Science.gov

Sample records for implanted glassy carbon

  1. Diamond film growth on Ti-implanted glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, M. A.; Brown, I. G.; Evans, P. J.; Hoffman, A.

    1993-09-01

    The growth of diamond thin films on glassy carbon substrates has been investigated as a function of deposition time for different surface treatments. Implantation of Ti to a dose of 1.7 x 10 exp 17/sq cm and abrasion with diamond powder have both been examined to determine their effect on film nucleation and growth. At the shorter deposition times studied, diamond nucleation was observed on all test samples with those subjected to the abrasive pretreatment exhibiting the higher growth rates. However, the adhesion and uniformity of films on unimplanted glassy carbon were found to deteriorate significantly following deposition runs of 14 and 21 h duration. This was attributed to a destabilization of the underlying surface caused by plasma erosion.

  2. Annealing effects on the migration of ion-implanted cadmium in glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Sebitla, L. D.; Njoroge, E. G.; Mlambo, M.; Malherbe, J. B.

    2017-03-01

    The migration behaviour of cadmium (Cd) implanted into glassy carbon and the effects of annealing on radiation damage introduced by ion implantation were investigated. The glassy carbon substrates were implanted with Cd at a dose of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 and energy of 360 keV. The implantation was performed at room temperature (RT), 430 °C and 600 °C. The RT implanted samples were isochronally annealed in vacuum at 350, 500 and 600 °C for 1 h and isothermally annealed at 350 °C up to 4 h. The as-implanted and annealed samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Raman results revealed that implantation at room temperature amorphized the glassy carbon structure while high temperature implantations resulted in slightly less radiation damage. Isochronal annealing of the RT implanted samples resulted in some recrystallization as a function of increasing temperature. The original glassy carbon structure was not achieved at the highest annealing temperature of 600 °C. Diffusion of Cd in glassy carbon was already taking place during implantation at 430 °C. This diffusion of Cd was accompanied by significant loss from the surface during implantation at 600 °C. Isochronal annealing of the room temperature implanted samples at 350 °C for 1 h caused Cd to diffuse towards the bulk while isothermal annealing at 500 and 600 °C resulted in the migration of implanted Cd toward the surface accompanied by a loss of Cd from the surface. Isothermal annealing at 350 °C for 1 h caused Cd to diffuse towards the bulk while for annealing time >1 h Cd diffused towards the surface. These results were interpreted in terms of trapping and de-trapping of implanted Cd by radiation damage.

  3. Equation of state of heated glassy carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekine, Toshimori; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    New Hugoniot data are presented for glassy carbon preheated to 1550 K and shocked to 20 GPa. The high-temperature Hugoniot is very similar to the principal Hugoniot. This results argues against the diffusional mechanism for the shock-induced transformaton of amorphous carbon to diamond, although the present results are obviously limited to below 20 GPa. This study provides the first Higoniot data for carbon preheated to significantly high temperatures.

  4. Wafer-level microstructuring of glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hans, Loïc. E.; Prater, Karin; Kilchoer, Cédric; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Glassy carbon is used nowadays for a variety of applications because of its mechanical strength, thermal stability and non-sticking adhesion properties. One application is glass molding that allows to realize high resolution diffractive optical elements on large areas and at affordable price appropriate for mass production. We study glassy carbon microstructuring for future precision compression molding of low and high glass-transition temperature. For applications in optics the uniformity, surface roughness, edge definition and lateral resolution are very important parameters for a stamp and the final product. We study different methods of microstructuring of glassy carbon by etching and milling. Reactive ion etching with different protection layers such as photoresists, aluminium and titanium hard masks have been performed and will be compare with Ion beam etching. We comment on the quality of the structure definition and give process details as well as drawbacks for the different methods. In our fabrications we were able to realize optically flat diffractive structures with slope angles of 80° at typical feature sizes of 5 micron and 700 nm depth qualified for high precision glass molding.

  5. The fabrication of artifacts out of glassy carbon and carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, G M; Grigson, C J

    1979-05-01

    Polymeric carbons are produced by the carbonization of a wide range of organic polymeric systems. We have concentrated on the fabrication of two types of polymeric carbons, glassy carbon and carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon (CFRC), both involving phenolic resin precursors. We describe herein the technology which enables us to make dental implants and heart valves out of glassy carbon. We also show how carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon can be made in the form of rods and plates for orthopedic use and molded before firing to produce complex, rigid, individually sculptured shapes suitable for maxillofacial bone replacement. The mechanical properties will be discussed in relation to the structure of these various forms of polymeric carbon. The main purpose of the work is to show that the technology of polymeric-carbon manufacture is essentially simple and the manufacturing process is readily carried out in laboratories which have already been equipped to fabricate standard dental prostheses.

  6. Anodic electrosynthesis of some peroxy compounds on glassy carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Khomutov, N.E.; Zakhodyakina, N.A.; Svirida, L.V.; Nesvat, N.V.

    1987-11-10

    The authors present the results of a study of the anodic electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide and its derivatives on glassy carbon in solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium carbonate with sodium borate. We studied the kinetics of anodic processes on glassy carbon with the aid of polarization measurements and a method for determining the concentrations of active oxygen in the anolyte and the current efficiency. The current efficiencies with respect to active oxygen obtained on glassy carbon in the mixed solution of sodium borate and sodium carbonate are close to the current efficiencies which are observed on platinum anodes in the industrial electrosynthesis of perborates.

  7. Morphology and formation process of diamond from glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Manabu; Akaishi, Minoru; Ohsawa, Toshikazu; Yamaoka, Shinobu; Fukunaga, Osamu

    1989-10-01

    Under static high pressure conditions in the presence of a catalyst metal, a diamond formation process was studied using glassy carbon as a starting source, which was prepared by pyrolysis of furfuryl alcohol resin. Above 1200 °C of the pyrolysis temperature, diamond formation was clearly observed in Ni, Fe, Co and their alloy catalysts. The hydrogen content in the starting carbon has a drastic effect on the diamond formation. The maximum content of the hydrogen in the glassy carbon had to be between 1200 and 2200 ppm to see diamond formation. In the Fe-rich catalyst, a characteristic needle-like diamond was formed due to the texture of the carbon source and the nature of the catalyst.

  8. Ultrasonic treatment of glassy carbon for nanoparticle preparation.

    PubMed

    Levêque, Jean-Marc; Duclaux, Laurent; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Reinert, Laurence; Komatsu, Naoki; Desforges, Alexandre; Afreen, Sadia; Sivakumar, Manickam; Kimura, Takahide

    2017-03-01

    Glassy carbon particles (millimetric or micrometric sizes) dispersions in water were treated by ultrasound at 20kHz, either in a cylindrical reactor, or in a "Rosette" type reactor, for various time lengths ranging from 3h to 10h. Further separations sedimentation allowed obtaining few nanoparticles of glassy carbon in the supernatant (diameter <200nm). Thought the yield of nanoparticle increased together with the sonication time at high power, it tended to be nil after sonication in the cylindrical reactor. The sonication of glassy carbon micrometric particles in water using "Rosette" instead of cylindrical reactor, allowed preparing at highest yield (1-2wt%), stable suspensions of carbon nanoparticles, easily separated from the sedimented particles. Both sediment and supernatant separated by decantation of the sonicated dispersions were characterized by laser granulometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. Their multiscale organization was investigated by transmission electron microscopy as a function of the sonication time. For sonication longer than 10h, these nanoparticles from supernatant (diameter <50nm) are aggregated. Their structures are more disordered than the sediment particles showing typical nanometer-sized aromatic layer arrangement of glassy carbon, with closed mesopores (diameter ∼3nm). Sonication time longer than 5h has induced not only a strong amorphization (subnanometric and disoriented aromatic layer) but also a loss of the mesoporous network nanostructure. These multi-scale organizational changes took place because of both cavitation and shocks between particles, mainly at the particle surface. The sonication in water has induced also chemical effects, leading to an increase in the oxygen content of the irradiated material together with the sonication time.

  9. Magnetoresistance, electrical conductivity, and Hall effect of glassy carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.F.

    1983-02-01

    These properties of glassy carbon heat treated for three hours between 1200 and 2700/sup 0/C were measured from 3 to 300/sup 0/K in magnetic fields up to 5 tesla. The magnetoresistance was generally negative and saturated with reciprocal temperature, but still increased as a function of magnetic field. The maximum negative magnetoresistance measured was 2.2% for 2700/sup 0/C material. Several models based on the negative magnetoresistance being proportional to the square of the magnetic moment were attempted; the best fit was obtained for the simplest model combining Curie and Pauli paramagnetism for heat treatments above 1600/sup 0/C. Positive magnetoresistance was found only in less than 1600/sup 0/C treated glassy carbon. The electrical conductivity, of the order of 200 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at room temperature, can be empirically written as sigma = A + Bexp(-CT/sup -1/4) - DT/sup -1/2. The Hall coefficient was independent of magnetic field, insensitive to temperature, but was a strong function of heat treatment temperature, crossing over from negative to positive at about 1700/sup 0/C and ranging from -0.048 to 0.126 cm/sup 3//coul. The idea of one-dimensional filaments in glassy carbon suggested by the electrical conductivity is compatible with the present consensus view of the microstructure.

  10. Nanocrystalline hexagonal diamond formed from glassy carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Shiell, Thomas. B.; McCulloch, Dougal G.; Bradby, Jodie E.; ...

    2016-11-29

    Carbon exhibits a large number of allotropes and its phase behaviour is still subject to signifcant uncertainty and intensive research. The hexagonal form of diamond, also known as lonsdaleite, was discovered in the Canyon Diablo meteorite where its formation was attributed to the extreme conditions experienced during the impact. However, it has recently been claimed that lonsdaleite does not exist as a well-defned material but is instead defective cubic diamond formed under high pressure and high temperature conditions. Here we report the synthesis of almost pure lonsdaleite in a diamond anvil cell at 100GPa and 400 C. The nanocrystalline materialmore » was recovered at ambient and analysed using difraction and high resolution electron microscopy. We propose that the transformation is the result of intense radial plastic fow under compression in the diamond anvil cell, which lowers the energy barrier by locking in favourable stackings of graphene sheets. This strain induced transformation of the graphitic planes of the precursor to hexagonal diamond is supported by frst principles calculations of transformation pathways and explains why the new phase is found in an annular region. Furthermore, our findings establish that high purity lonsdaleite is readily formed under strain and hence does not require meteoritic impacts.« less

  11. Nanocrystalline hexagonal diamond formed from glassy carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Shiell, Thomas. B.; McCulloch, Dougal G.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Haberl, Bianca; Boehler, Reinhard; McKenzie, David. R.

    2016-11-29

    Carbon exhibits a large number of allotropes and its phase behaviour is still subject to signifcant uncertainty and intensive research. The hexagonal form of diamond, also known as lonsdaleite, was discovered in the Canyon Diablo meteorite where its formation was attributed to the extreme conditions experienced during the impact. However, it has recently been claimed that lonsdaleite does not exist as a well-defned material but is instead defective cubic diamond formed under high pressure and high temperature conditions. Here we report the synthesis of almost pure lonsdaleite in a diamond anvil cell at 100GPa and 400 C. The nanocrystalline material was recovered at ambient and analysed using difraction and high resolution electron microscopy. We propose that the transformation is the result of intense radial plastic fow under compression in the diamond anvil cell, which lowers the energy barrier by locking in favourable stackings of graphene sheets. This strain induced transformation of the graphitic planes of the precursor to hexagonal diamond is supported by frst principles calculations of transformation pathways and explains why the new phase is found in an annular region. Furthermore, our findings establish that high purity lonsdaleite is readily formed under strain and hence does not require meteoritic impacts.

  12. Nanocrystalline hexagonal diamond formed from glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiell, Thomas. B.; McCulloch, Dougal G.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Haberl, Bianca; Boehler, Reinhard; McKenzie, David. R.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon exhibits a large number of allotropes and its phase behaviour is still subject to significant uncertainty and intensive research. The hexagonal form of diamond, also known as lonsdaleite, was discovered in the Canyon Diablo meteorite where its formation was attributed to the extreme conditions experienced during the impact. However, it has recently been claimed that lonsdaleite does not exist as a well-defined material but is instead defective cubic diamond formed under high pressure and high temperature conditions. Here we report the synthesis of almost pure lonsdaleite in a diamond anvil cell at 100 GPa and 400 °C. The nanocrystalline material was recovered at ambient and analysed using diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. We propose that the transformation is the result of intense radial plastic flow under compression in the diamond anvil cell, which lowers the energy barrier by “locking in” favourable stackings of graphene sheets. This strain induced transformation of the graphitic planes of the precursor to hexagonal diamond is supported by first principles calculations of transformation pathways and explains why the new phase is found in an annular region. Our findings establish that high purity lonsdaleite is readily formed under strain and hence does not require meteoritic impacts.

  13. Nanocrystalline hexagonal diamond formed from glassy carbon

    PubMed Central

    Shiell, Thomas. B.; McCulloch, Dougal G.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Haberl, Bianca; Boehler, Reinhard; McKenzie, David. R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon exhibits a large number of allotropes and its phase behaviour is still subject to significant uncertainty and intensive research. The hexagonal form of diamond, also known as lonsdaleite, was discovered in the Canyon Diablo meteorite where its formation was attributed to the extreme conditions experienced during the impact. However, it has recently been claimed that lonsdaleite does not exist as a well-defined material but is instead defective cubic diamond formed under high pressure and high temperature conditions. Here we report the synthesis of almost pure lonsdaleite in a diamond anvil cell at 100 GPa and 400 °C. The nanocrystalline material was recovered at ambient and analysed using diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. We propose that the transformation is the result of intense radial plastic flow under compression in the diamond anvil cell, which lowers the energy barrier by “locking in” favourable stackings of graphene sheets. This strain induced transformation of the graphitic planes of the precursor to hexagonal diamond is supported by first principles calculations of transformation pathways and explains why the new phase is found in an annular region. Our findings establish that high purity lonsdaleite is readily formed under strain and hence does not require meteoritic impacts. PMID:27897174

  14. Nanocrystalline hexagonal diamond formed from glassy carbon.

    PubMed

    Shiell, Thomas B; McCulloch, Dougal G; Bradby, Jodie E; Haberl, Bianca; Boehler, Reinhard; McKenzie, David R

    2016-11-29

    Carbon exhibits a large number of allotropes and its phase behaviour is still subject to significant uncertainty and intensive research. The hexagonal form of diamond, also known as lonsdaleite, was discovered in the Canyon Diablo meteorite where its formation was attributed to the extreme conditions experienced during the impact. However, it has recently been claimed that lonsdaleite does not exist as a well-defined material but is instead defective cubic diamond formed under high pressure and high temperature conditions. Here we report the synthesis of almost pure lonsdaleite in a diamond anvil cell at 100 GPa and 400 °C. The nanocrystalline material was recovered at ambient and analysed using diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. We propose that the transformation is the result of intense radial plastic flow under compression in the diamond anvil cell, which lowers the energy barrier by "locking in" favourable stackings of graphene sheets. This strain induced transformation of the graphitic planes of the precursor to hexagonal diamond is supported by first principles calculations of transformation pathways and explains why the new phase is found in an annular region. Our findings establish that high purity lonsdaleite is readily formed under strain and hence does not require meteoritic impacts.

  15. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. R. D.; Gericke, D. O.; Cammarata, M.; Cho, B. I.; Döppner, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Förster, E.; Fortmann, C.; Fritz, D.; Galtier, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Harmand, M.; Heimann, P.; Kugland, N. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, R. W.; Lemke, H.; Makita, M.; Moinard, A.; Murphy, C. D.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Plagemann, K.-U.; Redmer, R.; Riley, D.; Rosmej, F. B.; Sperling, P.; Toleikis, S.; Vinko, S. M.; Vorberger, J.; White, S.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Tschentscher, T.; Gregori, G.

    2014-06-01

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid.

  16. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon.

    PubMed

    Brown, C R D; Gericke, D O; Cammarata, M; Cho, B I; Döppner, T; Engelhorn, K; Förster, E; Fortmann, C; Fritz, D; Galtier, E; Glenzer, S H; Harmand, M; Heimann, P; Kugland, N L; Lamb, D Q; Lee, H J; Lee, R W; Lemke, H; Makita, M; Moinard, A; Murphy, C D; Nagler, B; Neumayer, P; Plagemann, K-U; Redmer, R; Riley, D; Rosmej, F B; Sperling, P; Toleikis, S; Vinko, S M; Vorberger, J; White, S; White, T G; Wünsch, K; Zastrau, U; Zhu, D; Tschentscher, T; Gregori, G

    2014-06-09

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid.

  17. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C. R. D.; Gericke, D. O.; Cammarata, M.; Cho, B. I.; Gwangju Inst. of Science and Technology, Gwangju; Inst. for Basic Science, Gwangju ; Döppner, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Förster, E.; Fortmann, C.; Fritz, D.; Galtier, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Harmand, M.; Heimann, P.; Kugland, N. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, R. W.; Lemke, H.; Makita, M.; Moinard, A.; Murphy, C. D.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Plagemann, K. -U.; Redmer, R.; Riley, D.; Rosmej, F. B.; Sperling, P.; Toleikis, S.; Vinko, S. M.; Vorberger, J.; White, S.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Tschentscher, T.; Gregori, G.

    2014-06-09

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid.

  18. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, C. R. D.; Gericke, D. O.; Cammarata, M.; ...

    2014-06-09

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen closemore » to their original positions in the fluid.« less

  19. Surface treatment of Glassy Polymeric Carbon artifacts for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M. G.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Rezende, M. C.

    1999-06-10

    Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) has been used for mechanical cardiac valves. GCP valves are chemically biocompatible and durable, but less thromboresistant than biological valves. Enhanced thromboresistance of mechanical cardiac components with porous surface has been demonstrated. The endothelialized tissue blood-contacting surface adheres to the porous prosthetic component and decreases the formation of thrombus. Our experience has shown that the porosity of GPC can be increased and controlled by MeV ion bombardment. We report here that the surface roughness of heat-treated GPC bombarded with C, O, Si and Au is also enhanced. The surface roughness of the ion-bombarded samples is on a smaller scale than those roughened by sand blasting (measurements made with Perthomete S and P). The roughness decreases slightly after heat treatment, in linear proportion to the shrinkage of the test piece. Possible beneficial effects of the imbedded ions on tissue adherence and thromboresistance must be determined by in vivo animal experiments.

  20. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. R. D.; Gericke, D. O.; Cammarata, M.; Cho, B. I.; Döppner, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Förster, E.; Fortmann, C.; Fritz, D.; Galtier, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Harmand, M.; Heimann, P.; Kugland, N. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, R. W.; Lemke, H.; Makita, M.; Moinard, A.; Murphy, C. D.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Plagemann, K.-U.; Redmer, R.; Riley, D.; Rosmej, F. B.; Sperling, P.; Toleikis, S.; Vinko, S. M.; Vorberger, J.; White, S.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Tschentscher, T.; Gregori, G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid. PMID:24909903

  1. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-coated glassy carbon flow detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Golden, T.; Tuzhi, P.

    1987-03-01

    The performance of a thin-layer flow detector with a glassy carbon electrode coated with a film of protonated poly(4-vinylpyridine) is described. Substantial improvement in the selectivity of amperometric detection for liquid chromatography and flow injection systems is observed as a result of excluding cationic species from the surface. The detector response was evaluated with respect to flow rate, solute concentration, coating scheme, film-to-film reproducibility, and other variables. Despite the increase in diffusional resistance, low detection limits of ca. 0.04 and 0.10 ng of ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively, are maintained. Protection from organic surfactants can be coupled to the charge exclusion effect by using a bilayer coating, with a cellulose acetate film atop the poly(4-vinylpyridine) layer. Applicability to urine sample is demonstrated.

  2. Au nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode for catechol sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yin; Fu, Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots were applied to the modification of glassy carbon electrode for the detection of catechol. The synergist cooperation between gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots can increase specific surface area and enhance electronic and catalytic properties of glassy carbon electrode. The detection limit of catechol is 0.869 μmol/L, demonstrating the superior detection efficiency of the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode as a new sensing platform.

  3. Carbonization Studies of Glassy Carbon Derived from Bis-Ortho-Diynylarenes (BODA) (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-26

    Derived from Bis-Ortho-Diynylarenes ( BODA ) (Postprint) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Scott T. Iacono, Mark W. Perpall...have demonstrated bis-ortho-diynylarene ( BODA ) monomers undergo Bergman cyclopolymerizations to form hyper-branched, rigid naphthalene networks that...Std. 239.18 CARBONIZATION STUDIES OF GLASSY CARBON DERIVED FROM BIS-ORTHO-DIYNYLARENES ( BODA ) Scott T. Iacono1, Mark W. Perpall1, Wesley P

  4. Redox behavior of biofilm on glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, D; Manoharan, S P; Palaniswamy, N

    2011-10-01

    Marine and freshwater biofilm usually shift the open circuit potential (OCP) of stainless steel towards the electropositive direction by +450 mV vs SCE. The nature of oxide film and bacterial metabolism were also correlated with ennoblement process by various investigators. Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used in the present study and a shifting of potential in the positive side (+450 mV) was noticed. It indicates that biofilm contributes to the ennoblement process without any n/p-type semiconducting oxide film. The nature of the cathodic curve for the biofilm covered GCE is compared with the previous literature on the electrochemical behavior of stainless steel. The present study explains the oxidation and reduction peaks of biofilm covered GCE by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical impedance result reveals the diffusion process within the manganese biofilm. The present study confirms the previous investigations that the manganese biofilm rules the electrochemical behavior of materials and suggests that oxide film is not necessary to assist the ennoblement process.

  5. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA) to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10−8) and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10−4), respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration. PMID:26966555

  6. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Richard

    Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA) to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10(-8)) and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10(-4)), respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration.

  7. Ion Beam Optimized Mechanical Characteristics of Glassy Polymeric Carbon for Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M.G.; Cruz, N.C. da; Rangel, E.C.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Ila, D.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    2003-08-26

    Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) has medical applications owing to its inertness and biocompatible characteristics. Commercial GPC prosthetics include mitral, aortic and hydrocephalic valves. Surface treatment of GPC increases the adhesion of endothelic tissue on GPC and avoids the occurrence of thrombus in cardiac implant. In this work, ion beam was used to improve the mechanical characteristics of GPC surface. Hardness was measured as a function of depth in precursor and GPC samples heat treated from 300 to 2500 deg. C before and after bombardment with energetic ions of silicon, carbon, oxygen and gold at energies of 5, 6, 8 and 10 MeV and fluences between 1.0x1013 and 1.0x1016 ions/cm2. Comparison shows that hardness increases of the bombarded samples depend on heat treatment temperature. We verify that ion bombardment promotes carbonization due to an increased linkage between the chains of the polymeric material in lateral groups that are more numerous for samples heat treated to 700 deg. C.

  8. Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Enzymatically-generated Thiocholine at Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Mellen, Maria C.; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-11-01

    A carbon nanotube modified glassy-carbon (CNT/GC) electrode was used for enhancing the sensitivity of electrochemical measurements of enzymatically-generated thiocholine. Cyclic voltammetric and amperometric characteristics of thiocholine at CNT/GC, glassy carbon, carbon paste, and gold electrodes were compared. The CNT layer leads to a greatly improved anodic detection of enzymatically generated thiocholine product including lower oxidation overpotential (0.15 V) and higher sensitivity because of its electrocatalytic activity, fast electron transfer and large surface area. The sensor performance was optimized with respect to the operating conditions. Under the optimal batch conditions, a detection limit of 5 ?10 -6 mol/L was obtained with good precision (RSD = 5.2%, n=10). Furthermore, the attractive response of thiocholine on a CNT/GC electrode has allowed it to be used for constant-potential flow injection analysis. The detection limit was greatly improved to 0.3 ?10-6 mol/L. The high sensitivity electrochemical detection of enzymatically generated thiocholine with a CNT sensing platform holds great promise to prepare an acetylcholinesterase biosensor for monitoring organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents.

  9. Evaluation in a Dog Model of Three Antimicrobial Glassy Coatings: Prevention of Bone Loss around Implants and Microbial Assessments

    PubMed Central

    López-Píriz, Roberto; Solá-Linares, Eva; Rodriguez-Portugal, Mercedes; Malpica, Beatriz; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Enciso, Silvia; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Cabal, Belén; Granizo, Juan José; Moya, José Serafín; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study is to evaluate, in a ligature-induced peri-implantitis model, the efficacy of three antimicrobial glassy coatings in the prevention of biofilm formation, intrasulcular bacterial growth and the resulting peri-implant bone loss. Methods Mandibular premolars were bilaterally extracted from five beagle dogs. Four dental implants were inserted on each hemiarch. Eight weeks after, one control zirconia abutment and three with different bactericidal coatings (G1n-Ag, ZnO35, G3) were connected. After a plaque control period, bacterial accumulation was allowed and biofilm formation on abutments was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Peri-implantitis was induced by cotton ligatures. Microbial samples and peri-implant crestal bone levels of all implant sites were obtained before, during and after the breakdown period. Results During experimental induce peri-implantitis: colony forming units counts from intrasulcular microbial samples at implants with G1n-Ag coated abutment remained close to the basal inoculum; G3 and ZnO35 coatings showed similar low counts; and anaerobic bacterias counts at control abutments exhibited a logarithmic increase by more than 2. Bone loss during passive breakdown period was no statistically significant. Additional bone loss occurred during ligature-induce breakdown: 0.71 (SD 0.48) at G3 coating, 0.57 (SD 0.36) at ZnO35 coating, 0.74 (SD 0.47) at G1n-Ag coating, and 1.29 (SD 0.45) at control abutments; and statistically significant differences (p<0.001) were found. The lowest bone loss at the end of the experiment was exhibited by implants dressing G3 coated abutments (mean 2.1; SD 0.42). Significance Antimicrobial glassy coatings could be a useful tool to ward off, diminish or delay peri-implantitis progression. PMID:26489088

  10. In-Vivo Characterization of Glassy Carbon Micro-Electrode Arrays for Neural Applications and Histological Analysis of the Brain Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vomero, Maria

    The aim of this work is to fabricate and characterize glassy carbon Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs) for sensing and stimulating neural activity, and conduct histological analysis of the brain tissue after the implant to determine long-term performance. Neural applications often require robust electrical and electrochemical response over a long period of time, and for those applications we propose to replace the commonly used noble metals like platinum, gold and iridium with glassy carbon. We submit that such material has the potential to improve the performances of traditional neural prostheses, thanks to better charge transfer capabilities and higher electrochemical stability. Great interest and attention is given in this work, in particular, to the investigation of tissue response after several weeks of implants in rodents' brain motor cortex and the associated materials degradation. As part of this work, a new set of devices for Electrocorticography (ECoG) has been designed and fabricated to improve durability and quality of the previous generation of devices, designed and manufactured by the same research group in 2014. In-vivo long-term impedance measurements and brain activity recordings were performed to test the functionality of the neural devices. In-vitro electrical characterization of the carbon electrodes, as well as the study of the adhesion mechanisms between glassy carbon and different substrates is also part of the research described in this book.

  11. Electrochemical reduction of nalidixic acid at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Yolanda; Pilehvar, Sanaz; Díaz, Eva; Ordóñez, Salvador; De Wael, Karolien

    2017-02-05

    The aqueous phase electrochemical degradation of nalidixic acid (NAL) is studied in this work, using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) as instrumental techniques. The promotional effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the performance of glassy carbon electrodes is demonstrated, being observed that these materials catalyze the NAL reduction. The effect of surface functional groups on MWCNT -MWCNT-COOH and MWCNT-NH2-was also studied. The modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with MWCNT leads to an improved performance for NAL reduction following the order of MWCNT>MWCNT-NH2>MWCNT-COOH. The best behavior at MWCNT-GCE is mainly due to both the increased electrode active area and the enhanced MWCNT adsorption properties. The NAL degradation was carried out under optimal conditions (pH=5.0, deposition time=20s and volume of MWCNT=10μL) using MWCNT-GCE obtaining an irreversible reduction of NAL to less toxic products. Paramaters as the number of DPV cycles and the volume/area (V/A) ratio were optimized for maximize pollutant degradation. It was observed that after 15 DPV scans and V/A=8, a complete reduction was obtained, obtaining two sub-products identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

  12. A novel pattern transfer technique for mounting glassy carbon microelectrodes on polymeric flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vomero, Maria; van Niekerk, Pieter; Nguyen, Vivian; Gong, Nick; Hirabayashi, Mieko; Cinopri, Alessio; Logan, Kyle; Moghadasi, Ali; Varma, Priya; Kassegne, Sam

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel technology for transferring glassy carbon microstructures, originally fabricated on a silicon wafer through a high-temperature process, to a polymeric flexible substrate such as polyimide. This new transfer technique addresses a major barrier in Carbon-MEMS technology whose widespread use so has been hampered by the high-temperature pyrolysis process (⩾900 °C), which limits selection of substrates. In the new approach presented, patterning and pyrolysis of polymer precursor on silicon substrate is carried out first, followed by coating with a polymer layer that forms a hydrogen bond with glassy carbon and then releasing the ensuing glassy carbon structure; hence, transferring it to a flexible substrate. This enables the fabrication of a unique set of glassy carbon microstructures critical in applications that demand substrates that conform to the shape of the stimulated/actuated or sensed surface. Our findings based on Fourier transform infared spectroscopy on the complete electrode set demonstrate—for the first time—that carbonyl groups on polyimide substrate form a strong hydrogen bond with hydroxyl groups on glassy carbon resulting in carboxylic acid dimers (peaks at 2660 and 2585 cm-1). This strong bond is further confirmed by a tensile test that demonstrated an almost perfect bond between these materials that behave as an ideal composite material. Further, mechanical characterization shows that ultimate strain for such a structure is as high as 15% with yield stress of ~20 MPa. We propose that this novel technology not only offers a compelling case for the widespread use of carbon-MEMS, but also helps move the field in new and exciting directions.

  13. Amperometric biosensor based on glassy carbon electrode modified with long-length carbon nanotube and enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutaka, Hajime; Nemoto, Kentaro; Inoue, Yuki; Hidaka, Hiroki; Muguruma, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Ohsawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with long-length multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and enzyme nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is presented. We demonstrate the effect of the MWCNT length on the amperometric response of the enzyme biosensor. The long length of MWCNT is 200 µm (average), whereas the normal length of MWCNT is 1 µm (average). The response of the long MWCNT-GDH electrode is 2 times more sensitive than that of the normal-length MWCNT-GDH electrode in the concentration range from 0.25-35 mM. The result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that the long-length MWCNT-GDH electrode formed a better electron transfer network than the normal-length one.

  14. Electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiying; Liu, Mingyue; Hu, Xinxi; Li, Mei; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-11-27

    A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors.

  15. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiying; Liu, Mingyue; Hu, Xinxi; Li, Mei; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-01-01

    A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors. PMID:24287539

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with glassy carbon electrode and their application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. Z.; Li, X.; Song, Y.; Cheng, Z. P.; Zhong, H.; Xu, J. M.; Lu, J. S.; Wei, C. G.; Zhu, A. F.; Wu, F. Y.; Xu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with glassy carbon electrode were prepared using electrochemical synthesis method. The thin films of gold Nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline hydrochloride at gold nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode was investigated. A simple, sensitive, and inexpensive method for determination of adrenaline hydrochloride was proposed.

  17. Electrochemiluminescence of luminol at the titanate nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guifang; Zeng, Xiaoxue; Lu, Shuangyan; Dai, Hong; Gong, Lingshan; Lin, Yanyu; Wang, Qingping; Tong, Yuejin; Chen, Guonan

    2013-01-01

    A new strategy for the construction of a sensitive and stable electrochemiluminescent platform based on titanate nanotubes (TNTs) and Nafion composite modified electrode for luminol is described, TNTs contained composite modified electrodes that showed some photocatalytic activity toward luminol electrochemiluminescence emission, and thus could dramatically enhance luminol light emission. This extremely sensitive and stable platform allowed a decrease of the experiment electrochemiluminescence luminol reagent. In addition, in luminol solution at low concentrations, we compared the capabilities of a bare glassy carbon electrode with the TNT composite modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The results indicated that compared with glassy carbon electrode this platform was extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, by combining with an appropriate enzymatic reaction, this platform would be a sensitive matrix for many biomolecules.

  18. Low substrate temperature deposition of diamond coatings derived from glassy carbon

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Seals, R.D.

    1995-09-26

    A process is disclosed for depositing a diamond coating on a substrate at temperatures less than about 550 C. A powder mixture of glassy carbon and diamond particles is passed through a high velocity oxy-flame apparatus whereupon the powders are heated prior to impingement at high velocity against the substrate. The powder mixture contains between 5 and 50 powder volume percent of the diamond particles, and preferably between 5 and 15 powder volume percent. The particles have a size from about 5 to about 100 micrometers, with the diamond particles being about 5 to about 30 micrometers. The flame of the apparatus provides a velocity of about 350 to about 1000 meters per second, with the result that upon impingement upon the substrate, the glassy carbon is phase transformed to diamond as coaxed by the diamond content of the powder mixture. 2 figs.

  19. Low substrate temperature deposition of diamond coatings derived from glassy carbon

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for depositing a diamond coating on a substrate at temperatures less than about 550.degree. C. A powder mixture of glassy carbon and diamond particles is passed through a high velocity oxy-flame apparatus whereupon the powders are heated prior to impingement at high velocity against the substrate. The powder mixture contains between 5 and 50 powder volume percent of the diamond particles, and preferably between 5 and 15 powder volume percent. The particles have a size from about 5 to about 100 micrometers, with the diamond particles being about 5 to about 30 micrometers. The flame of the apparatus provides a velocity of about 350 to about 1000 meters per second, with the result that upon impingement upon the substrate, the glassy carbon is phase transformed to diamond as coaxed by the diamond content of the powder mixture.

  20. Cytochrome c dynamics at gold and glassy carbon surfaces monitored by in situ scanning tunnel microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens E. T.; Møller, Per; Pedersen, Marianne V.; Ulstrup, Jens

    1995-02-01

    We have investigated the absorption of cytochrome c on gold and glassy carbon substrates by in situ scanning tunnel microscopy under potentiostatic control of both substrate and tip. Low ionic strength and potential ranges where no Faradaic current flows were used. Cyt c aggregates into flat composite structures of about 50 nm lateral extension at gold surfaces. The aggregates evolve in time, and structures resembling individual cyt c molecules can be distinguished in the space between the 50 nm structures. Cyt c aggregates also form at glassy carbon but have a different, unbroken character where cyt c both sticks well to the surface and exhibits notable mobility. The observations suggest that characteristic surface specific, internally mobile protein aggregates are formed at both surfaces and that in situ molecular resolution of the STM pictures may have been achieved.

  1. Direct Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin on Manganese III Oxide-Ag Nanofibers Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Negahdary, Masoud; Mazaheri, Gholamreza; Rad, Somyyeh; Hadi, Mohammadreza; Malekzadeh, Roya; Saadatmand, Mohammad Mahdi; Rezaei-Zarchi, Saeed; Pishbin, Fariba; Khosravian-hemami, Mojdeh

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the electrochemical behavior of hemoglobin by glassy carbon electrode modified with Mn2O3-Ag nanofibers. The Mn2O3-Ag nanofibers were used as facilitator electron transfer between Hb and glassy-carbon-modified electrode. The Mn2O3-Ag nanofibers are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hemoglobin showed a quasireversible electrochemical redox behavior with a formal potential of −49 mV (versus Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0. The designed biosensor possesses good stability and reproducibility and achieves 95% of the steady-state current in less than five seconds. PMID:22550487

  2. Kinetics of phase transformation of carbon nanotubes containing Se85Te10Ag5 glassy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, A. N.; Singh, Kedar

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) containing glassy composites [(Se85Te10Ag5)100-X(CNT)X] (X = 0, 3 and 5) have been prepared by the melt-quenching technique. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique was used to study changes in the kinetics of phase transformations of [(Se85Te10Ag5)100-X(CNT)X] (X = 0, 3 and 5) after the incorporation of CNTs under non-isothermal conditions at different heating rates (5, 10, 15 and 20 K min-1). The calculated values of the activation energy of crystallization (E c) and the Avrami index (n) decrease whereas the activation energy of the glass transition (E g) increases for CNTs containing glass composites; such effects are explained on the basis of effective CNTs mediating through a cross-link with the pure-Se85Te10Ag5 glassy matrix. The superiority of the CNT-Se85Te10Ag5 glassy composite over the pure glassy alloy have also been briefly mentioned in regard to electrical, thermal and mechanical properties at room temperature.

  3. Thermal and elastic characterization of glassy carbon thin films by photoacoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markushev, D. D.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Rabasović, M. D.; Chirtoc, M.; Todorović, D. M.; Bialkowski, S. E.; Korte, D.; Franko, M.

    2017-01-01

    A portable photoacoustic device is designed and applied to measure thermal diffusivity and linear thermal expansion coefficient of glassy carbon by means of the standard photoacoustic model involving both the thermal diffusion and thermoelastic contributions. This is done by measuring the evolution of the open-cell photoacoustic signal within the modulation frequency interval of 20 Hz-10 kHz, for four samples with thicknesses of 180μm, 140μm, 100μm, and 60μm. A proper fitting procedure of the theoretical amplitude and phase to their corresponding experimental counterparts yielded an average thermal diffusivity of 0.68mm^2·s^-1 and expansion coefficient of 4.3× 10^{-6} K-1 which are in good agreement with their values reported in the literature for glassy carbon. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the theoretical amplitude does not properly describe the thermoelastic behavior of the samples thinner than l ≤ 100 μm, due to their strong bending and vibrations driven by the highly disordered fullerene microstructure of glassy carbon followed by the increasing non-homogeneity effects violating 1D heat conduction.

  4. A Reliable Homemade Electrode Based on Glassy Polymeric Carbon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Andre L.; Takeuchi, Regina M.; Oliviero, Herilton P.; Rodriguez, Marcello G.; Zimmerman, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    The production of a GPC-based material by submitting a cross-linked resin precursor to control thermal conditions is discussed. The precursor material is prepolymerized at 60-degree Celsius in a mold and is carbonized in inert atmosphere by slowly raising the temperature, the rise is performed to avoid change in the shape of the carbonization…

  5. Voltammetric oxidation and determination of cinnarizine at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Rajesh N; Hosamani, Ragunatharaddi R; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2009-09-01

    The voltammetric oxidation of cinnarizine was investigated. In pH 2.5 Britton-Robinson buffer, cinnarizine shows an irreversible oxidation peak at about 1.20 V at a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode. The cyclic voltammetric results indicate that MWCNT-modified glassy carbon electrode can remarkably enhance electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of cinnarizine. The electrocatalytic behavior was further exploited as a sensitive detection scheme for the cinnarizine determination by differential-pulse voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, the concentration range and detection limit are 9.0x10(-8) to 6.0x10(-6) M and 2.58x10(-9) M, respectively for cinnarizine. The proposed method was successfully applied to cinnarizine determination in pharmaceutical samples. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for the detection of analyte in urine as a real sample.

  6. [Fusion implants of carbon fiber reinforced plastic].

    PubMed

    Früh, H J; Liebetrau, A; Bertagnoli, R

    2002-05-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are used in the medical field when high mechanical strength, innovative design, and radiolucency (see spinal fusion implants) are needed. During the manufacturing process of the material CFRP carbon fibers are embedded into a resin matrix. This resin material could be thermoset (e.g., epoxy resin EPN/DDS) or thermoplastic (e.g., PEAK). CFRP is biocompatible, radiolucent, and has higher mechanical capabilities compared to other implant materials. This publication demonstrates the manufacturing process of fusion implants made of a thermoset matrix system using a fiber winding process. The material has been used clinically since 1994 for fusion implants of the cervical and lumbar spine. The results of the fusion systems CORNERSTONE-SR C (cervical) and UNION (lumbar) showed no implant-related complications. New implant systems made of this CFRP material are under investigation and are presented.

  7. Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shih-Feng; Chen, Ming-Fei; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Chien-Yao; Yang, Chung-Heng; Chen, Yu-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    This study reports the fabrication of convex microfluidic channels on glassy carbon using an ultraviolet laser processing system to produce glass molding dies. The laser processing parameters, including various laser fluences and scanning speeds of galvanometers, were adjusted to mill a convex microchannel on a glassy carbon substrate to identify the effects of material removal. The machined glassy carbon substrate was then applied as a glass molding die to fabricate a glass-based microfluidic biochip. The surface morphology, milled width and depth, and surface roughness of the microchannel die after laser micromilling were examined using a three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscope. This study also investigates the transcription rate of microchannels after the glass molding process. To produce a 180 μm high microchannel on the GC substrate, the optimal number of milled cycles, laser fluence, and scanning speed were 25, 4.9 J/cm2, and 200 mm/s, respectively. The width, height, and surface roughness of milled convex microchannels were 119.6±0.217 μm, 180.26±0.01 μm, and 0.672±0.08 μm, respectively. These measured values were close to the predicted values and suitable for a glass molding die. After the glass molding process, a typical glass-based microchannel chip was formed at a molding temperature of 660 °C and the molding force of 0.45 kN. The transcription rates of the microchannel width and depth were 100% and 99.6%, respectively. Thus, the proposed approach is suitable for performing in chemical, biochemical, or medical reactions.

  8. Glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with polythionine and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenwei; Li, Lei; Wu, Lujun; Gong, Jiemin; Zeng, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like "conductive wires" connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good electrical conductivity of PTH and MWCNTs, the current response was enlarged. The sensor was a parallel multi-component reaction system (PMRS) and excellent electrocatalytic performance for glucose could be obtained without a mediator. The glucose sensor had a working voltage of -0.42 V, an optimum working temperature of 25°C, an optimum working pH of 7.0, and the best percentage of polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion (PTFE) in the outer composite film was 2%. Under the optimised conditions, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity of 2.80 µA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 5 µM (S/N = 3), with a response time of less than 15 s and a linear range of 0.04 mM to 2.5 mM. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor had a good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, indicating that the novel CTS+PTFE/GOx/MWCNTs/PTH composite is a promising material for immobilization of biomolecules and fabrication of third generation biosensors.

  9. Glucose Biosensor Based on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Polythionine and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wenwei; Li, Lei; Wu, Lujun; Gong, Jiemin; Zeng, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like “conductive wires” connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good electrical conductivity of PTH and MWCNTs, the current response was enlarged. The sensor was a parallel multi-component reaction system (PMRS) and excellent electrocatalytic performance for glucose could be obtained without a mediator. The glucose sensor had a working voltage of −0.42 V, an optimum working temperature of 25°C, an optimum working pH of 7.0, and the best percentage of polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion (PTFE) in the outer composite film was 2%. Under the optimised conditions, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity of 2.80 µA mM−1 cm−2 and a low detection limit of 5 µM (S/N = 3), with a response time of less than 15 s and a linear range of 0.04 mM to 2.5 mM. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor had a good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, indicating that the novel CTS+PTFE/GOx/MWCNTs/PTH composite is a promising material for immobilization of biomolecules and fabrication of third generation biosensors. PMID:24816121

  10. Glassy Carbons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    the layer plane spacing, d002; the in plane spacing, dll 0 , and the line broadening parameters, Lc and La, there is an experimentally significant...developed graphitic structure. The structure is certainly planar, with a near perfect graphitic spacing wi+hin planes. The line broadening parameters, Lc ...phase) Peak NVS: "Not Very Smooth" Peak 2P: Ŗ Phase" Peak 3P: ŗ Phase" Peak (002) Temp. Peak Sample Des,.qnation (rC) Type d(002) Lc d(10) La Graphite

  11. Electrochemical reduction of Brønsted acids by glassy carbon in acetonitrile-implications for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Brian D; Martin, Daniel J; Rountree, Eric S; Ullman, Alexander C; Dempsey, Jillian L

    2014-08-18

    Molecular catalysts for electrochemically driven hydrogen evolution are often studied in acetonitrile with glassy carbon working electrodes and Brønsted acids. Surprisingly, little information is available regarding the potentials at which acids are directly reduced on glassy carbon. This work examines acid electroreduction in acetonitrile on glassy carbon electrodes by cyclic voltammetry. Reduction potentials, spanning a range exceeding 2 V, were found for 20 acids. The addition of 100 mM water was not found to shift the reduction potential of any acid studied, although current enhancement was observed for some acids. The data reported provides a guide for selecting acids to use in electrocatalysis experiments such that direct electrode reduction is avoided.

  12. Voltammetric Detection of Oxalic Acid by Using Glassy Carbon Electrodes with Covalently Attached Nitrogen-containing Functional Groups.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Hiroaki; Akabe, Syuhei; Kitamura, Tsubasa; Takahashi, Takuto; Uchiyama, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    We report on a novel voltammetric detection of oxalic acid by using glassy carbon electrodes with covalently attached nitrogen-containing functional groups prepared by stepwise electrolysis. A glassy carbon electrode electrooxidized in an ammonium carbamate solution was electroreduced at -1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 1.0 M sulfuric acid for a long time. We found that the electrocatalytic oxidation wave of oxalic acid obtained by this modified glassy carbon electrode was moved to a more negative potential region than that obtained by a platinum electrode in an acidic medium. A good linearity for the peak current signals was observed in the concentration range from 0.1 to 50 mM.

  13. Mediatorless solar energy conversion by covalently bonded thylakoid monolayer on the glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhwan; Im, Jaekyun; Kim, Sunghyun

    2016-04-01

    Light reactions of photosynthesis that take place in thylakoid membranes found in plants or cyanobacteria are among the most effective ways of utilizing light. Unlike most researches that use photosystem I or photosystem II as conversion units for converting light to electricity, we have developed a simple method in which the thylakoid monolayer was covalently immobilized on the glassy carbon electrode surface. The activity of isolated thylakoid membrane was confirmed by measuring evolving oxygen under illumination. Glassy carbon surfaces were first modified with partial or full monolayers of carboxyphenyl groups by reductive C-C coupling using 4-aminobenzoic acid and aniline and then thylakoid membrane was bioconjugated through the peptide bond between amine residues of thylakoid and carboxyl groups on the surface. Surface properties of modified surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, contact angle measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Photocurrent of 230 nA cm(-2) was observed when the thylakoid monolayer was formed on the mixed monolayer of 4-carboxylpheny and benzene at applied potential of 0.4V vs. Ag/AgCl. A small photocurrent resulted when the 4-carboxyphenyl full monolayer was used. This work shows the possibility of solar energy conversion by directly employing the whole thylakoid membrane through simple surface modification.

  14. Multilevel micro-structuring of glassy carbon for precision glass molding of diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Plöger, Sven; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    A consumer market for diffractive optical elements in glass can only be created if high efficient elements are available at affordable prices. In diffractive optics the efficiency and optical properties increases with the number of levels used, but in the same way the costs are multiplied by the number if fabrication steps. Replication of multilevel diffractive optical elements in glass would allow cost efficient fabrication but a suitable mold material is needed. Glassy carbon shows a high mechanical strength, thermal stability and non-sticking adhesion properties, which makes it an excellent candidate as mold material for precision compression molding of low and high glass-transition temperature materials. We introduce an 8 level micro structuring process for glassy carbon molds with standard photolithography and a Ti layer as hard mask for reactive ion etching. The molds were applied to thermal imprinting onto low and high transition temperature glass. Optical performance was tested for the molded samples with different designs for laser beamsplitters. The results show a good agreement to the design specification. Our result allow us to show limitations of our fabrication technique and we discussed the suitability of precision glass molding for cost efficient mass production with a high quality.

  15. Tellurium-nanowire-coated glassy carbon electrodes for selective and sensitive detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsiang-Yu; Lin, Zong-Hong; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2012-05-15

    Tellurium-nanowire-coated glassy carbon electrodes (TNGCEs) have been fabricated and employed for selective and sensitive detection of dopamine (DA). TNGCEs were prepared by direct deposition of tellurium nanowires, 600 ± 150 nm in length and 16 ± 3 nm in diameter, onto glassy carbon electrodes, which were further coated with Nafion to improve their selectivity and stability. Compared to the GCE, the TNGCE is more electroactive (by approximately 1.9-fold) for DA, and its selectivity toward DA over ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) is also greater. By applying differential pulse voltammetry, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, the TNGCE provides a limit of detection of 1 nM for DA in the presence of 0.5mM AA and UA. Linearity (R(2)=0.9955) of the oxidation current at 0.19 V against the concentration of DA is found over the range 5 nM-1 μM. TNGCEs have been applied to determine the concentration of dopamine to be 0.59 ± 0.07 μM in PC12 cells.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of an antiviral drug acyclovir at fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Shetti, Nagaraj P; Malode, Shweta J; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of acyclovir at fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode has been investigated using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. In pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, acyclovir showed an irreversible oxidation peak at about 0.96V. The cyclic voltammetric results showed that fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode can remarkably enhance electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acyclovir. The electrocatalytic behavior was further exploited as a sensitive detection scheme for the acyclovir determination by differential pulse voltammetry. Effects of anodic peak potential (E(p)/V), anodic peak current (I(p)/μA) and heterogeneous rate constant (k(0)) have been discussed. Under optimized conditions, the concentration range and detection limit were 9.0×10(-8) to 6.0×10(-6)M and 1.48×10(-8)M, respectively. The proposed method was applied to acyclovir determination in pharmaceutical samples and human biological fluids such as urine and blood plasma as a real sample. This method can also be employed in quality control and routine determination of drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.

  17. Magnetite-platinum nanoparticles-modified glassy carbon electrode as electrochemical detector for nitrophenol isomers.

    PubMed

    Gerent, Giles G; Spinelli, Almir

    2017-05-15

    A glassy carbon electrode was modified with magnetite and platinum nanoparticles stabilized with 3-n-propyl-4-picoline silsesquioxane chloride. This chemically-modified electrode is proposed for the first time for the individual or simultaneous electrochemical detection of nitrophenol isomers. Nanoparticles act as catalysts and also increase the surface area. The polymer stabilizes the particles and provides the electrochemical separation of isomers. Under optimized conditions, the reduction peak currents, obtained by differential-pulse voltammetry, of 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrophenol increased linearly with increases in their concentration in the range of 0.1-1.5μmolL(-1). In individual analysis, the detection limits were 33.7nmolL(-1), 45.3nmolL(-1) and 48.2nmolL(-1), respectively. Also, simultaneous analysis was possible for 2-, and 4-nitrophenol. In this case, the separation of the peak potentials was 0.138V and the detection limits were 69.6nmolL(-1) and 58.0nmolL(-1), respectively. These analytical figures of merit evidence the outstanding performance of the modified electrode, which was also successfully applied to the individual determination of isomers in environmental and biological samples. The magnetite and platinum nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode was able to detect nitrophenol isomers at the ppm level in rain water and human urine samples.

  18. Study of the electrochemical behavior of isorhamnetin on a glassy carbon electrode and its application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Lin; Zhang, Shao-Bo; Chen, Wei; Huang, Li-Ying; Lin, Xin-Hua; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2008-10-19

    The electrochemical behavior of isorhamnetin (ISO) at a glassy carbon electrode was studied in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of pH 4.0 by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetric method (DPV). A well-defined redox wave of ISO involving one electrons and one proton appeared. The electrode reaction is a reactant weak adsorption-controlled process with a charge transfer coefficient (alpha) of 0.586. Based on the understanding of the electrochemical process of ISO at the glassy carbon electrode, analysis of ISO can be realized. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current showed linear dependence on the concentration of ISO in the range of 1.0x10(-8) to 4.0x10(-7)M and 1.0x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-5)M. The detection limit is 5.0x10(-9)M. This method has been successfully applied to the detection of ISO in tablets.

  19. Detection of lead ions in picomolar concentration range using underpotential deposition on silver nanoparticles-deposited glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, R; Sangaranarayanan, M V

    2011-09-30

    The efficacy of silver-deposited glassy carbon electrode for the determination of lead ions at the sub-nanomolar concentration ranges is investigated. The silver nanoparticles are electrodeposited on glassy carbon electrode using chronoamperometry and the electrode surface is characterized using SEM. Lead ions are detected in the region of underpotential deposition. The analysis is performed in square wave mode in the stripping voltammetry without the removal of oxygen. The detection limit of 10 pM has been obtained with a constant potential of -0.7 V during the electrodeposition step for a period of 50s. The interference of surfactants in the detection of lead ions is also studied.

  20. Nucleation and growth of thin films of the organic conductor TTF-iodide over glassy carbon. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gómez, L; Rodríguez-Amaro, R

    2009-04-21

    On the basis of the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of thin films of TTF over a glassy carbon electrode in iodide media, a new, more complete mechanism for the electrode processes involved is proposed. The voltammetric and chronoamperometric results for the films can be explained in light of a recently developed nucleation-growth model involving a layer-by-layer mechanism. Also, their in situ UV-vis spectral data expand the available knowledge about the overall mechanism and the nature of the compound formed over the glassy carbon electrode.

  1. An agglomeration induced glassy magnetic state in a carbon nanotube/NiO nanocomposite system.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S; Jana, S; Giri, S; Majumdar, S

    2012-10-31

    A series of nanocomposite materials were synthesized using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and NiO nanoparticles by varying the concentration of NiO in the MWCNT host matrix. Such an increment in the NiO particle density actually tunes the degree of isolation among the magnetic nanoparticles. Careful investigation by transmission electron microscopy shows that particle agglomeration increases substantially with NiO particle density. Field dependence of magnetization measurements depict a gradual enhancement of coercivity with increasing NiO concentration, signifying the enhancement of magnetic anisotropy in this nanocomposite system. Furthermore, field cooled and zero field cooled memory effect as well as magnetization relaxation measurements show that a glassy magnetic state gradually develops when the concentration increases. Analysis based on the result of high resolution transmission electron microscopy along with the magnetization data reveals that interparticle magnetic exchange interaction in the presence of interfacial disorders plays the major role in the emergence of the glassy magnetic state in this nanocomposite system.

  2. Determination of s-triazines with copper and glassy carbon electrodes. Flow injection analysis of aziprotryne in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zapardiel, A; Bermejo, E; Pérez, J A; Chicharro, M

    2000-07-01

    The detection and determination of s-triazines, atrazine-desethyl and aziprotryne by cyclic voltammetry and an amperometric method using a metallic copper electrode and a glassy carbon electrode are described. The concentrations of atrazine-desethyl and aziprotryne in 0.1 M NaOH solutions were determined using the oxidation signal corresponding to the Cu(0)/Cu(I) redox process. The detection level calculated for these s-triazines were 0.3 and 0.5 microg/mL of analyte, respectively. The glassy carbon electrode was shown to give sensitive reduction response to aziprotryne in flow injection mode. No special activation was required for the glassy carbon electrode. A detection limit of 0.2 microg/mL (20 ng aziprotryne) was obtained for a sample loop of 0.1 mL at a fixed potential of -1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M HCl and a flow rate of 3.5 mL/min. Furthermore, the glassy carbon electrode showed stable response in such a system, and the relative standard deviation was only 2.7% using the same surface, and 6.3% using different surfaces. The method developed was applied to the determination of aziprotryne in environmental and tap water samples; using a prior solid-phase extraction step, aziprotryne concentrations lower than 1.0 ng/mL could be measured.

  3. X-ray parabolic lenses made from glassy carbon by means of laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemiev, A.; Snigirev, A.; Kohn, V.; Snigireva, I.; Artemiev, N.; Grigoriev, M.; Peredkov, S.; Glikin, L.; Levtonov, M.; Kvardakov, V.; Zabelin, A.; Maevskiy, A.

    2006-06-01

    Parabolic planar compound refractive lenses (CRLs) made from glassy carbon by means of laser ablation are presented. They have radii of curvatures of 5 and 200μm and geometric apertures of 40 and 900μm, respectively. The numbers of biconcave elements in the CRLs were 4, 7, and 200. The planar lenses allow formation of a linear focus of length comparable with the depths of their profiles. Usage of two CRLs in a crossed geometry provides formation of two-dimensional focus. The lenses were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility at the bending magnet beam line BM-5. The minimum experimental size of the focus has been achieved as 1.4μm.

  4. Amperometric ascorbic acid sensor based on doped ferrites nanoparticles modified glassy carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Teodora; Vulić, Predrag; Manojlović, Dragan; Nikolić, Aleksandar S; Stanković, Dalibor M

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel electrochemical sensor for quantification of ascorbic acid with amperometric detection in physiological conditions was constructed. For this purpose, cobalt and nickel ferrites were synthesized using microwave and ultrasound assistance, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and used for modification of glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE). It was shown that introducing these nanoparticles to the structure of GCPE led to increasing analytical performance. Co ferrite modified GCPE (CoFeGCPE) showed better characteristics toward ascorbic acid sensing. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained by sensor was calculated to be 0.0270 mg/L, with linear range from 0.1758 to 2.6010 mg/L. This sensor was successfully applied for practical analysis, and the obtained results demonstrated that the proposed procedure could be a promising replacement for the conventional electrode materials and time-consuming and expensive separation methods.

  5. Fast Electrocatalytic Determination of Methimazole at an Activated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Fahimeh; Hatami, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    A fast and simple voltammetric method for the determination of methimazole in pharmaceutical products was reported. A glassy carbon electrode was pretreated by anodization at +1.75 V (vs. SCE) for 5 min, followed by potential cycling in the range of 0.3-1.3 V (20 cycles). The pretreated electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of methimazole. Compared with untreated electrode, a large decrease (~300 mV) in the oxidation peak of methimazole was observed. The oxidation peak current at the new potential (0.4 V vs. SCE) was linearly dependent on the concentration of methimazole in the range of 7.0 - 130 μM with a detection limit of 3.7 μM (S/N = 3). The method was successfully used in the determination of methimazole in thyramozol tablets. Due to the simple and fast electrode preparation, there is no need for electrode cleaning or storage. PMID:28243269

  6. Amperometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide using glassy carbon electrode modified with copper nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sophia, J.; Muralidharan, G.

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, fabrication of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with nano copper particles is discussed. The modified electrode has been tested for the non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were prepared employing a simple chemical reduction method. The presence of Cu NPs was confirmed through UV–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The size and morphology of the particles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical properties of the fabricated sensor were studied via cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical sensor displayed excellent performance features towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection exhibiting wide linear range, low detection limit, swift response time, good reproducibility and stability.

  7. Toward the Control of the Creation of Mixed Monolayers on Glassy Carbon Surfaces by Amine Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Groppi, Jessica; Bartlett, Philip N; Kilburn, Jeremy D

    2016-01-18

    A versatile and simple methodology for the creation of mixed monolayers on glassy carbon (GC) surfaces was developed, using an osmium-bipyridyl complex and anthraquinone as model redox probes. The work consisted in the electrochemical grafting on GC of a mixture of mono-protected diamine linkers in varying ratios which, after attachment to the surface, allowed orthogonal deprotection. After optimisation of the deprotection conditions, it was possible to remove one of the protecting groups selectively, couple a suitable osmium complex and cap the residual free amines. The removal of the second protecting group allowed the coupling of anthraquinone. The characterisation of the resulting surfaces by cyclic voltammetry showed the variation of the surface coverage of the two redox centres in relation to the initial ratio of the linking amine in solution.

  8. Voltammetric Determination of Flunixin on Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    PubMed

    Radi, Abd-Elgawad; Abd El-Ghany, Nadia; Wahdan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensing approach, based on electropolymerization of a molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPpy) film onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface, was developed for the detection of flunixin (FXN). The sensing conditions and the performance of the constructed sensor were assessed by cyclic, differential pulse and (DPV) square wave voltammetry (SWV). The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, with linear responses in the range of 5.0 to 50.0 µM with detection limits of 1.5 and 1.0 µM for DPV and SWV, respectively. In addition, the sensor showed high selectivity towards FXN in comparison to other interferents. The sensor was successfully utilized for the direct determination of FXN in buffalo raw milk samples.

  9. Polymer modified glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical determination of caffeine in coffee.

    PubMed

    Amare, Meareg; Admassie, Shimelis

    2012-05-15

    4-Amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid (AHNSA) was electropolymerized on a glassy carbon electrode. The deposited film showed electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of caffeine. The polymer-modified electrode showed high sensitivity, selectivity and stability in the determination of caffeine in coffee. The peak current increased linearly with the concentration of caffeine in the range of 6 × 10(-8) to 4 × 10(-5) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 1.37 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) (LoD = 3δ/slope). Analysis of caffeine in coffee was affected neither by sample matrices nor by structurally similar compounds. Recoveries ranging between 93.75 ± 2.32 and 100.75 ± 3.32 were achieved from coffee extracts indicating the applicability of the developed method for real sample analyses.

  10. Voltammetric Determination of Flunixin on Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Abd-Elgawad; Abd El-Ghany, Nadia; Wahdan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensing approach, based on electropolymerization of a molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPpy) film onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface, was developed for the detection of flunixin (FXN). The sensing conditions and the performance of the constructed sensor were assessed by cyclic, differential pulse and (DPV) square wave voltammetry (SWV). The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, with linear responses in the range of 5.0 to 50.0 µM with detection limits of 1.5 and 1.0 µM for DPV and SWV, respectively. In addition, the sensor showed high selectivity towards FXN in comparison to other interferents. The sensor was successfully utilized for the direct determination of FXN in buffalo raw milk samples. PMID:27242945

  11. An electrochemically aminated glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyun; Xi, Min; Guo, Mengmeng; Sheng, Fangmeng; Xiao, Guang; Wu, Shuo; Uchiyama, Shunichi; Matsuura, Hiroaki

    2016-02-07

    In this contribution, a very simple and reliable strategy based on the easy modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by pre-electrolyzing GCE in ammonium carbamate aqueous solution was employed for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). Compared with bare GCE, the incorporation of nitrogen into the GCE surface structure improved the electrocatalytic properties of GCE towards the electro-oxidation of HQ and CC. The nitrogen-introduced GCE (N-GCE) was evaluated for the simultaneous detection of HQ and CC and the linear ranges for HQ and CC were both from 5 to 260 μM. Their detection limits were both evaluated to be 0.2 μM (S/N = 3). The present method was applied for the determination of HQ and CC in real river water samples with recoveries of 95.0-102.1%. In addition, a possible detection mechanism of HQ and CC was discussed.

  12. Voltammetric Determination of Dopamine in Human Serum with Amphiphilic Chitosan Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng Yin; Wang, Zhi Xian; Zhu, Ai Ping; Hu, Xiao Ya

    2006-01-01

    An improvement of selectivity for electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA) with differential pulse voltammetry is achieved by covalently modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with O-carboxymethylchitosan (OCMCS). The amphiphilic chitosan provides electrostatic accumulation of DA onto the electrode surface. In a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0), a pair of well-defined reversible redox waves of DA was observed at the OCMCS/GCE with a ΔEp of 52 mV. The anodic peak current obtained from the differential pulse voltammetry of dopamine was linearly dependent on its concentration in the range of 6.0 × 10-8 to 7.0 × 10-6 M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was found to be 1.5 × 10-9 M. The modified electrode had been applied to the determination of DA in human serum samples with satisfactory results.

  13. [Study on implant material of carbon/carbon composites].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohui; Yu, Shu; Zhu, Shaihong; Liu, Yong; Miu, Yunliang; Huang, Boyun

    2010-12-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and mechanical property of carbon/carbon composites. At first, carbon/carbon composites were prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and the mechanical property of carbon/carbon composites was tested. The biocompatibility of carbon/carbon composites was evaluated by cytotoxicity test, sensitization test, micronucleus test and implantation test. Mechanical property test showed such carbon/carbon composites are of good compression property and tension property. Cytotoxicity test showed that the leaching liquor of samples has no effect on the growth and proliferation of L-929 cells. The medullary micronucleus frequency of mouse was 2.3 per thousand +/- 0.7 per thousand in experiment group. The sensitization test showed that the skin of the subjects of experiment group had slight erythema and edema, which was 0.188 +/- 0.40 according to Magnusson and Kligman classification. Implantation test revealed that there was slight inflammation around the tissue after the implantation of sample. At 12 weeks, scanning electron microscopy and histopathological exam indicated that the samples of experiment group were of good histocompatibility; and in comparison with control group, there was no significant differences (P > 0.05). So these kinds of samples have good biocompatibility, mechanical property and prospects of clinical application.

  14. Gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2016-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium based on gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. Scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry was used to characterize the nanostructure and performance of the sensor and the results were compared with those obtained at the multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions diclofenac sodium gave linear response over the range of 0.03-200μmolL(-1). The lower detection limits were found to be 0.02μmolL(-1). The effect of common interferences on the current response of DS was investigated. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of diclofenac sodium in urine and pharmaceutical samples. This revealed that the gold nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of diclofenac sodium in terms of a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, very good accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility.

  15. Passivation of carbon steel through mercury implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment, in which carbon steel samples were implanted with mercury ions from a broad beam ion source and their corrosion characteristics in air were evaluated, is described. Mercury doses of a few mA min/square cm at energies of a few hundred electron volts are shown to effect significant improvements in the corrosion resistance of the treated surfaces. In a warm moist environment the onset of rusting was extended from 15 min. for an untreated sample to approximately 30 hrs. for one implanted at a dose of 33 mA min/square cm with 1000 eV mercury ions.

  16. Structural Modifications And Mechanical Degradation Of Ion Irradiated Glassy Polymer Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Abunaemeh, Malek; Ila, Daryush; Seif, Mohamed; Elsamadicy, Abdalla; Muntele, Claudiu

    2011-06-01

    The TRISO fuel has been used in some of the Generation IV nuclear reactor designs. It consists of a fuel kernel of UOx coated with several layers of materials with different functions. Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is one of the materials in the layers. In this study we investigate the possibility of using Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) as an alternative to PyC. GPC is used for artificial heart valves, heat-exchangers, and other high-tech products developed for the space and medical industries. This lightweight material can maintain dimensional and chemical stability in adverse environment and very high temperatures (up to 3000 deg. C). In this work, we are comparing the changes in physical and microstructure properties of GPC after exposure to irradiation fluence of 5 MeV Ag equivalent to a 1 displacement per atom (dpa) at samples prepared at 1000, 1500 and 2000 deg. C. The GPC material is manufactured and tested at the Center for Irradiation Materials (CIM) at Alabama A and M University. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy were used for analysis.

  17. Structural Modifications And Mechanical Degradation Of Ion Irradiated Glassy Polymer Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abunaemeh, Malek; Seif, Mohamed; Elsamadicy, Abdalla; Muntele, Claudiu; Ila, Daryush

    2011-06-01

    The TRISO fuel has been used in some of the Generation IV nuclear reactor designs. It consists of a fuel kernel of UOx coated with several layers of materials with different functions. Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is one of the materials in the layers. In this study we investigate the possibility of using Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) as an alternative to PyC. GPC is used for artificial heart valves, heat-exchangers, and other high-tech products developed for the space and medical industries. This lightweight material can maintain dimensional and chemical stability in adverse environment and very high temperatures (up to 3000 °C). In this work, we are comparing the changes in physical and microstructure properties of GPC after exposure to irradiation fluence of 5 MeV Ag equivalent to a 1 displacement per atom (dpa) at samples prepared at 1000, 1500 and 2000 °C. The GPC material is manufactured and tested at the Center for Irradiation Materials (CIM) at Alabama A&M University. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy were used for analysis.

  18. Electrochemical determination of nitrite and iodate based on Pt nanoparticles self-assembled on a chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Zhou, Yuan; Xian, Hongying; Wang, Lun; Huo, Jianqiang

    2011-01-01

    A promising electrochemical sensor was fabricated by the self-assembling of Pt nanoparticles (nano-Pts) on a chitosan (CS) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical techniques were used for characterization of these composites. It has been found that nano-Pts are inserted into the CS layer uniformly, and have a larger surface area compared to the chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrocatalytic experiments for the oxidation of nitrite and the reduction of iodate have shown that nano-Pts/CS/GCE can decrease the over-potential and increase the faradic current, which can be used for the sensitive determination of nitrite and iodate. Moreover, the prepared modified electrode exhibits good reproducibility and stability, and it is possible that this novel electrochemical sensor can be applied in the sensing and/or biosensing field.

  19. Effects of Ion Beam on Nanoindentation Characteristics of Glassy Polymeric Carbon Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M. G.; Da Cruz, N. C.; Rangel, E. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Ila, Dr. Daryush; Poker, David B; Hensley, Dale K

    2005-01-01

    Glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) is a useful material for medical applications due to its chemical inertness and biocompatible characteristics. Mitral and aortic and hydrocephalic valves are examples of GPC prosthetic devices that have been fabricated and commercialized in Brazil. In this work, ion beam was used to improve the mechanical characteristics of GPC surface and therefore to avoid the propagation of microcracks where the cardiac valves are more fragile. A control group of phenolic resin samples heat-treated at 300, 400, 700, 1000, 1500, and 2500 C was characterized by measuring their hardness and Young's reduced elastic modulus with the depth of indentation. The control group was compared to results obtained with samples heat-treated at 700, 1000, and 1500 C and bombarded with energetic ions of silicon, carbon, oxygen, and gold at energies of 5, 6, 8, and 10 MeV, respectively, with fluences between 1.0 x 10{sup 13} and 1.0 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. GPC nonbombarded samples showed that hardness depends on the heat treatment temperature (HTT), with a maximum hardness for heat treatment at 1000 C. The comparison between the control group and bombarded group also showed that hardness, after bombardment, had a greater increase for samples prepared at 700 C than for samples prepared at higher temperatures. The Young's elastic modulus presents an exponential relationship with depth. The parameters obtained by fitting depend on the HTT and on the ion used in the bombardment more than on energy and fluence. The hardness results show clearly that bombardment can promote carbonization, increase the linkage between the chains of the polymeric material, and promote recombination of broken bonds in lateral groups that are more numerous for samples heat-treated at 700 C.

  20. Effect of the glassy carbon structure on the aspect ratio of micropoints of matrix field-emission cathodes prepared by thermochemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleshkova, L. S.; Shesterkin, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    The application of thermochemical etching technology makes it possible to reveal and investigate the structure of SU-2000 glassy carbon using electron microscopy. The glassy carbon structure at the microscopic and nanoscopic levels is inhomogeneous and consists of pockets with an irregular cross section separated by partitions. This structure sets the limits on the aspect ratio of geometrical sizes and micropoint packing density in the matrix prepared by thermochemical etching.

  1. Graphene nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous detection of heroine, morphine and noscapine.

    PubMed

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah; Teymourian, Hazhir

    2012-01-15

    In the present study, the graphene nanosheets (GNSs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode is employed for simultaneous determination of morphine, noscapine and heroin. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the simultaneous determination of these three important opiate drugs based on their direct electrochemical oxidation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) technique is utilized in order to study the surface morphology of the modified electrode. The modified electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of morphine, noscapine and heroin at reduced overpotentials in wide pH range. In the performed experiments, differential pulse voltammetric determination of morphine, noscapine and heroin yields calibration curves with the following characteristics; linear dynamic range up to 65, 40 and 100 μM, sensitivity of 275, 500 and 217 nA μM(-1) cm(-2), and detection limits of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.5 μM at 3S(B), respectively. Fast response time, signal stability, high sensitivity, low cost and ease of preparation method without using any specific electron-transfer mediator or specific reagent are the advantageous of the proposed sensor. The modified electrode can be used for simultaneous or individual detection of three major narcotic components, heroin, noscapine and morphine at micromolar concentration without any separation or pretreatment steps.

  2. On the hybrid glassy carbon electrode/OligoThiophene/Ag(NP) interface.

    PubMed

    Tassinari, Francesco; Tancini, Erik; Innocenti, Massimo; Schenetti, Luisa; Fontanesi, Claudio

    2012-11-06

    GC/OligoThiophene/Ag(NP) hybrid interfaces are synthesized and characterized: GC is the glassy carbon surface; OligoThiophene stands for both an ultrathin bithiophene grafted film and a 4-Br-Bithiophene grafted polymer; Ag(NP) stands for silver nanoparticles. The hybrid interface preparation involves different steps: first, the electrode surface is functionalized through a combination of electrochemically assisted grafting (under reduction regime) and polymerization (under oxidation regime); then, silver nanoparticles are chemisorbed by dipping. In particular, an ultrathin film of grafted bithiophene can be obtained by applying one cyclic voltammetry reduction cycle (GC/BT surface), while subsequent cyclic voltammetry cycling under oxidation regime yields an immobilized 4Br-Bithiophene polymer (GC/4BrBT surface). AFM and TEM images were recorded to investigate the morphology and chemical composition of the Ag(NP). Fe(II)/Fe(III) cyclic voltammetry, Zn underpotential deposition (UPD), XPS, LA-ICP-MS, and Raman techniques were exploited to characterize both the GC/OligoThiophene and GC/OligoThiophene/Ag(NP) interfaces. Theoretical calculation, at the B3LYP/6-311G** level of the theory, enabled rationalization of the electroreduction mechanism and the Raman results.

  3. Electrochemical behavior of the antifungal agents itraconazole, posaconazole and ketoconazole at a glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Knoth, H; Scriba, G K E; Buettner, B

    2015-06-01

    The electrochemical behavior of the azole antifungal agents itraconazole, posaconazole and ketoconazole has been investigated at a glassy carbon working electrode using cyclic voltammetry. All measurements were carried out in a supporting electrolyte solution consisting of a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium phosphate buffers and acetonitrile at various substance concentrations and pH values. An amperometric cell with a three electrode system consisting of a working electrode, a palladium reference electrode and a platinum disk as the auxiliary electrode was used in all experiments. All azoles showed a similar electrochemical behavior involving two reactions. An irreversible oxidation occurred at potentials of about 0.5V. A reduction peak was detected at potentials between -0.28V and -0.14V with an associated oxidation peak, which was observed in consecutive repeated measurements at potentials between -0.03 and 0.28 V. The reduction and corresponding oxidation can be regarded as a quasi-reversible process. The proposed reaction mechanisms are an irreversible oxidation of the piperazine moiety at higher potentials as well as a reduction at lower potentials of the carbonyl group of the triazolone moiety in the case of itraconazole and posaconazole or a reduction of the methoxy group of ketoconazole.

  4. Construction of Au nanoparticles on choline chloride modified glassy carbon electrode for sensitive detection of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Po; Mai, Zhibin; Dai, Zong; Li, Yongxin; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2009-07-15

    A promising electrochemical sensor for sensitive determination of nitrite was fabricated by construction of Au nanoparticles on the surface of choline chloride (Ch) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Field emission scanning electron microscope, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques were used for the surface characterization of the modified electrode. It was demonstrated that Ch was covalently immobilized onto the GCE surface forming a planted Ch monolayer, which could provide a suitable supporting material for the construction of Au nanoparticles. As a result, the Au nanoparticles with average size of about 110 nm were assembled to form a flowerlike structure on the surface of Ch monolayer. Moreover, the uniform nano-Au/Ch film exhibited remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of nitrite with obvious reduction of overpotential. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range for the detection of nitrite was 4.0 x 10(-7) to 7.5 x 10(-4)M with a high sensitivity of 0.354 microA microM(-1), and a low detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-7)M. The proposed method was successfully applied in the detection of nitrite in water samples and sausage samples, and the results were consistent with those obtained by ion chromatography and UV-visible spectrophotometric methods.

  5. Behavior of the Ru-bda water oxidation catalyst covalently anchored on glassy carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Matheu, Roc; Francàs, Laia; Chernev, Petko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Batista, Victor; Haumann, Michael; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2015-05-07

    Electrochemical reduction of the dizaonium complex, [RuII(bda)(NO)(N–N2)2]3+, 23+ (N–N22+ is 4-(pyridin-4-yl) benzenediazonium and bda2– is [2,2'-bipyridine]-6,6'-dicarboxylate), in acetone produces the covalent grafting of this molecular complex onto glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Multiple cycling voltammetric experiments on the GC electrode generates hybrid materials labeled as GC-4, with the corresponding Ru-aqua complex anchored on the graphite surface. GC-4 has been characterized at pH = 7.0 by electrochemical techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and has been shown to act as an active catalyst for the oxidation of water to dioxygen. This new hybrid material has a lower catalytic performance than its counterpart in homogeneous phase and progressively decomposes to form RuO2 at the electrode surface. The resulting metal oxide attached at the GC electrode surface, GC-RuO2, is a very fast and rugged heterogeneous water oxidation catalyst with TOFis of 300 s–1 and TONs >45000. The observed performance is comparable to the best electrocatalysts reported so far, at neutral pH.

  6. Transport effects in the electrooxidation of methanol studied on nanostructured Pt/glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Y E; Schneider, A; Jusys, Z; Wickman, B; Kasemo, B; Behm, R J

    2010-03-02

    Transport effects in the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) were investigated using nanostructured Pt/glassy carbon (GC) electrodes and, for comparison, a polycrystalline Pt electrode. The nanostructured Pt/GC electrodes, consisting of a regular array of catalytically active cylindrical Pt nanostructures with 55 +/- 10 nm in diameter and different densities supported on a planar GC substrate, were fabricated employing hole-mask colloidal lithography (HCL). The MOR measurements were performed under controlled transport conditions in a thin-layer flow cell interfaced to a differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) setup. The measurements reveal a distinct variation in the MOR activity and selectivity (product distribution) with Pt nanostructure density and with electrolyte flow rate, showing an increasing overall activity, reflected by a higher Faradaic reaction current, as well as a pronounced increase of the turnover frequency for CO(2) formation and of the CO(2) current efficiency with decreasing flow rate and increasing Pt coverage. These findings are discussed in terms of the "desorption-readsorption-reaction" model introduced recently (Seidel et al. Faraday Discuss. 2008, 140, 67). Finally, consequences for applications in direct methanol fuel cells are outlined.

  7. Development of a new separation media using ultra-thin glassy carbon film modified silica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Olesik, Susan V

    2015-01-30

    A self-polymerizable octatetrayne, 1,8-dialdehydebenzyl-1,3,5,7-octatetrayne, is synthesized and covalently attached to an amino-functionalized surface of silica particles. The silica particles with a monolayer coverage of octatetrayne were then thermally processed to various final temperatures of 200, 400 and 700°C. The amino-functionalization, covalent attachment of octatetrayne and thermal process of silica particles were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermally processed particles were then packed into a capillary column and evaluated as a stationary phase for HPLC. After chromatographic evaluation, the optimized temperature for thermal processing was determined to be 400°C, which provides the best modified silica particles SiO2-OCT-T400 with an ultra-thin glassy carbon film coating. The linear solvation energy relationship model indicated that the primary contributors in retention are dispersion and H-bond basicity. The application of SiO2-OCT-T400 as a stationary phase was further demonstrated by successful separation of nonpolar hydrocarbons mixture and a nucleosides mixture.

  8. Corrosion of glassy carbon neural electrodes under electrical stimulation and chemical exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Nick Thomas

    Advances in research of neural prosthetics have led to the development of novel materials used for neural stimulation applications. Glassy carbon (GC) has demonstrated promise as a novel and robust material that can be used in such applications. This study focused on reporting the in-vitro testing of GC microelectrodes under stimulation and chemical exposure to simulate an in-vivo environment, and to determine corrosion. Microelectrode arrays were fabricated and tested for an electrochemical (EC) setup for long-term corrosion tests. GC electrode pillars were used to test the testing apparatus, and confirm its ability to stimulate the GC microelectrodes. Electrode stimulation was conducted over 7 and 14 day time periods in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) with two different types of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), USP and ACS. Corrosion of GC neural microelectrode arrays was monitored by physical, chemical, and electrochemical characterization methods. GC corrosion was characterized and evaluated over the duration of this study. Both GC and platinum microelectrode arrays were subjected to the same parameters. USP H2O2 did not corrode GC electrodes and characterization revealed that a protective layer can be preventing further electrode degradation. ACS H2O2 corroded GC electrodes. Implications of this work have given insights and new directions on testing neural prosthetic microelectrode arrays for stimulation applications.

  9. Electrocatalytic behaviour and application of manganese porphyrin/gold nanoparticle- surface modified glassy carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebarchievici, I.; Tăranu, B. O.; Birdeanu, M.; Rus, S. F.; Fagadar-Cosma, E.

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to obtain manganese porphyrin/gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes and to use them for the detection of H2O2. Two sets of modified electrodes were prepared by drop-cast deposition of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-methyl-phenyl)porphyrinato manganese(III) chloride alone and of the same Mn-porphyrin and gold-colloid solution and comparatively characterized by Raman, UV-vis, ellipsometry, AFM and TEM microscopy, XPS and cyclic voltammetry. XPS spectrum recorded for GC_MnP_nAu modified electrode displayed the characteristic signals of gold nanoparticles. The optical parameters have greater values for GC_MnP_nAu in comparison with GC_MnP, due to increasing charge transfer efficiency. The MnP_nAu film mediates the electron transfer between H2O2 and GC, evidenced by an increase in the current intensity of the anodic peak, and facilitates the electrochemical regeneration of oxidized H2O2 at cathodic potentials. From the cyclic voltammetry experiments a linear relationship between H2O2 concentration vs oxidation and reduction currents was observed. The linear dependence between density of current and the square root of the scan rate indicates that the oxidation and reduction processes of H2O2 are diffusion controlled. The GC_MnP_nAu modified electrode shows great potential as electrochemical sensor for determination of hydrogen peroxide.

  10. Behavior of the Ru-bda water oxidation catalyst covalently anchored on glassy carbon electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Matheu, Roc; Francàs, Laia; Chernev, Petko; ...

    2015-05-07

    Electrochemical reduction of the dizaonium complex, [RuII(bda)(NO)(N–N2)2]3+, 23+ (N–N22+ is 4-(pyridin-4-yl) benzenediazonium and bda2– is [2,2'-bipyridine]-6,6'-dicarboxylate), in acetone produces the covalent grafting of this molecular complex onto glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Multiple cycling voltammetric experiments on the GC electrode generates hybrid materials labeled as GC-4, with the corresponding Ru-aqua complex anchored on the graphite surface. GC-4 has been characterized at pH = 7.0 by electrochemical techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and has been shown to act as an active catalyst for the oxidation of water to dioxygen. This new hybrid material has a lower catalytic performance than its counterpartmore » in homogeneous phase and progressively decomposes to form RuO2 at the electrode surface. The resulting metal oxide attached at the GC electrode surface, GC-RuO2, is a very fast and rugged heterogeneous water oxidation catalyst with TOFis of 300 s–1 and TONs >45000. The observed performance is comparable to the best electrocatalysts reported so far, at neutral pH.« less

  11. Voltammetric determination of 4-nitrophenol at a sodium montmorillonite-anthraquinone chemically modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Hu, S; Xu, C; Wang, G; Cui, D

    2001-03-30

    A new method for the determination of 4-nitrophenol(4-NP) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) based on adsorptive stripping technique was described. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear scan voltammetry (LSV) were used in a comparative investigation into the electrochemical reduction of 4-NP at a Na-montmorillonite(SWy-2) and anthraquione (AQ) modified glassy carbon electrode. With this chemically modified electrode, 4-NP was first irreversibly reduced from phiNO(2) to phiNHOH at -0.78 V. A couple of well-defined redox peaks at +0.22 V (vs. SCE) were responsible for a two-electron redox peak between phiNHOH and phiNO. Studies on the effect of pH on the peak height and peak potential were carried out over the pH range 2.0-9.0 with the phosphate buffer solution. A pH of 3.4 was chosen as the optimum pH. The other experimental parameters, such as film thickness, accumulation time and potential etc. were optimized. Anodic peak currents were found to be linearly related to concentration of 4-NP over the range 0.3-45 mg l(-1), with a detection limit of 0.02 mg l(-1). The interference of organic and inorganic species on the voltammetric response have been studied. This modified electrode can be used to the determination of 4-NP in water samples.

  12. Preparation of aminylferrocene/nanogold modified glassy carbon electrode and its electrocatalysis on dopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Wang, Guangfeng; Jiao, Shoufeng; Guo, Zhihua; Fang, Bin

    2007-01-01

    Aminylferrocene(FcAI)-Nanogold(NG) modified glassy carbon electrode (FcAI/NG/GCE) was prepared by the Au-N bond between Au and FcAI. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed to study the surface of the modified electrode. The electrochemical behavior of dopamine (DA) on the modified electrode was investigated and it was found that the modified electrode had an obvious electrocatalytic effect on DA. Compared with a bare GCE, the modified electrode exhibited an apparent shift of the oxidation peak potential in the negative potential direction and a marked enhancement in the current response for DA. We investigated the determination of DA on the modified electrode by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 7.0 x 10(-7) mol/L to 6x10(-4) mol/L of DA in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.0) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989. The detection limit (S/N = 3) of DA was estimated to be 1.0 x 10(-7) mol/L. Especially, by using the modified electrode, we can separate the oxidation peaks of ascorbic acid (AA) and DA in the PBS and it was satisfactory for the determination of DA with the interference of AA.

  13. Electrochemical investigation of methyl parathion at gold-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunya; Wang, Zhengguo; Zhan, Guoqin

    2011-01-01

    A gold/sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (nano-Au/SDBS/GCE) was electrochemically fabricated with a constant potential at -0.4V. The obtained nano-Au/SDBS/GCE was characterized with scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical behaviors of methyl parathion at the nano-Au/SDBS/GCE were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the unmodified electrode, the peak current obviously increased and the oxidation peak potential negatively shifted. These changes indicated that the composite nanoparticles possess good electrocatalytic performance on the electrochemical reaction of methyl parathion. Experimental parameters such as deposition time, pH value and accumulation conditions were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the peak current corresponding to the oxidation of the hydroxylamine group was found in a good linear relationship with the methyl parathion concentration. In addition, a calibration curve with excellent linearity was obtained in the concentration range from 5.0×10(-7)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1) with an estimated detection limit of 8.6×10(-8)molL(-1) (S/N=3). The successful determination of methyl parathion in real samples demonstrated the usefulness and potential applications of this method.

  14. Enhanced electrochemical detection of ketorolac tromethamine at polypyrrole modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Padmanabhan; Senthil Kumar, Nagarajan; Renukadevi, Murugesan; Gopalan, Anantha Iyengar; Vasudevan, Thiyagarajan; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2007-04-01

    A glassy carbon electrode modified with a coating of polypyrrole (Ppy) exhibited an attractive performance for the detection and determination of a non-steroidal and non-narcotic analgesic compound, ketorolac tromethamine (KT). Cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse and square wave voltammetry were used in a combined way to identify the electrochemical characteristics and to optimize the conditions for detection. For calibrating and estimating KT, square-wave voltammetry was mainly used. The drug shows a well-defined peak at -1.40 V vs. Ag/AgCl in the acetate buffer (pH 5.5). The existence of Ppy on the surface of the electrode gives higher electrochemical active sites at the electrode for the detection of KT and preconcentrate KT by adsorption. The square-wave stripping voltammetric response depends on the excitation signal and the accumulation time. The calibration curve is linear in the range 1 x 10(-11) to 1 x 10(-7) M with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-12) M. Applicability to serum samples was also demonstrated. A detection limit of 1.0 ng ml for serum was observed. Square-wave voltammetry shows superior performance over UV spectroscopy and other techniques.

  15. A voltammetric determination of caffeic acid in red wines based on the nitrogen doped carbon modified glassy carbon electrode

    PubMed Central

    Karikalan, Natarajan; Karthik, Raj; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chen, Hsi-An

    2017-01-01

    We reported an electrochemical determination of caffeic acid (CA) based on the nitrogen doped carbon (NDC). The described sensor material was prepared by the flame synthesis method, which gave an excellent platform for the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials with the hetero atom dopant. The synthesized material was confirmed by various physical characterizations and it was further characterized by different electrochemical experiments. The NDC modified glassy carbon electrode (NDC/GCE) shows the superior electrocatalytic performance towards the determination of CA with the wide linear concentration range from 0.01 to 350 μM. It achieves the lowest detection limit of 0.0024 μM and the limit of quantification of 0.004 μM. The NDC/GCE-CA sensor reveals the good selectivity, stability, sensitivity and reproducibility which endorsed that the NDC is promising electrode for the determination of CA. In addition, NDC modified electrode is applied to the determination of CA in red wines and acquired good results. PMID:28378813

  16. Selective determination of sucrose based on electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer modified multiwall carbon nanotubes/glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Ensafi, Ali A; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2013-08-01

    A novel and selective electrochemical sensor was successfully developed for the determination of sucrose by integrating electropolymerization of molecularly imprinted polymer with multiwall carbon nanotubes. The sensor was prepared by electropolymerizing of o-phenylenediamine in the presence of template, sucrose, on a multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode. The sensor preparation conditions including sucrose concentration, the number of CV cycles in the electropolymerization step, pH of incubation solution, extraction time of template from the imprinted film and the incubation time were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A mixture of acetonitrile/acetic acid was used to remove the template. Hexacyanoferrate(II) was used as a probe to characterize the sensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Capturing of sucrose by the modified electrode causes decreasing the response of the electrode to hexacyanoferrate(II). Calibration curve was obtained in the sucrose concentration range of 0.01-10.0 mmol L(-1) with a limit of detection 3 μmol L(-1). This sensor provides an efficient way for eliminating interferences from compounds with similar structures to sucrose. The sensor was successfully used to determine sucrose in sugar beet juices with satisfactory results.

  17. Glassy carbon/multi walled carbon nanotube/cadmium sulphide photoanode for light energy storage in vanadium photoelectrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peimanifard, Zahra; Rashid-Nadimi, Sahar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is utilizing the artificial photosynthesis, which is an attractive and challenging theme in the photoelectrocatalytic water splitting, to charge the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). In this work multi walled carbon nanotube/cadmium sulphide hybrid is employed as a photoanode material to oxidize VO2+ to VO2+ for charging the positive vanadium redox flow battery's half-cell. Characterization studies are also described using the scanning electron microscopic-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and UV-Visible methods. The phtoelectrochemical performance is characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) is achieved for both two and three-electrode configurations. The glassy carbon/multi walled carbon nanotube/cadmium sulphide yields high maximum ABPE of 2.6% and 2.12% in three and two-electrode setups, respectively. These results provide a useful guideline in designing photoelectrochemical cells for charging the vanadium redox flow batteries by sunlight as a low cost, free and abundant energy source, which does not rely on an external power input.

  18. Amperometric sensing of anti-HIV drug zidovudine on Ag nanofilm-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Rafati, Amir Abbas; Afraz, Ahmadreza

    2014-06-01

    The zidovudine (ZDV) is the first drug approved for the treatment of HIV virus infection. The detection and determination of this drug are very importance in human serum because of its undesirable effects. A new ZDV sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanocomposite of silver nanofilm (Ag-NF) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) techniques. Results showed that the electrodeposited silver has a nanofilm structure and further electrochemical studies showed that the prepared nanocomposite has high electrocatalytic activity and is appropriate for using in sensors. The amperometric technique under optimal conditions is used for the determination of ZDV ranging from 0.1 to 400ppm (0.37μM-1.5mM) with a low detection limit of 0.04ppm (0.15μM) (S/N=3) and good sensitivity. The prepared sensor possessed accurate and rapid response to ZDV and shows an average recovery of 98.6% in real samples.

  19. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of mercury using multi-walled carbon nanotubes film coated glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hongchao

    2003-10-01

    An electrochemical method for the determination of trace levels of mercury based on a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) film coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is described. In 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl solution containing 0.02 mol L(-1) KI, Hg(2+) was firstly preconcentrated at the MWNT film and then reduced at -0.60 V. During the anodic potential sweep, reduced mercury was oxidized, and then a sensitive and well-defined stripping peak at about -0.20 V appeared. Under identical conditions, a MWNT film coated GCE greatly enhances the stripping peak current of mercury in contrast to a bare GCE. Low concentrations of I(-) remarkably improve the determining sensitivity, since this increases the accumulation efficiency of Hg(2+) at the MWNT film coated GCE. The stripping peak current is proportional to the concentration of Hg(2+) over the range 8 x 10(-10)-5 x 10(-7) mol L(-1). The lowest detectable concentration of Hg(2+) is 2 x 10(-10) mol L(-1) at 5 min accumulation. The relative standard deviation (RSD) at 1 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) Hg(2+) was about 6% ( n=10). By using this proposed method, Hg(2+) in some water samples was determined, and the results were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The two results are similar, suggesting that the MWNT-film coated GCE has great potential in practical analysis.

  20. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co3O4 nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaçar, Ceren; Dalkiran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kiliç, Esma

    2014-08-01

    In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co3O4 nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co3O4 nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at -0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10-7-1.9 × 10-5 M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10-7. The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89.

  1. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo, Xiang-Jie; Ju, Jian; Guo, Li-Ping

    2012-10-01

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H2O2 at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H2O2. The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 μA mM-1), low detection limit (1.8 μM), fast response time <3 s, and wide linear range (0.04-8.62 mM). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ( K m) and the maximum current density ( i max) values for the biosensor were 10.94 mM and 887 μA cm-2 respectively. Furthermore, this biosensor showed an acceptable reproducibility and high stability. The interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid at concentration levels normally found in human blood were not much compared with the response to glucose. Blood serum samples were also tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  2. Determination of oleuropein using multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode by adsorptive stripping square wave voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Cittan, Mustafa; Koçak, Süleyman; Çelik, Ali; Dost, Kenan

    2016-10-01

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode was used to prepare an electrochemical sensing platform for the determination of oleuropein. Results showed that, the accumulation of oleuropein on the prepared electrode takes place with the adsorption process. Electrochemical behavior of oleuropein was studied by using cyclic voltammetry. Compared to the bare GCE, the oxidation peak current of oleuropein increased about 340 times at MWCNT/GCE. Voltammetric determination of oleuropein on the surface of prepared electrode was studied using square wave voltammetry where the oxidation peak current of oleuropein was measured as an analytical signal. A calibration curve of oleuropein was performed between 0.01 and 0.70µM and a good linearity was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.9984. Detection and quantification limits of the method were obtained as 2.73 and 9.09nM, respectively. In addition, intra-day and inter-day precision studies indicated that the voltammetric method was sufficiently repeatable. Finally, the proposed electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to the determination of oleuropein in an olive leaf extract. Microwave-assisted extraction of oleuropein had good recovery values between 92% and 98%. The results obtained with the proposed electrochemical sensor were compared with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis.

  3. Amperometric uric acid biosensor based on poly(vinylferrocene)-gelatin-carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Erden, Pınar Esra; Kaçar, Ceren; Öztürk, Funda; Kılıç, Esma

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a new uric acid biosensor was constructed based on ferrocene containing polymer poly(vinylferrocene) (PVF), carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) and gelatin (GEL) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Uricase enzyme (UOx) was immobilized covalently through N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethyaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS) chemistry onto c-MWCNT/GEL/PVF/GCE. The c-MWCNT/GEL/PVF composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Various experimental parameters such as pH, applied potential, enzyme loading, PVF and c-MWCNT concentration were investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions the dynamic linear range of uric acid was 2.0×10(-7) M-7.1×10(-4) M (R=0.9993) with the detection limit low to 2.3×10(-8) M. With good selectivity and sensitivity, the biosensor was successfully applied to determine the uric acid in human serum. The results of the biosensor were in good agreement with those obtained from standard method. Therefore, the presented biosensor could be a good promise for practical applications in real samples.

  4. Amperometric choline biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/zirconium oxide nanoparticles electrodeposited on glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Pundir, S; Chauhan, N; Narang, J; Pundir, C S

    2012-08-01

    A bienzymatic choline biosensor was constructed by coimmobilizing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChO) onto nanocomposite of carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs) and zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO(2)NPs) electrodeposited on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and using it (AChE-ChO/c-MWCNT/ZrO(2)NPs/GCE) as working electrode, Ag/AgCl as reference electrode, and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies, optimized, and evaluated. The biosensor exhibited optimum response within 4 s at +0.2V, pH 7.4, and 25 °C. The detection limit and working range of the biosensor were 0.01 μM and 0.05 to 200 μM, respectively. The half-life of the enzyme electrode was 60 days at 4 °C. The serum choline level, as measured by the biosensor, was 9.0 to 12.8 μmol/L (with a mean of 10.81 μmol/L) in apparently healthy persons and 5.0 to 8.4 μmol/L (with a mean of 6.53 μmol/L) in persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease. The enzyme electrode was unaffected by a number of serum substances.

  5. Fluorescence quenching studies of potential-dependent DNA reorientation dynamics at glassy carbon electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Cui, Chenchen; Higgins, Daniel A; Li, Jun

    2012-09-05

    The potential-dependent reorientation dynamics of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) attached to planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces were investigated. The orientation state of surface-bound ds-DNA was followed by monitoring the fluorescence from a 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM6) fluorophore covalently linked to the distal end of the DNA. Positive potentials (i.e., +0.2 V vs open circuit potential, OCP) caused the ds-DNA to align parallel to the electrode surface, resulting in strong dipole-electrode quenching of FAM6 fluorescence. Switching of the GCE potential to negative values (i.e., -0.2 V vs OCP) caused the ds-DNA to reorient perpendicular to the electrode surface, with a concomitant increase in FAM6 fluorescence. In addition to the very fast (submilliseconds) dynamics of the initial reorientation process, slow (0.1-0.9 s) relaxation of FAM6 fluorescence to intermediate levels was also observed after potential switching. These dynamics have not been previously described in the literature. They are too slow to be explained by double layer charging, and chronoamperometry data showed no evidence of such effects. Both the amplitude and rate of the dynamics were found to depend upon buffer concentration, and ds-DNA length, demonstrating a dependence on the double layer field. The dynamics are concluded to arise from previously undetected complexities in the mechanism of potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation. The possible origins of these dynamics are discussed. A better understanding of these dynamics will lead to improved models for potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation at electrode surfaces and will facilitate the development of advanced electrochemical devices for detection of target DNAs.

  6. Electrochemical evaluation and determination of antiretroviral drug fosamprenavir using boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2010-05-01

    Fosamprenavir is a pro-drug of the antiretroviral protease inhibitor amprenavir and is oxidizable at solid electrodes. The anodic oxidation behavior of fosamprenavir was investigated using cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry at boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes. In cyclic voltammetry, depending on pH values, fosamprenavir showed one sharp irreversible oxidation peak or wave depending on the working electrode. The mechanism of the oxidation process was discussed. The voltammetric study of some model compounds allowed elucidation of the possible oxidation mechanism of fosamprenavir. The aim of this study was to determine fosamprenavir levels in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples by means of electrochemical methods. Using the sharp oxidation response, two voltammetric methods were described for the determination of fosamprenavir by differential pulse and square-wave voltammetry at the boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes. These two voltammetric techniques are 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) and phosphate buffer at pH 2.0 which allow quantitation over a 4 x 10(-6) to 8 x 10(-5) M range using boron-doped diamond and a 1 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-4) M range using glassy carbon electrodes, respectively, in supporting electrolyte. All necessary validation parameters were investigated and calculated. These methods were successfully applied for the analysis of fosamprenavir pharmaceutical dosage forms, human serum and urine samples. The standard addition method was used in biological media using boron-doped diamond electrode. No electroactive interferences from the tablet excipients or endogenous substances from biological material were found. The results were statistically compared with those obtained through an established HPLC-UV technique; no significant differences were found between the voltammetric and HPLC methods.

  7. A poly(3-acetylthiophene) modified glassy carbon electrode for selective voltammetric measurement of uric acid in urine sample.

    PubMed

    Aslanoglu, Mehmet; Kutluay, Aysegul; Abbasoglu, Sultan; Karabulut, Serpil

    2008-03-01

    A reliable and reproducible method for the determination of uric acid in urine samples has been developed. The method is based on the modification of a glassy carbon electrode by 3-acetylthiophene using cyclic voltammetry. The poly(3-acetylthiophene) modified glassy carbon electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic effect towards the oxidation of uric acid in 0.1 m phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2. Compared with a bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE), an obvious shift of the oxidation peak potential in the cathodic direction and a marked enhancement of the anodic current response for uric acid were observed. The poly(3-acetylthiophene)/GCE was used for the determination of uric acid using square wave voltammetry. The peak current increased linearly with the concentration of uric acid in the range of 1.25 x 10(-5)-1.75 x 10(-4) M. The detection limit was 5.27 x 10(-7) M by square wave voltammetry. The poly(3-acetylthiophene)/GCE was also effective to determine uric acid and ascorbic acid in a mixture and resolved the overlapping anodic peaks of these two species into two well-defined voltammetric peaks in cyclic voltammetry at 0.030 V and 0.320 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) for ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively. The modified electrode exhibited stable and sensitive current responses toward uric acid and ascorbic acid. The method has successfully been applied for determination of uric acid in urine samples.

  8. Fabrication of Graphene Using Carbon Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Tomeka; Smith, Cydale; Muntele, Claudiu

    2012-02-01

    Graphene is a flat monolayer of carbon atoms tightly packed into a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice and is a basic building block for graphitic materials of all other dimensionalities. It can be wrapped up into 0D fullerenes, rolled into 1D nanotubes, or stacked into 3D graphite. Graphene's high electrical conductivity and high optical transparency make it a candidate for transparent conducting electrodes, required for such applications as touchscreens, liquid crystal displays, organic photovoltaic cells, and organic light-emitting diodes. In particular, graphene's mechanical strength and flexibility are advantageous compared to indium tin oxide, which is brittle, and graphene films may be deposited from solution over large areas. One method to grow epitaxial graphene is by starting with single crystal silicon carbide (SiC). When SiC is heated under certain conditions, silicon evaporates leaving behind carbon that reorganizes into layers of graphene. Here we report on an alternate method of producing graphene by using low energy carbon implantation in a nickel layer deposited on silicon dioxide mechanical support, followed by heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere to induce carbon migration and self-assembly. We used high resolution RBS and Raman spectroscopy for process and sample characterization. Details will be discussed during the meeting.

  9. A highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor based on (Ag-Au NPs)/poly[o-phenylenediamine] modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Karimi, Ziba; Amouzadeh Tabrizi, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Herein, the poly(o-phenylenediamine) decorated with gold-silver nanoparticle (Ag-Au NPs) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon was used for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. Electrochemical experiments indicated that the proposed sensor possesses an excellent sensitivity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The resulting sensor exhibited a good response to hydrogen peroxide over linear range from 0.2 to 60.0μM with a limit of detection of 0.08μM, good reproducibility, long-term stability and negligible interference from ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine. The proposed sensor was successfully applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in human serum sample.

  10. A hydrogen peroxide sensor based on Ag nanoparticles electrodeposited on natural nano-structure attapulgite modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huihui; Zhang, Zhe; Cai, Dongqing; Zhang, Shengyi; Zhang, Bailin; Tang, Jilin; Wu, Zhengyan

    2011-10-30

    A novel strategy to fabricate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) sensor was developed by electrodepositing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on a glassy carbon electrode modified with natural nano-structure attapulgite (ATP). The result of electrochemical experiments showed that such constructed sensor had a favorable catalytic ability to reduce H(2)O(2). The good catalytic activity of the sensor was ascribed to the ATP that facilitated the formation and homogenous distribution of small Ag NPs. The resulted sensor achieved 95% of the steady-state current within 2s and had a 2.4 μM detection limit of H(2)O(2).

  11. A sensitive determination of estrogens with a Pt nano-clusters/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiangqin; Li, Yongxin

    2006-08-15

    On the top of a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNTs/GCE), Pt nanoclusters were electrochemically deposited, fabricating a Pt/MWNTs composite modified electrode, Pt/MWNTs/GCE. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope were used for the surface characterization of the electrode, and demonstrated the formation and distribution of Pt clusters of Pt nanoparticles of 8.4 nm in averaged size in the MWNTs matrix. The preliminary study found that this composite modified electrode has strong electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of estrogens involving estradiol, estrone and estriol. The voltammetric behavior of estrogens on this electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and square-wave voltammetry. In comparison with the MWNTs/GCE or a Pt nanoparticles modified GCE prepared in the similar way, this composite modified electrode exhibited much higher current sensitivity and catalytic activity. This electrode is also stable. The linear range of square-wave voltammetric determination was 5.0 x 10(-7)-1.5 x 10(-5)mol/L for estradiol, 2.0 x 10(-6)-5.0 x 10(-5)mol/L for estrone, and 1.0 x 10(-6)-7.5 x 10(-5)mol/L for estriol. Under an assumption that the concentration ratio of estradiol:estrone:estriol is 2:2:1, the real sample of blood serums was tested for the determination using this electrode. Satisfactory result was obtained with averaged recovery of 105%.

  12. A 3D microfluidic chip for electrochemical detection of hydrolysed nucleic bases by a modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Vlachova, Jana; Tmejova, Katerina; Kopel, Pavel; Korabik, Maria; Zitka, Jan; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-22

    Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion) for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH). It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  13. A 3D Microfluidic Chip for Electrochemical Detection of Hydrolysed Nucleic Bases by a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Vlachova, Jana; Tmejova, Katerina; Kopel, Pavel; Korabik, Maria; Zitka, Jan; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion) for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH). It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE. PMID:25621613

  14. Glassy carbons from poly(furfuryl alcohol) copolymers: structural studies by high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, H.; Levendis, Y.A.; Flagan, R.C.

    1988-08-25

    The chemical structure of glass carbon particles produced from poly(furfuryl alcohol) copolymers is studied by /sup 13/C cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) NMR and high-speed /sup 1/H MAS NMR. In agreement with earlier proposals, /sup 13/C NMR spectra confirm the buildup of a highly unsaturated system at the expense of furan rings and aliphatic carbon atoms, and upon heating to 800 K this conversion is essentially complete. Successive carbonization by air oxidation or pyrolysis at temperatures up to 1600 K is reflected in a gradual decrease of the /sup 13/C chemical shift from ca. 130 to 115 ppm versus tetramethylsilane. /sup 1/H MAS NMR is used to detect and quantitate the amount of residual C-bonded hydrogen species at various stages of the carbonization process. In addition, these spectra show intense, narrow resonances due to sorbed H/sub 2/O molecules, which resonate over a wide range of chemical shifts (between 2.5 and /minus/8 ppm versus tetramethylsilane). In analogy with effects observed by Tabony and co-workers for molecules adsorbed above the basal plane of graphite, the upfield shifts observed for water sorbed in the glassy carbons of the present study are attributed to the large susceptibility anisotropy of submicroscopically ordered, turbostratic, or partially graphitized regions of the samples. The extent of this ordering is inversely correlated with the absolute content of residual C-bonded hydrogen species and depends mainly on the temperature of pyrolysis, whereas the oxygen content of the heating atmosphere and the composition of the initial polymeric material appear to be of secondary importance. The results suggest that sorbed H/sub 2/O molecules can function as sensitive NMR chemical shift probes for the initial stages of crystallization processes in glassy carbons.

  15. An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Wei, Qianhui; Gao, Yongjie; Guo, Lijuan; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Mahboob, Shahid; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-04-13

    A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%-104.7% and 102.2%-103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine.

  16. Electroanalytical investigation and determination of pefloxacin in pharmaceuticals and serum at boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Bengi; Topal, Burcu Dogan; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2008-02-15

    The anodic behavior and determination of pefloxacin on boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes were investigated using cyclic, linear sweep, differential pulse and square wave voltammetric techniques. In cyclic voltammetry, pefloxacin shows one main irreversible oxidation peak and additional one irreversible ill-defined wave depending on pH values for both electrodes. The results indicate that the process of pefloxacin is irreversible and diffusion controlled on boron-doped diamond electrode and irreversible but adsorption controlled on glassy carbon electrode. The peak current is found to be linear over the range of concentration 2x10(-6) to 2x10(-4)M in 0.5M H(2)SO(4) at about +1.20V (versus Ag/AgCl) for differential pulse and square wave voltammetric technique using boron-doped diamond electrode. The repeatability, reproducibility, precision and accuracy of the methods in all media were investigated. Selectivity, precision and accuracy of the developed methods were also checked by recovery studies. The procedures were successfully applied to the determination of the drug in pharmaceutical dosage forms and humans serum samples with good recovery results. No electroactive interferences from the excipients and endogenous substances were found in the pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples, respectively.

  17. Highly Stable Glassy Carbon Interfaces for Long-Term Neural Stimulation and Low-Noise Recording of Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vomero, Maria; Castagnola, Elisa; Ciarpella, Francesca; Maggiolini, Emma; Goshi, Noah; Zucchini, Elena; Carli, Stefano; Fadiga, Luciano; Kassegne, Sam; Ricci, Davide

    2017-01-01

    We report on the superior electrochemical properties, in-vivo performance and long term stability under electrical stimulation of a new electrode material fabricated from lithographically patterned glassy carbon. For a direct comparison with conventional metal electrodes, similar ultra-flexible, micro-electrocorticography (μ-ECoG) arrays with platinum (Pt) or glassy carbon (GC) electrodes were manufactured. The GC microelectrodes have more than 70% wider electrochemical window and 70% higher CTC (charge transfer capacity) than Pt microelectrodes of similar geometry. Moreover, we demonstrate that the GC microelectrodes can withstand at least 5 million pulses at 0.45 mC/cm2 charge density with less than 7.5% impedance change, while the Pt microelectrodes delaminated after 1 million pulses. Additionally, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) was selectively electrodeposited on both sets of devices to specifically reduce their impedances for smaller diameters (<60 μm). We observed that PEDOT-PSS adhered significantly better to GC than Pt, and allowed drastic reduction of electrode size while maintaining same amount of delivered current. The electrode arrays biocompatibility was demonstrated through in-vitro cell viability experiments, while acute in vivo characterization was performed in rats and showed that GC microelectrode arrays recorded somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) with an almost twice SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) when compared to the Pt ones.

  18. Highly Stable Glassy Carbon Interfaces for Long-Term Neural Stimulation and Low-Noise Recording of Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vomero, Maria; Castagnola, Elisa; Ciarpella, Francesca; Maggiolini, Emma; Goshi, Noah; Zucchini, Elena; Carli, Stefano; Fadiga, Luciano; Kassegne, Sam; Ricci, Davide

    2017-01-01

    We report on the superior electrochemical properties, in-vivo performance and long term stability under electrical stimulation of a new electrode material fabricated from lithographically patterned glassy carbon. For a direct comparison with conventional metal electrodes, similar ultra-flexible, micro-electrocorticography (μ-ECoG) arrays with platinum (Pt) or glassy carbon (GC) electrodes were manufactured. The GC microelectrodes have more than 70% wider electrochemical window and 70% higher CTC (charge transfer capacity) than Pt microelectrodes of similar geometry. Moreover, we demonstrate that the GC microelectrodes can withstand at least 5 million pulses at 0.45 mC/cm2 charge density with less than 7.5% impedance change, while the Pt microelectrodes delaminated after 1 million pulses. Additionally, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) was selectively electrodeposited on both sets of devices to specifically reduce their impedances for smaller diameters (<60 μm). We observed that PEDOT-PSS adhered significantly better to GC than Pt, and allowed drastic reduction of electrode size while maintaining same amount of delivered current. The electrode arrays biocompatibility was demonstrated through in-vitro cell viability experiments, while acute in vivo characterization was performed in rats and showed that GC microelectrode arrays recorded somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) with an almost twice SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) when compared to the Pt ones. PMID:28084398

  19. An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Wei, Qianhui; Gao, Yongjie; Guo, Lijuan; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Mahboob, Shahid; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-01-01

    A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%–104.7% and 102.2%–103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine. PMID:27089341

  20. Carbon nanotube detectors for microchip CE: comparative study of single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotube, and graphite powder films on glassy carbon, gold, and platinum electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pumera, Martin; Merkoçi, Arben; Alegret, Salvador

    2007-04-01

    The performance of microchip electrophoresis/electrochemistry system with carbon nanotube (CNT) film electrodes was studied. Electrocatalytic activities of different carbon materials (single-wall CNT (SWCNT), multiwall CNT (MWCNT), carbon powder) cast on different electrode substrates (glassy carbon (GC), gold, and platinum) were compared in a microfluidic setup and their performance as microchip electrochemical detectors was assessed. An MWCNT film on a GC electrode shows electrocatalytic effect toward oxidation of dopamine (E(1/2) shift of 0.09 V) and catechol (E(1/2) shift of 0.19 V) when compared to a bare GC electrode, while other CNT/carbon powder films on the GC electrode display negligible effects. Modification of a gold electrode by graphite powder results in a strong electrocatalytic effect toward oxidation of dopamine and catechol (E(1/2) shift of 0.14 and 0.11 V, respectively). A significant shift of the half-wave potentials to lower values also provide the MWCNT film (E(1/2) shift of 0.08 and 0.08 V for dopamine and catechol, respectively) and the SWCNT film (E(1/2) shift of 0.10 V for catechol) when compared to a bare gold electrode. A microfluidic device with a CNT film-modified detection electrode displays greatly improved separation resolution (R(s)) by a factor of two compared to a bare electrode, reflecting the electrocatalytic activity of CNT.

  1. Photogeneration of singlet oxygen by the phenothiazine derivatives covalently bound to the surface-modified glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacha-Grzechnik, Agata; Piwowar, Katarzyna; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Koscielniak, Piotr; Szuber, Jacek; Zak, Jerzy K.

    2016-05-01

    The selected group of four amine-derivatives of phenothiazine was covalently grafted to the glassy carbon surface in the four-step procedure consisting of the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt followed by the electrochemical and chemical post-modification steps. The proposed strategy involves the bonding of linker molecule to which the photosensitizer is attached. The synthesized organic layers were characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry, XPS and Raman Spectroscopy. It was shown that the phenothiazines immobilized via proposed strategy retain their photochemical properties and are able to generate 1O2 when activated by the laser radiation. The effectiveness of in situ singlet oxygen generation by those new solid photoactive materials was determined by means of UVVis spectroscopy. The reported, covalently modified solid surfaces may find their application as the singlet oxygen photogenerators in the fine chemicals' synthesis or in the wastewater treatment.

  2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine by graphene oxide-Pd nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Daekun; You, Jung-Min; Kim, Seul Ki; Yun, Mira; Jeon, Seungwon

    2012-12-01

    Pd nanoparticle catalysts supported by thiolated graphene oxide (tGO) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and denoted as tGO-Pd/GCE, are used in this study for the electrochemical determination of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. The physicochemical properties of tGO-Pd were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). They showed strong catalytic activity toward the oxidation of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry were used to characterize the sensors' performances. The detection limits of hydroxylamine and hydrazine by tGO-Pd/GCE were 0.31 and 0.25 microM (s/n = 3), respectively. The sensors' sensitivity, selectivity, and stability were also investigated.

  3. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of nanomolar concentrations of antiviral drug acyclovir at polymer film modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Dorraji, Parisa S; Jalali, Fahimeh

    2016-04-01

    An electrochemical sensor for the sensitive detection of acyclovir was developed by the electropolymerization of Eriochrome black T at a pretreated glassy carbon electrode. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Under the optimized conditions, a significant electrochemical improvement was observed toward the electrooxidation of acyclovir on the modified electrode surface relative to the unmodified electrode. The detection limit of 12 nM and two linear calibration ranges of 0.03-0.3 μM and 0.3-1.5 μM were obtained for acyclovir determination using a differential pulse voltammetric method in acetate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.0). Real sample studies were carried out in human blood serum and pharmaceutical formulations, which offered good recovery (98-102%). The electrode showed excellent reproducibility, selectivity and antifouling effects.

  4. Novel Signal-Amplified Fenitrothion Electrochemical Assay, Based on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Dispersed Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Dong, Jinbo; Wang, Yulong; Cheng, Qi; Yang, Mingming; Cai, Jia; Liu, Fengquan

    2016-01-01

    A novel signal-amplified electrochemical assay for the determination of fenitrothion was developed, based on the redox behaviour of organophosphorus pesticides on a glassy carbon working electrode. The electrode was modified using graphene oxide dispersion. The electrochemical response of fenitrothion at the modified electrode was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, current-time curves, and square-wave voltammetry. Experimental parameters, namely the accumulation conditions, pH value, and volume of dispersed material, were optimised. Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship was obtained between the oxidation peak current and the fenitrothion concentration. The linear range was 1–400 ng·mL−1, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng·mL−1 (signal-to-nose ratio = 3). The high sensitivity of the sensor was demonstrated by determining fenitrothion in pakchoi samples. PMID:27003798

  5. Interfacial electron transfer of glucose oxidase on poly(glutamic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode and glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuechou; Tan, Bingcan; Zheng, Xinyu; Kong, Dexian; Li, Qinglu

    2015-11-15

    The interfacial electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOx) on a poly(glutamic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/GCE) was investigated. The redox peaks measured for GOx and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are similar, and the anodic peak of GOx does not increase in the presence of glucose in a mediator-free solution. These indicate that the electroactivity of GOx is not the direct electron transfer (DET) between GOx and PGA/GCE and that the observed electroactivity of GOx is ascribed to free FAD that is released from GOx. However, efficient electron transfer occurred if an appropriate mediator was placed in solution, suggesting that GOx is active. The PGA/GCE-based biosensor showed wide linear response in the range of 0.5-5.5 mM with a low detection limit of 0.12 mM and high sensitivity and selectivity for measuring glucose.

  6. Enhancement of electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol by ascorbic acid at gold nanoparticle/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongping; Gao, Tingting; Zhou, Ying; Chu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2015-01-05

    Gold nanoparticle/graphene (GNP/GR) nanocomposite was one-pot synthesized from water soluble graphene and HAuCl₄ by hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol was investigated at the GNP/GR modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GR/GCE) and the GNP modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GCE) in aqueous solution respectively. The results revealed that one strong anodic ECL peak could be observed at ∼0.8 V at two modified electrodes compared with that at the bare electrode. The intensity of the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE is weaker than that at the GNP/GCE, which should be due to the synergic effect of the enhancing effect of gold nanoparticles and the inhibiting effect of graphene on anodic luminol ECL. One strong cathodic ECL peak located at ∼-0.8 V could be observed at the GNP/GR/GCE but not at the GNP/GCE, which should be result from the adsorbed oxygen at the graphene film. In the presence of ascorbic acid, the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE was enhanced more than 8-times, which is more apparent than that at the GNP/GCE. Whereas, the cathodic ECL peak was seriously inhibited at the GNP/GR/GCE. The enhanced ECL intensity at the GNP/GR/GCE varied linearly with the logarithm of ascorbic acid concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-6)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). The possible ECL mechanism was also discussed.

  7. Enhancement of electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol by ascorbic acid at gold nanoparticle/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongping; Gao, Tingting; Zhou, Ying; Chu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle/graphene (GNP/GR) nanocomposite was one-pot synthesized from water soluble graphene and HAuCl4 by hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol was investigated at the GNP/GR modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GR/GCE) and the GNP modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GCE) in aqueous solution respectively. The results revealed that one strong anodic ECL peak could be observed at ∼0.8 V at two modified electrodes compared with that at the bare electrode. The intensity of the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE is weaker than that at the GNP/GCE, which should be due to the synergic effect of the enhancing effect of gold nanoparticles and the inhibiting effect of graphene on anodic luminol ECL. One strong cathodic ECL peak located at ∼-0.8 V could be observed at the GNP/GR/GCE but not at the GNP/GCE, which should be result from the adsorbed oxygen at the graphene film. In the presence of ascorbic acid, the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE was enhanced more than 8-times, which is more apparent than that at the GNP/GCE. Whereas, the cathodic ECL peak was seriously inhibited at the GNP/GR/GCE. The enhanced ECL intensity at the GNP/GR/GCE varied linearly with the logarithm of ascorbic acid concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10-9 mol L-1. The possible ECL mechanism was also discussed.

  8. NH2 + implantations induced superior hemocompatibility of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Meixian; Li, Dejun; Zhao, Mengli; Zhang, Yiteng; Deng, Xiangyun; Geng, Dongsheng; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Gu, Hanqing; Wan, Rongxin

    2013-05-01

    NH2 + implantation was performed on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) prepared by chemical vapor deposition. The hemocompatibility of MWCNTs and NH2 +-implanted MWCNTs was evaluated based on in vitro hemolysis, platelet adhesion, and kinetic-clotting tests. Compared with MWCNTs, NH2 +-implanted MWCNTs displayed more perfect platelets and red blood cells in morphology, lower platelet adhesion rate, lower hemolytic rate, and longer kinetic blood-clotting time. NH2 +-implanted MWCNTs with higher fluency of 1 × 1016 ions/cm2 led to the best thromboresistance, hence desired hemocompatibility. Fourier transfer infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed that NH2 + implantation caused the cleavage of some pendants and the formation of some new N-containing functional groups. These results were responsible for the enhanced hemocompatibility of NH2 +-implanted MWCNTs.

  9. [Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics as implant materials].

    PubMed

    Bader, R; Steinhauser, E; Rechl, H; Siebels, W; Mittelmeier, W; Gradinger, R

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics have been used clinically as an implant material for different applications for over 20 years.A review of technical basics of the composite materials (carbon fibers and matrix systems), fields of application,advantages (e.g., postoperative visualization without distortion in computed and magnetic resonance tomography), and disadvantages with use as an implant material is given. The question of the biocompatibility of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics is discussed on the basis of experimental and clinical studies. Selected implant systems made of carbon composite materials for treatments in orthopedic surgery such as joint replacement, tumor surgery, and spinal operations are presented and assessed. Present applications for carbon fiber reinforced plastics are seen in the field of spinal surgery, both as cages for interbody fusion and vertebral body replacement.

  10. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in urine and plasma using multiwall carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode by least-squares support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Taei, M; Khayamian, T; Hasanpour, F

    2010-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method is proposed for the electrochemical determination of enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its primary metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) at a multiwall carbon nanotubes/glassy carbon electrode (MWCNT/GCE) using a least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and linear sweep voltammetry. Simultaneous determination of ENRO and CIPRO at bare glassy carbon is associated with certain difficulties due to voltammogram overlapping and their low sensitivity. The resolution of the mixture was carried out using LS-SVM as a multivariate calibration method. Under the optimum conditions at pH 7.0, the linear sweep currents increased linearly with ENRO and CIPRO concentrations in ranges of 2.0-780.0 micromol L(-1) (0.7-280.3 microg mL(-1)) and 3.0-1200 micromol L(-1) (1.0-397.7 microg mL(-1)), respectively. The detection limits for ENRO and CIPRO were 0.5 and 0.9 micromol L(-1), respectively. The proposed method was applied to simultaneously determine both compounds in human urine, plasma and in pharmaceutical samples.

  11. Electroanalysis using macro-, micro-, and nanochemical architectures on electrode surfaces. Bulk surface modification of glassy carbon microspheres with gold nanoparticles and their electrical wiring using carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xuan; Wildgoose, Gregory G; Salter, Chris; Crossley, Alison; Compton, Richard G

    2006-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (approximately 30-60 nm in diameter) were deposited onto the surface of glassy carbon microspheres (10-20 microm) through electroless plating to produce bulk (i.e., gram) quantities of nanoparticle surface-modified microspheres. The gold nanoparticle-modified powder was then characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The voltammetric response of a macroelectrode consisting of a film of gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon microspheres, bound together and "wired-up" using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), was investigated. We demonstrate that by intelligently exploiting both nano- and microchemical architectures and wiring up the electroactive centers using MWCNTs in this way, we can obtain macroelectrode voltammetric behavior while only using approximately 1% by mass of the expensive gold material that would be required to construct the equivalent gold film macrodisk electrode. The potential utility of electrodes constructed using chemical architectures such as this was demonstrated by applying them to the analytical determination of arsenic(III) concentration. An optimized limit of detection of 2.5 ppb was obtained.

  12. Determination of mutagenic amines in water and food samples by high pressure liquid chromatography with amperometric detection using a multiwall carbon nanotubes-glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Ana María; Marín, Miguel Ángel; Contento, Ana María; Ríos, Ángel

    2016-02-01

    A chromatographic method, using amperometric detection, for the sensitive determination of six representative mutagenic amines was developed. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE), modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (GCE-CNTs), was prepared and its response compared to a conventional glassy carbon electrode. The chromatographic method (HPLC-GCE-CNTs) allowed the separation and the determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) classified as mutagenic amines by the International Agency for Research of Cancer. The new electrode was systematically studied in terms of stability, sensitivity, and reproducibility. Statistical analysis of the obtained data demonstrated that the modified electrode provided better sensitivity than the conventional unmodified ones. Detection limits were in the 3.0 and 7.5 ng/mL range, whereas quantification limits ranged between 9.5 and 25.0 ng/mL were obtained. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the determination of the amines in several types of samples (water and food samples). Recoveries indicate very good agreement between amounts added and those found for all HAAs (recoveries in the 92% and 105% range).

  13. New biosensing platforms based on the layer-by-layer self-assembling of polyelectrolytes on Nafion/carbon nanotubes-coated glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Gustavo A; Miscoria, Silvia A; Desbrieres, Jacques; Barrera, Gustavo D

    2007-01-15

    We are proposing for the first time the use of a Nafion/multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersion deposited on glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) as a new platform for developing enzymatic biosensors based on the self-assembling of a chitosan derivative and different oxidases. The electrodes are obtained by deposition of a layer of Nafion/multi-wall carbon nanotubes dispersion on glassy carbon electrodes, followed by the adsorption of a chitosan derivative as polycation and glucose oxidase, l-aminoacid oxidase or polyphenol oxidase, as polyanions and biorecognition elements. The optimum configuration for glucose biosensors has allowed a highly sensitive (sensitivity=(0.28+/-0.02)muAmM(-1), r=0.997), fast (4s in reaching the maximum response), and highly selective (0% interference of ascorbic acid and uric acid at maximum physiological levels) glucose quantification at 0.700V with detection and quantification limits of 0.035 and 0.107mM, respectively. The repetitivity for 10 measurements was 5.5%, while the reproducibility was 8.4% for eight electrodes. The potentiality of the new platform was clearly demonstrated by using the carbon nanotubes/Nafion layer as a platform for the self-assembling of l-aminoacid oxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Therefore, the platform we are proposing here, that combines the advantages of nanostructured materials with those of the layer-by-layer self-assembling of polyelectrolytes, opens the doors to new and exciting possibilities for the development of enzymatic and affinity biosensors using different transdution modes.

  14. Implantation of nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus ions into metals

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, M.I.; Gordeeva, G.V.

    1987-01-01

    The application of ion implantation for alloying offers a unique opportunity to modify the chemical composition, phase constitution, and microstructure of the surface layers of metals. The authors studied ion implantation of nitrogen and carbon into the surface layers of metallic targets. The phase composition of the implanted layers obtained on the Kh18N10T stainless steel, the refractory molybdenum alloy TsM-6, niobium, and nickel was determined according to the conventional method of recording the x-ray diffraction pattern of the specimens using monochromatic FeK/sub alpha/-radiation on a DRON-2,0 diffractometer. The targets were bombarded at room temperature in an ILU-3 ion accelerator. The implantation of metalloid ions was also conducted with the targets being bombarded with 100-keV phosphorus ions and 40-keV carbon ions.

  15. A Voltammetric Biosensor Based on Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Hemoglobin for Detection of Acrylamide in Water Extracts from Potato Crisps.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Agnieszka; Radecki, Jerzy; Radecka, Hanna

    2008-09-23

    The presence of toxic acrylamide in a wide range of food products such as potato crisps, French fries or bread has been confirmed by Swedish scientists from Stockholm University. The neurotoxicity, possible carcinogenicity of this compound and its metabolites compels us to control them by quantitative and qualitative assays. Acrylamide forms adduct with hemoglobin (Hb) as a result of the reaction the -NH2 group of the Nterminal valine with acrylamide. In this work we present the use of glassy carbon electrodes coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and Hb for voltammetric detection of acrylamide in water solutions. The electrodes presented a very low detection limit (1.0×10(-9) M). The validation made in the matrix obtained by water extraction of potato crisps showed that the electrodes presented are suitable for the direct determination of acrylamide in food samples.

  16. A very low potential electrochemical detection of L-cysteine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes/gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco de Assis dos Santos; da Silva, Monique Gabriella Angelo; Lima, Phabyanno Rodrigues; Meneghetti, Mario Roberto; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-12-15

    A nanohybrid platform built with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanorods, prepared via a cationic surfactant-containing seed-mediated sequential growth process, in aqueous solution, on a glassy carbon substrate has been successfully developed to be used in the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine (Cys). The nanohybrid was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. Cyclic voltammetry results had shown that the modified electrode allows the oxidation of Cys at a very low anodic potential (0.00 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The kinetic constant kcat for the catalytic oxidation of Cys was evaluated by chronoamperometry and provided a value of 5.6×10(4) L mol(-1) s(-1). The sensor presents a linear response range from 5.0 up to 200.0 µmol L(-1), detection limit of 8.25 nmol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 120 nA L µmol(-1).

  17. A kanamycin sensor based on an electrosynthesized molecularly imprinted poly-o-phenylenediamine film on a single-walled carbon nanohorn modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuang; Li, Bingqian; Song, Ze; Pan, Sihao; Zhang, Zhichao; Yao, Hui; Zhu, Shuyun; Xu, Guobao

    2016-12-19

    A single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWCNH) has been used to construct a molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for the first time. Kanamycin, a widely used aminoglycoside antibiotic, is used as a representative analyte to test the detection strategy. The kanamycin sensor was constructed by the electropolymerization of a molecularly imprinted poly-o-phenylenediamine film on a SWCNH modified glassy carbon electrode. The sensor was investigated in the presence or absence of kanamycin by cyclic voltammetry to verify the changes in the redox peak currents of K3Fe(CN)6. The sensor exhibits a linear range of 0.1-50 μM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM. It also shows high recognition ability, indicating that the SWCNH-based molecularly imprinted sensor is promising.

  18. Electrochemical behavior of dye-linked L-proline dehydrogenase on glassy carbon electrodes modified by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haitao; Lin, Leyi; Okezaki, Yosuke; Kawakami, Ryushi; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Takagi, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Summary A glassy carbon electrode (GC) was modified by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The modified electrode showed a pair of redox peaks that resulted from the oxygen-containing functional groups on the nanotube surface. A recombinant thermostable dye-linked L-proline dehydrogenase (L-proDH) from hyperthermophilic archaeon (Thermococcus profundus) was further immobilized by physical adsorption. The modified electrode (GC/MWCNTs/L-proDH) exhibited an electrocatalytic signal for L-proline compared to bare GC, GC/L-proDH and GC/MWCNTs electrodes, which suggested that the presence of MWCNTs efficiently enhances electron transfer between the active site of enzyme and electrode surface. The immobilized L-proDH showed a typical Michaelis–Menten catalytic response with lower apparent constant. PMID:21977403

  19. Electro-oxidation and determination of antihistamine drug, cetirizine dihydrochloride at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Patil, Roopa H; Hegde, Rajesh N; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2011-03-01

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed for the determination of an antihistamine drug, cetirizine dihydrochloride (CTZH) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Owing to the unique structure and extraordinary properties of MWCNT, the MWCNT film has shown an obvious electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of CTZH, since it facilitates the electron transfer and significantly enhances the oxidation peak current of CTZH. All experimental parameters have been optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the oxidation peak current was linearly proportional to the concentration of CTZH in the range from 5.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-5)M. The detection limit was 7.07×10(-8)M with 180s accumulation. Finally, the proposed sensitive and simple electrochemical method was successfully applied to CTZH determination in pharmaceutical and urine samples.

  20. A Novel Electrochemical Sensor for Probing Doxepin Created on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly(4-Amino- benzoic Acid)/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Composite Film

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Li; Huang, Fei; Zhou, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Song; Kong, Ji-Lie

    2010-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of doxepin was prepared, which was based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite film [poly(4-ABA)/MWNTs/GCE]. The sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods. It was observed that poly(4-ABA)/MWNTs/GCE showed excellent preconcentration function and electrocatalytic activities towards doxepin. Under the selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to the logarithm of doxepin concentration in the range from 1.0 × 10−9 to 1.0 × 10−6 M, and the detection limit obtained was 1.0 × 10−10 M. The poly(4-ABA)/MWNTs/GCE was successfully applied in the measurement of doxepin in commercial pharmaceutical formulations, and the analytical accuracy was confirmed by comparison with a conventional ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay. PMID:22163661

  1. Biosensor based on tyrosinase immobilized on a single-walled carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode for detection of epinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Apetrei, Irina Mirela; Apetrei, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    A biosensor comprising tyrosinase immobilized on a single-walled carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode has been developed. The sensitive element, ie, tyrosinase, was immobilized using a drop-and-dry method followed by cross-linking. Tyrosinase maintained high bioactivity on this nanomaterial, catalyzing the oxidation of epinephrine to epinephrine-quinone, which was electrochemically reduced (−0.07 V versus Ag/AgCl) on the biosensor surface. Under optimum conditions, the biosensor showed a linear response in the range of 10–110 μM. The limit of detection was calculated to be 2.54 μM with a correlation coefficient of 0.977. The repeatability, expressed as the relative standard deviation for five consecutive determinations of 10−5 M epinephrine solution was 3.4%. A good correlation was obtained between results obtained by the biosensor and those obtained by ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods. PMID:24348034

  2. MIPs-graphene nanoplatelets-MWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of cardiac troponin I.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ya; Shen, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Hai-Shui; Tao, Jia; Huang, Jian-Zhi; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Li-Shi

    2017-03-01

    An electrochemical sensor with high selectivity in addition to sensitivity was developed for the determination of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), based on the modification of cTnI imprinted polymer film on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The sensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer assembled graphene nanoplatelets (GS), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), chitosan (CS), glutaraldehyde (GA) composites, which can increase the electronic transfer rate and the active surface area to capture a larger number of antigenic proteins. MWCNTs/GS based imprinted polymers (MIPs/MWCNTs/GS) were synthesized by means of methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker α,α'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator and cTnI as the template. In comparison with conventional methods, the proposed electrochemical sensor is highly sensitive for cTnI, providing a better linear response range from 0.005 to 60 ng cm(-3) and a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0008 ng cm(-3) under optimal experimental conditions. In addition, the electrochemical sensor exhibited good specificity, acceptable reproducibility and stability. Moreover, satisfactory results were obtained in real human serum samples, indicating that the developed method has the potential to find application in clinical detection of cTnI as an alternative approach.

  3. Electrochemically oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube/glassy carbon electrode as a probe for simultaneous determination of dopamine and doxorubicin in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Haghshenas, Esmaeel; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    A facile and effective approach of fabricating oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube/glassy carbon electrode (OMWCNT/GCE) is herein reported. The OMWCNT/GCE was prepared by electrochemical oxidation method in basic media (0.5 mol L(-1) NaOH solution) and used as a sensor for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and doxorubicin (DOX). Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used for characterization and performance study of the OMWCNT/GCE. The modified electrode exhibited good electrocatalytic properties toward the oxidation of DA and DOX. Peaks potential difference of 240 mV between DA and DOX was large enough to determine DA and DOX individually and simultaneously. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used for the simultaneous determination of DA and DOX in their binary mixture. Under the optimum conditions, the linear concentration dependences of SW peak current responses were observed for DA and DOX in the concentration ranges of 0.03-55 μmol L(-1) and 0.04-90 μmol L(-1), respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 8.5 × 10(-3) μmol L(-1), and 9.4 × 10(-3) μmol L(-1) for DA and DOX, respectively. The analytical utility of OMWCNT/GCE was also successfully demonstrated for the simultaneous determination of DA and DOX in human blood serum and urine samples. Graphical Abstract Fabrication of new oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube/glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of dopamine and doxorubicin.

  4. Direct Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin Immobilized on a Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Gold Nanoparticles Nanocomplex-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun; Zhao, Ying-Xue; Xiao, Bao-Lin; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Sheibani, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Direct electron transfer of hemoglobin (Hb) was realized by immobilizing Hb on a carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomplex-modified glassy carbon electrode. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) methods were utilized for additional characterization of the AuNPs and FMWCNTs. The cyclic voltammogram of the modified electrode has a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of −0.270 ± 0.002 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (ks) was evaluated to be 4.0 ± 0.2 s−1. The average surface concentration of electro-active Hb on the surface of the modified glassy carbon electrode was calculated to be 6.8 ± 0.3 × 10−10 mol cm−2. The cathodic peak current of the modified electrode increased linearly with increasing concentration of hydrogen peroxide (from 0.05 nM to 1 nM) with a detection limit of 0.05 ± 0.01 nM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp) was calculated to be 0.85 ± 0.1 nM. Thus, the modified electrode could be applied as a third generation biosensor with high sensitivity, long-term stability and low detection limit. PMID:23881129

  5. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of the TCNQ(0/)(-) couple on a glassy carbon electrode. Layer-by-layer nucleation and growth.

    PubMed

    Gómez, L; Rodríguez-Amaro, R

    2006-08-15

    On the basis of the electrochemical results obtained for thin films of 7,7,8,8- tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) on a glassy carbon electrode, the reduction and oxidation of the [TCNQ](0/)(-) couple in KCl aqueous media occurs via a mechanism involving layer-by-layer nucleation and growth. In situ recorded UV-visible spectroelectrochemical data allow two different crystal structures for the oxidized form of TCNQ to be discriminated.

  6. Amperometric detection of Sudan I in red chili powder samples using Ag nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, E; Pandian, K

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive electrochemical method was developed to determine the concentration of Sudan I in chili powder based on silver nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (AgNPs@GO/GCE). The voltammetry behaviour of Sudan I on modified GCE was investigated in phosphate buffer medium (PBS) with various pH ranges and the electron transfer properties were studied. It is found that the AgNPs@GO/GCE can catalyse the reduction of azo group, -N=N- followed by electrochemical oxidation of (-)OH group present in Sudan I dye molecule. Quantitative detection of Sudan I present in food products was carried out by amperometry method in which reduction potential was fixed at -0.77 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The amperometry method showed an excellent performance with a sensitivity of 6.83 μA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 11.4 × 10(-7)ML(-1). A linear calibration graph was constructed in the ranging 3.90 × 10(-6) to 3.19 × 10(-5)ML(-1). The method was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in red chili powder samples.

  7. Adsorption stripping voltammetry of phenol at Nafion-modified glassy carbon electrode in the presence of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Yi, H; Wu, K; Hu, S; Cui, D

    2001-12-24

    In this paper, a new voltammetric method for the determination of phenol is described. In pH 8.00 phosphate buffer and in the presence of long-chain cationic surfactant-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-phenol has a very sensitive oxidation peak at 0.47 V (vs. SCE) on the Nafion-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The experimental parameters, such as supporting electrolyte and pH values, amounts of Nafion, varieties and concentration of surfactants, accumulation potential and time, as well as scan rate were optimized. The peak current is linear with the concentration of phenol in the range from 8x10(-9) to 1x10(-5) M, and the detection limit is 1x10(-9) M after being accumulated at -0.50 V (vs. SCE) for 3 min. Trace levels of phenol in water samples were determined by using this voltammetric method, the average recovery was calculated to be 99.56%.

  8. Determination of fenitrothion in water using a voltammetric sensor based on a polymer-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Amare, Meareg; Abicho, Samuel; Admassie, Shimelis

    2014-01-01

    A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with poly(4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid) (poly-AHNSA) was used for the selective and sensitive determination of fenitrothion (FT) organophosphorus pesticide in water. The electrochemical behavior of FT at the bare GCE and the poly-AHNSA/GCE were compared using cyclic voltammetry. Enhanced peak current response and shift to a lower potential at the polymer-modified electrode indicated the electrocatalytic activity of the polymer film towards FT. Under optimized solution and method parameters, the adsorptive stripping square wave voltammetric reductive peak current of FT was linear to FT concentration in the range of 0.001 to 6.6 x 10(-6) M, and the LOD obtained (3delta/m) was 7.95 x 10(-10) M. Recoveries in the range 96-98% of spiked FT in tap water and reproducible results with RSD of 2.6% (n = 5) were obtained, indicating the potential applicability of the method for the determination of trace levels of FT in environmental samples.

  9. Determination of trace levels of diosmin in a pharmaceutical preparation by adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    El-Shahawi, M S; Bashammakh, A S; El-Mogy, T

    2006-10-01

    A systematic study on the electrochemical behavior of diosmin in Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 2.0-10.0) at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was made. The oxidation process of the drug was found to be quasi-reversible with an adsorption-controlled step. The adsorption stripping response was evaluated with respect to various experimental conditions, such as the pH of the supporting electrolyte, the accumulation potential and the accumulation time. The observed anodic peak current at +0.73 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode increased linearly over two orders of magnitude from 5.0x10(-8) M to 9.0x10(-6) M. A limit of detection down to 3.5x10(-8) M of diosmin at the GCE was achieved with a mean recovery of 97+/-2.1%. Based on the electrochemical data, an open-circuit accumulation step in a stirred sample solution of BR at pH 3.0 was developed. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the drug in pharmaceutical formulations. The results compared favorably with the data obtained via spectrophotometric and HPLC methods.

  10. Amino-functionalized mesoporous silica modified glassy carbon electrode for ultra-trace copper(II) determination.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xingxin; Qiu, Fagui; Zhou, Xuan; Long, Yumei; Li, Weifeng; Tu, Yifeng

    2014-10-27

    This paper described a facile and direct electrochemical method for the determination of ultra-trace Cu(2+) by employing amino-functionalized mesoporous silica (NH2-MCM-41) as enhanced sensing platform. NH2-MCM-41 was prepared by using a post-grafting process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. NH2-MCM-41 modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode showed higher sensitivity for anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) detection of Cu(2+) than that of MCM-41 modified one. The high sensitivity was attributed to synergistic effect between MCM-41 and amino-group, in which the high surface area and special mesoporous morphology of MCM-41 can cause strong physical absorption, and amino-groups are able to chelate copper ions. Some important parameters influencing the sensor response were optimized. Under optimum experimental conditions the sensor linearly responded to Cu(2+) concentration in the range from 5 to 1000 ng L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.9 ng L(-1) (S/N=3). Moreover, the sensor possessed good stability and electrode renewability. In the end, the proposed sensor was applied for determining Cu(2+) in real samples and the accuracy of the results were comparable to those obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method.

  11. Potential of glassy carbon and silicon carbide photonic structures as electromagnetic radiation shields for atmospheric re-entry.

    PubMed

    Komarevskiy, Nikolay; Shklover, Valery; Braginsky, Leonid; Hafner, Christian; Lawson, John

    2012-06-18

    During high-velocity atmospheric entries, space vehicles can be exposed to strong electromagnetic radiation from ionized gas in the shock layer. Glassy carbon (GC) and silicon carbide (SiC) are candidate thermal protection materials due to their high melting point and also their good thermal and mechanical properties. Based on data from shock tube experiments, a significant fraction of radiation at hypersonic entry conditions is in the frequency range from 215 to 415 THz. We propose and analyze SiC and GC photonic structures to increase the reflection of radiation in that range. For this purpose, we performed numerical optimizations of various structures using an evolutionary strategy. Among the considered structures are layered, porous, woodpile, inverse opal and guided-mode resonance structures. In order to estimate the impact of fabrication inaccuracies, the sensitivity of the reflectivity to structural imperfections is analyzed. We estimate that the reflectivity of GC photonic structures is limited to 38% in the aforementioned range, due to material absorption. However, GC material can be effective for photonic reflection of individual, strong spectral line. SiC on the other hand can be used to design a good reflector for the entire frequency range.

  12. A novel poly(taurine) modified glassy carbon electrode for the simultaneous determination of epinephrine and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Zhen-zhen

    2009-11-01

    A novel taurine modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by electropolymerization method. The electrochemical behaviors of epinephrine (EP) and dopamine (DA) at the modified electrode were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode exhibited enhanced sensitivity and excellent electrochemical discrimination to DA and EP. The cathodic peaks of the two species were well-separated with a potential difference of about 390 mV, so the poly(taurine) modified electrode was used for simultaneous voltammetric measurement of EP and DA by differential pulse voltammetry. Under the optimum conditions, the cathodic peak currents were linear to concentrations of EP and DA in the range of 2.0 x 10(-6) to 6.0 x 10(-4)mol L(-1) and 1.0 x 10(-6) to 8.0 x 10(-4)mol L(-1), respectively. The detection limits for EP and DA were 3.0 x 10(-7) and 1.0 x 10(-7)mol L(-1), respectively. Because the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) is an irreversible reaction at modified electrode, the interference of AA for determining EP and DA was eliminated. The modified electrode has been satisfactorily used for the simultaneous determination of EP and DA in pharmaceutical injections.

  13. Electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid using a poly(aniline-co-m-ferrocenylaniline) modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Chairam, Sanoe; Sriraksa, Worawit; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Somsook, Ekasith

    2011-01-01

    A poly(aniline-co-m-ferrocenylaniline) was successfully synthesized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by electrochemical copolymerization using a scan potential range from -0.3 to +0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.5 M H2SO4 containing 30% acetonitrile (ACN), 0.1 M aniline (Ani) and 0.005 M m-ferrocenyaniline (m-FcAni). The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the poly(Ani-co-m-FcAni) modified electrode. The poly(Ani-co-m-FcAni)/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) in citrate buffer solution (CBS, pH 5.0). The anodic peak potential of AA was shifted from +0.55 V at the bare GCE to +0.25 V at the poly(Ani-co-m-FcAni)/GCE with higher current responses than those seen on the bare GCE. The scan number at the 10th cycle was selected as the maximum scan cycle in electrochemical polymerization. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 2.0 μM based on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 3). The amperometric responses demonstrated an excellent selectivity for AA determination over glucose (Glu) and dopamine (DA).

  14. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen and tramadol using Dowex50wx2 and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Bankim J; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2011-11-14

    A glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE) modified with a cation exchanger resin, Dowex50wx2 and gold nanoparticles (D50wx2-GNP-GCPE) has been developed for individual and simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACOP) and tramadol (TRA). The electrochemical behavior of both the molecules has been investigated employing cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and adsorptive stripping square wave voltammetry (AdSSWV). The studies revealed that the oxidation of ACOP and TRA is facilitated at D50wx2-GNP-GCPE. Using AdSSWV, the method allowed simultaneous determination of ACOP and TRA in the linear working range of 3.34×10(-8) to 4.22×10(-5) M with detection limits of 4.71×10(-9) and 1.12×10(-8) M (S/N=3) for ACOP and TRA respectively. The prepared modified electrode shows several advantages such as simple preparation method, long-time stability, ease of preparation and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing and excellent reproducibility. The high sensitivity and selectivity of D50wx2-GNP-GCPE were demonstrated by its practical application in the determination of both ACOP and TRA in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples.

  15. Electrocatalytical oxidation and sensitive determination of acetaminophen on glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene-chitosan composite.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meixia; Gao, Feng; Wang, Qingxiang; Cai, Xili; Jiang, Shulian; Huang, Lizhang; Gao, Fei

    2013-04-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of acetaminophen (ACOP) on a graphene-chitosan (GR-CS) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electrochemical characterization showed that the GR-CS nanocomposite had excellent electrocatalytic activity and surface area effect. As compared with bare GCE, the redox signal of ACOP on GR-CS/GCE was greatly enhanced. The values of electron transfer rate constant (ks), diffusion coefficient (D) and the surface adsorption amount (Γ(*)) of ACOP on GR-CS/GCE were determined to be 0.25s(-1), 3.61×10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) and 1.09×10(-9) mol cm(-2), respectively. Additionally, a 2e(-)/2H(+) electrochemical reaction mechanism of ACOP was deduced based on the acidity experiment. Under the optimized conditions, the ACOP could be quantified in the range from 1.0×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-4) M with a low detection limit of 3.0×10(-7) M based on 3S/N. The interference and recovery experiments further showed that the proposed method is acceptable for the determination of ACOP in real pharmaceutical preparations.

  16. Electrochemical detection of malathion pesticide using acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on glassy carbon electrode modified with conducting polymer film.

    PubMed

    Guler, Muhammet; Turkoglu, Vedat; Kivrak, Arif

    2016-06-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor based on conducting poly([2,2̍';5̍' 2″]-terthiophene-3̍-carbaldehyde) (PTT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed. AChE was immobilized on PTT film surface through the covalent bond between aldehyde and amino groups. The properties of PTT modified GCE were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biosensor showed an oxidation peak at +0.83 V related to the oxidation of thiocholine, hydrolysis product of acetylthiocholine iodide (ATCI), catalyzed by AChE. The optimum current response of the biosensor was observed at pH 7.5-8.0, 40 °C and 120 U/cm(2) of AChE concentration. The biosensor showed a high sensitivity (183.19 μA/mM), a linear range from 0.015 to 1.644 mM, and a good reproducibility with 1.7 % of relative standard deviation (RSD). The biosensor showed a good stability. The interference of glycin, ascorbic acid, histidine, uric acid, dopamine, and arginine on the biosensor response was studied. An important analytical response from these inteferents that overlaps the biosensor response was not observed. The inhibition rate of malathion as a model pesticide was proportional to its concentrations from 9.99 to 99.01 nM. The detection limit was 4.08 nM.

  17. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid using polybromothymol blue film-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiongwei; Lin, Qihuang; Liu, Ailin; Chen, Wei; Weng, Xiuhua; Wang, Changlian; Lin, Xinhua

    2010-06-01

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical method for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) using an electropolymerized bromothymol blue (BTB)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed. The electrochemically synthesized film was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltammetric methods. The electrochemical behavior of the polymer-modified electrode depends on film thickness, i.e., the electropolymyerization time. The poly-BTB-modified GCE shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of AA, DA, and UA in phosphate buffer solution (pH 5.0). The voltametric peak separations of AA/DA, DA/UA, and AA/UA on this modified electrode are 118 mV, 298 mV, and 455 mV, respectively. Therefore the voltammetric responses of these three compounds can be resolved well on the polymer-modified electrode, and simultaneous determination of these three compounds can be achieved. In addition, this modified electrode can be successfully applied to determine AA and DA in injection and UA in urine samples without interference.

  18. Electrochemical deposition and behavior of mixed-valent molybdenum oxide film at glassy carbon and ITO electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koçak, Süleyman; Ertaş, Fatma Nil; Dursun, Zekerya

    2013-01-01

    The effect of solution composition and the type of the anionic species on the electrochemical formation of mixed-valent molybdenum oxide on a glassy carbon and ITO electrode surfaces was elucidated. Susccessive recording of the voltammograms has shown that anionic species display different stabilizing effect on the reductive formation of hydrogen molybdenum bronzes [MoO3-x (OH)x] and chloroacetic acid buffer has given the best results. The deposit was built upon cycling the potential between 0 and -0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) via reduction of Mo(VI) to Mo(V) on the electrode surface in pH 3.0 chloroacetic acid solution. Electrochemical impedance measurements carried out in this medium revealed a shift in potential zero charge values from -0.2 V to -0.55 V after the potential of the GCE had been cycled for 30 min. An establishment of mixed-valent molybdenum oxide deposit by time on the gold electrode surface was proved by quartz crystal microbalance measurements. Atomic force and scanning electron microscopy techniques were made use of so as to characterize the surface structures of the electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirmed that the deposit contains both Mo(V) and Mo(VI). The deposited films exhibited unique catalytic activity towards nitrite oxidation consistent with the change in peak characteristics.

  19. Electrochemical sensor for Isoniazid based on the glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide-Au nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhuo; Wang, Ze-Yu; Wang, Hui-Hua; Huang, Guo-Qing; Li, Meng-Meng

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor has been fabricated to detect Isoniazid (INZ) using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Au nanocomposites (RGO-Au). RGO-Au nanocomposites were synthesized by a solution-based approach of chemical co-reduction of Au(III) and graphene oxide (GO), and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The Au nanoparticles separate the RGO sheets in the precipitate and prevent RGO sheets from aggregation upon π-π stacking interactions. RGO-Au nanocomposites were used to modify the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical properties of RGO-Au/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the RGO-Au/GCE exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities towards INZ. Under the optimized conditions, there was linear relationships between the peak currents and the concentrations in the range of 1.0×10(-7)M to 1.0×10(-3)M for INZ, with the limit of detection (LOD) (based on S/N=3) of 1.0×10(-8)M for INZ.

  20. A sensitive bisphenol A voltammetric sensor relying on AuPd nanoparticles/graphene composites modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Su, Bingyuan; Shao, Huilin; Li, Na; Chen, Xiaomei; Cai, Zhixiong; Chen, Xi

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a sensitive bisphenol A (BPA) electrochemical sensor was assembled using a surfactant-free AuPd nanoparticles-loaded graphene nanosheets (AuPdNPs/GNs) modified electrode. The AuPdNPs monodispersed on GNs were successfully prepared by the spontaneous redox reaction between bimetallic precursors and GNs. Because no surfactant or halide ions were involved in the proposed synthesis, the prepared composite was enabled to directly modify a glassy carbon electrode without any pre-treatments. Moreover, due to the synergetic effect of Au and Pd, AuPdNPs/GNs displayed high electrochemical activity with well-defined voltammetric peaks of BPA oxidation and lower overpotential compared with monometallic PdNPs and AuNPs supported GNs. According to the results of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), under optimized conditions, a good linear response was observed for the concentration of BPA in the range of 0.05-10μM with a detection limit of 8nM. The developed electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to determine BPA in food package. This study indicated that AuPdNPs/GNs based electrochemical sensor can be a promising and reliable tool for rapid analysis of emergency pollution affairs of BPA.

  1. Electrochemical determination of maltol in beverages with glassy carbon electrode and its silica sol-gel modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Di, Junwei; Bi, Shuping; Zhang, Feng

    2004-05-28

    The electrochemical behavior of maltol on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode was investigated. The results were applied to differential pulse voltammetric determination of maltol in beverages pretreated by ultrafiltration. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range is 1x10(-5) to 6x10(-4)moll(-1) maltol and the relative standard deviation for 0.4mmoll(-1) maltol is 0.6% (n=9). The detection limit was 5mumoll(-1). Furthermore, silica sol-gel film on GC electrode could be used as suitable selective membrane, which integrated selective membrane on the electrode and substituted for the pretreatment of ultrafiltration. Under the above conditions, maltol was determined by semi-differential linear sweep voltammetry at a silica sol-gel modified GC electrode in the concentration range of 5x10(-6) to 5x10(-4)moll(-1). The detection limit was 2mumoll(-1) and the relative standard deviation for 0.1mmoll(-1) maltol was 0.7% (n=7). The proposed method is of sensitivity, simplicity, rapidness and no contamination. It had been applied to the direct determination of maltol in beverages such as grape wines, drinks and beers without any pretreatment. The results obtained with the present method were satisfactory with those obtained by spectrophotometry. It could be used as a simple and practical method for the determination of the flavor enhancer maltol in beverages.

  2. Fabrication of folic acid sensor based on the Cu doped SnO2 nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavanya, N.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Sudhan, N.; Sekar, C.; Leonardi, S. G.; Cannilla, C.; Neri, G.

    2014-07-01

    A novel folic acid biosensor has been fabricated using Cu doped SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method. Powder XRD and TEM studies confirmed that both the pure and Cu doped SnO2 (Cu: 0, 10, 20wt%) crystallized in tetragonal rutile-type structure with spherical morphology. The average crystallite size of pure SnO2 was estimated to be around 16 nm. Upon doping, the crystallite sizes decreased to 9 nm and 5 nm for 10 and 20wt% Cu doped SnO2 respectively. XPS studies confirmed the electronic state of Sn and Cu to be 4+ and 2+ respectively. Cu (20wt%) doped SnO2 NPs are proved to be a good sensing element for the determination of folic acid (FA). Cu-SnO2 NPs (20wt%) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited the lowest detection limit of 0.024 nM over a wide folic acid concentration range of 1.0 × 10-10 to 6.7 × 10-5 M at physiological pH of 7.0. The fabricated sensor is highly selective towards the determination of FA even in the presence of a 100 fold excess of common interferent ascorbic acid. The sensor proved to be useful for the estimation of FA content in pharmaceutical sample with satisfactory recovery.

  3. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid Using a Poly(aniline-co-m-ferrocenylaniline) Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chairam, Sanoe; Sriraksa, Worawit; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Somsook, Ekasith

    2011-01-01

    A poly(aniline-co-m-ferrocenylaniline) was successfully synthesized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by electrochemical copolymerization using a scan potential range from −0.3 to +0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.5 M H2SO4 containing 30% acetonitrile (ACN), 0.1 M aniline (Ani) and 0.005 M m-ferrocenyaniline (m-FcAni). The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the poly(Ani-co-m-FcAni) modified electrode. The poly(Ani-co-m-FcAni)/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) in citrate buffer solution (CBS, pH 5.0). The anodic peak potential of AA was shifted from +0.55 V at the bare GCE to +0.25 V at the poly(Ani-co-m-FcAni)/GCE with higher current responses than those seen on the bare GCE. The scan number at the 10th cycle was selected as the maximum scan cycle in electrochemical polymerization. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 2.0 μM based on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 3). The amperometric responses demonstrated an excellent selectivity for AA determination over glucose (Glu) and dopamine (DA). PMID:22346636

  4. The effect of glassy carbon surface oxides in non-aqueous voltammetry: the case of quinones in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Staley, Patrick A; Newell, Christina M; Pullman, David P; Smith, Diane K

    2014-11-04

    Glassy carbon (GC) electrodes are well-known to contain oxygenated functional groups such as phenols, carbonyls, and carboxylic acids on their surface. The effects of these groups on voltammetry in aqueous solution are well-studied, but there has been little discussion of their possible effects in nonaqueous solution. In this study, we show that the acidic functional groups, particularly phenols, are likely causes of anomalous features often seen in the voltammetry of quinones in nonaqueous solution. These features, a too small second cyclic voltammetric wave and extra current between the two waves that sometimes appears to be a small, broad third voltammetric wave, have previously been attributed to different types of dimerization. In this work, concentration-dependent voltammetry in acetonitrile rules out dimerization with a series of alkyl-benzoquinones because the anomalous features get larger as the concentration decreases. At low concentrations, solution bimolecular reactions will be relatively less important than reactions with surface groups. Addition of substoichiometric amounts of naphthol at higher quinone concentrations produces almost identical behavior as seen at low quinone concentrations with no added naphthol. This implicates hydrogen bonding and proton transfer from the surface phenolic groups as the cause of the anomalous features in quinone voltammetry at GC electrodes. This conclusion is supported by the perturbation of surface oxide coverage on GC electrodes through different electrode pretreatments.

  5. Mechanistic characterization and inhibition of sphingomyelinase C over substituted Iron Schiff bases of chitosan adsorbed on glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Caro, Claudia A; Lillo, Luis; Valenzuela, Francisco J; Cabello, Gerardo

    2017-02-01

    The medical treatment of laxoscelisms is based solely on supportive measures. Although equine antiserum for Sphingomyelinase C (SMASE) and D isomers are available, it is not used due to the risk of an anaphylactic reaction and its unproven efficacy. As potential enzyme inhibitors, derivatives of Iron chitosan complexes were studied (Shiff base having -R = -H, -Cl, -Br, -F, -OCH3, -CH3, -NO2). These chitosan complexes were chosen because they have revealed good results in medicine and catalysis due to their biodegradable characteristics and bioavailability. Besides considering that these complexes have not been studied in relation to this toxin. The mechanisms underlying the catalytic and catcher effects of Iron chitosan complexes were studied using electrochemistry, UV-Vis spectroscopy and microscopic assay at physiological pH. The electrochemical studies showed that one of seven Schiff bases of chitosan adsorbed on glassy carbon electrode was electrocatalytically active for the oxidation of sphingomyelinase at 1.27 V, and that allowed proposing a reaction scheme for SMASE oxidation by adsorbed Iron complexes. On the other hand, even though the spectroscopic studies indicated that there was no chemical bond formation between the complex and SMASE in solution, the microscopic studies showed that this complex proved to be a remarkable cellular protector in presence of the enzyme. In conclusion, Shiff base of chitosan with R = -CH3 was the only active complex in front of sphingomyelinase C, protecting red blood cells, according to our electrochemical and microscopic studies.

  6. Morphology-dependent NiO modified glassy carbon electrode surface for lead(II) and cadmium(II) detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuewu; Wen, Hao; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Dai; Yu, Jingui; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Huang, Xingjiu

    2016-02-01

    Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces have been modified with different NiO morphologies consisting of rods NiO, flakes NiO and balls NiO prepared via the hydrothermal synthesis method for Pb(II) and Cd(II) detection by using the square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Meanwhile, the typical cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), BET surface area and adsorption property of the modified electrode surfaces have been investigated to evaluate their electrochemical detection effect. Results show that balls NiO modified GCE can get the optimal detection ability for its highest detection sensitivity to Pb(II) (13.46 A M-1) and Cd(II) (5.10 A M-1), the lowest detection limit (DL) to Pb(II) (0.08 μM) and Cd(II) (0.07 μM) as well as the superior linear relativity. In addition, an enhanced current at redox peaks, lower electron transfer resistance, larger BET surface area and stronger adsorption capacity have been confirmed for the balls NiO modified GCE surface. Finally, excellent stability and reproducibility of balls NiO modified electrodes for Pb(II) and Cd(II) detection have also been proved via the SWASV responses.

  7. Potential of Glassy Carbon and Silicon Carbide Photonic Structures as Electromagnetic Radiation Shields for Atmospheric Re-entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komarevskiy,Nikolay; Shklover, Valery; Braginsky, Leonid; Hafner, Christian; Lawson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    During high-velocity atmospheric entries, space vehicles can be exposed to strong electromagnetic radiation from ionized gas in the shock layer. Glassy carbon (GC) and silicon carbide (SiC) are candidate thermal protection materials due to their high melting point and also their good thermal and mechanical properties. Based on data from shock tube experiments, a significant fraction of radiation at hypersonic entry conditions is in the frequency range from 215 to 415 THz. We propose and analyze SiC and GC photonic structures to increase the reflection of radiation in that range. For this purpose, we performed numerical optimizations of various structures using an evolutionary strategy. Among the considered structures are layered, porous, woodpile, inverse opal and guided-mode resonance structures. In order to estimate the impact of fabrication inaccuracies, the sensitivity of the reflectivity to structural imperfections is analyzed. We estimate that the reflectivity of GC photonic structures is limited to 38% in the aforementioned range, due to material absorption. However, GC material can be effective for photonic reflection of individual, strong spectral line. SiC on the other hand can be used to design a good reflector for the entire frequency range.

  8. Electrochemical Determination of Chlorpyrifos on a Nano-TiO₂Cellulose Acetate Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    PubMed

    Kumaravel, Ammasai; Chandrasekaran, Maruthai

    2015-07-15

    A rapid and simple method of determination of chlorpyrifos is important in environmental monitoring and quality control. Electrochemical methods for the determination of pesticides are fast, sensitive, reproducible, and cost-effective. The key factor in electrochemical methods is the choice of suitable electrode materials. The electrode materials should have good stability, reproducibility, more sensitivity, and easy method of preparation. Mercury-based electrodes have been widely used for the determination of chlorpyrifos. From an environmental point of view mercury cannot be used. In this study a biocompatible nano-TiO2/cellulose acetate modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by a simple method and used for the electrochemical sensing of chlorpyrifos in aqueous methanolic solution. Electroanalytical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and amperometry were used in this work. This electrode showed very good stability, reproducibility, and sensitivity. A well-defined peak was obtained for the reduction of chlorpyrifos in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. A smooth noise-free current response was obtained in amperometric analysis. The peak current obtained was proportional to the concentration of chlorpyrifos and was used to determine the unknown concentration of chlorpyrifos in the samples. Analytical parameters such as LOD, LOQ, and linear range were estimated. Analysis of real samples was also carried out. The results were validated through HPLC. This composite electrode can be used as an alternative to mercury electrodes reported in the literature.

  9. Amperometric sensor based on tricobalt tetroxide nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Gu, Shuqing; Ding, Yaping; Ye, Daixin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Fenfen

    2013-07-01

    An electrochemical sensor based on tricobalt tetroxide nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) for sensitive determination of L-tyrosine (L-Tyr) was presented here. The nanoparticles were fabricated by electro-polymerization technology. Scanning electron microscopy was implemented to characterize morphology of the nanocomposite film. The electron transfer behavior of modified electrodes was investigated in 5 mM K3[Fe(CN)6]/K4[Fe(CN)6] solution using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical response of modified electrodes toward L-Tyr was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV), amperometry in detail. The results indicated that synergistic effect of Co3O4 NPs and graphene film dramatically improved the conductivity and sensitivity of the sensor. Under optimal conditions, a wide linear relationship between the responses and L-Tyr concentrations ranging from 1.0×10(-8) to 4.0×10(-5) mol L(-1) was obtained with a comparatively low detection limit of 1.0×10(-9) mol L(-1). Furthermore, the sensor also displays excellent sensitivity and high stability. To further study the practical applicability of the fabricated sensor, it was applied to detect real samples and the received results were satisfactory.

  10. Nanomolar determination of 4-nitrophenol based on a poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Munusamy, Settu; Kumar, Sivakumar Praveen; Muthamizh, Selvamani; Narayanan, Vengidusamy

    2013-10-07

    A poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PMB/GCE) was fabricated by electropolymerisation of methylene blue on a GCE and further utilized to investigate the electrochemical determination of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The morphology of the PMB on GCE was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An oxidation peak of 4-NP at the PMB modified electrode was observed at 0.28 V, and in the case of bare GCE, no oxidation peak was observed, which indicates that PMB/GCE exhibits a remarkable effect on the electrochemical determination of 4-NP. Due to this remarkable effect of PMB/GCE, a sensitive and simple electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of 4-NP. The effect of the scan rate and pH was investigated to determine the optimum conditions at which the PMB/GCE exhibits a higher sensitivity with a lower detection limit. Moreover, kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer number, proton transfer number and standard heterogeneous rate constant were calculated. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 4-NP is proportional to its concentration in the range of 15-250 nM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9963. The detection limit was found to be 90 nM (S/N = 3). The proposed method based on PMB/GCE is simple, easy and cost effective. To further confirm its possible application, the proposed method was successfully used for the determination of 4-NP in real water samples with recoveries ranging from 97% to 101.6%. The interference due to sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, sulphate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate and phosphate was found to be almost negligible.

  11. Phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion suppression and activation enhancement with cluster carbon co-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Nagayama, Tsutomu; Koga, Yuji; Umisedo, Sei; Kawamura, Yasunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Onoda, Hiroshi

    2012-11-06

    Carbon co-implantation is well known as an effective method for suppressing boron/phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion (TED). Germanium pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) is usually applied prior to carbon co-implantation for suppressing channeling tail of dopants. In this study, cluster carbon was applied instead of the combination of germanium PAI and monomer carbon co-implantation prior to phosphorous implantation. Dependence of phosphorous activation and TED on amorphous layer thickness, carbon dose, carbon distribution and substrate temperature have been investigated. Cluster carbon implantation enables thick amorphous layer formation and TED suppression at the same time and low temperature implantation enhances the ability of amorphous layer formation so that shallow junction and low Rs can be achieved without Ge implantation.

  12. Metal-Catalyzed Alkynylation of Brominated Polyphenylenes. Thermoset Precursors of High Density Monolithic Glassy Carbon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-22

    melting events at 152 and 1750C on the first heating scan to 2300C. While the char yield for 4a was only 50% by TGA analysis , the charred material was...after TGA analysis was also a black powder, again indicating that no flow had occurred. The char had a density of 1.59 g/cc. 1 I Polymers 16b and 16c had...material appeared as shiny black droplets after TGA analysis . The charred carbon material from 19a had a density of 1.56 g/cc. Polymers 19b and 19c

  13. Glassy carbon electrode modified with horse radish peroxidase/organic nucleophilic-functionalized carbon nanotube composite for enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation and efficient voltammetric sensing of levodopa.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Yalda; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Ghodsi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A novel and selective enzymatic biosensor was designed and constructed for voltammetric determination of levodopa (L-Dopa) in aqueous media (phosphate buffer solution, pH=7). Biosensor development was on the basis of to physically immobilizing of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as electrochemical catalyst by sol-gel on glassy carbon electrode modified with organic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite which in this composite p-phenylenediamine (pPDA) as organic nucleophile chemically bonded with functionalized MWCNT (MWCNT-COOH). The results of this study suggest that prepared bioorganic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite (HRP/MWCNT-pPDA) shows fast electron transfer rate for electro oxidation of L-Dopa because of its high electrochemical catalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-Dopa, more--NH2 reactive sites and large effective surface area. Also in this work we measured L-Dopa in the presence of folic acid and uric acid as interferences. The proposed biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), FT-IR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for determination of L-Dopa from 0.1 μM to 1.9 μM with a low detection limit of 40 nM (for S/N=3) and sensitivity was about 35.5 μA/μM. Also this biosensor has several advantages such as rapid response, high stability and reproducibility.

  14. Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Sputtered Nanocarbon Film Electrode Compared with Diamond-Like Carbon and Glassy Carbon Electrodes as Regards Electrochemical Properties and Biomolecule Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qiang; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Umemura, Shigeru; Hirono, Shigeru; Niwa, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    The electrochemical properties and biocompatible characteristics at an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)-sputtered nanocarbon film electrode, a diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrode and a glassy carbon (GC) electrode have been studied. The three carbon electrodes show significant current reductions with increased peak separations as a result of protein fouling before oxygen plasma treatment, but the current reductions of the ECR-sputtered nanocarbon and DLC film electrodes are smaller than that of the GC electrode due to their superior surface flatness. The oxygen plasma pretreated ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film electrode exhibits a significant improvement in anti-fouling performance with an improved electron transfer. This is because the pretreated ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film enabled the surface to introduce surface oxygen functionalities that not only improve the interaction between the analytes and the electrode surface but also make the film surface more hydrophilic, which is important for the suppression of biomolecule adsorption. At the same time, the pretreated ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film also retained an ultraflat surface even after pretreatment as a result of the low background current. This excellent performance can only be achieved with our ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film, indicating that our film is promising for application to electrochemical detectors for various biomolecular analytes.

  15. Determination of anthracene on Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles/overoxidized-polypyrrole composite modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mailu, Stephen N; Waryo, Tesfaye T; Ndangili, Peter M; Ngece, Fanelwa R; Baleg, Abd A; Baker, Priscilla G; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I

    2010-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of anthracene was prepared by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with over-oxidized polypyrrole (PPyox) and Ag-Au (1:3) bimetallic nanoparticles (Ag-AuNPs). The composite electrode (PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE) was prepared by potentiodynamic polymerization of pyrrole on GCE followed by its overoxidation in 0.1 M NaOH. Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were chemically prepared by the reduction of AgNO(3) and HAuCl(4) using C(6)H(5)O(7)Na(3) as the reducing agent as well as the capping agent and then immobilized on the surface of the PPyox/GCE. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy technique which confirmed the homogeneous formation of the bimetallic alloy nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were in the range of 20-50 nm. The electrochemical behaviour of anthracene at the PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE with Ag: Au atomic ratio 25:75 (1:3) exhibited a higher electrocatalytic effect compared to that observed when GCE was modified with each constituent of the composite (i.e., PPyox, Ag-AuNPs) and bare GCE. A linear relationship between anodic current and anthracene concentration was attained over the range of 3.0 × 10(-6) to 3.56 × 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 1.69 × 10(-7) M. The proposed method was simple, less time consuming and showed a high sensitivity.

  16. Electrochemical generation of volatile lead species using a cadmium cathode: Comparison with graphite, glassy carbon and platinum cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáenz, María; Fernández, Lenys; Domínguez, José; Alvarado, José

    2012-05-01

    Working electrodes made out of pyrolytic graphite, glassy carbon, platinum and cadmium were compared for the electrochemical generation of volatile lead species. The same electrolytic cell, using each of the different working electrodes was coupled to an atomic absorption spectrometer and the experimental conditions were optimized in each case, using a univariate approach, to produce the maximum possible amount of volatile lead species. The experiments were focused on the variation of cathode hydrogen overvoltage by the application of a constant current during analysis. Under optimum conditions the performance of the electrochemical hydride generator cell should depend on the cathode material selected due to the different hydrogen overpotential of each material. The lead absorbance signal was taken as a measure of the efficiency of volatile lead species production. Best results were obtained using the Cd cathode, due to its relatively highest hydrogen overpotential, a carrier gas (Ar) flow rate of 55 mL min- 1 an electrolytic current of 0.8 A and a catholyte (HCl) concentration 0.05 mol L- 1. The analytical figures of merit of the method using the Cd electrode were evaluated and the susceptibility of the method to interferences was assessed by its application to the determination of trace amounts of lead in the presence of the most significant interferents. The calibration curve was linear between 0.5 and 15 μg L- 1 Pb. Detection limits and characteristic mass values were 0.21 μg L- 1 and 0.26 μg L- 1 respectively. A bovine liver standard reference material and a spiked urine sample were analyzed to check accuracy.

  17. Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid Using an Iron Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Peik-See, Teo; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Nay-Ming, Huang; Hong-Ngee, Lim; Sulaiman, Yusran

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE) and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1–9 mM and 0.5–100 μM, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3) was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 μM for AA and DA, respectively. PMID:25195850

  18. Platinum nanoparticles decorated dendrite-like gold nanostructure on glassy carbon electrodes for enhancing electrocatalysis performance to glucose oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hongmei; Chang, Gang; Lei, Ming; He, Hanping; Liu, Xiong; Shu, Honghui; Xia, Tiantian; Su, Jie; He, Yunbin

    2016-10-01

    Platinum nanoparticles decorated dendrite-like gold nanostructure, bimetal composite materials on glassy carbon electrode (Pt/DGNs/GC) for enhancing electrocatalysis to glucose oxidation was designed and successfully fabricated by a facile two-step deposition method without any templates, surfactants, or stabilizers. Dendrite-like gold nanostructure was firstly deposited on the GC electrode via the potentiostatic method, and then platinum nanoparticles were decorated on the surface of gold substrate through chemical reduction deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were applied to characterize the evolution of morphology and structure of the as-prepared Pt/DGNs/GC. Based on electrochemical measurements such as cyclic voltammetry, linear voltammetry and chronoamperometry, Pt/DGNs/GC exhibited significantly enhanced electrocatalytic performance to glucose oxidation compared those of pure dendrite-like Au nanoparticles in our previous report. Controlling chemical reduction deposition time, the amount of platinum nanoparticles on Au surface could be regulated, which further tuned electrocatalytic properties toward glucose oxidation. The dendrite-like gold surface partially covered by platinum nanoparticles dramatically enhanced the electrocatalytic performance for the oxidation of glucose because of excellent synergetic effects between gold and platinum species and the increased electrochemical active area from Pt nanoparticles loading. The non-enzymatic glucose biosensor based on Pt/DGNs/GC showed a rapid respond time (within 2 s), wide linear range (from 0.1 mM to 14 mM), low detection limit (0.01 mM), supernal sensitivity (275.44 μA cm-2 mM-1, R = 0.993), satisfactory reproducibility and good stability for glucose sensing. It was demonstrated that Pt/DGNs/GC could work as promising candidate for factual non-enzymatic glucose detection.

  19. Fibre laser machining for glassy carbon master mould and soft lithography based two-step printing for Ag nanoparticle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qin; Chopra, Pranav

    2011-04-01

    Traditional manufacturing techniques widely used in semiconductor industries involve many processing steps that consume both time and material and lead to high cost. Soft Lithography (SL) offers a new way to print micro/nano structures, which is a fast and low cost alternative to the conventional route, although the high processing temperature of metals, semiconductors and ceramics limits the application SL techniques. In this paper we report the use of Ag nanoparticles as building blocks to make structures by combing the merits of SL, nanotechnology and laser engineering, which provide a simple additive route with low capital investment. Glassy carbon (GC) was chosen as the material for the rigid master mould, as no release coating is needed for replicating the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould. GC moulds were machined by a nanosecond-pulsed Yb fibre laser. The machined GC moulds were further cleaned by PDMS and the same fibre laser system to remove the process debris. The master mould was further replicated by PDMS. PDMS replicas with either positive or negative features from the master mould were attainable. A two-step strategy was used to print patterns using PDMS mould and Ag nanoparticle paste. Metal patterns were formed on various substrates, and the PDMS mould was left clean and ready for reuse. The resultant printed patterns were found to be uniform over millimetre range, with negligible residual layer, and the thickness of up to several micrometres. The thermal responses of Ag nanoparticles at various sintering temperatures were investigated. The factors affecting the resolution of printed structures were discussed.

  20. Gold nanoparticles decorated on cobalt porphyrin-modified glassy carbon electrode for the sensitive determination of nitrite ion.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Palanisamy; Abraham John, S

    2014-05-01

    The present study reports the electrochemical determination of nitrite ion using citrate-gold nanoparticles (cit-AuNPs) decorated on meso-tetra(para-aminophenyl)porphyrinatocobalt(II) (Co(II)MTpAP) self-assembled glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The decoration of cit-AuNPs on Co(II)MTpAP was achieved with the aid of amine groups present on the surface of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of Co(II)MTpAP. The SEM image shows that the cit-AuNPs were densely packed on Co(II)MTpAP. The AuNPs decorated electrode was successfully used for the determination of nitrite ion. The cit-AuNPs decorated electrode not only shifted nitrite ion oxidation potential towards less positive potential but also greatly enhanced its current when compared to bare and Co(II)MTpAP SAM modified electrodes. The amperometric current increases linearly while increasing the concentration of nitrite ion ranging from 0.5×10(-6) to 4.7×10(-3) M and the detection limit was found to be 60 nM (S/N=3). Further, the modified electrode was successfully used to determine nitrite ion in the presence of 200-fold excess of common interferents such as Na+, NO3-, I-, K+, CO3(2-), Ca2+, SO4(2-), NH4+, Cl- and glucose. The practical application of the cit-AuNPs decorated electrode was demonstrated by determining nitrite ion in water samples.

  1. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  2. Electrochemical determination of estrogenic compound bisphenol F in food packaging using carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Lijun; Jin, Xudong; Zhang, Lei

    2014-08-15

    A simple and highly sensitive electroanalytical method for the determination of bisphenol F (BPF) was developed, which was carried out on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-COOH (MWCNT-COOH) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The results showed that MWCNT-COOH remarkably enhanced the oxidation of BPF, which improved the anodic peak current of BPF significantly. The mechanism was oxidation of BPF lose electrons on the electrode surface via adsorption-controlled process, electrode reaction is the two electrons/two protons process. Under the optimised conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to BPF concentration the range from 0.12 to 6.01 μg mL(-1). The detection limit was 0.11 μg mL(-1) (S/N=3), and the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 3.5% (n=9). Moreover, the MWCNT-COOH/GCE electrode showed good reproducibility, stability and anti-interference. Therefore, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine BPF in food packing and the results were satisfactory.

  3. Voltammetric behavior of dopamine at a glassy carbon electrode modified with NiFe(2)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles decorated with multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Arashpour, B; Rezaei, B; Allafchian, Ali R

    2014-06-01

    Voltammetric behavior of dopamine was studied on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified-NiFe(2)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles decorated with multiwall carbon nanotubes. Impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the behavior of dopamine at the surface of modified-GCE. The modified electrode showed a synergic effect toward the oxidation of dopamine. The oxidation peak current is increased linearly with the dopamine concentration (at pH7.0) in wide dynamic ranges of 0.05-6.0 and 6.0-100μmolL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.02μmolL(-1), using differential pulse voltammetry. The selectivity of the method was studied and the results showed that the modified electrode is free from interference of organic compounds especially ascorbic acid, uric acid, cysteine and urea. Its applicability in the determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical, urine samples and human blood serum was also evaluated. The proposed electrochemical sensor has appropriate properties such as high selectivity, low detection limit and wide linear dynamic range when compared with that of the previous reported papers for dopamine detection.

  4. Facile synthesis of β-lactoglobulin-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode for electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Miao, Zhiying; Zhang, Di; Fang, Yuxin; Ma, Min; Chen, Qiang

    2014-12-15

    A facile approach was developed for the preparation of nanocomposite based on β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for the first time. Owing to the amphipathic nature, BLG can be adopted onto the surface of MWCNTs to form BLG-MWCNTs with uniform dispersion in water. Taking advantage of sulfhydryl groups on BLG-MWCNTs, GNPs were decorated on the BLG-MWCNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by electrodeposition. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric method were used to evaluate the electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposite. Furthermore, a glucose biosensor was developed based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase with cross-linking in the matrix of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the nanocomposite modified GCE. The resulting biosensor exhibited high sensitivity (3.98 μA mM(-1)), wider linear range (0.025-5.5 mM), low detection limit (1.1 μM at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3) and fast response time (within 7s) for glucose detection.

  5. Highly sensitive amperometric sensor for micromolar detection of trichloroacetic acid based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Fe(II)-phtalocyanine modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Kurd, Masoumeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Hallaj, Rahman

    2013-04-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is developed by subsequent immobilization of phthalocyanine (Pc) and Fe(II) onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) electrode showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) with surface-confined characteristics. The surface coverage (Γ) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) of immobilized Fe(II)-Pc were calculated as 1.26×10(-10) mol cm(-2) and 28.13 s(-1), respectively. Excellent electrocatalytic activity of the proposed GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) system toward TCA reduction has been indicated and the three consequent irreversible peaks for electroreduction of CCl3COOH to CH3COOH have been clearly seen. The observed chronoamperometric currents are linearly increased with the concentration of TCA at concentration range up to 20mM. Detection limit and sensitivity of the modified electrode were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM(-1) cm(-2), respectively. The applicability of the sensor for TCA detection in real samples was tested. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system can serve as a promising electrochemical platform for TCA detection.

  6. Simple flow injection for determination of sulfite by amperometric detection using glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon nanotubes-PDDA-gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Sroysee, Wongduan; Chairam, Sanoe; Nacapricha, Duangjai

    2015-02-01

    A new approach is presented for sensitive and selective measurement of sulfite (SO3(2-)) in beverages based on a simple flow injection system with amperometric detection. In this work, the sulfite sensor was a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes-poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-gold nanoparticles composites (CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC). Electrochemical oxidation of sulfite with this electrode was first studied in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) using cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC electrode possesses electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of sulfite with high sensitivity and selectivity. Sulfite was quantified using amperometric measurement with the new sensor at +0.4V vs Ag/AgCl in conjunction with flow injection. The linear working range for the quantitation of sulfite was 2-200 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.998) with a detection limit of 0.03 mg L(-1) (3σ of blank) and an estimated precision of 1.5%.The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in fruit juices and wines with a sample throughput of 23 samples per hour.

  7. Pd-Au nanoparticle decorated carbon nanotube as a sensing layer on the surface of glassy carbon electrode for electrochemical determination of ceftazidime.

    PubMed

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Salimian, Razieh; Rastgar, Shokoufeh

    2014-01-01

    A simple electrodeposition method is employed to construct a thin film modifier of palladium-gold nanoparticles (Pd-AuNPs) decorated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Morphology and property of Pd-AuNPs-MWCNT have been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Electrochemical performance of Pd-AuNPs-MWCNT/GCE for detection of ceftazidime (CFZ) has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). This nanostructured film modified electrode effectively exhibited enhanced properties for detection of ceftazidime (CFZ). The effects of various experimental variables such as, the amount of casted MWCNT, time and potential of deposition of metal nanoparticles and the pH of the buffered solution on the electrode response are optimized. The proposed electrode showed a linear dynamic range of 0.05-50μM and the detection limit of 1nM for the CFZ. The modified electrode successfully supports the sensitive detection of trace amounts of the CFZ in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  8. An electrochemical sensor for rizatriptan benzoate determination using Fe3O4 nanoparticle/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode in real samples.

    PubMed

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Maleki, Somayeh; Heidari, Mozhgan; Afkhami, Abbas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RZB) was proposed. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with nanocomposite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/MWCNTs/GCE). The results obtained clearly show that the combination of MWCNTs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles definitely improves the sensitivity of modified electrode to RZB determination. The morphology and electroanalytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Also, the effect of experimental and instrumental parameters on the sensor response was evaluated. The square wave voltammetric response of the electrode to RZB was linear in the range 0.5-100.0 μmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.09 μmol L(-1) under the optimum conditions. The investigated method showed good stability, reproducibility and repeatability. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for real life samples of blood serum and RZB determination in pharmaceutical.

  9. Determination of serotonin on a glassy carbon electrode modified by electropolymerization of meso-tetrakis(2-aminophenyl)porphyrin and single walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seul Ki; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Jeong, Haesang; You, Jung-Min; Jeon, Seungwon

    2011-03-01

    A chemically modified electrode [poly(TAPP)-SWNT/GCE] was prepared by electropolymerization of meso-tetrakis(2-aminophenyl)porphyrin (TAPP)-single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). This modified electrode was employed as an electrochemical biosensor for the determination of serotonin concentration and exhibited a typical enhance effect on the current response of serotonin and lower oxidation overpotential. The biosensor was very effective to determined 5-HT in a mixture. The linear response was in the range 2.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-5) M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 [i(p)(microA) = 3.406 C (microM)+0.132] on the anodic current, with a detection limit of 1 x 10(-9) M. Due to the relatively low currents and different potentials in the electrochemical responses to ascorbic acid and dopamine, the modified electrode is a useful and effective sensing device for the selective and sensitive serotonin determination in the presence of ascorbic acid and dopamine.

  10. Characterization of carbon ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Kai; Wang, Yibo; Li, Zhuguo; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-08-15

    Austenitic stainless steel 316L is ion implanted by carbon with implantation fluences of 1.2 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}, 2.4 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}, and 4.8 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}. The ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel is investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance is evaluated by potentiodynamic test. It is found that the initial phase is austenite with a small amount of ferrite. After low fluence carbon ion implantation, an amorphous layer and ferrite phase enriched region underneath are formed. Nanophase particles precipitate from the amorphous layer due to energy minimization and irradiation at larger ion implantation fluence. The morphology of the precipitated nanophase particles changes from circular to dumbbell-like with increasing implantation fluence. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is enhanced by the formation of amorphous layer and graphitic solid state carbon after carbon ion implantation. - Highlights: • Carbon implantation leads to phase transformation from austenite to ferrite. • The passive film on SS316L becomes thinner after carbon ion implantation. • An amorphous layer is formed by carbon ion implantation. • Nanophase precipitate from amorphous layer at higher ion implantation fluence. • Corrosion resistance of SS316L is improved by carbon implantation.

  11. In-situ observation of sputtered particles for carbon implanted tungsten during energetic isotope ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Oya, Y.; Sato, M.; Uchimura, H.; Okuno, K.; Ashikawa, N.; Sagara, A.; Yoshida, N.; Hatano, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Tungsten is a candidate for plasma facing materials in future fusion reactors. During DT plasma operations, carbon as an impurity will bombard tungsten, leading to the formation of tungsten-carbon (WC) layer and affecting tritium recycling behavior. The effect of carbon implantation for the dynamic recycling of deuterium, which demonstrates tritium recycling, including retention and sputtering, has been investigated using in-situ sputtered particle measurements. The C{sup +} implanted W, WC and HOPG were prepared and dynamic sputtered particles were measured during H{sub 2}{sup +} irradiation. It has been found that the major hydrocarbon species for C{sup +} implanted tungsten is CH{sub 3}, while for WC and HOPG (Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite) it is CH{sub 4}. The chemical state of hydrocarbon is controlled by the H concentration in a W-C mixed layer. The amount of C-H bond and the retention of H trapped by carbon atom should control the chemical form of hydrocarbon sputtered by H{sub 2}{sup +} irradiation and the desorption of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 2} are due to chemical sputtering, although that for CH is physical sputtering. The activation energy for CH{sub 3} desorption has been estimated to be 0.4 eV, corresponding to the trapping process of hydrogen by carbon through the diffusion in W. It is concluded that the chemical states of hydrocarbon sputtered by H{sub 2}{sup +} irradiation for W is determined by the amount of C-H bond on the W surface. (authors)

  12. Surface functionalization of glassy carbon electrodes via adsorption, electrografting and click chemistry using quantum dots and alkynyl substituted phthalocyanines: a brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nxele, Siphesihle Robin; Mashazi, Philani; Nyokong, Tebello

    2016-02-01

    In this work, glassy carbon electrodes are functionalised with alkynyl substituted phthalocyanines via electrografting and click chemistry as well as with quantum dots (QDs)-phthalocyanine conjugates via adsorption. The use of click chemistry and the addition of QDs is to try observe improvements in the electrocatalytic behaviour of electrocatalyst compared to similar electrocatalysts in literature. The electrografting and click chemistry methods provide greater molecule stability on the substrate surface due to the covalent bonds formed. Results show that these methods of electrode fabrication do improve the functionality of the electrocatalysts.

  13. Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Graphite Nanosheets Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Dopamine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Susu; He, Ping; Zhang, Guangli; Lei, Wen; He, Huichao

    2015-01-01

    Graphite nanosheets prepared by thermal expansion and successive sonication were utilized for the construction of a multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite nanosheets based amperometric sensing platform to simultaneously determine acetaminophen and dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid in physiological conditions. The synergistic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite nanosheets catalyzed the electrooxidation of acetaminophen and dopamine, leading to a remarkable potential difference up to 200 mV. The as-prepared modified electrode exhibited linear responses to acetaminophen and dopamine in the concentration ranges of 2.0 × 10(-6) - 2.4 × 10(-4) M (R = 0.999) and 2.0 × 10(-6) - 2.0 × 10(-4) M (R = 0.998), respectively. The detection limits were down to 2.3 × 10(-7) M for acetaminophen and 3.5 × 10(-7) M for dopamine (S/N = 3). Based on the simple preparation and prominent electrochemical properties, the obtained multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite nanosheets modified electrode would be a good candidate for the determination of acetaminophen and dopamine without the interference of ascorbic acid.

  14. 21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers... Prosthetic Devices § 878.3500 Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material. (a) Identification. A polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material is a porous...

  15. 21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers... Prosthetic Devices § 878.3500 Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material. (a) Identification. A polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material is a porous...

  16. 21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers... Prosthetic Devices § 878.3500 Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material. (a) Identification. A polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material is a porous...

  17. The electrode as organolithium reagent: catalyst-free covalent attachment of electrochemically active species to an azide-terminated glassy carbon electrode surface.

    PubMed

    Das, Atanu K; Engelhard, Mark H; Liu, Fei; Bullock, R Morris; Roberts, John A S

    2013-12-02

    The reaction of a lithium acetylide-ethylenediamine complex with azide-terminated glassy carbon surfaces affords 1,2,3-triazolyllithium surface groups that are active toward covalent C-C coupling reactions, including salt metathesis with an aliphatic halide and nucleophilic addition at an aldehyde. Surface ferrocenyl groups were introduced by reaction with (6-iodohexyl)ferrocene; the voltammetry of electrode samples shows narrow, symmetric peaks indicating uniform attachment. X-ray photoelectron and reflectance infrared spectroscopic data provide further support for the surface-attached products. Formation of the 1,2,3-triazolyllithium linkage requires neither a catalyst nor a strained alkyne. Coverages obtained by this route are similar to those obtained by the more common Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide coupling (CuAAC) of ethynylferrocene with surface azides. Preconditioning of the glassy carbon disk electrodes at ambient temperature under nitrogen affords coverages comparable to those reported with preconditioning at 1000 °C under hydrogen/nitrogen.

  18. Determination of beta-carboline alkaloids in foods and beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection at a glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Agüí, Lourdes; Peña-Farfal, Carlos; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Pingarrón, José M

    2007-03-07

    Simple and sensitive methods for the separation and quantification of beta-carboline alkaloids in foods and beverages by HPLC with electrochemical detection at carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrodes (CNTs-GCE) are reported. Electrode modification with multi-wall CNTs produced an improved amperometric response to beta-carbolines, in spite of the working medium consisting of methanol:acetonitrile: 0.05 mol L(-1) Na(2)HPO(4) solution of pH 9.0 (20:20:60). On the contrary to that observed at a bare GCE, a good repeatability of the amperometric measurements carried out at +900 mV versus Ag/AgCl (R.S.D. of 3.2% for i(p), n=20) was achieved at the CNTs-GCE. Using an Ultrabase C(18) column and isocratic elution with the above mentioned mobile phase, a complete resolution of the chromatographic peaks for harmalol, harmaline, norharmane, harmane and harmine, was achieved. Calibration graphs over the 0.25-100 microM range with detection limits ranging between 4 and 19 ng mL(-1), were obtained. The HPLC-ED at CNTs-GCE method was applied to the analysis of beer, coffee and cheese samples, spiked with beta-carbolines at concentration levels corresponding to those may be found in the respective samples. The steps involved in sample treatment, such as extraction and clean-up, were optimized for each type of sample. Recoveries ranging between 92 and 102% for beer, 92 and 101% for coffee, and 88 and 100% for cheese, at sub-microg mL(-1) or g(-1) analytes concentration levels were achieved.

  19. Simple flow injection for screening of total antioxidant capacity by amperometric detection of DPPH radical on carbon nanotube modified-glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Amatatongchai, M; Laosing, S; Chailapakul, O; Nacapricha, D

    2012-08-15

    An amperometric flow injection (FI) method suitable for evaluation of 'total antioxidant capacity' (TAC) is presented. In this method, a carrier stream of a solution of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)) continuously flows through an electrochemical cell, furnished with a carbon nanotube modified-glassy carbon electrode (CNT/GC) as the working electrode. At the applied voltage of 0.05V (vs. Ag/AgCl), DPPH(•) is reduced resulting in a constant electric current. For measurement of the TAC, a sample zone containing antioxidant(s) is injected into the carrier stream therein reduction reaction of DPPH(•) occurring within the sample zone. The decreased amount of the radical in the sample zone leads to a drop of the amperometric signal at the CNT/GC electrode. We have also compared the performance of the CNT/GC electrode to the unmodified GC electrode using cyclic voltammetry. The sensitivity of the CNT/GC electrode was more than twenty five times greater than the bare GC electrode. The study of the sweep rate dependence showed that the cathodic and anodic current of 0.1mM DPPH solution varied linearly (r(2)=0.998) with the square root of the scan rate, from 0.02 to 0.12 Vs(-1). These results demonstrated that the CNT/GC electrode is appropriate for the quantitation of antioxidants via amperometric detection of the residual concentration of non-reacted DPPH(•). We obtained linear calibrations for all the antioxidants tested including gallic acid, catechin, quercetin, caffeic acid and Trolox. The system offers rapid sample throughput (45 samples h(-1)) and good precision of 3.2% R.S.D., for 20 μL-injection of 2.5 μM Trolox (n=30). This method was applied to evaluate the TAC of extracts of some Thai indigenous vegetables.

  20. Simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil and its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid, by differential pulse voltammetry using multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Soleimani, Mohammad; Afkhami, Abbas

    2014-09-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil (MPM) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) was fabricated by multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE). The electrochemical behavior of these two drugs was studied at the modified electrode using cyclic voltammetry and adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry. MPM and MPA were oxidized at the GCE during an irreversible process. DPV analysis showed two oxidation peaks at 0.87V and 1.1V vs. Ag/AgCl for MPM and an oxidation peak at 0.87V vs. Ag/AgCl for MPA in phosphate buffer solution of pH5.0. The MWCNTs/GCE displayed excellent electrochemical activities toward oxidation of MPM and MPA relative to the bare GCE. The experimental design algorithm was used for optimization of DPV parameters. The electrode represents linear responses in the range 5.0×10(-6) to 1.6×10(-4)molL(-1) and 2.5×10(-6)molL(-1) to 6.0×10(-5)molL(-1) for MPM and MPA, respectively. The detection limit was found to be 9.0×10(-7)molL(-1) and 4.0×10(-7)molL(-1) for MPM and MPA, respectively. The modified electrode showed a good sensitivity and stability. It was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of MPM and MPA in plasma and urine samples.

  1. Trace level voltammetric determination of lead and cadmium in sediment pore water by a bismuth-oxychloride particle-multiwalled carbon nanotube composite modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Cerovac, Sandra; Guzsvány, Valéria; Kónya, Zoltán; Ashrafi, Amir M; Švancara, Ivan; Rončević, Srđan; Kukovecz, Ákos; Dalmacija, Božo; Vytřas, Karel

    2015-03-01

    Two multiwalled carbon nanotubes-based composites modified with bismuth and bismuth-oxychloride particles were synthesized and attached to the glassy carbon electrode substrate. The resultant configurations, Bi/MWCNT-GCE and BiOCl/MWNT-GCE, were then characterized with respect to their physicochemical properties and electroanalytical performance in combination with square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Further, some key experimental conditions and instrumental parameters were optimized; namely: the supporting electrolyte composition, accumulation potential and time, together with the parameters of the SWV-ramp. The respective method with both electrode configurations has then been examined for the trace level determination of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions and the results compared to those obtained with classical bismuth-film modified GCE. The different intensities of analytical signals obtained at the three electrodes for Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) vs. the saturated calomel reference electrode had indicated that the nature of the modifiers and the choice of the supporting electrolyte influenced significantly the corresponding stripping signals. The most promising procedure involved the BiOCl/MWCNT-GCE and the acetate buffer (pH 4.0) offering limits of determination of 4.0 μg L(-1) Cd(2+) and 1.9 μg L(-1) Pb(2+) when accumulating for 120 s at a potential of -1.20 V vs. ref. The BiOCl/MWCNT electrode was tested for the determination of target ions in the pore water of a selected sediment sample and the results agreed well with those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  2. High-performance carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres for supercapacitors with low series resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Bin; Chen, Xiaohua; Guo, Kaimin; Xu, Longshan; Chen, Chuansheng; Yan, Haimei; Chen, Jianghua

    2011-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} CNTs-implanted porous carbon spheres are prepared by using gelatin as soft template. {yields} Homogeneously distributed CNTs form a well-develop network in carbon spheres. {yields} CNTs act as a reinforcing backbone assisting the formation of pore structure. {yields} CNTs improve electrical conductivity and specific capacitance of supercapacitor. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres were prepared by an easy polymerization-induced colloid aggregation method using gelatin as a soft template. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements reveal that the materials are mesoporous carbon spheres, with a diameter of {approx}0.5-1.0 {mu}m, a specific surface area of 284 m{sup 2}/g and average pore size of 3.9 nm. Using the carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres as electrode material for supercapacitors in an aqueous electrolyte solution, a low equivalent series resistance of 0.83 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and a maximum specific capacitance of 189 F/g with a measured power density of 8.7 kW/kg at energy density of 6.6 Wh/kg are obtained.

  3. Simultaneous electrochemical determination of dopamine and paracetamol on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite was prepared by homogenous dispersion of MWCNT and GO and used for the simultaneous voltammetric determination of dopamine (DA) and paracetamol (PA). The TEM results confirmed that MWCNT walls were wrapped well with GO sheets. The MWCNT/GO nanocomposite showed superior electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and PA, when compared with either pristine MWCNT or GO. The major reason for the efficient simultaneous detection of DA and PA at nanocomposite was the synergistic effect between MWCNT and GO. The electrochemical oxidation of DA and PA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and amperometry. The nanocomposite modified electrode showed electrocatalytic oxidation of DA and PA in the linear response range from 0.2 to 400 µmol L(-1) and 0.5 to 400 µmol L(-1) with the detection limit of 22 nmol L(-1) and 47 nmol L(-1) respectively. The proposed sensor displayed good selectivity, sensitivity, stability with appreciable consistency and precision.

  4. Comparison of impedimetric detection of DNA hybridization on the various biosensors based on modified glassy carbon electrodes with PANHS and nanomaterials of RGO and MWCNTs.

    PubMed

    Benvidi, Ali; Tezerjani, Marzieh Dehghan; Jahanbani, Shahriar; Mazloum Ardakani, Mohammad; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-15

    In this research, we have developed lable free DNA biosensors based on modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for detection of DNA sequences. This paper compares the detection of BRCA1 5382insC mutation using independent glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with RGO and MWCNTs. A probe (BRCA1 5382insC mutation detection (ssDNA)) was then immobilized on the modified electrodes for a specific time. The immobilization of the probe and its hybridization with the target DNA (Complementary DNA) were performed under optimum conditions using different electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed biosensors were used for determination of complementary DNA sequences. The non-modified DNA biosensor (1-pyrenebutyric acid-N- hydroxysuccinimide ester (PANHS)/GCE), revealed a linear relationship between ∆Rct and logarithm of the complementary target DNA concentration ranging from 1.0×10(-16)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.992, for DNA biosensors modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) wider linear range and lower detection limit were obtained. For ssDNA/PANHS/MWCNTs/GCE a linear range 1.0×10(-17)mol L(-1)-1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and for ssDNA/PANHS/RGO/GCE a linear range from 1.0×10(-18)mol L(-1) to 1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.985 were obtained. In addition, the mentioned biosensors were satisfactorily applied for discriminating of complementary sequences from noncomplementary sequences, so the mentioned biosensors can be used for the detection of BRCA1-associated breast cancer.

  5. Construction of TiO2 nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/TiO2) for the detection of hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Khursheed; Mohammad, Akbar; Rajak, Richa; Mobin, Shaikh M.

    2016-07-01

    TiO2 nanosheets were synthesized via solvothermal method and characterized using powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) mapping. A binder free hydrazine sensor was fabricated by modifying the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with TiO2 nanosheets, using simple drop casting method (GCE/TiO2). The modified GCE/TiO2 was employed for detection of hydrazine which exhibited a very high sensitivity of 70 μA mM-1 cm-2 with a limit of detection (LOD), 28 μM using cyclic voltammetry whereas a highest sensitivity 330 μA mM-1 cm-2 and LOD, 150 μM was obtained by employing square wave voltammetry.

  6. Enhanced amperometric detection of metronidazole in drug formulations and urine samples based on chitosan protected tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanine thin-film modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, S; Pandian, K; Jayakumari, L S; Inbasekaran, S

    2016-02-01

    An enhanced electrocatalytic reduction of metronidazole antibiotic drug molecule using chitosan protected tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanine (Chit/CuTsPc) thin-film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been developed. An irreversible reduction occurs at -0.47V (vs. Ag/AgCl) using Chit/CuTsPc modified GCE. A maximum peak current value is obtained at pH1 and the electrochemical reduction reaction is a diffusion controlled one. The detection limit is found to be 0.41nM from differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. This present investigation method is adopted for electrochemical detection of metronidazole in drug formulation and urine samples by using DPV method.

  7. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-02-21

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively.

  8. PdCo porous nanostructures decorated on polypyrrole @ MWCNTs conductive nanocomposite-Modified glassy carbon electrode as a powerful catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Leyla Abolghasemi; Ojani, Reza; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Zare, Ehsan Nazarzadeh; Lakouraj, Moslem Mansour

    2017-04-01

    In the current study, well-defined PdCo porous nanostructure (PdCo PNS) is prepared by a simple one-pot wet-chemical method and polypyrrole@multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PPy@MWCNTs) nanocomposite is used as a catalyst support. The morphology and the structural properties of the prepared catalyst were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The electrocatalytic performance of PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNTs on glassy carbon electrode has been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The specific activity of PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNTs for ethanol electrooxidation (1.65 mA cm-2) is higher than those of other compared electrocatalysts. Also, PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNTs catalyst represented higher electrocatalytic activity, better long-term stability and high level of poisoning tolerance to the carbonaceous oxidative intermediates for ethanol electrooxidation reaction in alkaline media. Furthermore, the presence of PPY@MWCNTs on the surface of GCE produce a high activity to electrocatalyst, which might be due to the easier charge transfer at polymer/carbon nanotubes interfaces, higher electrochemically accessible surface areas and electronic conductivity. The superior catalytic activity of PdCo PNS/PPy@MWCNTs suggests it to be as a promising electrocatalyst for future direct ethanol fuel cells.

  9. Carbon-carbon composites for orthopedic prosthesis and implants. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T D; Klett, J W; Strizak, J P; Baker, C

    1998-01-21

    The prosthetic implant market is extensive. For example, because of arthritic degeneration of hip and knee cartilage and osteoporotic fractures of the hip, over 200,000 total joint replacements (TJRs) are performed in the United States each year. Current TJR devices are typically metallic (stainless steel, cobalt, or titanium alloy) and are fixed in the bone with polymethylacrylate (PMMA) cement. Carbon-carbon composite materials offer several distinct advantages over metals for TJR prosthesis. Their mechanical properties can be tailored to match more closely the mechanical properties of human bone, and the composite may have up to 25% porosity, the size and distribution of which may be controlled through processing. The porous nature of carbon-carbon composites will allow for the ingrowth of bone, achieving biological fixation, and eliminating the need for PMMA cement fixation.

  10. Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

  11. RBS and GAXRD contributions to yttrium implanted extra low carbon steel characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Caudron, E.; Buscail, H.; Jacob, Y.P.; Stroosnijder, M.F.

    1999-02-01

    Extra low carbon steel samples were yttrium implanted using an ion implantation method. Composition and structural studies were carried out before and after yttrium implantations by several analytical and structural techniques (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and glancing angle X-ray diffraction) to characterize the yttrium implantation effect on extra low carbon steel. The aim of this article is to show the contributions of Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry (RBS) and glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) to the determination of yttrium depth profiles in the samples. The results obtained by these techniques are compared to those of the other analyses performed in this work to show the existing correlation between composition and structural studies. Their results allow a better understanding of the effect of yttrium implantation in extra low carbon steel before studying their corrosion resistance at high temperature.

  12. Ultra-smooth glassy graphene thin films for flexible transparent circuits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao; Wu, Jiang; Qian, Zhicheng; Wang, Haiyan; Jian, Jie; Cao, Yingjie; Rummeli, Mark H.; Yi, Qinghua; Liu, Huiyun; Zou, Guifu

    2016-01-01

    Large-area graphene thin films are prized in flexible and transparent devices. We report on a type of glassy graphene that is in an intermediate state between glassy carbon and graphene and that has high crystallinity but curly lattice planes. A polymer-assisted approach is introduced to grow an ultra-smooth (roughness, <0.7 nm) glassy graphene thin film at the inch scale. Owing to the advantages inherited by the glassy graphene thin film from graphene and glassy carbon, the glassy graphene thin film exhibits conductivity, transparency, and flexibility comparable to those of graphene, as well as glassy carbon–like mechanical and chemical stability. Moreover, glassy graphene–based circuits are fabricated using a laser direct writing approach. The circuits are transferred to flexible substrates and are shown to perform reliably. The glassy graphene thin film should stimulate the application of flexible transparent conductive materials in integrated circuits. PMID:28138535

  13. Development of sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor using a CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C60-Cs-IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Bakyas, Kobra; Zare Dizajdizi, Behruz

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor was constructed based on copper nanoparticles/methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes-fullerene-chitosan-ionic liquid (CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs-C60-Cs-IL) nanocomposites. The MB/MWCNTs-C60-Cs-IL and CuNPs were modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the physical adsorption and electrodeposition of copper nitrate solution, respectively. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the surface of modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The electrochemical properties of CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs-C60-Cs-IL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques and the sensor exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The peak currents possess a linear relationship with the concentration of H2O2 in the range of 0.2μM to 2.0mM, and the detection limit is 55.0nM (S/N=3). In addition, the modified electrode was used to determine H2O2 concentration in human blood serum sample with satisfactory results.

  14. Covalent attachment of diphosphine ligands to glassy carbon electrodes via Cu-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Metallation with Ni(II).

    PubMed

    Das, Atanu K; Engelhard, Mark H; Lense, Sheri; Roberts, John A S; Bullock, R Morris

    2015-07-21

    Covalent tethering of P(Ph)2N(C6H4C≡CH)2 ligands (P(Ph)2N(C6H4C≡CH)2 = 1,5-di-(4-ethynylphenyl)-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) to planar, azide-terminated glassy carbon electrode surfaces has been accomplished using a Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) coupling reaction, using a BH3←P protection-deprotection strategy. Deprotected, surface-confined ligands were metallated using [Ni(II)(MeCN)6](BF4)2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements demonstrate that metallation introduced 1.3 equivalents Ni(II) per diphosphine onto the electrode surface. Exposure of the surface to a second diphosphine ligand, P(Ph)2N(Ph)2, resulted in the removal of Ni from the surface. Protection, coupling, deprotection, and metallation conditions were optimized using solution-phase model systems, with benzyl azide as a model for the azide-terminated carbon surface; these reactions generate a [Ni(II)(diphosphine)2](2+) complex.

  15. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen ion implantation of stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Gavrilov, N.V.; Emlin, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ion implantation experiments of C, N, and O into stainless steel have been performed, with beam-line and plasma source ion implantation methods. Acceleration voltages were varied between 27 and 50 kV, with pulsed ion current densities between 1 and 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Implanted doses ranged from 0.5 to 3 {times} 10{sup 18}cm{sup -2}, while workpiece temperatures were maintained between 25 and 800 C. Implant concentration profiles, microstructure, and surface mechanical properties of the implanted materials are reported.

  16. Surface and corrosion characteristics of carbon plasma implanted and deposited nickel-titanium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, R.W.Y.; Liu, X.Y.; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, P.K.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Lu, W.W.; Cheung, K.M.C.

    2005-05-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) are potentially useful in orthopedic implants on account of their super-elastic and shape memory properties. However, the materials are prone to surface corrosion and the most common problem is out-diffusion of harmful Ni ions from the substrate into body tissues and fluids. In order to improve the corrosion resistance and related surface properties, we used the technique of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition to deposit an amorphous hydrogenated carbon coating onto NiTi and implant carbon into NiTi. Both the deposited amorphous carbon film and carbon plasma implanted samples exhibit much improved corrosion resistances and surface mechanical properties and possible mechanisms are suggested.

  17. Wafer-scale synthesis of multi-layer graphene by high-temperature carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Janghyuk; Lee, Geonyeop; Kim, Jihyun

    2015-07-01

    We report on the synthesis of wafer-scale (4 in. in diameter) high-quality multi-layer graphene using high-temperature carbon ion implantation on thin Ni films on a substrate of SiO2/Si. Carbon ions were bombarded at 20 keV and a dose of 1 × 1015 cm-2 onto the surface of the Ni/SiO2/Si substrate at a temperature of 500 °C. This was followed by high-temperature activation annealing (600-900 °C) to form a sp2-bonded honeycomb structure. The effects of post-implantation activation annealing conditions were systematically investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Carbon ion implantation at elevated temperatures allowed a lower activation annealing temperature for fabricating large-area graphene. Our results indicate that carbon-ion implantation provides a facile and direct route for integrating graphene with Si microelectronics.

  18. Study of the overall behavior of thin films of the 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane neutral/anion couple on glassy carbon electrodes in the presence of cesium ion.

    PubMed

    Gómez, L; Rodríguez-Amaro, R

    2008-10-07

    The overall electrochemistry of 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane thin films on glassy carbon electrodes in media containing Cs+ ions is explained in light of a layer-by-layer nucleation and growth model, and kinetic data for the processes involved are reported. Using in situ UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry allowed available mechanistic knowledge on such processes to be expanded and the presence of various intermediates in the redox reactions confirmed.

  19. Electrochemical determination of Sudan I in food samples at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulphonate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinying; Chao, Mingyong; Wang, Zhaoxia

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a novel electrochemical method for the determination of Sudan I in food samples based on the electrochemical catalytic activity of graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (GMGCE) and the enhancement effect of an anionic surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulphonate (SDS). Using pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) as supporting electrolyte and in the presence of 1.5 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) SDS, Sudan I yielded a well-defined and sensitive oxidation peak at a GMGCE. The oxidation peak current of Sudan I remarkably increased in the presence of SDS. The experimental parameters, such as supporting electrolyte, concentration of SDS, and accumulation time, were optimised for Sudan I determination. The oxidation peak current showed a linear relationship with the concentrations of Sudan I in the range of 7.50 × 10(-8)-7.50 × 10(-6)mol L(-1), with the detection limit of 4.0 × 10(-8)mol L(-1). This new voltammetric method was successfully used to determine Sudan I in food products such as ketchup and chili sauce with satisfactory results.

  20. A novel lable-free electrochemical immunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen based on gold nanoparticles-thionine-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fen-Ying; Xu, Mao-Tian; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, gold nanoparticle-thionine-reduced graphene oxide (GNP-THi-GR) nanocomposites were prepared to design a label-free immunosensor for the sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The nanocomposites with good biocompatibility, excellent redox electrochemical activity and large surface area were coated onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and then CEA antibody (anti-CEA) was immobilized on the electrode to construct the immunosensor. The morphologies and electrochemistry of the formed nanocomposites were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies demonstrated that the formation of antibody-antigen complexes decreased the peak current of THi in the GNP-THi-GR nanocomposites. The decreased currents were proportional to the CEA concentration in the range of 10-500 pg/mL with a detection limit of 4 pg/mL. The proposed method was simple, fast and inexpensive for the determination of CEA at very low levels.

  1. Immobilization of Ni-Pd/core-shell nanoparticles through thermal polymerization of acrylamide on glassy carbon electrode for highly stable and sensitive glutamate detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huicheng; Ma, Zhenzhen; Wu, Zhaoyang

    2015-10-08

    The preparation of a persistently stable and sensitive biosensor is highly important for practical applications. To improve the stability and sensitivity of glutamate sensors, an electrode modified with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)/Ni-Pd/core-shell nanoparticles was developed using the thermal polymerization of acrylamide (AM) to immobilize the synthesized Ni-Pd/core-shell nanoparticles onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical data showed that the prepared biosensor had remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward glutamate. Moreover, superior reproducibility and excellent stability were observed (relative average deviation was 2.96% after continuous use of the same sensor for 60 times, and current responses remained at 94.85% of the initial value after 60 d). The sensor also demonstrated highly sensitive amperometric detection of glutamate with a low limit of detection (0.052 μM, S/N = 3), high sensitivity (4.768 μA μM(-1) cm(-2)), and a wide, useful linear range (0.1-500 μM). No interference from potential interfering species such as l-cysteine, ascorbic acid, and l-aspartate were noted. The determination of glutamate levels in actual samples achieved good recovery percentages.

  2. Synergy of Cobalt and Silver Microparticles Electrodeposited on Glassy Carbon for the Electrocatalysis of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction: An Electrochemical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Zafferoni, Claudio; Cioncoloni, Giacomo; Foresti, Maria Luisa; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Vizza, Francesco; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Innocenti, Massimo

    2015-08-07

    The combination of two different metals, each of them acting on different steps of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), yields synergic catalytic effects. In this respect, the electrocatalytic effect of silver is enhanced by the addition of cobalt, which is able to break the O-O bond of molecular oxygen, thus accelerating the first step of the reduction mechanism. At the same time, research is to further reduce the catalyst's cost, reducing the amount of Ag, which, even though being much less expensive than Pt, is still a noble metal. From this point of view, using a small amount of Ag together with an inexpensive material, such as graphite, represents a good compromise. The aim of this work was to verify if the synergic effects are still operating when very small amounts of cobalt (2-10 μg·cm(-2)) are added to the microparticles of silver electrodeposited on glassy carbon, described in a preceding paper from us. To better stress the different behaviour observed when cobalt and silver are contemporarily present in the deposit, the catalytic properties of cobalt alone were investigated. The analysis was completed by the Levich plots to evaluate the number of electrons involved and by Tafel plots to show the effects on the reaction mechanism.

  3. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of imipramine, trimipramine and desipramine employing titanium dioxide nanoparticles and an Amberlite XAD-2 modified glassy carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Bankim J; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2013-03-07

    An Amberlite XAD-2 (XAD2) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) modified glassy carbon paste electrode (XAD2-TNP-GCPE) was developed for the determination of imipramine (IMI), trimipramine (TRI) and desipramine (DES). The electrochemical behavior of these molecules was investigated employing cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetry (AdSDPV). After optimization of analytical conditions using a XAD2-TNP-GCPE electrode at pH 6.0 phosphate buffer (0.1 M), the peak currents were found to vary linearly with its concentration in the range of 1.30 × 10(-9) to 6.23 × 10(-6) M for IMI, 1.16 × 10(-9) to 6.87 × 10(-6) M for TRI and 1.43 × 10(-9) to 5.68 × 10(-6) M for DES. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of 3.93 × 10(-10), 3.51 × 10(-10) and 4.35 × 10(-10) M were obtained for IMI, TRI and DES respectively using AdSDPV. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages such as a simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limits and excellent reproducibility. The proposed method was employed for the determination of IMI, TRI and DES in pharmaceutical formulations, blood serum and urine samples.

  4. Reductive Electropolymerization of a Vinyl-containing Poly-pyridyl Complex on Glassy Carbon and Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Daniel P.; Carpenter, Logan S.; Hyde, Jacob T.

    2015-01-01

    Controllable electrode surface modification is important in a number of fields, especially those with solar fuels applications. Electropolymerization is one surface modification technique that electrodeposits a polymeric film at the surface of an electrode by utilizing an applied potential to initiate the polymerization of substrates in the Helmholtz layer. This useful technique was first established by a Murray-Meyer collaboration at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in the early 1980s and utilized to study numerous physical phenomena of films containing inorganic complexes as the monomeric substrate. Here, we highlight a procedure for coating electrodes with an inorganic complex by performing reductive electropolymerization of the vinyl-containing poly-pyridyl complex onto glassy carbon and fluorine doped tin oxide coated electrodes. Recommendations on electrochemical cell configurations and troubleshooting procedures are included. Although not explicitly described here, oxidative electropolymerization of pyrrole-containing compounds follows similar procedures to vinyl-based reductive electropolymerization but are far less sensitive to oxygen and water. PMID:25741745

  5. A new kinetic-mechanistic approach to elucidate electrooxidation of doxorubicin hydrochloride in unprocessed human fluids using magnetic graphene based nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Jafar; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin; Khoubnasab Jafari, Maryam; Gharamaleki, Jalil Vaez; Yadollahi, Mehdi; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2016-04-01

    A novel magnetic nanocomposite was synthesized in one step using polymerization of magnetic graph oxide grafted with chlorosulfonic acid (Fe3O4-GO-SO3H) in the presence of polystyrene. The prepared magnetic nanocomposite was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), (Thermo-gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (DTA)), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV-Vis techniques. Magnetic nanocomposite was casted on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (PS/Fe3O4-GO-SO3H/GCE) and used for the detection and determination of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) in human biological fluids. The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of the modified electrode in aqueous solution displayed a pair of well-defined, stable and irreversible reductive/oxidation redox systems. CV study indicated that the oxidation process is irreversible and adsorption controlled. In addition, CV results indicated that DOX is oxidized via two electrons and three protons which is an unusual approach for the oxidation of DOX. A sensitive and time-saving procedure was developed for the analysis of DOX in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine with detection limit of 4.9 nM, 14 nM and 4.3 nM, respectively.

  6. Electrodeposition From Acidic Solutions of Nickel Bis(benzenedithiolate) Produces a Hydrogen-Evolving Ni-S Film on Glassy Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Helm, Monte L.; Roberts, John A.

    2014-01-03

    Films electrodeposited onto glassy carbon electrodes from acidic acetonitrile solutions of [Bu4N][Ni(bdt)2] (bdt = 1,2-benzenedithiolate) are active toward electrocatalytic hydrogen production at potentials 0.2-0.4 V positive of untreated electrodes. This activity is preserved on rinsing the electrode and transfer to fresh acid solution. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate that the deposited material contains Ni and S. Correlations between voltammetric and spectroscopic results indicate that the deposited material is active, i.e. that catalysis is heterogeneous rather than homogeneous. Control experiments establish that obtaining the observed catalytic response requires both Ni and the 1,2 benzenedithiolate ligand to be present during deposition. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a 17 national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  7. Determination of guanine and adenine by high-performance liquid chromatography with a self-fabricated wall-jet/thin-layer electrochemical detector at a glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yaping; Yan, Hongling; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive wall-jet/thin-layer amperometric electrochemical detector (ECD) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for simultaneous determination of guanine (G) and adenine (A). The analytes were detected at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and the HPLC-ECD calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2)>0.997) under optimized conditions. Limits of detection for G and A are 0.6 nM and 1.4 nM (S/N=3), respectively, which are lower than those obtained with an UV-vis detector and a commercial electrochemical detector. We have successfully applied this HPLC-ECD to assess the contents of G and A in hydrochloric acid-digested calf thymus double-stranded DNA. In addition, we compared in detail the analysis of G and A by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and by the HPLC-ECD system on both bare GCE and electroreduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified GCE. We found that the adsorption of G and A on the electrode surfaces can vary their anodic CV peaks and the competitive adsorption of G and A on the limited sites of the electrode surfaces can cause crosstalk effects on their anodic CV peak signals, but the HPLC-ECD system is insensitive to such electrode-adsorption and can give more reliable analytical results.

  8. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on poly(2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of anticancer drug gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Tığ, Gözde Aydoğdu; Zeybek, Bülent; Pekyardımcı, Şule

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a simple methodology was used to develop a new electrochemical DNA biosensor based on poly(2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) (P(PDCA)) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). This modified electrode was used to monitor for the electrochemical interaction between the dsDNA and gemcitabine (GEM) for the first time. A decrease in oxidation signals of guanine after the interaction of the dsDNA with the GEM was used as an indicator for the selective determination of the GEM via differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The guanine oxidation peak currents were linearly proportional to the concentrations of the GEM in the range of 1-30mgL(‒1). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.276mgL(‒1) and 0.922mgL(‒1), respectively. The reproducibility, repeatability, and applicability of the analysis to pharmaceutical dosage forms and human serum samples were also examined. In addition to DPV method, UV-vis and viscosity measurements were utilized to propose the interaction mechanism between the GEM and the dsDNA. The novel DNA biosensor could serve for sensitive, accurate and rapid determination of the GEM.

  9. Dopamine and uric acid electrochemical sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with cubic Pd and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Yang, Beibei; Zhong, Jiatai; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Ke; Zhai, Chunyang; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Du, Yukou; Yang, Ping

    2017-03-02

    A cubic Pd and reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (Pd/RGO/GCE) was fabricated to simultaneously detect dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and different pulse voltammetry (DPV) methods. Compared with Pd/GCE and RGO/GCE, the Pd/RGO/GCE exhibited excellent electrochemical activity in electrocatalytic behaviors. Performing the Pd/RGO/GCE in CV measurement, the well-defined oxidation peak potentials separation between DA and UA reached to 145mV. By using the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique, the calibration curves for DA and UA were found linear with the concentration range of 0.45-421μM and 6-469.5μM and the detection limit (S/N =3) were calculated to be 0.18μM and 1.6μM, respectively. Furthermore, the Pd/RGO/GCE displayed high selectivity when it was applied into the determination of DA and UA even though in presence of high concentration of interferents. Additionally, the prepared electrochemical sensor of Pd/RGO/GCE demonstrated a practical feasibility in rat urine and serum samples determination.

  10. Electron transfer study on graphene modified glassy carbon substrate via electrochemical reduction and the application for tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) electrochemiluminescence sensor fabrication.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanhong; Cao, Mengmei; Liu, Huihui; Zong, Xidan; Kong, Na; Zhang, Jizhen; Liu, Jingquan

    2015-07-01

    In this study, electron transfer behavior of the graphene nanosheets attachment on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via direct electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is investigated for the first time. The graphene modified electrode was achieved by simply dipping the GCE in GO suspension, followed by cyclic voltammetric scanning in the potential window from 0V to -1.5V. Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)3(2+)] was immobilized on the graphene modified electrode and used as the redox probe to evaluate the electron transfer behavior. The electron transfer rate constant (Ks) was calculated to be 61.9±5.8s(-1), which is much faster than that of tiled graphene modified GCE (7.1±0.6s(-1)). The enhanced electron transfer property observed with the GCE modified by reductively deposited graphene is probably due to its standing configuration, which is beneficial to the electron transfer comparing with the tiled one. Because the abundant oxygen-containing groups are mainly located at the edges of GO, which should be much easier for the reduction to start from, the reduced GO should tend to stand on the electrode surface as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy analysis. In addition, due to the favored electron transfer and standing configuration, the Ru(bpy)3(2+) electrochemiluminescence sensor fabricated with standing graphene modified GCE provided much higher and more stable efficiency than that fabricated with tiled graphene.

  11. Hierarchical Co(OH)2 nanostructures/glassy carbon electrode derived from Co(BTC) metal-organic frameworks for glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Juan; Lu, Xingping; Yu, Jie; Wang, Li; Song, Yonghai

    2016-07-01

    A novel Co(OH)2/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been fabricated via metal-organic framework (MOF)-directed method. In the strategy, the Co(BTC, 1,3,5-benzentricarboxylic acid) MOFs/GCE was firstly prepared by alternately immersing GCE in Co2+ and BTC solution based on a layer-by-layer method. And then, the Co(OH)2 with hierarchical flake nanostructure/GCE was constructed by immersing Co(BTC) MOFs/GCE into 0.1 M NaOH solution at room temperature. Such strategy improves the distribution of hierarchical Co(OH)2 nanostructures on electrode surface greatly, enhances the stability of nanomaterials on the electrode surface, and increases the use efficiency of the Co(OH)2 nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectra were used to characterize the Co(BTC) MOFs/GCE and Co(OH)2/GCE. Based on the hierarchical Co(OH)2 nanostructures/GCE, a novel and sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor was developed. The good performance of the resulted sensor toward the detection of glucose was ascribed to hierarchical flake nanostructures, good mechanical stability, excellent distribution, and large specific surface area of Co(OH)2 nanostructures. The proposed preparation method is simple, efficient, and cheap .

  12. A novel voltammetric sensor for sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions using glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene-based ion imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Ghanei-Motlagh, Masoud; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Heydari, Abolfazl; Ghanei-Motlagh, Reza; Gupta, Vinod K

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel strategy was proposed to prepare ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Polymerization was performed using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, 2,2'-((9E,10E)-1,4-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-diylidene) bis(hydrazine-1-carbothioamide) (DDBHCT) as the chelating agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator, via surface imprinted technique. The RGO-IIP was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical procedure was based on the accumulation of Hg(II) ions at the surface of a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with RGO-IIP. The prepared RGO-IIP sensor has higher voltammetric response compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), traditional IIP and RGO. The RGO-IIP modified electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward Hg(II) concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 80 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.02 μg L(-1) (S/N=3), below the guideline value from the World Health Organization (WHO). The applicability of the proposed electrochemical sensor to determination of mercury(II) ions in different water samples was reported.

  13. Simultaneous determination of caffeine and paracetamol by square wave voltammetry at poly(4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Molla; Geto, Alemnew; Tessema, Merid; Admassie, Shimelis

    2016-11-01

    Poly(4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode (poly(AHNSA)/GCE) was prepared for simultaneous determination of caffeine and paracetamol using square-wave voltammetry. The method was used to study the effects of pH and scan rate on the voltammetric response of caffeine and paracetamol. Linear calibration curves in the range of 10-125μM were obtained for both caffeine and paracetamol in acetate buffer solution of pH 4.5 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989 and 0.9986, respectively. The calculated detection limits (S/N=3) were 0.79μM for caffeine and 0.45μM for paracetamol. The effects of some interfering substances in the determination of caffeine and paracetamol were also studied and their interferences were found to be negligible which proved the selectivity of the modified electrode. The method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of caffeine and paracetamol in Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and tea samples.

  14. Electrochemical study of the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel and its determination using differential pulse voltammetry in bulk form and pharmaceutical preparations with a glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Dermiş, S; Aydoğan, E

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, the electroanalytical behaviour of clopidogrel (CLP) bisulfate, an antithrombotic drug, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The anodic oxidation of clopidogrel bisulfate was investigated with a GCE to determine the oxidation conditions. The voltammograms of solutions having various concentrations of clopidogrel were recorded in order to obtain the optimum oxidation conditions of this drug on a GCE. To determine the effects of the nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH and scan rate on the anodic oxidation reactions, the experiments were performed in 0.2 M sulphuric acid, and in Britton-Robinson (BR) (pH 2-5) and acetate (pH 3.5-5.63) buffers with a 10-400 mVs(-1) scan rate interval. The oxidation of clopidogrel bisulfate was found to be diffusion-controlled over a concentration range of 0.08 mM-1.0 mM in pH 3.7 acetate buffer by an optimized DPV technique. The voltammetric method developed was applied to the tablet form of pharmaceutical preparation of this compound and the accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity, repeatibility within and between days and reproducibility of the proposed method was investigated statistically. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric and HPLC methods developed in our laboratory and found to be in good agreement. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants.

  15. Mercury(II) trace detection by a gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode using square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry including a chloride desorption step.

    PubMed

    Laffont, Laure; Hezard, Teddy; Gros, Pierre; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Sonke, Jeroen E; Behra, Philippe; Evrard, David

    2015-08-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were deposited on a glassy carbon (GC) substrate by constant potential electrolysis and characterized by cyclic voltammetry in H2SO4 and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The modified AuNPs-GC electrode was used for low Hg(II) concentration detection using a Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV) procedure which included a chloride desorption step. The comparison of the obtained results with our previous work in which no desorption step was used showed that this latter step significantly improved the analytical performances, providing a three time higher sensitivity and a limit of detection of 80pM for 300s preconcentration, as well as a lower average standard deviation. The influence of chloride concentration on the AuNPs-GC electrode response to Hg(II) trace amounts was also studied and its optimal value confirmed to be in the 10(-2)M range. Finally, the AuNPs-GC electrode was used for the determination of Hg(II) in a natural groundwater sample from south of France. By using a preconcentration time of 3000s, a Hg(II) concentration of 19±3pM was found, which compared well with the result obtained by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (22±2pM).

  16. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for detection of As (III) by Chitosan-Fe(OH)3 modified glassy carbon electrode: A new approach towards speciation of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Saha, Suparna; Sarkar, Priyabrata

    2016-09-01

    An efficient electrochemical sensor for As(III) was developed based on adsorption of arsenic on a specially modified electrodes at some applied potential and subsequent i) stripping at a fixed potential by anodic stripping voltammetry ii) analysis by generating surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The working glassy carbon electrode was modified by Chitosan-Fe(OH)3 composite and a reducing agent L-cysteine. The composite enhanced adsorption of As(III) and subsequent reduction to As(O) moieties and measurement by anodic stripping. The surface property of modified electrode was characterized by SEM, AFM, FTIR, XPS and electrochemistry was analyzed by impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) was also employed to investigate the As(III) binding capability of polymer matrix. Several optimum voltammetric parameters e.g supporting electrolyte; 0.1M acetate buffer (pH 5.2) deposition potential, -0.9V; deposition time, 100s were established for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). A linear correlation was obtained in the range of 2-100ppb for ASV (R(2) 0.974) with limit of detection 0.072ppb. A variety of common coexistent ions such as Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd in water samples showed no interferences on the As (III) determination. The method was applied successfully to real samples collected from arsenic affected areas of West Bengal, India.

  17. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wencai; Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun; Ma, Houyi

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1-65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N=3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets.

  18. Simultaneous determination of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol and p-aminophenol with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Mehretie, Solomon; Admassie, Shimelis; Hunde, Tadele; Tessema, Merid; Solomon, Theodros

    2011-09-15

    A sensitive and selective method was developed for the determination of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP) and p-aminophenol (PAP) using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical reaction of APAP and PAP at the modified electrode. Both APAP and PAP showed quasireversible redox reactions with formal potentials of 367 mV and 101 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively, in phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.0. The significant peak potential difference (266 mV) between APAP and PAP enabled the simultaneous determination both species based on differential pulse voltammetry. The voltammetric responses gave linear ranges of 1.0×10(-6)-1.0×10(-4) mol L(-1) and 4.0×10(-6)-3.2×10(-4) mol L(-1), with detection limits of 4.0×10(-7) mol L(-1) and 1.2×10(-6) mol L(-1) for APAP and PAP, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of APAP and PAP in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples.

  19. Nano-assemblies consisting of Pd/Pt nanodendrites and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-coated reduced graphene oxide on glassy carbon electrode for hydrogen peroxide sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Di; Ma, Min; Wang, Weizhen; Chen, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensors were fabricated on the basis of glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with palladium (Pd) core-platinum (Pt) nanodendrites (Pt-NDs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A facile wet-chemical method was developed for preparing Pd core-Pt nanodendrites. In this approach, the growth of Pt NDs was directed by Pd nanocrystal which could be regarded as seed. The PDDA-coated rGO could form uniform film on the surface of GC electrode, which provided a support for Pd core- Pt NDs adsorption by self-assembly. The morphologies of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (spectrum). Electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposites was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods. The sensor fabricated by Pd core-Pt NDs/PDDA-rGO/GCE exhibited high sensitivity (672.753 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)), low detection limit (0.027 μM), wider linear range (0.005-0.5mM) and rapid response time (within 5s). Besides, it also exhibited superior reproducibility, excellent anti-interference performance and long-term stability. The present work could afford a viable method and efficient platform for fabricating all kinds of amperometric sensors and biosensors.

  20. A sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor for antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil based on glassy carbon electrode modified with poly(bromocresol purple).

    PubMed

    Koyuncu Zeybek, Derya; Demir, Burcu; Zeybek, Bülent; Pekyardımcı, Şule

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes an electrochemical sensor for the first time based on poly(bromocresol purple) (P(BCP)) developed to observe the interaction between 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and fish sperm double strand DNA (dsDNA). The P(BCP) film was electrosynthesized by cyclic voltammetry method on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The dsDNA was electrochemically immobilized on the surface of P(BCP) modified GCE and the DNA biosensor was prepared. The interaction mechanism of dsDNA with 5-FU was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry using this biosensor. A decrease in the guanine oxidation peak current of the biosensor was observed after the interaction of dsDNA and 5-FU in 0.5 mol L(-1) acetate buffer (pH 4.8) containing 0.02 mol L(-1) NaCl. The accumulation time and dsDNA concentration were optimized to obtain the best peak current response. Under optimum conditions, the linear response on the guanine signal decreasing curve was observed in the 5-FU concentration range of 1.0-50 mg L(-1). The interaction mechanism between dsDNA and 5-FU was further investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy and viscometer. The results reveal that intercalation is the primary mode of interaction between 5-FU and dsDNA.

  1. A novel electrochemical sensor for the analysis of β-agonists: the poly(acid chrome blue K)/graphene oxide-nafion/glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyun; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2013-09-15

    A novel modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of 4,5-dihydroxy-3-[(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt (acid chrome blue K (ACBK)) at a graphene oxide (GO)-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The characterization of an electrochemically synthesized poly-ACBK/GO-nafion film was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and the results were interpreted and compared at each stage of the electrode construction. Electrochemical oxidation of eight β-agonists - clenbuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, ractopamine, dopamine, dobutamine, adrenaline, and isoprenaline, was investigated by CV at the different electrodes. At the poly-ACBK/GO-nafion/GCE, the linear sweep voltammetry peak currents of the eight β-agonists increased linearly with their concentrations in the range of 1.0-36.0 ng mL(-1), respectively, and their corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were within the 0.58-1.46 ng mL(-1) range. This electrode showed satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and was used successfully for the quantitative analysis of clenbuterol in pork samples.

  2. A novel electrochemical sensor based on Au@PANI composites film modified glassy carbon electrode binding molecular imprinting technique for the determination of melamine.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hanbing; Chen, Min; Ge, Hongwei; Lu, Zhiwei; Liu, Xin; Zou, Ping; Wang, Xianxiang; He, Hua; Zeng, Xianyin; Wang, Yanying

    2017-01-15

    A novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for the rapid detection of melamine was reported in this paper. Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by Au and polyaniline composites (Au@PANI) deposited on the surface of GCE and were used to increase the electrode sensitivity and to amplify the sensor signal. Melamine template molecule was further assembled onto Au@PANI by the formation of hydrogen bonds, can implement the selective detection of melamine. This simple but efficient electrochemistry analysis platform presents a low detection limit of 1.39×10(-6)µmolL(-1) for detection of melamine, which is remarkably lower than the currently used methods and the previous reports. So, this method may open a new way for the determination of melamine which enables low cost, effective and sensitive determination. This shows the sensor can be potentially utilized for the detection of melamine in food, which allows the sensitive and selective determination of melamine from milk and feed.

  3. Electrocatalytic simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, uric acid and L-Cysteine in real samples using quercetin silver nanoparticles-graphene nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Hamid R.; Jahangiri-Dehaghani, Fahime; Shekari, Zahra; Benvidi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    By immobilizing of quercetin at the surface of a glassy carbon electrode modified with silver nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets (Q-AgNPs-GNs-GCE) a new sensor has been fabricated. The cyclic voltammogram of Q-AgNPs-GNs-GCE shows a stable redox couple with surface confined characteristics. Q-AgNPs-GNs-GCE demonstrated a high catalytic activity for L-Cysteine (L-Cys) oxidation. Results indicated that L-Cys peak potential at Q-AgNPs-GNs-GCE shifted to less positive values compared to GNs-GCE or AgNPs-GCE. Also, the kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient,, and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant, k‧, for the oxidation of L-Cys at the Q-AgNPs-GNs-GCE surface were estimated. In differential pulse voltammetric determination, the detection limit of L-Cys was obtained 0.28 μM, and the calibration plots were linear within two ranges of 0.9-12.4 μM and 12.4-538.5 μM of L-Cys. Also, the proposed modified electrode is used for the simultaneous determinations of ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and L-Cys. Finally, this study has demonstrated the practical analytical utility of the sensor for determination of AA in vitamin C tablet, L-Cys in a milk sample and UA in a human urine sample.

  4. Determination of Silver(I) by Differential Pulse Voltammetry Using a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Synthesized N-(2-Aminoethyl)-4,4′-Bipyridine

    PubMed Central

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Chira, Ana; Radulescu, Medeea; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2010-01-01

    A new modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) based on a synthesized N-(2-aminoethyl)-4,4′-bipyridine (ABP) was developed for the determination of Ag(I) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). ABP was covalently immobilized on GC electrodes surface using 4-nitrobenzendiazonium (4-NBD) and glutaraldehyde (GA). The Ag(I) ions were preconcentrated by chemical interaction with bipyridine under a negative potential (−0.6 V); then the reduced ions were oxidized by differential pulse voltammetry and a peak was observed at 0.34 V. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range from 0.05 μM to 1 μM Ag(I) with a detection limit of 0.025 μM and RSD = 3.6%, for 0.4 μM Ag(I). The presence of several common ions in more than 125-fold excess had no effect on the determination of Ag(I). The developed sensor was applied to the determination of Ag(I) in water samples using a standard addition method. PMID:22163530

  5. A molecularly-imprinted electrochemical sensor based on a graphene-Prussian blue composite-modified glassy carbon electrode for the detection of butylated hydroxyanisole in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min; Liu, Su; Lian, Wenjing; Li, Jie; Xu, Wei; Huang, Jiadong

    2013-10-21

    In this study, we developed a novel molecularly-imprinted electrochemical sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) decorated by graphene-Prussian blue (GR-PB) composites for the selective and sensitive determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized by BHA and pyrrole as the template molecule and functional monomer, respectively. Also, the MIPs were assembled on the surface of the GR-PB/GCE by electropolymerization. The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry. It was confirmed that the synergistic effects of GR and PB could improve the electrochemical response and the sensitivity of the sensor. The linear range of the sensor was from 9 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) to 7 × 10(-5) mol L(-1), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 7.63 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). The proposed sensor displayed high selectivity, excellent stability and good reproducibility for the determination of BHA. It was successfully applied to the determination of BHA in real samples.

  6. Development of an analytical method for the determination of polyphenolic compounds in vegetable origin samples by liquid chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection at a glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Natale, Anna; Nardiello, Donatella; Palermo, Carmen; Muscarella, Marilena; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego

    2015-11-13

    A sensitive and accurate method for the determination of polyphenolic compounds in artichoke bract extracts and olive mill wastewaters by liquid chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection at a glassy carbon working electrode was developed. Preliminary experiments were carried out by cyclic voltammetry to investigate the electrochemical behavior of polyphenols under different mobile phase compositions, and to test the detection and cleaning electrode potentials. Chromatographic separations were performed by using a core-shell C18 column, eluted with acetic acid and acetonitrile, by combined concave-linear binary gradients. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a good column efficiency and peak symmetry were observed, also for stereo and positional isomeric compounds. The developed three-step potential waveform for pulsed amperometric detection was successfully applied for the sensitive chromatographic determination of polyphenols in artichoke extracts and olive mill wastewaters. Linearity, precision and sensitivity of the proposed method have been evaluated. A wide linear range of response (up to 20 mg/L) has been obtained for all the investigated compounds. Detection and quantification limits in the vegetable origin sample extracts were in the range 0.004-0.6 mg/L and 0.01-2mg/L, respectively, while the injection-to-injection repeatability (n=6) ranged from 5 to 13%. The obtained results confirmed the excellent sensitivity of the electrochemical detection, and its suitability for the determination of electroactive polyphenolic compounds at low concentration levels.

  7. Amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on the direct electrochemistry of cholesterol oxidase and catalase on a graphene/ionic liquid-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Khodadadian, Mehdi

    2014-03-15

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and catalase (CAT) were co-immobilized on a graphene/ionic liquid-modified glassy carbon electrode (GR-IL/GCE) to develop a highly sensitive amperometric cholesterol biosensor. The H2O2 generated during the enzymatic reaction of ChOx with cholesterol could be reduced electrocatalytically by immobilized CAT to obtain a sensitive amperometric response to cholesterol. The direct electron transfer between enzymes and electrode surface was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Both enzymes showed well-defined redox peaks with quasi-reversible behaviors. An excellent sensitivity of 4.163 mA mM(-1)cm(-2), a response time less than 6s, and a linear range of 0.25-215 μM (R(2)>0.99) have been observed for cholesterol determination using the proposed biosensor. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KM(app)) was calculated to be 2.32 mM. The bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor showed good reproducibility (RSDs<5%) with minimal interference from the coexisting electroactive compounds such as ascorbic acid and uric acid. The CAT/ChOx/GR-IL/GCE showed excellent analytical performance for the determination of free cholesterol in human serum samples.

  8. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized on NdPO4 nanoparticles/chitosan composite film on glassy carbon electrodes and its biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qinglin; Luo, Kai; Li, Lei; Zheng, Jianbin

    2009-02-01

    The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on a composite matrix based on chitosan (CHIT) and NdPO(4) nanoparticles (NPs) underlying on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was achieved. The cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the modified electrode. In deaerated buffer solutions, the cyclic voltammetry of the composite films of GOx/NdPO(4) NPs/CHIT showed a pair of well-behaved redox peaks that are assigned to the redox reaction of GOx, confirming the effective immobilization of GOx on the composite film. The electron transfer rate constant was estimated to be 5.0 s(-1). The linear dynamic range for the detection of glucose was 0.15-10 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and the detection limit was estimated at about 0.08 mM (S/N=3). The calculated apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was 2.5 mM, which suggested a high affinity of the enzyme-substrate. The immobilized GOx in the NdPO(4) NPs/CHIT composite film retained its bioactivity. Furthermore, the method presented here can be easily extended to immobilize and obtain the direct electrochemistry of other redox enzymes or proteins.

  9. Formation of complex Al-N-C layer in aluminium by successive carbon and nitrogen implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglov, V. V.; Cherenda, N. N.; Khodasevich, V. V.; Sokol, V. A.; Abramov, I. I.; Danilyuk, A. L.; Wenzel, A.; Gerlach, J.; Rauschenbach, B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of Auger electron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy of the surface layer of aluminium after successive implantation by carbon and nitrogen ions are presented in this work. The energy of implanted ions is 40 keV. The implantation dose varies in the range (3.3-6.5) × 10 17 ions/cm 2. The findings show that successive implantation leads to the formation of two main layers in aluminium. The first layer is AlNC x (0 < x < 0.5) layer with violated hcp. AlN structure, where carbon atoms form bonds with nitrogen atoms. The second layer contains disoriented Al 4C 3 precipitates and carbon atoms migrated from the first layer. The mechanism of migration is discussed.

  10. Biological properties of carbon/carbon implant composites with unique manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Hui; Yu, Shu; Zhu, Shai-Hong; Gao, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yong; Miu, Yun-Liang; Huang, Bo-Yun

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to manufacture carbon/carbon (C/C) composites through a unique procedure with improved biocompatibility and reduced debris release. C/C composites were prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and their biological properties were analyzed. With regard to mechanical properties, compressive strength/modulus was 219.1 MPa/9.72 GPa, flexural strength/modulus was 121.63 MPa/21.9 GPa, and interlaminar sheer was 15.13 GPa. Biocompatibility testing revealed: (1) the extract liquid from the C/C composites had no effect on cell proliferation; (2) the extract had no impact on micronucleus frequency as compared with the control groups (P > 0.05); (3) in vivo, there was mild tissue inflammation after implantation within the first 2 weeks, but there was no significant difference compared with the control group (P > 0.05); (4) the implants were well integrated into the host tissue, and debris was limited. The tested samples have excellent biocompatibilities and reduced release of debris. The demonstrated changes in manufacturing procedures are promising.

  11. Removal of a mixture tetracycline-tylosin from water based on anodic oxidation on a glassy carbon electrode coupled to activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yahiaoui, Idris; Aissani-Benissad, Farida; Fourcade, Florence; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first to examine the electrochemical oxidation of two antibiotics, tetracycline (TC) and tylosin (Tylo), considered separately or in mixture, on a glassy carbon electrode in aqueous solutions; and then to assess the relevance of such electrochemical process as a pre-treatment prior to a biological treatment (activated sludge) for the removal of these antibiotics. The influence of the working potential and the initial concentration of TC and Tylo on the electrochemical pre-treatment process was also investigated. It was noticed that antibiotics degradation was favoured at high potential (2.4 V/ saturated calomel electrode (SCE)), achieving total degradation after 50 min for TC and 40 min for Tylo for 50 mg L(-1) initial concentration, with a higher mineralization efficiency in the case of TC. The biological oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5)/Chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio increased substantially, from 0.033 to 0.39 and from 0.038 to 0.50 for TC and Tylo, respectively. Regarding the mixture (TC and Tylo), the mineralization yield increased from 10.6% to 30.0% within 60 min of reaction time when the potential increased from 1.5 to 2.4 V/SCE and the BOD5/COD ratio increased substantially from 0.010 initially to 0.29 after 6 h of electrochemical pre-treatment. A biological treatment was, therefore, performed aerobically during 30 days, leading to an overall decrease of 72% of the dissolved organic carbon by means of the combined process.

  12. Improved device performance by multistep or carbon Co-implants

    SciTech Connect

    Liefting, R. . MESA Research Inst. FOM Inst. for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Amsterdam ); Wijburg, R.C.M.; Wallinga, H. . MESA Research Inst.); Custer, J.S.; Saris, F.W. )

    1994-01-01

    High-energy ion implantation is used for forming the collector in vertical bipolar transistors in a BiCMOS process. Secondary defects, remaining after annealing the implant damage, give rise to an increased leakage current and to collector-emitter shorts. These shorts reduce the transistor yield. The use of multiple step implants or the introduction of a C gettering layer are demonstrated to avoid dislocation formation. Experimental results show that these schemes subsequently lower the leakage current and dramatically increase device yield. The presence of C can cause increased collector/substrate leakage, indicating that the C profile needs to be optimized with respect to the doping profiles.

  13. A preliminary biomechanical study of a novel carbon-fibre hip implant versus standard metallic hip implants.

    PubMed

    Bougherara, Habiba; Zdero, Rad; Dubov, Anton; Shah, Suraj; Khurshid, Shaheen; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a widespread surgical approach for treating severe osteoarthritis of the human hip. Aseptic loosening of standard metallic hip implants due to stress shielding and bone loss has motivated the development of new materials for hip prostheses. Numerically, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model that mimicked hip implants was used to compare a new hip stem to two commercially available implants. The hip implants simulated were a novel CF/PA12 carbon-fibre polyamide-based composite hip stem, the Exeter hip stem (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ, USA), and the Omnifit Eon (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ, USA). A virtual axial load of 3 kN was applied to the FE model. Strain and stress distributions were computed. Experimentally, the three hip stems had their distal portions rigidly mounted and had strain gauges placed along the surface at 3 medial and 3 lateral locations. Axial loads of 3 kN were applied. Measurements of axial stiffness and strain were taken and compared to FE analysis. The overall linear correlation between FE model versus experimental strains showed reasonable results for the lines-of-best-fit for the Composite (Pearson R(2)=0.69, slope=0.82), Exeter (Pearson R(2)=0.78, slope=0.59), and Omnifit (Pearson R(2)=0.66, slope=0.45), with some divergence for the most distal strain locations. From FE analysis, the von Mises stress range for the Composite stem was much lower than that in the Omnifit and Exeter implants by 200% and 45%, respectively. The preliminary experiments showed that the Composite stem stiffness (1982 N/mm) was lower than the metallic hip stem stiffnesses (Exeter, 2460 N/mm; Omnifit, 2543 N/mm). This is the first assessment of stress, strain, and stiffness of the CF/PA12 carbon-fibre hip stem compared to standard commercially-available devices.

  14. Mossbauer effect in the ion-implanted iron-carbon alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1976-01-01

    The concentration dependence of Mossbauer effect in four carbon ion-implanted iron absorbers, which contain carbon as the solute atoms, has been investigated over the range of concentration 0.05 through 1 atomic percent. The specimens were prepared by implanting carbon atoms on each reference iron foil with four different bombarding energies of 250 keV, 160 keV, 140 keV and 80 keV, respectively. Thus, the specimen contains a uniform dosage of carbon atoms which penetrated up to 3,000 A depth of the reference iron. In the measurement of Mossbauer spectra, the backscattering conversion electron counting geometry was used. Typical results of Mossbauer parameters of iron-carbon alloys show that the isomer shift, quadrupole shift, the effective hyperfine splitting of Fe-57, and the intensity ratio exhibit a large variation with the increase of carbon concentration in the environment of iron atoms.

  15. Structural disorder in hard amorphous carbon films implanted with nitrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Freire, F.L. Jr.; Franceschini, D.F.; Achete, C.A.; Brusa, R.S.; Mariotto, G.; Karwasz, G.P.; Canteri, R.

    1996-12-31

    Hard amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited by self-bias glow discharge were implanted at room temperature with 70 keV-nitrogen ions at fluences between 2.0 and 9.0 {times} 10{sup 16} N/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, SIMS and positron annihilation spectroscopy (Doppler broadening technique with the determination of the parameter S). For samples implanted with 2.0 {times} 10{sup 16} N/cm{sup 2} the S parameter follows the vacancies depth profile predicted by Monte Carlo simulation. For higher fluences the authors observed a reduction in the measured value of S. This result is discussed in terms of both hydrogen loss and structural modifications (increase of disorder at local scale and of the number of graphitic domains) induced in the carbon film by ion implantation.

  16. EDTA assisted highly selective detection of As(3+) on Au nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrodes: facile in situ electrochemical characterization of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fang

    2014-12-16

    A facile electrochemical characterization technique of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) developed by Wang et al. ( Wang, Y.; Laborda, E.; Salter, C.; Crossley, A.; Compton, R. G. Analyst 2012 , 137 , 4693 - 4697 ) was used to track the variation in the particle size and density of AuNPs in situ and to assist in optimizing the conditions of analysis and catalysis. In this method, the combination of total surface area determined by Pb underpotential deposition (UPD) and the amount of Au obtained by anodic stripping of Au in HCl solution was used to evaluate the average diameter of AuNPs and the number of particles on the electrode. The detection of As(3+) in aqueous solution by a AuNP modified glassy carbon electrode (Aunano@GCE) using the electrochemical characterization technique was examined. The AuNPs with a uniform shape and size, deposited onto the GCEs using multiple-scan cyclic voltammetry (MSCV), were suitable for the electrochemical evaluation. The calibration curve for the detection of As(3+) had a dynamic range of 0.1-15.0 μg L(-1) (from 1.30 to 200 nM, y = 0.21x (in μA L μg(-1)) + 0.01 (R(2) = 0.999)) and showed a sensitivity of 0.21 μA L μg(-1) (16.15 μA μM(-1)). A detection limit as low as 0.0025 μg L(-1) (32.5 pM) was achieved. The chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) selectively chelated with the interfering metal ions and effectively inhibited the interfering ions from competing with the ion of interest (As(3+)), in the preconcentration process. The presence of EDTA effectively eliminated interference from several metal ions, especially Cu(2+) and Hg(2+). This method was validated by analyzing the As(3+) content in real water samples.

  17. Electrochemical determination of Ga(III) through formation of Ga(III)-deferrioxamine B nanostructures on the glassy carbon electrode surface.

    PubMed

    Karimi Shervedani, Reza; Garavand, Somayeh; Samiei Foroushani, Marzieh; Yaghoobi, Fatemeh

    2016-03-01

    Selective and sensitive determination of Ga(III) in the presence of Fe(III), as the main interfering ion is studied by using glassy carbon electrode modified with deferrioxamine B (GC-DFO). Characterization and analytical application are performed by different methods including cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The DPV measurements showed two reduction peaks around -0.630 and -0.830V. While the current of both peaks varied linearly with Ga(III) concentration of the accumulation solution, the latter was more sensitive and used for construction of the calibration curve. The experimental parameters are studied and optimized. A dynamic calibration curve (6.0×10(-11) to 1.4×10(-9)molL(-1)), including a linear part, from 6.0×10(-11) to 1.0×10(-9)molL(-1) with mean RSDs of 5.3% for n=3 at 4.0×10(-10)molL(-1) Ga(III), and a detection limit of 2.0×10(-11) mol L(-1) Ga(III) is observed at the optimized conditions. The validity of the method and applicability of the sensor are successfully tested by determining of Ga(III) in natural (river) waters, rice and coal samples. The experimental data are presented and discussed from which the new sensor is characterized.

  18. The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free Covalent Attachment of Electrochemically Active Species to an Azide-Terminated Glassy Carbon Electrode Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Atanu K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Fei; Bullock, R. Morris; Roberts, John A.

    2013-12-02

    Glassy carbon electrodes have been activated for modification with azide groups and subsequent coupling with ferrocenyl reagents by a catalyst-free route using lithium acetylide-ethylenediamine complex, and also by the more common Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide coupling (CuAAC) route, both affording high surface coverages. Electrodes were preconditioned at ambient temperature under nitrogen, and ferrocenyl surface coverages obtained by CuAAC were comparable to those reported with preconditioning at 1000 °C under hydrogen/nitrogen. The reaction of lithium acetylide-ethylenediamine with the azide-terminated electrode affords a 1,2,3-triazolyllithium-terminated surface that is active toward covalent C-C coupling reactions including displacement at an aliphatic halide and nucleophilic addition at an aldehyde. For example, surface ferrocenyl groups were introduced by reaction with (6-iodohexyl)ferrocene; the voltammetry shows narrow, symmetric peaks indicating uniform attachment. Coverages are competitive with those obtained by the CuAAC route. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data, presented for each synthetic step, are consistent with the proposed reactions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  19. Protein/ionic liquid/glassy carbon sensors following analyte focusing by ionic liquid micelle collapse for simultaneous determination of water soluble vitamins in plasma matrices.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hady, D; Albishri, H M

    2015-07-01

    Two novel sensors based on human serum albumin (HSA)-ionic liquid (IL) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-ionic liquid (IL) composites modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were produced for simultaneous determination of water soluble vitamins B2, B6 and C in human plasma following analytes focusing by IL micelles collapse (AFILMC). For selective and efficient extraction, vitamins were dissolved in 3.0molL(-1) micellar solution of 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide IL. The extracted vitamins were hydrodynamically injected by 25mbar for 20s into a running buffer of 12.5mmolL(-1) phosphate at pH 6.0 followed by electrochemical detection (ECD) on protein/1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate IL/GC sensors. The chemical stability of proposed sensors was achieved up to 7 days without any decomposition of PF6-based IL/protein and adsorption of interfering ions. In the current work, the sensitivity enhancement factor (SEF) up to 5000-fold was achieved using the AFILMC/ECD setup compared to conventional CE/UV. Under optimal conditions, linear calibration graphs were obtained from 0.5, 0.5 and 1.0 to 1500.0µgmL(-1) of vitamins B2, B6 and C, respectively. Detection limits of analytes were ranged from 180.0 to 520.0ngmL(-1). The proposed AFILMC/ECD setup was successfully applied to the assay of trace level quantification of vitamins in human plasma samples and also their binding constants with HSA and BSA were determined. The concurrent use of IL micelles for the proposed separation and detection processes exhibited some advantages, such as, a reduction of use toxic solvents, an efficient extraction and a direct injection of samples with a short-single run. Furthermore, IL micelles, having variable possibility of interactions, facilitated the successful achievements of AFILMC/ECD setup for the quantification of vitamins in plasma matrices.

  20. Glassy carbon electrode modified with a graphene oxide/poly(o-phenylenediamine) composite for the chemical detection of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Hoa; Tran, Trung Hieu; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2014-11-01

    Conducting poly(o-phenylenediamine) (POPD)/graphene oxide (GO) composites were prepared using a facile and efficient method involving the in-situ polymerization of OPD in the presence of GO in an aqueous medium. Copper sulfate was used as an oxidative initiator for the polymerization of OPD. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that POPD microfibrils were formed and distributed relatively uniformly with GO sheets in the obtained composites. X-ray diffraction results revealed the highly crystal structure of POPD. This composite exhibited good catalytic activity and stability. These results highlight the potential applications of POPD/GO composites as excellent electrochemical sensors. The composites were used to modify glass carbon electrodes for the chemical detection of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous media.

  1. Carbon plasma immersion ion implantation of nickel-titanium shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Poon, R W Y; Yeung, K W K; Liu, X Y; Chu, P K; Chung, C Y; Lu, W W; Cheung, K M C; Chan, D

    2005-05-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys possess super-elasticity in addition to the well-known shape memory effect and are potentially suitable for orthopedic implants. However, a critical concern is the release of harmful Ni ions from the implants into the living tissues. We propose to enhance the corrosion resistance and other surface and biological properties of NiTi using carbon plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). Our corrosion and simulated body fluid tests indicate that either an ion-mixed amorphous carbon coating fabricated by PIII&D or direct carbon PIII can drastically improve the corrosion resistance and block the out-diffusion of Ni from the materials. Our tribological tests show that the treated surfaces are mechanically more superior and cytotoxicity tests reveal that both sets of plasma-treated samples favor adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts.

  2. Titanium Implant Osseointegration Problems with Alternate Solutions Using Epoxy/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC) solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo properties, electrical

  3. Titanium Implant Osseointegration Problems with Alternate Solutions Using Epoxy/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Richard C

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC) solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo properties, electrical

  4. Mechanism for diamond nucleation and growth on single crystal copper surfaces implanted with carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, T. P.; Xiong, Fulin; Chang, R. P. H.; White, C. W.

    1992-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of diamond crystals on single-crystal copper surfaces implanted with carbon ions is studied. Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition is used for diamond growth. The single-crystal copper substrates were implanted either at room or elevated temperature with carbon ions prior to diamond nucleation. This procedure leads to the formation of a graphite film on the copper surface which greatly enhances diamond crystallite nucleation. A simple lattice model is constructed for diamond growth on graphite as 111 line (diamond) parallel to 0001 line (graphite) and 110 line (diamond) parallel to 1 1 -2 0 (graphite).

  5. Biological and biochemical properties of the carbon composite and polyethylene implant materials.

    PubMed

    Pesáková, V; Smetana, K; Balík, K; Hruska, J; Petrtýl, M; Hulejová, H; Adam, M

    2003-06-01

    We studied the biocompatibility of the carbon composites and polyethylene materials with and without collagen or collagen and proteoglycan cover. We used the in vitro technology to study the adhesion of model cells evalution, their metabolic activity and the production of TNF-alpha as a cytokine model. Under in vivo condition, the biocompatibility of tested polymers were studied in the implantation experiment, subcutaneously in the interscapular region in the laboratory rat. We have found in the in vitro assay favorable proliferation and the smallest production of pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha cytokine in cells adherent to the hydrophobic polyethylene material coated with biological macromolecules. Using in vivo tests performed by the implantation of materials to the rat we demonstrated that the materials are not cytotoxic. The tissue capsule surrounding the implants was not significantly influenced by the type of the implant and the pre-treatment by the biological molecules. However, the foreign-body giant multinucleated cells were observed only in the vicinity of the collagen - covered hydrophobic polyethylene implant. Interestingly, while the collagen coating improved the biocompatibility of tested polymers in vitro, the inflammatory reaction against this covered materials was higher under in vivo conditions. The pre-treatment of carbon composites by both types of biological macromolecules reduced the occurrence of carbon debris in the implantation site. The tested carbon composites and polyethylene materials are not toxic. The pre-treatment of the materials by extracellular matrix components increased their biological tolerance in vitro and reduced implant wears in animal experiment, which can be important for the medical application.

  6. Effects of Mo ion implantation on rolling contact fatigue behavior of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, D.; Zhou, J.

    1996-11-01

    Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) is one of the most serious material surface damage problems encountered by many critical components, especially in ball-bearing applications. RCF is sensitive to the material strength, hardness, surface morphology, microstructure and stress status, which may be dramatically changed by surface modifications. In present work, the surface modification of molybdenum ion implantation into quenched carbon steel was employed, and RCF tests on the implanted specimens, as well as the unimplanted, were performed. It was found out that carbon steel specimens, with and without ion implantation, have the same fatigue damage characteristics. They both have circular and fan-like pits on the fatigue failed surfaces, with many spherical debris existing in the fan-like pits. However, molybdenum ion implantation reduced the rolling contact fatigue life of quenched carbon steel. The possible reasons are the following: the ion beam current is too large, which causes the specimen to undergo the annealing process and soften during the implantation process; the incident angles of ions are different for different spots of curve specimen surface, which causes the uneven distribution of residual stress. These will promote the crack initiation and propagation.

  7. Suppression of tin precipitation in SiSn alloy layers by implanted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Gaiduk, P. I.; Lundsgaard Hansen, J. Nylandsted Larsen, A.

    2014-06-09

    By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed the accumulation of carbon in the SiSn layers after high temperature carbon implantation and high temperature thermal treatment. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects and formation of dopant-defect complexes are suggested to be responsible for the effects. The possibility for carbon assisted segregation-free high temperature growth of heteroepitaxial SiSn/Si and GeSn/Si structures is argued.

  8. Study of nitrogen implanted amorphous hydrogenated carbon thin films by variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Freire, F.L. Jr.; Franceschini, D.F.; Brusa, R.S.; Karwasz, G.R.; Mariotto, G.; Zecca, A.; Achete, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    Hard amorphous hydrogenated carbon ({ital a}-C:H) films deposited by self-bias glow discharge were implanted at room temperature with 70 keV nitrogen ions at fluences between 2.0 and 9.0{times}10{sup 16} N/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were analyzed by positron Doppler broadening annihilation spectroscopy to determine the voids distribution. For samples implanted with 2.0{times}10{sup 16} N/cm{sup 2} the defect distribution is broader than the vacancies depth profile predicted by Monte Carlo simulation. For higher fluences we observed a reduction of the defect density. These results are discussed in terms of a competition between two processes: ion induced defects and structural modifications induced in the films due to ion implantation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Suppression of boron diffusion using carbon co-implantation in DRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Suk Hun; Park, Se Geun; Kim, Shin Deuk; Jung, Hyuck-Chai; Kim, Il Gweon; Kang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kyu Pil; Choi, Joo Sun; Baek, Jung-Woo; Choi, Moonsuk; Park, Yongkook; Choi, Changhwan; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The impact of Ge + C co-implantation on dopant diffusion was investigated. • DIBL and V{sub TH} variation was improved by Ge + C co-implantation. • The V{sub TH} mismatch and the write characteristics were improved in the DRAM device. - Abstract: In this paper, germanium pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) and carbon co-implantation (Ge + C co-IIP) were applied to suppress boron diffusion. The corresponding characteristics were investigated in terms of the dopant diffusion, device performance, and its application to dynamic random access memory (DRAM). A shallow dopant profile was indicated and the threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) was reduced by approximately 45 mV by Ge + C co-IIP. In the DRAM device, the V{sub TH} mismatch of the sense amplifier NMOS pairs was reduced by approximately 15% and the write characteristics were improved two-fold.

  10. Improvement of the corrosion and tribological properties of CSS-42L aerospace bearing steel using carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fangfang; Zhou, Chungen; Zheng, Lijing; Zhang, Hu

    2017-01-01

    The aerospace bearings steel CSS-42L was ion implanted by carbon with implantation fluxes of 5 × 1016 ions cm-2. The composition, microstructure and hardness of the carbon implanted samples were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation tests. The corrosion and tribological properties were also evaluated in the present work. The results shown that carbon implantation produced an amorphous layer and graphitic bounds formed at the near surface of CSS-42L steel. In the electrochemical test, the carbon implanted samples suggested lower current densities and corrosion rates. Carbon ion implanted samples shown a relative Cr-enrichment at the surface as compared with nonimplanted samples. The improved corrosion resistance is believed to be related to the formed amorphous layer, the enhancement of Cr diffusion in the carbon implantation layer which contributed the formation of passive film on the surface, the decrease of free electrons which caused by the increase of carbon fraction. The external hard layer had positive effect on the wear resistance, reducing strongly the friction coefficient about 30% and the abrasive-adhesive mechanism present in the unimplanted samples was not modified by the implantation process.

  11. A preparation approach of exploring cluster ion implantation: from ultra-thin carbon film to graphene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Based on the extensive application of 2 × 1.7MV Tandetron accelerator, a low-energy cluster chamber has been built to explore for synthesizing graphene. Raman spectrum and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that an amorphous carbon film in nanometer was deposited on the silicon by C4 cluster implantation. And we replaced the substrate with Ni/SiO2/Si and measured the thickness of Ni film by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Combined with suitable anneal conditions, these samples implanted by various small carbon clusters were made to grow graphene. Results from Raman spectrum reveal that few-layer graphene were obtained and discuss whether IG/I2D can contribute to explain the relationship between the number of graphene layers and cluster implantation dosage. PMID:24910570

  12. Strength of implanted carbon fibers. Studies of the lumbar spine in goats.

    PubMed

    Olesen, H P; Levander, B; Kofoed, H

    1988-02-01

    The L3-4 supraspinous and interspinous ligaments in 10 goats were replaced with carbon fibers stabilized with silk-suture seizing. The implants were removed after 3 weeks in 5 animals and after 3 months in the other 5. The maximum traction strength of nonimplanted slings was 157 +/- 9 kg (M +/- SD). After implantation, the strength was reduced to 136 +/- 17 kg, and after 3 months to 107 +/- 9 kg. However, the maximum strength of the spinous processes was 71 +/- 19 kg, which was less than the strength of 3-month implants. We concluded that the carbon fiber sling stabilized with silk sutures could be used for replacement of the interspinous ligament.

  13. Ellipsometric and Electrochemical Characterization of Charge Transport in Electroactive Polymers and of the Surface Phase Produced by Electrochemical Activation of Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Larry Joe

    1990-01-01

    In situ ellipsometry was used to study the electrodeposition of polymer films formed by oxidation of bipyrazine, polyvinylferrocene (PVF), and aniline; the deposition of a viologen-containing siloxane polymer (PQ^{2+/+}) formed by electroreduction of N,N^' -bis (-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl) -4,4^ '-bipyridinium dichloride (I) solutions and by spin-casting solutions of I; and the oxidation-dependent swelling of spin-cast films of two structurally similar, ferrocene-containing polyamides. Electrodeposited films displayed good optical characteristics (i.e., high reflectivity, uniform coverage, and homogeneity) for thicknesses up to 400 nm in some cases. Nonideal illipsometric behavior was observed when film morphology varied with film growth. The complex refractive index, film thickness, and the viologen and ferrocene concentrations in the films were measured as a function of oxidation state, both during depositions and after transferring coated-electrodes into blank electrolyte solutions. The voltammetry of the redox polymers was studied and charge-transport modeled by finite -difference simulations of charge diffusion and diffusion coupled to dimerization/monomerization reactions. Equations were derived for linear-sweep voltammetry of a reversible couple in equilibrium with its dimer in a thin-layer cell. Ellipsometric data during electrolysis of the redox films by potential sweeps and steps were compared to theoretical curves for diffusional transport to determine the mechanism of charge transport and to optically measure its rate. The influence of redox-induced thickness changes and solvent sorption on charge transport and voltammetric behavior is described. The electrochemical activation of glassy carbon electrodes for electrolysis of aromatic molecules, such as catechol and hydroquinone, was studied by combined ellipsometric and voltammetric measurements. Ellipsometry was used to detect the anodic growth of nearly transparent layer which activated the surface. X

  14. Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nanomolar levels of bezafibrate using a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes within a dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate film.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Jorge Armando; Oliveira, Geiser Gabriel; Medeiros, Roberta Antigo; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-04-07

    A highly sensitive method for bezafibrate determination using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes within a dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate film based on square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV) is proposed. The electrochemical behaviour of bezafibrate has been studied by cyclic voltammetry, showing an irreversible anodic peak at a potential of 1.09 V in 0.1 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution (pH 2.0). A study of the scan rate showed that the oxidation of bezafibrate is an adsorptive-controlled process, involving the transfer of two electrons and two protons per molecule. The analytical curve was linear over a bezafibrate concentration range from 50 to 910 nmol L(-1), with a detection limit of 16 nmol L(-1). This analytical method was successfully applied for benzafibrate determination in pharmaceutical formulations, with results showing good agreement with those obtained using a comparative spectrophotometric method, and has the potential for field application.

  15. Indirect determination of sulfite using a polyphenol oxidase biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles within a poly(allylamine hydrochloride) film.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Elen Romão; Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2011-12-15

    The modification of a glassy carbon electrode with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles within a poly(allylamine hydrochloride) film for the development of a biosensor is proposed. This approach provides an efficient method used to immobilize polyphenol oxidase (PPO) obtained from the crude extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.). The principle of the analytical method is based on the inhibitory effect of sulfite on the activity of PPO, in the reduction reaction of o-quinone to catechol and/or the reaction of o-quinone with sulfite. Under the optimum experimental conditions using the differential pulse voltammetry technique, the analytical curve obtained was linear in the concentration of sulfite in the range from 0.5 to 22 μmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.4 μmol L(-1). The biosensor was applied for the determination of sulfite in white and red wine samples with results in close agreement with those results obtained using a reference iodometric method (at a 95% confidence level).

  16. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of dopamine and epinephrine in human body fluid samples using a glassy carbon electrode modified with nickel oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes within a dihexadecylphosphate film.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C S; Silva, Tiago A; Vicentini, Fernando C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-06-07

    A simple and highly selective electrochemical method was developed for the single or simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EP) in human body fluids using a glassy carbon electrode modified with nickel oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes within a dihexadecylphosphate film using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) or differential-pulse voltammetry (DPV). Using DPV with the proposed electrode, a separation of ca. 360 mV between the peak reduction potentials of DA and EP present in binary mixtures was obtained. The analytical curves for the simultaneous determination of dopamine and epinephrine showed an excellent linear response, ranging from 7.0 × 10(-8) to 4.8 × 10(-6) and 3.0 × 10(-7) to 9.5 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) for DA and EP, respectively. The detection limits for the simultaneous determination of DA and EP were 5.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) and 8.2 × 10(-8) mol L(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of these analytes in human body fluid samples of cerebrospinal fluid, human serum and lung fluid.

  17. Electrochemically selective determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic and uric acids on the surface of the modified Nafion/single wall carbon nanotube/poly(3-methylthiophene) glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Quan, Do Phuc; Tuyen, Do Phuc; Lam, Tran Dai; Tram, Phan Thi Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Hai; Viet, Pham Hung

    2011-12-01

    A voltammetric method based on a combination of incorporated Nafion, single-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(3-methylthiophene) film-modified glassy carbon electrode (NF/SWCNT/PMT/GCE) has been successfully developed for selective determination of dopamine (DA) in the ternary mixture of dopamine, ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) pH 4. It was shown that to detect DA from binary DA-AA mixture, the use of NF/PMT/GCE was sufficient, but to detect DA from ternary DA-AA-UA mixture NF/SWCNT/PMT/GCE was required. The later modified electrode exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity towards AA, DA and UA thanks to synergic effect of NF/SWCNT (combining unique properties of SWCNT such as high specific surface area, electrocatalytic and adsorptive properties, with the cation selectivity of NF). On the surface of NF/SWCNT/PMT/GCE AA, DA, UA were oxidized respectively at distinguishable potentials of 0.15, 0.37 and 0.53 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), to form well-defined and sharp peaks, making possible simultaneous determination of each compound. Also, it has several advantages, such as simple preparation method, high sensitivity, low detection limit and excellent reproducibility. Thus, the proposed NF/SWCNT/PMT/GCE could be advantageously employed for the determination of DA in real pharmaceutical formulations.

  18. Poly-Alizarin red S/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode for the boost up of electrocatalytic activity towards the investigation of dopamine and simultaneous resolution in the presence of 5-HT: A voltammetric study.

    PubMed

    Reddaiah, K; Madhusudana Reddy, T; Venkata Ramana, D K; Subba Rao, Y

    2016-05-01

    Poly-Alizarin red S/multiwalled carbon nanotube film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (poly-AzrS/MWCNT/GCE) was synthesized by electrochemical process and was used for the sensitive and selective determination of dopamine (DA) by employing voltammetric techniques. The electrocatalytic response of the modified electrode was found to exhibit admirable activity. The simultaneous determination of dopamine in the presence of serotonin (5-HT) was found to exhibit very good response at poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE. The effect of pH, scan rate, accumulation time and concentration of dopamine was studied at the developed poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE. The poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited an efficient electron mediating behavior together with well resolved peaks for dopamine, in 0.1 mol/dm(3) phosphate buffer (PBS) solution of pH 7.0. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be as 1.89 × 10(-7) mol/dm(3) and 6.312 × 10(-7) mol/dm(3) respectively with a dynamic range from 1 × 10(-6) to 1.8 × 10(-5) mol/dm(3). The interfacial electron transfer behavior of DA was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); the studies showed that the charge transfer rate was enhanced at poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE when compared with bare GCE and poly-AzrS/GCE.

  19. Wafer-scale synthesis of multi-layer graphene by high-temperature carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Janghyuk; Lee, Geonyeop; Kim, Jihyun

    2015-07-20

    We report on the synthesis of wafer-scale (4 in. in diameter) high-quality multi-layer graphene using high-temperature carbon ion implantation on thin Ni films on a substrate of SiO{sub 2}/Si. Carbon ions were bombarded at 20 keV and a dose of 1 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2} onto the surface of the Ni/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate at a temperature of 500 °C. This was followed by high-temperature activation annealing (600–900 °C) to form a sp{sup 2}-bonded honeycomb structure. The effects of post-implantation activation annealing conditions were systematically investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Carbon ion implantation at elevated temperatures allowed a lower activation annealing temperature for fabricating large-area graphene. Our results indicate that carbon-ion implantation provides a facile and direct route for integrating graphene with Si microelectronics.

  20. 21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material. 878.3500 Section 878.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  1. 21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material. 878.3500 Section 878.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  2. Bias in bonding behavior among boron, carbon, and nitrogen atoms in ion implanted a-BN, a-BC, and diamond like carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Genisel, Mustafa Fatih; Uddin, Md. Nizam; Say, Zafer; Bengu, Erman; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Rasit; Gulseren, Oguz

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we implanted N{sup +} and N{sub 2}{sup +} ions into sputter deposited amorphous boron carbide (a-BC) and diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films in an effort to understand the chemical bonding involved and investigate possible phase separation routes in boron carbon nitride (BCN) films. In addition, we investigated the effect of implanted C{sup +} ions in sputter deposited amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) films. Implanted ion energies for all ion species were set at 40 KeV. Implanted films were then analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The changes in the chemical composition and bonding chemistry due to ion-implantation were examined at different depths of the films using sequential ion-beam etching and high resolution XPS analysis cycles. A comparative analysis has been made with the results from sputter deposited BCN films suggesting that implanted nitrogen and carbon atoms behaved very similar to nitrogen and carbon atoms in sputter deposited BCN films. We found that implanted nitrogen atoms would prefer bonding to carbon atoms in the films only if there is no boron atom in the vicinity or after all available boron atoms have been saturated with nitrogen. Implanted carbon atoms also preferred to either bond with available boron atoms or, more likely bonded with other implanted carbon atoms. These results were also supported by ab-initio density functional theory calculations which indicated that carbon-carbon bonds were energetically preferable to carbon-boron and carbon-nitrogen bonds.

  3. Investigation of Wear and Corrosion of a High-Carbon Stellite Alloy for Hip Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P. S.; Liu, R.; Liu, J.; McRae, G.

    2014-04-01

    Low-carbon Stellite 21 has been used as hip implant material for a number of decades; however, its limited metal-on-metal bearing has resulted in loosening between the femoral head and the acetabular cup of hip implants. In order to improve the metal-on-metal bearing, it is proposed that a high-carbon alloy, Stellite 720, surface coating be applied on Stellite 21 hip implants to improve mechanical and tribological performance. For this coating to be practical, it must also meet the requirements of corrosion resistance for orthopedic implant materials. In this research, Stellite 720 is investigated with pin-on-disk wear tests, and electrochemical and immersion corrosion tests in simulated human body fluid (Hank's solution; pH 7.4 at temperature of 37°C). The experimental results demonstrate that Stellite 720 exhibits much better wear resistance than Stellite 21, and has the potential for better corrosion resistance as well. The applicability of coating Stellite 21 hip implants with Stellite 720 is discussed.

  4. Investigation of electrochemical behavior of lipid lowering agent atorvastatin calcium in aqueous media and its determination from pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids using boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Dogan-Topal, Burcu; Uslu, Bengi; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2007-08-01

    The electrochemical behavior of atorvastatin calcium at glassy carbon and boron-doped diamond electrodes has been studied using voltammetric techniques. The possible mechanism of oxidation was discussed with model compounds. The dependence of the peak current and potentials on pH, concentration, scan rate and nature of the buffer were investigated for both electrodes. The oxidation of atorvastatin was irreversible and exhibited a diffusion-controlled fashion on the diamond electrode. A linear response was obtained within the range of 9.65 x 10(-7) - 3.86 x 10(-5) M in 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) solution for both electrodes. The detection limits of a standard solution are estimated to be 2.11 x 10(-7) M with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and 2.05 x 10(-7)M with square wave voltammetry (SWV) for glassy carbon electrode, and 2.27 x 10(-7) M with DPV and 1.31 x 10(-7)M with SWV for diamond electrodes in 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) solution. The repeatability of the methods was found good for both electrodes. The methods were fully validated and successfully applied to the high-throughput determination of the drug in tablets, human serum and human urine with good recoveries.

  5. A new material with atomized cobalt-multiwalled carbon nanotubes: a possible substitute for human implants.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Bharat; Gupta, Sachin; Kalra, Nitin; Gudyka, Russell; Santhanam, K S V

    2010-06-01

    A new material composed of atomized cobalt-multiwalled carbon nanotube has been produced and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and polarization studies to estimate its lifetime. This does not show cobalt thermal oxidation suggesting that it is confined inside the carbon nanotube matrix. The density functional calculations in the literature predict a strong interaction leading to higher hybridization of cobalt atom and carbon nanotubes. A detailed investigation of the corrosion measurements shows that the new material of thickness 0.8 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm and 2 mm would last for 31, 39, 60 and 79 years and it would substitute with cobalt-chromium alloy that is used as a load bearing implant for patients with knee pain or partial denture implant.

  6. Bioactive Agarose Carbon-Nanotube Composites are Capable of Manipulating Brain–Implant Interface

    PubMed Central

    Lewitus, Dan Y.; Smith, Karen L.; Landers, John; Neimark, Alexander V.; Kohn, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Composite electrodes made of the polysaccharide agarose and carbon nanotube fibers (A-CNE) have shown potential to be applied as tissue-compatible, micro-electronic devices. In the present work, A-CNEs were functionalized using neuro-relevant proteins (laminin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone) and implanted in brain tissue for 1 week (acute response) and 4 weeks (chronic response). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of neuronal and immunological responses revealed significant changes in immunological response to implanted materials depending on the type of biomolecule used. The potential to manipulate tissue response through the use of an anti-inflammatory protein, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, was shown in the reduction of astroglia presence near the implant site during the glial scar formation. These results suggest that A-CNEs, which are soft, flexible, and easily made bioactive, have the ability to modify brain tissue response through surface modification as a function of the biomolecule used. PMID:25382868

  7. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats revealed far-reaching significant osseoconductivity increases from bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composites when compared to state-of-the-art titanium-6-4 alloy controls. Midtibial percent bone area measured from the implant surface increased when comparing the titanium alloy to the polymer composite from 10.5% to 41.6% at 0.8 mm, P < 10−4, and 19.3% to 77.7% at 0.1 mm, P < 10−8. Carbon-fiber fragments planned to occur in the test designs, instead of producing an inflammation, stimulated bone formation and increased bone integration to the implant. In addition, low-thermal polymer processing allows incorporation of minerals and pharmaceuticals for future major tissue-engineering potential. PMID:25553057

  8. Selective detection of dopamine in the presence of uric acid using a gold nanoparticles-poly(luminol) hybrid film and multi-walled carbon nanotubes with incorporated β-cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dong; Dai, Jianyuan; Yuan, Hongyan; Lei, Ling; Xiao, Dan

    2011-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles-poly(luminol) (Plu-AuNPs) hybrid film and multi-walled carbon nanotubes with incorporated β-cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode (β-CD-MWCNTs/Plu-AuNPs/GCE) was successfully prepared for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The surface of the modified electrode has been characterized by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) have been used to investigate the β-CD-MWCNTs/Plu-AuNPs composite film. Gold nanoparticles anchored into poly(luminol) film exhibited catalytic activity for DA. MWCNTs with incorporated β-CD can greatly promote the direct electron transfer. In 0.10 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.0), the DPV response of the β-CD-MWCNTs/Plu-AuNPs/GCE sensor to DA is about 8-fold as compared with the Plu-AuNPs/GCE sensor, and the detection limit for DA is about one order of magnitude lower than the Plu-AuNPs/GCE sensor. The steady-state current response increases linearly with DA concentration from 1.0 × 10(-6) to 5.6 × 10(-5)M with a low detection limit (S/N=3) of 1.9 × 10(-7)M. Moreover, the interferences of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) are effectively diminished. The applicability of the prepared electrode has been demonstrated by measuring DA contents in dopamine hydrochloride injection.

  9. Friction and Wear Properties of As-Deposited and Carbon Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited and carbon ion-implanted diamond films was reviewed. Diamond films were produced by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes and surface roughnesses were implanted with carbon ions at 60 keV ion energy, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions per cm(exp 2). Various analytical techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, proton recoil analysis, Rutherford backscattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were utilized to characterize the diamond films. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a polished natural diamond pin in contact with diamond films in the three environments: humid air (40% relative humidity), dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent relative humidity), and ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa). The CVD diamond films indeed have friction and wear properties similar to those of natural diamond in the three environments. The as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as self-lubricating, wear-resistant coatings that have low coefficients of friction (0.02 to 0.04) and low wear rates (10(exp -7) to lO(exp -8) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in both humid air and dry nitrogen. However, they have high coefficients of friction (1.5 to 1.7) and a high wear rate (10(exp -4) mm(exp 7) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in ultrahigh vacuum. The carbon ion implantation produced a thin surficial layer (less than 0.1 micron thick) of amorphous, non-diamond carbon on the diamond films. In humid air and dry nitrogen, the ion-implanted, fine and coarse-grain diamond films have a low coefficient of friction (around 0.1) and a low wear rate (10(exp -7) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp-1)). Even in ultrahigh vacuum, the presence of the non-diamond carbon layer reduced the coefficient of friction of fine-grain diamond films to 0.1 or lower and the wear rate to 10(exp -6

  10. Room temperature diamond-like carbon coatings produced by low energy ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, A.; Mohr, B.; Leveneur, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nanometre-smooth diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) were produced at room temperature with ion implantation using 6 kV C3Hy+ ion beams. Ion beam analysis measurements showed that the coatings contain no heavy Z impurities at the level of 100 ppm, have a homogeneous stoichiometry in depth and a hydrogen concentration of typically 25 at.%. High resolution TEM analysis showed high quality and atomically flat amorphous coatings on wafer silicon. Combined TEM and RBS analysis gave a coating density of 3.25 g cm-3. Raman spectroscopy was performed to probe for sp2/sp3 bonds in the coatings. The results indicate that low energy ion implantation with 6 kV produces hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with a sp3 content of about 20%. Results highlight the opportunity of developing room temperature DLC coatings with ion beam technology for industrial applications.

  11. Preparation of graphene on Cu foils by ion implantation with negative carbon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Shang, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Zao-Di; Wang, Ze-Song; Zhang, Rui; Fu, De-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We report on few-layer graphene synthesized on Cu foils by ion implantation using negative carbon cluster ions, followed by annealing at 950 °C in vacuum. Raman spectroscopy reveals IG/I2D values varying from 1.55 to 2.38 depending on energy and dose of the cluster ions, indicating formation of multilayer graphene. The measurements show that the samples with more graphene layers have fewer defects. This is interpreted by graphene growth seeded by the first layers formed via outward diffusion of C from the Cu foil, though nonlinear damage and smoothing effects also play a role. Cluster ion implantation overcomes the solubility limit of carbon in Cu, providing a technique for multilayer graphene synthesis. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11105100, 11205116, and 11375135) and the State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, China (Grant No. AWJ-M13-03).

  12. Endothelial retention and phenotype on carbonized cardiovascular implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Frendl, Christopher M; Tucker, Scott M; Khan, Nadeem A; Esch, Mandy B; Kanduru, Shrinidhi; Cao, Thong M; García, Andrés J; King, Michael R; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2014-09-01

    Heart valve disease is an increasing clinical burden for which there is no effective treatment outside of prosthetic replacement. Over the last 20 years, clinicians have increasingly preferred the use of biological prosthetics to mechanical valves despite their superior durability because of the lifelong anticoagulation therapy that is required. Mechanical valve surface engineering has largely focused on being as non-thrombogenic as possible, but despite decades of iteration has had insufficient impact on the anticoagulation burden. In this study, we systematically evaluate the potential for endothelialization of the pyrolytic carbon surface used in mechanical valves. We compared adsorbed adhesion ligand type (collagen I, fibronectin, laminin, and purified adhesion domain fragments GFOGER and FN7-10) and concentration on endothelial adhesion rates and adhesion strength on Medtronic-Hall prosthetic valve surfaces. Regardless of ligand type or concentration, endothelial adhesion strengthening was insufficient for their intended ultra-high shear stress environment. We then hypothesized that microfabricated trenches would reduce shear stress to tolerable levels while maintaining endothelial access to the flow stream, thereby promoting a confluent and anticoagulant endothelial monolayer. Computational fluid dynamics simulations predicted an empirical relationship of channel width, depth, and spacing that would maintain interior surface shear stress within tolerable levels. Endothelial cells seeded to confluence in these channels retained a confluent monolayer when exposed to 600 dyn/cm(2) shear stress for 48 h regardless of applied adhesive ligand. Furthermore, sheared EC expressed a mature anti-coagulant profile, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), VE-cadherin, and significantly downregulated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). As a final test, channeled pyrolytic carbon surfaces with confluent EC reduced human platelet adhesion 1000-fold over

  13. Endothelial retention and phenotype on carbonized cardiovascular implant surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Frendl, Chris; Tucker, Scott; Khan, Nadeem; Esch, Mandy; Kanduru, Shrinidhi; Cao, Thong M.; García, Andrés J.; King, Michael R.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    Heart valve disease is an increasing clinical burden for which there is no effective treatment outside of prosthetic replacement. Over the last 20 years, clinicians have increasingly preferred the use of biological prosthetics to mechanical valves despite their superior durability because of the lifelong anticoagulation therapy that is required. Mechanical valve surface engineering has largely focused on being as non-thrombogenic as possible, but despite decades of iteration has had insufficient impact on the anticoagulation burden. In this study, we systematically evaluate the potential for endothelialization of the pyrolytic carbon surface used in mechanical valves. We compared adsorbed adhesion ligand type (collagen I, fibronectin, laminin, and purified adhesion domain fragments GFOGER and FN7-10) and concentration on endothelial adhesion rates and adhesion strength on Medtronic-Hall prosthetic valve surfaces. Regardless of ligand type or concentration, endothelial adhesion strengthening was insufficient for their intended ultra-high shear stress environment. We then hypothesized that microfabricated trenches would reduce shear stress to tolerable levels while maintaining endothelial access to the flow stream, thereby promoting a confluent and anticoagulant endothelial monolayer. Computational fluid dynamics simulations predicted an empirical relationship of channel width, depth, and spacing that would maintain interior surface shear stress within tolerable levels. Endothelial cells seeded to confluence in these channels retained a confluent monolayer when exposed to 600 dynes/cm2 shear stress for 48 hours regardless of applied adhesive ligand. Furthermore, sheared EC expressed a mature anti-coagulant profile, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), VE-cadherin, and significantly downregulated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). As a final test, channeled pyrolytic carbon surfaces with confluent EC reduced human platelet adhesion 1000-fold

  14. Design and evaluation of carbon nanofiber and silicon materials for neural implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Janice L.

    Reduction of glial scar tissue around central nervous system implants is necessary for improved efficacy in chronic applications. Design of materials that possess tunable properties inspired by native biological tissue and elucidation of pertinent cellular interactions with these materials was the motivation for this study. Since nanoscale carbon fibers possess the fundamental dimensional similarities to biological tissue and have attractive material properties needed for neural biomaterial implants, this present study explored cytocompatibility of these materials as well as modifications to traditionally used silicon. On silicon materials, results indicated that nanoscale surface features reduced astrocyte functions, and could be used to guide neurite extension from PC12 cells. Similarly, it was determined that astrocyte functions (key cells in glial scar tissue formation) were reduced on smaller diameter carbon fibers (125 nm or less) while PC12 neurite extension was enhanced on smaller diameter carbon fibers (100 nm or less). Further studies implicated laminin adsorption as a key mechanism in enhancing astrocyte adhesion to larger diameter fibers and at the same time encouraging neurite extension on smaller diameter fibers. Polycarbonate urethane (PCU) was then used as a matrix material for the smaller diameter carbon fibers (100 and 60 nm). These composites proved very versatile since electrical and mechanical properties as well as cell functions and directionality could be influenced by changing bulk and surface composition and features of these matrices. When these composites were modified to be smooth at the micronscale and only rough at the nanoscale, P19 cells actually submerged philopodia, extensions, or whole cells bodies beneath the PCU in order to interact with the carbon nanofibers. These carbon nanofiber composites that have been formulated are a promising material to coat neural probes and thereby enhance functionality at the tissue interface. This

  15. Tissue-compliant neural implants from microfabricated carbon nanotube multilayer composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanan; Patel, Paras R; Xie, Zhixing; Swanson, Scott D; Wang, Xueding; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2013-09-24

    Current neural prosthetic devices (NPDs) induce chronic inflammation due to complex mechanical and biological reactions related, in part, to staggering discrepancies of mechanical properties with neural tissue. Relatively large size of the implants and traumas to blood-brain barrier contribute to inflammation reactions, as well. Mitigation of these problems and the realization of long-term brain interface require a new generation of NPDs fabricated from flexible materials compliant with the brain tissue. However, such materials will need to display hard-to-combine mechanical and electrical properties which are not available in the toolbox of classical neurotechnology. Moreover, these new materials will concomitantly demand different methods of (a) device micromanufacturing and (b) surgical implantation in brains because currently used processes take advantage of high stiffness of the devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) serve as a promising foundation for such materials because of their record mechanical and electrical properties, but CNT-based tissue-compliant devices have not been realized yet. In this study, we formalize the mechanical requirements to tissue-compliant implants based on critical rupture strength of brain tissue and demonstrate that miniature CNT-based devices can satisfy these requirements. We fabricated them using MEMS-like technology and miniaturized them so that at least two dimensions of the electrodes would be comparable to brain tissue cells. The nanocomposite-based flexible neural electrodes were implanted into the rat motor cortex using a surgical procedure specifically designed for soft tissue-compliant implants. The post-surgery implant localization in the motor cortex was successfully visualized with magnetic resonance and photoacoustic imaging. In vivo functionality was demonstrated by successful registration of the low-frequency neural recording in the live brain of anesthetized rats. Investigation of inflammation processes around these

  16. Friction and Wear Properties of As-deposited and Carbon Ion-implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1994-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited and carbon ion-implanted diamond films was reviewed. Diamond films were produced by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes and surface roughnesses were implanted with carbon ions at 60 ke V ion energy, resulting in a dose of 1.2310(exp 17) carbon ions/cm(exp 2). Various analytical techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, proton recoil analysis, Rutherford backscattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, were utilized to characterize the diamond films. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a polished natural diamond pin in contact with diamond films in the three environments: humid air (40 percent relative humidity), dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent relative humidity), and ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa). The CVD diamond films indeed have friction and were properties similar to those of natural diamond in the three environments. The as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as self-lubricating, wear-resistant coatings that have low coefficients of friction (0.02 to 0.04) and low wear rates (10(exp -7) to 10(exp -8)mm(exp 3)/N-m) in both humid air and dry nitrogen. However, they have high coefficients of friction (1.5 to 1.7) and a high wear rate (10(exp -4)mm(exp 3/N-m) in ultrahigh vacuum. The carbon ion implanation produced a thin surficial layer (less than 0.1 micron thick) of amorphous, nondiamond carbon on the diamond films. In humid air and dry nitrogen, the ion-implanted, fine- and coarse-grain diamond films have a low coefficient of friction (around 0.1) and a low wear rate (10(exp -7)mm(exp 3/N-m). Even in ultrahigh vacuum, the presence of the nondiamond carbon layer reduced the coefficient of friction of fine-grain diamond films to 0.1 or lower and the wear rate to 10(exp -6)mm(exp 3)/N-m. Thus, the carbon ion-implanted, fine

  17. A Hydrogen-Evolving Ni(P2N2)2 Electrocatalyst Covalently Attached to a Glassy Carbon Electrode: Preparation, Characterization, and Catalysis. Comparisons With the Homogeneous Analog

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Atanu K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bullock, R. Morris; Roberts, John A.

    2014-07-07

    A hydrogen-evolving homogeneous Ni(P2N2)2 electrocatalyst with peripheral ester groups has been covalently attached to a 1,2,3-triazolyllithium-terminated glassy carbon electrode. The surface-confined complex is an electroctalyst for hydrogen evolution, showing onset of catalytic current at the same potential as the soluble parent complex. X-ray photoemission spectra show excellent agreement between the coupled and homogeneous species. Coverage approaches a dense monolayer. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. The XPS measurements were performed at EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  18. Glassy carbon electrodes sequentially modified by cysteamine-capped gold nanoparticles and poly(amidoamine) dendrimers generation 4.5 for detecting uric acid in human serum without ascorbic acid interference.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Segovia, A S; Banda-Alemán, J A; Gutiérrez-Granados, S; Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez, F J; Godínez, Luis A; Bustos, E; Manríquez, J

    2014-02-17

    Glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were sequentially modified by cysteamine-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNp@cysteamine) and PAMAM dendrimers generation 4.5 bearing 128-COOH peripheral groups (GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM), in order to explore their capabilities as electrochemical detectors of uric acid (UA) in human serum samples at pH 2. The results showed that concentrations of UA detected by cyclic voltammetry with GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM were comparable (deviation <±10%; limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.7×10(-4) and 5.8×10(-4) mg dL(-1), respectively) to those concentrations obtained using the uricase-based enzymatic-colorimetric method. It was also observed that the presence of dendrimers in the GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM system minimizes ascorbic acid (AA) interference during UA oxidation, thus improving the electrocatalytic activity of the gold nanoparticles.

  19. Simultaneous determination of trace Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a reduced graphene oxide-chitosan/poly-l-lysine nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhuo; Li, Dong-di; Luo, Xian-Ke; Li, Ya-Hui; Zhao, Qi-Nai; Li, Meng-Meng; Zhao, Yang-Ting; Sun, Tian-Shuai; Ma, Chi

    2017-03-15

    The reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Chitosan (CS) hybrid matrix RGO-CS were coated onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface, then, poly-l-lysine films (PLL) were prepared by electropolymerization with cyclic voltammetry (CV) method to prepare RGO-CS/PLL modified glassy carbon electrode (RGO-CS/PLL/GCE) for the simultaneous electrochemical determination of heavy metal ions Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II). Combining the advantageous features of RGO and CS, RGO and CS are used together because the positively charged CS can interact with the negatively changed RGO to prevent their aggregation. Furthermore, CS has many amino groups along its macromolecular chains and possessed strongly reactive with metal ions. Moreover, PLL modified electrodes have good stability, excellent permselectivity, more active sites and strong adherence to electrode surface, which enhanced electrocatalytic activity. The RGO-CS/PLL/GCE was characterized voltammetrically using redox couples (Fe(CN)6(3-/4-)), complemented with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) has been used for the detection of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II). The detection limit of RGO-CS/PLL/GCE toward Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) is 0.01μgL(-1), 0.02μgL(-1) and 0.02μgL(-1), respectively. The electrochemical parameters that exert influence on deposition and stripping of metal ions, such as supporting electrolytes, pH value, deposition potential, and deposition time, were carefully studied.

  20. The Structure of Sapphire Implanted with Carbon at Room Temperature and 1000 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, E.; Marques, C.; Safran, G.; McHargue, Carl J.

    2009-03-10

    Carbon was implanted into sapphire at various temperatures as part of a study of the different defect structures produced by a series of light ions. Implantations were made with 150 keV ions to fluences of 1x10{sup 16} and 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature (RT) and 1000 deg. C. The defect structures were characterized using Rutherford backscattering-channeling (RBS-C) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RBS-C spectra indicated low residual disorder for RT implantation at 1x10{sup 16} C{sup +}/cm{sup 2}. The de-channeling approached the random value at 1x10{sup 17} C{sup +}/cm{sup 2} and the TEM examination revealed a buried amorphous layer containing embedded sapphire nanocrystals. Damaged layers containing planar defects generally aligned parallel to the surface surrounded this layer. The RBS-C spectra for the sample implanted at 1000 deg. C with 1x10{sup 17} C{sup +}/cm{sup 2} suggested a highly damaged but crystalline surface that was confirmed by TEM micrographs.

  1. Optical properties of K9 glass waveguides fabricated by using carbon-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Fu, Li-Li; Zhu, Xu-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao

    2016-07-01

    K9 glass is a material with promising properties that make it attractive for optical devices. Ion implantation is a powerful technique to form waveguides with controllable depth and refractive index profile. In this work, optical planar waveguide structures were fabricated in K9 glasses by using 6.0-MeV C3+-ion implantation with a fluence of 1.0 × 1015 ions/cm2. The effective refractive indices of the guided modes were measured by using a prism-coupling system. The refractive index change in the ion-irradiated region was simulated by using the intensity calculation method. The modal intensity profile of the waveguide was calculated and measured by using the finite difference beam propagation method and the end-face coupling technique, respectively. The transmission spectra before and after the implantation showed that the main absorption band was not influenced by the low fluence dopants. The optical properties of the carbon-implanted K9 glass waveguides show promise for use as integrated photonic devices.

  2. Geometrically structured implants for cranial reconstruction made of biodegradable polyesters and calcium phosphate/calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Carsten; Rasche, Christian; Wehmöller, Michael; Beckmann, Felix; Eufinger, Harald; Epple, Matthias; Weihe, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a processing pathway for manufacturing of biodegradable skull implants with individual geometry. The implants on the basis of polylactide and calcium phosphate/calcium carbonate were prepared by a combination of hot pressing and gas foaming. On the inside, the implant consists of a macroporous and faster degradable material (poly(D,L-lactide)+CaCO3) to allow the ingrowth of bone cells. The pore size is in the range of 200-400 microm. On the outside, the implant consists of a compact and slower biodegradable material (poly(L-lactide) and calcium phosphate) to ensure mechanical stability and protection. To overcome problems like inflammatory reactions caused by acidic degradation products of polylactide, the polyester was combined with basic filling materials (calcium salts). The filler neutralises the lactic acid produced during polymer degradation and increases the bioactivity of the material. The stabilised pH was demonstrated by long-term in vitro pH studies. Over a time period of 250 d in demineralised water, the pH was in the physiological range. The in vitro biocompatibility was shown by cell cultures with human osteoblasts. A good proliferation of the cells was observed over the whole test period of 4 weeks.

  3. The Use of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced (CFR) PEEK Material in Orthopedic Implants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan Silvia; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Sprague, Sheila; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been successfully used in orthopedic implants. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the properties, technical data, and safety of CFR-PEEK biomaterial and to evaluate its potential for new innovation in the design of articulating medical devices. A comprehensive search in PubMed and EMBASE was conducted to identify articles relevant to the outcomes of CFR-PEEK orthopedic implants. The search was also expanded by reviewing the reference sections of selected papers and references and benchmark reports provided by content experts. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. There is limited literature available assessing the performance of CFR-PEEK, specifically as an implant material for arthroplasty systems. Nevertheless, available studies strongly support CFR-PEEK as a promising and suitable material for orthopedic implants because of its biocompatibility, material characteristics, and mechanical durability. Future studies should continue to investigate CFR-PEEK’s potential benefits. PMID:25780341

  4. Adherent diamond like carbon coatings on metals via plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.; Munson, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Various techniques are currently used to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on various materials. Many of these techniques use metallic interlayers, such as Ti or Si, to improve the adhesion of a DLC coating to a ferrous substrate. An alternative processing route would be to use plasma source ion implantation (PSII) to create a carbon composition gradient in the surface of the ferrous material to serve as the interface for a DLC coating. The need for interlayer deposition is eliminated by using a such a graded interfaces PSII approach has been used to form adherent DLC coatings on magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, chromium, brass, nickel, and tungsten. A PSII process tailored to create a graded interface allows deposition of adherent DLC coatings even on metals that exhibit a positive heat of formation with carbon, such as magnesium, iron, brass and nickel.

  5. Graphitic carbon in a nanostructured titanium oxycarbide thin film to improve implant osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, R; Ioannidu, C A; Mazzola, L; Politi, L; Misiano, C; Longo, G; Falconieri, M; Scandurra, R

    2015-01-01

    A nanostructured coating layer on titanium implants, able to improve their integration into bones and to protect against the harsh conditions of body fluids, was obtained by Ion Plating Plasma Assisted, a method suitable for industrial applications. A titanium carbide target was attached under vacuum to a magnetron sputtering source powered with a direct current in the 500-1100 W range, and a 100 W radio frequency was applied to the sample holder. The samples produced at 900 W gave the best biological response in terms of overexpression of some genes of proteins involved in bone turnover. We report the characterization of a reference and of an implant sample, both obtained at 900 W. Different micro/nanoscopic techniques evidenced the morphology of the substrates, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to disclose the surface composition. The layer is a 500 nm thick hard nanostructure, composed of 60% graphitic carbon clustered with 15% TiC and 25% Ti oxides.

  6. Irradiation effect of carbon negative-ion implantation on polytetrafluoroethylene for controlling cell-adhesion property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommani, Piyanuch; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Takaoka, Gikan H.

    2010-10-01

    We have investigated the irradiation effect of negative-ion implantation on the changes of physical surface property of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for controlling the adhesion property of stem cells. Carbon negative ions were implanted into PTFE sheets at fluences of 1 × 10 14-1 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 and energies of 5-20 keV. Wettability and atomic bonding state including the ion-induced functional groups on the modified surfaces were investigated by water contact angle measurement and XPS analysis, respectively. An initial value of water contact angles on PTFE decreased from 104° to 88° with an increase in ion influence to 1 × 10 16 ions/cm 2, corresponding to the peak shifting of XPS C1s spectra from 292.5 eV to 285 eV with long tail on the left peak-side. The change of peak position was due to decrease of C-F 2 bonds and increase of C-C bonds with the formation of hydrophilic oxygen functional groups of OH and C dbnd O bonds after the ion implantation. After culturing rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for 4 days, the cell-adhesion properties on the C --patterned PTFE were observed by fluorescent microscopy with staining the cell nuclei and their actin filament (F-actin). The clear adhesion patterning of MSCs on the PTFE was obtained at energies of 5-10 keV and a fluence of 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. While the sparse patterns and the uncontrollable patterns were found at a low fluence of 3 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 and a high fluence of 3 × 10 15 ions/cm 2, respectively. As a result, we could improve the surface wettability of PTFE to control the cell-adhesion property by carbon negative-ion implantation.

  7. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings on implants drastically reduce biofilm formation and water permeation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernsmann, Falk; Laube, Norbert; Baldsiefen, Gerhard; Castellucci, Mattia

    2014-11-01

    Inflammations and crystalline bacterial biofilms (encrustations) remain a major complication in long-term artificial urinary tract drainage. To solve this problem we present urological implants with coatings made of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) that show excellent protection from encrustation in-vitro as well as in-vivo. Part of the success of a-C:H coatings is attributed to their ability to act as a diffusion barrier between an implant and the body, which prevents leaching of solvents from polymeric implants. To further enhance their barrier properties a-C:H coatings are combined with parylene coatings to develop diffusion-barrier multilayer coatings with a total thickness between 0.2 μm and 0.8 μm. The combination of the two types of coatings leads to a reduction of water diffusion by a factor of up to ten with respect to uncoated 25 μm thick polyimide sub-strates. The diffusion of water vapour from a controlled atmospheric pressure chamber through coated foils to a vacuum chamber is measured in a custom-built device.

  8. Low-cost carbon thick-film strain sensors for implantable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Christian A.; Meng, Ellis

    2010-09-01

    The suitability of low-cost carbon thick-film strain sensors embedded within a biomedical grade silicone rubber (Silastic® MDX4-4210) for implantable applications is investigated. These sensors address the need for robust cost-effective implantable strain sensing technology for the closed loop operation of function-restoring neural prosthetic systems. Design, fabrication and characterization of the sensors are discussed in the context of the application to strain/fullness measurements of the urinary bladder as part of the neuroprosthetic treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction. The fabrication process, utilizing off-the-shelf screen-printing materials, is convenient and cost effective while achieving resolutions down to 75 µm. This method can also be extended to produce multilayer embedded devices by superposition of different screen-printable materials. Uniaxial loading performance, temperature dependence and long-term soak testing are used to validate suitability for implantation while proof-of-concept operation (up to 40% strain) is demonstrated on a bench-top latex balloon bladder model.

  9. Characterization and nanomechanical properties of novel dental implant coatings containing copper decorated-carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sasani, N; Vahdati Khaki, J; Mojtaba Zebarjad, S

    2014-09-01

    Fluorapatite-titania coated Ti-based implants are promising for using in dental surgery for restoring teeth. One of the challenges in implantology is to achieve a bioactive coating with appropriate mechanical properties. In this research, simple sol-gel method was developed for synthesis of fluorapatite-titania-carbon nanotube decorated with antibacterial agent. Triethyl phosphate [PO4(C2H5)3], calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) were used as precursors under an ethanol-water based solution for fluorapatite (FA) production. Titanium isopropoxide and isopropanol were used as starting materials for making TiO2 sol-gels. Also, Copper acetate [Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O] was used as precursor for decoration of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with wet chemical method. The decorated MWCNTs (CNT(Cu)) were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The phase identification of the FA-TiO2-CNT(Cu) coating was carried out by XRD analysis. Morphology of coated samples was investigated by SEM observations. The surface elastic modulus and hardness of coatings were studied using nanoindentation technique. The results indicate that novel dental implant coating containing FA, TiO2 and copper decorated MWCNTs have proper morphological features. The results of nanoindentation test show that incorporation of CNT(Cu) in FA-TiO2 matrix can improve the nanomechanical properties of composite coating.

  10. Development of silicon carbide substrates by carbonization and ion implantation of single-crystalline substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Sanchez, Francisco Miguel

    Mechanisms of formation involved in both thin films and crystalline precipitates of silicon carbide (SiC) are studied in this Ph. D. thesis. SiC is fabricated starting from single-crystalline silicon (Si) substrates by carbonization or by ion implantation. The characterization of these structures allows to gather data and better physical and chemical understanding of these systems. The main objectives are (i) the fabrication and characterization of SiC and other interesting crystalline phases obtained from Si wafers and (ii) to demonstrate that these products are a viable way for using them as templates, compliant, seed or buffer layers in SiC or III-N overgrowth by epitaxial growth techniques. These approaches let the consecution of a crystalline quality enough to the development of devices. Indeed, their use allow a significant reduction of the high defect density present in III-N or SiC alloys compared to their quality when directly grown on Si. Therefore, long life are foreseen for electronic devices that could use these substrates. This is the limit needed for the beginning of their industrial production and commercialization. Samples studied in this work are framed inside three groups: (1) Silicon Carbide and other phases (Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) and carbon nitride (C3N4)) synthesized by Silicon ion implantation, (2) Silicon Carbide synthesized by Si carbonisation and (3) Silicon Carbide and Gallium Nitride heteroepitaxial growth on carbonized Si. All these structures are fabricated by techniques derived from classic (i) Ion Beam Induced Crystallization (IBIC), (ii) Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) or (iii) Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). Structural characterizations are carried out mainly by (i) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), (ii) Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), (iii) Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectrometry (FTIR) and other techniques.

  11. Glassy correlations in nematic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing; Goldbart, Paul; Mao, Xiaoming

    2009-03-01

    We address the physical properties of an isotropic melt or solution of nematogenic polymers that is then cross-linked beyond the vulcanization point. To do this, we construct a replica Landau theory involving a coupled pair of order- parameter fields: one describing vulcanization, the other describing local nematic order. Thermal nematic fluctuations, present at the time of cross-linking, are trapped by cross- linking into the vulcanized network. The resulting glassy nematic fluctuations are analyzed in the Gaussian approximation in two regimes. When the localization length is shorter than the thermal nematic correlation length, the nematic correlations are well captured as glassy correlations. In the opposite regime, fluctuations in the positions of the localized polymers partially wash out the glassy nematic correlations.

  12. Generation of non-multilinear three-way voltammetric arrays by an electrochemically oxidized glassy carbon electrode as an efficient electronic device to achieving second-order advantage: challenges, and tailored applications.

    PubMed

    Jalalvand, Ali R; Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Goicoechea, Hector C; Skov, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, several second-order calibration models based on artificial neural network-residual bilinearization (ANN-RBL), unfolded-partial least squares-RBL (U-PLS/RBL), multidimensional-partial least squares-RBL (N-PLS/RBL), multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), and parallel factor analysis 2 (PARAFAC2) were used to exploiting second-order advantage to identify which technique offers the best predictions for the simultaneous quantification of norepinephrine (NE), paracetamol (AC), and uric acid (UA) in the presence of pteroylglutamic acid (FA) as an uncalibrated interference at an electrochemically oxidized glassy carbon electrode (OGCE). Three-way differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) arrays were obtained by recording the DPV signals at different pulse heights. The recorded three-way arrays were both non-bilinear and non-trilinear therefore, the observed shifts in the recorded DPV data were corrected using correlation optimised warping (COW) algorithm. All the algorithms achieved the second-order advantage and were in principle able to overcome the problem of the presence of unexpected interference. Comparison of the performance of the applied second-order chemometric algorithms confirmed the more superiority of U-PLS/RBL to resolve complex systems. The results of applying U-PLS/RBL for the simultaneous quantification of the studied analytes in human serum samples were also encouraging.

  13. Ion-exchange voltammetry of dopamine at Nafion-coated glassy carbon electrodes: quantitative features of ion-exchange partition and reassessment on the oxidation mechanism of dopamine in the presence of excess ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luciana S; Carapuça, Helena M

    2006-10-01

    The incorporation/exclusion features of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) are evaluated for Nafion (NA)-coated glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) of different thicknesses. The ion-exchange partition of DA(+) between the NA film and the sodium phosphate electrolyte is evaluated by determining the partition coefficient (k(D)) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (D(app)) in thick NA films which were 401 and 1.5 x 10(-9) cm(2) s(-1), respectively. The solution diffusion coefficient was found to be 6.0 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). Also, the effect of NA loading and of the voltammetric timescale on DA voltammetry in the presence of excess AA is assessed, at physiologic like conditions. It is demonstrated that, although AA is excluded at the NA coating, a catalytic regeneration of DA, induced by AA, occurs at the interface NA film/electrolyte resulting from the diffusion of the o-quinone product of DA oxidation from the electrode surface to that interface. The interference of AA in the voltammetric signal of DA is eliminated using 18 microg mm(-2) NA films and v> or =0.5 V s(-1). Therefore, fast, selective and sensitive voltammetric analysis of DA at concentrations<100 microM in the presence of excess AA, e.g., 1 mM is achieved.

  14. Mixed polyelectrolyte coatings on glassy carbon electrodes: Ion-exchange, permselectivity properties and analytical application of poly-l-lysine-poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-coated mercury film electrodes for the detection of trace metals.

    PubMed

    Monterroso, Sandra C C; Carapuça, Helena M; Duarte, Armando C

    2006-02-28

    The present work describes the preparation, optimization and characterization of mixed polyelectrolyte coatings of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) for the modification of thin mercury film electrodes (MFEs). The novel-modified electrodes were applied in the direct analysis of trace metals in estuarine waters by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The effects of the coating morphology and thickness and also of the monomeric molar ratio PLL/PSS on the cation-exchange ability of the PLL-PSS polyelectrolyte coatings onto glassy carbon (GC) were evaluated using target cationic species such as dopamine (DA) or lead cation. Further, the semi-permeability of the PLL-PSS-coated electrodes based both on electrostatic interactions and on molecular size leads to an improved anti-fouling ability against several tensioactive species. The analytical usefulness of the PLL-PSS-mixed polyelectrolyte coatings on thin mercury film electrodes is demonstrated via SWASV measurements of trace metals (lead, copper and cadmium at the low nanomolar level; accumulation time of 180s) in estuarine waters containing moderate levels of dissolved organic matter, resulting in a fast and direct methodology requiring no sample pretreatment.

  15. Biomimetic synthesis and characterization of cobalt nanoparticles using apoferritin, and investigation of direct electron transfer of Co(NPs)-ferritin at modified glassy carbon electrode to design a novel nanobiosensor.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Soheila; Abasi Tarighat, Fereshteh; Rafipour, Ronak; Abbasi-Tarighat, Maryam

    2012-09-01

    Oxyhydroxy cobalt CoO(OH) nanoparticles (Co-NPs) were prepared in horse spleen apoferritin (HsAFr) cavity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the particle size was 5.5-6 nm. Mineralization effect on HsAFr was investigated by fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism (far-UV CD) spectroscopies. The far-UV CD experiments indicated an increase in the α-helical content after mineralization. Intrinsic fluorescence data showed that mineralization acts as a quencher of HsAFr. For the first time, direct electron transfer between Co(NPs)-HsAFr and a glassy carbon electrode in the thin film of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) to design a biosensor. The anionic surfactant DHP was used to achieve direct electron-transfer between Co(NPs)-HsAFr molecules and the GC electrode surface. CV result showed clearly a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible redox peaks arise from Co(NPs)-HsAFr embedded in DHP film. This novel biosensor can be used in medical and industrial fields to detect different analytes.

  16. Osseointegration is improved by coating titanium implants with a nanostructured thin film with titanium carbide and titanium oxides clustered around graphitic carbon.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Francesca; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Fini, Milena; Longo, Giovanni; Ioannidu, Caterina Alexandra; Scotto d'Abusco, Anna; Superti, Fabiana; Panzini, Gianluca; Misiano, Carlo; Palattella, Alberto; Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Garbarino, Viola; Politi, Laura; Scandurra, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Titanium implants coated with a 500nm nanostructured layer, deposited by the Ion Plating Plasma Assisted (IPPA) technology, composed of 60% graphitic carbon, 25% titanium oxides and 15% titanium carbide were implanted into rabbit femurs whilst into the controlateral femurs uncoated titanium implants were inserted as control. At four time points the animals were injected with calcein green, xylenol orange, oxytetracycline and alizarin. After 2, 4 and 8weeks femurs were removed and processed for histology and static and dynamic histomorphometry for undecalcified bone processing into methylmethacrylate, sectioned, thinned, polished and stained with Toluidine blue and Fast green. The overall bone-implant contacts rate (percentage of bone-implant contacts/weeks) of the TiC coated implant was 1.6 fold than that of the uncoated titanium implant. The histomorphometric analyses confirmed the histological evaluations. More precisely, higher Mineral Apposition Rate (MAR, μm/day) (p<0.005) and Bone Formation Rate (BFR, μm(2)/μm/day) (p<0.0005) as well as Bone Implant Contact (Bic) and Bone Ingrowth values (p<0.0005) were observed for the TiC coated implants compared to uncoated implants. In conclusion the hard nanostructured TiC layer protects the bulk titanium implant against the harsh conditions of biological tissues and in the same time, stimulating adhesion, proliferation and activity of osteoblasts, induces a better bone-implant contacts of the implant compared to the uncoated titanium implant.

  17. In-vivo degradation of poly(carbonate-urethane) based spine implants

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, E.; Bracco, P.; Kurtz, S.M.; Costa, L.; Zanetti, M.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen explanted Dynesys® spinal devices were analyzed for biostability and compared with a reference, never implanted, control. Both poly(carbonate-urethane) (PCU) spacers and polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) cords were analyzed. The effect of implantation was evaluated through the observation of physical alterations of the device surfaces, evaluation of the chemical degradation and fluids absorption on the devices and examination of the morphological and mechanical features. PCU spacers exhibited a variety of surface damage mechanisms, the most significant being abrasion and localized, microscopic surface cracks. Evidence of oxidation and chain scission were detected on PCU spacers ATR–FTIR. ATR–FTIR, DSC and hardness measurements also showed a slight heterogeneity in the composition of PCU. The extraction carried out on the PCU spacers revealed the presence of extractable polycarbonate segments. One spacer and all PET cords visually exhibited the presence of adherent biological material (proteins), confirmed by the ATR–FTIR results. GC/MS analyses of the extracts from PET cords revealed the presence of biological fluids residues, mainly cholesterol derivatives and fatty acids, probably trapped into the fiber network. No further chemical alterations were observed on the PET cords. Although the observed physical and chemical damage can be considered superficial, greater attention must be paid to the chemical degradation mechanisms of PCU and to the effect of byproducts on the body. PMID:24043907

  18. Failure of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer implant used for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Zeeshan; Jarzem, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure owing to the high prevalence of degenerative spinal disorders. During such procedures, carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages are frequently utilized to fill the void created between adjacent vertebral bodies, to provide mechanical stability, and to carry graft material. Failure of such implants can lead to significant morbidity. We discuss the possible causes leading to the failure of a CFRP cage in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Review of a 49-year-old woman who underwent revision anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years after posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at L4-L5 and L5-S1. The patient developed pseudarthrosis at the two previously fused levels with failure of the posterior instrumentation. Revision surgery reveled failure with fragmentation of the CFRP cage at the L5-S1 level. CFRP implants can break if mechanical instability or nonunion occurs in the spinal segments, thus emphasizing the need for optimizing medical management and meticulous surgical technique in achieving stability.

  19. Failure of a Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer Implant Used for Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sardar, Zeeshan; Jarzem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure owing to the high prevalence of degenerative spinal disorders. During such procedures, carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages are frequently utilized to fill the void created between adjacent vertebral bodies, to provide mechanical stability, and to carry graft material. Failure of such implants can lead to significant morbidity. We discuss the possible causes leading to the failure of a CFRP cage in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Review of a 49-year-old woman who underwent revision anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years after posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at L4–L5 and L5–S1. The patient developed pseudarthrosis at the two previously fused levels with failure of the posterior instrumentation. Revision surgery reveled failure with fragmentation of the CFRP cage at the L5–S1 level. CFRP implants can break if mechanical instability or nonunion occurs in the spinal segments, thus emphasizing the need for optimizing medical management and meticulous surgical technique in achieving stability. PMID:24436878

  20. Novel bulk carbon nanotube materials for implant by spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Omori, Mamoru; Watari, Fumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2005-12-01

    Novel, bulk multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) sintered with polycarbosilane (PCS) as a binder agent were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS), and their microstructure and properties were investigated. Sintering was done with 20-60 MPa pressure at 1200 degrees C. SEM and TEM observations showed that the nanosized tube microstructure was preserved even after sintering, and tubes adhered to each other with the nanosized nodules of SiC pyrolyzed form PCS as revealed by X-ray diffraction. Bulk density and Vickers hardness were found to increase, whereas the specific surface area decreased, as PCS content and sintering pressure increased. Through animal experiments, the inflammatory reaction of CNTs/PCS material was found to be slightly increased with increasing PCS content. In conclusion, sintered CNTs had physical and mechanical properties close to bone, and their good biocompatibility based on tissue response served to pave their way as a suitable implant material in the future.

  1. Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of carbon-implanted SiO2.

    PubMed

    Poudel, P R; Paramo, J A; Poudel, P P; Diercks, D R; Strzhemechny, Y M; Rout, B; McDaniel, F D

    2012-03-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) nanoclusters were synthesized by the implantation of carbon ions (C-) into thermally grown silicon dioxide film (-500 nm thick) on a Si (100) wafer and processed by high temperature thermal annealing. The carbon ions were implanted with an energy of 70 keV at a fluence of 5 x 10(17) atoms/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 1100 degrees C for different time periods in a gas mixture of 96% Ar+4% H2. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were used to study the structural properties of both the as-implanted and annealed samples. HRTEM reveals the formation of nanostructures in the annealed samples. The Raman spectroscopy also confirms the formation of carbon nano-clusters in the samples annealed for 10 min, 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. No Raman features originating from the carbon-clusters are observed for the sample annealed further to 120 min, indicating a complete loss of implanted carbon from the SiO2 layer. The loss of the implanted carbon in the 120 min annealed sample from the SiO2 layer was also observed in the XPS depth profile measurements. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy revealed visible emissions from the samples pointing to carbon ion induced defects as the origin of a broad 2.0-2.4 eV band, and the intrinsic defects in SiO2 as the possible origin of the -2.9 eV bands. In low temperature photoluminescence spectra, two sharp and intense photoluminescence lines at -3.31 eV and -3.34 eV appear for the samples annealed for 90 min and 120 min, whereas no such bands are observed in the samples annealed for 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min. The Si nano-clusters forming at the Si-SiO2 interface could be the origin of these intense peaks.

  2. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-01-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently. PMID:26955791

  3. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-03-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently.

  4. Improvement in wear performance of surgical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by ion implantation of nitrogen or carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Buchanan, R.A.; Rigney, E.D. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    The effects of ion implantations of either nitrogen or carbon on the corrosive-wear performance of surgical Ti-6A1-4V alloy were investigated. In vitro tests made use of an apparatus which could produce certain chemical and mechanical aspects of a sliding interface such as that which occurs between alloy and polyethylene components of an artificial hip (or knee) joint. Cylindrical samples of the Ti alloy were rotated between loaded, conforming pads made of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) while these test components were immersed either in a saline solution or a saline solution with bovine serum added. During the tests open-circuit corrosion currents for the alloy were measured by the Tafel extrapolation technique. Profilometry studies were done before and after the tests. Alloy samples implanted with either nitrogen or carbon remained as-new for all test conditions. Unimplanted control samples were severely scored. Corrosion currents as measured under the mechanical action were reduced by a factor of approximately one hundred by the ion implantation treatments. It is concluded that nitrogen or carbon ion implantation produces a marked improvement in the corrosive wear performance of the alloy in these tests. It is inferred that abrasive wear is the dominant mechanism of material removal. In addition, apparently owing to reduction of wear debris in the sliding interface, ion treatment of the alloy greatly improves wear performance of the mating UHMWPE component. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction characterization of yttrium-implanted extra low-carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Caudron, E.; Buscail, H.; Perrier, S.

    1999-11-01

    Yttrium-implanted and unimplanted extra low-carbon steel samples were analyzed at T = 700 C and under an oxygen partial pressure P{sub O2} = 0.041Pa for 24 h to show the yttrium implantation effect on extra low-carbon steel high-temperature corrosion resistance. Sample oxidation weight gains were studied by thermogravimetry, and structural analyses were performed using in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction with the same experimental conditions. The aim of this paper is to show the initial nucleation stage of the main compounds induced by oxidation at high temperatures according to the initial sample treatment (yttrium-implanted or unimplanted). The results obtained by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction will be compared to those by thermogravimetry to show the existing correlation between weight gain curves and structural studies. Results allow one to understand the improved corrosion resistance of yttrium-implanted extra low-carbon steel at high temperatures.

  6. In vivo implant fixation of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK hip prostheses in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Ichiro; Takao, Masaki; Bandoh, Shunichi; Bertollo, Nicky; Walsh, William R; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2013-03-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR/PEEK) is theoretically suitable as a material for use in hip prostheses, offering excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and the absence of metal ions. To evaluate in vivo fixation methods of CFR/PEEK hip prostheses in bone, we examined radiographic and histological results for cementless or cemented CFR/PEEK hip prostheses in an ovine model with implantation up to 52 weeks. CFR/PEEK cups and stems with rough-textured surfaces plus hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings for cementless fixation and CFR/PEEK cups and stems without HA coating for cement fixation were manufactured based on ovine computed tomography (CT) data. Unilateral total hip arthroplasty was performed using cementless or cemented CFR/PEEK hip prostheses. Five cementless cups and stems and six cemented cups and stems were evaluated. On the femoral side, all cementless stems demonstrated bony ongrowth fixation and all cemented stems demonstrated stable fixation without any gaps at both the bone-cement and cement-stem interfaces. All cementless cases and four of the six cemented cases showed minimal stress shielding. On the acetabular side, two of the five cementless cups demonstrated bony ongrowth fixation. Our results suggest that both cementless and cemented CFR/PEEK stems work well for fixation. Cup fixation may be difficult for both cementless and cemented types in this ovine model, but bone ongrowth fixation on the cup was first seen in two cementless cases. Cementless fixation can be achieved using HA-coated CFR/PEEK implants, even under load-bearing conditions.

  7. Structural and electrical properties of oxygen complexes in Cz and FZ silicon crystals implanted with carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, Boris; Melnik, Victor; Popov, Valentin; Babich, Vilik; Kladko, Vasyl; Gudymenko, Olexandr; Ilchenko, Volodimir; Vasyliev, Iegor; Goriachko, Andrii

    2014-12-01

    We present a comparative study of thermal donor (TD) center formation mechanisms as a result of carbon ion implantation into float zone (FZ-Si) and Czochralski (Cz-Si) silicon crystals. The kinetics of the TD center formation and transformation of their structure during annealing have been investigated. Also, the TD center formation takes place after additional oxygen implantation into FZ/Cz-Si, and an important role of recoil oxygen atoms (from the screen oxide) has been demonstrated for the FZ-Si case. Their concentration in the Si surface layer depends on the implantation dose and the screen oxide thickness, reaching up to values 1018 to 1019 cm-3, which is comparable with the oxygen concentration in Cz-Si. These oxygen atoms can lead to additional thermal donor centers generation, especially in the FZ-Si.

  8. Characteristics and analysis of 4H-SiC PiN diodes with a carbon-implanted drift layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiangmei, Feng; Huajun, Shen; Xiaohua, Ma; Yun, Bai; Jia, Wu; Chengzhan, Li; Kean, Liu; Xinyu, Liu

    2016-04-01

    The characteristics of 4H-SiC PiN diodes with a carbon-implanted drift layer was investigated and the reason of characteristics improvement was analyzed. The forward voltage drops of the diodes with carbon-implanted drift layer were around 3.3 V, which is lower than that of devices without carbon implantation, the specific-on resistance was decreased from 9.35 to 4.38 mΩ·cm2 at 100 A/cm2, and the reverse leakage current was also decreased. The influence of carbon incorporation in the SiC crystalline grids was studied by using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The DLTS spectra revealed that the Z 1/2 traps, which were regarded as the main lifetime limiting defects, were dramatically reduced. It is proposed that the reduction of Z 1/2 traps can achieve longer carrier lifetime in the drift layer, which is beneficial to the performance of bipolar devices. Project supported by the Opening Project of Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-05-24

    We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant kb, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-5) mol L(-1), with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(-8) mol L(-1) for SY and 1.43×10(-8) mol L(-1) for TT (SN(-1)=3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of SY and TT both involved a one-electron-one-proton-transfer process.

  10. Percutaneous and skeletal biocarbon implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, V.

    1977-01-01

    Review of carbon implants developed by NASA discussed four different types of implants and subsequent improvements. Improvements could be of specific interest to rehabilitation centers and similar organizations.

  11. Thermal expansion of glassy polymers.

    PubMed

    Davy, K W; Braden, M

    1992-01-01

    The thermal expansion of a number of glassy polymers of interest in dentistry has been studied using a quartz dilatometer. In some cases, the expansion was linear and therefore the coefficient of thermal expansion readily determined. Other polymers exhibited non-linear behaviour and values appropriate to different temperature ranges are quoted. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion was, to a first approximation, a function of both the molar volume and van der Waal's volume of the repeating unit.

  12. Study of the effects of E × B fields as mechanism to carbon-nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation on stainless steel samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillaca, E. J. D. M.; Ueda, M.; Oliveira, R. M.; Pichon, L.

    2014-08-01

    Effects of E × B fields as mechanism to carbon-nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) have been investigated. This magnetic configuration when used in PIII allows obtaining high nitrogen plasma density close to the ion implantation region. Consequently, high ions dose on the target is possible to be achieved compared with standard PIII. In this scenario, nitrogen and carbon ions were implanted simultaneously on stainless steel, as measured by GDOES and detected by X-ray diffraction. Carbon-tape disposed on the sample-holder was sputtered by intense bombardment of nitrogen ions, being the source of carbon atoms in this experiment. The implantation of both N and C caused changes on sample morphology and improvement of the tribological properties of the stainless steel.

  13. Influence of 400 keV carbon ion implantation on structural, optical and electrical properties of PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Shafaq; Rafique, M. Shahid; Saleemi, Farhat; Sagheer, Riffat; Naab, Fabian; Toader, Ovidiu; Mahmood, Arshad; Rashid, Rashad; Mahmood, Mazhar

    2015-09-01

    Ion implantation is a useful technique to modify surface properties of polymers without altering their bulk properties. The objective of this work is to explore the 400 keV C+ ion implantation effects on PMMA at different fluences ranging from 5 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The surface topographical examination of irradiated samples has been performed using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The structural and chemical modifications in implanted PMMA are examined by Raman and Fourier Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) respectively. The effects of carbon ion implantation on optical properties of PMMA are investigated by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The modifications in electrical conductivity have been measured using a four point probe technique. AFM images reveal a decrease in surface roughness of PMMA with an increase in ion fluence from 5 × 1014 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The existence of amorphization and sp2-carbon clusterization has been confirmed by Raman and FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The UV-Visible data shows a prominent red shift in absorption edge as a function of ion fluence. This shift displays a continuous reduction in optical band gap (from 3.13 to 0.66 eV) due to formation of carbon clusters. Moreover, size of carbon clusters and photoconductivity are found to increase with increasing ion fluence. The ion-induced carbonaceous clusters are believed to be responsible for an increase in electrical conductivity of PMMA from (2.14 ± 0.06) × 10-10 (Ω-cm)-1 (pristine) to (0.32 ± 0.01) × 10-5 (Ω-cm)-1 (irradiated sample).

  14. The generation, detection and measurement of laser-induced carbon plasma ions and their implantation effects on brass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia; Shahid Rafique, M.; Yousaf, Daniel; Ahmad, Riaz

    2016-05-01

    The generation, detection and measurement of laser-induced carbon plasma ions and their implantation effects on brass substrate have been investigated. Thomson parabola technique was employed to measure the energy and flux of carbon ions. The magnetic field of strength 80 mT was applied on the graphite plasma plume to provide an appropriate trajectory to the generated ions. The energy of carbon ions is 678 KeV for laser fluence of 5.1 J/cm2 which was kept constant for all exposures. The flux of ions varies from 32 × 1011 to 72 × 1014 ions/cm2 for varying numbers of laser pulses from 3000 to 12,000. In order to explore the ion irradiation effects on brass, four brass substrates were irradiated by carbon ions of different flux. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) are used to analyze the surface morphology and crystallographic structure of ion-implanted brass, respectively. SEM analysis reveals the formation and growth of nano-/micro-sized cavities, pores and pits for the various ion flux for varying numbers of laser pulses from 3000 to 12,000. By increasing ion flux by increasing the number of pulses up to 9000 shots, the dendritic structures initiate to grow along with cavities and pores. At the maximum ion flux for 12,000 shots, the unequiaxed dendritic structures become distinct and the distance between the dendrites is decreased, whereas cavities, pores and pits are completely finished. The XRD analysis reveals that a new phase of ZnC (0012) is formed in the brass substrate after ion implantation. Universal tensile testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester are used to explore the yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and microhardness of ion-implanted brass substrate. The mechanical properties monotonically increase by increasing the ion flux. Variations in mechanical properties are correlated with surface and structural modifications of brass.

  15. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Becker, H.-W.; Williams, G. V. M.; Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Markwitz, A.

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C3H6 deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  16. Carbon nanotubes implanted manganese-based MOFs for simultaneous detection of biomolecules in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Qiang; Ye, Cui; Bao, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Ya-Nan; Xu, Mao-wen

    2016-02-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently attracted much interest in electrochemical fields due to their controlled porosity, large internal surface area, and countless structural topologies. However, the direct application of single component MOFs is limited since they also exhibit poor electronic conductivity, low mechanical stability, and inferior electrocatalytic ability. To overcome these problems, we implanted multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into manganese-based metal-organic frameworks (Mn-BDC) using a one-step solvothermal method and found that the introduction of MWCNTs can initiate the splitting of bulky Mn-BDC into thin layers. This splitting is highly significant in that it enhances the electronic conductivity and electrocatalytic ability of Mn-BDC. The constructed Mn-BDC@MWCNT composites were utilized as an electrode modifying material in the fabrication of an electrochemical sensor and then were used successfully for the determination of biomolecules in human body fluid. The sensor displayed successful detection performance with wide linear detection ranges (0.1-1150, 0.01-500, and 0.02-1100 μM for AA, DA and UA, respectively) and low limits of detection (0.01, 0.002, and 0.005 μM for AA, DA and UA, respectively); thus, this preliminary study presents an electrochemical biosensor constructed with a novel electrode modifying material that exhibits superior potential for the practical detection of AA, DA and UA in urine samples.

  17. Effects of carbon and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation on in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Wong, Sze Man; Wong, Hoi Man; Wu, Shuilin; Hu, Tao; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Chu, Paul K

    2013-02-01

    Growth of bony tissues on titanium biomedical implants can be time-consuming, thereby prolonging recovery and hospitalization after surgery and a method to improve and expedite tissue-implant integration and healing is thus of scientific and clinical interests. In this work, nitrogen and carbon plasma immersion ion implantation (N-PIII and C-PIII) is conducted to modify Ti-6Al-4V to produce a graded surface layer composed of TiN and TiC, respectively. Both PIII processes do not significantly alter the surface hydrophilicity but increase the surface roughness and corrosion resistance. In vitro studies disclose improved cell adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts and L929 fibroblasts after PIII. Micro-CT evaluation conducted 1 to 12 weeks after surgery reveals larger average bone volumes and less bone resorption on the N-PIII and C-PIII titanium alloy pins than the unimplanted one at every time point. The enhancements observed from both the in vitro and in vivo studies can be attributed to the good cytocompatibility, roughness, and corrosion resistance of the TiN and TiC structures which stimulate the response of preosteoblasts and fibroblasts and induce early bone formation. Comparing the two PIII processes, N-PIII is more effective and our results suggest a simple and practical means to improve the surface biocompatibility of medical-grade titanium alloy implants.

  18. Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO₄ formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Liu, Tao; Guo, Sha-Sha; Guan, Jing; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2010-08-30

    We report on the optical properties of ZnWO(4) planar waveguides created by ion implantation, and the effect annealing has on these structures. Planar optical waveguides in ZnWO(4) crystals are fabricated by 5.0 MeV carbon ion implantation with a fluence of 1 × 10(15) ions/cm(2) or 500 keV helium ion implantation with the a fluence of 1 × 10(16) ions/cm(2). The thermal stability was investigated by 60 minute annealing cycles at different temperatures ranging from 260°C to 550°C in air. The guided modes were measured by a model 2010 prism coupler at wavelengths of 633 nm and 1539 nm. The reflectivity calculation method (RCM) was applied to simulate the refractive index profile in these waveguides. The near-field light intensity profiles were measured using the end-face coupling method. The absorption spectra show that the implantation processes have almost no influence on the visible band absorption.

  19. Glassy features of crystal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Arttu; Costantini, Giulio; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano; Laurson, Lasse

    2016-08-01

    Crystal plasticity occurs by deformation bursts due to the avalanchelike motion of dislocations. Here we perform extensive numerical simulations of a three-dimensional dislocation dynamics model under quasistatic stress-controlled loading. Our results show that avalanches are power-law distributed and display peculiar stress and sample size dependence: The average avalanche size grows exponentially with the applied stress, and the amount of slip increases with the system size. These results suggest that intermittent deformation processes in crystalline materials exhibit an extended critical-like phase in analogy to glassy systems instead of originating from a nonequilibrium phase transition critical point.

  20. Suppression of the uranium-hydrogen reaction using high-dose carbon implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Musket, R.G.

    1987-04-17

    We have previously reported the delay and reduction of the hydriding of uranium by implantation of oxygen. The reduced hydriding was attributed to the presence of the uranium oxide layer created near room temperature. In this paper we present results for the layers formed by implantation of 80 keV C/sup +/ to a dose of 8E17 C/cm/sup 2/. The carbide layers formed were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, and glancing angle x-ray diffraction. Hydriding properties of both non-implanted and implanted uranium were measured for 76 Torr hydrogen at 130/sup 0/C. The implanted specimens had significantly longer incubation times for the start of the reaction after exposure to hydrogen and less area participating in the reaction.

  1. Temperature dependent properties of silicon containing diamondlike carbon films prepared by plasma source ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Baba, K.; Ensinger, W.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Sethmann, I.; Lauterbach, S.

    2010-04-01

    Silicon containing diamondlike carbon (Si-DLC) films were prepared on silicon wafer substrates by a plasma source ion implantation method with negative pulses superposed on a negative dc voltage. A mixture of acetylene and tetramethylsilane gas was introduced into the discharge chamber as working gases for plasma formation. Ions produced in the plasma are accelerated toward a substrate holder because of the negative voltage applied directly to it. After deposition, the films were annealed for 0.5 h in ambient air at temperatures up to 923 K in order to evaluate the thermal stability of the Si-DLC films. The films were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the films and the film thickness were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical and tribological properties were investigated by an indentation method and a ball-on-disk test. The results show the silicon containing DLC films were amorphous and the surface roughness of the Si containing DLC films was very smooth and no special structure was observed. Integrated intensity ratios ID/IG of Raman spectroscopy of the Si containing DLC films decreased with Si content. The Raman spectra showed that the structure of the Si-free DLC film changed to a graphitelike structure with increasing annealing temperature, whereas that of the 24 at. % Si containing DLC films did not change at the maximum temperature used in this study. A very low friction coefficient was obtained for the 13 at. % Si containing DLC film. The surface roughness and the hardness of the films changed with increasing annealing temperature. The formation of Si oxide in a near surface layer was confirmed by XPS and it prevents further oxidation of the inside of the film. Heat resistivity of DLC films can be improved by Si addition into the DLC films.

  2. Biofunctionalization of carbon nanotubes/chitosan hybrids on Ti implants by atom layer deposited ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yizhou; Liu, Xiangmei; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Chu, Paul K.; Wu, Shuilin

    2017-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ZnO using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on chitosan (CS) modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were first introduced onto the surfaces of biomedical implants. When the content of ZnO is not sufficient, CNTs can strengthen the antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus by 8% and 39%, respectively. CS can improve the cytocompatibility of CNTs and ZnO. The amount of Zn content can be controlled by changing the cycling numbers of ALD processes. This hybrid coating can not only endow medical implants with high self-antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of over 73% and 98%, respectively, but also regulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts by controlling the amount of ZnO.

  3. Bone formation in a carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite implant is inhibited by zoledronate: the importance of bioresorption to osteoconduction.

    PubMed

    Spence, G; Phillips, S; Campion, C; Brooks, R; Rushton, N

    2008-12-01

    Carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) is more osteoconductive and more resorbable than hydroxyapatite (HA), but the underlying mode of its action is unclear. We hypothesised that increased resorption of the ceramic by osteoclasts might subsequently upregulate osteoblasts by a coupling mechanism, and sought to test this in a large animal model. Defects were created in both the lateral femoral condyles of 12 adult sheep. Six were implanted with CHA granules bilaterally, and six with HA. Six of the animals in each group received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (0.05 mg/kg), which inhibits the function of osteoclasts, intra-operatively. After six weeks bony ingrowth was greater in the CHA implants than in HA, but not in the animals given zoledronate. Functional osteoclasts are necessary for the enhanced osteoconduction seen in CHA compared with HA.

  4. Integration of Advanced Source and Drain Extension Process Using Carbon/Fluorine Co-Implants and Spike Anneal in 65nm PMOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. I.; Wang, H. Y.; Chien, C. C.; Chain, M.; Yang, C. L.; Tzou, S. F.; Graoui, H.; Foad, M. A.; Ting, Richard

    2006-11-01

    Carbon and fluorine co-implantation have shown encouraging junction formation improvement, especially for P-type junctions. In this paper, Xj of 20 nm, Rs of 730 ohms/sq and abruptness of 3.5 nm/decade were obtained using carbon co-implantation at 6 keV, 2×1015 ions/cm2, BF2 implant and spike annealing. With LSA, the sheet resistance decreases to 640 ohm/sq. Rs decreased 7% at 1050°C RTP and decreased 13% at 1000°C RTP combined with laser spike annealing. We implemented germanium, carbon, and fluorine co-implanted junctions for SDE fabrication for 65 nm node devices. Results indicated that both decrease in overlap capacitance and junction leakage have proportional correlation with C co-implant dosage. However, Vt needs to be optimized. Device optimization by combining C co-implantation with LSA can yield better control of short channel effects due to the co-implantation and better activation due to the LSA.

  5. Ending Aging in Super Glassy Polymer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, CH; Nguyen, PT; Hill, MR; Thornton, AW; Konstas, K; Doherty, CM; Mulder, RJ; Bourgeois, L; Liu, ACY; Sprouster, DJ; Sullivan, JP; Bastow, TJ; Hill, AJ; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-04-16

    Aging in super glassy polymers such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP), and polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) reduces gas permeabilities and limits their application as gas-separation membranes. While super glassy polymers are initially very porous, and ultra-permeable, they quickly pack into a denser phase becoming less porous and permeable. This age-old problem has been solved by adding an ultraporous additive that maintains the low density, porous, initial stage of super glassy polymers through absorbing a portion of the polymer chains within its pores thereby holding the chains in their open position. This result is the first time that aging in super glassy polymers is inhibited whilst maintaining enhanced CO2 permeability for one year and improving CO2/N-2 selectivity. This approach could allow super glassy polymers to be revisited for commercial application in gas separations.

  6. Uniform implantation of CNTs on total activated carbon surfaces: a smart engineering protocol for commercial supercapacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Linpo; Liu, Yani; Liu, Siyuan; Xu, Maowen; Zhu, Jianhui

    2017-04-07

    The main obstacles to building better supercapacitors are still trade-offs between energy and power parameters. To promote commercial supercapacitor behaviors, proper optimization toward electrode configurations/architectures may be a feasible and effective way. We herein propose a smart and reliable electrode engineering protocol, by in situ implantation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on total activated carbon (AC) surfaces via a mild chemical vapor deposition process at ∼550 °C, using nickel nitrate hydroxide (NNH) thin films and waste ethanol solvents as the catalyst and carbon sources, respectively. The direct and conformal growth of NNH layers onto carbonaceous scaffold guarantees the later uniform implantation of long and high-quality CNTs on total AC outer surfaces. Such fluffy and entangled CNTs preserve ionic diffusion channels, well connect neighboring ACs and function as superhighways for electrons transfer, endowing electrodes with outstanding capacitive behaviors including large output capacitances of ∼230 F g(-1) in 1 M Na2SO4 neutral solution and ∼502.5 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH using Ni valence state variation, and very negligible capacity decay in long-term cycles. Furthermore, a full symmetric supercapacitor device of CNTs@ACs//CNTs@ACs has been constructed, capable of delivering both high specific energy and power densities (maximum values reaching up to ∼97.2 Wh kg(-1) and ∼10.84 kW kg(-1)), which holds great potential in competing with current mainstream supercapacitors.

  7. Uniform implantation of CNTs on total activated carbon surfaces: a smart engineering protocol for commercial supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Linpo; Liu, Yani; Liu, Siyuan; Xu, Maowen; Zhu, Jianhui

    2017-04-01

    The main obstacles to building better supercapacitors are still trade-offs between energy and power parameters. To promote commercial supercapacitor behaviors, proper optimization toward electrode configurations/architectures may be a feasible and effective way. We herein propose a smart and reliable electrode engineering protocol, by in situ implantation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on total activated carbon (AC) surfaces via a mild chemical vapor deposition process at ∼550 °C, using nickel nitrate hydroxide (NNH) thin films and waste ethanol solvents as the catalyst and carbon sources, respectively. The direct and conformal growth of NNH layers onto carbonaceous scaffold guarantees the later uniform implantation of long and high-quality CNTs on total AC outer surfaces. Such fluffy and entangled CNTs preserve ionic diffusion channels, well connect neighboring ACs and function as superhighways for electrons transfer, endowing electrodes with outstanding capacitive behaviors including large output capacitances of ∼230 F g‑1 in 1 M Na2SO4 neutral solution and ∼502.5 F g‑1 in 6 M KOH using Ni valence state variation, and very negligible capacity decay in long-term cycles. Furthermore, a full symmetric supercapacitor device of CNTs@ACs//CNTs@ACs has been constructed, capable of delivering both high specific energy and power densities (maximum values reaching up to ∼97.2 Wh kg‑1 and ∼10.84 kW kg‑1), which holds great potential in competing with current mainstream supercapacitors.

  8. Suppression of boron deactivation and diffusion in preamorphized silicon after nonmelt laser annealing by carbon co-implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Chyiu Hyia; See, Alex; Tan, Yunling; Zhou, Meisheng; Gui, Dong

    2008-04-01

    For preamorphized boron-implanted samples subjected to nonmelt laser spike annealing (LSA), increasing the LSA temperature at temperatures below 1250 °C results in negligible sheet resistance changes due to the formation of inactive boron-interstitial clusters (BICs). These clusters, which are evidenced as a kink in the boron profile beyond the amorphous/crystalline interface, result chiefly from the inadequate removal of end-of-range (EOR) defects. When the LSA temperature is elevated beyond 1250 °C, sheet resistance improvement takes place due to the increase in active boron dose from the dissolution of the BIC at higher temperatures. Cluster dissolution also gives rise to a supersaturation of silicon interstitials that deepen the junctions as a result of transient enhanced diffusion (TED). With an additional post-LSA treatment, severe deactivation, especially at lower LSA temperatures, and further TED is observed. Two concurrent mechanisms, namely, boron clustering (which gives rise to deactivation and sheet resistance degradation) and dissolution of the BIC (which gives rise to TED) formed during the LSA step, are believed to take place during the post-LSA thermal budget. As the LSA temperature increases, TED from the as-LSA profile upon rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is significantly reduced as a result of the improved effectiveness of the EOR defect dissolution during the higher temperature LSA step. When carbon co-implantation is performed, deactivation and TED is successfully suppressed with the reduction in free silicon interstitial concentration due to the formation of complexes of carbon and silicon interstitials. The amount of deactivation upon RTA becomes independent of LSA temperature for the carbon-implanted samples, largely because boron clustering becomes limited by the small concentration of free silicon interstitials present instead of the LSA temperatures used.

  9. Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Zhang, C.; Chen, F.; Liu, F.-Q.; Jaque, D.; Lu, Q.-M.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the generation of continuous wave lasers at a wavelength of ˜1064 nm in a Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide at room temperature. The waveguide was fabricated by using 6 MeV carbon ion implantation at a fluence of 3×1014 ions/cm2. Laser operation has been realized with a slope efficiency as high as ˜11%. The pump threshold of an 808-nm laser beam for the waveguide laser oscillation is 19.5 mW.

  10. Carbon implanted waveguides in soda lime glass doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ for visible light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, G. V.; Valiente, R.; Gómez-Salces, S.; Flores-Romero, E.; Rickards, J.; Trejo-Luna, R.

    2016-05-01

    Channel waveguides were fabricated by carbon implantation in soda lime glass samples doped with Er3+ and Yb3+, exhibiting good confinement and both monomode and multimode behaviour at 633 nm. Excitation at near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectral ranges were used in order to obtain anti-Stokes (upconversion) and Stokes (downshift) emission in the visible range, respectively. The characteristic green and red bands of Er3+ transitions were observed, showing the potential of Yb3+ and Er3+ co-doping for the generation of visible guided emission under NIR excitation.

  11. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  12. Haemocompatibility of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Kwok, S. C. H.; Chu, P. K.; Leng, Y. X.; Chen, J. Y.; Wang, J.; Huang, N.

    2003-05-01

    Diamond-like-carbon has attracted much attention recently as a potential biomaterial in blood contacting biomedical devices. However, previous reports in this area have not adequately addressed the biocompatibility and acceptability of the materials in blood contacting applications. In this study, hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were fabricated on silicon wafers (1 0 0) using plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition. A series of a-C:H films with different structures and chemical bonds were fabricated under different substrate voltages. The results indicate that film graphitization is promoted at higher substrate bias. The film deposited at a lower substrate bias of -75 V possesses better blood compatibility than the films at higher bias and stainless steel. Our results suggest two possible paths to improve the blood compatibility, suppression of the endogenic clotting system and reduction of platelet activation.

  13. Evaluation of Carbon Interstitial in C-ion Implanted ZnO Bulk Single Crystals by a Nuclear Reaction Analysis Study: An Origin of Low Resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Izawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Oga, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2011-12-23

    Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) of carbon-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals (carbon concentration: 1.5x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), in conjunction with the channeling technique, using the {sup 12}C(d,p){sup 13}C and {sup 16}O(d,p){sup 17}O reactions shows the presence of the interstitial carbon (C{sub i}) and the occupancy of substitute sites of oxygen atoms. These results suggest that the variation in resistivity from the order of 10{sup 4} {Omega}cm(for un-implanted samples) to that of 10 {Omega}cm (for as-implanted ones) is attributed to the C{sub i} and/or its complex defects, which would act as a shallow donor in ZnO.

  14. Biocompatibility and Biomechanical Effect of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Implanted in the Corneal Stroma: A Proof of Concept Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alejandra E.; Rodriguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Gomez-Tejedor, Jose A.; Antolinos-Turpin, Carmen M.; Bataille, Laurent; Alio, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    Corneal ectatic disorders are characterized by a progressive weakening of the tissue due to biomechanical alterations of the corneal collagen fibers. Carbon nanostructures, mainly carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, are nanomaterials that offer extraordinary mechanical properties and are used to increase the rigidity of different materials and biomolecules such as collagen fibers. We conducted an experimental investigation where New Zealand rabbits were treated with a composition of CNTs suspended in balanced saline solution which was applied in the corneal tissue. Biocompatibility of the composition was assessed by means of histopathology analysis and mechanical properties by stress-strain measurements. Histopathology samples stained with blue Alcian showed that there were no fibrous scaring and no alterations in the mucopolysaccharides of the stroma. It also showed that there were no signs of active inflammation. These were confirmed when Masson trichrome staining was performed. Biomechanical evaluation assessed by means of tensile test showed that there is a trend to obtain higher levels of rigidity in those corneas implanted with CNTs, although these changes are not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Implanting CNTs is biocompatible and safe procedure for the corneal stroma which can lead to an increase in the rigidity of the collagen fibers. PMID:28116139

  15. Hardening of nickel alloys by ion implantation of titanium and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Christenson, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    Dual ion implantation of Ti and C was shown to produce an amorphous surface layer in annealed bulk Ni, electroformed Ni, and electroformed Ni{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 0.25}. Diamond-tip nanoindentation coupled with finite-element modeling quantified the elastic and plastic mechanical properties of the implanted region. The amorphized matrix, with a thickness of about 100 nm, has an intrinsic hardness near 16 GPa, exceeding by an order of magnitude the value for annealed bulk Ni. Implications for the control of friction and wear in microelectromechanical systems are discussed.

  16. Trapping and diffusion kinetic of hydrogen in carbon-cluster ion-implantation projected range in Czochralski silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Ryosuke; Masada, Ayumi; Kadono, Takeshi; Hirose, Ryo; Koga, Yoshihiro; Okuda, Hidehiko; Kurita, Kazunari

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the diffusion behavior of hydrogen in a silicon wafer made by a carbon-cluster ion-implantation technique after heat treatment and silicon epitaxial growth. A hydrogen peak was observed after high-temperature heat treatment (>1000 °C) and silicon epitaxial growth by secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis. We also confirmed that the hydrogen peak concentration decreased after epitaxial growth upon additional heat treatment. Such a hydrogen diffusion behavior has not been reported. Thus, we derived the activation energy from the projected range of a carbon cluster, assuming only a dissociation reaction, and obtained an activation energy of 0.76 ± 0.04 eV. This value is extremely close to that for the diffusion of hydrogen molecules located at the tetrahedral interstitial site and hydrogen molecules dissociated from multivacancies. Therefore, we assume that the hydrogen in the carbon-cluster projected range diffuses in the molecular state, and hydrogen remaining in the projected range forms complexes of carbon, oxygen, and vacancies.

  17. Molecular mobility in glassy dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Mehak; McKenna, Gregory B.; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-05-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural relaxation in pharmaceutical dispersions containing nifedipine (NIF) and either poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). The shape of the dielectric response (permittivity versus log time) curve was observed to be independent of temperature. Thus, for the pure NIF as well as the dispersions, the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle was established. Furthermore, though the shape of the full dielectric response varied with polymer concentration, the regime related to the α- or structural relaxation was found to superimpose for the dispersions, though not with the response of the NIF itself. Hence, there is a limited time-temperature-concentration superposition for these systems as well. Therefore, in this polymer concentration range, calculation of long relaxation times in these glass-forming systems becomes possible. We found that strong drug-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions improved the physical stability (i.e., delayed crystallization) by reducing the molecular mobility. The strength of hydrogen bonding, structural relaxation time, and crystallization followed the order: NIF-PV P>NIF-HPMCAS>NIF. With an increase in polymer concentration, the relaxation times were longer indicating a decrease in molecular mobility. The temperature dependence of relaxation time, in other words fragility, was independent of polymer concentration. This is the first application of the superposition principle to characterize structural relaxation in glassy pharmaceutical dispersions.

  18. Molecular mobility in glassy dispersions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Mehak; McKenna, Gregory B; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-05-28

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural relaxation in pharmaceutical dispersions containing nifedipine (NIF) and either poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). The shape of the dielectric response (permittivity versus log time) curve was observed to be independent of temperature. Thus, for the pure NIF as well as the dispersions, the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle was established. Furthermore, though the shape of the full dielectric response varied with polymer concentration, the regime related to the α- or structural relaxation was found to superimpose for the dispersions, though not with the response of the NIF itself. Hence, there is a limited time-temperature-concentration superposition for these systems as well. Therefore, in this polymer concentration range, calculation of long relaxation times in these glass-forming systems becomes possible. We found that strong drug-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions improved the physical stability (i.e., delayed crystallization) by reducing the molecular mobility. The strength of hydrogen bonding, structural relaxation time, and crystallization followed the order: NIF-PV P>NIF-HPMCAS>NIF. With an increase in polymer concentration, the relaxation times were longer indicating a decrease in molecular mobility. The temperature dependence of relaxation time, in other words fragility, was independent of polymer concentration. This is the first application of the superposition principle to characterize structural relaxation in glassy pharmaceutical dispersions.

  19. Molecular mobility in glassy dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Mehak; McKenna, Gregory B.; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-05-27

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural relaxation in pharmaceutical dispersions containing nifedipine (NIF) and either poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). The shape of the dielectric response (permittivity versus log time) curve was observed to be independent of temperature. Thus, for the pure NIF as well as the dispersions, the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle was established. Furthermore, though the shape of the full dielectric response varied with polymer concentration, the regime related to the α- or structural relaxation was found to superimpose for the dispersions, though not with the response of the NIF itself. Hence, there is a limited time-temperature-concentration superposition for these systems as well. Therefore, in this polymer concentration range, calculation of long relaxation times in these glass-forming systems becomes possible. We found that strong drug-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions improved the physical stability (i.e., delayed crystallization) by reducing the molecular mobility. The strength of hydrogen bonding, structural relaxation time, and crystallization followed the order: NIF$-$PV P>NIF$-$HPMCAS>NIF. With an increase in polymer concentration, the relaxation times were longer indicating a decrease in molecular mobility. The temperature dependence of relaxation time, in other words fragility, was independent of polymer concentration. This is the first application of the superposition principle to characterize structural relaxation in glassy pharmaceutical dispersions.

  20. The influence of sterilization processes on the micromechanical properties of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK composites for bone implant applications.

    PubMed

    Godara, A; Raabe, D; Green, S

    2007-03-01

    The effect of sterilization on the structural integrity of the thermoplastic matrix composite polyetheretherketone (PEEK) reinforced with carbon fibers (CF) is investigated by nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests. The use of the material as a medical implant grade requires a detailed understanding of the micromechanical properties which primarily define its in vivo behavior. Sterilization is a mandatory process for such materials used in medical applications like bone implants. The steam and gamma radiation sterilization processes employed in this study are at sufficient levels to affect the micromechanical properties of some polymer materials, particularly in the interphase region between the polymer matrix and the reinforcing fibers. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are used in this work to reveal local gradients in the hardness and the elastic properties of the interphase regions. Both methods help to explore microscopic changes in the hardness, reduced stiffness and scratch resistance in the interphase region and in the bulk polymer matrix due to the different sterilization processes employed. The results reveal that neither steam nor gamma radiation sterilization entails significant changes of the reduced elastic modulus, hardness or coefficient of friction in the bulk polymer matrix. However, minor material changes of the PEEK matrix were observed in the interphase region. Of the two sterilization methods used, the steam treatment has a more significant influence on these small changes in this region and appears to increase slightly the thickness of the interphase zone.

  1. Titanium coated with functionalized carbon nanotubes--a promising novel material for biomedical application as an implantable orthopaedic electronic device.

    PubMed

    Przekora, Agata; Benko, Aleksandra; Nocun, Marek; Wyrwa, Jan; Blazewicz, Marta; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to fabricate titanium (Ti) material coated with functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) that would have potential medical application in orthopaedics as an implantable electronic device. The novel biomedical material (Ti-CNTs-H2O) would possess specific set of properties, such as: electrical conductivity, non-toxicity, and ability to inhibit connective tissue cell growth and proliferation protecting the Ti-CNTs-H2O surface against covering by cells. The novel material was obtained via an electrophoretic deposition of CNTs-H2O on the Ti surface. Then, physicochemical, electrical, and biological properties were evaluated. Electrical property evaluation revealed that a Ti-CNTs-H2O material is highly conductive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that there are mainly COOH groups on the Ti-CNTs-H2O surface that are found to inhibit cell growth. Biological properties were assessed using normal human foetal osteoblast cell line (hFOB 1.19). Conducted cytotoxicity tests and live/dead fluorescent staining demonstrated that Ti-CNTs-H2O does not exert toxic effect on hFOB cells. Moreover, fluorescence laser scanning microscope observation demonstrated that Ti-CNTs-H2O surface retards to a great extent cell proliferation. The study resulted in successful fabrication of highly conductive, non-toxic Ti-CNTs-H2O material that possesses ability to inhibit osteoblast proliferation and thus has a great potential as an orthopaedic implantable electronic device.

  2. Biomedical nanocomposites of poly(lactic acid) and calcium phosphate hybridized with modified carbon nanotubes for hard tissue implants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Sang Shin, Ueon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hae-Won

    2011-08-01

    Degradable polymer-based materials are attractive in orthopedics and dentistry as an alternative to metallic implants for use as bone fixatives. Herein, a degradable polymer poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was combined with novel hybrid nanopowder of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-calcium phosphate (CP) for this application. In particular, CNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders (0.1 and 0.25% CNTs) were prepared from the solution of ionically modified CNTs (mCNTs), which was specifically synthesized to be well-dispersed and thus to effectively adsorb onto the CP nanoparticles. The mCNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders were then mixed with PLA (up to 50%) to produce mCNTs-CP-PLA nanocomposites. The mechanical tensile strength of the nanocomposites was significantly improved by the addition of mCNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders. Moreover, nanocomposites containing low concentration of mCNTs (0.1%) showed significantly stimulated biological responses including cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in terms of gene and protein expressions. Based on this study, the addition of novel mCNT-CP hybrid nanopowders to PLA biopolymer may be considered a new material choice for developing hard tissue implants.

  3. Corrosive effect of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic on stainless-steel screws during implantation into man.

    PubMed

    Tayton, K

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion of stainless-steel screws used to fix carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates to human fractures was compared with the corrosion on similar screws used to fix stainless-steel AO plates. Corrosive changes were noted in both sets of screws with similar frequency and severity; however, the stainless-steel plates were 'in situ' almost twice as long as the CFRP ones, showing that the corrosive changes occurred more rapidly on screws in contact with CFRP. Nevertheless, over the implantation time necessary for bone healing, corrosion was very mild and there is no clinical contra-indication to the use of stainless-steel and CFRP together in this particular application.

  4. Optical, structural, and chemical properties of CR-39 implanted with 5.2 MeV doubly charged carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Dilawar; Butt, M. Z.; Ishtiaq, Mohsin; Waqas Khaliq, M.; Bashir, Farooq

    2016-11-01

    Poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39) specimens were irradiated with 5.2 MeV doubly charged carbon ions using Pelletron accelerator. Ion dose was varied from 5 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm-2. Optical, structural, and chemical properties were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, x-ray diffractometer, and FTIR/Raman spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that optical absorption increases with increasing ion dose. Absorption edge shifts from UV region to visible region. The measured opacity values of pristine and ion implanted CR-39 range from 0.0519 to 4.7959 mm-1 following an exponential growth (9141%) with the increase in ion dose. The values of direct and indirect band gap energy decrease exponentially with an increase in ion dose by 59% and 71%, respectively. However, average refractive index in the visible region increases from 1.443 to 2.864 with an increase in ion dose, by 98%. A linear relation between band gap energy and crystallite size was observed. Both the number of carbon atoms in conjugation length and the number of carbon atoms per cluster increase linearly with the increase in ion dose. FTIR spectra showed that on C+2 ions irradiation, the intensity of all bands decreases gradually without appearance of any new band, indicating degradation of polymer after irradiation. Raman spectra revealed that the density of -CH2- group decreases on C+2 ions irradiation. However, the structure of CR-39 is completely destroyed on irradiation with ion dose 1 × 1015 and 5 × 1015 ions cm-2.

  5. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Wang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2013-07-01

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon.

  6. Carbon nanotube growth from catalytic nano-clusters formed by hot-ion-implantation into the SiO2/Si interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Yasushi; Arima, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Ai; Saito, Yasunao; Nakata, Jyoji

    2012-07-01

    We have studied growth of chirality-controlled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from hot-implantation-formed catalytic nano-clusters in a thermally grown SiO2/Si substrate. This procedure has the advantage of high controllability of the diameter and the number of clusters by optimizing the conditions of the ion implantation. In the present study, Co+ ions with ion dose of 8 × 1016 cm-2 are implanted in the vicinity of the SiO2/Si interface at 300 °C temperature. The implanted Co atoms located in the SiO2 layer has an amorphous-like structure with a cluster diameter of several nm. In contrast, implanted Co atoms in the Si substrate are found to take a cobalt silicide structure, confirmed by the high-resolution image of transmission electron microscope. CNTs are grown by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We have confirmed a large amount of vertically-aligned multi-walled CNTs from the Co nano-clusters formed by the hot-ion-implantation near the SiO2/Si interface.

  7. Understanding rheological hysteresis in soft glassy materials.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Rangarajan; Divoux, Thibaut; Manneville, Sébastien; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by recent experimental studies of rheological hysteresis in soft glassy materials, we study numerically strain rate sweeps in simple yield stress fluids and viscosity bifurcating yield stress fluids. Our simulations of downward followed by upward strain rate sweeps, performed within fluidity models and the soft glassy rheology model, successfully capture the experimentally observed monotonic decrease of the area of the rheological hysteresis loop with sweep time in simple yield stress fluids, and the bell shaped dependence of hysteresis loop area on sweep time in viscosity bifurcating fluids. We provide arguments explaining these two different functional forms in terms of differing tendencies of simple and viscosity bifurcating fluids to form shear bands during the sweeps, and show that the banding behaviour captured by our simulations indeed agrees with that reported experimentally. We also discuss the difference in hysteresis behaviour between inelastic and viscoelastic fluids. Our simulations qualitatively agree with the experimental data discussed here for four different soft glassy materials.

  8. High-dose boron and silver ion implantation into PMMA probed by slow positrons: Effects of carbonization and formation of metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavetskyy, T.; Iida, K.; Nagashima, Y.; Kuczumow, A.; Šauša, O.; Nuzhdin, V.; Valeev, V.; Stepanov, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    The Doppler broadening slow positron beam spectroscopy (SPBS) data for the previously observed effect of carbonization in high-dose (>1016 ion/cm2) 40 keV boron-ion-implanted polymethylmethacrylate (B:PMMA) and another one obtained for the effect of formation of metal nanoparticles in high-dose 30 keV silver-ion-implanted polymer (Ag:PMMA) are compared. Following to the Doppler broadening SPBS results, a difference in the high-dose ion-irradiation-induced processes in B:PMMA and Ag:PMMA is detected.

  9. On the Marginal Stability of Glassy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Le; Baity-Jesi, Marco; Müller, Markus; Wyart, Matthieu

    2015-03-01

    In various glassy systems that are out of equilibrium, like spin glasses and granular packings, the dynamics appears to be critical: avalanches involving almost the whole system could happen. A recent conceptual breakthrough argues that such glassy systems sample the ensemble of marginal stable states, which inevitably results into critical dynamics. However, it is unclear how the marginal stability is dynamically guaranteed. We investigate this marginal stability assumption by studying specifically the critical athermal dynamics of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. We discuss how a pseudo-gap in the density distribution of local fields characterizing the marginal stability arises dynamically.

  10. Improved adhesion of ultra-hard carbon films on cobalt-chromium orthopaedic implant alloy.

    PubMed

    Catledge, Shane A; Vaid, Rishi; Diggins, Patrick; Weimer, Jeffrey J; Koopman, Mark; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2011-02-01

    While interfacial graphite formation and subsequent poor film adhesion is commonly reported for chemical vapor deposited hard carbon films on cobalt-based materials, we find the presence of O(2) in the feedgas mixture to be useful in achieving adhesion on a CoCrMo alloy. Nucleation studies of surface structure before formation of fully coalesced hard carbon films reveal that O(2) feedgas helps mask the catalytic effect of cobalt with carbon through early formation of chromium oxides and carbides. The chromium oxides, in particular, act as a diffusion barrier to cobalt, minimizing its migration to the surface where it would otherwise interact deleteriously with carbon to form graphite. When O(2) is not used, graphitic soot forms and films delaminate readily upon cooling to room temperature. Continuous 1 μm-thick nanostructured carbon films grown with O(2) remain adhered with measured hardness of 60 GPa and show stable, non-catastrophic circumferential micro-cracks near the edges of indent craters made using Rockwell indentation.

  11. On the cytoskeleton and soft glassy rheology.

    PubMed

    Mandadapu, Kranthi K; Govindjee, Sanjay; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2008-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex structure within the cellular corpus that is responsible for the main structural properties and motilities of cells. A wide range of models have been utilized to understand cytoskeletal rheology and mechanics (see e.g. [Mofrad, M., Kamm, R., 2006. Cytoskeletal Mechanics: Models and Measurements. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]). From this large collection of proposed models, the soft glassy rheological model (originally developed for inert soft glassy materials) has gained a certain traction in the literature due to the close resemblance of its predictions to certain mechanical data measured on cell cultures [Fabry, B., Maksym, G., Butler, J., Glogauer, M., Navajas, D., Fredberg, J., 2001. Scaling the microrheology of living cells. Physical Review Letters 87, 14102]. We first review classical linear rheological theory in a concise fashion followed by an examination of the soft glassy rheological theory. With this background we discuss the observed behavior of the cytoskeleton and the inherent limitations of classical rheological models for the cytoskeleton. This then leads into a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages presented to us by the soft glassy rheological model. We close with some comments of caution and recommendations on future avenues of exploration.

  12. Inelastic Deformation and Fracture of Glassy Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    cyclic energy loss but also the so-called dinamic modulus as a function of temperature at a given frequency. As in the case of metal- lic glasses the...interactions molecular structures of several glassy polymers have been obtained by static energy minimization techniques. These include polypropy- lene

  13. Absorption Of Gases By Glassy Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedors, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses solubility of gas in glassy polymer, both above and below glass-transition temperature (Tg). Thermodynamic arguments brought to bear on previously-developed mathematical models, result being new model that enables calculation of infinite-dilution partial molar volume of solvent in glass or liquid solvent from data on pressure, volume, and temperature of solute in equilibrium with solvent.

  14. Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Metallic Glassy Alloys and Glassy-Crystal Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Li, S.; Kawashima, A.; Xie, G.; Yavari, A. R.; Inoue, A.

    2011-06-01

    The present work demonstrates the deformation behavior of Zr-Cu-Ni-Al bulk glassy alloys and Zr-Ni-Cu-Al-Pd glassy foils as well as Ni-Cu-Ti-Zr bulk crystal-glassy composites. Fracture of Zr60Cu16Ni14Al10 and Zr64.13Ni10.12Cu15.75Al10 bulk glassy alloys is featured by nearly equal fraction areas of cleavage-like and vein-type relief. The observed pattern of alternating cleavage-like and vein-type patterns illustrates a result of dynamically self-organizing shear propagation at the final catastrophic stage. The deformation behavior of Zr64.13Ni10.12Cu15.75Al10 alloy has also been tested at LN2 temperature. The strength of the sample decreases with temperature, and no clear serrated flow typical for bulk glassy samples tested at room temperature is observed in the case of the samples tested at LN2 temperature. We also studied the deformation behavior of Zr-Ni-Cu-Al-Pd glassy foils thinned to electron transparency in situ in tension in a transmission electron microscope. We also present a Ni-Cu-Ti-Zr crystal-glassy composite material having a superior strength paired with a considerable ductility exceeding 10 pct. The metastable cP2 crystalline phase promotes a strain-induced martensitic transformation leading to pseudoelastic behavior as well as enhanced plasticity at room temperature. Underlying mechanisms of plastic deformation are discussed in terms of the interplay between the dislocation slip in the crystalline phase and the shear deformation in the glassy matrix.

  15. Biofunctionalization of silicone rubber with microgroove-patterned surface and carbon-ion implantation to enhance biocompatibility and reduce capsule formation

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ze-yuan; Liu, Ting; Li, Wei-juan; Shi, Xiao-hua; Fan, Dong-li

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Silicone rubber implants have been widely used to repair soft tissue defects and deformities. However, poor biocompatibility can elicit capsule formation, usually resulting in prosthesis contracture and displacement in long-term usage. To overcome this problem, this study investigated the properties of silicone rubber materials with or without a microgroove-patterned surface and with or without carbon (C)-ion implantation. Materials and methods Atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and a water contact angle test were used to characterize surface morphology and physicochemical properties. Cytocompatibility was investigated by a cell adhesion experiment, immunofluorescence staining, a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and scanning electron microscopy in vitro. Histocompatibility was evaluated by studying the inflammatory response and fiber capsule formation that developed after subcutaneous implantation in rats for 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days in vivo. Results Parallel microgrooves were found on the surfaces of patterned silicone rubber (P-SR) and patterned C-ion-implanted silicone rubber (PC-SR). Irregular larger peaks and deeper valleys were present on the surface of silicone rubber implanted with C ions (C-SR). The silicone rubber surfaces with microgroove patterns had stable physical and chemical properties and exhibited moderate hydrophobicity. PC-SR exhibited moderately increased dermal fibroblast cell adhesion and growth, and its surface microstructure promoted orderly cell growth. Histocompatibility experiments on animals showed that both the anti-inflammatory and antifibrosis properties of PC-SR were slightly better than those of the other materials, and there was also a lower capsular contracture rate and less collagen deposition around implants made from PC-SR. Conclusion Although the surface chemical properties, dermal fibroblast cell growth, and cell adhesion were not changed by microgroove pattern modification, a more orderly cell

  16. [Experimental-morphologic study of bone tissue reaction to carbon-containing material implantation with initiated X-ray contrast property].

    PubMed

    Grigorian, A S; Nabiev, F Kh; Golovin, R V

    2005-01-01

    In experimental study on 15 rabbits (chinchilla) influence of titanium plates implanted lapped on adjacent tissues in the region of the lower jaw body (comparison group) and carbon material with added boron in the concentrations of 8 and 15% (the study group) was studied. Results of the experimental-morphological investigation show that carbon-based materials with boron addition (with its content 8 and 15%) did not impede adaptive rebuilding of bone tissues and in particular bone structure regeneration in the process of reactive rebuilding of the "maternal" bone. Moreover, as the result of reactive processes developing in osseous tissues after implantation of the tested materials their successful integration in surrounding tissue structures was detected.

  17. Biological and physicochemical properties of carbon-graphite fibre-reinforced polymers intended for implant suprastructures.

    PubMed

    Segerström, Susanna; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla; Ruyter, Eystein I

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine water sorption, water solubility, dimensional change caused by water storage, residual monomers, and possible cytotoxic effects of heat-polymerized carbon-graphite fibre-reinforced composites with different fibre loadings based on methyl methacrylate/poly(methyl methacrylate) (MMA/PMMA) and the copolymer poly (vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate). Two different resin systems were used. Resin A contained ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA); the cross-linker in Resin B was diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGDMA). The resin mixtures were reinforced with 24, 36 and 47 wt% surface-treated carbon-graphite fibres. In addition, polymer B was reinforced with 58 wt% fibres. Water sorption was equal to or below 3.34±1.18 wt%, except for the 58 wt% fibre loading of polymer B (5.27±1.22 wt%). Water solubility was below 0.36±0.015 wt%, except for polymer B with 47 and 58 wt% fibres. For all composites, the volumetric increase was below 0.01±0.005 vol%. Residual MMA monomer was equal to or below 0.68±0.05 wt% for the fibre composites. The filter diffusion test and the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay demonstrated no cytotoxicity for the carbon-graphite fibre-reinforced composites, and residual cross-linking agents and vinyl chloride were not detectable by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.

  18. Plastic flow modeling in glassy polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Brad

    2010-12-13

    Glassy amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers exhibit strong rate, temperature, and pressure dependent polymeric yield. As a rule of thumb, in uniaxial compression experiments the yield stress increases with the loading rate and applied pressure, and decreases as the temperature increases. Moreover, by varying the loading state itself complex yield behavior can be observed. One example that illustrates this complexity is that most polymers in their glassy regimes (i.e., when the temperature is below their characteristic glass transition temperature) exhibit very pronounced yield in their uniaxial stress stress-strain response but very nebulous yield in their uniaxial strain response. In uniaxial compression, a prototypical glassy-polymer stress-strain curve has a stress plateau, often followed by softening, and upon further straining, a hardening response. Uniaxial compression experiments of this type are typically done from rates of 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} up to about 1 s{sup -1}. At still higher rates, say at several thousands per second as determined from Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar experiments, the yield can again be measured and is consistent with the above rule of thumb. One might expect that that these two sets of experiments should allow for a successful extrapolation to yet higher rates. A standard means to probe high rates (on the order of 105-107 S-I) is to use a uniaxial strain plate impact experiment. It is well known that in plate impact experiments on metals that the yield stress is manifested in a well-defined Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL). In contrast however, when plate impact experiments are done on glassy polymers, the HEL is arguably not observed, let alone observed at the stress estimated by extrapolating from the lower strain rate experiments. One might argue that polymer yield is still active but somehow masked by the experiment. After reviewing relevant experiments, we attempt to address this issue. We begin by first presenting our recently

  19. Elimination of carbon vacancies in 4H-SiC epi-layers by near-surface ion implantation: Influence of the ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Ayedh, H. M.; Svensson, B. G.

    2015-11-07

    The carbon vacancy (V{sub C}) is a prevailing point defect in high-purity 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, and it plays a decisive role in controlling the charge carrier lifetime. One concept of reducing the V{sub C}-concentration is based on carbon self-ion implantation in a near surface layer followed by thermal annealing. This leads to injection of carbon interstitials (C{sub i}'s) and annihilation of V{sub C}'s in the epi-layer “bulk”. Here, we show that the excess of C atoms introduced by the self-ion implantation plays a negligible role in the V{sub C} annihilation. Actually, employing normalized implantation conditions with respect to displaced C atoms, other heavier ions like Al and Si are found to be more efficient in annihilating V{sub C}'s. Concentrations of V{sub C} below ∼2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} can be reached already after annealing at 1400 °C, as monitored by deep-level transient spectroscopy. This corresponds to a reduction in the V{sub C}-concentration by about a factor of 40 relative to the as-grown state of the epi-layers studied. The negligible role of the implanted species itself can be understood from simulation results showing that the concentration of displaced C atoms exceeds the concentration of implanted species by two to three orders of magnitude. The higher efficiency for Al and Si ions is attributed to the generation of collision cascades with a sufficiently high energy density to promote C{sub i}-clustering and reduce dynamic defect annealing. These C{sub i}-related clusters will subsequently dissolve during the post-implant annealing giving rise to enhanced C{sub i} injection. However, at annealing temperatures above 1500 °C, thermodynamic equilibrium conditions start to apply for the V{sub C}-concentration, which limit the net effect of the C{sub i} injection, and a competition between the two processes occurs.

  20. Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry

    This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…

  1. A model of adsorption of albumin on the implant surface titanium and titanium modified carbon coatings (MWCNT-EPD). 2D correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Stodolak-Zych, Ewa; Piś, Wojciech; Długoń, Elżbieta; Benko, Aleksandra; Błażewicz, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Common materials used as orthopedic implants are titanium and its alloys. To improve its compatibility with the environment of a living organism titanium implant surfaces are covered with bioactive layers of MWCNT. During the insertion into a living organism such material is exposed to direct contact with the patient's blood, which includes proteins - eg. albumin. The adsorption of albumin may constitute one of the early stages of implant surface modification serving cell adhesion. An analysis of this phenomenon in terms of the kinetics of deposition of protein on the surface of the implant confirms its biocompatibility in vivo. The proposed working model of the adsorption of albumin allows for choosing the best of time for the protein to form a stable connection with the surface of the titanium implant. Traditional methods of materials engineering and chemistry allow for the obtaining of information about the presence of a protein on the surface (UV-Vis, the wettability). The application of 2D correlation analysis, in turn, gains insight into the dynamics of the changes associated with the deposition of protein (the formation of a uniform layer, the change in conformation). This analysis has allowed for the selection of an optimal time of protein adsorption to the surface of the implant. Better compatibility with the body of the implant provides its modification by introducing layers that accelerate the material-tissue interactions. Such a composition is a layer of carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) deposited on titanium by the electrophoretic (EPD) method. Using Raman spectroscopy and analyzing the spectra with the 2D correlation method it is possible to gain insight into the molecular structure of this layer. Our studies indicate that albumin in contact with the surface of titanium has obtained stable conformation after 30 min (confirmed by: UV-Vis, Raman). Shifts of the CH2, CH3 stretching bands position as well as an analysis of the amide I band confirms this

  2. Water uptake impedance of glassy organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, T.; Zobrist, B.; Krieger, U. K.; Luo, B. P.; Soonsin, V.; Marcolli, C.; Koop, T.

    2009-04-01

    Depending on their concentration and composition, aerosols affect various atmospheric properties and processes, such as atmospheric chemistry and Earth's radiative budget. The atmospheric aerosol itself is a complex mixture of various inorganic and organic components, whereas the organic fraction can represent more than 50% of the total aerosol mass. It was recently shown that aerosols high in organics may be present in a glassy state (Zobrist et al., ACP, 8, 5221-5244, 2008). The glassy nature of the aerosols may influence their properties and restrict their functionalities severely, e.g. their water uptake, heterogeneous chemical reactions in their bulk or on their surfaces, as well as ice nucleation and ice crystal growth. Here, we present the first experiments on the water uptake by single levitated glassy aerosol particles using an electrodynamic balance (EDB). Sucrose was chosen as a model substance, which comprises functional groups typical of organic species in the atmosphere. In addition we developed a microphysical model, which enables us to calculate the liquid diffusion inside a glassy particle using water diffusion coefficients in aqueous sucrose particles adapted from the literature. As the diffusion coefficient of water in the particle, D(cH2O), depends on the water concentration cH2O itself, the solution of the diffusion equation presents an interesting non-linear problem. The combined experimental and modelling approach allows describing in detail the water uptake by glassy aerosols at atmospherically relevant temperatures and relative humidities (RH). Hygroscopicity cycles were perfomed in the EDB starting from a crystalline (non-spherical) sucrose particle at 291 K. No water uptake was observed while RH was increased until the particle deliquesces at roughly 85% RH leading to a liquid (spherical) particle. In the subsequent drying cycle, surprisingly no efflorescence was observed when the particle was dried to below 5% and it remained spherical

  3. Glassy dynamics in thin films of polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Koji; Koizumi, Hiroki

    2008-02-01

    Glassy dynamics was investigated for thin films of atactic polystyrene by complex electric capacitance measurements using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. During the isothermal aging process the real part of the electric capacitance increased with time, whereas the imaginary part decreased with time. It follows that the aging time dependences of real and imaginary parts of the electric capacitance were primarily associated with change in volume (film thickness) and dielectric permittivity, respectively. Further, dielectric permittivity showed memory and rejuvenation effects in a similar manner to those observed for poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. On the other hand, volume did not show a strong rejuvenation effect.

  4. Hemocompatibility of nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon prepared by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sunny C H; Yang, Ping; Wang, Jin; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2004-07-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) has been shown to be a potential material in biomedical devices such as artificial heart valves, bone implants, and so on because of its chemical inertness, low coefficient of friction, high wear resistance, and good biocompatibility. However, the biomedical characteristics such as blood compatibility of doped hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) have not been investigated in details. We recently began to investigate the potential use of nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-free DLC in artificial heart valves. In our experiments, a series of hydrogen-free DLC films doped with nitrogen were synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition (PIII-D) utilizing a pulsed vacuum arc plasma source and different N to Ar (FN/FAr) gas mixtures in the plasma chamber. The structures and properties of the film were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To assess the blood compatibility of the films and the impact on the blood compatibility by the presence of nitrogen, platelet adhesion tests were conducted. Our results indicate that the blood compatibility of both hydrogen-free carbon films (a-C) and amorphous carbon nitride films are better than that of low-temperature isotropic pyrolytic carbon (LTIC). The experimental results are consistent with the relative theory of interfacial energy and surface tension including both dispersion and polar components. Our results also indicate that an optimal fraction of sp2 bonding is desirable, but an excessively high nitrogen concentration degrades the properties to an extent that the biocompatibility can be worse than that of LTIC.

  5. Graphene for Biomedical Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas; Podila, Ramakrishna; Alexis, Frank; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Bioengineering Team; Clemson Physics Team

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we used graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms, to modify the surfaces of existing implant materials to enhance both bio- and hemo-compatibility. This novel effort meets all functional criteria for a biomedical implant coating as it is chemically inert, atomically smooth and highly durable, with the potential for greatly enhancing the effectiveness of such implants. Specifically, graphene coatings on nitinol, a widely used implant and stent material, showed that graphene coated nitinol (Gr-NiTi) supports excellent smooth muscle and endothelial cell growth leading to better cell proliferation. We further determined that the serum albumin adsorption on Gr-NiTi is greater than that of fibrinogen, an important and well understood criterion for promoting a lower thrombosis rate. These hemo-and biocompatible properties and associated charge transfer mechanisms, along with high strength, chemical inertness and durability give graphene an edge over most antithrombogenic coatings for biomedical implants and devices.

  6. Formation of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles in the surface layer of a silicon target during short-pulse carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remnev, G. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Naiden, E. P.; Saltymakov, M. S.; Stepanov, A. V.; Shtan'ko, V. F.

    2009-04-01

    Synthesis of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles is studied during short-pulse implantation of carbon ions and protons into a silicon target. The experiments are carried out using a TEMP source of pulsed powerful ion beams based on a magnetically insulated diode with radial magnetic field B r . The beam parameters are as follows: the ion energy is 300 keV, the pulse duration is 80 ns, the beam consists of carbon ions and protons, and the ion current density is 30 A/cm2. Single-crystal silicon wafers serve as a target. SiC nanoparticles and nanodiamonds form in the surface layer of silicon subjected to more than 100 pulses. The average coherent domain sizes in the SiC particles and nanodiamonds are 12-16 and 8-9 nm, respectively.

  7. Graphene synthesis by ion implantation

    PubMed Central

    Garaj, Slaven; Hubbard, William; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an ion implantation method for large-scale synthesis of high quality graphene films with controllable thickness. Thermally annealing polycrystalline nickel substrates that have been ion implanted with carbon atoms results in the surface growth of graphene films whose average thickness is controlled by implantation dose. The graphene film quality, as probed with Raman and electrical measurements, is comparable to previously reported synthesis methods. The implantation synthesis method can be generalized to a variety of metallic substrates and growth temperatures, since it does not require a decomposition of chemical precursors or a solvation of carbon into the substrate. PMID:21124725

  8. Deformation and failure of glassy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottler, Joerg Gerhard

    Elastoplastic deformation of disordered solids and the formation of polymer crazes in amorphous polymer glasses are studied using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that the pressure-modified von Mises criterion accurately describes the maximum shear yield stress under general loading conditions. The pressure coefficient is insensitive to most model parameters, but is related to the bead geometry in analogy to friction coefficients. The yield stress decreases linearly with rising temperature and the strain rate dependence can be described by a power-law, or in a limited range, by a logarithm. The rate dependence does not vary with temperature, which is inconsistent with simple rate-state models of thermal activation such as the Eyring model. An analysis of the dynamics of the local stress distribution as well as modern phenomenological theories of rheology of glassy materials are discussed in light of these findings. We then present a comprehensive investigation of the deformation of glassy polymeric systems into a dense load-bearing network of fibrils and voids called a craze at large strains. This expansion takes place in the form of a drawing process, where the strain rate is strongly localized in a narrow interface region between dense polymer and craze. The expansion is controlled by some polymer chain segments between entanglements that are stretched taut during crazing. We also find that the distribution of tension in the craze develops an exponential force tail in close analogy to compressed jammed systems such as granular media. This highly anisotropic stress distribution and the localization of large forces on relatively few chains indicate that earlier models of the crazing process that treat the polymer as a viscous fluid with hydrodynamic interactions are incorrect. Simulations and simple scaling arguments are presented that describe craze breakdown through disentanglement or chain scission. Glassy polymers exhibit an unusually

  9. Simulations of Soft Glassy Matter with Ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyun Joo; Riggleman, Robert; Crocker, John

    2015-03-01

    Soft glassy matter (SGM) such as foams, emulsions, and colloids, exhibit interesting rheological properties that have long defied explanation. In particular, the shear modulus of these materials displays weak power law frequency dependence. To understand the origin of this property in more depth, we have built a three-dimensional, modified Bubble Dynamics model. The bubbles interact with a purely repulsive harmonic potential and ripen according to diffusion-based governing equations. An energy minimizer is implemented to quasi-statically relax topological rearrangements in the system as ripening proceeds. Preliminary results show that the model displays expected intermittent particle rearrangements and a weakly frequency-dependent shear modulus behaving like a power law fluid. We find that the anomalous relaxation properties and avalanche-like nature of the rearrangements can be related to different measures of the systems potential energy landscape.

  10. Glassy Dynamics, Cell Mechanics and Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Corey; Rajendran, Kavitha; Manomohan, Greeshma; Tambe, Dhananjay T.; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Martinelli, Roberta; Carman, Christopher V.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    A key feature of all inflammatory processes is disruption of the vascular endothelial barrier. Such disruption is initiated in part through active contraction of the cytoskeleton of the endothelial cell (EC). Because contractile forces are propagated from cell to cell across a great many cell-cell junctions, this contractile process is strongly cooperative and highly nonlocal. We show here that the characteristic length scale of propagation is modulated by agonists and antagonists that impact permeability of the endothelial barrier. In the presence of agonists including thrombin, histamine, and H202, force correlation length increases, whereas in the presence of antagonists including sphingosine-1-phosphate, hepatocyte growth factor, and the rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632, force correlation length decreases. Intercellular force chains and force clusters are also evident, both of which are reminiscent of soft glassy materials approaching a glass transition. PMID:23638866

  11. Active fluidization in dense glassy systems.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rituparno; Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Rao, Madan; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-07-20

    Dense soft glasses show strong collective caging behavior at sufficiently low temperatures. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a model glass former, we show that the incorporation of activity or self-propulsion, f0, can induce cage breaking and fluidization, resulting in the disappearance of the glassy phase beyond a critical f0. The diffusion coefficient crosses over from being strongly to weakly temperature dependent as f0 is increased. In addition, we demonstrate that activity induces a crossover from a fragile to a strong glass and a tendency of active particles to cluster. Our results are of direct relevance to the collective dynamics of dense active colloidal glasses and to recent experiments on tagged particle diffusion in living cells.

  12. Shear banding in soft glassy materials.

    PubMed

    Fielding, S M

    2014-10-01

    Many soft materials, including microgels, dense colloidal emulsions, star polymers, dense packings of multilamellar vesicles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic 'glassy' features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). Despite being technically transient, such bands may in practice persist for a very long time and so be mistaken for the true steady state response of the material in experimental practice. After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike.

  13. Computer simulations of athermal and glassy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ning

    2005-12-01

    We performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations to better understand athermal and glassy systems near jamming transitions. We focused on four related projects. In the first project, we decomposed the probability distribution P(φ) of finding a collectively jammed state at packing fraction φ into two distinct contributions: the density of CJ states rho(φ) and their basins of attraction beta(φ). In bidisperse systems, it is likely that rho(φ) controls the shape of P(φ) in the large system size limit, and thus the most likely random jammed state may be used as a protocol independent definition of random close packing in this system. In the second project, we measured the yield stress in two different ensembles: constant shear rate and constant stress. The yield stress measured in the constant stress ensemble is larger than that measured in the constant shear rate ensemble, however, the difference between these two measurements decreases with increasing system size. In the third project, we investigated under what circumstances nonlinear velocity profiles form in frictionless granular systems undergoing boundary driven planar shear flow. Nonlinear velocity profiles occur at short times, but evolve into linear profiles at long times. Nonlinear velocity profiles can be stabilized by vibrating these systems. The velocity profile can become highly localized when the shear stress of the system is below the constant force yield stress, provided that the granular temperature difference across the system is sufficiently large. In the fourth project, we measured the effective temperature defined from equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relations in athermal and glassy systems sheared at constant pressure. We found that the effective temperature is strongly controlled by pressure in the slowly sheared regime. Thus, this effective temperature and pressure are not independent variables in this regime.

  14. Permeability control of GPC drug delivery by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.L. |; Ila, D.; Poker, D.B.; Withrow, S.P.

    1997-02-01

    MeV Ion beams are used to tailor the drug delivery rate of materials with dual usage of prosthesis devices and drug encapsulation. Available surface porosity and diffusivity can be controlled by the choice of specie, fluence and energy of the bombarding ions. Together with appropriate drug concentration gradients within the capsule, the capsule can be made to deliver an initial dose rate either higher or lower than the steady state value for a predetermined time. The exceptional biocompatibility as well as porosity of glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) make it the favored material for drug encapsulation. A wide range of available porosity in the bulk material can be produced by heat treatment. We demonstrate that lithium diffusivity near the surface of GPC can be increased by carbon, oxygen or silicon ion bombardment and can be decreased by gold ion bombardment. In addition enhanced absorption of lithium in a layer near the end of the range of the implanted ions has been observed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. How can we improve sub 40 nm Transistor properties by using Ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anbae; Jin, Seungwoo; Joo, Younghwan; Jang, Ilsik; Cha, Jaechun; Jeong, Kichel; Kang, Hyosang; Cho, Cjay; Jang, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Sunny

    2011-01-01

    To extend current process, it is required develop new implantation method. One of promising candidates are carbon implant, cold implant, or cold carbon implantation. To improve transistor properties, we have evaluated those implantation methods in Lightly doped drain (LDD), Source/Drain(S/D,P+ BF2, N+ As) and N+ add implant step. Carbon (C+) implantation could improve Short channel effect(SCE), cold implantation decrease Drain induced barrier lowering(DIBL), Sense and amplifer(S/A) mismatch and contact resistance. Cold carbon implant improved junction Breakdown voltage(BV). Optimization of process conditions and junction profiles is required for optimum device performance.

  16. A Statistical Approach to Relaxation in Glassy Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    Approach to Relaxation in Glassy Materials bya by DTIC Et. ECTE Karina Weron M A. and S "z’ Aleksander Weron ApptovC fcv - " Technical Report No. 82...STATISTICAL APPROACH TO RELAXATION IN GLASSY MATERIALS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Karina Weron and Aleksander Weron 13.. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE A Statistical Approach to Relaxation in Glassy Materials1 Karina Weron Institute of Physics Technical University of Wroclaw 50-370

  17. Transport Anomalies and Possible High Tc Superconductivity in interconnected multiwall carbon nanotube sheets doped by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidov, Anvar; Howard, Austin; Cornell, Nicholas; Goskun, Ulas; Salamon, Myron; Baughman, Ray; Bykova, Julia; Mayo, Nathanael; Wang, Xuemei; Galstyan, Eduard; Freyhardt, Herbert; Kan Chu, Wei

    2012-02-01

    Ion implantation offers an alternative doping method. In searching for superconductivity,we describe here the ion-implantation doping of MWCNT interconnected networks by boron and other dopants (phosphorous, sulfur, arsenic) and report transport anomalies in oriented networks of ion implanted MWCNT sheets as compared to cross coated (non-oriented multilayer MWCNT sheets). The strong drop of resistance R(T) with temperature decrease starting at Tc1= 50-60 K and even at higher T is reminiscent of inhomogeneous superconducting islands appearing in the non-SC matrix. An unusual anomaly of the 4-terminal resistance is observed in many samples, R(T) becoming negative at lower T< Tc2 ˜ 10-20 K, This negative resistance is found to be associated with unusual I-V curves with s-shape at low T < Tc2 and R(T) shows nonlinear dependence on excitation current and other features that are studied carefully in MWCNTs with different lengths and densities. This negative-resistance behavior gives a hint for the possible incorporation of superconducting areas and can be explained in terms of an imbalanced resistance bridge.

  18. Structural, mechanical and hydrophobic properties of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon films synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII?D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zh. Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Sun, H.; Wang, J.

    2004-05-01

    Fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (a-C:F) films with different fluorine content were fabricated on Si wafer by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D). Film composition and structure were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman scattering spectroscopy. Surface morphology and roughness were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hardness and scratch resistance were measured by nano-indentation and nano-scratch, respectively. Water contact angles were measured by sessile drop method. With the increase of the CF 4 flux, fluorine content was gradually increased to the film. Raman spectra indicates that these films have a diamond-like structure. The addition of fluorine to diamond-like carbon films had a critical influence on the film properties. The film surface becomes more smoother due to the etching behavior of F +. Hardness was significantly reduced, while the scratch resistance results show that these films have a fairly good adhesion to the substrate. Evident improvements of the hydrophobicity have been made to these films, with contact angles of double-stilled water approaching that of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Our study suggests that broad application regions of the fluorine-doped amorphous carbon films with diamond-like structure, synthesized by PIII-D, can be extended by combining the non-wetting properties and mechanical properties which are far superior to those of PTFE.

  19. Characteristics of diamond-like carbon film synthesized on AISI 304 austenite stainless steel using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J. H.; Chen, M. H.; Tsai, W. F.; Lee, S. C.; Ai, C. F.

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film synthesized on AISI 304 austenite stainless steel by means of a hybrid process of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) maintained at 60 °C. The former and latter processes under investigation were carried out using methane (0-20 kV) and acetylene (1-2 kV, 0.13-0.40 Pa) plasmas, respectively. Glow discharge spectrometry (GDS), Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), a nano-indentation probe (NIP) and a Rockwell-C hardness tester were employed to characterize, respectively, elemental depth profiles, sp3-to-sp2 ratio, surface morphology, hardness and adhesion strength of the DLC specimen. The results revealed that the mixing layer at the interface generated by plasma immersion ion implantation of methane at a higher voltage could enhance adhesive strength of the DLC film to the substrate. Furthermore, a higher sp3-to-sp2 ratio, a smoother surface, greater hardness, but weaker adhesion strength were obtained for the DLC film synthesized using plasma immersion ion deposition of acetylene at a lower bias voltage or higher gas pressure.

  20. Adhesion in hydrogels and model glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guvendiren, Murat

    Two main topics are addressed in this dissertation: (1) adhesion in hydrogels; (2) interfacial interactions between model glassy polymers. A self-assembly technique for the formation of hydrogels from acrylic triblock copolymer solutions was developed, based on vapor phase solvent exchange. Structure formation in the gels was characterized by small angle X-ray scattering, and swelling was measured in controlled pH buffer solutions. Strong gels are formed with polymer weight fractions between 0.01 and 0.15, and with shear moduli between 0.6 kPa and 3.5 kPa. Adhesive functionality, based on 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA) was also incorporated into the triblock copolymers. The effect of DOPA concentration on gel formation and swelling was investigated in detail. The adhesive properties of DOPA-functionalized hydrogels on TiO2 were investigated with an axisymmetric adhesion method. It was shown that the presence of DOPA enhances the adhesive properties of the hydrogels, but that the effect is minimized at pH values below 10, where the DOPA groups are hydrophobic. Thin film membranes were produced in order to study the specific interactions between DOPA and TiO2 and DOPA and tissue, using a membrane inflation method. The presence of DOPA in the membranes enhances the adhesion on TiO 2 and tissue, although adhesion to tissue requires that the DOPA groups be oxidized while in contact with the tissue of interest. Porous hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were formed by adding salt crystals to the triblock copolymer solution prior to solvent exchange. Salt was then leached out by immersing the gel into water. Structures of the porous hydrogels were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. These hydrogels were shown to be suitable for tissue regeneration and drug delivery applications. Diffusion-mediated adhesion between two component miscible polymer systems having very different glassy temperatures was also investigated. Axisymmetric

  1. No inherent glassiness in a Penrose tiling quasicrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Strandburg, K.J.; Dressel, P.R.

    1988-11-01

    Consideration of the structure of the Penrose pattern has led to speculation that a system with a Penrose tiling ground state might be subject to inherent glassy behavior. Monte Carol simulations show, using a simple model of the energetics, that there is no inherent glassiness in the Penrose tiling. Thermodynamic quantities measured are completely reversible, displaying no observable hysterisis, and the system may be easily cooled from a highly disordered configuration into its lowest energy state. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  2. High Strain Rate Mechanical Properties of Glassy Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-25

    Force Materiel Command  United States Air Force  Eglin Air Force Base AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2012-008 High Strain Rate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Strain Rate Mechanical Properties of Glassy Polymers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...1990s, a range of experimental data has been generated describing the response of glassy polymers to high strain rate loading in compression. More

  3. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.

  4. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIDCD A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense ... are better able to hear, comprehend sound and music, and speak than their peers who receive implants ...

  5. Cochlear implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... antenna. This part of the implant receives the sound, converts the sound into an electrical signal, and sends it to ... implants allow deaf people to receive and process sounds and speech. However, these devices do not restore ...

  6. Glassy state of native collagen fibril?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorkian, S. G.; Allahverdyan, A. E.; Gevorgyan, D. S.; Hu, C.-K.

    2011-07-01

    Our micromechanical experiments show that viscoelastic features of type-I collagen fibril at physiological temperatures display essential dependence on the frequency and speed of heating. For temperatures of 20-30 °C the internal friction has a sharp maximum for a frequency less than 2 kHz. Upon heating the internal friction displays a peak at a temperature Tsoft(v) that essentially depends on the speed of heating v: Tsoft≈70°C for v=1°C/min, and Tsoft≈25°C for v=0.1°C/min. At the same temperature Tsoft(v) Young's modulus passes through a minimum. All these effects are specific for the native state of the fibril and disappear after heat-denaturation. Taken together with the known facts that the fibril is axially ordered as quasicrystal, but disordered laterally, we interpret our findings as indications of a glassy state, where Tsoft is the softening transition.

  7. RBS and ERDA determinations of depth distributions of high-dose carbon ions implanted in silicon for silicon carbide synthesis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intarasiri, S.; Kamwanna, T.; Hallén, A.; Yu, L. D.; Janson, M. S.; Thongleum, C.; Possnert, G.; Singkarat, S.

    2006-08-01

    For ion beam synthesis of silicon carbide (SiC), a knowledge of the depth distribution of implanted carbon ions in silicon is crucial for successful development. Based on its simplicity and availability, we selected Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) as an analysis technique for this purpose. A self-developed computer program dedicated to extract depth profiles of lighter impurities in heavier matrix is established. For control, calculated results are compared with an other ion beam analysis (IBA) technique superior for studying lighter impurity in heavier substrate i.e. elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). The RBS was performed with a 1.7-MV Tandetron accelerator using He2+ as the probe ions. The ERDA was performed with a 5-MV Pelletron accelerator using I8+ as the probe ions. This work shows that the RBS-extracted data had no significant deviations from those of ERDA and simulations by SRIM2003 and SIIMPL computer codes. We also found that annealing at temperatures as high as 1000 °C had quite limited effect on the redistribution of carbon in silicon.

  8. Shear banding in soft glassy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Many soft materials, including microgels, dense colloidal emulsions, star polymers, dense packings of multilamellar vesicles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic ‘glassy’ features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). Despite being technically transient, such bands may in practice persist for a very long time and so be mistaken for the true steady state response of the material in experimental practice. After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike.

  9. Mild in situ growth of platinum nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotube-poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel electrode for glucose electrochemical oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shumin; Zheng, Yudong; Qiao, Kun; Su, Lei; Sanghera, Amendeep; Song, Wenhui; Yue, Lina; Sun, Yi

    2015-12-01

    This investigation describes an effective strategy to fabricate an electrochemically active hybrid hydrogel made from platinum nanoparticles that are highly dense, uniformly dispersed, and tightly embedded throughout the conducting hydrogel network for the electrochemical oxidation of glucose. A suspension of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyvinyl alcohol aqueous was coated on glassy carbon electrode by electrophoretic deposition and then physically crosslinked to form a three-dimensional porous conductive hydrogel network by a process of freezing and thawing. The network offered 3D interconnected mass-transport channels (around 200 nm) and confined nanotemplates for in situ growth of uniform platinum nanoparticles via the moderate reduction agent, ascorbic acid. The resulting hybrid hydrogel electrode membrane demonstrates an effective method for loading platinum nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by the electrostatic adsorption between multiwalled carbon nanotubes and platinum ions within porous hydrogel network. The average diameter of platinum nanoparticles is 37 ± 14 nm, which is less than the particle size by only using the moderate reduction agent. The hybrid hydrogel electrode membrane-coated glassy carbon electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity and good long-term stability toward glucose electrochemical oxidation. The glucose oxidation current exhibited a linear relationship with the concentration of glucose in the presence of chloride ions, promising for potential applications of implantable biofuel cells, biosensors, and electronic devices.

  10. Implantable Microimagers

    PubMed Central

    Ng, David C.; Tokuda, Takashi; Shiosaka, Sadao; Tano, Yasuo; Ohta, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers, drug-delivery systems, and defibrillators have had a tremendous impact on the quality of live for many disabled people. To date, many devices have been developed for implantation into various parts of the human body. In this paper, we focus on devices implanted in the head. In particular, we describe the technologies necessary to create implantable microimagers. Design, fabrication, and implementation issues are discussed vis-à-vis two examples of implantable microimagers; the retinal prosthesis and in vivo neuro-microimager. Testing of these devices in animals verify the use of the microimagers in the implanted state. We believe that further advancement of these devices will lead to the development of a new method for medical and scientific applications. PMID:27879873

  11. Thermodynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    1998-03-01

    The behavior of metastable water at low temperatures is unusual. The isothermal compressibility, the isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient increase sharply upon supercooling, and structural relaxation becomes extremely sluggish at temperatures far above the glass transition(Angell, C.A., Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem., 34, 593, 1983)(Debenedetti, P.G., Metastable Liquids. Concepts and Principles, Princeton University Press, 1996). Water has two distinct glassy phases, low- and high-density amorphous ice (LDA, HDA). The transition between LDA and HDA is accompanied by sharp volume and enthalpy changes, and appears to be first-order(Mishima, O., L.D.Calvert, and E. Whalley, Nature, 314, 76, 1985)(Mishima, O., J. Chem. Phys., 100, 5910, 1994). The understanding of these observations in terms of an underlying global phase behavior remains incomplete(Speedy, R.J., J. Phys. Chem., 86, 982, 1982)(Poole, P.H., F. Sciortino, U. Essman, and H.E. Stanley, Nature, 360, 324, 1992)(Sastry, S., P.G. Debenedetti, F. Sciortino, and H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E, 53, 6144, 1996)(Tanaka, H., Nature, 380, 328, 1996)(Xie, Y., K.F. Ludwig, G. Morales, D.E. Hare, and C.M. Sorensen, Phys. Rev. Lett., 71, 2050, 1993). Microscopic theories and computer simulations suggest several scenarios that can reproduce some experimental observations. Interesting and novel ideas have resulted from this body of theoretical work, such as the possibility of liquid-liquid immiscibility in a pure substance(Poole, P.H., F.Sciortino, T.Grande, H.E. Stanley, and C.A. Angell, Phys. Rev. Lett., 73, 1632, 1994)(Roberts, C.J., and P.G. Debenedetti, J. Chem. Phys., 105, 658, 1996)(Roberts, C.J., P.G. Debenedetti, and A.Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 4386, 1996)(Harrington, S., R. Zhang, P.H. Poole, F. Sciortino, and H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. Lett., 78, 2409, 1997). In this talk I will review the experimental facts, discuss their theoretical interpretation, and identify key

  12. Endodontic implants

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Tikku, A. P.; Chandra, Anil; Wadhwani, K. K.; Ashutosh kr; Singh, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic implants were introduced back in 1960. Endodontic implants enjoyed few successes and many failures. Various reasons for failures include improper case selection, improper use of materials and sealers and poor preparation for implants. Proper case selection had given remarkable long-term success. Two different cases are being presented here, which have been treated successfully with endodontic implants and mineral trioxide aggregate Fillapex (Andreaus, Brazil), an MTA based sealer. We suggest that carefully selected cases can give a higher success rate and this method should be considered as one of the treatment modalities. PMID:25298723

  13. Quasi-equilibrium in glassy dynamics: an algebraic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Silvio; Parisi, Giorgio

    2013-02-01

    We study a chain of identical glassy systems in a constrained equilibrium, where each bond of the chain is forced to remain at a preassigned distance to the previous one. We apply this description to mean-field glassy systems in the limit of a long chain where each bond is close to the previous one. We show that this construction defines a pseudo-dynamic process that in specific conditions can formally describe real relaxational dynamics for long times. In particular, in mean-field spin glass models we can recover in this way the equations of Langevin dynamics in the long time limit at the dynamical transition temperature and below. We interpret the formal identity as evidence that in these situations the configuration space is explored in a quasi-equilibrium fashion. Our general formalism, which relates dynamics to equilibrium, puts slow dynamics in a new perspective and opens the way to the computation of new dynamical quantities in glassy systems.

  14. Peculiarities of the enthalpy relaxation of a glassy crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcourt, O.; Descamps, M.; Even, J.; Bertault, M.; Willart, J. F.

    1997-02-01

    The relaxation of a supercooled orientational glassy crystal is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Aging performed both below and above Tg reveal two original features. (i) The glassy compound relaxes beyond the simple return to equilibration of the metastable rotator phase. The state which is reached upon aging however reverses back to the metastable state when crossing Tg. (ii) Upon reheating a transition between a low temperature ordered phase and the rotator phase is observed whose occurrence strongly depends on the aging conditions. The calorimetric signature of this transition and the usual glass relaxation endotherm are superimposed when annealing is performed below Tg. These results suggest that the peculiarities of the structure and dynamics of orientational glassy crystals lead to an effective acceleration of the relaxation process and enable the system to search for enthalpy states lower than it is usual for a glass.

  15. Void nucleation and disentanglement in glassy amorphous polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Dhiraj K.; Singh, Bhupinder; Basu, Sumit

    2010-07-01

    Cavitation in glassy polymers is known to result from highly triaxial states of local stress and the presence of impurities. Understanding of cavitation, particularly void nucleation, is important as cavities are precursors to crazes, which in turn lead to fracture. In this work we study the early stages of void nucleation in glassy amorphous polymers by imposing, in well designed molecular dynamics simulations, highly triaxial states of stress on ensembles of entangled linear macromolecular chains and monitoring the evolution of the entanglement network. Our results demonstrate that deformation induced disentanglement and rearrangement of topological constraints along individual chains play an important role in the early stages of void nucleation. Even in the glassy state, deformation causes significant changes in the rheological constraints on a chain though the number of interchain binary contacts may not change much.

  16. Optical speckles of blood proteins embedded in porous glassy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, T.; Dehipawala, S.; Kokkinos, D.; Berisha, A.; Cheung, E.; Nguyen, A.; Golebiewska, U.; Schneider, P.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2012-03-01

    Blood protein molecules could be embedded in porous glassy substrate with 10-nm pores. The embedding principle is based on blood cell dehydration with the destruction of the cell membrane, and reconstitution and centrifuge could yield a suitable solution for doping into a porous glassy medium. The doped glassy substrate speckle pattern under laser illumination could be used to characterize the protein size distribution. Calibration with known protein embedded samples would result in an optical procedure for the characterization of a blood sample. Samples embedded with larger kilo-Dalton protein molecule show more variation in the speckle patterns, consistent with protein folding interaction inside a pore cavity. A regression model has been used to correlate the protein molecule sizes with speckle sizes. The use of diffusion mean free path information to study protein folding in the embedding process is briefly discussed.

  17. The Erevan howardite: Petrology of glassy clasts and mineral chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazarov, M. A.; Ariskin, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Erevan howardite is a polymict regolith breccia containing xenoliths of carbonaceous chondrites. In this work, we studied glassy clasts, which could be considered as primary quenched melts, and mineral chemistry of the breccia. The study reveals that the Erevan howardite consists of common rocks of the HED suite. However, unique glassy clasts, which are present in some eucritic melts, were identified. The mineral chemistry and the simulation of crystallization of the melts suggest that the compositions of the melts reflect those of some primary lithologies of EPB.

  18. Course 14: Hiking through Glassy Phases: Physics beyond Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, L.; Viasnoff, V.; White, O.; et al.

    Experiments performed on a wide range of glassy materials display many interesting phenomena, such as aging behavior. In recent years, a large body of experiments probed this nonequilibrium glassy dynamics through elaborate protocols, in which external parameters are shifted, or cycled in the course of the experiment. We review here these protocols, as well as experimental and numerical results. Then, we critically discuss various theoretical approaches put forward in this context. Emphasis is put more on the generality of the phenomena than on a specific system. Experiments are also suggested.

  19. Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... sale in the United States: saline-filled and silicone gel-filled. Both types have a silicone outer shell. They vary in size, shell thickness, ... implant them. Provide information on saline-filled and silicone gel-filled breast implants, including data supporting a ...

  20. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  1. Playback interference of glassy-winged sharp shooter communication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal communication is vital to reproduction, particularly for securing a mate. Insects commonly communicate by exchanging vibrational signals that are transmitted through host plants. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, a pl...

  2. Thermodynamic behavior of glassy state of structurally related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-08-01

    Thermodynamic properties of amorphous pharmaceutical forms are responsible for enhanced solubility as well as poor physical stability. The present study was designed to investigate the differences in thermodynamic parameters arising out of disparate molecular structures and associations for four structurally related pharmaceutical compounds--celecoxib, valdecoxib, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib. Conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study glass forming ability and thermodynamic behavior of the glassy state of model compounds. Glass transition temperature of four glassy compounds was in a close range of 327.6-331.8 K, however, other thermodynamic parameters varied considerably. Kauzmann temperature, strength parameter and fragility parameter showed rofecoxib glass to be most fragile of the four compounds. Glass forming ability of the compounds fared similar in the critical cooling rate experiments, suggesting that different factors were determining the glass forming ability and subsequent behavior of the compounds in glassy state. A comprehensive understanding of such thermodynamic facets of amorphous form would help in rationalizing the approaches towards development of stable glassy pharmaceuticals.

  3. A method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify factors affecting glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production, a method to accurately estimate the number of mature eggs produced during a short-term assay is needed. Egg production is typically quantified by determining the number of eggs deposited during the assay plus the number of matu...

  4. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T; Evoy, Stephane

    2016-03-14

    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors.

  5. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T.; Evoy, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors. PMID:26985910

  6. A flexible and implantable microelectrode arrays using high-temperature grown vertical carbon nanotubes and a biocompatible polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wenwen; Chen, Chaoyang; Feng, Zhaoying; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Chengpeng; Masurkar, Nirul; Cavanaugh, John; Ming-Cheng Cheng, Mark

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel microelectrode arrays using high-temperature grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) integrated on a flexible and biocompatible parylene substrate. A simple microfabrication process is proposed to unite the high quality vertical CNTs grown at high temperature with the heat sensitive parylene substrate in a highly controllable manner. Briefly, the CNTs electrode is encapsulated by two layers of parylene and the device is released using xenon difluoride (XeF2). The process is compatible with wafer-scale post complementary metal oxide semiconductor integration. Lower impedance and larger interfacial capacitance have been demonstrated using CNTs compared to a Pt electrode. The flexible CNT electrodes have been utilized for extracellular neuronal recording and stimulation in rats. The signal-to-noise ratio of the device is about 12.5. The threshold voltage for initiating action potential is about 0.5 V.

  7. A flexible and implantable microelectrode arrays using high-temperature grown vertical carbon nanotubes and a biocompatible polymer substrate.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wenwen; Chen, Chaoyang; Feng, Zhaoying; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Chengpeng; Masurkar, Nirul; Cavanaugh, John; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng

    2015-03-27

    This paper presents a novel microelectrode arrays using high-temperature grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) integrated on a flexible and biocompatible parylene substrate. A simple microfabrication process is proposed to unite the high quality vertical CNTs grown at high temperature with the heat sensitive parylene substrate in a highly controllable manner. Briefly, the CNTs electrode is encapsulated by two layers of parylene and the device is released using xenon difluoride (XeF2). The process is compatible with wafer-scale post complementary metal oxide semiconductor integration. Lower impedance and larger interfacial capacitance have been demonstrated using CNTs compared to a Pt electrode. The flexible CNT electrodes have been utilized for extracellular neuronal recording and stimulation in rats. The signal-to-noise ratio of the device is about 12.5. The threshold voltage for initiating action potential is about 0.5 V.

  8. Histrelin Implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... implant (Supprelin LA) is used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP; a condition causing children to enter puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in girls ...

  9. Penile Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... placed inside the penis to allow men with erectile dysfunction (ED) to get an erection. Penile implants are ... complications and follow-up care. For most men, erectile dysfunction can be successfully treated with medications or use ...

  10. Cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Connell, Sarah S; Balkany, Thomas J

    2006-08-01

    Cochlear implants are cost-effective auditory prostheses that safely provide a high-quality sensation of hearing to adults who are severely or profoundly deaf. In the past 5 years, progress has been made in hardware and software design, candidate selection, surgical techniques, device programming, education and rehabilitation,and, most importantly, outcomes. Cochlear implantation in the elderly is well tolerated and provides marked improvement in auditory performance and psychosocial functioning.

  11. Contraceptive implants.

    PubMed

    McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E

    2010-03-01

    Implantable contraception has been extensively used worldwide. Implants are one of the most effective and reversible methods of contraception available. These devices may be particularly appropriate for certain populations of women, including women who cannot use estrogen-containing contraception. Implants are safe for use by women with many chronic medical problems. The newest implant, Implanon (Organon International, Oss, The Netherlands), is the only device currently available in the United States and was approved in 2006. It is registered for 3 years of pregnancy prevention. Contraceptive implants have failure rates similar to tubal ligation, and yet they are readily reversible with a return to fertility within days of removal. Moreover, these contraceptive devices can be safely placed in the immediate postpartum period, ensuring good contraceptive coverage for women who may be at risk for an unintended pregnancy. Irregular bleeding is a common side effect for all progestin-only contraceptive implants. Preinsertion counseling should address possible side effects, and treatment may be offered to women who experience prolonged or frequent bleeding.

  12. Dependence of implantation temperature on chemical behavior of energetic deuterium implanted into tungsten carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, E.; Nishikawa, Y.; Nakahata, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Oyaidzu, M.; Oya, Y.; Okuno, K.

    2007-06-01

    Dependence of implantation temperature on chemical behavior of energetic deuterium implanted into WC was investigated by TDS and XPS. 1.0 keV D2+ ions were implanted into WC samples at the implantation temperature range of 323-873 K. It was found that the deuterium retention decreased as the implantation temperature increased. Above 573 K, most of the retained deuterium was bound to C, which was less than 20% of the total D retention after D2+ implantation at 323 K. Above 673 K, C was segregated on the WC surface and some of the implanted deuterium was retained in the segregated carbon layer. Additionally, it can be said that the D retention in WC was much less than that in other carbon-related materials, such as graphite and SiC. Hydrogen isotope retention can be reduced significantly when WC is formed on a divertor surface as a redeposited layer.

  13. Synthesis of One-Dimensional SiC Nanostructures from a Glassy Buckypaper

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Mengning; Star, Alexander

    2013-02-21

    A simple and scalable synthetic strategy was developed for the fabrication of one-dimensional SiC nanostructures - nanorods and nanowires. Thin sheets of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by vacuum filtration and were washed repeatedly with sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃) solution. The resulting “glassy buckypaper” was heated at 1300 - 1500 °C under Ar/H₂ to allow a solid state reaction between C and Si precursors to form a variety of SiC nanostructures. The morphology and crystal structures of SiC nanorods and nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive xray spectroscopy (EDX), electron diffraction (ED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Furthermore, electrical conductance measurements were performed on SiC nanorods, demonstrating their potential applications in high-temperature sensors and control systems.

  14. Synthesis of one-dimensional SiC nanostructures from a glassy buckypaper.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mengning; Star, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    A simple and scalable synthetic strategy was developed for the fabrication of one-dimensional SiC nanostructures-nanorods and nanowires. Thin sheets of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by vacuum filtration and were washed repeatedly with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solution. The resulting "glassy buckypaper" was heated at 1300-1500 °C under Ar/H2 to allow a solid state reaction between C and Si precursors to form a variety of SiC nanostructures. The morphology and crystal structures of SiC nanorods and nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), electron diffraction (ED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Furthermore, electrical conductance measurements were performed on SiC nanorods, demonstrating their potential applications in high-temperature sensors and control systems.

  15. Effects of electrical conductivity of substrate materials on microstructure of diamond-like carbon films prepared by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, S.; Sonoda, T.

    2013-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are prepared by a bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation, and the structural differences between DLC films deposited on different electrical conductive substrates, i.e., conductive Si wafers and insulating glass plates are examined by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS). In the Raman measurements, graphite (G) and disorder (D) peaks are observed for both samples. However, the additional photo luminescence is overlapped on the spectra in the case of on-glass sample. To elucidate the structural difference, the intensity ratio of D to G peak (I(D)/I(G)), G peak position and full width at half maximum (FWHM) are obtained by curve fitting using Gaussian function and linear baseline. It is found that the I(D)/I(G) is lower, G peak position is higher and FWHM of G peak is narrower for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. According to Robertson [1], lower I(D)/I(G) seems more sp3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. In contrast, higher G peak position and narrower FWHM of G peak suggest less sp3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. The results of XPS analysis with C1s spectra reveal that sp3 ratio, i.e., the intensity ratio of sp3/(sp3+sp2) is smaller for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. The inconsistency of the trend between I(D)/I(G) and other parameters (G peak position and FWHM of G peak) might be caused by the overlap of photo luminescence signal on Raman spectrum as to on-glass sample. From these results, it is considered that sp3 C-C bonding is reduced in amount when using insulating substrate in comparison with conductive substrate.

  16. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  17. Catalytic carbide formation at aluminium-carbon interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyama, B.; Rabenberg, L.; Ohuchi, F. S.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the reaction of several monolayer-thick films of aluminum with glassy carbon substrates are presented. The influence of molecular oxygen and water vapor on the rate of reaction is examined. It is concluded that water vapor catalyzed the formation of aluminum carbide from aluminum and carbon by forming active sites which weakened carbon-carbon bonds at the glassy carbon surface, thus assisting their cleavage. The rate of carbide formation for undosed and molecular oxygen-dosed examples was less as neither metallic aluminum nor oxygen-formed alumina could bond to the carbon atom with sufficient strength to dissociate it quickly.

  18. 2H NMR studies of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, R.; Nowaczyk, A.; Geil, B.; Bohmer, R.

    2007-11-01

    Acetyl salicylic acid, deuterated at the methyl group, was investigated using 2H-NMR in its supercooled and glassy states. Just above the glass transition temperature the molecular reorientations were studied using stimulated-echo spectroscopy and demonstrated a large degree of similarity with other glass formers. Deep in the glassy phase the NMR spectra look similar to those reported for the crystal [A. Detken, P. Focke, H. Zimmermann, U. Haeberlen, Z. Olejniczak, Z. T. Lalowicz, Z. Naturforsch. A 50 (1995) 95] and below 20 K they are indicative for rotational tunneling with a relatively large tunneling frequency. Measurements of the spin-lattice relaxation times for temperatures below 150 K reveal a broad distribution of correlation times in the glass. The dominant energy barrier characterizing the slow-down of the methyl group is significantly smaller than the well defined barrier in the crystal.

  19. Understanding soft glassy materials using an energy landscape approach.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun Joo; Riggleman, Robert A; Crocker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Many seemingly different soft materials-such as soap foams, mayonnaise, toothpaste and living cells-display strikingly similar viscoelastic behaviour. A fundamental physical understanding of such soft glassy rheology and how it can manifest in such diverse materials, however, remains unknown. Here, by using a model soap foam consisting of compressible spherical bubbles, whose sizes slowly evolve and whose collective motion is simply dictated by energy minimization, we study the foam's dynamics as it corresponds to downhill motion on an energy landscape function spanning a high-dimensional configuration space. We find that these downhill paths, when viewed in this configuration space, are, surprisingly, fractal. The complex behaviour of our model, including power-law rheology and non-diffusive bubble motion and avalanches, stems directly from the fractal dimension and energy function of these paths. Our results suggest that ubiquitous soft glassy rheology may be a consequence of emergent fractal geometry in the energy landscapes of many complex fluids.

  20. Loss of halogens from crystallized and glassy silicic volcanic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, D.C.; Smith, V.C.; Peck, L.C.

    1967-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four F and Cl analyses of silicic welded tuffs and lavas and glass separates are presented. Comparison of the F and Cl contents of crystallized rocks with those of nonhydrated glass and hydrated glassy rocks from the same rock units shows that most of the halogens originally present were lost on crystallization. An average of about half of the F and four-fifths of the Cl originally present was lost. Analyses of hydrated natural glasses and of glassy rocks indicate that in some cases significant amounts of halogens may be removed from or added to hydrated glass through prolonged contact with ground water. The data show that the original halogen contents of the groundmass of a silicic volcanic rock can be reliably determined only from nonhydrated glass. ?? 1967.

  1. Understanding soft glassy materials using an energy landscape approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyun Joo; Riggleman, Robert A.; Crocker, John C.

    2016-09-01

    Many seemingly different soft materials--such as soap foams, mayonnaise, toothpaste and living cells--display strikingly similar viscoelastic behaviour. A fundamental physical understanding of such soft glassy rheology and how it can manifest in such diverse materials, however, remains unknown. Here, by using a model soap foam consisting of compressible spherical bubbles, whose sizes slowly evolve and whose collective motion is simply dictated by energy minimization, we study the foam's dynamics as it corresponds to downhill motion on an energy landscape function spanning a high-dimensional configuration space. We find that these downhill paths, when viewed in this configuration space, are, surprisingly, fractal. The complex behaviour of our model, including power-law rheology and non-diffusive bubble motion and avalanches, stems directly from the fractal dimension and energy function of these paths. Our results suggest that ubiquitous soft glassy rheology may be a consequence of emergent fractal geometry in the energy landscapes of many complex fluids.

  2. Glassy correlations and thermal fluctuations in nematic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing; Xing, Xiangjun; Ye, Fangfu; Goldbart, Paul

    2010-03-01

    By means of the vulcanization theory framework we address the properties of nematic elastomers prepared in the isotropic liquid state and subsequently randomly cross-linked beyond the gelation point. We base our analysis on a model replica Landau free energy, in which the vulcanization order parameter is coupled to the order parameter describing the local degree of nematic ordering, retaining fluctuation terms to the Gaussian level. We explore how the cross-linking renormalizes the thermal correlations of the local nematic order, and also results in frozen-in, glassy nematic correlations. We examine these thermal and glassy correlations for two different preparation histories of the system: in the first, the cross-linking is done at temperatures close to the isotropic-nematic transition; in the other, the cross-linking is done at higher temperatures, but the system is subsequently cooled to near this transition temperature.

  3. Probing glassy states in binary mixtures of soft interpenetrable colloids.

    PubMed

    Stiakakis, E; Erwin, B M; Vlassopoulos, D; Cloitre, M; Munam, A; Gauthier, M; Iatrou, H; Hadjichristidis, N

    2011-06-15

    We present experimental evidence confirming the recently established rich dynamic state diagram of asymmetric binary mixtures of soft colloidal spheres. These mixtures consist of glassy suspensions of large star polymers to which different small stars are added at varying concentrations. Using rheology and dynamic light scattering measurements along with a simple phenomenological analysis, we show the existence of re-entrance and multiple glassy states, which exhibit distinct features. Cooperative diffusion, as a probe for star arm interpenetration, is proven to be sensitive to the formation of the liquid pockets which signal the melting of the large-star-glass upon addition of small stars. These results provide ample opportunities for tailoring the properties of soft colloidal glasses.

  4. Global equation of state for a glassy material: Fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Boettger, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    A new SESAME equation of state (EOS) for fused silica has been generated using the computer program GRIZZLY and will be added to the SESAME library as material number 7387. This new EOS provides better agreement with experimental data than was achieved by all previous SESAME EOSs for fused silica. Material number 7387 also constitutes the most realistic SESAME-type EOS generated for any glassy material thus far.

  5. Localization and Glassy Dynamics in the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Earl, David J.; Deem, Michael W.

    We discuss use of the generalized NK model to examine evolutionary dynamics within the immune system. We describe how randomness and diversity play key roles in the immune response and how their effects are captured by this hierarchical spin glass model. We discuss analytical aspects of the model as well as practical applications to design of the annual influenza vaccine. We discuss the subtle role that the glassy evolutionary dynamics plays in suppressing autoimmune disease.

  6. High Strain Rate Tensile and Compressive Effects in Glassy Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-08

    polymers under high strain rates has been determined in compression. Some research programs have studied the combined effects of temperature and strain rate...glassy polymers to high strain rate loading in compression. More recently, research programs that study the combined effects of temperature and strain...Force Materiel Command  United States Air Force  Eglin Air Force Base AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2013-006 High Strain Rate

  7. Chemical, corrosion and topographical analysis of stainless steel implants after different implantation periods.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Armitage, David Andrew; Knowles, Jonathan Campbell; Szade, Jacek; Korlacki, Wojciech; Marciniak, Jan

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the corrosion properties, chemical composition, and material-implant interaction after different periods of implantation of plates used to correct funnel chest. The implants are made of 316L stainless steel. Examinations are carried out on three implants: new (nonimplanted) and two implanted for 29 and 35 months. The corrosion study reveals that in the potential range that could occur in the physiological condition the new bar has the lowest current density and the highest corrosion potential. This indicates that the new plate has the highest corrosion resistance and the corrosion resistance could be reduced during implantation by the instruments used during the operation. XPS analysis reveals changes in the surface chemistry. The longer the implantation time the more carbon and oxygen are observed and only trace of elements such as Cr, Mo are detected indicating that surface is covered by an organic layer. On some parts of the implants whitish tissue is observed: the thickness of which increased with the time of implantation. This tissue was identified as an organic layer; mainly attached to the surface on the areas close to where the implant was bent to attain anatomical fit and thus where the implant has higher surface roughness. The study indicates that the chest plates are impaired by the implantation procedure and contact with biological environment. The organic layer on the surface shows that the implant did not stay passive but some reactions at the tissue-implant interface occurred. These reactions should be seen as positive, as it indicates that the implants were accepted by the tissues. Nevertheless, if the implants react, they may continue to release chromium, nickel, and other harmful ions long term as indicated by lower corrosion resistance of the implants following implantation.

  8. Yield Stress Enhancement in Glassy-Polyethylene Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhearn, William; Register, Richard

    Polyethylene (PE) has the highest annual production volume of all synthetic polymers worldwide, and is valuable across many applications due to its low cost, toughness, processability, and chemical resistance. However, PE is not well suited to certain applications due to its modest yield stress and Young's modulus (approximately 30 MPa and 1 GPa, respectively for linear, high-density PE). Irreversible deformation of PE results from dislocation of crystal stems and eventual crystal fragmentation under applied stress. The liquid-like amorphous fraction provides no useful mechanical support to the crystal fold surface in a PE homopolymer, so the only method to enhance the force required for crystal slip, and hence the yield stress, is crystal thickening via thermal treatment. An alternative route towards modifying the mechanical properties of PE involves copolymerization of a minority high-glass transition temperature block into a majority-PE block copolymer. In this work, we investigate a system of glassy/linear-PE block copolymers prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization of cyclopentene and substituted norbornene monomers followed by hydrogenation. We demonstrate that a large change in mechanical properties can be achieved with the addition of a short glassy block (e.g. a doubling of the yield stress and Young's modulus versus PE homopolymer with the addition of 25 percent glassy block). Furthermore, owing to the low interaction energy between PE and the substituted polynorbornene blocks employed, these high-yield PE block copolymers can exhibit single-phase melts for ease of processability.

  9. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  10. Glassy materials for lithium batteries: electrochemical properties and devices performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclot, Michel; Souquet, Jean-Louis

    Amorphous or glassy materials may be used as electrolyte or electrode materials for lithium primary or secondary batteries. A first generation proceeded from classical coin cells in which the organic electrolyte was replaced by a high lithium conductive glassy electrolyte. The solid components were assembled under isostatic pressure. The main advantages of such cells are a good storage stability and ability to operate until 200°C. Nevertheless, the high resistivity of the glassy electrolyte below room temperature and a limited depth for charge and discharge cycles makes these cells not competitive compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries. More promising, are the thin films solid state microbatteries realised by successive depositions of electrodes and electrolyte. The low resistance of the electrolyte amorphous layer allows cycling at temperatures as low as -10°C. The total thickness of thin film batteries, including packaging is less than 100 μm. A capacity of about 100 μAh cm -2 with over 10 4 charge-discharge cycles at 90% in depth of discharge is well suited for energy independent smart cards or intelligent labels, which represent for these devices a large and unrivalled market.

  11. Quantifying glassy and crystalline basalt partitioning in the oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2016-04-01

    The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately basaltic rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy basalts while the potential habitability of crystalline basalts are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline basalts, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing basalt fractionation: a pillow basalt with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow basalt with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.

  12. Fast algorithms for glassy materials: methods and explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, A. Alan

    2014-03-01

    Glassy materials with frozen disorder, including random magnets such as spin glasses and interfaces in disordered materials, exhibit striking non-equilibrium behavior such as the ability to store a history of external parameters (memory). Precisely due to their glassy nature, direct simulation of models of these materials is very slow. In some fortunate cases, however, algorithms exist that exactly compute thermodynamic quantities. Such cases include spin glasses in two dimensions and interfaces and random field magnets in arbitrary dimensions at zero temperature. Using algorithms built using ideas developed by computer scientists and mathematicians, one can even directly sample equilibrium configurations in very large systems, as if one picked the configurations out of a ``hat'' of all configurations weighted by their Boltzmann factors. This talk will provide some of the background for these methods and discuss the connections between physics and computer science, as used by a number of groups. Recent applications of these methods to investigating phase transitions in glassy materials and to answering qualitative questions about the free energy landscape and memory effects will be discussed. This work was supported in part by NSF grant DMR-1006731. Creighton Thomas and David Huse also contributed to much of the work to be presented.

  13. Thermodynamics of water sorption in high performance glassy thermoplastic polymers

    PubMed Central

    Scherillo, Giuseppe; Petretta, Mauro; Galizia, Michele; La Manna, Pietro; Musto, Pellegrino; Mensitieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Sorption thermodynamics of water in two glassy polymers, polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK), is investigated by coupling gravimetry and on line FTIR spectroscopy in order to gather information on the total amount of sorbed water as well as on the different species of water molecules absorbed within the polymers, addressing the issue of cross- and self-interactions occurring in the polymer/water systems. Water sorption isotherms have been determined at temperatures ranging from 30 to 70°C while FTIR spectroscopy has been performed only at 30°C. The experimental analysis provided information on the groups present on the polymer backbones involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with absorbed water molecules. Moreover, it also supplied qualitative indications about the different “populations” of water molecules present within the PEEK and a quantitative assessment of these “populations” in the case of PEI. The results of the experimental analysis have been interpreted using an equation of state theory based on a compressible lattice fluid model for the Gibbs energy of the polymer-water mixture, developed by extending to the case of out of equilibrium glassy polymers a previous model intended for equilibrium rubbery polymers. The model accounts for the non-equilibrium nature of glassy polymers as well as for mean field and for hydrogen bonding interactions, providing a satisfactory quantitative interpretation of the experimental data. PMID:24860802

  14. Thermodynamics of Water Sorption in High Performance Glassy Thermoplastic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Petretta, Mauro; Galizia, Michele; La Manna, Pietro; Musto, Pellegrino

    2014-05-01

    Sorption thermodynamics of water in two glassy polymers, polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK), is investigated by coupling gravimetry and on line FTIR spectroscopy in order to gather information on the total amount of sorbed water as well as on the different species of water molecules absorbed within the polymers, addressing the issue of cross- and self-interactions occurring in the polymer/water systems. Water sorption isotherms have been determined at temperatures ranging fro 30 to 70°C while FTIR spectroscopy has been performed only at 30°C. The experimental analysis provided information on the groups present on the polymer backbones involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with absorbed water molecules. Moreover, it also supplied qualitative indications about the different’populations’ of water molecules present within the PEEK and a quantitative assessment of these ‘populations’ in the case of PEI.The results of the experimental analysis have been interpreted using an equation of state theory based on a compressible lattice fluid model for the Gibbs energy of the polymer-water mixture, developed by extending to the case of out of equilibrium glassy polymers a previous model intended for equilibrium rubbery polymers. The model accounts for the non equilibrium nature of glassy poymers as well as for mean field and for hydrogen bonding interactions, providing a satisfactory quantitative interpretation of the experimental data.

  15. Investigation of glassy state molecular motions in thermoset polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jianwei

    This dissertation presents the investigation of the glassy state molecular motions in isomeric thermoset epoxies by means of solid-state deuterium (2H) NMR spectroscopy technique. The network structure of crosslinked epoxies was altered through monomer isomerism; specifically, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was cured with isomeric amine curatives, i.e., the meta-substituted diaminodiphenylsulfone (33DDS) and para-substituted diaminodiphenylsulfone (44DDS). The use of structural isomerism provided a path way for altering macroscopic material properties while maintaining identical chemical composition within the crosslinked networks. The effects of structural isomerism on the glassy state molecular motions were studied using solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy, which offers unrivaled power to monitor site-specific molecular motions. Three distinctive molecular groups on each isomeric network, i.e., the phenylene rings in the bisphenol A structure (BPA), the phenylene rings in the diaminodiphenylsulfone structure (DDS), and the hydroxypropoyl ether group (HPE) have been selectively deuterated for a comprehensive study of the structure-dynamics- property relationships in thermoset epoxies. Quadrupolar echo experiments and line shape simulations were employed as the main research approach to gain both qualitative and quantitative motional information of the epoxy networks in the glassy state. Quantitative information on the geometry and rate of the molecular motions allows the elucidation of the relationship between molecular motions and macro physical properties and the role of these motions in the mechanical relaxation. Specifically, it is revealed that both the BPA and HPE moieties in the isomeric networks have almost identical behaviors in the deep glassy state, which indicates that the molecular motions in the glassy state are localized, and the correlation length of the motions does not exceed the length of the DGEBA repeat unit. BPA ring motions contribute

  16. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... outside of the body, behind the ear. A second part is surgically placed under the skin. An implant does not restore normal hearing. It can help a person understand speech. Children and adults can benefit from them. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  17. The equipment for the preparation of micro and nanoscale metallic glassy fibers.

    PubMed

    Ding, D W; Yi, J; Liu, G L; Sun, Y T; Zhao, D Q; Pan, M X; Bai, H Y; Wang, W H

    2014-10-01

    A supercooled liquid extraction method and apparatus for micro and nanoscale metallic glassy fiber preparation was developed. Using the fiber fabrication equipment, micro to nanoscale metallic glassy fibers with diameter ranging from 70 nm to 300 μm can be obtained by wire drawing in the supercooled liquid region of metallic glasses via superplastic deformation. The obtained metallic glassy fibers possess precisely designed and controlled sizes, high structural uniformity and high degree of surface smoothness.

  18. Implantation conditions for diamond nanocrystal formation in amorphous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Buljan, Maja; Radovic, Iva Bogdanovic; Desnica, Uros V.; Ivanda, Mile; Jaksic, Milko; Saguy, Cecile; Kalish, Rafi; Djerdj, Igor; Tonejc, Andelka; Gamulin, Ozren

    2008-08-01

    We present a study of carbon ion implantation in amorphous silica, which, followed by annealing in a hydrogen-rich environment, leads to preferential formation of carbon nanocrystals with cubic diamond (c-diamond), face-centered cubic (n-diamond), or simple cubic (i-carbon) carbon crystal lattices. Two different annealing treatments were used: furnace annealing for 1 h and rapid thermal annealing for a brief period, which enables monitoring of early nucleation events. The influence of implanted dose and annealing type on carbon and hydrogen concentrations, clustering, and bonding were investigated. Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil detection analysis, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption measurements, and Raman spectroscopy were used to study these carbon formations. These results, combined with the results of previous investigations on similar systems, show that preferential formation of different carbon phases (diamond, n-diamond, or i-carbon) depends on implantation energy, implantation dose, and annealing conditions. Diamond nanocrystals formed at a relatively low carbon volume density are achieved by deeper implantation and/or lower implanted dose. Higher volume densities led to n-diamond and finally to i-carbon crystal formation. This observed behavior is related to damage sites induced by implantation. The optical properties of different carbon nanocrystal phases were significantly different.

  19. Survival of carbon grains in shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seab, C. Gregory

    1990-01-01

    Supernova shocks play a significant part in the life of an interstellar grain. In a typical 10 to the 9th power year lifetime, a grain will be hit by an average of 10 shocks of 100 km s(sup -1) or greater velocity, and even more shocks of lower velocity. Evaluation of the results of this frequent shock processing is complicated by a number of uncertainties, but seems to give about 10 percent destruction of silicate grains and about half that for graphite grains. Because of the frequency of shocking, the mineralogy and sizes of the grain population is predominately determined by shock processing effects, and not by the initial grain nucleation and growth environment. One consequence of the significant role played by interstellar shocks is that a certain fraction (up to 5 percent) of the carbon should be transformed into the diamond phase. Diamond transformation is observed in the laboratory at threshold shock pressures easily obtainable in grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks. Yields for transforming graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon, and other nearly pure carbon solids into diamond are quite high. Impurities up to at least the 10 percent level (for oxygen) are tolerated in the process. The typical size diamond expected from shock transformation agrees well with the observed sizes in the Lewis et al. findings in meteoritic material. Isotropic anomalies already contained in the grain are likely to be retained through the conversion process, while others may be implanted by the shock if the grain is close to the supernova. The meteoritic diamonds are likely to be the results of transformation of carbon grains in grain-grain collisions in supernova shock waves.

  20. Crystallization of the glassy grain boundary phase in silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Charles H., III

    1991-01-01

    The role was studied of the intergranular glassy phase in silicon nitride as-processed with yttria as a sintering aid. The microstructure, crystallization, and viscosity of the glassy phase were areas studied. Crystallization of the intergranular glassy phase to more refractory crystalline phases should improve the high temperature mechanical properties of the silicon nitride. The addition of a nucleating agent will increase the rate of crystallization. The measurement of the viscosity of the glassy phase will permit the estimation of the high temperature deformation of the silicon nitride.

  1. Hairy carbon electrodes studied by cyclic voltammetry and battery discharge testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Deborah D. L.; Shui, Xiaoping; Frysz, Christine A.

    1993-01-01

    Hairy carbon is a new material developed by growing submicron carbon filaments on conventional carbon substrates. Typical substrate materials include carbon black, graphite powder, carbon fibers, and glassy carbon. A catalyst is used to initiate hair growth with carbonaceous gases serving as the carbon source. To study the electrochemical behavior of hairy carbons, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and discharge testing were conducted. In both cases, hairy carbon results surpassed those of the substrate material alone.

  2. Some Recent Developments in Structure and Glassy Behavior of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-02-01

    We have used ARVO developed by us to find that the ratio of volume and surface area of proteins in Protein Data Bank distributed in a very narrow region [1]. Such result is useful for the determination of protein 3D structures. It has been widely known that a spin glass model can be used to understand the slow relaxation behavior of a glass at low temperatures [2]. We have used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that polymer chains with neighboring monomers connected by rigid bonds can relax very slowly and show glassy behavior [3]. We have also found that native collagen fibrils show glassy behavior at room temperatures [4]. The results of [3] and [4] about the glassy behavior of polymers or proteins are useful for understanding the mechanism for a biological system to maintain in a non-equilibrium state, including the ancient seed [5], which can maintain in a non-equilibrium state for a very long time. (1) M.-C. Wu, M. S. Li, W.-J. Ma, M. Kouza, and C.-K. Hu, EPL, in press (2011); (2) C. Dasgupta, S.-K. Ma, and C.-K. Hu. Phys. Rev. B 20, 3837-3849 (1979); (3) W.-J. Ma and C.-K. Hu, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 79, 024005, 024006, 054001, and 104002 (2010), C.-K. Hu and W.-J. Ma, Prog. Theor. Phys. Supp. 184, 369 (2010); S. G. Gevorkian, A. E. Allahverdyan, D. S. Gevorgyan and C.-K. Hu, EPL 95, 23001 (2011); S. Sallon, et al. Science 320, 1464 (2008).

  3. Arabidopsis GLASSY HAIR genes promote trichome papillae development

    PubMed Central

    Kirik, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Specialized plant cells form cell walls with distinct composition and properties pertinent to their function. Leaf trichomes in Arabidopsis form thick cell walls that support the upright growth of these large cells and, curiously, have strong light-reflective properties. To understand the process of trichome cell-wall maturation and the molecular origins of this optical property, mutants affected in trichome light reflection were isolated and characterized. It was found that GLASSY HAIR (GLH) genes are required for the formation of surface papillae structures at late stages of trichome development. Trichomes in these mutants appeared transparent due to unobstructed light transmission. Genetic analysis of the isolated mutants revealed seven different gene loci. Two—TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE (TBR) and NOK (Noeck)—have been reported previously to have the glassy trichome mutant phenotype. The other five glh mutants were analysed for cell-wall-related phenotypes. A significant reduction was found in cellulose content in glh2 and glh4 mutant trichomes. In addition to the glassy trichome phenotype, the glh6 mutants showed defects in leaf cuticular wax, and glh6 was found to represent a new allele of the eceriferum 10 (cer10) mutation. Trichomes of the glh1 and glh3 mutants did not show any other phenotypes beside reduced papillae formation. These data suggest that the GLH1 and GLH3 genes may have specific functions in trichome papillae formation, whereas GLH2, GLH4, and GLH6 genes are also involved in deposition of other cell-wall components. PMID:24014871

  4. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the soft glassy rheology model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuereder, Ingo; Ilg, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model is a mesoscopic framework which proved to be very successful in describing flow and deformation of various amorphous materials phenomenologically (e.g., pastes, slurries, foams, etc.). In this paper, we cast SGR in a general, model-independent framework for nonequilibrium thermodynamics called general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling. This leads to a formulation of SGR which clarifies how it can properly be coupled to hydrodynamic fields, resulting in a thermodynamically consistent, local, continuum version of SGR. Additionally, we find that compliance with thermodynamics imposes the existence of a modification to the stress tensor as predicted by SGR.

  5. Positronics of radiation-induced effects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Shpotyuk, O.; Kozyukhin, S. A.; Shpotyuk, M.; Ingram, A.; Szatanik, R.

    2015-03-15

    Using As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsS{sub 2} glasses as an example, the principal possibility of using positron annihilation spectroscopy methods for studying the evolution of the free volume of hollow nanoobjects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors exposed to radiation is shown. The results obtained by measurements of the positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of the annihilation line in reverse chronological order are in full agreement with the optical spectroscopy data in the region of the fundamental absorption edge, being adequately described within coordination defect-formation and physical-aging models.

  6. Microscale rheology of a soft glassy material close to yielding.

    PubMed

    Jop, Pierre; Mansard, Vincent; Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Bocquet, Lydéric; Colin, Annie

    2012-04-06

    Using confocal microscopy, we study the flow of a model soft glassy material: a concentrated emulsion. We demonstrate the micro-macro link between in situ measured movements of droplets during the flow and the macroscopic rheological response of a concentrated emulsion, in the form of scaling relationships connecting the rheological "fluidity" with local standard deviation of the strain-rate tensor. Furthermore, we measure correlations between these local fluctuations, thereby extracting a correlation length which increases while approaching the yielding transition, in accordance with recent theoretical predictions.

  7. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neha; Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration.

  8. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration. PMID:27790598

  9. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B. Appa Kumar, E. Ramesh Kumari, K. Rajani Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-24

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag{sub 2}O−[(1−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xTeO{sub 2}] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO{sub 2} as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10{sup −2} S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries.

  10. Effects of glassy-winged sharpshooter feeding, size, and lipid content on egg maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) is synovigenic and must feed during the adult stage to produce eggs. While glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production is related to adult feeding, rates of egg production are variable. In this study, effects of lipid allocation to eggs and fema...

  11. Evaluation of grapevine as a host for the glassy-winged sharpshooter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine was evaluated as a feeding and oviposition host for the glassy-winged sharpshooter. Two sets of experiments were conducted. The first set compared performance and preference of glassy-winged sharpshooter females for grapevine (cv. Chardonnay) versus cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivar black...

  12. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  13. Amorphous diamond: a high-pressure superhard carbon allotrope.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Zhang, Li; Mao, Ho-kwang; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Baldini, Maria; Shu, Jinfu; Mao, Wendy L

    2011-10-21

    Compressing glassy carbon above 40 GPa, we have observed a new carbon allotrope with a fully sp(3)-bonded amorphous structure and diamondlike strength. Synchrotron x-ray Raman spectroscopy revealed a continuous pressure-induced sp(2)-to-sp(3) bonding change, while x-ray diffraction confirmed the perseverance of noncrystallinity. The transition was reversible upon releasing pressure. Used as an indenter, the glassy carbon ball demonstrated exceptional strength by reaching 130 GPa with a confining pressure of 60 GPa. Such an extremely large stress difference of >70 GPa has never been observed in any material besides diamond, indicating the high hardness of this high-pressure carbon allotrope.

  14. Amorphous diamond: A high-pressure superhard carbon allotrope

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yu; Zhang, Li; Mao, Ho Kwang; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Baldini, Maria; Shu, Jinfu; Mao, Wendy L.

    2011-01-01

    Compressing glassy carbon above 40 GPa, we have observed a new carbon allotrope with a fully sp³-bonded amorphous structure and diamondlike strength. Synchrotron x-ray Raman spectroscopy revealed a continuous pressure-induced sp²-to-sp³ bonding change, while x-ray diffraction confirmed the perseverance of noncrystallinity. The transition was reversible upon releasing pressure. Used as an indenter, the glassy carbon ball demonstrated exceptional strength by reaching 130 GPa with a confining pressure of 60 GPa. Such an extremely large stress difference of >70 GPa has never been observed in any material besides diamond, indicating the high hardness of this high-pressure carbon allotrope.

  15. Dental Implant Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Dental implant surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dental implant surgery is a procedure that replaces tooth roots with ... look and function much like real ones. Dental implant surgery can offer a welcome alternative to dentures ...

  16. Hip Implant Systems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Products and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants Hip Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... devices available with different bearing surfaces. These are: Metal-on-Polyethylene: The ball is made of metal ...

  17. Glassy dynamics of nanoparticles in semiflexible ring polymer nanocomposite melts

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Jiang, Yangwei; Deng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Linxi

    2017-01-01

    By employing molecular dynamics simulations, we explore the dynamics of NPs in semiflexible ring polymer nanocomposite melts. A novel glass transition is observed for NPs in semiflexible ring polymer melts as the bending energy (Kb) of ring polymers increases. For NPs in flexible ring polymer melts (Kb = 0), NPs move in the classic diffusive behavior. However, for NPs in semiflexible ring polymer melts with large bending energy, NPs diffuse very slowly and exhibit the glassy state in which the NPs are all irreversibly caged be the neighbouring semiflexible ring polymers. This glass transition occurs well above the classical glass transition temperature at which microscopic mobility is lost, and the topological interactions of semiflexible ring polymers play an important role in this non-classical glass transition. This investigation can help us understand the nature of the glass transition in polymer systems. PMID:28290546

  18. Glassy dynamics of nanoparticles in semiflexible ring polymer nanocomposite melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Jiang, Yangwei; Deng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Linxi

    2017-03-01

    By employing molecular dynamics simulations, we explore the dynamics of NPs in semiflexible ring polymer nanocomposite melts. A novel glass transition is observed for NPs in semiflexible ring polymer melts as the bending energy (Kb) of ring polymers increases. For NPs in flexible ring polymer melts (Kb = 0), NPs move in the classic diffusive behavior. However, for NPs in semiflexible ring polymer melts with large bending energy, NPs diffuse very slowly and exhibit the glassy state in which the NPs are all irreversibly caged be the neighbouring semiflexible ring polymers. This glass transition occurs well above the classical glass transition temperature at which microscopic mobility is lost, and the topological interactions of semiflexible ring polymers play an important role in this non-classical glass transition. This investigation can help us understand the nature of the glass transition in polymer systems.

  19. Determination of Fracture Patterns in Glass and Glassy Polymers.

    PubMed

    Baca, Allison C; Thornton, John I; Tulleners, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    The study of fractures of glass, glassy-type materials, and plastic has long been of interest to the forensic community. The focus of this interest has been the use of glass and polymer fractures to associate items of evidence under the assumption that each fracture is different. Generally, it is well-accepted that deviations exist; however, the emphasis has been on classifying and predicting fracture rather than determining that each fracture is different. This study documented the controlled fracture patterns of 60 glass panes, 60 glass bottles, and 60 plastic tail light lens covers using both dynamic impact and static pressure methods under closely controlled conditions. Each pattern was intercompared, and based on the limited specimens tested in this study, the results illustrate that the fracture patterns are different. Further repetitive studies, under controlled conditions, will be needed to provide more statistical significance to the theory that each fracture forms a nonreproducible fracture pattern.

  20. Development of an Automatic Fabrication System for Cast Glassy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    The developed automatic fabrication system comprised three component functions: weighing, alloying, and casting. The measurement error of automatic weighing specimen was about less 1 pct for Zr-based master alloys (approximately 30 g). Especially, sufficient stirrer effect of arc-melting ingot for homogeneity can be achieved by the development of sinusoidal arcing and applying magnetic field. In order to achieve superior homogeneity of the glass structure with no secondary phase ( i.e., an intermetallic compound with a high melting temperature), a prealloying process should be advisable. In this study, high reliability of the density and mechanical properties of automatic processed cast glassy alloys (CGAs) was successfully obtained. The developed automatic fabrication process has a potential to accelerate the industrial application of CGAs in the near future.

  1. Glassy fragmental rocks of Macquarie Island (Southern Ocean): Mechanism of formation and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, J. A.; Harb, N.; Portner, R. A.; Daczko, N. R.

    2009-04-01

    Glassy fragmental rocks are interlayered with pillow basalt and tabular basalt on Macquarie Island (54°30' S, 158°54' E). These facies formed along the Proto-Macquarie Spreading Ridge between 6 and 12 Ma and have since been uplifted and exposed on the apex of the Macquarie Ridge Complex. Through a combination of field and microscopic analyses, we investigate the submarine production, transportation, deposition and lithification of basalt and sideromelane clasts within a spreading-ridge environment. The findings of this study indicate that these glassy grains form predominantly by cooling-contraction granulation of pillow lava rinds while crystalline basalt clasts are derived from the fragmentation of pillows along concentric and radial cooling joints. Hyaloclastite breccias consist of crystalline volcanic clasts in a matrix of glassy fragments, and are termed pillow-fragment breccias when clasts identifiable as pillows account for > 25% of the cobble-sized fraction. This glassy fragmental sediment was transported predominantly by short-lived grain flows and deposited as a result of syn-eruptive talus accumulation. The above interpretations culminate in the production of a depositional model: these glassy fragmental rocks formed on the slopes of pillow cones following gravitational collapse of a destabilised cone flank along the Proto-Macquarie Spreading Ridge. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that palagonite alteration rims on glassy grains lithify the sediment. The findings may be used as an analogue for the formation of glassy fragmental rocks along past and present mid-oceanic ridges.

  2. Ultra low friction carbon/carbon composites for extreme temperature applications

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Busch, Donald E.; Fenske, George R.; Lee, Sam; Shepherd, Gary; Pruett, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    A carbon/carbon composite in which a carbon matrix containing a controlled amount of boron or a boron compound is reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits a low coefficient of friction, i.e., on the order of 0.04 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 600.degree. C., which is one of the lowest frictional coefficients for any type of carbonaceous material, including graphite, glassy carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon and other forms of carbon material. The high degree of slipperiness of the carbon composite renders it particularly adapted for limiting friction and wear at elevated temperatures such as in seals, bearings, shafts, and flexible joints

  3. Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2012-01-01

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease. PMID:24179249

  4. Pyrolytic carbon black composite and method of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Bi, Zhonghe

    2016-09-13

    A method of recovering carbon black includes the step of providing a carbonaceous source material containing carbon black. The carbonaceous source material is contacted with a sulfonation bath to produce a sulfonated material. The sulfonated material is pyrolyzed to produce a carbon black containing product comprising a glassy carbon matrix phase having carbon black dispersed therein. A method of making a battery electrode is also disclosed.

  5. Polymorphism in glassy silicon: Inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2015-02-01

    Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 1014 K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL).

  6. [Bilateral cochlear implantation].

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Jona; Migirov, Lela; Taitelbaum-Swead, Rikey; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2010-06-01

    Cochlear implant surgery became the standard of care in hearing rehabilitation of patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. This procedure may alter the lives of children and adults enabling them to integrate with the hearing population. In the past, implantation was performed only in one ear, despite the fact that binaural hearing is superior to unilateral, especially in noisy conditions. Cochlear implantation may be performed sequentially or simultaneously. The "sensitive period" of time between hearing loss and implantation and between the two implantations, when performed sequentially, significantly influences the results. Shorter time spans between implantations improve the hearing results after implantation. Hearing success after implantation is highly dependent on the rehabilitation process which includes mapping, implant adjustments and hearing training. Bilateral cochlear implantation in children is recommended as the proposed procedure in spite of the additional financial burden.

  7. Effect of microstructure on the thermal conductivity of disordered carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Martinez, I.; Marks, N. A.

    2011-07-01

    Computational methods are used to control the degree of structural order in a variety of carbon materials containing primarily sp2 bonding. Room-temperature thermal conductivities are computed using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics. Our results reproduce experimental data for amorphous and glassy carbons and confirm previously proposed structural models for vitreous carbons. An atomistic model is developed for highly oriented thin films seen experimentally, with a maximum computed thermal conductivity of 35 W m-1 K-1. This value is much higher than that of the amorphous and glassy structures, demonstrating that the microstructure influences the thermal conductivity more strongly than the density.

  8. Mating behavior and intraspecific vibrational mimicry in the glassy-winged sharpshooter, homalodisca vitripennis (hemiptera: cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrational communication is widespread in insects, particularly in leafhoppers where the pair formation process is mediated by species-specific vibrational signals. One important pest using vibrational communication, glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is a vector of Xylella...

  9. Sub-nanoscale nanoimprint fabrication of atomically stepped glassy substrates of silicate glass and acryl polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2015-11-01

    In the nanoimprint process, the resolution limit of patterning has attracted much attention from both scientific and industrial aspects. In this article, we briefly review the main achievements of our research group on sub-nanoscale nanoimprint fabrication of atomically patterned glassy substrates of oxide glass and polymer. By applying the sapphire (α-Al2O3 single crystal) wafers with self-organized nanopatterns of atomic steps as thermal nanoimprinting molds, we successfully transferred their nanoscale patterns onto the surfaces of glassy substrates such as soda-lime silicate glasses and poly(methyl methacrylate) polymers. The surfaces of nanoimprinted glassy materials exhibited regularly arrayed atomic stairs with 0.2-0.3 nm step height, which were in good agreement with the sub-nanopatterns of sapphire molds. These atomically stepped morphologies on the glassy substrates were found to be stable for about 1 year.

  10. Determination of Volatility and Element Fractionation in Glassy Fallout Debris by SIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, Todd L.; Tenner, Travis Jay; Bonamici, Chloe Elizabeth; Kinman, William Scott; Pollington, Anthony Douglas; Steiner, Robert Ernest

    2016-05-10

    The purpose of this report is to characterize glassy fallout debris using the Trinity Test and then characterize the U-isotopes of U3O8 reference materials that contain weaponized debris.

  11. Probing the viscoelastic response of glassy polymer films using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guanwen; Rao, Nanxia; Yin, Zejie; Zhu, Da-Ming

    2006-05-01

    The mechanical properties of glassy films and glass surfaces have been studied using an atomic force microscope (AFM) through various imaging modes and measuring methods. In this paper, we discuss the viscoelastic response of a glassy surface probed using an AFM. We analyzed the force-distance curves measured on a glassy film or a glassy surface at temperatures near the glass transition temperature, Tg, using a Burgers model. We found that the material's characteristics of reversible anelastic response and viscous creep can be extracted from a force-distance curve. Anelastic response shifts the repulsive force-distance curve while viscous creep strongly affects the slope of the repulsive force-distance curve. When coupled with capillary force, due to the condensation of a thin layer of liquid film at the tip-surface joint, the anelasticity and viscous creep can alter the curve significantly in the attractive region.

  12. Physical and Tribological Characteristics of Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Heidger, S.; Korenyi-Both, A. L.; Jayne, D. T.; Herrera-Fierro, P.; Shogrin, B.; Wilbur, P. J.; Wu, R. L. C.; Garscadden, A.; Barnes, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural, polished diamond pin in contact with both as-deposited and carbon-ion-implanted diamond films in ultrahigh vacuum. Diamond films were deposited on silicon, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The as-deposited diamond films were impacted with carbon ions at an accelerating energy of 60 keV and a current density of 50 micron A/cm(exp 2) for approximately 6 min, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions/cm(exp 2). The results indicate that the carbon ion implantation produced a thin surface layer of amorphous, nondiamond carbon. The nondiamond carbon greatly decreased both friction and wear of the diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films were less than 0.1, factors of 20 to 30 lower than those for the as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, coarse-grain diamond films were approximately 0.35, a factor of five lower than those for the as-deposited, coarse-grain diamond films. The wear rates for the carbon-ion-implanted, diamond films were on the order of 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/Nm, factors of 30 to 80 lower than that for the as-deposited diamond films, regardless of grain size. The friction of the carbon-ion-implanted diamond films was greatly reduced because the amorphous, nondiamond carbon, which had a low shear strength, was restricted to the surface layers (less than 0.1 micron thick) and because the underlying diamond materials retained their high hardness. In conclusion, the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films can be used effectively as wear resistant, self-lubricating coatings for ceramics, such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide, in ultrahigh vacuum.

  13. Physical and tribological characteristics of ion-implanted diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, K.; Heidger, S.; Korenyi-both, A.L.; Jayne, D.T.; Herrera-Fierro, P.; Shogrin, B.; Wilbur, P.J.; Wu, R.L.C.; Garscadden, A.; Barnes, P.N.

    1994-11-01

    Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural, polished diamond pin in contact with both as-deposited and carbon-ion-implanted diamond films in ultrahigh vacuum. Diamond films were deposited on silicon, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The as-deposited diamond films were impacted with carbon ions at an accelerating energy of 60 keV and a current density of 50 micron A/cm(exp 2) for approximately 6 min, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions/cm(exp 2). The results indicate that the carbon ion implantation produced a thin surface layer of amorphous, nondiamond carbon. The nondiamond carbon greatly decreased both friction and wear of the diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films were less than 0.1, factors of 20 to 30 lower than those for the as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, coarse-grain diamond films were approximately 0.35, a factor of five lower than those for the as-deposited, coarse-grain diamond films. The wear rates for the carbon-ion-implanted, diamond films were on the order of 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/Nm, factors of 30 to 80 lower than that for the as-deposited diamond films, regardless of grain size. The friction of the carbon-ion-implanted diamond films was greatly reduced because the amorphous, nondiamond carbon, which had a low shear strength, was restricted to the surface layers (less than 0.1 micron thick) and because the underlying diamond materials retained their high hardness. In conclusion, the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films can be used effectively as wear resistant, self-lubricating coatings for ceramics, such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide, in ultrahigh vacuum.

  14. Quasi-one-dimensional models for glassy dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Prasanta

    2011-12-01

    We describe analytical calculations and simulations of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1-D) model for glassy dynamics. In the Q1-D models, hard rods undergo single-file diffusion through a series of narrow channels connected by J intersections. The topology of the model is specified by J, the maximum number of rods in each middle channel K, and the number of rods N. We assume that the rods cannot turn at the intersections, and thus there is a single, continuous route through the system. This model displays hallmarks of glassy dynamics including caging behavior and subdiffusion, rapid growth in the structural relaxation time and collective particle rearrangements. The mean-square displacement Sigma(t) for the Q1-D model displays four dynamical regimes: 1) short-time diffusion Sigma( t) ˜ t, 2) a plateau Sigma(t) ˜ t0 caused by caging behavior, 3) single-file diffusion characterized by anomalous scaling Sigma(t) ˜ t0.5 at intermediate times, and 4) a crossover to long-tine diffusion Sigma(t) ˜ t for times that grow with the system size. We develop a general procedure for calculating analytically the structural relaxation time tD, beyond which the system undergoes long-time diffusion, as a function of density and system topology. The method involves several steps: 1) uniquely defining the set of microstates for the system and transitions among them, 2) constructing networks of connected microstates and identifying minimal, closed, directed loops that give rise to structural relaxation, 3) calculating the probabilities for obtaining each of the microstates that form the closed loops and for transitioning from one microstate to another, and 4) using these probabilities to deduce the dependence of tD on packing fraction. We find that to obeys power-law scaling tD ˜ (φ g-φ)-alpha, where φ g (the packing fraction corresponding to complete kinetic arrest) and alpha depend on the system topology, and can be calculated exactly. The analytical calculations are supported

  15. PEEK dental implants: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schwitalla, Andreas; Müller, Wolf-Dieter

    2013-12-01

    The insertion of dental implants containing titanium can be associated with various complications (eg, hypersensitivity to titanium). The aim of this article is to evaluate whether there are existing studies reporting on PEEK (polyetheretherketone) as an alternative material for dental implants. A systematic literature search of PubMed until December 2010 yielded 3 articles reporting on dental implants made from PEEK. One article analyzed stress distribution in carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK (CFR-PEEK) dental implants by the 3-dimensional finite element method, demonstrating higher stress peaks due to a reduced stiffness compared to titanium. Two articles reported on investigations in mongrel dogs. The first article compared CFR-PEEK to titanium-coated CFR-PEEK implants, which were inserted into the femurs and evaluated after 4 and 8 weeks. The titanium-coated implants showed significantly higher bone-implant contact (BIC) rates. In a second study, implants of pure PEEK were inserted into the mandibles beside implants made from titanium and zirconia and evaluated after 4 months, where PEEK presented the lowest BIC. The existing articles reporting on PEEK dental implants indicate that PEEK could represent a viable alternative material for dental implants. However, further experimental studies on the chemical modulation of PEEK seem to be necessary, mainly to increase the BIC ratio and to minimize the stress distribution to the peri-implant bone.

  16. Physical understanding of cryogenic implant benefits for electrical junction stability

    SciTech Connect

    Adeni Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd

    2012-03-12

    We investigate the effect of cryogenic temperature implants on electrical junction stability for ultra shallow junction applications for sub-32 nm technology nodes and beyond. A comprehensive study was conducted to gain physical understanding of the impact of cryogenic temperature implants on dopant-defect interactions. Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) molecule, a potential alternative to monomer boron was implanted in carbon preamorphized silicon substrates at cryogenic implant temperatures. Results indicate implants at cryogenic temperatures increase dopant activation with reduced diffusion, resulting in lower sheet resistance for a lower junction depth. Further, this study emphasizes the benefits of co-implants performed at cryogenic temperatures as alternative to traditional preamorphizing implants.

  17. Application of RBS and NRA in the fabrication of carbon based devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Maleki, H.; Evelyn, A.L.; Poker, D.B.

    1995-06-01

    We have used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) as well as resonant backscattering as analytical tools in fabricating carbon based drug delivery bio-implants, electrodes for batteries, and devices to entrap or filter specific toxins. Precursor is resol C{sub 7}H{sub 8}O{sub 2} liquid, which converts to fully cured phenolic resin C{sub 7}H{sub 6}O (sp gr 1.25) on heating at 170 C. This resin further transforms with no change in shape to glassy carbon (sp gr 1.45) on heating to 1000 C. Final product consists of long ribbon-like molecules of sp2 carbon atoms aggregated locally to form subcrystalline domains arranged randomly in space. RBS and NRA were used in measuring the porosity before and after activation, in concentration profiling of stored drugs before and after leaching, in detecting low level light element impurities, and in detecting changes in the structure of the device due to fabrication.

  18. Crosslinked redox polymer enzyme electrodes containing carbon nanotubes for high and stable glucose oxidation current.

    PubMed

    MacAodha, Domhnall; Ferrer, Maria Luisa; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Kavanagh, Paul; Leech, Dónal

    2012-11-14

    Co-immobilisation approaches for preparation of glucose-oxidising films of [Os(2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(poly-vinylimidazole)(10)Cl] and glucose oxidase on glassy carbon electrodes are compared. Electrodes prepared by crosslinking using glutaraldehyde vapour, without and with a NaBH(4) reduction, provide higher glucose oxidation current than those prepared using a well-established diepoxide method. Addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes to the film deposition solutions produces an enhanced glucose oxidation current density of 5 mA cm(-2) at 0.35 V vs. Ag/AgCl, whilst improving the operational stability of the current signal. Carbon nanotube, glutaraldehyde vapour crosslinked, films on electrodes, reduced by NaBH(4), retain 77% of initial catalytic current over 24 hours of continuous amperometric testing in a 37 °C, 50 mM phosphate buffer solution containing 150 mM NaCl and 100 mM glucose. Potential application of this approach to implantable enzymatic biofuel cells is demonstrated by production of glucose oxidation currents, under pseudo-physiological conditions, using mediating films with lower redox potentials.

  19. Strain localization in glassy polymers under cylindrical confinement.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Amit; Riggleman, Robert A

    2014-06-14

    Although the origin of ductility in crystalline materials is well understood through the motion of dislocations and defects, a similar framework for understanding deformation in amorphous materials remains elusive. In particular, the difference in the mechanical response for small-molecule amorphous solids, such as organic glasses that are typically brittle, and polymer glasses, which are frequently very tough, has not been systematically explored. Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the mechanical response of model glassy polymers confined to a nanoscopic pillar under tensile deformation. We vary the chain length, cooling rate for forming the glass, and the deformation rate and investigate the changes in the mechanical response. We find that samples that are cooled at a slower rate and deformed at a slower rate are more prone to localization of the strain response, or shear banding. Interestingly, this effect is independent of chain length over the range of parameters we have investigated so far, and we believe this is the first direct observation of shear banding in deformed polymer glasses under cylindrical confinement. Finally, by using the isoconfigurational ensemble approach, we provide evidence that the location where the shear band forms is due to structural features that are frozen in place during sample preparation.

  20. Mathematical modeling of glassy-winged sharpshooter population.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Mi; Hrynkiv, Volodymyr; Morano, Lisa; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Wilder, Sara; Mitchell, Forrest

    2014-06-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a fatal disease of grapevines which results from an infection by the plant pathogen Xyllela fastidiosa. This bacterium grows in the xylem (water-conducting) vessels of the plant blocking movement of water. PD can kill vines in one year and poses a serious threat to both the California and the expanding Texas wine industries. Bacteria are vectored from one vine to the next by a number of xylem feeding insect species. Of these, the Glassy-winged Sharpshooter (GWSS) is considered to be the primary xylem feeding insect in Texas vineyards. An extensive database of the xylem-feeding population frequencies was collected by USDA-APHIS for Texas vineyards over multiple years. This project focused on a subset of data, GWSS frequencies within 25 vineyards in Edwards Plateau located in central Texas. The proposed model investigates the natural population dynamics and the decline in GWSS, likely the result of pest management campaigns on the insects within the region. The model is a delay Gompertz differential equation with harvesting and immigration terms, and we use the data to estimate the model parameters.