy for improving the osteoinduction of implants. In this study, we use Laser Beam Melting (LBM) 3D printing technique to fabricate porous Ti6Al4V dental implant prototypes with three controlled pore sizes (200, 350 and 500 μm). The mechanical stress distribution in the surrounding bone tissue is characterized by photoelastography and associated finite element simulation. For in-vitro studies, experiments on implants’ biocompatibility and osteogenic capability are conducted to evaluate the cellular response correlated to the porous structure. As the preliminary results, porous structured implants show a lower stress-shielding to the surrounding bone at the implant neck and a more densed distribution at the bottom site compared to the reference implant. From the cell proliferation tests and the immunofluorescence images, 350 and 500 μm pore sized implants demonstrate a better biocompatibility in terms of cell growth, migration and adhesion. Osteogenic genes expression of the 350 μm group is significantly increased alone with the ALP activity test. All these suggest that a pore size of 350 μm provides an optimal provides an optimal potential for improving the mechanical shielding to the surrounding bones and osteoinduction of the implant itself. PMID:28350007

  13. Animal Models for Evaluation of Bone Implants and Devices: Comparative Bone Structure and Common Model Uses.

    PubMed

    Wancket, L M

    2015-09-01

    Bone implants and devices are a rapidly growing field within biomedical research, and implants have the potential to significantly improve human and animal health. Animal models play a key role in initial product development and are important components of nonclinical data included in applications for regulatory approval. Pathologists are increasingly being asked to evaluate these models at the initial developmental and nonclinical biocompatibility testing stages, and it is important to understand the relative merits and deficiencies of various species when evaluating a new material or device. This article summarizes characteristics of the most commonly used species in studies of bone implant materials, including detailed information about the relevance of a particular model to human bone physiology and pathology. Species reviewed include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, sheep, goats, and nonhuman primates. Ultimately, a comprehensive understanding of the benefits and limitations of different model species will aid in rigorously evaluating a novel bone implant material or device.

  14. RP-HPLC detection and dosage method for acrylic monomers and degradation products released from implanted medical devices.

    PubMed

    Tortolano, Lionel; Hammami, Senda; Manerlax, Katia; Do, Bernard; Yagoubi, Najet

    2016-12-01

    Acrylic copolymers are useful in medical therapeutics. As in dental implants or intraocular lenses, acrylics are present in many medical devices or drug adjuvants. Industrial using of acrylics is still important in painting or textile manufacturing. Scientific research background has proved that acrylic suffer for depolymerized and cross-linking mechanisms under heating and photo-oxidative conditions. Those aging processes could lead to release of unreacted monomers and degradation products. We developed a new RP-HPLC method with good resolution, recovery, linearity, detection and quantification limits that is efficient for acrylic monomers quantification in in vitro and in vivo saline solution matrices. This method allows the detection of copolymer and medical devices degradation products too. Both the limit of quantification and the limit of detection for monomers and degradation products are above cytotoxic concentrations for human epithelial cells. Those biological results confirm the interest of the method for dosage of unreacted acrylics after polymerization and for the research of degradation products in body fluids as aqueous humor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. STN area detection using K-NN classifiers for MER recordings in Parkinson patients during neurostimulator implant surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiaffino, L.; Rosado Muñoz, A.; Guerrero Martínez, J.; Francés Villora, J.; Gutiérrez, A.; Martínez Torres, I.; Kohan, y. D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) applies electric pulses into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improving tremor and other symptoms associated to Parkinson’s disease. Accurate STN detection for proper location and implant of the stimulating electrodes is a complex task and surgeons are not always certain about final location. Signals from the STN acquired during DBS surgery are obtained with microelectrodes, having specific characteristics differing from other brain areas. Using supervised learning, a trained model based on previous microelectrode recordings (MER) can be obtained, being able to successfully classify the STN area for new MER signals. The K Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) algorithm has been successfully applied to STN detection. However, the use of the fuzzy form of the K-NN algorithm (KNN-F) has not been reported. This work compares the STN detection algorithm of K-NN and KNN-F. Real MER recordings from eight patients where previously classified by neurophysiologists, defining 15 features. Sensitivity and specificity for the classifiers are obtained, Wilcoxon signed rank non-parametric test is used as statistical hypothesis validation. We conclude that the performance of KNN-F classifier is higher than K-NN with p<0.01 in STN specificity.

  16. Hydrogen interstitial in H-ion implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaida, T.; Kamioka, K.; Nishimura, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2015-12-01

    The origins of low resistivity in H ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals are evaluated by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak concentration: 5.0 × 1015 cm-2) into ZnO is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The maximum of the concentration of the implanted H estimated by a TRIM simulation is at 3600 nm in depth. The resistivity decreases from ∼103 Ω cm for un implanted ZnO to 6.5 Ω cm for as-implanted, 2.3 × 10-1 Ω cm for 200 °C annealed, and 3.2 × 10-1 Ω cm for 400 °C annealed samples. The ERDA measurements can evaluate the concentration of hydrogens which move to the vicinity of the surface (surface to 300 nm or 100 nm) because of the diffusion by the annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 2.0 MeV helium beam is ∼3.8 × 1013 cm-2 for annealed samples. From EPR measurements, the oxygen vacancy of +charge state (Vo+) is observed in as-implanted samples. The Vo+ related signal (g = 1.96) observed under no illumination disappears after successive illumination with a red LED and appears again with a blue light illumination. The activation energy of as-implanted, 200 °C annealed, and 400 °C annealed samples estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration lies between 29 meV and 23 meV, suggesting the existence of H interstitial as a shallow donor level.

  17. Hydrogen ion-implantation induced low resistive layer in KNbO3 bulk single crystal: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkawa, A.; Shibasaki, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Tanuma, C.; Kuriyama, K.

    2016-03-01

    Origins of low resistivity in H-ion implanted KNbO3 bulk single crystals are studied by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak ion fluence: 5.0 × 1015 cm-2) into KNbO3 is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The sheet resistance decreases from ∼108 Ω/□ for an un-implanted KNbO3 sample to 2.33 × 105 Ω/□ for as-implanted, 2.29 × 105 Ω/□ for 100 °C annealed, and 4.25 × 105 Ω/□ for 150 °C annealed samples, respectively. The ERDA experiment using the 1.5 MeV-4He+ beam can evaluate hydrogen from the surface to around 60 nm. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 1.5 MeV helium beam is 5.1 × 1014 cm-2 for un-implanted KNbO3 sample, 5.6 × 1014 cm-2 for as-implanted, 3.4 × 1014 cm-2 for 150 °C annealed samples, respectively, indicating that a part of hydrogen is diffused out by annealing. The low resistive layer induced in H-ion implanted KNbO3 suggests the existence of a shallow energy level related to the complex defect consisting of hydrogen interstitial and the proton induced defect such as oxygen vacancy.

  18. Structural, mechanical and optical properties of nitrogen-implanted titanium at different pulse frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raaif, Mohamed; Mohamed, Sodky H.; Abd El-Rahman, Ahmed M.; Kolitsch, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a potent method to obtain hard and wear-resistant surface on Ti by nitrogen implantation. This presentation is one part of a sequence of experiments to optimize the microstructure and physical properties of TiN through adapting the plasma-processing parameters. In this work, nitrogen ions were implanted into samples of pure Ti at different nitrogen pulse frequency without using any external source of heating. The nitrogen-implanted surfaces were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), optical microscope, nano-indentation technique, ball-on-disk type tribometer, surface profilemeter, Tafel polarization technique for corrosion performance and ellipsometry. The outcomes show that, nitrogen PIII is an effectual method for nitriding titanium and nitrogen pulse frequency affected the microstructure and physical properties of the treated Ti. X-ray diffraction depicted the formation of α-Ti (N) and the cubic TiN after implanting titanium by nitrogen and the thickness of the nitrided layer increased as the nitrogen pulse frequency increased. The wear and corrosion resistance of the nitrogen-implanted titanium are improved and the friction coefficient decreased from nearly 0.8 for the un-implanted titanium to 0.3 for the implanted titanium, this ascribed to the formation of the titanium nitrided phases. Ellipsometric measurements were carried out on the PIII titanium samples at different nitrogen pulse frequency. The ellipsometric measurements show that, the thickness of the nitrided layer and surface roughness increased while the refractive index decreased with increasing nitrogen pulse frequency.

  19. Structural damage detection by fuzzy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Samuel; Dias Júnior, Milton; Lopes Junior, Vicente; Brennan, Michael J.

    2008-10-01

    The development of strategies for structural health monitoring (SHM) has become increasingly important because of the necessity of preventing undesirable damage. This paper describes an approach to this problem using vibration data. It involves a three-stage process: reduction of the time-series data using principle component analysis (PCA), the development of a data-based model using an auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model using data from an undamaged structure, and the classification of whether or not the structure is damaged using a fuzzy clustering approach. The approach is applied to data from a benchmark structure from Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. Two fuzzy clustering algorithms are compared: fuzzy c-means (FCM) and Gustafson-Kessel (GK) algorithms. It is shown that while both fuzzy clustering algorithms are effective, the GK algorithm marginally outperforms the FCM algorithm.

  20. Benefits of preserving stationary and time-varying formant structure in alternative representations of speech: implications for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H; Wucinich, Taylor; Tarr, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Cochlear implants have improved speech recognition for deaf individuals, but further modifications are required before performance will match that of normal-hearing listeners. In this study, the hypotheses were tested that (1) implant processing would benefit from efforts to preserve the structure of the low-frequency formants and (2) time-varying aspects of that structure would be especially beneficial. Using noise-vocoded and sine-wave stimuli with normal-hearing listeners, two experiments examined placing boundaries between static spectral channels to optimize representation of the first two formants and preserving time-varying formant structure. Another hypothesis tested in this study was that children might benefit more than adults from strategies that preserve formant structure, especially time-varying structure. Sixty listeners provided data to each experiment: 20 adults and 20 children at each of 5 and 7 years old. Materials were consonant-vowel-consonant words, four-word syntactically correct, meaningless sentences, and five-word syntactically correct, meaningful sentences. Results showed that listeners of all ages benefited from having channel boundaries placed to optimize information about the first two formants, and benefited even more from having time-varying structure. Children showed greater gains than adults only for time-varying formant structure. Results suggest that efforts would be well spent trying to design processing strategies that preserve formant structure.

  1. Benefits of preserving stationary and time-varying formant structure in alternative representations of speech: Implications for cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Wucinich, Taylor; Tarr, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants have improved speech recognition for deaf individuals, but further modifications are required before performance will match that of normal-hearing listeners. In this study, the hypotheses were tested that (1) implant processing would benefit from efforts to preserve the structure of the low-frequency formants and (2) time-varying aspects of that structure would be especially beneficial. Using noise-vocoded and sine-wave stimuli with normal-hearing listeners, two experiments examined placing boundaries between static spectral channels to optimize representation of the first two formants and preserving time-varying formant structure. Another hypothesis tested in this study was that children might benefit more than adults from strategies that preserve formant structure, especially time-varying structure. Sixty listeners provided data to each experiment: 20 adults and 20 children at each of 5 and 7 years old. Materials were consonant-vowel-consonant words, four-word syntactically correct, meaningless sentences, and five-word syntactically correct, meaningful sentences. Results showed that listeners of all ages benefited from having channel boundaries placed to optimize information about the first two formants, and benefited even more from having time-varying structure. Children showed greater gains than adults only for time-varying formant structure. Results suggest that efforts would be well spent trying to design processing strategies that preserve formant structure. PMID:25324085

  2. Comparison of the specificity of implantable dual chamber defibrillator detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Hintringer, Florian; Deibl, Martina; Berger, Thomas; Pachinger, Otmar; Roithinger, Franz Xaver

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the specificity of dual chamber ICDs detection algorithms for correct classification of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias derived from clinical studies according to their size to detect an impact of sample size on the specificity. Furthermore, the study sought to compare the specificities of detection algorithms calculated from clinical data with the specificity calculated from simulations of tachyarrhythmias. A survey was conducted of all available sources providing data regarding the specificity of five dual chamber ICDs. The specificity was correlated with the number of patients included, number of episodes, and number of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias recorded. The simulation was performed using tachyarrhythmias recorded in the electrophysiology laboratory. The range of the number of patients included into the studies was 78-1,029, the range of the total number of episodes recorded was 362-5,788, and the range of the number of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias used for calculation of the specificity for correct detection of these arrhythmias was 100 (Biotronik) to 1662 (Medtronic). The specificity for correct detection of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias was 90% (Biotronik), 89% (ELA Medical), 89% (Guidant), 68% (Medtronic), and 76% (St. Jude Medical). There was an inverse correlation (r = -0.9, P = 0.037) between the specificity for correct classification of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and the number of patients. The specificity for correct detection of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias calculated from the simulation after correction for the clinical prevalence of the simulated tachyarrhythmias was 95% (Biotronik), 99% (ELA Medical), 94% (Guidant), 93% (Medtronic), and 92% (St. Jude Medical). In conclusion, the specificity of ICD detection algorithms calculated from clinical studies or registries may depend on the number of patients studied. Therefore, a direct comparison between different detection algorithms

  3. Acoustic temporal modulation detection in normal-hearing and cochlear implanted listeners: effects of hearing mechanism and development.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyun; Won, Jong Ho; Horn, David L; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Temporal modulation detection ability matures over many years after birth and may be particularly sensitive to experience during this period. Profound hearing loss during early childhood might result in greater perceptual deficits than a similar loss beginning in adulthood. We tested this idea by measuring performance in temporal modulation detection in profoundly deaf children and adults fitted with cochlear implants (CIs). At least two independent variables could constrain temporal modulation detection performance in children with CIs: altered encoding of modulation information due to the CI-auditory nerve interface, and atypical development of central processing of sound information provided by CIs. The effect of altered encoding was investigated by testing subjects with one of two different hearing mechanisms (normal hearing vs. CI) and the effect of atypical development was studied by testing two different age groups. All subjects were tested for their ability to detect acoustic temporal modulations of sound amplitude. A comparison of the slope, or cutoff frequency, of the temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) among the four subject groups revealed that temporal resolution was mainly constrained by hearing mechanism: normal-hearing listeners could detect smaller amplitude modulations at high modulation frequencies than CI users. In contrast, a comparison of the height of the TMTFs revealed a significant interaction between hearing mechanism and age group on overall sensitivity to temporal modulation: sensitivity was significantly poorer in children with CIs, relative to the other three groups. Results suggest that there is an age-specific vulnerability of intensity discrimination or non-sensory factors, which subsequently affects sensitivity to temporal modulation in prelingually deaf children who use CIs.

  4. Detection of atrial arrhythmia for cardiac rhythm management by implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Morris, M M; KenKnight, B H; Lang, D J

    2000-01-01

    Implantable atrial defibrillators (IAD) should provide pacing therapy whenever appropriate (ie, typical atrial flutter) to minimize shock-related patient discomfort. Additionally, IADs should provide diagnostics regarding atrial arrhythmia type and frequency of occurrence to enable improved physician management of atrial arrhythmia. To achieve this, IADs should accurately classify atrial arrhythmia such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) This article evaluates the performance of an algorithm, atrial rhythm classification (ARC), designed to classify AF and AFL. The ARC algorithm uses maximum rate, standard deviation, and range of the 12 most recent atrial cycle lengths to plot a point in a three-dimensional space. A decision boundary divides the space into 2 regions--faster/unstable atrial cycle lengths (AF) or slower/stable cycle lengths (AFL). Classifications are made on a sliding window of 12 consecutive cycles until the end of the episode is reached. In this way, continuous episode feedback is provided that can be used to help guide device therapy, measure arrhythmia type and frequency of occurrence. Bipolar (1-cm) electrogram episodes of AF (n = 16) and AFL (n = 7) were acquired from 20 patients and retrospectively analyzed using the ARC algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity in this study was 0.993 and 0.982, respectively. The ARC algorithm would have appropriately guided atrial therapy and minimized discomfort associated with defibrillation shocks in this small patient data set warranting further studies. The ARC algorithm may also be beneficial as a diagnostic tool to assist physician management of atrial arrhythmia.

  5. A Brief Survey of β-Detected NMR of Implanted 8Li+ in Organic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, F. H.; McKenzie, I.; Buck, T.; Daley, C. R.; Forrest, J. A.; Harada, M.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; Morris, G. D.; Pearson, M. R.; Sugiyama, J.; Wang, D.; MacFarlane, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike the positive muon, we expect the chemistry of the implanted 8Li+β-NMR probe in organic polymers to be simply that of the monovalent ion, but almost nothing is known about the NMR of isolated Li+ in this context. Here, we present a brief survey of 8Li+β-NMR in a variety of insulating polymers at high magnetic field, including polyimide, PET, polycarbonate, polystyrene and polyethylene oxide. In all cases, we find a large-amplitude, broad Lorentzian resonance near the Larmor frequency, consistent with the expected diamagnetic charge state. We also find remarkably fast spin-lattice relaxation rates 1/T1. There is very little dependence of either linewidth or 1/T1 on the proton density, the main source of nuclear dipolar magnetic fields, leading us to conclude the main contribution to both broadening and spin relaxation at room temperature is quadrupolar in origin. This behaviour is very different from crystalline insulators such as MgO and Al2O3, and suggests that 8Li+β-NMR will be an important probe of polymer dynamics. Additionally, we note dramatically different behaviour of one sample above its glass transition, motivating the construction of a high temperature spectrometer to enable further exploration at elevated temperature.

  6. Detection of bacterial biofilm on cochlear implants removed because of device failure, without evidence of infection.

    PubMed

    Ruellan, Katell; Frijns, Johan H M; Bloemberg, Guido V; Hautefort, Charlotte; Van den Abbeele, Thierry; Lamers, Gerda E M; Herman, Philippe; Huy, Patrice Tran Ba; Kania, Romain E

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface of the electrode array of cochlear implants (CI) explanted because of device failure, without evidence of infection, by use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Prospective study. Patients from 2 tertiary-care referral centers. CIs were explanted from 9 patients because of device failure. Specimens were immediately snap-frozen in cold isopenthane, stored at -80°C and examined with SEM and CLSM by 3 investigators. Presence of bacterial biofilm ascertained by SEM and CSLM. One specimen showed the formation of a bacterial biofilm on the middle ear part of the electrode array. No biofilm formation was found in the inner-ear part of electrode arrays. In the middle-ear part of the electrode array, a cylindrical cover of human muscular tissue was seen plugging the cochleostomy. This is the first study demonstrating that bacterial biofilms may exist on the surface of the electrode array of CIs explanted because of device failure but not infection. We found 1 case of biofilm formation in 9 explanted CIs. Further studies with larger series of CIs are required to investigate biofilm formation on the surface of CI electrode arrays to address both the pathophysiology of bacterial biofilms and prevention of device-related infections in CI patients.

  7. A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Study on the Biomechanical Simulation of Various Structured Dental Implants and Their Surrounding Bone Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gong; Yuan, Hai; Chen, Xianshuai; Wang, Weijun; Chen, Jianyu; Liang, Jimin; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose. This three-dimensional finite element study observed the stress distribution characteristics of 12 types of dental implants and their surrounding bone tissues with various structured abutments, implant threads, and healing methods under different amounts of concentrated loading. Materials and Methods. A three-dimensional geometrical model of a dental implant and its surrounding bone tissue was created; the model simulated a screw applied with a preload of 200 N or a torque of 0.2 N·m and a prosthetic crown applied with a vertical or an inclined force of 100 N. The Von Mises stress was evaluated on the 12 types of dental implants and their surrounding bone tissues. Results. Under the same loading force, the stress influence on the implant threads was not significant; however, the stress influence on the cancellous bone was obvious. The stress applied to the abutment, cortical bone, and cancellous bone by the inclined force applied to the crown was larger than the stress applied by the vertical force to the crown, and the abutment stress of the nonsubmerged healing implant system was higher than that of the submerged healing implant system. Conclusion. A dental implant system characterised by a straight abutment, rectangle tooth, and nonsubmerged healing may provide minimum value for the implant-bone interface. PMID:26904121

  8. A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Study on the Biomechanical Simulation of Various Structured Dental Implants and Their Surrounding Bone Tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gong; Yuan, Hai; Chen, Xianshuai; Wang, Weijun; Chen, Jianyu; Liang, Jimin; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose. This three-dimensional finite element study observed the stress distribution characteristics of 12 types of dental implants and their surrounding bone tissues with various structured abutments, implant threads, and healing methods under different amounts of concentrated loading. Materials and Methods. A three-dimensional geometrical model of a dental implant and its surrounding bone tissue was created; the model simulated a screw applied with a preload of 200 N or a torque of 0.2 N·m and a prosthetic crown applied with a vertical or an inclined force of 100 N. The Von Mises stress was evaluated on the 12 types of dental implants and their surrounding bone tissues. Results. Under the same loading force, the stress influence on the implant threads was not significant; however, the stress influence on the cancellous bone was obvious. The stress applied to the abutment, cortical bone, and cancellous bone by the inclined force applied to the crown was larger than the stress applied by the vertical force to the crown, and the abutment stress of the nonsubmerged healing implant system was higher than that of the submerged healing implant system. Conclusion. A dental implant system characterised by a straight abutment, rectangle tooth, and nonsubmerged healing may provide minimum value for the implant-bone interface.

  9. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Cochlear Implants Cochlear Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... normal ear, ear with hearing loss, and cochlear implant procedure Welcome to the Food and Drug Administration ( ...

  10. Crack detection in offshore platform structure based on structural intensity approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaojie; Liu, Guijie; Gao, Zhiming; Chen, Pengfei; Mu, Weilei

    2017-02-01

    Structural intensity approach is introduced to study the crack detection for offshore platform in the paper. The Line Spring Model (LSM) of surface crack is proposed based on plate crack structure, and thus the relationship between the additional angle, displacement and crack relative depth is achieved. Besides, the concept of appended structure-borne sound intensity is introduced. The expression of appended structural intensity for crack damage is derived. By observing the input energy, distribution, transmission and vibration performance of structure intensity, evidence is provided for detection of crack location. Vibration analysis is conducted on the whole platform under multi environment load. Using the structural intensity approach, the crack is detected on the key point easily. Moreover, the K-shape welded pipe point is detected using structural intensity approach, and the crack can be detected accurately. Therefore, development structural intensity approach would be extremely useful to spread out technologies that can be applied for offshore platform crack detection accurately.

  11. Correlation between luminescent properties and structure organization in AlGaN/GaN superlattices annealed after erbium ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, E. E.; Emel'Yanov, A. M.; Lundin, W. V.; Petrov, V. N.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T.; Sobolev, N. A.; Titkov, A. N.; Shek, E. I.; Shmidt, N. M.

    2006-12-01

    The evolution of the structure organization of MOCVD-grown AlGaN/GaN superlattices subjected to erbium ion implantation with an energy of 1 MeV and dose of 3 × 1015 cm-2 and subsequent annealing is correlated with their photoluminescent properties. The structure organization is quantitatively estimated using parameter Δ (degree of violation of local symmetry), which is found via multifractal analysis of surface morphology patterns obtained with atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the implantation not only causes Ga segregation on the surface, but also changes the structure organization, which shows up in the finer grain structure compared with the starting one and disordering, as well as in an increase in Δ. As the annealing temperature rises from 700 to 800°C, Δ declines, indicating that the structure organization is improved, and the intensity of the dominating photoluminescence peak due to Er3+ ions (1.542 μm) grows. With a further increase in the annealing temperature to 1050°C, the structure organization degrades, domains get larger, voids 100 200 nm deep form, and the photoluminescence intensity drops. The formation of voids during high-temperature annealing is also substantiated by data for 230-keV proton scattering. It is thus established that the improvement of the superlattice structure organization activates erbium and causes the erbium-ion-related luminescence intensity to grow.

  12. Effect of retention design of artificial teeth and implant-supported titanium CAD-CAM structures on fracture resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ladetzki, Kristin; Mateos-Palacios, Rocío; Pascual-Moscardó, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Background For implant-supported hybrid prostheses, high mastication forces and reduced acrylic resin thickness over a metal substructure often cause failures arising from tooth or resin fractures. To assay fracture resistance of artificial teeth and resin in implant-supported hybrid prostheses in relation to the titanium structure and retention design supporting teeth. Material and Methods 40 specimens bearing incisors were divided into four groups according to the titanium structure supporting the teeth and the type of load force applied: Group I (Control; n=10): Application of static loading to ten incisors set over a metal structure with internal retention. Group II (Control; n=10): Application of static loading to ten incisors set over a metal structure with external retention. The remaining study specimens (n=20) were subjected to 120,000 masticatory and thermal cycles in a chewing simulator. Afterwards, static loading was applied until the point of fracture using an Instron machine. Group III (Study; n=10): Application of dynamic and static loading to ten incisors set over a metal structure with internal retention. Group IV (Study; n=10): Application of dynamic and static loading to ten incisors set over a metal structure with external retention. Data obtained for the four groups was analyzed and compared, determining the type of fracture (cohesive or adhesive) using a reflected light microscope. Results Statistical analysis confirmed that there were significant differences in fracture resistance between the four groups. External retention was found to have more fracture resistance than the internal retention. Conclusions Hybrid prostheses with titanium substructures and external retention obtained significantly better results than samples with internal retention. Key words:Chewing simulator, thermocycler, fatigue, implant-supported hybrid prosthesis, acrylic teeth, fracture, metal structure design. PMID:27034748

  13. An in vitro biofilm model associated to dental implants: structural and quantitative analysis of in vitro biofilm formation on different dental implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M C; Llama-Palacios, A; Fernández, E; Figuero, E; Marín, M J; León, R; Blanc, V; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

    2014-10-01

    The impact of implant surfaces in dental biofilm development is presently unknown. The aim of this investigation was to assess in vitro the development of a complex biofilm model on titanium and zirconium implant surfaces, and to compare it with the same biofilm formed on hydroxyapatite surface. Six standard reference strains were used to develop an in vitro biofilm over sterile titanium, zirconium and hydroxyapatite discs, coated with saliva within the wells of pre-sterilized polystyrene tissue culture plates. The selected species used represent initial (Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces naeslundii), early (Veillonella parvula), secondary (Fusobacterium nucleatum) and late colonizers (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans). The developed biofilms (growth time 1 to 120h) were studied with confocal laser scanning microscopy using a vital fluorescence technique and with low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. The number (colony forming units/biofilm) and kinetics of the bacteria within the biofilm were studied with quantitative PCR (qPCR). As outcome variables, the biofilm thickness, the percentage of cell vitality and the number of bacteria were compared using the analysis of variance. The bacteria adhered and matured within the biofilm over the three surfaces with similar dynamics. Different surfaces, however, demonstrated differences both in the thickness, deposition of the extracellular polysaccharide matrix as well as in the organization of the bacterial cells. While the formation and dynamics of an in vitro biofilm model was similar irrespective of the surface of inoculation (hydroxyapatite, titanium or zirconium), there were significant differences in regards to the biofilm thickness and three-dimensional structure. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Facades structure detection by geometric moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Diqiong; Chen, Hui; Song, Rui; Meng, Lei

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for extracting facades structure from real-world pictures by using local geometric moment. Compared with existing methods, the proposed method has advantages of easy-to-implement, low computational cost, and robustness to noises, such as uneven illumination, shadow, and shade from other objects. Besides, our method is faster and has a lower space complexity, making it feasible for mobile devices and the situation where real-time data processing is required. Specifically, a facades structure modal is first proposed to support the use of our special noise reduction method, which is based on a self-adapt local threshold with Gaussian weighted average for image binarization processing and the feature of the facades structure. Next, we divide the picture of the building into many individual areas, each of which represents a door or a window in the picture. Subsequently we calculate the geometric moment and centroid for each individual area, for identifying those collinear ones based on the feature vectors, each of which is thereafter replaced with a line. Finally, we comprehensively analyze all the geometric moment and centroid to find out the facades structure of the building. We compare our result with other methods and especially report the result from the pictures taken in bad environmental conditions. Our system is designed for two application, i.e, the reconstruction of facades based on higher resolution ground-based on imagery, and the positional system based on recognize the urban building.

  15. Detecting and identifying termites in a structure

    Treesearch

    Rachel Arango; Frederick Green

    2006-01-01

    The threat of insects in or around your home can be alarming, especially when those insects can cause structural damage. It is important to know if insects you find around the house are in fact termites or some other crawling insect. Subterranean termites are found everywhere in the contiguous United States, making the possibility of termite infestation a widespread...

  16. Structural damage detection via impediographic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liuxian; Yang, Jie; Wang, K. W.; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the use of impediographic tomography to achieve high sensitivity and high resolution damage identification in plate-like structures. The impediographic approach exploits the coupled piezo-resistive and electrostatic response of the host structure to generate high sensitivity and high resolution maps of its internal electrical conductivity. Focused acoustic waves are used to generate localized electrical conductivity perturbations that allow a drastic improvement in the conditioning of the inverse problem. The localized acoustic perturbations are obtained by exploiting the concept of Frequency Selective Structures (FSS) in which intentional mistuning of periodically distributed structural features, such as thin notches, enables self-focusing and vibration localization by using a single ultrasonic transducer. The impediographic reconstruction is achieved by using two different methods: the 0-Laplacian and the Levenberg-Marquardt. Both methodologies are compared in terms of accuracy of the reconstructed electrical conductivity and of their ability to deal with important practical issues such as limited view and limited perturbation data. Numerical results show that, although both approaches perform well in terms of damage identification, localization, and sizing, the LM technique allows higher flexibility in handling imperfect data.

  17. Nanostructured multielement (TiHfZrNbVTa)N coatings before and after implantation of N+ ions (1018 cm-2): Their structure and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Bondar, O. V.; Borba, S. O.; Abadias, G.; Konarski, P.; Plotnikov, S. V.; Beresnev, V. M.; Kassenova, L. G.; Drodziel, P.

    2016-10-01

    Multielement high entropy alloy (HEA) nitride (TiHfZrNbVTa)N coatings were deposited by vacuum arc and their structural and mechanical stability after implantation of high doses of N+ ions, 1018 cm-2, were investigated. The crystal structure and phase composition were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy, while depth-resolved nanoindentation tests were used to determine the evolution of hardness and elastic modulus along the implantation depth. XRD patterns show that coatings exhibit a main phase with fcc structure, which preferred orientation varies from (1 1 1) to (2 0 0), depending on the deposition conditions. First-principles calculations reveal that the presence of Nb atoms could favor the formation of solid solution with fcc structure in multielement HEA nitride. TEM results showed that amorphous and nanostructured phases were formed in the implanted coating sub-surface layer (∼100 nm depth). Concentration of nitrogen reached 90 at% in the near-surface layer after implantation, and decreased at higher depth. Nanohardness of the as-deposited coatings varied from 27 to 38 GPa depending on the deposition conditions. Ion implantation led to a significant decrease of the nanohardness to 12 GPa in the implanted region, while it reaches 24 GPa at larger depths. However, the H/E ratio is ⩾0.1 in the sub-surface layer due to N+ implantation, which is expected to have beneficial effect on the wear properties.

  18. Effects of the implantation of Sn ions on W matrix's chemical state, crystal structure and hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Z. X.; Sun, J. Z.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y. M.

    2017-09-01

    Prior to the practical application of liquid metals as facing material for fusion reactor, the nature of the interaction layer between liquid metal and tungsten substrate should be studied deeply. In the present work, by means of ion implantation technique using a metal vapor vacuum arc source (MEVVA), Sn ions were injected into a W matrix and a W-Sn modified layer was prepared. The chemical state, crystal structure and nano-indentation hardness of the modified layer were investigated and characterized with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and a nano-indentor. The results indicate that, after the injection of Sn ions into the W matrix, Sn atoms interacted intensively with W, leading to the generation of a large number of point defects (such as vacancies and self-interstitial atoms) and the decrease of average grain size from 16.7 to 11.9 nm. Additionally, chemical shifts appeared, i.e., the binding energy values of W 4f7/2, W 4f5/2, W 5p3/2 and W 4p1/2 in the modified layer was reduced by 0.3 eV, 0.3 eV, 0.4 eV, 1-1.4 eV, respectively. The binding energy values of Sn 3d5/2 and Sn 3d3/2 decreased, with a chemical shift of 0.6-0.7 eV and 0.1-0.3 eV, respectively. The nano-indentation hardness of the modified layer was enhanced; specifically, when the indentation depth was 26.3 nm, the hardness reached a peak value of 13.8 GPa. In the modified layer, the surface chemical states are quite complex, mainly including SnO, WO3, SnO2 and WC.

  19. Performance of an implantable automatic atrial fibrillation detection device: impact of software adjustments and relevance of manual episode analysis.

    PubMed

    Eitel, Charlotte; Husser, Daniela; Hindricks, Gerhard; Frühauf, Manuela; Hilbert, Sebastian; Arya, Arash; Gaspar, Thomas; Wetzel, Ulrike; Bollmann, Andreas; Piorkowski, Christopher

    2011-04-01

    Implantable loop recorders (ILRs) with specific atrial fibrillation (AF) detection algorithms (ILR-AF) have been developed for continuous AF monitoring. We sought to analyse the clinical value of a new AF monitoring device and to compare it to serial 7-day Holter. Sixty-four consecutive patients suffering from paroxysmal AF were included in this prospective analysis and received an ILR-AF. Manual electrogram analysis was performed for each automatically detected episode and each was categorized into one of three possible diagnoses: 'no AF', 'definite AF', and 'possible AF' (non-diagnostic). Analysis was performed separately before and after a software upgrade that was introduced during the course of the study. A subgroup of patients (51 of 64) underwent AF catheter ablation with subsequent serial 7-day Holter in comparison with the ILR-AF. A total of 333 interrogations were performed (203 before and 130 after software upgrade). The number of patients with AF misdetection was significantly reduced from 72 to 44% following the software upgrade (P = 0.001). The number of patients with non-diagnostic interrogations went from 38 to 16% (P = 0.001). Compared with serial 7-day Holter, the ILR-AF had a tendency to detect a higher number of patients with AF recurrences (31 vs. 24%; P = 0.125). The rate of AF detection on ILR-AF may be higher compared with standard AF monitoring. However, false-positive AF recordings hamper the clinical value. Developments in device technology and device handling are necessary to minimize non-diagnostic interrogations.

  20. Accurate estimation of entropy in very short physiological time series: the problem of atrial fibrillation detection in implanted ventricular devices.

    PubMed

    Lake, Douglas E; Moorman, J Randall

    2011-01-01

    Entropy estimation is useful but difficult in short time series. For example, automated detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) in very short heart beat interval time series would be useful in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices that record only from the ventricle. Such devices require efficient algorithms, and the clinical situation demands accuracy. Toward these ends, we optimized the sample entropy measure, which reports the probability that short templates will match with others within the series. We developed general methods for the rational selection of the template length m and the tolerance matching r. The major innovation was to allow r to vary so that sufficient matches are found for confident entropy estimation, with conversion of the final probability to a density by dividing by the matching region volume, 2r(m). The optimized sample entropy estimate and the mean heart beat interval each contributed to accurate detection of AF in as few as 12 heartbeats. The final algorithm, called the coefficient of sample entropy (COSEn), was developed using the canonical MIT-BIH database and validated in a new and much larger set of consecutive Holter monitor recordings from the University of Virginia. In patients over the age of 40 yr old, COSEn has high degrees of accuracy in distinguishing AF from normal sinus rhythm in 12-beat calculations performed hourly. The most common errors are atrial or ventricular ectopy, which increase entropy despite sinus rhythm, and atrial flutter, which can have low or high entropy states depending on dynamics of atrioventricular conduction.

  1. PROGRESS IN CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITATES AND DEFECT STRUCTURES IN Mg+ ION IMPLANTED CUBIC SILICON CARBIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhu, Zihua; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the progress of our current experimental effort on Mg+ ion implanted 3C-SiC. Following our initial study [ ] that suggests possible formation of Mg2Si and MgC2 precipitates as well as tetrahedral voids in 24Mg+ ion implanted 3C-SiC, we have designed specific experiments to confirm the results and examine the inclusions and defects. Relatively low fluence (5.0×1015 24Mg+/cm2) implantation in 3C-SiC was performed to reduce defect concentrations and isolate individual defect features for characterization. In addition, 25Mg+ isotope was implanted in 3C-SiC to the same previously applied ion fluence (9.6×1016 ions/cm2) for atom probe tomography (APT) study of precipitates. Each set of the samples was annealed at 1573 K for 2, 6 and 12 h, respectively. The depth profiles of the implanted Mg were measured using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) before and after the annealing steps. The samples are currently being analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and APT.

  2. Reliability of implant placement after virtual planning of implant positions using cone beam CT data and surgical (guide) templates.

    PubMed

    Nickenig, Hans-Joachim; Eitner, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the reliability of implant placement after virtual planning of implant positions using cone-beam CT data and surgical guide templates. A total of 102 patients (250 implants, 55.4% mandibular; mean patient age, 40.4 years) who had undergone implant treatment therapy in an armed forces dental clinic (Cologne, Germany) between July 1, 2005 and December 1, 2005. They were treated with a system that allows transfer of virtual planning to surgical guide templates. Only in eight cases the surgical guides were not used because a delayed implant placement was necessary. In four posterior mandibular cases, handling was limited because of reduced interocclusal distance, requiring 50% shortening of the drill guides. The predictability of implant size was high: only one implant was changed to a smaller diameter (because of insufficient bone). In all cases, critical anatomical structures were protected and no complications were detected in postoperative panoramic radiographs. In 58.1% (147) of the 250 implants, a flapless surgery plan was realized. Implant placement after virtual planning of implant positions using cone beam CT data and surgical templates can be reliable for preoperative assessment of implant size, position, and anatomical complications. It is also indicative of cases amenable to flapless surgery.

  3. In Situ Characterization of Stimulating Microelectrode Arrays: Study of an Idealized Structure Based on Argus II Retinal implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandagor, Vincent; Cela, Carlos J.; Sanders, Charlene A.; Greenbaum, Elias; Lazzi, Gianluca; Zhou, David D.; Castro, Richard; Gaikwad, Sanjay; Little, Jim

    The development of a retinal prosthesis for artificial sight includes a study of the factors affecting the structural and functional stability of chronically implanted microelectrode arrays. Although neuron depolarization and propagation of electrical signals have been studied for nearly a century, the use of multielectrode stimulation as a proposed therapy to treat blindness is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology research. Mapping and characterizing the topographic information contained in the electric field potentials and understanding how this information is transmitted and interpreted in the visual cortex is still very much a work in progress. In order to characterize the electrical field patterns generated by the device, an in vitro prototype that mimics several of the physical and chemical parameters of the in vivo visual implant device was fabricated. We carried out multiple electrical measurements in a model "eye," beginning with a single electrode, followed by a 9-electrode array structure, both idealized components based on the Argus II retinal implants. Correlating the information contained in the topographic features of the electric fields with psychophysical testing in patients may help reduce the time required for patients to convert the electrical patterns into graphic signals.

  4. Alternating current electrocution detection and termination by an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Mehdirad, A; Love, C; Nelson, S; Schaal, S; Collins, J; Huffman, K

    1997-07-01

    A patient with an ICD accidentally grasped a power line and was electrocuted. He was unable to release the cable during electrocution though he remained conscious. After receiving a shock from his ICD, the powerline was released. ICD interrogation revealed inappropriate detection of alternating current and delivery of a shock.

  5. Structured back gates for high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems using oxygen ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Berl, M. Tiemann, L.; Dietsche, W.; Wegscheider, W.; Karl, H.

    2016-03-28

    We present a reliable method to obtain patterned back gates compatible with high mobility molecular beam epitaxy via local oxygen ion implantation that suppresses the conductivity of an 80 nm thick silicon doped GaAs epilayer. Our technique was optimized to circumvent several constraints of other gating and implantation methods. The ion-implanted surface remains atomically flat which allows unperturbed epitaxial overgrowth. We demonstrate the practical application of this gating technique by using magneto-transport spectroscopy on a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) with a mobility exceeding 20 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/V s. The back gate was spatially separated from the Ohmic contacts of the 2DES, thus minimizing the probability for electrical shorts or leakage and permitting simple contacting schemes.

  6. Structures in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: Detection and scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Pouquet, A.; Rosenberg, D.; Mininni, P. D.; Donovan, E. F.

    2010-11-01

    We present a systematic analysis of statistical properties of turbulent current and vorticity structures at a given time using cluster analysis. The data stem from numerical simulations of decaying three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the absence of an imposed uniform magnetic field; the magnetic Prandtl number is taken equal to unity, and we use a periodic box with grids of up to 15363 points and with Taylor Reynolds numbers up to 1100. The initial conditions are either an X -point configuration embedded in three dimensions, the so-called Orszag-Tang vortex, or an Arn’old-Beltrami-Childress configuration with a fully helical velocity and magnetic field. In each case two snapshots are analyzed, separated by one turn-over time, starting just after the peak of dissipation. We show that the algorithm is able to select a large number of structures (in excess of 8000) for each snapshot and that the statistical properties of these clusters are remarkably similar for the two snapshots as well as for the two flows under study in terms of scaling laws for the cluster characteristics, with the structures in the vorticity and in the current behaving in the same way. We also study the effect of Reynolds number on cluster statistics, and we finally analyze the properties of these clusters in terms of their velocity-magnetic-field correlation. Self-organized criticality features have been identified in the dissipative range of scales. A different scaling arises in the inertial range, which cannot be identified for the moment with a known self-organized criticality class consistent with magnetohydrodynamics. We suggest that this range can be governed by turbulence dynamics as opposed to criticality and propose an interpretation of intermittency in terms of propagation of local instabilities.

  7. Detection and Characterization of R Loop Structures.

    PubMed

    Boque-Sastre, Raquel; Soler, Marta; Guil, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    R loops are special three stranded nucleic acid structures that comprise a nascent RNA hybridized with the DNA template strand, leaving a non-template DNA single-stranded. More specifically, R loops form in vivo as G-rich RNA transcripts invade the DNA duplex and anneal to the template strand to generate an RNA:DNA hybrid, leaving the non-template, G-rich DNA strand in a largely single-stranded conformation (Aguilera and Garcia-Muse, Mol Cell 46:115-124, 2012).DNA-RNA hybrids are a natural occurrence within eukaryotic cells, with levels of these hybrids increasing at sites with high transcriptional activity, such as during transcription initiation, repression, and elongation. RNA-DNA hybrids influence genomic instability, and growing evidence points to an important role for R loops in active gene expression regulation (Ginno et al., Mol Cell 45, 814-825, 2012; Sun et al., Science 340: 619-621, 2013; Bhatia et al., Nature 511, 362-365, 2014). Analysis of the occurrence of such structures is therefore of increasing relevance and herein we describe methods for the in vivo and in vitro identification and characterization of R loops in mammalian systems.R loops (DNA:RNA hybrids and the associated single-stranded DNA) have been traditionally associated with threats to genome integrity, making some regions of the genome more prone to DNA-damaging and mutagenic agents. Initially considered to be rare byproducts of transcription, over the last decade accumulating evidence has pointed to a new view in which R loops form more frequently than previously thought. The R loop field has become an increasingly expanded area of research, placing these structures as a major threat to genome stability but also as potential regulators of gene expression. Special interest has arisen as they have also been linked to a variety of diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer, positioning them as potential therapeutic targets [5].

  8. Percutaneous Implants with Porous Titanium Dermal Barriers: An In Vivo Evaluation of Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Isackson, Dorthyann; McGill, Lawrence D.; Bachus, Kent N.

    2010-01-01

    Osseointegrated percutaneous implants are a promising prosthetic alternative for a subset of amputees. However, as with all percutaneous implants, they have an increased risk of infection since they breach the skin barrier. Theoretically, host tissues could attach to the metal implant creating a barrier to infection. When compared with smooth surfaces, it is hypothesized that porous surfaces improve the attachment of the host tissues to the implant, and decrease the infection risk. In this study, 4 titanium implants, manufactured with a percutaneous post and a subcutaneous disk, were placed subcutaneously on the dorsum of eight New Zealand White rabbits. Beginning at four weeks post-op, the implants were inoculated weekly with 108 CFU Staphylococcus aureus until signs of clinical infection presented. While we were unable to detect a difference in the incidence of infection of the porous metal implants, smooth surface (no porous coating) percutaneous and subcutaneous components had a 7-fold increased risk of infection compared to the implants with a porous coating on one or both components. The porous coated implants displayed excellent tissue ingrowth into the porous structures; whereas, the smooth implants were surrounded with a thick, organized fibrotic capsule that was separated from the implant surface. This study suggests that porous coated metal percutaneous implants are at a significantly lower risk of infection when compared to smooth metal implants. The smooth surface percutaneous implants were inadequate in allowing a long-term seal to develop with the soft tissue, thus increasing vulnerability to the migration of infecting microorganisms. PMID:21145778

  9. Damage detection of bridgelike structures using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin-Sivico, Javier; Rao, Vittal S.; Samanthula, Vasudha

    1998-06-01

    It is well known that the static and dynamic structural response of materials can indirectly indicate the health of structural systems. The changes in natural frequencies, mode shapes, and stiffness matrices due to damage are utilized for determination of occurrence, location and extent of damages. In recent years, many researchers have developed global damage detection algorithms using structural modal response. However most of these methods are off-line techniques based on frequency domain data. In this paper we have proposed real- time damage detection methods based on time domain data. In this method damages in the structure can be detected while the structure is kept on its regular use. The algorithm determines reduction in stiffness and/or damping of the structural elements, while assuming that the mass of the structure does not vary due to damage. This algorithm is based on the state space representation of the structure, which is identified from the time domain data. We have also determined a linear transformation matrix for converting the identified model into a state space representation based on physical coordinates of the structural system. The self-organization and learning capabilities of neural networks can be effectively used for structural damage detection purpose. In this paper a hybrid method for the damage detection has been proposed by combining the features of best achievable eigenvector method and neural network classification techniques for detection of location and extent of damage in the structural systems. The feasibility of the proposed method is verified by using simple three-bar truss structure and a cantilever beam test article.

  10. Microdrilled cartilage defects treated with thrombin-solidified chitosan/blood implant regenerate a more hyaline, stable, and structurally integrated osteochondral unit compared to drilled controls.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Catherine; Chen, Gaoping; Tran-Khanh, Nicolas; Sun, Jun; Chen, Hongmei; Buschmann, Michael D; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2012-03-01

    This study analyzed the long-term cartilage and subchondral bone repair of microdrilled defects treated with chitosan glycerol-phosphate/blood implant, using thrombin (Factor IIa) to accelerate in situ solidification. We also evaluated the cartilage repair response to six smaller microdrill holes compared with two larger holes. Bilateral knee trochlear cartilage defects were created in n=8 skeletally mature rabbits, drilled with six proximal 0.5 mm and two distal 0.9 mm holes, then covered with in situ-solidified IIa-implants (treated) or with IIa-alone (control). After 6.5 months of repair, cartilage repair tissues were analyzed by histological scoring and histomorphometry for hyaline matrix characteristics and osseous integration. Subchondral repair bone was analyzed by 3D microcomputed tomography and compared to acute defects (n=6) and intact trochlea (n=8). Implant-treated cartilage repair tissues had higher structural integrity through the entire defect (p=0.02), twofold higher percent staining for glycosaminoglycan (p=0.0004), and ~24% more collagen type II staining over the smaller drill holes (p=0.008) compared with controls. Otherwise, hole diameter had no specific effect on cartilage repair. The subchondral bone plate was partially restored in treated and control defects but less dense than intact trochlea, with evidence of incomplete regeneration of the calcified cartilage layer. More residual drill holes (p=0.054) were detected in control versus treated defects, and control defects with more than 40% residual holes presented abnormally thicker trabeculae compared with treated defects. Low osteoclast numbers after 6.5 months repair suggested that bone was no longer remodeling. The subchondral bone plate surrounding the defects exhibited a significant thickening compared with age-matched intact trochlea. These data suggest that debridement and drilling can lead to long-term subchondral bone changes outside the cartilage defect. Compared with drilled

  11. Enhancing community detection by using local structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ju; Hu, Ke; Zhang, Yan; Bao, Mei-Hua; Tang, Liang; Tang, Yan-Ni; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Jian-Ming; Chen, Benyan; Hu, Jing-Bo

    2016-03-01

    Many real-world networks, such as gene networks, protein-protein interaction networks and metabolic networks, exhibit community structures, meaning the existence of groups of densely connected vertices in the networks. Many local similarity measures in the networks are closely related to the concept of the community structures, and may have a positive effect on community detection in the networks. Here, various local similarity measures are used to extract local structural information, which is then applied to community detection in the networks by using the edge-reweighting strategy. The effect of the local similarity measures on community detection is carefully investigated and compared in various networks. The experimental results show that the local similarity measures are crucial for the improvement of community detection methods, while the positive effect of the local similarity measures is closely related to the networks under study and applied community detection methods.

  12. Multi-Dimensional Damage Detection for Surfaces and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Roberson, Luke; Medelius, Pedro; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steen; Snyder, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Current designs for inflatable or semi-rigidized structures for habitats and space applications use a multiple-layer construction, alternating thin layers with thicker, stronger layers, which produces a layered composite structure that is much better at resisting damage. Even though such composite structures or layered systems are robust, they can still be susceptible to penetration damage. The ability to detect damage to surfaces of inflatable or semi-rigid habitat structures is of great interest to NASA. Damage caused by impacts of foreign objects such as micrometeorites can rupture the shell of these structures, causing loss of critical hardware and/or the life of the crew. While not all impacts will have a catastrophic result, it will be very important to identify and locate areas of the exterior shell that have been damaged by impacts so that repairs (or other provisions) can be made to reduce the probability of shell wall rupture. This disclosure describes a system that will provide real-time data regarding the health of the inflatable shell or rigidized structures, and information related to the location and depth of impact damage. The innovation described here is a method of determining the size, location, and direction of damage in a multilayered structure. In the multi-dimensional damage detection system, layers of two-dimensional thin film detection layers are used to form a layered composite, with non-detection layers separating the detection layers. The non-detection layers may be either thicker or thinner than the detection layers. The thin-film damage detection layers are thin films of materials with a conductive grid or striped pattern. The conductive pattern may be applied by several methods, including printing, plating, sputtering, photolithography, and etching, and can include as many detection layers that are necessary for the structure construction or to afford the detection detail level required. The damage is detected using a detector or

  13. Detection of ventricular suction in an implantable rotary blood pump using support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Faragallah, George; Divo, Eduardo; Simaan, Marwan A

    2011-01-01

    A new suction detection algorithm for rotary Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVAD) is presented. The algorithm is based on a Lagrangian Support Vector Machine (LSVM) model. Six suction indices are derived from the LVAD pump flow signal and form the inputs to the LSVM classifier. The LSVM classifier is trained and tested to classify pump flow patterns into three states: No Suction, Approaching Suction, and Suction. The proposed algorithm has been tested using existing in vivo data. When compared to three existing methods, the proposed algorithm produced superior performance in terms of classification accuracy, stability, and learning speed. The ability of the algorithm to detect suction provides a reliable platform in the development of a pump speed controller that has the capability of avoiding suction.

  14. Detection of cystic structures using pulsed ultrasonically induced resonant cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Kovach, John S. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus and method for early detection of cystic structures indicative of ovarian and breast cancers uses ultrasonic wave energy at a unique resonance frequency for inducing cavitation in cystic fluid characteristic of cystic structures in the ovaries associated with ovarian cancer, and in cystic structures in the breast associated with breast cancer. Induced cavitation bubbles in the cystic fluid implode, creating implosion waves which are detected by ultrasonic receiving transducers attached to the abdomen of the patient. Triangulation of the ultrasonic receiving transducers enables the received signals to be processed and analyzed to identify the location and structure of the cyst.

  15. In situ plasma fabrication of ceramic-like structure on polymeric implant with enhanced surface hardness, cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Haigang; Yang, Kun; Wang, Gexia; Wang, Pingli; Ji, Junhui; Chu, Paul K

    2016-05-01

    Polymeric materials are commonly found in orthopedic implants due to their unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility but the poor surface hardness and bacterial infection hamper many biomedical applications. In this study, a ceramic-like surface structure doped with silver is produced by successive plasma implantation of silicon (Si) and silver (Ag) into the polyamine 66 (PA66) substrate. Not only the surface hardness and elastic modulus are greatly enhanced due to the partial surface carbonization and the ceramic-like structure produced by the reaction between energetic Si and the carbon chain of PA66, but also the antibacterial activity is improved because of the combined effects rendered by Ag and SiC structure. Furthermore, the modified materials which exhibit good cytocompatibility upregulate bone-related genes and proteins expressions of the contacted bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). For the first time, it explores out that BMSCs osteogenesis on the antibacterial ceramic-like structure is mediated via the iNOS and nNOS signal pathways. The results reveal that in situ plasma fabrication of an antibacterial ceramic-like structure can endow PA66 with excellent surface hardness, cytocompatibility, as well as antibacterial capability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Detection of QTc interval prolongation using jacket telemetry in conscious non-human primates: comparison with implanted telemetry.

    PubMed

    Derakhchan, K; Chui, R W; Stevens, D; Gu, W; Vargas, H M

    2014-01-01

    During repeat-dose toxicity studies, ECGs are collected from chemically or physically-restrained animals over a short timeframe. This is problematic due to cardiovascular changes caused by manual restraint stress and anesthesia, and limited ECG sampling. These factors confound data interpretation, but may be overcome by using a non-invasive jacket-based ECG collection (JET). The current study investigated whether a jacketed external telemetry system could detect changes in cardiac intervals and heart rate in non-human primates (NHPs), previously implanted with a PCT transmitter. Twelve male cynomolgus monkeys were treated weekly with vehicle or sotalol (8, 16, 32 mg kg⁻¹) p.o. ECGs were collected continuously for 24 hours, following treatment, over 4 weeks. A satellite group of six NHPs was used for sotalol toxicokinetics. Sotalol attained Cmax values 1-3 hours after dosing, and exhibited dose-proportional exposure. In jacketed NHPs, sotalol dose-dependently increased QT/QTc intervals, prolonged PR interval, and reduced heart rate. Significant QTc prolongation of 27, 54 and 76 msec was detected by JET after 8, 16, and 32 mg kg⁻¹ sotalol, respectively, compared with time-matched vehicle-treated animals. Overall, JET-derived PR, QT, QTc intervals, QRS duration, and heart rate correlated well with those derived from PCT. The current findings clearly support the use of JET to quantify cardiac interval and rhythm changes, capable of detecting QTc prolongation caused by sotalol. JET may be a preferred method compared to restraint-based ECG because high-density ECG sampling can be collected in unstressed conscious monkeys, over several weeks. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Detection of QTc interval prolongation using jacket telemetry in conscious non-human primates: comparison with implanted telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Derakhchan, K; Chui, RW; Stevens, D; Gu, W; Vargas, HM

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: During repeat-dose toxicity studies, ECGs are collected from chemically or physically-restrained animals over a short timeframe. This is problematic due to cardiovascular changes caused by manual restraint stress and anesthesia, and limited ECG sampling. These factors confound data interpretation, but may be overcome by using a non-invasive jacket-based ECG collection (JET). The current study investigated whether a jacketed external telemetry system could detect changes in cardiac intervals and heart rate in non-human primates (NHPs), previously implanted with a PCT transmitter. Experimental Approach: Twelve male cynomolgus monkeys were treated weekly with vehicle or sotalol (8, 16, 32 mg kg−1) p.o. ECGs were collected continuously for 24 hours, following treatment, over 4 weeks. A satellite group of six NHPs was used for sotalol toxicokinetics. Key Results: Sotalol attained Cmax values 1–3 hours after dosing, and exhibited dose-proportional exposure. In jacketed NHPs, sotalol dose-dependently increased QT/QTc intervals, prolonged PR interval, and reduced heart rate. Significant QTc prolongation of 27, 54 and 76 msec was detected by JET after 8, 16, and 32 mg kg−1 sotalol, respectively, compared with time-matched vehicle-treated animals. Overall, JET-derived PR, QT, QTc intervals, QRS duration, and heart rate correlated well with those derived from PCT. Conclusions and Implications: The current findings clearly support the use of JET to quantify cardiac interval and rhythm changes, capable of detecting QTc prolongation caused by sotalol. JET may be a preferred method compared to restraint-based ECG because high-density ECG sampling can be collected in unstressed conscious monkeys, over several weeks. PMID:24372552

  18. A method to dynamically control unwanted loudness cues when measuring amplitude modulation detection in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Oba, Sandy; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-01-30

    Amplitude modulation (AM) detection is a measure of temporal processing that has been correlated with cochlear implant (CI) users' speech understanding. For CI users, AM stimuli have been shown to be louder than steady-state (non-AM) stimuli presented at the same reference current level, suggesting that unwanted loudness cues might contribute to CI users' AM sensitivity as measured in a modulation detection task. In this paper, a new method is introduced to dynamically control unwanted AM loudness cues when adaptively measuring modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) in CI users. MDTs were adaptively measured in 9 CI subjects using a three-alternative, forced-choice procedure, with and without dynamic control of unwanted AM loudness cues. To control for AM loudness cues during the MDT task, the level of the steady-state (non-AM) stimuli was increased to match the loudness of the AM stimulus using a non-linear amplitude scaling function, which was obtained by first loudness-balancing non-AM stimuli to AM stimuli at various modulation depths. To further protect against unwanted loudness cues, ±0.75dB of level roving was also applied to all stimuli during the MDT task. Absolute MDTs were generally poorer when unwanted AM loudness cues were controlled. However, the effects of modulation frequency and presentation level on modulation sensitivity were fundamentally unchanged by the availability of AM loudness cues. The data suggest that the present method controlling for unwanted AM loudness cues might better represent CI users' MDTs, without changing fundamental effects of modulation frequency and presentation level on CI users' modulation sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of Cracks in Aluminum Structure Beneath Inconel Repair Bushings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    conductivity (i.e. Inconel 718 ) – Primary challenge then becomes detecting the weak eddy current field in the structure beyond the bushing wall...was able to be selected with inspectability as a goal. – Inconel 718 • low permeability (~μ0) • low conductivity (< 2% IACS) • Combined with...Detection of Cracks in Aluminum Structure beneath Inconel Repair Bushings Mr. Kenneth J. LaCivita (USAF) AFRL/RXSA Air Force Research Laboratory

  20. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amisha T; Jankharia, Bijal B

    2016-01-01

    The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer.

  1. Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2.

    PubMed

    Poudel, P R; Paramo, J A; Poudel, P P; Diercks, D R; Strzhemechny, Y M; Rout, B; McDaniel, F D

    2012-03-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) nanoclusters were synthesized by the implantation of carbon ions (C-) into thermally grown silicon dioxide film (-500 nm thick) on a Si (100) wafer and processed by high temperature thermal annealing. The carbon ions were implanted with an energy of 70 keV at a fluence of 5 x 10(17) atoms/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 1100 degrees C for different time periods in a gas mixture of 96% Ar+4% H2. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were used to study the structural properties of both the as-implanted and annealed samples. HRTEM reveals the formation of nanostructures in the annealed samples. The Raman spectroscopy also confirms the formation of carbon nano-clusters in the samples annealed for 10 min, 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. No Raman features originating from the carbon-clusters are observed for the sample annealed further to 120 min, indicating a complete loss of implanted carbon from the SiO2 layer. The loss of the implanted carbon in the 120 min annealed sample from the SiO2 layer was also observed in the XPS depth profile measurements. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy revealed visible emissions from the samples pointing to carbon ion induced defects as the origin of a broad 2.0-2.4 eV band, and the intrinsic defects in SiO2 as the possible origin of the -2.9 eV bands. In low temperature photoluminescence spectra, two sharp and intense photoluminescence lines at -3.31 eV and -3.34 eV appear for the samples annealed for 90 min and 120 min, whereas no such bands are observed in the samples annealed for 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min. The Si nano-clusters forming at the Si-SiO2 interface could be the origin of these intense peaks.

  2. Geometrically structured implants for cranial reconstruction made of biodegradable polyesters and calcium phosphate/calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Carsten; Rasche, Christian; Wehmöller, Michael; Beckmann, Felix; Eufinger, Harald; Epple, Matthias; Weihe, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a processing pathway for manufacturing of biodegradable skull implants with individual geometry. The implants on the basis of polylactide and calcium phosphate/calcium carbonate were prepared by a combination of hot pressing and gas foaming. On the inside, the implant consists of a macroporous and faster degradable material (poly(D,L-lactide)+CaCO3) to allow the ingrowth of bone cells. The pore size is in the range of 200-400 microm. On the outside, the implant consists of a compact and slower biodegradable material (poly(L-lactide) and calcium phosphate) to ensure mechanical stability and protection. To overcome problems like inflammatory reactions caused by acidic degradation products of polylactide, the polyester was combined with basic filling materials (calcium salts). The filler neutralises the lactic acid produced during polymer degradation and increases the bioactivity of the material. The stabilised pH was demonstrated by long-term in vitro pH studies. Over a time period of 250 d in demineralised water, the pH was in the physiological range. The in vitro biocompatibility was shown by cell cultures with human osteoblasts. A good proliferation of the cells was observed over the whole test period of 4 weeks.

  3. Ion Implantation and Backscattering and Channeling Effect Measurements for Analysis of Semiconductor Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    periodic table but different behavior between adjacent elements. During anneal sequences, enhanced diffusion of the implanted species towards the surface was found. Backscattering and channeling effect measurements were directed toward determination of the depth distribution and lattice location of dopant species and toward evaluation of the composition of dielectric layers on semiconductors. Diffusion and alloying behavior were also investigated.

  4. On the Structure of Phoneme Categories in Listeners with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan; Denny, Margaret; Guenther, Frank H.; Hanson, Helen M.; Marrone, Nicole; Matthies, Melanie L.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stockmann, Ellen; Tiede, Mark; Vick, Jennell; Zandipour, Majid

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe cochlear implant users' phoneme labeling, discrimination, and prototypes for a vowel and a sibilant contrast, and to assess the effects of 1 year's experience with prosthetic hearing. Method: Based on naturally produced clear examples of "boot," "beet," "said," and "shed" by 1 male and 1 female speaker, continua with 13…

  5. On the Structure of Phoneme Categories in Listeners with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan; Denny, Margaret; Guenther, Frank H.; Hanson, Helen M.; Marrone, Nicole; Matthies, Melanie L.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stockmann, Ellen; Tiede, Mark; Vick, Jennell; Zandipour, Majid

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe cochlear implant users' phoneme labeling, discrimination, and prototypes for a vowel and a sibilant contrast, and to assess the effects of 1 year's experience with prosthetic hearing. Method: Based on naturally produced clear examples of "boot," "beet," "said," and "shed" by 1 male and 1 female speaker, continua with 13…

  6. Nanoscale electro-structural characterisation of ohmic contacts formed on p-type implanted 4H-SiC.

    PubMed

    Frazzetto, Alessia; Giannazzo, Filippo; Lo Nigro, Raffaella; Di Franco, Salvatore; Bongiorno, Corrado; Saggio, Mario; Zanetti, Edoardo; Raineri, Vito; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2011-02-21

    This work reports a nanoscale electro-structural characterisation of Ti/Al ohmic contacts formed on p-type Al-implanted silicon carbide (4H-SiC). The morphological and the electrical properties of the Al-implanted layer, annealed at 1700°C with or without a protective capping layer, and of the ohmic contacts were studied using atomic force microscopy [AFM], transmission line model measurements and local current measurements performed with conductive AFM.The characteristics of the contacts were significantly affected by the roughness of the underlying SiC. In particular, the surface roughness of the Al-implanted SiC regions annealed at 1700°C could be strongly reduced using a protective carbon capping layer during annealing. This latter resulted in an improved surface morphology and specific contact resistance of the Ti/Al ohmic contacts formed on these regions. The microstructure of the contacts was monitored by X-ray diffraction analysis and a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and correlated with the electrical results.

  7. Nanoscale electro-structural characterisation of ohmic contacts formed on p-type implanted 4H-SiC

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This work reports a nanoscale electro-structural characterisation of Ti/Al ohmic contacts formed on p-type Al-implanted silicon carbide (4H-SiC). The morphological and the electrical properties of the Al-implanted layer, annealed at 1700°C with or without a protective capping layer, and of the ohmic contacts were studied using atomic force microscopy [AFM], transmission line model measurements and local current measurements performed with conductive AFM. The characteristics of the contacts were significantly affected by the roughness of the underlying SiC. In particular, the surface roughness of the Al-implanted SiC regions annealed at 1700°C could be strongly reduced using a protective carbon capping layer during annealing. This latter resulted in an improved surface morphology and specific contact resistance of the Ti/Al ohmic contacts formed on these regions. The microstructure of the contacts was monitored by X-ray diffraction analysis and a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and correlated with the electrical results. PMID:21711667

  8. Capacitance-based damage detection sensing for aerospace structural composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, P.; Yamamoto, N.; Chen, Y.; Manohara, H.

    2014-04-01

    Damage detection technology needs improvement for aerospace engineering application because detection within complex composite structures is difficult yet critical to avoid catastrophic failure. Damage detection is challenging in aerospace structures because not all the damage detection technology can cover the various defect types (delamination, fiber fracture, matrix crack etc.), or conditions (visibility, crack length size, etc.). These defect states are expected to become even more complex with future introduction of novel composites including nano-/microparticle reinforcement. Currently, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods with X-ray, ultrasound, or eddy current have good resolutions (< 0.1 mm), but their detection capabilities is limited by defect locations and orientations and require massive inspection devices. System health monitoring (SHM) methods are often paired with NDE technologies to signal out sensed damage, but their data collection and analysis currently requires excessive wiring and complex signal analysis. Here, we present a capacitance sensor-based, structural defect detection technology with improved sensing capability. Thin dielectric polymer layer is integrated as part of the structure; the defect in the structure directly alters the sensing layer's capacitance, allowing full-coverage sensing capability independent of defect size, orientation or location. In this work, capacitance-based sensing capability was experimentally demonstrated with a 2D sensing layer consisting of a dielectric layer sandwiched by electrodes. These sensing layers were applied on substrate surfaces. Surface indentation damage (~1mm diameter) and its location were detected through measured capacitance changes: 1 to 250 % depending on the substrates. The damage detection sensors are light weight, and they can be conformably coated and can be part of the composite structure. Therefore it is suitable for aerospace structures such as cryogenic tanks and rocket

  9. Leveraging disjoint communities for detecting overlapping community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy

    2015-05-01

    Network communities represent mesoscopic structure for understanding the organization of real-world networks, where nodes often belong to multiple communities and form overlapping community structure in the network. Due to non-triviality in finding the exact boundary of such overlapping communities, this problem has become challenging, and therefore huge effort has been devoted to detect overlapping communities from the network. In this paper, we present PVOC (Permanence based Vertex-replication algorithm for Overlapping Community detection), a two-stage framework to detect overlapping community structure. We build on a novel observation that non-overlapping community structure detected by a standard disjoint community detection algorithm from a network has high resemblance with its actual overlapping community structure, except the overlapping part. Based on this observation, we posit that there is perhaps no need of building yet another overlapping community finding algorithm; but one can efficiently manipulate the output of any existing disjoint community finding algorithm to obtain the required overlapping structure. We propose a new post-processing technique that by combining with any existing disjoint community detection algorithm, can suitably process each vertex using a new vertex-based metric, called permanence, and thereby finds out overlapping candidates with their community memberships. Experimental results on both synthetic and large real-world networks show that PVOC significantly outperforms six state-of-the-art overlapping community detection algorithms in terms of high similarity of the output with the ground-truth structure. Thus our framework not only finds meaningful overlapping communities from the network, but also allows us to put an end to the constant effort of building yet another overlapping community detection algorithm.

  10. The Effect of Study Design Biases on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Silicone Breast Implant Ruptures: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae W.; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Bellfi, Lillian T.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Background All silicone breast implant recipients are recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration to undergo serial screening to detect implant rupture with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the quality of diagnostic accuracy studies utilizing MRI or ultrasound to detect silicone breast implant rupture and conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effect of study design biases on the estimation of MRI diagnostic accuracy measures. Method Studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and ultrasound in evaluating ruptured silicone breast implants were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases. Two reviewers independently screened potential studies for inclusion and extracted data. Study design biases were assessed using the QUADAS tool and the STARDS checklist. Meta-analyses estimated the influence of biases on diagnostic odds ratios. Results Among 1175 identified articles, 21 met the inclusion criteria. Most studies using MRI (n= 10 of 16) and ultrasound (n=10 of 13) examined symptomatic subjects. Meta-analyses revealed that MRI studies evaluating symptomatic subjects had 14-fold higher diagnostic accuracy estimates compared to studies using an asymptomatic sample (RDOR 13.8; 95% CI 1.83–104.6) and 2-fold higher diagnostic accuracy estimates compared to studies using a screening sample (RDOR 1.89; 95% CI 0.05–75.7). Conclusion Many of the published studies utilizing MRI or ultrasound to detect silicone breast implant rupture are flawed with methodological biases. These methodological shortcomings may result in overestimated MRI diagnostic accuracy measures and should be interpreted with caution when applying the data to a screening population. PMID:21364405

  11. Influence of 400 keV carbon ion implantation on structural, optical and electrical properties of PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Shafaq; Rafique, M. Shahid; Saleemi, Farhat; Sagheer, Riffat; Naab, Fabian; Toader, Ovidiu; Mahmood, Arshad; Rashid, Rashad; Mahmood, Mazhar

    2015-09-01

    Ion implantation is a useful technique to modify surface properties of polymers without altering their bulk properties. The objective of this work is to explore the 400 keV C+ ion implantation effects on PMMA at different fluences ranging from 5 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The surface topographical examination of irradiated samples has been performed using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The structural and chemical modifications in implanted PMMA are examined by Raman and Fourier Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) respectively. The effects of carbon ion implantation on optical properties of PMMA are investigated by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The modifications in electrical conductivity have been measured using a four point probe technique. AFM images reveal a decrease in surface roughness of PMMA with an increase in ion fluence from 5 × 1014 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The existence of amorphization and sp2-carbon clusterization has been confirmed by Raman and FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The UV-Visible data shows a prominent red shift in absorption edge as a function of ion fluence. This shift displays a continuous reduction in optical band gap (from 3.13 to 0.66 eV) due to formation of carbon clusters. Moreover, size of carbon clusters and photoconductivity are found to increase with increasing ion fluence. The ion-induced carbonaceous clusters are believed to be responsible for an increase in electrical conductivity of PMMA from (2.14 ± 0.06) × 10-10 (Ω-cm)-1 (pristine) to (0.32 ± 0.01) × 10-5 (Ω-cm)-1 (irradiated sample).

  12. The effect of presentation level and stimulation rate on speech perception and modulation detection for cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Brochier, Tim; McDermott, Hugh J; McKay, Colette M

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve speech understanding for cochlear implant users, it is important to maximize the transmission of temporal information. The combined effects of stimulation rate and presentation level on temporal information transfer and speech understanding remain unclear. The present study systematically varied presentation level (60, 50, and 40 dBA) and stimulation rate [500 and 2400 pulses per second per electrode (pps)] in order to observe how the effect of rate on speech understanding changes for different presentation levels. Speech recognition in quiet and noise, and acoustic amplitude modulation detection thresholds (AMDTs) were measured with acoustic stimuli presented to speech processors via direct audio input (DAI). With the 500 pps processor, results showed significantly better performance for consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant words in quiet, and a reduced effect of noise on sentence recognition. However, no rate or level effect was found for AMDTs, perhaps partly because of amplitude compression in the sound processor. AMDTs were found to be strongly correlated with the effect of noise on sentence perception at low levels. These results indicate that AMDTs, at least when measured with the CP910 Freedom speech processor via DAI, explain between-subject variance of speech understanding, but do not explain within-subject variance for different rates and levels.

  13. Graph spectra and the detectability of community structure in networks.

    PubMed

    Nadakuditi, Raj Rao; Newman, M E J

    2012-05-04

    We study networks that display community structure--groups of nodes within which connections are unusually dense. Using methods from random matrix theory, we calculate the spectra of such networks in the limit of large size, and hence demonstrate the presence of a phase transition in matrix methods for community detection, such as the popular modularity maximization method. The transition separates a regime in which such methods successfully detect the community structure from one in which the structure is present but is not detected. By comparing these results with recent analyses of maximum-likelihood methods, we are able to show that spectral modularity maximization is an optimal detection method in the sense that no other method will succeed in the regime where the modularity method fails.

  14. Detection of karst structures using airborne EM and VLF

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P. Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Through the combined use of multi-frequency helicopter electromagnetic and VLF data, it is possible to detect and delineate a wide variety of karst structures and possibly to assess their interconnectedness. Multi-frequency EM Can detect karst features if some element of the structure is conductive. This conductive aspect may derive from thick, moist soils in the depression commonly associated with a doline, from conductive fluids in the cavity, or from conductive sediments in the cavity if these occupy a significant portion of it. Multiple loop configurations may also increase the likelihood of detecting karst features. Preliminary evidence indicates total field VLF measurements may be able to detect interconnected karst pathways, so long as the pathways are water or sediment filled. Neither technique can effectively detect dry, resistive air-filled cavities.

  15. Efficacy and Limitations of Tachycardia Detection Interval Guided Reprogramming for Reduction of Inappropriate Shock in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Patients.

    PubMed

    Fujiishi, Tamami; Niwano, Shinichi; Murakami, Masami; Nakamura, Hironori; Igarashi, Tazuru; Ishizue, Naruya; Oikawa, Jun; Kishihara, Jun; Fukaya, Hidehira; Niwano, Hiroe; Ako, Junya

    2016-05-25

    The avoidance of inappropriate shock therapy is an important clinical issue in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients. We retrospectively analyzed therapeutic events in ICD patients, and the effect of tachycardia detection interval (TDI) and tachycardia cycle length (TCL) guided reprograming on the reduction of inappropriate ICD therapy. The clinical determinants of after reprogramming were also evaluated.A total of 254 consecutive ICD patients were included in the study, and the incidence of antitachycardia therapy was evaluated during the follow-up period of 27.3 ± 18.7 months. When inappropriate antitachycardia therapy appeared, TDI was reprogrammed not to exceed the detected TCL and the patients continued to be followed-up. Various clinical parameters were compared between patients with and without inappropriate ICD therapy. During the initial follow-up period of 18.6 ± 15.6 months, ICD therapy occurred in 127/254 patients (50%) including inappropriate antitachycardia pacing (ATP) (12.9%) and shock (44.35%). Determinants of initial inappropriate therapy were dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), history of therapeutic hypothermia, and QRS duration. Of the 61 patients with inappropriate therapy, 24 received TCL guided reprogramming. During the additional observation period of 17.0 ± 16.8 months, inappropriate therapy recurred in 5/24 patients (2 ATP, 3 shocks). The determinant of these inappropriate therapy events after reprogramming was the presence of supraventricular tachycardia.By applying simple TCL and TDI guided reprogramming, inappropriate therapy was reduced by 79%. The determinant of inappropriate therapy after reprogramming was the presence of supraventricular tachycardia.

  16. Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry

    This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…

  17. Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry

    This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…

  18. Etching and structure transformations in uncured epoxy resin under rf-plasma and plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Bilek, Marcela

    2010-05-01

    Uncured epoxy resin was spun onto silicon wafer and treated by plasma and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) by argon ions with energy up to 20 keV. Ellipsometry, FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy methods were used for analysis. The etching, carbonization, oxidation and crosslinking effects were observed. The curing reactions in modified epoxy resin are observed without a hardening agent. A model of structural transformations in epoxy resin under plasma and ion beam irradiation is proposed and discussed in relation to processes in a space environment.

  19. Effect of Piezoelectric Implant on the Structural Integrity of Composite Laminates Subjected to Tensile Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masmoudi, Sahir; El Mahi, Abderrahim; Turki, Saïd

    2016-07-01

    The embedment of sensors within composite structures gives the opportunity to develop smart materials for health and usage monitoring systems. This study investigates the use of acoustic emission monitoring with embedded piezoelectric sensor during mechanical tests in order to identify the effects of introducing the sensor into the composite materials. The composite specimen with and without embedded sensor were subject to tensile static and fatigue loading. The analysis and observation of AE signals show that the integration of a sensor presents advantage of the detection of the acoustic events and also show the presence of three or four types of damage during tests. The incorporation of piezoelectric sensor has a negligible influence on the mechanical properties of materials.

  20. Effect of Piezoelectric Implant on the Structural Integrity of Composite Laminates Subjected to Tensile Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masmoudi, Sahir; El Mahi, Abderrahim; Turki, Saïd

    2017-02-01

    The embedment of sensors within composite structures gives the opportunity to develop smart materials for health and usage monitoring systems. This study investigates the use of acoustic emission monitoring with embedded piezoelectric sensor during mechanical tests in order to identify the effects of introducing the sensor into the composite materials. The composite specimen with and without embedded sensor were subject to tensile static and fatigue loading. The analysis and observation of AE signals show that the integration of a sensor presents advantage of the detection of the acoustic events and also show the presence of three or four types of damage during tests. The incorporation of piezoelectric sensor has a negligible influence on the mechanical properties of materials.

  1. Characterization of interfaces of metal/amorphized (by implantation) Si/c-Si structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golan, A.; Fastow, R.; Eizenberg, M.

    1990-02-01

    The electrical properties of metal/implanted (amorphous) Si contacts were studied, emphasizing the effects of the doping level, of the metal type, and of the heat treatments applied prior to the metal deposition. The implantation was carried out using 60-keV Ar+ ions at a dose of 1016 cm-2, and resulted in the formation of a thin (1000-Å-thick) amorphous layer on top of the crystalline substrate. The doping level of the implanted Si affected the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the contacts mainly in the reverse bias (low doping-low currents), while the forward bias characteristics were quite independent of this parameter. The device characteristics were very sensitive to the metal type, Al, Ti-W, or Pt. Thermal treatments applied prior to the metal deposition affected the characteristics by lowering the device resistance in correspondence with the thinning of the amorphous layer as a result of epitaxial regrowth. The I-V characteristics, as well as their dependence on the different process parameters, are explained using a model of charge injection into a thin layer of trap rich amorphous Si bounded by a metal/a-Si interface on one side and by an a-Si/c-Si heterojunction on the other side.

  2. Morphometric and mechanical evaluation of titanium implant integration: comparison of five surface structures.

    PubMed

    Svehla, M; Morberg, P; Zicat, B; Bruce, W; Sonnabend, D; Walsh, W R

    2000-07-01

    Achieving a stable bone-implant interface is an important factor in the long-term outcome of joint arthroplasty. In this study, we employed an ovine bicortical model to compare the bone-healing response to five different surfaces on titanium alloy implants: grit blasted (GB), grit blasted plus hydroxyapatite (50 microm thick) coating (GBHA), Porocoat(R) (PC), Porocoat(R) with HA (PCHA) and smooth (S). Push-out testing, histology, and backscatter scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging were employed to assess the healing response at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Push-out testing revealed PC and PCHA surfaces resulted in significantly greater mechanical fixation over all other implant types at all time points (p <.05). HA coating on the grit-blasted surface significantly improved fixation at 8 and 12 weeks (p <.05). The addition of HA onto the porous coating did not significantly improve fixation in this model. Quantification of ingrowth/ongrowth from SEM images revealed that HA coating of the grit-blasted surfaces resulted in significantly more ongrowth at 4 weeks (p <.05).

  3. Statistical method for detecting structural change in the growth process.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimoto, Atsushi

    2008-03-01

    Due to competition among individual trees and other exogenous factors that change the growth environment, each tree grows following its own growth trend with some structural changes in growth over time. In the present article, a new method is proposed to detect a structural change in the growth process. We formulate the method as a simple statistical test for signal detection without constructing any specific model for the structural change. To evaluate the p-value of the test, the tube method is developed because the regular distribution theory is insufficient. Using two sets of tree diameter growth data sampled from planted forest stands of Cryptomeria japonica in Japan, we conduct an analysis of identifying the effect of thinning on the growth process as a structural change. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is useful to identify the structural change caused by thinning. We also provide the properties of the method in terms of the size and power of the test.

  4. Penile Implants

    MedlinePlus

    Penile Implants Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Penile implants are devices placed inside the penis to allow men with erectile dysfunction (ED) to get an erection. Penile implants are typically recommended after other treatments for ED ...

  5. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Jason A

    2017-10-01

    Systematic reviews of literature over the period between 2008 and 2017 are discussed regarding clinical evidence for the factors affecting survival and failure of dental implants. The factors addressed include publication bias, tooth location, insertion torque, collar design, implant-abutment connection design, implant length, implant width, bone augmentation, platform switching, surface roughness, implant coatings, and the use of ceramic materials in the implant body and abutment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias detected by an implantable loop recorder in a child with exercise-induced syncope.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Celal; Ozyilmaz, Isa; Saygi, Murat; Ergul, Yakup; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2013-01-01

    Syncope is common in the general population. Despite extensive evaluation, including tilt-table testing and electrophysiologic studies, approximately 30% of cases of recurrent syncope remain unexplained. An implantable loop recorder can be used for diagnosis when recurrent syncope has an idiopathic cause. We present the case of a 9-year-old boy who had a history of recurrent, exercise-induced syncope. Results of physical examination and noninvasive diagnostic testing were inconclusive, and an electrophysiologic study revealed no inducible supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias. Sixteen months after an implantable loop recorder was placed, the patient had a syncopal episode while swimming in a pool. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed, and data from the loop recorder revealed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. A cardioverter-defibrillator was subsequently implanted. Implantable loop recorders can play an important role in the diagnosis of life-threatening arrhythmias in children whose syncope is otherwise unexplained.

  7. Superior Rhythm Discrimination With the SmartShock Technology Algorithm - Results of the Implantable Defibrillator With Enhanced Features and Settings for Reduction of Inaccurate Detection (DEFENSE) Trial.

    PubMed

    Oginosawa, Yasushi; Kohno, Ritsuko; Honda, Toshihiro; Kikuchi, Kan; Nozoe, Masatsugu; Uchida, Takayuki; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Sonoda, Koichiro; Ogawa, Masahiro; Ideguchi, Takeshi; Kizaki, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Oba, Kageyuki; Higa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Keiki; Tsunoda, Soichi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Abe, Haruhiko

    2017-08-25

    Shocks delivered by implanted anti-tachyarrhythmia devices, even when appropriate, lower the quality of life and survival. The new SmartShock Technology(®)(SST) discrimination algorithm was developed to prevent the delivery of inappropriate shock. This prospective, multicenter, observational study compared the rate of inaccurate detection of ventricular tachyarrhythmia using the SST vs. a conventional discrimination algorithm.Methods and Results:Recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D) equipped with the SST algorithm were enrolled and followed up every 6 months. The tachycardia detection rate was set at ≥150 beats/min with the SST algorithm. The primary endpoint was the time to first inaccurate detection of ventricular tachycardia (VT) with conventional vs. the SST discrimination algorithm, up to 2 years of follow-up. Between March 2012 and September 2013, 185 patients (mean age, 64.0±14.9 years; men, 74%; secondary prevention indication, 49.5%) were enrolled at 14 Japanese medical centers. Inaccurate detection was observed in 32 patients (17.6%) with the conventional, vs. in 19 patients (10.4%) with the SST algorithm. SST significantly lowered the rate of inaccurate detection by dual chamber devices (HR, 0.50; 95% CI: 0.263-0.950; P=0.034). Compared with previous algorithms, the SST discrimination algorithm significantly lowered the rate of inaccurate detection of VT in recipients of dual-chamber ICD or CRT-D.

  8. Detection of lobular structures in normal breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Apou, Grégory; Schaadt, Nadine S; Naegel, Benoît; Forestier, Germain; Schönmeyer, Ralf; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Wemmert, Cédric; Grote, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Ongoing research into inflammatory conditions raises an increasing need to evaluate immune cells in histological sections in biologically relevant regions of interest (ROIs). Herein, we compare different approaches to automatically detect lobular structures in human normal breast tissue in digitized whole slide images (WSIs). This automation is required to perform objective and consistent quantitative studies on large data sets. In normal breast tissue from nine healthy patients immunohistochemically stained for different markers, we evaluated and compared three different image analysis methods to automatically detect lobular structures in WSIs: (1) a bottom-up approach using the cell-based data for subsequent tissue level classification, (2) a top-down method starting with texture classification at tissue level analysis of cell densities in specific ROIs, and (3) a direct texture classification using deep learning technology. All three methods result in comparable overall quality allowing automated detection of lobular structures with minor advantage in sensitivity (approach 3), specificity (approach 2), or processing time (approach 1). Combining the outputs of the approaches further improved the precision. Different approaches of automated ROI detection are feasible and should be selected according to the individual needs of biomarker research. Additionally, detected ROIs could be used as a basis for quantification of immune infiltration in lobular structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Postnatal width changes in the internal structures of the human mandible: a longitudinal three-dimensional cephalometric study using implants.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents case-specific quantitative evidence of the systematic lateral displacement of metallic implants in the mandibles of treated and untreated human subjects between the ages of 8.5 and 15.5 years. This evidence appears to be consistent with the inference of small, but systematic increases in distance between the internal structures of the two sides of the osseous mandible during growth. Such a conclusion, however, is inconsistent with traditional beliefs that the internal structures of the mandibular symphysis fuse at the midline during the first post-natal year and remain dimensionally constant thereafter. We recently published evidence of statistically significant transverse displacement of metallic implants in the mandibular body region for 12 of 28 subjects for whom longitudinal data were available. Of the twelve subjects for whom statistically significant changes were observed, widening occurred in eleven cases and narrowing in one. Matching data are now available on concurrent ramus changes for 22 of the same 28 subjects, including 11 of the 12 for whom statistically significant width changes had previously been noted in the body region. In eight of these 11 subjects, statistically significant widening in the ramus region was also observed. No subject had statistically significant widening in the ramus region without also having statistically significant widening in the body region. No subject had statistically significant trans-ramus narrowing.

  10. Multilayer perceptron in damage detection of bridge structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P. C.; Barai, S. V.

    1995-02-01

    Recent developments in artificial neural networks (ANN) have opened up new possibilities in the domain of structural engineering. For inverse problems like structural identification of large civil engineerlng structures such as bridges and buildings where the in situ measured data are expected to be imprecise and often incomplete, the ANN holds greater promise. The detection of structural damage and identification of damaged element in a large complex structure is a challenging task indeed. This paper presents an application of multilayer perceptron in the damage detection of steel bridge structures. The ssues relating to the design of network and learning paradigm are addressed and network architectures have been developed with reference to trussed bridge structures. The training patterns are generated for multiple damaged zones in a structure and performance of the networks with one and two hidden layers are examined. It has been observed that the performance of the network with two hidden layers was better than that of a single-layer architecture in general. The engineering importance of the whole exercise is demonstrated from the fact that measured input at only a few locations in the structure is needed in the identification process using the ANN.

  11. Effects of structural defects on the activation of sulfur donors in GaN xAs 1- x formed by N implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, J.; Yu, K. M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Washburn, J.

    2001-12-01

    The effects of structural defects on the electrical activity of S-doped GaN xAs 1- x layers formed by S and N co-implantation in GaAs are reported. S and N ions were implanted to the depth of about 0.4 μm. Electrochemical capacitance voltage measurements on samples annealed at 945°C for 10 s show that in a thin (<0.1 μm) surface layer the concentration of active shallow donors is almost an order of magnitude larger in S and N co-implanted samples than in samples implanted with S alone. The activation efficiency of S donors also shows a broad minimum at a depth of about 0.2 μm below the surface. The results of these electrical measurements are correlated with the distribution of structural defects revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs show that in addition to a band of dislocation loops commonly found in ion implanted GaAs, an additional band of small voids is observed in samples co-implanted with S and N. The location of this band correlates well with the region of reduced electrical activation of S donors, suggesting that the formation of the voids through N accumulation results in a lower concentration of “active”, substitutional N atoms.

  12. Language structures used by kindergartners with cochlear implants: relationship to phonological awareness, lexical knowledge and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Nittrouer, Susan; Sansom, Emily; Low, Keri; Rice, Caitlin; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Listeners use their knowledge of how language is structured to aid speech recognition in everyday communication. When it comes to children with congenital hearing loss severe enough to warrant cochlear implants (CIs), the question arises of whether these children can acquire the language knowledge needed to aid speech recognition, in spite of only having spectrally degraded signals available to them. That question was addressed in the present study. Specifically, there were three goals: (1) to compare the language structures used by children with CIs to those of children with normal hearing (NH); (2) to assess the amount of variance in the language measures explained by phonological awareness and lexical knowledge; and (3) to assess the amount of variance in the language measures explained by factors related to the hearing loss itself and subsequent treatment. Language samples were obtained and transcribed for 40 children who had just completed kindergarten: 19 with NH and 21 with CIs. Five measures were derived from Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts: (1) mean length of utterance in morphemes, (2) number of conjunctions, excluding and, (3) number of personal pronouns, (4) number of bound morphemes, and (5) number of different words. Measures were also collected on phonological awareness and lexical knowledge. Statistics examined group differences, as well as the amount of variance in the language measures explained by phonological awareness, lexical knowledge, and factors related to hearing loss and its treatment for children with CIs. Mean scores of children with CIs were roughly one standard deviation below those of children with NH on all language measures, including lexical knowledge, matching outcomes of other studies. Mean scores of children with CIs were closer to two standard deviations below those of children with NH on two out of three measures of phonological awareness (specifically those related to phonemic structure). Lexical knowledge

  13. Use of prefabricated titanium abutments and customized anatomic lithium disilicate structures for cement-retained implant restorations in the esthetic zone.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Harris, Bryan T; Zandinejad, Amirali; Martin, William C; Morton, Dean

    2014-03-01

    This report describes the fabrication of customized abutments consisting of prefabricated 2-piece titanium abutments and customized anatomic lithium disilicate structures for cement-retained implant restorations in the esthetic zone. The heat-pressed lithium disilicate provides esthetic customized anatomic structures and crowns independently of the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing process.

  14. The Effect of Automatic Gain Control Structure and Release Time on Cochlear Implant Speech Intelligibility

    PubMed Central

    Khing, Phyu P.; Swanson, Brett A.; Ambikairajah, Eliathamby

    2013-01-01

    Nucleus cochlear implant systems incorporate a fast-acting front-end automatic gain control (AGC), sometimes called a compression limiter. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of replacing the front-end compression limiter with a newly proposed envelope profile limiter. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of AGC speed on cochlear implant speech intelligibility. The envelope profile limiter was located after the filter bank and reduced the gain when the largest of the filter bank envelopes exceeded the compression threshold. The compression threshold was set equal to the saturation level of the loudness growth function (i.e. the envelope level that mapped to the maximum comfortable current level), ensuring that no envelope clipping occurred. To preserve the spectral profile, the same gain was applied to all channels. Experiment 1 compared sentence recognition with the front-end limiter and with the envelope profile limiter, each with two release times (75 and 625 ms). Six implant recipients were tested in quiet and in four-talker babble noise, at a high presentation level of 89 dB SPL. Overall, release time had a larger effect than the AGC type. With both AGC types, speech intelligibility was lower for the 75 ms release time than for the 625 ms release time. With the shorter release time, the envelope profile limiter provided higher group mean scores than the front-end limiter in quiet, but there was no significant difference in noise. Experiment 2 measured sentence recognition in noise as a function of presentation level, from 55 to 89 dB SPL. The envelope profile limiter with 625 ms release time yielded better scores than the front-end limiter with 75 ms release time. A take-home study showed no clear pattern of preferences. It is concluded that the envelope profile limiter is a feasible alternative to a front-end compression limiter. PMID:24312408

  15. Automatic detection of contrast injection on fluoroscopy and angiography for image guided trans-catheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Rui; You, Wei; Yan, Michelle; John, Matthias

    2011-03-01

    Presentation of detailed anatomical structures via 3-D models helps navigation and deployment of the prosthetic valve in TAVI procedures. Fast and automatic contrast detection in the aortic root on X-ray images facilitates a seamless workflow to utilize the 3-D models by triggering 2-D/3-D registration automatically when motion compensation is needed. In this paper, we propose a novel method for automatic detection of contrast injection in the aortic root on fluoroscopic and angiographic sequences. The proposed method is based on histogram analysis and likelihood ratio test, and is robust to variations in the background, the density and volume of the injected contrast, and the size of the aorta. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on 26 sequences from 5 patients and 3 clinical sites, with 16 out of 17 contrast injections correctly detected and zero false detections. The proposed method is of general form and can be extended for detection of contrast injection in other organs and/or applications.

  16. A damage detection technique for reinforced concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ai-Lun; Yang, Jann N.; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2012-04-01

    Civil engineering structures, such as reinforced concrete frames, exhibit nonlinear hysteretic behavior when subject to dynamic loads, such as earthquakes. The ability to detect damages in structures after a major earthquake will ensure their reliability and safety. Innovative analysis techniques for damage detection of structures have been extensively studied recently. However, practical and effective damage identification techniques remain to be developed for nonlinear structures, in particular hysteretic reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In this paper, a smooth hysteretic model with stiffness and strength degradations and with the pinching effect is used to represent the dynamic characteristics of reinforced concrete (RC) frames. A system identification method capable of detecting damages in nonlinear structures, referred to as the adaptive quadratic sum-square error with unknown inputs (AQSSE-UI), is used to detect damages in hysteretic RC frames. The performance of the AQSSE-UI technique is demonstrated by the experimental data. A 1/3 scale 2-story RC frame has been tested experimentally on the shake table at NCREE, Taiwan. This 2-story RC frame was subject to different levels of ground excitations back to back. The RC frame is firstly considered as a linear model with rotational springs and the tracking of the degradation of the stiffness parameters is carried out using the AQSSE-UI technique. Then the same RC frame is considered as a nonlinear structure with plastic hinges following a smooth hysteretic model. Experimental results show that the AQSSE-UI technique is quite effective for tracking of : (i) the stiffness degradation of linear structures, and (ii) the non-linear hysteretic parameters with stiffness and strength degradations.

  17. Rapid detection and quantification of impact damage in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that a multidisciplinary nondestructive evaluation approach for impact damage detection in composite structures can be used to produce a more efficient inspection. The multidisciplinary NDE approach relies on fast large area thermographic inspections along with detailed ultrasonic volumetric imaging. The thermal inspection technique rapidly identifies the impact damage. The ultrasonic volumetric imaging quantifies the impact generated delaminations through the volume of the structure.

  18. Rapid detection and quantification of impact damage in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Farley, Gary; Smith, Barry T.

    1991-01-01

    NDE results from thermographic and volumetric ultrasonic techniques are presented to illustrate the multidisciplinary NDE approach to impact-damage detection in such composite structures as are increasingly prevalent in helicopters. Attention is given to both flat-panel and 'y-stiffened' panel specimens; these were fabricated either with kevlar or carbon fiber through-the-thickness reinforcements. While thermal inspection identifies impact damage, volumetric imaging quantifies the impact-generated delaminations through the volume of the structure.

  19. Structural impact detection with vibro-haptic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hwee-Kwon; Park, Gyuhae; Todd, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new sensing paradigm for structural impact detection using vibro-haptic interfaces. The goal of this study is to allow humans to ‘feel’ structural responses (impact, shape changes, and damage) and eventually determine health conditions of a structure. The target applications for this study are aerospace structures, in particular, airplane wings. Both hardware and software components are developed to realize the vibro-haptic-based impact detection system. First, L-shape piezoelectric sensor arrays are deployed to measure the acoustic emission data generated by impacts on a wing. Unique haptic signals are then generated by processing the measured acoustic emission data. These haptic signals are wirelessly transmitted to human arms, and with vibro-haptic interface, human pilots could identify impact location, intensity and possibility of subsequent damage initiation. With the haptic interface, the experimental results demonstrate that human could correctly identify such events, while reducing false indications on structural conditions by capitalizing on human’s classification capability. Several important aspects of this study, including development of haptic interfaces, design of optimal human training strategies, and extension of the haptic capability into structural impact detection are summarized in this paper.

  20. Plastic optical fibre sensor for damage detection in offshore structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, K. S. C.; Koh, C. G.

    2010-03-01

    It is important to ensure the safe and reliable use of massive engineering structures such as offshore platforms, including all aspects of safety and design code compliance. Although routine inspection is an integral part of the safety protocol in operating and maintaining these structures, regular assessment of the effectiveness and efficiency of existing safety evaluation methods is clearly desired in view of emerging technologies for structural health monitoring of engineering structures. The recent advancement in plastic optical fibre (POF) materials and processing render POF sensors an attractive alternative to glass-based optical fibre sensors as they offer much greater being flexibility, high resistance to fracture and hence the ease in their handling and installation. In this paper, some preliminary results demonstrating the use of plastic optical fibre sensors for damage detection and structural health monitoring for offshore and marine-related applications will be summarized. In this study, POF will be used for crack detection in tubular steel specimens in conjunction with a high-resolution photon-counting optical time-domain reflectrometry (v-OTDR). Although the use of OTDR technique is an established method in the telecommunication industry, this study is new in that it is now possible, with the availability of v-OTDR and graded-index perfluorinated POF, to detect and locate the crack position in the host structure to within 10 cm accuracy or better. It will also be shown that this technique could readily be configured to monitor crack growth in steel tubular members.

  1. Plastic optical fibre sensor for damage detection in offshore structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, K. S. C.; Koh, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    It is important to ensure the safe and reliable use of massive engineering structures such as offshore platforms, including all aspects of safety and design code compliance. Although routine inspection is an integral part of the safety protocol in operating and maintaining these structures, regular assessment of the effectiveness and efficiency of existing safety evaluation methods is clearly desired in view of emerging technologies for structural health monitoring of engineering structures. The recent advancement in plastic optical fibre (POF) materials and processing render POF sensors an attractive alternative to glass-based optical fibre sensors as they offer much greater being flexibility, high resistance to fracture and hence the ease in their handling and installation. In this paper, some preliminary results demonstrating the use of plastic optical fibre sensors for damage detection and structural health monitoring for offshore and marine-related applications will be summarized. In this study, POF will be used for crack detection in tubular steel specimens in conjunction with a high-resolution photon-counting optical time-domain reflectrometry (v-OTDR). Although the use of OTDR technique is an established method in the telecommunication industry, this study is new in that it is now possible, with the availability of v-OTDR and graded-index perfluorinated POF, to detect and locate the crack position in the host structure to within 10 cm accuracy or better. It will also be shown that this technique could readily be configured to monitor crack growth in steel tubular members.

  2. Detection of Wavelike Structures in Saturn's Cassini Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, L. J.; Showalter, M. R.

    1996-09-01

    Several features with wavelike characteristics were detected in the Voyager Radio Science (RSS) earth occultation data of Saturn's Cassini Division. We identified these structures using a non-linear autoregressive power spectral algorithm called Burg. This method is powerful for detecting short sections of quasiperiodic structure. We successfully used this same technique to identify six previously unseen Pan wakes in the Voyager photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data and the Voyager RSS occultation data (Horn, Showalter and Russell, Icarus, in press). When we apply the Burg technique to the RSS data we find many wavelike structures in the Cassini Division. We see three distinct features that look like moonlet wakes. Two are Cassini Division features detected by Marouf and Tyler (1986, Nature 323, 120) in the Voyager RSS data. Flynn and Cuzzi (1989, Icarus 82, 180) determined that these features were azimuthally symmetric in the Voyager images and were most likely not satellite wakes. The third wavelike structure resembles an outer satellite wake. If it is a wake, it corresponds to a previously undetected moonlet 84 degrees away which resides in a Cassini Division gap located between 118,929 km and 118,966 km. Several other wavelike structures in the Cassini Division are reminiscent of satellite wakes. We plan to pursue these structures further in the future. We will also look at the Voyager PPS data as well although this data set is somewhat noisier in the Cassini Division. This work was performed at JPL under contract with NASA.

  3. Detection of five potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria in peri-implant disease: A comparison of PCR and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Gerhard; Tsigaras, Sandra; Rinke, Sven; Kottmann, Tanja; Haak, Rainer; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microbial analysis methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in terms of detection of five selected potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria in peri-implant disease. Therefore 45 samples of healthy, mucositis and peri-implantitis (n = 15 each) were assessed according to presence of the following bacteria using PCR (DNA-strip technology) and RT-PCR (fluorescent dye SYBR green-system): Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Treponema denticola (Td), Tanerella forsythia (Tf), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). There were no significant correlations between the bacterial and disease patterns, so the benefit of using microbiological tests for the diagnosis of peri-implant diseases is questionable. Correlations between the methods were highest for Tf (Kendall's Tau: 0.65, Spearman: 0.78), Fn (0.49, 0.61) and Td (0.49, 0.59). For Aa (0.38, 0.42) and Pg (0.04, 0.04), lower correlation values were detected. Accordingly, conventional semi-quantitative PCR seems to be sufficient for analyzing potentially periodontal pathogenic bacterial species.

  4. Direct synthesis of ultrathin SOI structure by extremely low-energy oxygen implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Yasushi Yachida, Gosuke; Inoue, Kodai; Toyohara, Taiga; Nakata, Jyoji

    2016-06-15

    We performed extremely low-energy {sup 16}O{sup +} implantation at 10 keV (R{sub p} ∼ 25 nm) followed by annealing aiming at directly synthesizing an ultrathin Si layer separated by a buried SiO{sub 2} layer in Si(001) substrates, and then investigated feasible condition of recrystallization and stabilization of the superficial Si and the buried oxide layer by significantly low temperature annealing. The elemental compositions were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The crystallinity of the superficial Si layer was quantitatively confirmed by ananlyzing RBS-channeling spectra. Cross-sectional morphologies and atomic configurations were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). As a result, we succeeded in directly synthesizing an ultrathin single-crystalline silicon layer with ≤20 nm thick separated by a thin buried stoichiometric SiO{sub 2} layer with ≤20 nm thick formed by extremely low-energy {sup 16}O{sup +} implantation followed by surprisingly low temperature annealing at 1050{sup ∘} C.

  5. Finite element analysis of provisional structures of implant-supported complete prostheses.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Bruno Albuquerque; de Brito, Rui Barbosa; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2014-04-01

    The use of provisional resin implant-supported complete dentures is a fast and safe procedure to restore mastication and esthetics of patients soon after surgery and during the adaptation phase to the new denture. This study assessed stress distribution of provisional implant-supported fixed dentures and the all-on-4 concept using self-curing acrylic resin (Tempron) and bis-acrylic resin (Luxatemp) to simulate functional loads through the three-dimensional finite element method. Solidworks software was used to build three-dimensional models using acrylic resin (Tempron, model A) and bis-acrylic resin (Luxatemp, model B) for denture captions. Two loading patterns were applied on each model: (1) right unilateral axial loading of 150 N on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and (2) oblique loading vector of 150 N at 45°. The results showed that higher stress was found on the bone crest below oblique load application with a maximum value of 187.57 MPa on model A and 167.45 MPa on model B. It was concluded that model B improved stress distribution on the denture compared with model A.

  6. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PROVISIONAL STRUCTURES OF IMPLANT-SUPPORTED COMPLETE PROSTHESES.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Bruno Albuquerque; Brito Jr, Rui Barbosa; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2012-03-01

    Abstract The use of provisional resin implant-supported complete dentures is a fast and safe procedure to restore mastication and aesthetics of patients soon after surgery and during the adaptation phase to the new denture. This study assessed stress distribution of provisional implant-supported fixed dentures and the all-on-four concept using self-curing acrylic resin (Tempron) and bis-acrylic resin (Luxatemp) to simulate functional loads through the 3D finite element method. The Solidworks software was used to build 3D models, using acrylic resin (Tempron - A) and bis-acrylic resin (Luxatemp - B) for denture captions. Two loading patterns were applied on each model: 1) right unilateral axial loading of 150 N on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth; 2) oblique loading vector of 150 N at 45 degrees. The results showed that higher stress was found on the bone crest below oblique load application with maximum value of 187.57 MPa on model A and 167.45 MPa on model B. It was concluded that model B improved stress distribution on the denture compared to model A.

  7. Compositional and structural requirements for laminin and basement membranes during mouse embryo implantation and gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jeffrey H; Li, Cong; Mudd, Jacqueline L; Go, Gloriosa; Sutherland, Ann E

    2004-05-01

    Laminins are components of all basement membranes and have well demonstrated roles in diverse developmental processes, from the peri-implantation period onwards. Laminin 1 (alpha1beta1gamma1) is a major laminin found at early stages of embryogenesis in both embryonic and extraembryonic basement membranes. The laminin gamma1 chain has been shown by targeted mutation to be required for endodermal differentiation and formation of basement membranes; Lamc1(-/-) embryos die within a day of implantation. We report the generation of mice lacking laminin alpha1 and laminin beta1, the remaining two laminin 1 chains. Mutagenic insertions in both Lama1 and Lamb1 were obtained in a secretory gene trap screen. Lamb1(-/-) embryos are similar to Lamc1(-/-) embryos in that they lack basement membranes and do not survive beyond embryonic day (E) 5.5. However, in Lama1(-/-) embryos, the embryonic basement membrane forms, the embryonic ectoderm cavitates and the parietal endoderm differentiates, apparently because laminin 10 (alpha5beta1gamma1) partially compensates for the absent laminin 1. However, such compensation did not occur for Reichert's membrane, which was absent, and the embryos died by E7. Overexpression of laminin alpha5 from a transgene improved the phenotype of Lama1(-/-) embryos to the point that they initiated gastrulation, but this overexpression did not rescue Reichert's membrane, and trophoblast cells did not form blood sinuses. These data suggest that both the molecular composition and the integrity of basement membranes are crucial for early developmental events.

  8. Structural characteristics of Ni+-implanted AlN thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shakil; Husnain, G.; Ahmad, Ishaq; Khan, Karim; Usman, Muhammad; Riaz, Saira

    2014-09-01

    Metal organic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN) were irradiated with 700 keV Ni ions at fluences of 1 × 1012, 1 × 1013, and 1 × 1014 ions cm-2. The stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) analysis was performed to investigate the depth distribution of the Ni ions and vacancy production in AlN film. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the implanted samples show a shift of the AlN (0 0 2) orientation peak towards higher angles at 1 × 1012 ions cm-2, exhibiting the incorporation of nickel ions into the AlN phase. The XRD patterns also demonstrated a reduction in shift of the (0 0 2) orientation peak along with the formation of AlNi3 phase with the increase of ion fluence. The AFM surface analysis of the ion-irradiated AlN film exhibits a rise of film surface roughness. After ion irradiation, the samples were annealed at 900 °C in a nitrogen environment. Annealing reduces the surface roughness of not only the implanted samples but also the as-grown samples.

  9. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

  10. Teeth and implants.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R

    1999-08-28

    An osseointegrated implant restoration may closely resemble a natural tooth. However, the absence of a periodontal ligament and connective tissue attachment via cementum, results in fundamental differences in the adaptation of the implant to occlusal forces, and the structure of the gingival cuff.

  11. Detection of structural deterioration and associated airline maintenance problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henniker, H. D.; Mitchell, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Airline operations involving the detection of structural deterioration and associated maintenance problems are discussed. The standard approach to the maintenance and inspection of aircraft components and systems is described. The frequency of inspections and the application of preventive maintenance practices are examined. The types of failure which airline transport aircraft encounter and the steps taken to prevent catastrophic failure are reported.

  12. Detection and location of metallic objects imbedded in nonmetallic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.; Neuschaefer, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Small battery operated eddy current proximity measuring device detects and locates metal objects the size of a dime at distances up to one foot within nonmetallic structures. This device weighs approximately two pounds, occupies approximately 60 cubic inches, and is battery powered.

  13. Exploring representations of protein structure for automated remote homology detection and mapping of protein structure space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to rapid sequencing of genomes, there are now millions of deposited protein sequences with no known function. Fast sequence-based comparisons allow detecting close homologs for a protein of interest to transfer functional information from the homologs to the given protein. Sequence-based comparison cannot detect remote homologs, in which evolution has adjusted the sequence while largely preserving structure. Structure-based comparisons can detect remote homologs but most methods for doing so are too expensive to apply at a large scale over structural databases of proteins. Recently, fragment-based structural representations have been proposed that allow fast detection of remote homologs with reasonable accuracy. These representations have also been used to obtain linearly-reducible maps of protein structure space. It has been shown, as additionally supported from analysis in this paper that such maps preserve functional co-localization of the protein structure space. Methods Inspired by a recent application of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model for conducting structural comparisons of proteins, we propose higher-order LDA-obtained topic-based representations of protein structures to provide an alternative route for remote homology detection and organization of the protein structure space in few dimensions. Various techniques based on natural language processing are proposed and employed to aid the analysis of topics in the protein structure domain. Results We show that a topic-based representation is just as effective as a fragment-based one at automated detection of remote homologs and organization of protein structure space. We conduct a detailed analysis of the information content in the topic-based representation, showing that topics have semantic meaning. The fragment-based and topic-based representations are also shown to allow prediction of superfamily membership. Conclusions This work opens exciting venues in designing novel

  14. Structure damage detection based on random forest recursive feature elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qifeng; Zhou, Hao; Zhou, Qingqing; Yang, Fan; Luo, Linkai

    2014-05-01

    Feature extraction is a key former step in structural damage detection. In this paper, a structural damage detection method based on wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) and random forest recursive feature elimination (RF-RFE) is proposed. In order to gain the most effective feature subset and to improve the identification accuracy a two-stage feature selection method is adopted after WPD. First, the damage features are sorted according to original random forest variable importance analysis. Second, using RF-RFE to eliminate the least important feature and reorder the feature list each time, then get the new feature importance sequence. Finally, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm, as a benchmark classifier, is used to evaluate the extracted feature subset. A four-storey steel shear building model is chosen as an example in method verification. The experimental results show that using the fewer features got from proposed method can achieve higher identification accuracy and reduce the detection time cost.

  15. Damage detection and health monitoring of operational structures

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.; Reese, G.

    1994-09-01

    Initial damage detection/health monitoring experiments have been performed on three different operational structures: a fracture critical bridge, a composite wind turbine blade, and an aging aircraft. An induced damage test was performed on the Rio Grande/I40 bridge before its demolition. The composite wind turbine test was fatgued to failure with periodic modal testing performed throughout the testing. The front fuselage of a DC-9 aircraft was used as the testbed for an induced damage test. These tests have yielded important insights into techniques for experimental damage detection on real structures. Additionally, the data are currently being used with current damage detection algorithms to further develop the numerical technology. State of the art testing technologies such as, high density modal testing, scanning laser vibrometry and natural excitation testing have also been utilized for these tests.

  16. Method for Real-Time Model Based Structural Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy A. (Inventor); Urnes, James M., Sr. (Inventor); Reichenbach, Eric Y. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and methods for real-time model based vehicle structural anomaly detection are disclosed. A real-time measurement corresponding to a location on a vehicle structure during an operation of the vehicle is received, and the real-time measurement is compared to expected operation data for the location to provide a modeling error signal. A statistical significance of the modeling error signal to provide an error significance is calculated, and a persistence of the error significance is determined. A structural anomaly is indicated, if the persistence exceeds a persistence threshold value.

  17. Detecting Community Structure by Using a Constrained Label Propagation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Community structure is considered one of the most interesting features in complex networks. Many real-world complex systems exhibit community structure, where individuals with similar properties form a community. The identification of communities in a network is important for understanding the structure of said network, in a specific perspective. Thus, community detection in complex networks gained immense interest over the last decade. A lot of community detection methods were proposed, and one of them is the label propagation algorithm (LPA). The simplicity and time efficiency of the LPA make it a popular community detection method. However, the LPA suffers from instability detection due to randomness that is induced in the algorithm. The focus of this paper is to improve the stability and accuracy of the LPA, while retaining its simplicity. Our proposed algorithm will first detect the main communities in a network by using the number of mutual neighbouring nodes. Subsequently, nodes are added into communities by using a constrained LPA. Those constraints are then gradually relaxed until all nodes are assigned into groups. In order to refine the quality of the detected communities, nodes in communities can be switched to another community or removed from their current communities at various stages of the algorithm. We evaluated our algorithm on three types of benchmark networks, namely the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi (LFR), Relaxed Caveman (RC) and Girvan-Newman (GN) benchmarks. We also apply the present algorithm to some real-world networks of various sizes. The current results show some promising potential, of the proposed algorithm, in terms of detecting communities accurately. Furthermore, our constrained LPA has a robustness and stability that are significantly better than the simple LPA as it is able to yield deterministic results. PMID:27176470

  18. a Probabilistic Embedding Clustering Method for Urban Structure Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, X.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Gao, L.; Zhao, L.; Deng, M.

    2017-09-01

    Urban structure detection is a basic task in urban geography. Clustering is a core technology to detect the patterns of urban spatial structure, urban functional region, and so on. In big data era, diverse urban sensing datasets recording information like human behaviour and human social activity, suffer from complexity in high dimension and high noise. And unfortunately, the state-of-the-art clustering methods does not handle the problem with high dimension and high noise issues concurrently. In this paper, a probabilistic embedding clustering method is proposed. Firstly, we come up with a Probabilistic Embedding Model (PEM) to find latent features from high dimensional urban sensing data by "learning" via probabilistic model. By latent features, we could catch essential features hidden in high dimensional data known as patterns; with the probabilistic model, we can also reduce uncertainty caused by high noise. Secondly, through tuning the parameters, our model could discover two kinds of urban structure, the homophily and structural equivalence, which means communities with intensive interaction or in the same roles in urban structure. We evaluated the performance of our model by conducting experiments on real-world data and experiments with real data in Shanghai (China) proved that our method could discover two kinds of urban structure, the homophily and structural equivalence, which means clustering community with intensive interaction or under the same roles in urban space.

  19. Nonlinear damage detection in composite structures using bispectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Pickering, Simon; Scarselli, Gennaro; Meo, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Literature offers a quantitative number of diagnostic methods that can continuously provide detailed information of the material defects and damages in aerospace and civil engineering applications. Indeed, low velocity impact damages can considerably degrade the integrity of structural components and, if not detected, they can result in catastrophic failure conditions. This paper presents a nonlinear Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) method, based on ultrasonic guided waves (GW), for the detection of the nonlinear signature in a damaged composite structure. The proposed technique, based on a bispectral analysis of ultrasonic input waveforms, allows for the evaluation of the nonlinear response due to the presence of cracks and delaminations. Indeed, such a methodology was used to characterize the nonlinear behaviour of the structure, by exploiting the frequency mixing of the original waveform acquired from a sparse array of sensors. The robustness of bispectral analysis was experimentally demonstrated on a damaged carbon fibre reinforce plastic (CFRP) composite panel, and the nonlinear source was retrieved with a high level of accuracy. Unlike other linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods for damage detection, this methodology does not require any baseline with the undamaged structure for the evaluation of the nonlinear source, nor a priori knowledge of the mechanical properties of the specimen. Moreover, bispectral analysis can be considered as a nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) technique for materials showing either classical or non-classical nonlinear behaviour.

  20. Structural and electrical properties of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} by ion implantation and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Duguay, S.; Grob, J.J.; Slaoui, A.; Le Gall, Y.; Amann-Liess, M.

    2005-05-15

    Silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) on Si layers with embedded germanium nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) were fabricated using Ge{sup +} implantation and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry have been used to study the Ge redistribution in the SiO{sub 2} films as a function of annealing temperature. A monolayer of Ge-ncs near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface was formed under specific annealing conditions. This layer, with a nc density and mean size measured to be, respectively, 1.1x10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} and 5 nm, is located at approximately 4 nm from the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. Capacitance-voltage measurements were performed on metal-oxide-semiconductor structures containing such implanted SiO{sub 2} layers in order to study their electrical properties. The results indicate a strong memory effect at relatively low programming voltages (<5 V) due to the presence of Ge-ncs near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  1. Electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R. Kremer, F.; Mirzaei, S.; Medling, S. A.; Ridgway, M. C.; Sprouster, D. J.; Decoster, S.; Glover, C. J.; Hansen, J. L.; Nylandsted-Larsen, A.; Russo, S. P.

    2016-01-14

    We report on the effects of dopant concentration and substrate stoichiometry on the electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} alloys. Correlating the fraction of electrically active In atoms from Hall Effect measurements with the In atomic environment determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we observed the transition from electrically active, substitutional In at low In concentration to electrically inactive metallic In at high In concentration. The In solid-solubility limit has been quantified and was dependent on the Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} alloy stoichiometry; the solid-solubility limit increased as the Ge fraction increased. This result was consistent with density functional theory calculations of two In atoms in a Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} supercell that demonstrated that In–In pairing was energetically favorable for x ≲ 0.7 and energetically unfavorable for x ≳ 0.7. Transmission electron microscopy imaging further complemented the results described earlier with the In concentration and Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} alloy stoichiometry dependencies readily visible. We have demonstrated that low resistivity values can be achieved with In implantation in Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} alloys, and this combination of dopant and substrate represents an effective doping protocol.

  2. Structural and optical properties of Er implanted AlN thin films: Green and infrared photoluminescence at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, M. J.; Leitão, J. P.; da Silva, M. I. N.; González, J. C.; Matinaga, F. M.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Peres, M.; Monteiro, T.

    2011-05-01

    In this work erbium ions were implanted into AlN films grown on sapphire with fluence range: (0.5-2) × 10 15 at/cm -2, ion energy range: 150-350 keV and tilt angle: 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°. The optical and structural properties of the films are studied by means of photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy in combination with Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C) measurements. The photoluminescence spectra of the Er 3+ were recorded in the visible and infrared region between 9 and 300 K after thermal annealing treatments of the samples. The emission spectrum of the AlN:Er films consists of two series of green lines centered at 538 and 558 nm with typical Er 3+ emission in the infrared at 1.54 μm. The green lines have been identified as Er 3+ transitions from the 2H 11/2 and 4S 3/2 levels to the 4I 15/2 ground state. Different erbium centers in the matrix are suggested by the change of infrared photoluminescence relative intensity of some of the emission lines when different excitation wavelengths are used. The relative abundances of these centers can be varied by using different implantation parameters. The Raman and RBS/C measurements show good crystalline quality for all the studied films.

  3. Multilayer out-of-plane overlap electrostatic energy harvesting structure actuated by blood pressure for powering intra-cardiac implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deterre, M.; Risquez, S.; Bouthaud, B.; Dal Molin, R.; Woytasik, M.; Lefeuvre, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present an innovative multilayer out-of-plane electrostatic energy harvesting device conceived in view of scavenging energy from regular blood pressure in the heart. This concept involves the use of a deformable packaging for the implant in order to transmit the blood pressure to the electrostatic transducer. As shown in previous work, this is possible by using thin metal micro-bellows structure, providing long term hermeticity and high flexibility. The design of the electrostatic device has overcome several challenges such as the very low frequency of the mechanical excitation (1 to 2 Hz) and the small available room in the medical implant. Analytical and numerical models have been used to maximize the capacitance variation, and hence to optimize the energy conversion. We have theoretically shown that a 25-layer transducer with 6-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness could harvest at least 20 mJ per heart beat in the left ventricle under a maximum voltage of 75 V. These results show that the proposed concept is promising and could power the next generation of leadless pacemakers.

  4. Making the difference: integrating structural variation detection tools.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ke; Smit, Sandra; Bonnema, Guusje; Sanchez-Perez, Gabino; de Ridder, Dick

    2015-09-01

    From prokaryotes to eukaryotes, phenotypic variation, adaptation and speciation has been associated with structural variation between genomes of individuals within the same species. Many computer algorithms detecting such variations (callers) have recently been developed, spurred by the advent of the next-generation sequencing technology. Such callers mainly exploit split-read mapping or paired-end read mapping. However, as different callers are geared towards different types of structural variation, there is still no single caller that can be considered a community standard; instead, increasingly the various callers are combined in integrated pipelines. In this article, we review a wide range of callers, discuss challenges in the integration step and present a survey of pipelines used in population genomics studies. Based on our findings, we provide general recommendations on how to set-up such pipelines. Finally, we present an outlook on future challenges in structural variation detection.

  5. Super-resolution scanning laser microscopy through virtually structured detection

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Rong-Wen; Wang, Ben-Quan; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    High resolution microscopy is essential for advanced study of biological structures and accurate diagnosis of medical diseases. The spatial resolution of conventional microscopes is light diffraction limited. Structured illumination has been extensively explored to break the diffraction limit in wide field light microscopy. However, deployable application of the structured illumination in scanning laser microscopy is challenging due to the complexity of the illumination system and possible phase errors in sequential illumination patterns required for super-resolution reconstruction. We report here a super-resolution scanning laser imaging system which employs virtually structured detection (VSD) to break the diffraction limit. Without the complexity of structured illumination, VSD provides an easy, low-cost and phase-artifact free strategy to achieve super-resolution in scanning laser microscopy. PMID:24049688

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Artificial Modulation of Ferroelectric Thin Films into Antiferroelectric through H+ Implantation for High-Density Charge Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Fei, Jin-Wen; Tang, Ting-Ao; Jiang, An-Quan

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen ions are implanted into Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 thin films at the energy of 40 keV with a flux of 5 × 1014 ions/cm2. Pseudo-antiferroelectric behaviour in the implanted thin films is observed, as confirmed by the measurements of polarization versus electric hysteresis loops and capacitance versus voltage curves. X-ray diffraction patterns show the film structures before and after H+ implantation both to be perovskite of a tetragonal symmetry. These findings indicate that hydrogen ions exist as stable dopants within the films. It is believed that the dopants change domain-switching behaviour via the boundary charge compensation. Meanwhile, time dependence of leakage current density after time longer than 10s indicates the enhancement of the leakage current nearly in one order for the implanted film, but the current at time shorter than 1 s is mostly the same as that of the original film without the ionic implantation. The artificial tailoring of the antiferroelectric behaviour through H+ implantation in ferroelectric thin films is finally proven to be achievable for the device application of high-density charge storage.

  7. Extended Kalman filter based structural damage detection for MR damper controlled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Jiang, Zhaoshuo; Christenson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The Magneto-rheological (MR) dampers have been widely used in many building and bridge structures against earthquake and wind loadings due to its advantages including mechanical simplicity, high dynamic range, low power requirements, large force capacity, and robustness. However, research about structural damage detection methods for MR damper controlled structures is limited. This paper aims to develop a real-time structural damage detection method for MR damper controlled structures. A novel state space model of MR damper controlled structure is first built by combining the structure's equation of motion and MR damper's hyperbolic tangent model. In this way, the state parameters of both the structure and MR damper are added in the state vector of the state space model. Extended Kalman filter is then used to provide prediction for state variables from measurement data. The two techniques are synergistically combined to identify parameters and track the changes of both structure and MR damper in real time. The proposed method is tested using response data of a three-floor MR damper controlled linear building structure under earthquake excitation. The testing results show that the adaptive extended Kalman filter based approach is capable to estimate not only structural parameters such as stiffness and damping of each floor, but also the parameters of MR damper, so that more insights and understanding of the damage can be obtained. The developed method also demonstrates high damage detection accuracy and light computation, as well as the potential to implement in a structural health monitoring system.

  8. Structural-mechanical and antibacterial properties of a soft elastic polyurethane surface after plasma immersion N2(+) implantation.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Ilya A; Mamaev, Alexander S; Osorgina, Irina V; Lemkina, Larisa M; Korobov, Vladimir P; Belyaev, Anton Yu; Porozova, Svetlana E; Sherban, Marina G

    2016-05-01

    The surface of elastic polyurethane treated by plasma immersion N2(+) ion implantation at different fluences has been investigated. A folded surface structure is observed in all cases. Analysis has been performed to study the structural (roughness, steepness and fraction of folds, fractal characteristics), mechanical (stiffness, adhesion force between the AFM probe and the material) and wetting properties of surfaces. Under uniaxial stretching the cracks orthogonal to the axis of deformation and longitudinal folds are formed on the examined surfaces. After unloading the initial structure of the surface of deformed materials exposed to low fluences becomes smoother and does not recover, i.e. it has plastic properties. By contrast, the structure of the surfaces of materials subjected to high-fluence treatment recovers without visible changes and the cracks are fully closed. The study of Staphylococcus colonies grown on these materials has demonstrated significant reduction (from 3 to 5 times) in the vitality of bacteria on treated surfaces. This result was repeated on samples after 11 months of storage. Such antibacterial properties are primarily related to the structural changes of the surfaces accompanied by the increased hydrophilicity.

  9. Configurational statistical model for the damaged structure of silicon oxide after ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, B.; Samitier, J.; Morante, J. R.; Montserrat, J.; Domínguez, C.

    1994-06-01

    A configurational model for silicon oxide damaged after a high-dose ion implantation of a nonreactive species is presented. Based on statistics of silicon-centered tetrahedra, the model takes into account not only the closest environment of a given silicon atom, but also the second neighborhood, so it is specified whether the oxygen attached to one given silicon is bridging two tetrahedra or not. The frequencies and intensities of infrared vibrational bands have been calculated by averaging over the distributions and these results are in agreement with the ones obtained from infrared experimental spectra. Likewise, the chemical shifts obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis are similar to the reported values for the charge-transfer model of SiOx compounds.

  10. Modification of implant material surface properties by means of oxide nano-structured coatings deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Vladimir; Zykova, Anna; Smolik, Jerzy; Rogowska, Renata; Lukyanchenko, Vladimir; Kolesnikov, Dmitrii

    2014-08-01

    The deposition of functional coatings on the metal surface of artificial joints is an effective way of enhancing joint tribological characteristics. It is well-known that nanostructured oxide coatings have specific properties advantageous for future implant applications. In the present study, we measured the high hardness parameters, the adhesion strength and the low friction coefficient of the oxide magnetron sputtered coatings. The corrosion test results show that the oxide coating deposition had improved the corrosion resistance by a factor of ten for both stainless steel and titanium alloy substrates. Moreover, the hydrophilic nature of coated surfaces in comparison with the metal ones was investigated in the tensiometric tests. The surfaces with nanostructured oxide coatings demonstrated improved biocompatibility for in vitro and in vivo tests, attributed to the high dielectric constants and the high values of the surface free energy parameters.

  11. Pedestrian Detection with Spatially Pooled Features and Structured Ensemble Learning.

    PubMed

    Paisitkriangkrai, Sakrapee; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den

    2016-06-01

    Many typical applications of object detection operate within a prescribed false-positive range. In this situation the performance of a detector should be assessed on the basis of the area under the ROC curve over that range, rather than over the full curve, as the performance outside the prescribed range is irrelevant. This measure is labelled as the partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC). We propose a novel ensemble learning method which achieves a maximal detection rate at a user-defined range of false positive rates by directly optimizing the partial AUC using structured learning. In addition, in order to achieve high object detection performance, we propose a new approach to extracting low-level visual features based on spatial pooling. Incorporating spatial pooling improves the translational invariance and thus the robustness of the detection process. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, and we show that it is possible to train state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors using the proposed structured ensemble learning method with spatially pooled features. The result is the current best reported performance on the Caltech-USA pedestrian detection dataset.

  12. Ultrasonic Techniques for Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Debaditya

    This research presents ultrasonic techniques for baseline-free damage detection in structures in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Conventional SHM methods compare signals obtained from the pristine condition of a structure (baseline signals) with those from the current state, and relate certain changes in the signal characteristics to damage. While this approach has been successful in the laboratory, there are certain drawbacks of depending on baseline signals in real field applications. Data from the pristine condition are not available for most existing structures. Even if they are available, operational and environmental variations tend to mask the effect of damage on the signal characteristics. Most important, baseline measurements may become meaningless while assessing the condition of a structure after an extreme event such as an earthquake or a hurricane. Such events may destroy the sensors themselves and require installation of new sensors at different locations on the structure. Baseline-free structural damage detection can broaden the scope of SHM in the scenarios described above. A detailed discussion on the philosophy of baseline-free damage detection is provided in Chapter 1. Following this discussion, the research questions are formulated. The organization of this document and the major contributions of this research are also listed in this chapter. Chapter 2 describes a fully automated baseline-free technique for notch and crack detection in plates using a collocated pair of piezoelectric wafer transducers for measuring ultrasonic signals. Signal component corresponding to the damage induced mode-converted Lamb waves is extracted by processing the originally measured ultrasonic signals. The damage index is computed as a function of this mode-converted Lamb wave signal component. An over-determined system of Lamb wave measurements is used to find a least-square estimate of the measurement errors. This error estimate serves as the

  13. Detecting small scale CO2 emission structures using OCO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Eldering, Annmarie; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Miller, Charles E.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Oda, Tomohiro; O'Dell, Christopher; Rao, Preeti; Kahn, Brian; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Sanchez, Robert M.; Ashok, Manasa; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin P.; Yuen, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures cover spatial domains of less than 50 km diameter and include cities and transportation networks, as well as fossil fuel production, upgrading and distribution infra-structure. Anthropogenic sources increasingly upset the natural balance between natural carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. NASA's first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the July 2014 launched Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), now leads the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-Train). Its continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width and eight footprints across can slice through coincident emission plumes and may provide momentary cross sections. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban total column averaged CO2 enhancements of ~2 ppm against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban spatial structures reflected in XCO2 data, previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban tomography of greenhouse gases. For singular point sources like coal fired power plants, we have developed proxy detections of plumes using bands of imaging spectrometers with sensitivity to SO2 in the thermal infrared (ASTER). This approach provides a means to automate plume detection with subsequent matching and mining of OCO-2 data for enhanced detection efficiency and validation. © California Institute of Technology

  14. KrF resists for implant layers patterning extreme high-aspect ratio structures with a double focal plane exposure technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafaelli, Giorgio; Ferri, Fabio; Volpi, Stefano; Hong, Chisun

    2012-03-01

    The design rules for advanced image sensor applications are requiring continuous CD shrinkage, and increasing aspect ratios which resulting in major challenges associated with using KrF technology. For the implant photo layers in particular, the need to block high-energy boron implants (well above 2 MeV) with extremely localized implant profiles requires an aspect ratio of deep well structures greater than 10:1. Other desirable attributes of a good photoresist for such demanding applications are high transparency, a steep wall profile consistent throughout the entire film, good adhesion with no structure collapse, and a wide process window. In this paper, we will discuss the role of a chemically amplified, ESCAP-type of resist in meeting these design criteria using a double focal plane exposure technique.

  15. Network construction and structure detection with metagenomic count data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenqiu; Lin, Shili; Piantadosi, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome plays a critical role in human health. Massive amounts of metagenomic data have been generated with advances in next-generation sequencing technologies that characterize microbial communities via direct isolation and sequencing. How to extract, analyze, and transform these vast amounts of data into useful knowledge is a great challenge to bioinformaticians. Microbial biodiversity research has focused primarily on taxa composition and abundance and less on the co-occurrences among different taxa. However, taxa co-occurrences and their relationships to environmental and clinical conditions are important because network structure may help to understand how microbial taxa function together. We propose a systematic robust approach for bacteria network construction and structure detection using metagenomic count data. Pairwise similarity/distance measures between taxa are proposed by adapting distance measures for samples in ecology. We also extend the sparse inverse covariance approach to a sparse inverse of a similarity matrix from count data for network construction. Our approach is efficient for large metagenomic count data with thousands of bacterial taxa. We evaluate our method with real and simulated data. Our method identifies true and biologically significant network structures efficiently. Network analysis is crucial for detecting subnetwork structures with metagenomic count data. We developed a software tool in MATLAB for network construction and biologically significant module detection. Software MetaNet can be downloaded from http://biostatistics.csmc.edu/MetaNet/.

  16. Fast Detection of Material Deformation through Structural Dissimilarity

    SciTech Connect

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Parkinson, Dilworth

    2015-10-29

    Designing materials that are resistant to extreme temperatures and brittleness relies on assessing structural dynamics of samples. Algorithms are critically important to characterize material deformation under stress conditions. Here, we report on our design of coarse-grain parallel algorithms for image quality assessment based on structural information and on crack detection of gigabyte-scale experimental datasets. We show how key steps can be decomposed into distinct processing flows, one based on structural similarity (SSIM) quality measure, and another on spectral content. These algorithms act upon image blocks that fit into memory, and can execute independently. We discuss the scientific relevance of the problem, key developments, and decomposition of complementary tasks into separate executions. We show how to apply SSIM to detect material degradation, and illustrate how this metric can be allied to spectral analysis for structure probing, while using tiled multi-resolution pyramids stored in HDF5 chunked multi-dimensional arrays. Results show that the proposed experimental data representation supports an average compression rate of 10X, and data compression scales linearly with the data size. We also illustrate how to correlate SSIM to crack formation, and how to use our numerical schemes to enable fast detection of deformation from 3D datasets evolving in time.

  17. Surface flaw detection in structural ceramics by scanning photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, P. K.; Heitman, P. W.; Wakefield, T. D.; Silversmith, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Laser-scanned photoacoustic spectroscopy has been used to detect tightly closed surface cracks in three structural ceramic materials: sintered silicon nitride, reaction-bonded silicon nitride, and sintered silicon carbide. It is found that the amplitude of the photoacoustic signal from the flaws is greater for the silicon nitrides than for silicon carbide, which is attributed to the lower thermal diffusivity of silicon nitride as well as differences in the grain size distribution and chemical composition. Signal amplitude, reproducibility, and signal-to-noise ratio are acceptable for effective flaw detection

  18. Influences of thicknesses and structures of barrier cap layers on As ion profiles and implant damages in HgCdTe epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Changzhi; Lin, Chun; Wei, Yanfeng; Chen, Lu; Ye, Zhenhua

    2016-05-01

    The barrier cap layer (BCL) is considered to be able to absorb partially implant induced damages during ion implantation, thus its structure and property could impact the result of ion implantation. In this paper, for As ion implantation in HgCdTe, the different BCLs were deposited on the CdZnTe-based (LPE) and GaAs-based (MBE) HgCdTe epilayers, respectively. Then, the influences of thicknesses and structures of these BCLs on dopant profiles and implant damages were investigated. The as-grown BCLs include thermally evaporated (TE) ZnS, TE CdTe, electron beam evaporated (EBE) CdTe and in-situ CdTe/ZnTe grown by MBE. The SIMS profiles and TEM characterization indicate: For TE ZnS BCLs, there exists an optimized thickness to obtain the deepest As indiffusion after high temperature annealing, and the end-of-range (EOR) depth is linearly proportional to the thickness ratio of a-MCT layer/damage layer. For TE CdTe BCLs, the barrier layer induced channeling effect (BLICE) occurs to the thin BCL samples, while this effect is suppressed in the thick BCL samples. The phenomenon might be due to that the blocking effect of the layered structure inside each crystal column becomes dominate in the thick BCL samples. Additionally, the EBE CdTe BCL with layered structure can suppress effectively the BLICE effect; in the in-situ CdTe/ZnTe BCL, the short defect layer generated in the CdTe buffer layer and the amorphization of the ZnTe layer during ion implantation also play a significant role in suppressing the BLICE effect.

  19. Agglomerative concentric hypersphere clustering applied to structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Moisés; Santos, Adam; Santos, Reginaldo; Figueiredo, Eloi; Sales, Claudomiro; Costa, João C. W. A.

    2017-08-01

    The present paper proposes a novel cluster-based method, named as agglomerative concentric hypersphere (ACH), to detect structural damage in engineering structures. Continuous structural monitoring systems often require unsupervised approaches to automatically infer the health condition of a structure. However, when a structure is under linear and nonlinear effects caused by environmental and operational variability, data normalization procedures are also required to overcome these effects. The proposed approach aims, through a straightforward clustering procedure, to discover automatically the optimal number of clusters, representing the main state conditions of a structural system. Three initialization procedures are introduced to evaluate the impact of deterministic and stochastic initializations on the performance of this approach. The ACH is compared to state-of-the-art approaches, based on Gaussian mixture models and Mahalanobis squared distance, on standard data sets from a post-tensioned bridge located in Switzerland: the Z-24 Bridge. The proposed approach demonstrates more efficiency in modeling the normal condition of the structure and its corresponding main clusters. Furthermore, it reveals a better classification performance than the alternative ones in terms of false-positive and false-negative indications of damage, demonstrating a promising applicability in real-world structural health monitoring scenarios.

  20. Implant-supported overdenture manufactured using CAD/CAM techniques to achieve horizontal path insertion between the primary and secondary structure: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gomar-Vercher, Sonia; Ferreiroa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the case of an edentulous patient with an atrophic maxilla and severe class III malocclusion. Prosthetic rehabilitation was performed using CAD/CAM techniques for manufacturing an implant-supported overdenture with horizontal insertion. A vestibulo-lingual insertion overdenture is a precision prosthesis with a fixation system affording a good fit between the primary and secondary structure. Both structures exhibit passive horizontal adjustment. This treatment option requires the same number of implants as implant-supported fixed dentures. The horizontal assembly system prevents the prosthesis from loosening or moving in response to axial and non-axial forces. The technique was used to rehabilitate a patient presenting an atrophic upper maxilla, with the insertion of 8 implants. No complications were reported at follow-up 3, 6 and 12 months after fitting of the prosthesis. This system offers solutions to the clinical and laboratory complications associated with hybrid prostheses, concealing emergence of the chimneys and improving implant-prosthesis hygiene. PMID:26140179

  1. Apparatus and method for detecting tampering in flexible structures

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C [Knoxville, TN; Haynes, Howard D [Knoxville, TN

    2011-02-01

    A system for monitoring or detecting tampering in a flexible structure includes taking electrical measurements on a sensing cable coupled to the structure, performing spectral analysis on the measured data, and comparing the spectral characteristics of the event to those of known benign and/or known suspicious events. A threshold or trigger value may used to identify an event of interest and initiate data collection. Alternatively, the system may be triggered at preset intervals, triggered manually, or triggered by a signal from another sensing device such as a motion detector. The system may be used to monitor electrical cables and conduits, hoses and flexible ducts, fences and other perimeter control devices, structural cables, flexible fabrics, and other flexible structures.

  2. Using chaotic forcing to detect damage in a structure.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moniz, L.; Nichols, J.; Trickey, S.; Seaver, M.; Pecora, D.; Pecora, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we develop a numerical test for Holder continuity and apply it and another test for continuity to the difficult problem of detecting damage in structures. We subject a thin metal plate with incremental damage to the plate changes, its filtering properties, and therefore the phase space trajectories of the response chaotic excitation of various bandwidths. Damage to the plate changes its filtering properties and therefore the phase space of the response. Because the data are multivariate (the plate is instrumented with multiple sensors) we use a singular value decomposition of the set of the output time series to reduce the embedding dimension of the response time series. We use two geometric tests to compare an attractor reconstructed from data from an undamaged structure to that reconstructed from data from a damaged structure. These two tests translate to testing for both generalized and differentiable synchronization between responses. We show loss of synchronization of responses with damage to the structure.

  3. Community detection in networks: Structural communities versus ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hric, Darko; Darst, Richard K.; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-12-01

    Algorithms to find communities in networks rely just on structural information and search for cohesive subsets of nodes. On the other hand, most scholars implicitly or explicitly assume that structural communities represent groups of nodes with similar (nontopological) properties or functions. This hypothesis could not be verified, so far, because of the lack of network datasets with information on the classification of the nodes. We show that traditional community detection methods fail to find the metadata groups in many large networks. Our results show that there is a marked separation between structural communities and metadata groups, in line with recent findings. That means that either our current modeling of community structure has to be substantially modified, or that metadata groups may not be recoverable from topology alone.

  4. Gain analysis of higher-order-mode amplification in a dielectric-implanted multi-beam traveling wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Anthony; Shin, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    A multi-beam traveling wave amplifier designed with an overmoded staggered double grating array was examined by small signal analysis combined with simulation. Eigenmode and S-parameter analyses show that the 2cm long slow wave structure (SWS) has 1-5dB insertion loss over the passband (TM31 mode) with ~28% cold bandwidth. Analytic gain calculation indicates that in the SWS, TM31-mode is amplified with 15–20 dB/beam at 64–84GHz with three elliptical beams of 10kV and 150mA/beam, which was compared with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC analysis on the analysis of instability with zero-input driving excitations demonstrated that background noises and non-operating lower order modes are noticeably suppressed by implanting equidistant dielectric absorbers; the overmoded structure only allowed the desired 3rd order mode to propagate in the structure. The designed circuit structure can be widely applied to multi-beam devices for high power RF generation.

  5. Gain analysis of higher-order-mode amplification in a dielectric-implanted multi-beam traveling wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Anthony; Shin, Young-Min

    2013-07-15

    A multi-beam traveling wave amplifier designed with an overmoded staggered double grating array was examined by small signal analysis combined with simulation. Eigenmode and S-parameter analyses show that the 2 cm long slow wave structure (SWS) has 1–5 dB insertion loss over the passband (TM{sub 31} mode) with ∼28% cold bandwidth. Analytic gain calculation indicates that in the SWS, TM{sub 31}-mode is amplified with 15–20 dB/beam at 64–84 GHz with three elliptical beams of 10 kV and 150 mA/beam, which was compared with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC analysis on the analysis of instability with zero-input driving excitations demonstrated that background noises and non-operating lower order modes are noticeably suppressed by implanting equidistant dielectric absorbers; the overmoded structure only allowed the desired 3rd order mode to propagate in the structure. The designed circuit structure can be widely applied to multi-beam devices for high power RF generation.

  6. Textured and smooth breast implants: is there a difference in the chemical structure of silicone?: an analysis with fourier transformation infrared and attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Tenna, Stefania; Delfino, Sergio; Abbruzzese, Franca; Trombetta, Marcella; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2009-10-01

    Scientific controversy concerning silicone and its biocompatibility has been ongoing for the last 10 years. This study on textured and smooth silicone breast implant shells using fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy associated with attenuated total reflectance cells aimed to identify eventual chemical modifications of silicone induced by texturization. The surfaces of 8 new implants produced by 2 well-known manufactures have been taken into consideration. A sample 1 cm2 has been harvested from the anterior and posterior sides of textured and smooth shells. Infrared spectra were then recorded, evaluated, and compared with the reference spectrum of pure silicone. Potentially reactive groups, known as silanols, were identified, in all shells, intensity increasing in textured implants (P < 0.05), whereas no silanols were detected in the spectrum of pure silicone. These results suggest that polar groups, present in manipulated silicone might influence capsula formation.

  7. Detect and exploit hidden structure in fatty acid signature data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budge, Suzanne; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Thiemann, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of predator diet composition are essential to our understanding of their ecology. Although several methods of estimating diet are practiced, methods based on biomarkers have become increasingly common. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a popular method that continues to be refined and extended. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis is based on differences in the signatures of prey types, often species, which are recognized and designated by investigators. Similarly, predator signatures may be structured by known factors such as sex or age class, and the season or region of sample collection. The recognized structure in signature data inherently influences QFASA results in important and typically beneficial ways. However, predator and prey signatures may contain additional, hidden structure that investigators either choose not to incorporate into an analysis or of which they are unaware, being caused by unknown ecological mechanisms. Hidden structure also influences QFASA results, most often negatively. We developed a new method to explore signature data for hidden structure, called divisive magnetic clustering (DIMAC). Our DIMAC approach is based on the same distance measure used in diet estimation, closely linking methods of data exploration and parameter estimation, and it does not require data transformation or distributional assumptions, as do many multivariate ordination methods in common use. We investigated the potential benefits of the DIMAC method to detect and subsequently exploit hidden structure in signature data using two prey signature libraries with quite different characteristics. We found that the existence of hidden structure in prey signatures can increase the confusion between prey types and thereby reduce the accuracy and precision of QFASA diet estimates. Conversely, the detection and exploitation of hidden structure represent a potential opportunity to improve predator diet estimates and may lead to new

  8. Structural Damage Detection with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2011-07-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are lightweight and inexpensive enablers for a large class of damage detection and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. This paper starts with a brief review of PWAS physical principles and basic modelling and continues by considering the various ways in which PWAS can be used for damage detection: (a) embedded guided-wave ultrasonics, i.e., pitch-catch, pulse-echo, phased arrays, thickness mode; (b) high-frequency modal sensing, i.e., the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance method; (c) passive detection, i.e., acoustic emission and impact detection. An example of crack-like damage detection and localization with PWAS phased arrays on a small metallic plate is given. The modelling of PWAS detection of disbond damage in adhesive joints is achieved with the analytical transfer matrix method (TMM). The analytical methods offer the advantage of fast computation which enables parameter studies and carpet plots. A parametric study of the effect of crack size and PWAS location on disbond detection is presented. The power and energy transduction between PWAS and structure is studied analytically with a wave propagation method. Special attention is given to the mechatronics modeling of the complete transduction cycle from electrical excitation into ultrasonic acoustic waves by the piezoelectric effect, the transfer through the structure, and finally reverse piezoelectric transduction to generate the received electric signal. It is found that the combination of PWAS size and wave frequency/wavelength play an important role in identifying transduction maxima and minima that could be exploited to achieve an optimum power-efficient design. The multi-physics finite element method (MP-FEM), which permits fine discretization of damaged regions and complicated structural geometries, is used to study the generation of guided waves in a plate from an electrically excited transmitter PWAS and the capture of these waves as electric

  9. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.

  10. A community detection algorithm based on structural similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xuchao; Hao, Xia; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Lu

    2017-09-01

    In order to further improve the efficiency and accuracy of community detection algorithm, a new algorithm named SSTCA (the community detection algorithm based on structural similarity with threshold) is proposed. In this algorithm, the structural similarities are taken as the weights of edges, and the threshold k is considered to remove multiple edges whose weights are less than the threshold, and improve the computational efficiency. Tests were done on the Zachary’s network, Dolphins’ social network and Football dataset by the proposed algorithm, and compared with GN and SSNCA algorithm. The results show that the new algorithm is superior to other algorithms in accuracy for the dense networks and the operating efficiency is improved obviously.

  11. Experimental Progress Toward Detection and Identification of Electromagnetically Complex Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    requiring geolocation. These requirements led us to our choice of a pulsed ultra wide band ( UWB ) detection system. Structures of interest (targets...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 function of multiple frequencies contained in the UWB transmit pulse ). The range dependence of...test circuit) in the field . A technique for reliably predicting range from the pulsed radar receiver signals is available, and the range dependence of

  12. A method for detecting structural deterioration in bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, H. A., Jr.; Reed, R. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of detecting deterioration in bridge structures is studied with the use of Randomdec analysis. Randomdec signatures, derived from the ambient bridge vibrations in the acoustic range, were obtained for a girder bridge over a period of a year to show the insensitivity of the signatures to environmental changes. A laboratory study was also conducted to show the sensitivity of signatures to fatigue cracks on the order of a centimeter in length in steel beams.

  13. Sensor failure detection using generalized parity relations for flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercadal, Mathieu

    1989-01-01

    Analytical redundancy may be preferable to hardware redundancy in failure detection/isolation tasks for such large-scale systems as space structures. Generalized single-sensor parity relations are presently applied to this problem; they are noted to yield a very simple isolation logic, and their generation is found to be extremely rapid, even in the case of extremely complex systems, provided only that the eigenstructure of the system be known. Their implementation is, however, extremely sensitive to modeling errors and noise.

  14. Musical Sound Quality in Cochlear Implant Users: A Comparison in Bass Frequency Perception Between Fine Structure Processing and High-Definition Continuous Interleaved Sampling Strategies.

    PubMed

    Roy, Alexis T; Carver, Courtney; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Med-El cochlear implant (CI) patients are typically programmed with either the fine structure processing (FSP) or high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) strategy. FSP is the newer-generation strategy and aims to provide more direct encoding of fine structure information compared with HDCIS. Since fine structure information is extremely important in music listening, FSP may offer improvements in musical sound quality for CI users. Despite widespread clinical use of both strategies, few studies have assessed the possible benefits in music perception for the FSP strategy. The objective of this study is to measure the differences in musical sound quality discrimination between the FSP and HDCIS strategies. Musical sound quality discrimination was measured using a previously designed evaluation, called Cochlear Implant-MUltiple Stimulus with Hidden Reference and Anchor (CI-MUSHRA). In this evaluation, participants were required to detect sound quality differences between an unaltered real-world musical stimulus and versions of the stimulus in which various amount of bass (low) frequency information was removed via a high-pass filer. Eight CI users, currently using the FSP strategy, were enrolled in this study. In the first session, participants completed the CI-MUSHRA evaluation with their FSP strategy. Patients were then programmed with the clinical-default HDCIS strategy, which they used for 2 months to allow for acclimatization. After acclimatization, each participant returned for the second session, during which they were retested with HDCIS, and then switched back to their original FSP strategy and tested acutely. Sixteen normal-hearing (NH) controls completed a CI-MUSHRA evaluation for comparison, in which NH controls listened to music samples under normal acoustic conditions, without CI stimulation. Sensitivity to high-pass filtering more closely resembled that of NH controls when CI users were programmed with the clinical-default FSP strategy

  15. Frequency-based similarity detection of structures in human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Dave I.; Siadat, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-03-01

    Advancements in 3D scanning and volumetric imaging methods have motivated researchers to tackle new challenges related to storing, retrieving and comparing 3D models, especially in medical domain. Comparing natural rigid shapes and detecting subtle changes in 3D models of brain structures is of great importance. Precision in capturing surface details and insensitivity to shape orientation are highly desirable properties of good shape descriptors. In this paper, we propose a new method, Spherical Harmonics Distance (SHD), which leverages the power of spherical harmonics to provide more accurate representation of surface details. At the same time, the proposed method incorporates the features of a shape distribution method (D2) and inherits its insensitivity to shape orientation. Comparing SHD to a spherical harmonics based method (SPHARM) shows that the performance of the proposed method is less sensitive to rotation. Also, comparing SHD to D2 shows that the proposed method is more accurate in detecting subtle changes. The performance of the proposed method is verified by calculating the Fisher measure (FM) of extracted feature vectors. The FM of the vectors generated by SHD on average shows 27 times higher values than that of D2. Our preliminary results show that SHD successfully combines desired features from two different methods and paves the way towards better detection of subtle dissimilarities among natural rigid shapes (e.g. structures of interest in human brain). Detecting these subtle changes can be instrumental in more accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning.

  16. Airframe structural damage detection: a non-linear structural surface intensity based technique.

    PubMed

    Semperlotti, Fabio; Conlon, Stephen C; Barnard, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The non-linear structural surface intensity (NSSI) based damage detection technique is extended to airframe applications. The selected test structure is an upper cabin airframe section from a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter (Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, CT). Structural damage is simulated through an impact resonator device, designed to simulate the induced vibration effects typical of non-linear behaving damage. An experimental study is conducted to prove the applicability of NSSI on complex mechanical systems as well as to evaluate the minimum sensor and actuator requirements. The NSSI technique is shown to have high damage detection sensitivity, covering an extended substructure with a single sensing location.

  17. Efficacy of ultrasound, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting breast implant rupture: A retrospective study of 175 reconstructive and aesthetic sub-pectoral breast augmentation cases.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Alessio; Rem, Kessara; Leuzzi, Sara; Moris, Vivien; François, Caroline; Revol, Marc; Cristofari, Sarra

    2017-06-03

    To date, the effectiveness of radiological imaging in detecting silicone breast implant rupture is uncertain. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of radiological imaging when diagnosing a rupture. In this study, 175 patients with 242 breast implants were included, of which 168 and 74 implants were used for breast reconstruction and aesthetic augmentation, respectively. All patients who underwent revision surgery, between January 2015 and June 2016, following breast augmentation or reconstruction were included, regardless of any pre-operative diagnosis of rupture that had been made. The diagnosis of intracapsular rupture was verified intraoperatively and compared to the pre-operative findings. With regard to pre-operative diagnostic imaging methods, we compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mammography, and ultrasonography (US) findings. Among the 242 implants that were explanted, 35 clinical ruptures were confirmed and compared with the related radiological findings. We reported 22 false positives and 15 false negatives. US was the least specific and least accurate method because of its lowest positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Mammography was the most specific and most accurate method, with the highest PPV (96%). Surprisingly, MRI was the most sensitive; however, it was neither the most specific nor the most accurate method despite having the highest NPV (98%). After comparing these three radiological techniques, we conclude that US along with MRI can be useful for young patients. Mammography, which was characterised by high specificity and accuracy, could be useful along with MRI in investigating patients over the age of 40. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporal Structure and Complexity Affect Audio-Visual Correspondence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Rachel N.; Driver, Jon; Ruff, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony between events in different senses has long been considered the critical temporal cue for multisensory integration. Here, using rapid streams of auditory and visual events, we demonstrate how humans can use temporal structure (rather than mere temporal coincidence) to detect multisensory relatedness. We find psychophysically that participants can detect matching auditory and visual streams via shared temporal structure for crossmodal lags of up to 200 ms. Performance on this task reproduced features of past findings based on explicit timing judgments but did not show any special advantage for perfectly synchronous streams. Importantly, the complexity of temporal patterns influences sensitivity to correspondence. Stochastic, irregular streams – with richer temporal pattern information – led to higher audio-visual matching sensitivity than predictable, rhythmic streams. Our results reveal that temporal structure and its complexity are key determinants for human detection of audio-visual correspondence. The distinctive emphasis of our new paradigms on temporal patterning could be useful for studying special populations with suspected abnormalities in audio-visual temporal perception and multisensory integration. PMID:23346067

  19. Damage detection in concrete structures with smart piezoceramic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, Akshay S. K.; Bhalla, Suresh

    2003-10-01

    Detection of damages and progressive deterioration in structures is a critical issue. Visual inspections are tedious and unreliable. Incipient damages are often not discernible by low frequency dynamic response and other NDE techniques. Smart piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) transducers are emerging as an effective alternative in health monitoring of structures. The electro-mechanical impedance method employs the self-actuating and sensing characteristics of the PZT, without having to use actuators and sensors separately. When excited by an ac source, the PZT transducers bonded to the host structure activates the higher modes of vibration locally. Changes in the admittance response of the transducer serves as an indicator of damage around the transducer. In this paper, the effectiveness of PZT transducers for characterizing damages in concrete, in terms of the damage extent and location, is experimentally examined. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) index, adopted to quantify the changes in the admittance signatures, correlates with the damage extent. The damages on the surface that is not mounted by the PZT are also discernible. An array of transducers proves effective in detecting the damaged zone. The progressive incipient crack can be detected much before it actually becomes visible to the naked eye.

  20. Covariance of dynamic strain responses for structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. Y.; Wang, L. X.; Law, S. S.; Nie, Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    A new approach to address the practical problems with condition evaluation/damage detection of structures is proposed based on the distinct features of a new damage index. The covariance of strain response function (CoS) is a function of modal parameters of the structure. A local stiffness reduction in structure would cause monotonous increase in the CoS. Its sensitivity matrix with respect to local damages of structure is negative and narrow-banded. The damage extent can be estimated with an approximation to the sensitivity matrix to decouple the identification equations. The CoS sensitivity can be calibrated in practice from two previous states of measurements to estimate approximately the damage extent of a structure. A seven-storey plane frame structure is numerically studied to illustrate the features of the CoS index and the proposed method. A steel circular arch in the laboratory is tested. Natural frequencies changed due to damage in the arch and the damage occurrence can be judged. However, the proposed CoS method can identify not only damage happening but also location, even damage extent without need of an analytical model. It is promising for structural condition evaluation of selected components.

  1. Tailoring the structural and optical properties of TiN thin films by Ag ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović, M.; Novaković, M.; Rakočević, Z.; Bibić, N.

    2016-12-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films thickness of ∼260 nm prepared by dc reactive sputtering were irradiated with 200 keV silver (Ag) ions to the fluences ranging from 5 × 1015 ions/cm2 to 20 × 1015 ions/cm2. After implantation TiN layers were annealed 2 h at 700 °C in a vacuum. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural changes were examined by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while the surface topography was observed using atomic force microscopy. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to get insights on the optical and electronic properties of TiN films with respect to their microstructure. The results showed that the irradiations lead to deformation of the lattice, increasing disorder and formation of new Ag phase. The optical results demonstrate the contribution of surface plasmon resonace (SPR) of Ag particles. SPR position shifted in the range of 354.3-476.9 nm when Ag ion fluence varied from 5 × 1015 ions/cm2 to 20 × 1015 ions/cm2. Shift in peak wavelength shows dependence on Ag particles concentration, suggesting that interaction between Ag particles dominate the surface plasmon resonance effect. Presence of Ag as second metal in the layer leads to overall decrease of optical resistivity of TiN.

  2. Nondestructive Structural Damage Detection in Flexible Space Structures Using Vibration Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricles, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Spacecraft are susceptible to structural damage over their operating life from impact, environmental loads, and fatigue. Structural damage that is not detected and not corrected may potentially cause more damage and eventually catastrophic structural failure. NASA's current fleet of reusable spacecraft, namely the Space Shuttle, has been flown on several missions. In addition, configurations of future NASA space structures, e.g. Space Station Freedom, are larger and more complex than current structures, making them more susceptible to damage as well as being more difficult to inspect. Consequently, a reliable structural damage detection capability is essential to maintain the flight safety of these structures. Visual inspections alone can not locate impending material failure (fatigue cracks, yielding); it can only observe post-failure situations. An alternative approach is to develop an inspection and monitoring system based on vibration characterization that assesses the integrity of structural and mechanical components. A methodology for detecting structural damage is presented. This methodology is based on utilizing modal test data in conjunction with a correlated analytical model of the structure to: (1) identify the structural dynamic characteristics (resonant frequencies and mode shapes) from measurements of ambient motions and/or force excitation; (2) calculate modal residual force vectors to identify the location of structural damage; and (3) conduct a weighted sensitivity analysis in order to assess the extent of mass and stiffness variations, where structural damage is characterized by stiffness reductions. The approach is unique from other existing approaches in that varying system mass and stiffness, mass center locations, the perturbation of both the natural frequencies and mode shapes, and statistical confidence factors for structural parameters and experimental instrumentation are all accounted for directly.

  3. Compressive behaviour of gyroid lattice structures for human cancellous bone implant applications.

    PubMed

    Yánez, A; Herrera, A; Martel, O; Monopoli, D; Afonso, H

    2016-11-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) was used to fabricate porous titanium alloy structures. The elastic modulus of these porous structures was similar to the elastic modulus of the cancellous human bone. Two types of cellular lattice structures were manufactured and tested: gyroids and diamonds. The design of the gyroid structures was determined by the main angle of the struts with respect to the axial direction. Thus, structures with angles of between 19 and 68.5° were manufactured. The aim of the design was to reduce the amount of material needed to fabricate a structure with the desired angles to increase the range of stiffness of the scaffolds. Compression tests were conducted to obtain the elastic modulus and the strength. Both parameters increased as the angle decreased. Finally, the specific strength of the gyroid structures was compared with that of the diamond structures and other types of structures. It is shown that, for angles lower than 35°, the gyroid structures had a high strength to weight ratios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural and Thermal Characterization of Ti+O Ion Implanted UltraHigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Oztarhan, A.; Urkac, E. Sokullu; Kaya, N.; Tihminlioglu, F.; Ila, D.; Chhay, B.; Muntele, C.; Budak, S.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.

    2009-03-10

    In this work, Metal-Gas Hybrid Ion Implantation technique was used as a tool for the surface modification of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE). Samples were Ti+O ion implanted by using Metal-Vapour Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implanter to a fluence of 5x10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2} for each species and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Untreated and surface treated samples were investigated by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) Spectrometry, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Results indicate that Ti+O ion implantation can be applied on UHMWPE surfaces successfully. ATR-FTIR spectra indicate that the C-H concentration on the surface decreased after Ti+O implantation. Thermal characterization with TGA and DSC shows that polymeric decomposition temperature is shifted after ion implantation.

  5. Ti-6Al-4V triply periodic minimal surface structures for bone implants fabricated via selective laser melting.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chunze; Hao, Liang; Hussein, Ahmed; Young, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) structures have already been shown to be a versatile source of biomorphic scaffold designs. Therefore, in this work, Ti-6Al-4V Gyroid and Diamond TPMS lattices having an interconnected high porosity of 80-95% and pore sizes in the range of 560-1600 μm and 480-1450 μm respectively were manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) for bone implants. The manufacturability, microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices were evaluated. Comparison between 3D micro-CT reconstructed models and original CAD models of the Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices shows excellent reproduction of the designs. The as-built Ti-6Al-4V struts exhibit the microstructure of columnar grains filled with very fine and orthogonally oriented α' martensitic laths with the width of 100-300 nm and have the microhardness of 4.01 ± 0.34 GPa. After heat treatment at 680°C for 4h, the α' martensite was converted to a mixture of α and β, in which the α phase being the dominant fraction is present as fine laths with the width of 500-800 nm and separated by a small amount of narrow, interphase regions of dark β phase. Also, the microhardness is decreased to 3.71 ± 0.35 GPa due to the coarsening of the microstructure. The 80-95% porosity TPMS lattices exhibit a comparable porosity with trabecular bone, and the modulus is in the range of 0.12-1.25 GPa and thus can be adjusted to the modulus of trabecular bone. At the same range of porosity of 5-10%, the moduli of cortical bone and of the Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices are in a similar range. Therefore, the modulus and porosity of Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices can be tailored to the levels of human bones and thus reduce or avoid "stress shielding" and increase longevity of implants. Due to the biomorphic designs, and high interconnected porosity and stiffness comparable to human bones, SLM-made Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices can be a promising material for load bearing bone implants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  6. Fabrication and Structural Characterization of Co-implanted Ultra Shallow Junctions for Integration in Piezoresistive Silicon Sensors Compatible with CMOS Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Mustafa, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fabrication and structural characterization of Indium and Carbon implanted n-type Silicon layers forming ultra-shallow junction for integration in piezoresistive sensors compatible with CMOS processing is studied in detail. The co-implantation technology together with medium range annealing temperature regimes seem to play an important role at atomistic level and provide a process control to engineer the strain and maintain the quality of surface/layer/active device region for further manufacturing process cycle. This is likely to impact the yield and reliability for the fabrication of these devices for diverse applications.

  7. Photogrammetric detection technique for rotor blades structural characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enei, C.; Bernardini, G.; Serafini, J.; Mattioni, L.; Ficuciello, C.; Vezzari, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes an innovative use of photogrammetric detection techniques to experimentally estimate structural/inertial properties of helicopter rotor blades. The identification algorithms for the evaluation of mass and flexural stiffness distributions are an extension of the ones proposed by Larsen, whereas the procedure for torsional properties determination (stiffness and shear center position) is based on the Euler-Prandtl beam theory. These algorithms rely on measurements performed through photogrammetric detection, which requires the collection of digital photos allowing the identification of 3D coordinates of labeled points (markers) on the structure through the correlation of 2D pictures. The displacements are evaluated by comparing the positions of markers in loaded and reference configuration. Being the applied loads known, the structural characteristics can be directly obtained from the measured displacements. The accuracy of the proposed identification algorithms has been firstly verified by comparison with numerical and experimental data, and then applied to the structural characterization of two main rotor blades, designed for ultra-light helicopter applications.

  8. Rutherford backscattering and channelling studies of erbium implanted SIMOX **

    SIMOX: separation by implanted oxygen.

    structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingping; Tang, Y. S.; Hemment, P. L. F.; Sealy, B. J.

    1990-04-01

    The behaviour of 250 keV 166Er + implanted into SIMOX structures has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering and channelling analysis. The implantation doses were 1.5 ×10 14 cm -2 and 1.5 × 10 15 cm -2. Both conventional furnace and rapid therm annealing were carried out in the temperature range 600°C-1100°C. Regrowth of the amorphized silicon and redistribution of the erbium were found to be strongly influenced by the status of the damaged layer. Different regrowth processes of the completely damaged silicon overlayer were suggested respectively for conventional furnace and rapid thermal annealing. It is found that the regrowth rate increases rapidly when the temperature is higher than 900° C in both cases. The redistribution of the erbium atoms was controlled by the regrowth boundary between the damaged and the recrystallized silicon.

  9. Language Structures Used by Kindergartners with Cochlear Implants: Relationship to Phonological Awareness, Lexical Knowledge and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Sansom, Emily; Low, Keri; Rice, Caitlin; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective Listeners use their knowledge of how language is structured to aid speech recognition in everyday communication. When it comes to children with congenital hearing loss severe enough to warrant cochlear implants (CIs), the question arises of whether these children can acquire the language knowledge needed to aid speech recognition, in spite of only having spectrally degraded signals available to them. That question was addressed in the current study. Specifically there were three goals: (1) to compare the language structures used by children with CIs to those of children with normal hearing (NH); (2) to assess the amount of variance in the language measures explained by phonological awareness and lexical knowledge; and (3) to assess the amount of variance in the language measures explained by factors related to the hearing loss itself and subsequent treatment. Design Language samples were obtained and transcribed for 40 children who had just completed kindergarten: 19 with NH and 21 with CIs. Five measures were derived from Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT): (1) mean length of utterance in morphemes, (2) number of conjunctions, excluding and, (3) number of personal pronouns, (4) number of bound morphemes, and (5) number of different words. Measures were also collected on phonological awareness and lexical knowledge. Statistics examined group differences, as well as the amount of variance in the language measures explained by phonological awareness, lexical knowledge, and factors related to hearing loss and its treatment for children with CIs. Results Mean scores of children with CIs were roughly one standard deviation below those of children with NH on all language measures, including lexical knowledge, matching outcomes of other studies. Mean scores of children with CIs were closer to two standard deviations below those of children with NH on two out of three measures of phonological awareness (specifically those related to phonemic

  10. Detection of bondline delaminations in multilayer structures with lossy components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Winfree, William P.; Smith, B. T.; Heyman, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    The detection of bondline delaminations in multilayer structures using ultrasonic reflection techniques is a generic problem in adhesively bonded composite structures such as the Space Shuttles's Solid Rocket Motors (SRM). Standard pulse echo ultrasonic techniques do not perform well for a composite resonator composed of a resonant layer combined with attenuating layers. Excessive ringing in the resonant layer tends to mask internal echoes emanating from the attenuating layers. The SRM is made up of a resonant steel layer backed by layers of adhesive, rubber, liner and fuel, which are ultrasonically attenuating. The structure's response is modeled as a lossy ultrasonic transmission line. The model predicts that the acoustic response of the system is sensitive to delaminations at the interior bondlines in a few narrow frequency bands. These predictions are verified by measurements on a fabricated system. Successful imaging of internal delaminations is sensitive to proper selection of the interrogating frequency. Images of fabricated bondline delaminations are presented based on these studies.

  11. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.

  12. Penile Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Three-piece inflatable implants use a fluid-filled reservoir implanted under the abdominal wall, a pump and ... an erection, you pump the fluid from the reservoir into the cylinders. Afterward, you release the valve ...

  13. The effects of the covalent attachment of 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propyl amine to glutaraldehyde pre-treated bovine pericardium on structural degeneration, oxidative modification and calcification of rat subdermal implants

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Abigail J.; Alferiev, Ivan S.; Connolly, Jeanne M.; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Levy, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) fabricated from glutaraldehyde pretreated heterograft materials, porcine aortic valves or bovine pericardium (BP), are widely used in cardiac surgery. BHV progressively fail in clinical use due to structural degeneration. Previously we reported that dityrosine, an oxidized amino acid, was present in failed clinical BP-BHV explants; unimplanted BP had no detectable dityrosine. In the same studies BP were demonstrated in vitro to be susceptible to oxidative damage, that could be mitigated with BP covalently modified with the antioxidant, 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propyl amine (DBP). The present studies compared in rat subdermal implants glutaraldehyde pretreated BP to BP modified with either DBP or the chemical reactions used to link DBP. All BP explants regardless of DBP demonstrated reduced hydroxyproline and increased digestibility by collagenase. However, the DBP-BP explants showed significant inhibition of reduced explant shrink temperatures (an index of crosslinking) compared to control BP. Significant mitigation of calcification was observed in both the BP-DBP and chemically modified explants compared to BP. Dityrosine was not detectable in the 90 day explants. It is concluded that rat subdermal BP implants undergo both calcific and non-calcific structural degeneration, but without the formation of dityrosine, unlike clinical BP explants. PMID:25546235

  14. The effects of the covalent attachment of 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl) propyl amine to glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium on structural degeneration, oxidative modification, and calcification of rat subdermal implants.

    PubMed

    Christian, Abigail J; Alferiev, Ivan S; Connolly, Jeanne M; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Levy, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) fabricated from glutaraldehyde pretreated heterograft materials, porcine aortic valves or bovine pericardium (BP), are widely used in cardiac surgery. BHV progressively fail in clinical use due to structural degeneration. Previously we reported that dityrosine, an oxidized amino acid, was present in failed clinical BP-BHV explants; unimplanted BP had no detectable dityrosine. In the same studies BP were demonstrated in vitro to be susceptible to oxidative damage, that could be mitigated with BP covalently modified with the antioxidant, 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propyl amine (DBP). The present studies compared in rat subdermal implants glutaraldehyde pretreated BP to BP modified with either DBP or the chemical reactions used to link DBP. All BP explants regardless of DBP demonstrated reduced hydroxyproline and increased digestibility by collagenase. However, the DBP-BP explants showed significant inhibition of reduced explant shrink temperatures (an index of crosslinking) as compared with control BP. Significant mitigation of calcification was observed in both the BP-DBP and chemically modified explants as compared with BP. Dityrosine was not detectable in the 90 day explants. It is concluded that rat subdermal BP implants undergo both calcific and noncalcific structural degeneration, but without the formation of dityrosine, unlike clinical BP explants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. TEM investigation of the surface layer structure [111]{sub B2} of the single NiTi crystal modified by the Si-ion beam implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Girsova, S. L. Poletika, T. M.; Meisner, S. N. Meisner, L. L.

    2015-10-27

    The study was carried on for the single NiTi crystals subjected to the Si-ion beam implantation. Using the transmission electron microscopy technique (TEM), the surface layer structure [111]{sub B2} was examined for the treated material. The modified near-surface sublayers were found to have different composition. Thus the uppermost sublayer contained mostly oxides; the lower-lying modified sublayer material was in an amorphous state and the thin underlying sublayer had a defect structure.

  16. Optoelectronic leak detection system for monitoring subsea structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moodie, D.,; Costello, L.; McStay, D.

    2010-04-01

    Leak detection and monitoring on subsea structures is an area of increasing interest for the detection and monitoring of production and control fluids for the oil and gas industry. Current techniques such as capacitive (dielectric) based measurement or passive acoustic systems have limitations and we report here an optoelectronic solution based upon fluorescence spectroscopy to provide a permanent monitoring solution. We report here a new class of optoelectronic subsea sensor for permanent, real time monitoring of hydrocarbon production systems. The system is capable of detecting small leaks of production or hydraulic fluid (ppm levels) over distances of 4-5 meters in a subsea environment. Ideally systems designed for such applications should be capable of working at depths of up to 3000m unattended for periods of 20+ years. The system uses advanced single emitter LED technology to meet the challenges of lifetime, power consumption, spatial coverage and delivery of a cost effective solution. The system is designed for permanent deployment on Christmas tree (XT), subsea processing systems (SPS) and associated equipment to provide enhanced leak detection capability.

  17. Detection of Critical Camera Configurations for Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, M.; Mayer, H.

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the detection of critical, i.e., poor or degenerate camera configurations, with a poor or undefined intersection geometry between views. This is the basis for a calibrated Structure from Motion (SfM) approach employing image triplets for complex, unordered image sets, e.g., obtained by combining terrestrial images and images from small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). Poor intersection geometry results from a small ratio between the baseline length and the depth of the scene. If there is no baseline between views, the intersection geometry becomes undefined. Our approach can detect image pairs without or with a very weak baseline (motion degeneracy). For the detection we have developed various metrics and evaluated them by means of extensive experiments with about 1500 image pairs. The metrics are based on properties of the reconstructed 3D points, such as the roundness of the error ellipsoid. The detection of weak baselines is formulated as a classification problem using the metrics as features. Machine learning techniques are applied to improve the classification. By taking into account the critical camera configurations during the iterative composition of the image set, a complete, metric 3D reconstruction of the whole scene could be achieved also in this case. We sketch our approach for the orientation of unordered image sets and finally demonstrate that the approach is able to produce very accurate and reliable orientations.

  18. The challenges and importance of structural variation detection in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Bickhart, Derek M.; Liu, George E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in humans and other model organisms have demonstrated that structural variants (SVs) comprise a substantial proportion of variation among individuals of each species. Many of these variants have been linked to debilitating diseases in humans, thereby cementing the importance of refining methods for their detection. Despite progress in the field, reliable detection of SVs still remains a problem even for human subjects. Many of the underlying problems that make SVs difficult to detect in humans are amplified in livestock species, whose lower quality genome assemblies and incomplete gene annotation can often give rise to false positive SV discoveries. Regardless of the challenges, SV detection is just as important for livestock researchers as it is for human researchers, given that several productive traits and diseases have been linked to copy number variations (CNVs) in cattle, sheep, and pig. Already, there is evidence that many beneficial SVs have been artificially selected in livestock such as a duplication of the agouti signaling protein gene that causes white coat color in sheep. In this review, we will list current SV and CNV discoveries in livestock and discuss the problems that hinder routine discovery and tracking of these polymorphisms. We will also discuss the impacts of selective breeding on CNV and SV frequencies and mention how SV genotyping could be used in the future to improve genetic selection. PMID:24600474

  19. Online anomaly detection in crowd scenes via structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Fang, Jianwu; Wang, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal behavior detection in crowd scenes is continuously a challenge in the field of computer vision. For tackling this problem, this paper starts from a novel structure modeling of crowd behavior. We first propose an informative structural context descriptor (SCD) for describing the crowd individual, which originally introduces the potential energy function of particle's interforce in solid-state physics to intuitively conduct vision contextual cueing. For computing the crowd SCD variation effectively, we then design a robust multi-object tracker to associate the targets in different frames, which employs the incremental analytical ability of the 3-D discrete cosine transform (DCT). By online spatial-temporal analyzing the SCD variation of the crowd, the abnormality is finally localized. Our contribution mainly lies on three aspects: 1) the new exploration of abnormal detection from structure modeling where the motion difference between individuals is computed by a novel selective histogram of optical flow that makes the proposed method can deal with more kinds of anomalies; 2) the SCD description that can effectively represent the relationship among the individuals; and 3) the 3-D DCT multi-object tracker that can robustly associate the limited number of (instead of all) targets which makes the tracking analysis in high density crowd situation feasible. Experimental results on several publicly available crowd video datasets verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Damage Detection in Composite Structures with Wavenumber Array Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) have the potential to be an efficient and cost-effective method for rapid damage detection and quantification of large structures. Attractive features include sensitivity to a variety of damage types and the capability of traveling relatively long distances. They have proven to be an efficient approach for crack detection and localization in isotropic materials. However, techniques must be pushed beyond isotropic materials in order to be valid for composite aircraft components. This paper presents our study on GUW propagation and interaction with delamination damage in composite structures using wavenumber array data processing, together with advanced wave propagation simulations. Parallel elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used for the example simulations. Multi-dimensional Fourier transform is used to convert time-space wavefield data into frequency-wavenumber domain. Wave propagation in the wavenumber-frequency domain shows clear distinction among the guided wave modes that are present. This allows for extracting a guided wave mode through filtering and reconstruction techniques. Presence of delamination causes spectral change accordingly. Results from 3D CFRP guided wave simulations with delamination damage in flat-plate specimens are used for wave interaction with structural defect study.

  1. Damage Detection in Composite Structures with Wavenumber Array Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) have the potential to be an efficient and cost-effective method for rapid damage detection and quantification of large structures. Attractive features include sensitivity to a variety of damage types and the capability of traveling relatively long distances. They have proven to be an efficient approach for crack detection and localization in isotropic materials. However, techniques must be pushed beyond isotropic materials in order to be valid for composite aircraft components. This paper presents our study on GUW propagation and interaction with delamination damage in composite structures using wavenumber array data processing, together with advanced wave propagation simulations. Parallel elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used for the example simulations. Multi-dimensional Fourier transform is used to convert time-space wavefield data into frequency-wavenumber domain. Wave propagation in the wavenumber-frequency domain shows clear distinction among the guided wave modes that are present. This allows for extracting a guided wave mode through filtering and reconstruction techniques. Presence of delamination causes spectral change accordingly. Results from 3D CFRP guided wave simulations with delamination damage in flat-plate specimens are used for wave interaction with structural defect study.

  2. Detection of new emission structures around planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, C. T.; Dopita, M. A.; Martinis, J.

    1998-12-01

    Deep monochromatic observations are presented for 22 galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) performed through narrow-band interference filters, in the direct imaging mode with i) the New Zealand (MJUO) f/7.8 Mc-Lellan telescope, ii) the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP) f/6 120-cm telescope, and iii) and the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) ATT 2.3 metre telescope. Some of them are observed for the first time. Conspicuous secondary structures are detected far around the conventional nebular pictures. Such features could be relics of early mass ejections during the post-AGB phase of the progenitors. Alternatively, they are more plausibly projections of external loops/bubbles of the ``bar-bell'' shape upon the waist (for face-on PNe). We suggest that such structures (cf. Sh 1-89, Hua 1997) are intrinsic to all PNe. Their apparently diverse morphologies would ``simply'' result from projections of a same PN intrinsic structure at different view angles onto the plane of sky and with respect to the major axis as well. In addition we report the detection of a new nebula in the field of NGC 3699 (50'' distant). Absolute fluxes are provided for three emission lines. The observations were carried out at the Siding Spring Observatory operated by the Australian National University, Australia. NGC 6853 was observed at the Haute Provence Observatory-CNRS 1.20-m telescope, France.

  3. A structural framework for anomalous change detection and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman; Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    We present a spatially adaptive scheme for automatically searching a pair of images of a scene for unusual and interesting changes. Our motivation is to bring into play structural aspects of image features alongside the spectral attributes used for anomalous change detection (ACD). We leverage a small but informative subset of pixels, namely edge pixels of the images, as anchor points of a Delaunay triangulation to jointly decompose the images into a set of triangular regions, called trixels, which are spectrally uniform. Such decomposition helps in image regularization by simple-function approximation on a feature-adaptive grid. Applying ACD to this trixel grid instead of pixels offers several advantages. It allows: (1) edge-preserving smoothing of images, (2) speed-up of spatial computations by significantly reducing the representation of the images, and (3) the easy recovery of structure of the detected anomalous changes by associating anomalous trixels with polygonal image features. The latter facility further enables the application of shape-theoretic criteria and algorithms to characterize the changes and recognize them as interesting or not. This incorporation of spatial information has the potential to filter out some spurious changes, such as due to parallax, shadows, and misregistration, by identifying and filtering out those that are structurally similar and spatially pervasive. Our framework supports the joint spatial and spectral analysis of images, potentially enabling the design of more robust ACD algorithms.

  4. Impedance Based Detection of Delamination in Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djemana, M.; Hrairi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays commercial and military aircrafts are increasingly using composite materials to take advantage of their excellent specific strength and stiffness properties but impacts on composites due to bird-strike, hail-storm cause barely visible impact damage (BVID) that underscores the need for robust structural health monitoring methods. Hence, damage identification in composite materials is a widely researched area that has to deal with problems coming from the anisotropic nature of composites and the fact that much of the damage occurs beneath the top surface of the laminate. This paper focuses on understanding self-sensing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to conduct electromechanical impedance (EMI) in glass fibre reinforced polymer composite to perform structural health monitoring. With the aid of a 3D ANSYS finite element model, an analysis of different techniques for the detection of position and size of a delamination in a composite structure using piezoelectric patches had been performed. The real part of the impedance is used because it is known to be more reactive to damage or changes in the structure’s integrity and less sensitive to ambient temperature changes compared to the imaginary part. Comparison with experimental results is presented to validate the FE results. The experimental setup utilizes as its main apparatus an impedance analyser HP4194 that reads the in-situ EMI of PWAS bonded to the monitored composite structure. A good match between experimental and numerical results has been observed for low and high frequencies. The analysis in this paper provides necessary basis for delamination detection in composite structures using EMI technique

  5. FRF-based structural damage detection of controlled buildings with podium structures: Experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. L.; Huang, Q.; Zhan, S.; Su, Z. Q.; Liu, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    How to use control devices to enhance system identification and damage detection in relation to a structure that requires both vibration control and structural health monitoring is an interesting yet practical topic. In this study, the possibility of using the added stiffness provided by control devices and frequency response functions (FRFs) to detect damage in a building complex was explored experimentally. Scale models of a 12-storey main building and a 3-storey podium structure were built to represent a building complex. Given that the connection between the main building and the podium structure is most susceptible to damage, damage to the building complex was experimentally simulated by changing the connection stiffness. To simulate the added stiffness provided by a semi-active friction damper, a steel circular ring was designed and used to add the related stiffness to the building complex. By varying the connection stiffness using an eccentric wheel excitation system and by adding or not adding the circular ring, eight cases were investigated and eight sets of FRFs were measured. The experimental results were used to detect damage (changes in connection stiffness) using a recently proposed FRF-based damage detection method. The experimental results showed that the FRF-based damage detection method could satisfactorily locate and quantify damage.

  6. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    PubMed

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue.

  7. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation

    PubMed Central

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue. PMID:25891652

  8. Detection of damage in welded structure using experimental modal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Husain, N.; Ouyang, H.

    2011-07-01

    A typical automotive structure could contain thousands of spot weld joints that contribute significantly to the vehicle's structural stiffness and dynamic characteristics. However, some of these joints may be imperfect or even absent during the manufacturing process and they are also highly susceptible to damage due to operational and environmental conditions during the vehicle lifetime. Therefore, early detection and estimation of damage are important so necessary actions can be taken to avoid further problems. Changes in physical parameters due to existence of damage in a structure often leads to alteration of vibration modes; thus demonstrating the dependency between the vibration characteristics and the physical properties of structures. A sensitivity-based model updating method, performed using a combination of MATLAB and NASTRAN, has been selected for the purpose of this work. The updating procedure is regarded as parameter identification which aims to bring the numerical prediction to be as closely as possible to the measured natural frequencies and mode shapes data of the damaged structure in order to identify the damage parameters (characterised by the reductions in the Young's modulus of the weld patches to indicate the loss of material/stiffness at the damage region).

  9. Algorithms of Crescent Structure Detection in Human Biological Fluid Facies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikov, V. R.; Malenova, O. E.; Yashina, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    One of the effective methods of early medical diagnosis is based on the image analysis of human biological fluids. In the process of fluid crystallization there appear characteristic patterns (markers) in the resulting layer (facies). Each marker is a highly probable sign of some pathology even at an early stage of a disease development. When mass health examination is carried out, it is necessary to analyze a large number of images. That is why, the problem of algorithm and software development for automated processing of images is rather urgent nowadays. This paper presents algorithms to detect a crescent structures in images of blood serum and cervical mucus facies. Such a marker indicates the symptoms of ischemic disease. The algorithm presented detects this marker with high probability when the probability of false alarm is low.

  10. Information-theoretical noninvasive damage detection in bridge structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudu Ambegedara, Amila; Sun, Jie; Janoyan, Kerop; Bollt, Erik

    2016-11-01

    Damage detection of mechanical structures such as bridges is an important research problem in civil engineering. Using spatially distributed sensor time series data collected from a recent experiment on a local bridge in Upper State New York, we study noninvasive damage detection using information-theoretical methods. Several findings are in order. First, the time series data, which represent accelerations measured at the sensors, more closely follow Laplace distribution than normal distribution, allowing us to develop parameter estimators for various information-theoretic measures such as entropy and mutual information. Second, as damage is introduced by the removal of bolts of the first diaphragm connection, the interaction between spatially nearby sensors as measured by mutual information becomes weaker, suggesting that the bridge is "loosened." Finally, using a proposed optimal mutual information interaction procedure to prune away indirect interactions, we found that the primary direction of interaction or influence aligns with the traffic direction on the bridge even after damaging the bridge.

  11. Structured Light-Based Hazard Detection For Planetary Surface Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara; Wong, Uland Y.; Dille, Michael; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Edwards, Laurence; To, Vinh; Deans, Matthew; Fong, Terry

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a structured light-based sensor for hazard avoidance in planetary environments. The system presented here can also be used in terrestrial applications constrained by reduced onboard power and computational complexity and low illumination conditions. The sensor is on a calibrated camera and laser dot projector system. The onboard hazard avoidance system determines the position of the projected dots in the image and through a triangulation process detects potential hazards. The paper presents the design parameters for this sensor and describes the image based solution for hazard avoidance. The system presented here was tested extensively in day and night conditions in Lunar analogue environments. The current system achieves over 97 detection rate with 1.7 false alarms over 2000 images.

  12. Detecting and representing predictable structure during auditory scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Sohoglu, Ediz; Chait, Maria

    2016-09-07

    We use psychophysics and MEG to test how sensitivity to input statistics facilitates auditory-scene-analysis (ASA). Human subjects listened to 'scenes' comprised of concurrent tone-pip streams (sources). On occasional trials a new source appeared partway. Listeners were more accurate and quicker to detect source appearance in scenes comprised of temporally-regular (REG), rather than random (RAND), sources. MEG in passive listeners and those actively detecting appearance events revealed increased sustained activity in auditory and parietal cortex in REG relative to RAND scenes, emerging ~400 ms of scene-onset. Over and above this, appearance in REG scenes was associated with increased responses relative to RAND scenes. The effect of temporal structure on appearance-evoked responses was delayed when listeners were focused on the scenes relative to when listening passively, consistent with the notion that attention reduces 'surprise'. Overall, the results implicate a mechanism that tracks predictability of multiple concurrent sources to facilitate active and passive ASA.

  13. Information-theoretical noninvasive damage detection in bridge structures.

    PubMed

    Sudu Ambegedara, Amila; Sun, Jie; Janoyan, Kerop; Bollt, Erik

    2016-11-01

    Damage detection of mechanical structures such as bridges is an important research problem in civil engineering. Using spatially distributed sensor time series data collected from a recent experiment on a local bridge in Upper State New York, we study noninvasive damage detection using information-theoretical methods. Several findings are in order. First, the time series data, which represent accelerations measured at the sensors, more closely follow Laplace distribution than normal distribution, allowing us to develop parameter estimators for various information-theoretic measures such as entropy and mutual information. Second, as damage is introduced by the removal of bolts of the first diaphragm connection, the interaction between spatially nearby sensors as measured by mutual information becomes weaker, suggesting that the bridge is "loosened." Finally, using a proposed optimal mutual information interaction procedure to prune away indirect interactions, we found that the primary direction of interaction or influence aligns with the traffic direction on the bridge even after damaging the bridge.

  14. Structured learning via convolutional neural networks for vehicle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqueda, Ana I.; del Blanco, Carlos R.; Jaureguizar, Fernando; García, Narciso

    2017-05-01

    One of the main tasks in a vision-based traffic monitoring system is the detection of vehicles. Recently, deep neural networks have been successfully applied to this end, outperforming previous approaches. However, most of these works generally rely on complex and high-computational region proposal networks. Others employ deep neural networks as a segmentation strategy to achieve a semantic representation of the object of interest, which has to be up-sampled later. In this paper, a new design for a convolutional neural network is applied to vehicle detection in highways for traffic monitoring. This network generates a spatially structured output that encodes the vehicle locations. Promising results have been obtained in the GRAM-RTM dataset.

  15. Pore structures in an implantable sol gel titania ceramic device used in controlled drug release applications: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Aaron; Lopez, Tessy; Islas, Emma Ortiz; Gonzalez, Richard D.

    2007-04-01

    Several process variables, which may be helpful in optimizing the rate at which drugs are released from implantable, sol-gel titania devices have been identified in this study. The controlled rate of drug release is compared for two different anticonvulsant drugs, valproic acid and sodic phenytoin. Contrary to what one might expect, when the concentration is increased in the titania reservoir the rate of initial drug delivery decreases. This is a desirable result, because it may reduce the danger of a high initial discharge, which may harm the epileptic rat. The structure of the porous structure within the titania network has been studied using a generalized form of the BET equation which considers only n layers. In general, following an initial discharge, the rate at which the drug is released will increase with the increasing concentration. Pore mouth blocking can present a problem. However, this problem tends to disappear following the initial discharge. The extent of drug loading is a useful variable parameter, which can be adjusted in order to deliver the amount of drug required in a given application.

  16. Structural and mechanical implications of PMMA implant shape and interface geometry in cranioplasty--A finite element study.

    PubMed

    Ridwan-Pramana, Angela; Marcián, Petr; Borák, Libor; Narra, Nathaniel; Forouzanfar, Tim; Wolff, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This computational study investigates the effect of shape (defect contour curvature) and bone-implant interface (osteotomy angle) on the stress distribution within PMMA skull implants. Using finite element methodology, 15 configurations--combinations of simplified synthetic geometric shapes (circular, square, triangular, irregular) and interface angulations--were simulated under 50N static loads. Furthermore, the implant fixation devices were modelled and analysed in detail. Negative osteotomy configurations demonstrated the largest stresses in the implant (275 MPa), fixation devices (1258 MPa) and bone strains (0.04). The circular implant with zero and positive osteotomy performed well with maximum observed magnitudes of--implant stress (1.2 MPa and 1.2 MPa), fixation device stress (11.2 MPa and 2.2 MPa), bone strain (0.218e-3 and 0.750e-4). The results suggest that the preparation of defect sites is a critical procedure. Of the greatest importance is the angle at which the edges of the defect are sawed. If under an external load, the implant has no support from the interface and the stresses are transferred to the fixation devices. This can endanger their material integrity and lead to unphysiological strains in the adjacent bone, potentially compromising the bone morphology required for anchoring. These factors can ultimately weaken the stability of the entire implant assembly.

  17. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993) noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis) as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position) which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0–20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary. PMID:27973530

  18. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    PubMed

    Doughty, Christopher E; Wolf, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993) noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis) as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position) which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  19. Do Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents detect coherent structures?

    PubMed

    Karrasch, Daniel; Haller, George

    2013-12-01

    Ridges of the Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponent (FSLE) field have been used as indicators of hyperbolic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). A rigorous mathematical link between the FSLE and LCSs, however, has been missing. Here, we prove that an FSLE ridge satisfying certain conditions does signal a nearby ridge of some Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) field, which in turn indicates a hyperbolic LCS under further conditions. Other FSLE ridges violating our conditions, however, are seen to be false positives for LCSs. We also find further limitations of the FSLE in Lagrangian coherence detection, including ill-posedness, artificial jump-discontinuities, and sensitivity with respect to the computational time step.

  20. Do Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents detect coherent structures?

    SciTech Connect

    Karrasch, Daniel; Haller, George

    2013-12-15

    Ridges of the Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponent (FSLE) field have been used as indicators of hyperbolic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). A rigorous mathematical link between the FSLE and LCSs, however, has been missing. Here, we prove that an FSLE ridge satisfying certain conditions does signal a nearby ridge of some Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) field, which in turn indicates a hyperbolic LCS under further conditions. Other FSLE ridges violating our conditions, however, are seen to be false positives for LCSs. We also find further limitations of the FSLE in Lagrangian coherence detection, including ill-posedness, artificial jump-discontinuities, and sensitivity with respect to the computational time step.

  1. Detection and Location of Structural Degradation in Mechanical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, E.D.; Damiano, B.; Phillips, L.D.

    1999-08-30

    The investigation of a diagnostic method for detecting and locating the source of structural degradation in a mechanical system is described in this paper. The diagnostic method uses a mathematical model of the mechanical system to determine relationships between system parameters and measurable spectral features. These relationships are incorporated into a neural network, which associates measured spectral features with system parameters. Condition diagnosis is performed by presenting the neural network with measured spectral features and comparing the system parameters estimated by the neural network to previously estimated values. Changes in the estimated system parameters indicate the location and severity of degradation in the mechanical system.

  2. Embedded passive wireless sensors for detecting conductivity within RC structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Pasupathy, Praveenkumar; Chou, Chih-Chieh; Wood, Sharon L.; Neikirk, Dean P.

    2011-04-01

    A passive, wireless and inexpensive sensor has been developed to monitor the conductivity of concrete and thereby provide information on the progress of chloride-induced corrosion of the embedded reinforcement in concrete structures. Sensors are designed to be attached to the reinforcement cages before placement of the concrete in new construction or in portions of rehabilitated structures. Sensors will then be interrogated intermittently over the service life during routine inspections. The results of two experimental investigations are discussed in this paper. In the first, conductivity sensors were submerged in liquids of increasing conductivity. In the second, conductivity sensors were embedded in concrete cylinders and interrogated over a 25-week period during initial set and curing of the concrete. Analysis of the measured data shows that the passive conductivity sensors were successful in detecting a variety of conductivity levels in the concrete.

  3. Procedure to detect anatomical structures in optical fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Lalonde, Marc; Beaulieu, Mario; Boucher, Marie-Carole

    2001-07-01

    We present an overview of the design and test of an image processing procedure for detecting all important anatomical structures in color fundus images. These structures are the optic disk, the macula and the retinal network. The algorithm proceeds through five main steps: (1) automatic mask generation using pixels value statistics and color threshold, (2) visual image quality assessment using histogram matching and Canny edge distribution modeling, (3) optic disk localization using pyramidal decomposition, Hausdorff-based template matching and confidence assignment, (4) macula localization using pyramidal decomposition and (5) bessel network tracking using recursive dual edge tracking and connectivity recovering. The procedure has been tested on a database of about 40 color fundus images acquired from a digital non-mydriatic fundus camera. The database is composed of images of various types (macula- and optic disk-centered) and of various visual quality (with or without abnormal bright or dark regions, blurred, etc).

  4. A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

    2013-01-01

    This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

  5. Community structures and role detection in music networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitelbaum, T.; Balenzuela, P.; Cano, P.; Buldú, Javier M.

    2008-12-01

    We analyze the existence of community structures in two different social networks using data obtained from similarity and collaborative features between musical artists. Our analysis reveals some characteristic organizational patterns and provides information about the driving forces behind the growth of the networks. In the similarity network, we find a strong correlation between clusters of artists and musical genres. On the other hand, the collaboration network shows two different kinds of communities: rather small structures related to music bands and geographic zones, and much bigger communities built upon collaborative clusters with a high number of participants related through the period the artists were active. Finally, we detect the leading artists inside their corresponding communities and analyze their roles in the network by looking at a few topological properties of the nodes.

  6. Detection of Lewis antigen structural change by FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A T; Jones, K; Lewis, K E; Jones, S; Lewis, P D

    2013-02-15

    Mucins are a family of extensively glycosylated, high molecular weight glycoproteins. Secretion of mucins with altered terminal carbohydrate moieties alters the rheological and viscoelastic properties of mucus and observed glycosylation changes in respiratory diseases may vary with disease status. Structural modifications to the Lewis x antigen with sialic acid (sialyl-Lewis x) and sulphate (sulfo-Lewis x) in particular are associated with respiratory diseases and deemed potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis, severity and progression. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect, via infrared (IR) spectra, the structural changes between the Lewis x antigen and sialylated and sulphated derivatives. Although FTIR only provides information on vibrations of chemical groups, we show that by comparing mono- and oligosaccharide specific IR spectra it is possible to determine the contribution of key sugar moieties to the altered Lewis x spectral pattern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interest area selection for navigation based on structured edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao; Shang, Ke; Li, ShaoJun; Dou, Hao; Tian, JinWen; Ming, Delie

    2015-12-01

    The scene matching based navigation is an important precision navigation technology for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Selection of interest area where reference image is made has an important influence on the precision of matching result besides the performance of match algorithm. In this paper, a method to select interest area based on structured edge detection is proposed. We use a data driven approach that classifies each pixel with a typical structured edge label. We propose a method that combines these labels into a feature measuring suitable to match of a region. Then a SVM classifier is trained to classify the features and get the final result of the selection of interest area. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is valid and effective.

  8. 3D lattice distortions and defect structures in ion-implanted nano-crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Hofmann, Felix; Robinson, Ian K.; Tarleton, Edmund; ...

    2017-04-06

    The ability of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) techniques to cut solid matter at the nano-scale revolutionized the study of material structure across the life-, earth- and material sciences. But a detailed understanding of the damage caused by the ion beam and its effect on material properties remains elusive. We examine this damage in 3D using coherent X-ray diffraction to measure the full lattice strain tensor in FIB-milled gold nano-crystals. We also found that even very low ion doses, previously thought to be negligible, cause substantial lattice distortions. At higher doses, extended self-organized defect structures appear. Combined with detailed numerical calculations,more » these observations allow fundamental insight into the nature of the damage created and the structural instabilities that lead to a surprisingly inhomogeneous morphology.« less

  9. Ti-Nb-(Zr,Ta) superelastic alloys for medical implants: Thermomechanical processing, structure, phase transformations and functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinskiy, Sergey

    The aim of this project is to develop a new class of orthopaedic implant materials that combine the excellent biocompatibility of pure titanium with the outstanding biomechanical compatibility of Ti-Ni-based shape memory alloys. The most suitable candidates for such a role are Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Ta near-beta shape memory alloys. Since this class of materials was developed quite recently, the influence of thermomechanical treatment on their structure and functional properties has not as yet been the subject of any comprehensive study. Consequently, this project is focused on the interrelations between the composition, the microstructure and the functional properties of superelastic Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Ta alloys for biomedical application. The principal objective is to improve the functional properties of these alloys, more specifically their superelastic properties and fatigue resistance, through optimization of the alloys' composition and thermomechanical processing. It is shown in this thesis that the structure and functional properties of Ti-Nb-based shape memory alloys can be effectively controlled by thermomechanical processing including cold deformation with post-deformation annealing and ageing. It is also shown that the formation of nanosubgrain substructure leads to a significant improvement of superelasticity and fatigue resistance in these alloys. The influence of ageing on the ω-phase precipitation kinetics and, consequently, on the functional properties of Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Ta alloys is also observed. Based on the results obtained, optimized regimes of thermomechanical treatment resulting in a best combination of functional properties are recommended for each alloy, from the orthopaedic implant materials standpoint. An original tensile stage for a low-temperature chamber of an X-ray diffractometer is developed and used in this project. A unique low-temperature (-150...+100°C) comparative in situ X-ray study of the transformations' features and crystal

  10. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Extended x-ray absorption fine structure and photoluminescence study of Er-implanted GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wruck, D.; Lorenz, K.; Vianden, R.; Reinhold, B.; Mahnke, H.-E.; Baranowski, J. M.; Pakula, K.; Parthier, L.; Henneberger, F.

    2001-11-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure and photoluminescence studies were performed on epitaxial GaN films implanted with 1×1016 cm-2 Er ions at 80 and 160 keV and, for a part of the samples, co-implanted with oxygen ions at 23 keV, followed by an anneal for 60 min at 900°C. It was shown for the samples both with, as well as without, oxygen co-implantation that Er is incorporated in a six-fold coordination with respect to oxygen, as in the cubic bixbyite structure Er2O3. The oxygen contamination of the non-oxygen-implanted samples is assumed to be due to nitrogen-vacancy-assisted oxygen diffusion from the sapphire substrate during annealing. The Stark level splitting of the 4I15/2 ground state of Er3+ observed in the 1.54 µm photoluminescence at low temperature in both types of samples is consistent with the low symmetry of the Er sites expected in cubic bixbyite Er2O3.

  11. Biomimetic approach to dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Il; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C; Ku, Young

    2008-01-01

    Titanium, as an implant material, is regarded to be durable and biocompatible, which allows functional replacement of missing teeth. Successful dental implantation depends on an osseointegration phenomenon, a direct structural and functional binding reaction between bone and implant. It is well known that physicochemical characteristics of the dental implant surface, such as roughness, topography, chemistry, and electrical charge affect the biological reactions occurring at the interface of tissue and implant. Therefore, considerable efforts have been made to modify the surface of titanium implants which are based on mechanical, physical and chemical treatments. Recently, biological molecules were introduced onto the surface of implants to stimulate osteogenic cells in the early stage of implantation and consequently accelerate bone formation around implant and subsequent rapid implant stabilization. A range of extracellular matrix components, designed peptides, and growth factors have been proposed as the biological moiety. In this review, we address several issues related to the biology of dental implants and discuss biomimetic modification of the implant surface as a novel approach to obtain successful osseointegration.

  12. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Oliemy, Ahmed; Al-Attar, Nawwar

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was developed to offer a therapeutic solution to patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not candidates for conventional aortic valve replacement. The improvement in transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes is still of concern in the areas of stroke, vascular injury, heart block, paravalvular regurgitation and valve durability. Concomitantly, the progress, both technical and in terms of material advances of transcatheter valve systems, as well as in patient selection, renders transcatheter aortic valve implantation an increasingly viable treatment for more and more patients with structural heart disease.

  13. Using chaotic forcing to detect damage in a structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moniz, L.; Nichols, J.; Trickey, S.; Seaver, M.; Pecora, D.; Pecora, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we develop a numerical test for Holder continuity and apply it and another test for continuity to the difficult problem of detecting damage in structures. We subject a thin metal plate with incremental damage to the plate changes, its filtering properties, and therefore the phase space trajectories of the response chaotic excitation of various bandwidths. Damage to the plate changes its filtering properties and therefore the phase space of the response. Because the data are multivariate (the plate is instrumented with multiple sensors) we use a singular value decomposition of the set of the output time series to reduce the embedding dimension of the response time series. We use two geometric tests to compare an attractor reconstructed from data from an undamaged structure to that reconstructed from data from a damaged structure. These two tests translate to testing for both generalized and differentiable synchronization between responses. We show loss of synchronization of responses with damage to the structure. ?? 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  15. Surface plasmon resonance for detecting clenbuterol: Influence of monolayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suherman; Morita, Kinichi; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Surface plasmon resonance sensor equipped with a fabricated immunosensor chip is used for detecting clenbuterol in this study. Since clenbuterol is a small analyte, indirect competitive inhibition immunoassay is employed. For fabricating the immunosurface, the Au-chip was functionalized by succinimidyl-terminated alkanethiol, and the terminal N-hydroxysuccinimide group of the self-assembled monolayer was either replaced with clenbuterol or blocked with ethanolamine. Scanning tunneling microscope experiments and electrochemical measurements depicted the domain structures of the succinimide group of succinimidyl-terminated propanethiol monolayer. The surface concentration and the orientation of succinimide group was significantly dependent on the concentration of dithiobis(succinimidyl) propionate (DSP) used in fabricating the monolayer. Furthermore, the structure of monolayer significantly influenced both the surface concentration and the orientation of clenbuterol on the sensor surface. Consequently, high coverage and standing-up configuration of clenbuterol showed high affinity for clenbuterol antibody. However, high affinity constant exhibited by the sensor surface was coupled with a low sensitivity. By contrast, lowest concentration of DSP solution (0.1 mM) used in fabricating the immunosurface showed a detection sensitivity of 3 ppt - the highest reported sensitivity for clenbuterol. For regeneration the immunosurface, 0.1 M NaOH was used and the same sensor surface could be reused for performing >100 rapid immunoreaction.

  16. Vibration-based detection of fatigue cracks in structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razi, P.; Taheri, F.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the application of a novel vibration based technique for detecting fatigue cracks in structures. The method utilizes the empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) to establish an effective energy-based damage index. To investigate the feasibility of the method, fatigue cracks of different sizes were introduced in an aluminum beam subjected to a cyclic load under three point bending configuration. The vibration signals corresponding to the healthy and the damaged states of the beam were acquired via piezoceramic sensors. The signals were then processed by the proposed methodology to obtain the damage indices. In addition, for the sake of comparison, the natural frequencies of the healthy and damaged states of the beam were obtained through the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The results of this study concluded in two major observations. Firstly, the method was highly successful in not only predicting the presence of the fatigue crack, but also in quantifying its progression. Secondly, the proposed energy-based damage index was proved to be superior over the frequency-based method in terms of sensitivity to the damage detection and quantification. Moreover, this technique could be regarded as an efficient non-destructive tool, since it is simple, cost effective, and does not rely on analytical modelling of the structure.

  17. Structural Damage Detection Using Slopes of Longitudinal Vibration Shapes

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, W.; Zhu, W. D.; Smith, S. A.; ...

    2016-03-18

    While structural damage detection based on flexural vibration shapes, such as mode shapes and steady-state response shapes under harmonic excitation, has been well developed, little attention is paid to that based on longitudinal vibration shapes that also contain damage information. This study originally formulates a slope vibration shape for damage detection in bars using longitudinal vibration shapes. To enhance noise robustness of the method, a slope vibration shape is transformed to a multiscale slope vibration shape in a multiscale domain using wavelet transform, which has explicit physical implication, high damage sensitivity, and noise robustness. These advantages are demonstrated in numericalmore » cases of damaged bars, and results show that multiscale slope vibration shapes can be used for identifying and locating damage in a noisy environment. A three-dimensional (3D) scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure the longitudinal steady-state response shape of an aluminum bar with damage due to reduced cross-sectional dimensions under harmonic excitation, and results show that the method can successfully identify and locate the damage. Slopes of longitudinal vibration shapes are shown to be suitable for damage detection in bars and have potential for applications in noisy environments.« less

  18. Structural Damage Detection Using Slopes of Longitudinal Vibration Shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Zhu, W. D.; Smith, S. A.; Cao, M. S.

    2016-03-18

    While structural damage detection based on flexural vibration shapes, such as mode shapes and steady-state response shapes under harmonic excitation, has been well developed, little attention is paid to that based on longitudinal vibration shapes that also contain damage information. This study originally formulates a slope vibration shape for damage detection in bars using longitudinal vibration shapes. To enhance noise robustness of the method, a slope vibration shape is transformed to a multiscale slope vibration shape in a multiscale domain using wavelet transform, which has explicit physical implication, high damage sensitivity, and noise robustness. These advantages are demonstrated in numerical cases of damaged bars, and results show that multiscale slope vibration shapes can be used for identifying and locating damage in a noisy environment. A three-dimensional (3D) scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure the longitudinal steady-state response shape of an aluminum bar with damage due to reduced cross-sectional dimensions under harmonic excitation, and results show that the method can successfully identify and locate the damage. Slopes of longitudinal vibration shapes are shown to be suitable for damage detection in bars and have potential for applications in noisy environments.

  19. Experimental detection of transverse particle movement with structured light

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Belmonte, Aniceto; Torres, Juan P.

    2013-01-01

    One procedure widely used to detect the velocity of a moving object is by using the Doppler effect. This is the perceived change in frequency of a wave caused by the relative motion between the emitter and the detector, or between the detector and a reflecting target. The relative movement, in turn, generates a time-varying phase which translates into the detected frequency shift. The classical longitudinal Doppler effect is sensitive only to the velocity of the target along the line-of-sight between the emitter and the detector (longitudinal velocity), since any transverse velocity generates no frequency shift. This makes the transverse velocity undetectable in the classical scheme. Although there exists a relativistic transverse Doppler effect, it gives values that are too small for the typical velocities involved in most laser remote sensing applications. Here we experimentally demonstrate a novel way to detect transverse velocities. The key concept is the use of structured light beams. These beams are unique in the sense that their phases can be engineered such that each point in its transverse plane has an associated phase value. When a particle moves across the beam, the reflected light will carry information about the particle's movement through the variation of the phase of the light that reaches the detector, producing a frequency shift associated with the movement of the particle in the transverse plane. PMID:24085150

  20. Automatic detection and quantification of WBCs and RBCs using iterative structured circle detection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Yazan M; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Norul Huda; Zaharatul Azma, Raja; Omar, Khairuddin

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation and counting of blood cells are considered as an important step that helps to extract features to diagnose some specific diseases like malaria or leukemia. The manual counting of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) in microscopic images is an extremely tedious, time consuming, and inaccurate process. Automatic analysis will allow hematologist experts to perform faster and more accurately. The proposed method uses an iterative structured circle detection algorithm for the segmentation and counting of WBCs and RBCs. The separation of WBCs from RBCs was achieved by thresholding, and specific preprocessing steps were developed for each cell type. Counting was performed for each image using the proposed method based on modified circle detection, which automatically counted the cells. Several modifications were made to the basic (RCD) algorithm to solve the initialization problem, detecting irregular circles (cells), selecting the optimal circle from the candidate circles, determining the number of iterations in a fully dynamic way to enhance algorithm detection, and running time. The validation method used to determine segmentation accuracy was a quantitative analysis that included Precision, Recall, and F-measurement tests. The average accuracy of the proposed method was 95.3% for RBCs and 98.4% for WBCs.

  1. Automatic Detection and Quantification of WBCs and RBCs Using Iterative Structured Circle Detection Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Yazan M.; Zaharatul Azma, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation and counting of blood cells are considered as an important step that helps to extract features to diagnose some specific diseases like malaria or leukemia. The manual counting of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) in microscopic images is an extremely tedious, time consuming, and inaccurate process. Automatic analysis will allow hematologist experts to perform faster and more accurately. The proposed method uses an iterative structured circle detection algorithm for the segmentation and counting of WBCs and RBCs. The separation of WBCs from RBCs was achieved by thresholding, and specific preprocessing steps were developed for each cell type. Counting was performed for each image using the proposed method based on modified circle detection, which automatically counted the cells. Several modifications were made to the basic (RCD) algorithm to solve the initialization problem, detecting irregular circles (cells), selecting the optimal circle from the candidate circles, determining the number of iterations in a fully dynamic way to enhance algorithm detection, and running time. The validation method used to determine segmentation accuracy was a quantitative analysis that included Precision, Recall, and F-measurement tests. The average accuracy of the proposed method was 95.3% for RBCs and 98.4% for WBCs. PMID:24803955

  2. Corrosion detection in multi-layered rotocraft structures

    SciTech Connect

    ROACH,DENNIS P.; WALKINGTON,PHILLIP D.; HOHMAN,ED; MARSHALL,GREG

    2000-04-25

    Rotorcraft structures do not readily lend themselves to quantifiable inspection methods due to airframe construction techniques. Periodic visual inspections are a common practice for detecting corrosion. Unfortunately, when the telltale signs of corrosion appear visually, extensive repair or refurbishment is required. The