Science.gov

Sample records for implanted telemetry tags

  1. Implantable telemetry for small animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A series of totally implantable telemetry devices for use in measuring deep body parameters in small animals were developed. Under a collaborative agreement with NASA, several of these systems; the continuous wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter, the multichannel telemetry system, and the inductively-powered dual channel cardiac pacer were evaluated in a series of ten mongrel dogs (15 to 20 kg.). These systems were used to measure ascending aortic and coronary blood flow, aortic pressure, and subcutaneous EKG.

  2. Implantable telemetry for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    A series of totally implantable telemetry devices for use in measuring deep body parameters in small animals were developed. Under a collaborative agreement with NASA, several of these systems; the continuous wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter, the multichannel telemetry system, and the inductively-powered dual channel cardiac pacer were evaluated in a series of ten mongrel dogs (15 to 20 kg.). These systems were used to measure ascending aortic and coronary blood flow, aortic pressure, and subcutaneous EKG.

  3. The Biolink Implantable Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betancourt-Zamora, Rafael J.

    1999-01-01

    Most biotelemetry applications deal with the moderated data rates of biological signals. Few people have studied the problem of transcutaneous data transmission at the rates required by NASA's Life Sciences-Advanced BioTelemetry System (LS-ABTS). Implanted telemetry eliminate the problems associated with wire breaking the skin, and permits experiments with awake and unrestrained subjects. Our goal is to build a low-power 174-216MHz Radio Frequency (RF) transmitter suitable for short range biosensor and implantable use. The BioLink Implantable Telemetry System (BITS) is composed of three major units: an Analog Data Module (ADM), a Telemetry Transmitter Module (TTM), and a Command Receiver Module (CRM). BioLink incorporates novel low-power techniques to implement a monolithic digital RF transmitter operating at 100kbps, using quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation in the 174-216MHz ISM band. As the ADM will be specific for each application, we focused on solving the problems associated with a monolithic implementation of the TTM and CRM, and this is the emphasis of this report. A system architecture based on a Frequency-Locked Loop (FLL) Frequency Synthesizer is presented, and a novel differential frequency that eliminates the need for a frequency divider is also shown. A self sizing phase modulation scheme suitable for low power implementation was also developed. A full system-level simulation of the FLL was performed and loop filter parameters were determined. The implantable antenna has been designed, simulated and constructed. An implant package compatible with the ABTS requirements is also being proposed. Extensive work performed at 200MHz in 0.5um complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) showed the feasibility of integrating the RF transmitter circuits in a single chip. The Hajimiri phase noise model was used to optimize the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) for minimum power consumption. Two test chips were fabricated in a 0.5pm, 3V CMOS

  4. Posthandling survival and PIT tag retention by alewives—a comparison of gastric and surgical implants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Voni, Volney

    2013-01-01

    We compared survival and tag retention of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus tagged with PIT tags, using intraperitoneal (IP) surgical implants, gastric implants (GI), and untagged controls held for 38 d. Retention was 100% for IP-tagged Alewives and 98% for GI-tagged implants. No significant difference in survival was observed among any of these groups. These results lend support to the use of PIT telemetry for studying fish passage and migration of anadromous herring. Both methods hold promise for improving estimates of freshwater survival of adult anadromous clupeids; further research should make it also possible to refine estimates of adult marine survival.

  5. Applicability of implantable telemetry systems in cardiovascular research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krutz, R. W.; Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henry, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the results of an experimental program undertaken to develop and apply implanted telemetry to cardiovascular research. Because of the role the kidney may play in essential hypertension, emphasis is placed on telemetry's applicability in the study of renal physiology. Consequently, the relationship between pressure, flow, and hydraulic impedance are stressed. Results of an exercise study are given.

  6. Observational data on the effects of infection by the copepod Salmincola californiensis on the short- and long-term viability of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) implanted with telemetry tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansen, Amy C.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Salmincola californiensis is common in juvenile Chinook salmon in western USA reservoirs and may affect the viability of fish used in studies of telemetered animals. Our limited assessment suggests infection by Salmincola californiensis affects the short-term morality of tagged fish and may affect long-term viability of tagged fish after release; however, the intensity of infection in the sample population did not represent the source population due to the observational nature of the data. We suggest these results warrant further study into the effects of infection bySalmincola californiensis on the results obtained through active telemetry and perhaps other methods requiring handling of infected fish.

  7. RF Telemetry System for an Implantable Bio-MEMS Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Hall, David G.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a novel miniature inductor and a pick-up antenna for contact less powering and RF telemetry from implantable bio-MEMS sensors are presented. The design of the inductor and the pick-up antenna are discussed. In addition, the measured characteristics at the design frequency of 330 MHz have been shown.

  8. Wearable Wireless Telemetry System for Implantable Bio-MEMS Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Miranda, Felix A.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Renita E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a telemetry and contact-less powering system consisting of an implantable bio-MEMS sensor with a miniature printed square spiral chip antenna and an external wearable garment with printed loop antenna is investigated. The wearable garment pick-up antenna and the implantable chip antenna are in close proximity to each other and hence couple inductively through their near-fields and behave as the primary and the secondary circuits of a transformer, respectively. The numerical and experimental results are graphically presented, and include the design parameter values as a function of the geometry, the relative RF magnetic near-field intensity as a function of the distance and angle, and the current density on the strip conductors, for the implantable chip antenna.

  9. Wearable wireless telemetry system for implantable bio-MEMS sensors.

    PubMed

    Simons, Rainee N; Miranda, Félix A; Wilson, Jeffrey D; Simons, Renita E

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a telemetry and contact-less powering system consisting of an implantable bio-MEMS sensor with a miniature printed square spiral chip antenna and an external wearable garment with printed loop antenna is investigated. The implantable chip antenna and the wearable garment pick-up antenna are in close proximity to each other and hence couple inductively through their near-fields and behave as the primary and the secondary circuits of a transformer, respectively. The numerical and experimental results are graphically presented, and include the design parameter values as a function of the geometry and the relative magnetic near-field intensity as a function of the angle, for the implantable chip antenna.

  10. Wearable wireless telemetry system for implantable bio-MEMS sensors.

    PubMed

    Simons, Rainee N; Miranda, Félix A; Wilson, Jeffrey D; Simons, Renita E

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a telemetry and contact-less powering system consisting of an implantable bio-MEMS sensor with a miniature printed square spiral chip antenna and an external wearable garment with printed loop antenna is investigated. The implantable chip antenna and the wearable garment pick-up antenna are in close proximity to each other and hence couple inductively through their near-fields and behave as the primary and the secondary circuits of a transformer, respectively. The numerical and experimental results are graphically presented, and include the design parameter values as a function of the geometry and the relative magnetic near-field intensity as a function of the angle, for the implantable chip antenna. PMID:17946365

  11. A combined telemetry - tag return approach to estimate fishing and natural mortality rates of an estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Paramore, L.M.; Pollock, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    A joint analysis of tag return and telemetry data should improve estimates of mortality rates for exploited fishes; however, the combined approach has thus far only been tested in terrestrial systems. We tagged subadult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) with conventional tags and ultrasonic transmitters over 3 years in coastal North Carolina, USA, to test the efficacy of the combined telemetry - tag return approach. There was a strong seasonal pattern to monthly fishing mortality rate (F) estimates from both conventional and telemetry tags; highest F values occurred in fall months and lowest levels occurred during winter. Although monthly F values were similar in pattern and magnitude between conventional tagging and telemetry, information on F in the combined model came primarily from conventional tags. The estimated natural mortality rate (M) in the combined model was low (estimated annual rate ?? standard error: 0.04 ?? 0.04) and was based primarily upon the telemetry approach. Using high-reward tagging, we estimated different tag reporting rates for state agency and university tagging programs. The combined telemetry - tag return approach can be an effective approach for estimating F and M as long as several key assumptions of the model are met.

  12. Intraperitoneal implantation of life-long telemetry transmitters in otariids

    PubMed Central

    Horning, Markus; Haulena, Martin; Tuomi, Pamela A; Mellish, Jo-Ann E

    2008-01-01

    Background Pinnipeds, including many endangered and declining species, are inaccessible and difficult to monitor for extended periods using externally attached telemetry devices that are shed during the annual molt. Archival satellite transmitters were implanted intraperitoneally into four rehabilitated California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and 15 wild juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) to determine the viability of this surgical technique for the deployment of long-term telemetry devices in otariids. The life history transmitters record information throughout the life of the host and transmit data to orbiting satellites after extrusion following death of the host. Results Surgeries were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and single (n = 4) or dual (n = 15) transmitters were inserted into the ventrocaudal abdominal cavity via an 8.5 to 12 cm incision along the ventral midline between the umbilicus and pubic symphysis or preputial opening. Surgeries lasted 90 minutes (SD = 8) for the 19 sea lions. All animals recovered well and were released into the wild after extended monitoring periods from 27 to 69 days at two captive animal facilities. Minimum post-implant survival was determined via post-release tracking using externally attached satellite transmitters or via opportunistic re-sighting for mean durations of 73.7 days (SE = 9.0, Z. californianus) and 223.6 days (SE = 71.5, E. jubatus). Conclusion The low morbidity and zero mortality encountered during captive observation and post-release tracking periods confirm the viability of this surgical technique for the implantation of long-term telemetry devices in otariids. PMID:19077193

  13. Miniature implantable antennas for biomedical telemetry: from simulation to realization.

    PubMed

    Kiourti, Asimina; Costa, Jorge R; Fernandes, Carlos A; Santiago, André G; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2012-11-01

    We address numerical versus experimental design and testing of miniature implantable antennas for biomedical telemetry in the medical implant communications service band (402-405 MHz). A model of a novel miniature antenna is initially proposed for skin implantation, which includes varying parameters to deal with fabrication-specific details. An iterative design-and-testing methodology is further suggested to determine the parameter values that minimize deviations between numerical and experimental results. To assist in vitro testing, a low-cost technique is proposed for reliably measuring the electric properties of liquids without requiring commercial equipment. Validation is performed within a specific prototype fabrication/testing approach for miniature antennas. To speed up design while providing an antenna for generic skin implantation, investigations are performed inside a canonical skin-tissue model. Resonance, radiation, and safety performance of the proposed antenna is finally evaluated inside an anatomical head model. This study provides valuable insight into the design of implantable antennas, assessing the significance of fabrication-specific details in numerical simulations and uncertainties in experimental testing for miniature structures. The proposed methodology can be applied to optimize antennas for several fabrication/testing approaches and biotelemetry applications.

  14. What is "fallback"?: metrics needed to assess telemetry tag effects on anadromous fish behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Holly J.; Mather, Martha E.; Smith, Joseph M.; Muth, Robert M.; Finn, John T.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    Telemetry has allowed researchers to document the upstream migrations of anadromous fish in freshwater. In many anadromous alosine telemetry studies, researchers use downstream movements (“fallback”) as a behavioral field bioassay for adverse tag effects. However, these downstream movements have not been uniformly reported or interpreted. We quantified movement trajectories of radio-tagged anadromous alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts (USA) and tested blood chemistry of tagged and untagged fish held 24 h. A diverse repertoire of movements was observed, which could be quantified using (a) direction of initial movements, (b) timing, and (c) characteristics of bouts of coupled upstream and downstream movements (e.g., direction, distance, duration, and speed). Because downstream movements of individual fish were almost always made in combination with upstream movements, these should be examined together. Several of the movement patterns described here could fall under the traditional definition of “fallback” but were not necessarily aberrant. Because superficially similar movements could have quite different interpretations, post-tagging trajectories need more precise definitions. The set of metrics we propose here will help quantify tag effects in the field, and provide the basis for a conceptual framework that helps define the complicated behaviors seen in telemetry studies on alewives and other fish in the field.

  15. Variation in movement patterns of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) inferred from conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Burdick, S.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    We used 25 years of conventional tagging data (n=6173 recoveries) and 3 years of ultrasonic telemetry data (n=105 transmitters deployed) to examine movement rates and directional preferences of four age classes of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in estuarine and coastal waters of North Carolina. Movement rates of conventionally tagged red drum were dependent on the age, region, and season of tagging. Age-1 and age-2 red drum tagged along the coast generally moved along the coast, whereas fish tagged in oligohaline waters far from the coast were primarily recovered in coastal regions in fall months. Adult (age-4+) red drum moved from overwintering grounds on the continental shelf through inlets into Pamlico Sound in spring and summer months and departed in fall. Few tagged red drum were recovered in adjacent states (0.6% of all recoveries); however, some adult red drum migrated seasonally from overwintering grounds in coastal North Carolina northward to Virginia in spring, returning in fall. Age-2 transmittertracked red drum displayed seasonal emigration from a small tributary, but upstream and downstream movements within the tributary were correlated with fluctuating salinity regimes and not season. Large-scale conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry programs can provide valuable insights into the complex movement patterns of estuarine fish.

  16. Wearable Wireless Telemetry System for Implantable BioMEMS Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Miranda, Felix A.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Renita E.

    2008-01-01

    Telemetry systems of a type that have been proposed for the monitoring of physiological functions in humans would include the following subsystems: Surgically implanted or ingested units that would comprise combinations of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)- based sensors [bioMEMS sensors] and passive radio-frequency (RF) readout circuits that would include miniature loop antennas. Compact radio transceiver units integrated into external garments for wirelessly powering and interrogating the implanted or ingested units. The basic principles of operation of these systems are the same as those of the bioMEMS-sensor-unit/external-RFpowering- and-interrogating-unit systems described in "Printed Multi-Turn Loop Antennas for Biotelemetry" (LEW-17879-1) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 48, and in the immediately preceding article, "Hand-Held Units for Short-Range Wireless Biotelemetry" (LEW-17483-1). The differences between what is reported here and what was reported in the cited prior articles lie in proposed design features and a proposed mode of operation. In a specific system of the type now proposed, the sensor unit would comprise mainly a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor located in the annular region of a loop antenna (more specifically, a square spiral inductor/ antenna), all fabricated as an integral unit on a high-resistivity silicon chip. The capacitor electrodes, the spiral inductor/antenna, and the conductor lines interconnecting them would all be made of gold. The dimensions of the sensor unit have been estimated to be about 110.4 mm. The external garment-mounted powering/ interrogating unit would include a multi-turn loop antenna and signal-processing circuits. During operation, this external unit would be positioned in proximity to the implanted or ingested unit to provide for near-field, inductive coupling between the loop antennas, which we have as the primary and secondary windings of an electrical transformer.

  17. Ethical implications of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth R; Jaeger, Jan

    2008-08-01

    This article reviews the use of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans, focusing on the VeriChip (VeriChip Corporation, Delray Beach, FL) and the associated VeriMed patient identification system. In addition, various nonmedical applications for implanted RFID tags in humans have been proposed. The technology offers important health and nonhealth benefits, but raises ethical concerns, including privacy and the potential for coercive implantation of RFID tags in individuals. A national discussion is needed to identify the limits of acceptable use of implantable RFID tags in humans before their use becomes widespread and it becomes too late to prevent misuse of this useful but ethically problematic technology.

  18. Tag retention, growth, and survival of red swamp crayfish marked with a visible implant tag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isely, J.J.; Stockett, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Eighty juvenile (means: 42.4 mm total length, 1.6 g) red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii were implanted with sequentially numbered visible implant tags and held in the laboratory. Tags were injected transversely into the musculature just beneath the exoskeleton of the third abdominal segment from the cephalothorax; tags were visible upon inspection. An additional 20 crayfish were left untagged and served as controls. After 150 d, tag retention was 80% and all tags were readable. No tagged crayfish died during the study, and no differences in total length or weight were detected between tagged and control crayfish. All individuals molted at least three times during the 150-d study, and some individuals molted up to six times, suggesting that most tags would be permanently retained. The readability in the field without specialized equipment makes the visible implant tag ideal for studies of crayfish ecology, management, and culture.

  19. Implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation and heartbeat.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, K; Dohi, T; Hashimoto, Y; Matsumoto, K; Shimoyama, I

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have developed an implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring heartbeat. The capsule has three main functions, monitoring vital signs, transmitting the vital signs, and receiving energy for driving the capsule without wires. We used two wavelengths of LEDs and a photodiode sensitive to the two wavelengths for heartbeat sensor. The arterial oxygen saturation is calculated from the amplitude of the heartbeat signal. We fabricated an FM transmitter whose carrier frequency was 80 MHz. Though the GHz range frequency is generally used in transmission, the attenuation in the human body is large. The size of a common linear antenna is about a quarter of its operating wavelength. We employed a coil-based antenna which can reduce size below the quarter of the wavelength. We fabricated a miniaturized transmitter with the coil-based antenna at lower frequency. Our capsule was driven intermittently. We used a rechargeable battery. When the battery ran down, the battery was charged by wireless using the induced electromotive force. This means that the capsule is capable of monitoring vital signs over the long term. We measured the heartbeat from the middle finger of hand in a water tank as a model of a human body. PMID:19163388

  20. A Methodological Framework to Estimate the Site Fidelity of Tagged Animals Using Passive Acoustic Telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Capello, Manuela; Robert, Marianne; Soria, Marc; Potin, Gael; Itano, David; Holland, Kim; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Dagorn, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the use of passive acoustic telemetry technologies has facilitated unprecedented opportunities for studying the behavior of marine organisms in their natural environment. This technological advance would greatly benefit from the parallel development of dedicated methodologies accounting for the variety of timescales involved in the remote detection of tagged animals related to instrumental, environmental and behavioral events. In this paper we propose a methodological framework for estimating the site fidelity (“residence times”) of acoustic tagged animals at different timescales, based on the survival analysis of continuous residence times recorded at multiple receivers. Our approach is validated through modeling and applied on two distinct datasets obtained from a small coastal pelagic species (bigeye scad, Selar crumenophthalmus) and a large, offshore pelagic species (yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares), which show very distinct spatial scales of behavior. The methodological framework proposed herein allows estimating the most appropriate temporal scale for processing passive acoustic telemetry data depending on the scientific question of interest. Our method provides residence times free of the bias inherent to environmental and instrumental noise that can be used to study the small scale behavior of acoustic tagged animals. At larger timescales, it can effectively identify residence times that encompass the diel behavioral excursions of fish out of the acoustic detection range. This study provides a systematic framework for the analysis of passive acoustic telemetry data that can be employed for the comparative study of different species and study sites. The same methodology can be used each time discrete records of animal detections of any nature are employed for estimating the site fidelity of an animal at different timescales. PMID:26261985

  1. A Methodological Framework to Estimate the Site Fidelity of Tagged Animals Using Passive Acoustic Telemetry.

    PubMed

    Capello, Manuela; Robert, Marianne; Soria, Marc; Potin, Gael; Itano, David; Holland, Kim; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Dagorn, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the use of passive acoustic telemetry technologies has facilitated unprecedented opportunities for studying the behavior of marine organisms in their natural environment. This technological advance would greatly benefit from the parallel development of dedicated methodologies accounting for the variety of timescales involved in the remote detection of tagged animals related to instrumental, environmental and behavioral events. In this paper we propose a methodological framework for estimating the site fidelity ("residence times") of acoustic tagged animals at different timescales, based on the survival analysis of continuous residence times recorded at multiple receivers. Our approach is validated through modeling and applied on two distinct datasets obtained from a small coastal pelagic species (bigeye scad, Selar crumenophthalmus) and a large, offshore pelagic species (yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares), which show very distinct spatial scales of behavior. The methodological framework proposed herein allows estimating the most appropriate temporal scale for processing passive acoustic telemetry data depending on the scientific question of interest. Our method provides residence times free of the bias inherent to environmental and instrumental noise that can be used to study the small scale behavior of acoustic tagged animals. At larger timescales, it can effectively identify residence times that encompass the diel behavioral excursions of fish out of the acoustic detection range. This study provides a systematic framework for the analysis of passive acoustic telemetry data that can be employed for the comparative study of different species and study sites. The same methodology can be used each time discrete records of animal detections of any nature are employed for estimating the site fidelity of an animal at different timescales.

  2. A Methodological Framework to Estimate the Site Fidelity of Tagged Animals Using Passive Acoustic Telemetry.

    PubMed

    Capello, Manuela; Robert, Marianne; Soria, Marc; Potin, Gael; Itano, David; Holland, Kim; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Dagorn, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the use of passive acoustic telemetry technologies has facilitated unprecedented opportunities for studying the behavior of marine organisms in their natural environment. This technological advance would greatly benefit from the parallel development of dedicated methodologies accounting for the variety of timescales involved in the remote detection of tagged animals related to instrumental, environmental and behavioral events. In this paper we propose a methodological framework for estimating the site fidelity ("residence times") of acoustic tagged animals at different timescales, based on the survival analysis of continuous residence times recorded at multiple receivers. Our approach is validated through modeling and applied on two distinct datasets obtained from a small coastal pelagic species (bigeye scad, Selar crumenophthalmus) and a large, offshore pelagic species (yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares), which show very distinct spatial scales of behavior. The methodological framework proposed herein allows estimating the most appropriate temporal scale for processing passive acoustic telemetry data depending on the scientific question of interest. Our method provides residence times free of the bias inherent to environmental and instrumental noise that can be used to study the small scale behavior of acoustic tagged animals. At larger timescales, it can effectively identify residence times that encompass the diel behavioral excursions of fish out of the acoustic detection range. This study provides a systematic framework for the analysis of passive acoustic telemetry data that can be employed for the comparative study of different species and study sites. The same methodology can be used each time discrete records of animal detections of any nature are employed for estimating the site fidelity of an animal at different timescales. PMID:26261985

  3. Effects of acoustic tag implantation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens: lack of evidence for changes in behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    An assumption of studies using acoustic telemetry is that surgical implantation of acoustic transmitters or tags does not alter behavior of tagged individuals. Evaluating the validity of this assumption can be difficult for large fish, such as adult sturgeons, not amenable to controlled laboratory experimentation. The purpose of this study was to determine if and when this assumption was valid for adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens tagged with large (34 g) acoustic transmitters and released into the St. Clair River during 2011–2014. The hypothesis that activity and reach-scale distributions of tagged and untagged lake sturgeon did not differ was tested by comparing movement frequencies, movement rates (speed-over-ground), and location-specific detection probabilities between newly-tagged lake sturgeon and presumably fully-recovered conspecifics tagged and released in prior years.

  4. Implantable and ingestible medical devices with wireless telemetry functionalities: a review of current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kiourti, Asimina; Psathas, Konstantinos A; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2014-01-01

    Wireless medical telemetry permits the measurement of physiological signals at a distance through wireless technologies. One of the latest applications is in the field of implantable and ingestible medical devices (IIMDs) with integrated antennas for wireless radiofrequency (RF) communication (telemetry) with exterior monitoring/control equipment. Implantable medical devices (MDs) perform an expanding variety of diagnostic and therapeutic functions, while ingestible MDs receive significant attention in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Design of such wireless IIMD telemetry systems is highly intriguing and deals with issues related to: operation frequency selection, electronics and powering, antenna design and performance, and modeling of the wireless channel. In this paper, we attempt to comparatively review the current status and challenges of IIMDs with wireless telemetry functionalities. Full solutions of commercial IIMDs are also recorded. The objective is to provide a comprehensive reference for scientists and developers in the field, while indicating directions for future research.

  5. Ethical implications of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth R; Jaeger, Jan

    2008-08-01

    This article reviews the use of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans, focusing on the VeriChip (VeriChip Corporation, Delray Beach, FL) and the associated VeriMed patient identification system. In addition, various nonmedical applications for implanted RFID tags in humans have been proposed. The technology offers important health and nonhealth benefits, but raises ethical concerns, including privacy and the potential for coercive implantation of RFID tags in individuals. A national discussion is needed to identify the limits of acceptable use of implantable RFID tags in humans before their use becomes widespread and it becomes too late to prevent misuse of this useful but ethically problematic technology. PMID:18802863

  6. Feasibility of Surgically Implanting Acoustic Tags into Pacific Herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Seitz, A.C.; Norcross, B.L.; Payne, J.C.; Kagley, A.N.; Meloy, B

    2010-01-01

    Internally implanted acoustic tags represent a potentially valuable approach to assessing the seasonal migration and distribution patterns of Pacific herring Clupea palasii. We examined the feasibility of implanting two sizes of dummy acoustic tags (9 mm in diameter × 21 mm long, 1.6 g; and 7 mm in diameter × 18 mm long, 0.7 g) in Pacific herring that had been held in captivity for nearly a year and that ranged from 165 to 215 mm in fork length (FL) and from 41.6 to 142.6 g. Relatively low mortality (4%) and tag shedding (4%), as well as growth similar to that observed in control fish after 135 d, indicate that, with proper handling, Pacific herring are amenable to surgical implantation of acoustic tags.

  7. Survival and tag loss in Moapa White River springfish implanted with passive integrated transponder tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, Christopher J.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored survival and tag loss among Moapa White River springfish Crenichthys baileyi moapae that were surgically implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT; 9 × 2 mm) tags. The fish used in the study ranged from 40 to 67 mm in total length and from 1.0 to 6.5 g in mass; the PIT tag: body weight ratios were 1.0–6.1%. Fish were held for 41 d in live cages within a small, warm desert stream. Survival did not differ between untagged control fish (94.5%) and tagged fish (95.6%). Survival did not appear to be influenced by fish size or PIT tag: body weight ratio, but the small number of fish that died precluded a detailed analysis. Tag retention was 100% among the 86 fish that survived over the 41 d. Our results suggest that surgically implanting 9-mm PIT tags into Moapa White River springfish as small as 40 mm is an effective method for marking them because it has minimal impacts on survival and tag retention is high. More work is needed on the effects of PIT tagging on growth and other performance metrics of springfish and other small desert fishes.

  8. Surgically Implanted JSATS Micro-Acoustic Transmitters Effects on Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Tag Expulsion and Survival, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Royer, Ida M.; Knox, Kasey M.; Kim, Jin A.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Weiland, Mark A.; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-09-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival model assumptions associated with a concurrent study - Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Dam Passage Survival and Associated Metrics at John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2010 by Thomas Carlson and others in 2010 - in which the Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate the survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The micro-acoustic transmitter used in these studies is the smallest acoustic transmitter model to date (12 mm long x 5 mm wide x 4 mm high, and weighing 0.43 g in air). This study and the 2010 study by Carlson and others were conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of Washington for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet requirements set forth by the 2008 FCRPS Biological Opinion. In 2010, we compared survival, tag burden, and tag expulsion in five spring groups of yearling Chinook salmon (YCH) and steelhead (STH) and five summer groups of subyearling Chinook salmon (SYC) to evaluate survival model assumptions described in the concurrent study. Each tagging group consisted of approximately 120 fish/species, which were collected and implanted on a weekly basis, yielding approximately 600 fish total/species. YCH and STH were collected and implanted from late April to late May (5 weeks) and SYC were collected and implanted from mid-June to mid-July (5 weeks) at the John Day Dam Smolt Monitoring Facility. The fish were collected once a week, separated by species, and assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) Control (no surgical treatment), (2) Sham (surgical implantation of only a passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag), and (3) Tagged (surgical implantation of JSATS micro-acoustic transmitter [AT] and PIT tags). The test fish were held for 30 days in indoor

  9. Colorectal cancer implant in an external hemorrhoidal skin tag

    PubMed Central

    Liasis, Lampros

    2016-01-01

    External hemorrhoidal skin tags are generally benign. Colorectal cancer metastases to the squamous epithelium of perianal skin tags without other evidence of disseminated disease is a very rare finding. We present the case of a 61-year-old man with metastasis to an external hemorrhoidal skin tag from a midrectal primary adenocarcinoma. This case report highlights the importance of close examination of the anus during surgical planning for colorectal cancers. Abnormal findings of the perianal skin suggesting an implant or metastatic disease warrant biopsy, as distal spread and seeding can occur. In our patient, this finding appropriately changed surgical management. PMID:27034567

  10. Use of implantable telemetry systems for study of cardiovascular phenomena.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.; Fryer, T. B.; Westbrook, R. M.; Stone, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary observations of cardiovascular function have been made in four chimpanzees using multichannel implantable units. Measurements of right- and left-sided pressures were periodically made in these animals over a four-month period, including continuous observations for selected 24-hour periods. Pressures recorded with animals in an awake, unanesthetized, unrestrained state were much lower than pressures reported for restrained animals in similar situations. Diurnal variations of pressure tended to occur, but were not as clear-cut as those reported to occur for humans. The ability to implant a transmitter chronically and receive useful multichannel information in the chimpanzee encourages the future use of such implant devices as part of the control system for an artificial heart or directly for use in man.

  11. 76 FR 4634 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Implantation and Recovery of Archival Tags for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...; Implantation and Recovery of Archival Tags for Highly Migratory Species AGENCY: National Oceanic and... Administration (NOAA) allows scientists to implant archival tags in, or affix archival tags to, selected Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (tunas, sharks, swordfish, and billfish). Archival tags collect...

  12. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  13. Tag Retention and Survivorship of Hatchery Rainbow Trout Marked with Large-Format Visible Implant Alphanumeric Tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isely, J.J.; Trested, D.G.; Grabowski, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    Large-format visible implant alphanumeric (VIalpha) tags were implanted into 15,400 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Tag retention after 25 d was 82.6%, and survivorship was 92.8%. The results of this study compare favorably with those of similar studies on other species and suggest that large-format VIalpha tags are an appropriate choice for studies requiring the individual identification of larger rainbow trout.

  14. A touch probe method of operating an implantable RFID tag for orthopedic implant identification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Berger, J Lee; Ogirala, Ajay; Mickle, Marlin H

    2013-06-01

    The major problem in operating an implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag embedded on an orthopedic implant is low efficiency because of metallic interference. To improve the efficiency, this paper proposes a method of operating an implantable passive RFID tag using a touch probe at 13.56 MHz. This technology relies on the electric field interaction between two pairs of electrodes, one being a part of the touch probe placed on the surface of tissue and the other being a part of the tag installed under the tissue. Compared with using a conventional RFID antenna such as a loop antenna, this method has a better performance in the near field operation range to reduce interference with the orthopedic implant. Properly matching the touch probe and the tag to the tissue and the implant reduces signal attenuation and increases the overall system efficiency. The experiments have shown that this method has a great performance in the near field transcutaneous operation and can be used for orthopedic implant identification.

  15. Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2014-01-01

    The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. We evaluated bias and precision of the joint estimator, and how to optimally allocate effort between animals fitted with radio transmitters and inexpensive ear tags or leg bands. Tagging-to-harvest survival rates from >20 individuals with radio transmitters combined with 50–100 reward tags resulted in an unbiased and precise estimator of harvest rates. In addition, the joint model can test whether transmitters affect an individual's probability of being harvested. We illustrate application of the model using data from wild turkey, Meleagris gallapavo,to estimate harvest rates, and data from white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, to evaluate whether the presence of a visible radio transmitter is related to the probability of a deer being harvested. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate. In addition, the joint model can assess whether marking animals with radio transmitters affects the individual's probability of being harvested, caused by hunter selectivity or changes in a marked animal's behavior.

  16. Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data

    PubMed Central

    Buderman, Frances E; Diefenbach, Duane R; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S; Wallingford, Bret D

    2014-01-01

    The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. We evaluated bias and precision of the joint estimator, and how to optimally allocate effort between animals fitted with radio transmitters and inexpensive ear tags or leg bands. Tagging-to-harvest survival rates from >20 individuals with radio transmitters combined with 50–100 reward tags resulted in an unbiased and precise estimator of harvest rates. In addition, the joint model can test whether transmitters affect an individual's probability of being harvested. We illustrate application of the model using data from wild turkey, Meleagris gallapavo, to estimate harvest rates, and data from white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, to evaluate whether the presence of a visible radio transmitter is related to the probability of a deer being harvested. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate. In addition, the joint model can assess whether marking animals with radio transmitters affects the individual's probability of being harvested, caused by hunter selectivity or changes in a marked animal's behavior. PMID:24834339

  17. Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data.

    PubMed

    Buderman, Frances E; Diefenbach, Duane R; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S; Wallingford, Bret D

    2014-04-01

    The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. We evaluated bias and precision of the joint estimator, and how to optimally allocate effort between animals fitted with radio transmitters and inexpensive ear tags or leg bands. Tagging-to-harvest survival rates from >20 individuals with radio transmitters combined with 50-100 reward tags resulted in an unbiased and precise estimator of harvest rates. In addition, the joint model can test whether transmitters affect an individual's probability of being harvested. We illustrate application of the model using data from wild turkey, Meleagris gallapavo, to estimate harvest rates, and data from white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, to evaluate whether the presence of a visible radio transmitter is related to the probability of a deer being harvested. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate. In addition, the joint model can assess whether marking animals with radio transmitters affects the individual's probability of being harvested, caused by hunter selectivity or changes in a marked animal's behavior. PMID:24834339

  18. Implantable control, telemetry, and solar energy system in the moving actuator type total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J M; Lee, J H; Choi, S W; Kim, W E; Omn, K S; Park, S K; Kim, W G; Roh, J R; Min, B G

    1998-03-01

    The moving actuator type total artificial heart (TAH) developed in the Seoul National University has numerous design improvements based upon the digital signal processor (DSP). These improvements include the implantability of all electronics, an automatic control algorithm, and extension of the battery run-time in connection with an amorphous silicon solar system (SS). The implantable electronics consist of the motor drive, main processor, intelligent Li ion battery management (LIBM) based upon the DSP, telemetry system, and transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system. Major changes in the implantable electronics include decreasing the temperature rise by over 21 degrees C on the motor drive, volume reduction (40 x 55 x 33 mm, 7 cell assembly) of the battery pack using a Li ion (3.6 V/cell, 900 mA.h), and improvement of the battery run-time (over 40 min) while providing the cardiac output (CO) of 5 L/min at 100 mm Hg afterload when the external battery for testing is connected with the SS (2.5 W, 192.192, 1 kg) for the external battery recharge or the partial TAH drive. The phase locked loop (PLL) based telemetry system was implemented to improve stability and the error correction DSP algorithm programmed to achieve high accuracy. A field focused light emitting diode (LED) was used to obtain low light scattering along the propagation path, similar to the optical property of the laser and miniature sized, mounted on the pancake type TET coils. The TET operating resonance frequency was self tuned in a range of 360 to 410 kHz to provide enough power even at high afterloads. An automatic cardiac output regulation algorithm was developed based on interventricular pressure analysis and carried out in several animal experiments successfully. All electronics have been evaluated in vitro and in vivo and prepared for implantation of the TAH. Substantial progress has been made in designing a completely implantable TAH at the preclinical stage. PMID:9527287

  19. A new approach to tag design in dolphin telemetry: Computer simulations to minimise deleterious effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, V. V.; Wilson, R. P.; Lucke, K.

    2007-02-01

    Remote-sensors and transmitters are powerful devices for studying cetaceans at sea. However, despite substantial progress in microelectronics and miniaturisation of systems, dolphin tags are imperfectly designed; additional drag from tags increases swim costs, compromises swimming capacity and manoeuvrability, and leads to extra loads on the animal's tissue. We propose a new approach to tag design, elaborating basic principles and incorporating design stages to minimise device effects by using computer-aided design. Initially, the operational conditions of the device are defined by quantifying the shape, hydrodynamics and range of the natural deformation of the dolphin body at the tag attachment site (such as close to the dorsal fin). Then, parametric models of both of the dorsal fin and a tag are created using the derived data. The link between parameters of the fin and a tag model allows redesign of tag models according to expected changes of fin geometry (difference in fin shape related with species, sex, and age peculiarities, simulation of the bend of the fin during manoeuvres). A final virtual modelling stage uses iterative improvement of a tag model in a computer fluid dynamics (CFD) environment to enhance tag performance. This new method is considered as a suitable tool of tag design before creation of the physical model of a tag and testing with conventional wind/water tunnel technique. Ultimately, tag materials are selected to conform to the conditions identified by the modelling process and thus help create a physical model of a tag, which should minimise its impact on the animal carrier and thus increase the reliability and quality of the data obtained.

  20. Survival, growth, and tag retention in age-0 Chinook Salmon implanted with 8-, 9-, and 12-mm PIT tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L; Rabe, Craig; Nelson, Doug D

    2015-01-01

    The ability to represent a population of migratory juvenile fish with PIT tags becomes difficult when the minimum tagging size is larger than the average size at which fish begin to move downstream. Tags that are smaller (e.g., 8 and 9 mm) than the commonly used 12-mm PIT tags are currently available, but their effects on survival, growth, and tag retention in small salmonid juveniles have received little study. We evaluated growth, survival, and tag retention in age-0 Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of three size-groups: 40–49-mm fish were implanted with 8- and 9-mm tags, and 50– 59-mm and 60–69-mm fish were implanted with 8-, 9-, and 12-mm tags. Survival 28 d after tagging ranged from 97.8% to 100% across all trials, providing no strong evidence for a fish-size-related tagging effect or a tag size effect. No biologically significant effects of tagging on growth in FL (mm/d) or weight (g/d) were observed. Although FL growth in tagged fish was significantly reduced for the 40–49-mm and 50–59-mm groups over the first 7 d, growth rates were not different thereafter, and all fish were similar in size by the end of the trials (day 28). Tag retention across all tests ranged from 93% to 99%. We acknowledge that actual implantation of 8- or 9-mm tags into small fish in the field will pose additional challenges (e.g., capture and handling stress) beyond those observed in our laboratory. However, we conclude that experimental use of the smaller tags for small fish in the field is supported by our findings.

  1. A multichannel implantable telemetry system for flow, pressure, and ECG measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.; Freund, W.; Mccutcheon, E. P.; Carlson, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The design, principles of operation, and performance of an implantable miniaturized (48 cu cm in volume) multiplex telemetry system for simultaneous measurement of up to eight physiological parameters (including cardiovascular data) are described. Integrated circuits are used to reduce the size, complexity, and cost of fabrication. Power consumption is reduced using recently developed complementary MOS devices. PWM technique is selected as it is relatively easy to implement, lends itself to ICs, and provides an accurate means of transmitting data. The system is totally implantable within the chest of a test animal, with no wire penetrating through the skin. It is shown that the described system permits repeated measurement of the physiological effects of a variety of interventions in awake unanesthetized animals.

  2. An Implantable RFID Sensor Tag toward Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhibin; Tan, Xi; Chen, Xianliang; Chen, Sizheng; Zhang, Zijian; Zhang, Hualei; Wang, Junyu; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Lirong; Min, Hao

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a wirelessly powered implantable electrochemical sensor tag for continuous blood glucose monitoring. The system is remotely powered by a 13.56-MHz inductive link and utilizes an ISO 15693 radio frequency identification (RFID) standard for communication. This paper provides reliable and accurate measurement for changing glucose level. The sensor tag employs a long-term glucose sensor, a winding ferrite antenna, an RFID front-end, a potentiostat, a 10-bit sigma-delta analog to digital converter, an on-chip temperature sensor, and a digital baseband for protocol processing and control. A high-frequency external reader is used to power, command, and configure the sensor tag. The only off-chip support circuitry required is a tuned antenna and a glucose microsensor. The integrated chip fabricated in SMIC 0.13-μm CMOS process occupies an area of 1.2 mm ×2 mm and consumes 50 μW. The power sensitivity of the whole system is -4 dBm. The sensor tag achieves a measured glucose range of 0-30 mM with a sensitivity of 0.75 nA/mM. PMID:25823049

  3. An Implantable RFID Sensor Tag toward Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhibin; Tan, Xi; Chen, Xianliang; Chen, Sizheng; Zhang, Zijian; Zhang, Hualei; Wang, Junyu; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Lirong; Min, Hao

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a wirelessly powered implantable electrochemical sensor tag for continuous blood glucose monitoring. The system is remotely powered by a 13.56-MHz inductive link and utilizes an ISO 15693 radio frequency identification (RFID) standard for communication. This paper provides reliable and accurate measurement for changing glucose level. The sensor tag employs a long-term glucose sensor, a winding ferrite antenna, an RFID front-end, a potentiostat, a 10-bit sigma-delta analog to digital converter, an on-chip temperature sensor, and a digital baseband for protocol processing and control. A high-frequency external reader is used to power, command, and configure the sensor tag. The only off-chip support circuitry required is a tuned antenna and a glucose microsensor. The integrated chip fabricated in SMIC 0.13-μm CMOS process occupies an area of 1.2 mm ×2 mm and consumes 50 μW. The power sensitivity of the whole system is -4 dBm. The sensor tag achieves a measured glucose range of 0-30 mM with a sensitivity of 0.75 nA/mM.

  4. Integrated electronic system for implantable sensory NFC tag.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Ali; Saersten, Joar; Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Hafliger, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    We have designed the complete electronic system for an implanted sensory NFC-A tag (type 1) that monitors a physiological parameter, e.g. blood glucose, dehydration, bladder pressure, to name some of the target applications that we pursue. The tag is meant to be implanted under the skin and is powered by an NFC reader held close to it, such as a smart phone or a smart watch. The electronic system consists of a sensor front-end, ADC, NFC-A transceiver and NFC power harvester. In its present status, the physical layer of the communication and the power harvester have been implemented on one ASIC, and the sensor front-end and ADC on another, while the digital circuits realizing the higher level NFC protocol have been implemented on an FPGA. Simulations and a few preliminary test results are presented in this paper. The ultimate goal after thorough testing of this first prototype is to integrate all of these modules on a single ASIC. PMID:26737933

  5. Aircraft flight simulation of spacelab experiment using an implanted telemetry system to obtain cardiovascular data from the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, E. P.; Miranda, R.; Fryer, T. B.; Hodges, G.; Newson, B. D.; Pace, N.

    1977-01-01

    The utility of a multichannel implantable telemetry system for obtaining cardiovascular data was tested in a monkey with a CV-990 aircraft flight simulation of a space flight experiment. Valuable data were obtained to aid planning and execution of flight experiments using chronically instrumented animals.

  6. Longitudinal Analysis of the Absence of Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry in Children using Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Moura, Amanda Christina Gomes de; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Couto, Maria Ines Vieira; Brito, Rubens; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria; Matas, Carla Gentile; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Introduction Currently the cochlear implant allows access to sounds in individuals with profound hearing loss. The objective methods used to verify the integrity of the cochlear device and the electrophysiologic response of users have noted these improvements. Objective To establish whether the evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve can appear after electrical stimulation when it is absent intraoperatively. Methods The clinical records of children implanted with the Nucleus Freedom (Cochlear Ltd., Australia) (CI24RE) cochlear implant between January 2009 and January 2010 with at least 6 months of use were evaluated. The neural response telemetry (NRT) thresholds of electrodes 1, 6, 11, 16, and 22 during surgery and after at least 3 months of implant use were analyzed and correlated with etiology, length of auditory deprivation, and chronological age. These data were compared between a group of children exhibiting responses in all of the tested electrodes and a group of children who had at least one absent response. Results The sample was composed of clinical records of 51 children. From these, 21% (11) showed no NRT in at least one of the tested electrodes. After an average of 4.9 months of stimulation, the number of individuals exhibiting absent responses decreased from 21 to 11% (n = 6). Conclusion It is feasible that absent responses present after a period of electrical stimulation. In our sample, 45% (n = 5) of the patients with intraoperative absence exhibited a positive response after an average of 4.9 months of continued electrical stimulation. PMID:25992123

  7. Longitudinal Analysis of the Absence of Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry in Children using Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Amanda Christina Gomes de; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Couto, Maria Ines Vieira; Brito, Rubens; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria; Matas, Carla Gentile; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Currently the cochlear implant allows access to sounds in individuals with profound hearing loss. The objective methods used to verify the integrity of the cochlear device and the electrophysiologic response of users have noted these improvements. Objective To establish whether the evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve can appear after electrical stimulation when it is absent intraoperatively. Methods The clinical records of children implanted with the Nucleus Freedom (Cochlear Ltd., Australia) (CI24RE) cochlear implant between January 2009 and January 2010 with at least 6 months of use were evaluated. The neural response telemetry (NRT) thresholds of electrodes 1, 6, 11, 16, and 22 during surgery and after at least 3 months of implant use were analyzed and correlated with etiology, length of auditory deprivation, and chronological age. These data were compared between a group of children exhibiting responses in all of the tested electrodes and a group of children who had at least one absent response. Results The sample was composed of clinical records of 51 children. From these, 21% (11) showed no NRT in at least one of the tested electrodes. After an average of 4.9 months of stimulation, the number of individuals exhibiting absent responses decreased from 21 to 11% (n = 6). Conclusion It is feasible that absent responses present after a period of electrical stimulation. In our sample, 45% (n = 5) of the patients with intraoperative absence exhibited a positive response after an average of 4.9 months of continued electrical stimulation. PMID:25992123

  8. A history of telemetry in fishery research: Chapter 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hockersmith, Eric; Beeman, John W.; Adams, Noah S.; Beeman, John W.; Eiler, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis.

  9. Optimization of radio telemetry receiving systems: Chapter 5.2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Scott D.; Stevenson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis.

  10. Spiral Chip Implantable Radiator and Printed Loop External Receptor for RF Telemetry in Bio-Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Hall, David G.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the operation of a patented wireless RF telemetry system, consisting of a bio-MEMS implantable sensor and an external hand held unit, operating over the frequency range of few hundreds of MHz. A MEMS capacitive pressure sensor integrated with a miniature inductor/antenna together constitute the implantable sensor. Signal processing circuits collocated with a printed loop antenna together form the hand held unit, capable of inductively powering and also receiving the telemetry signals from the sensor. The paper in addition, demonstrates a technique to enhance the quality factor and inductance of the inductor in the presence of a lower ground plane and also presents the radiation characteristics of the loop antenna.

  11. Anchor and visible implant elastomer tag retention by hatchery rainbow trout stocked into an Ozark stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.G.; Winkelman, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to evaluate the stocking of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in an Oklahoma Ozark stream, we tagged 2,542 hatchery-reared rainbow trout (123-366 mm total length) with individually numbered Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant fluorescent elastomer (VIE) tags. We experimentally stocked double-marked rainbow trout into a small northeastern Oklahoma stream from November 2001 to March 2002 and resampled them monthly from December 2001 to October 2002 by electrofishing. Anchor tag retention was 91% through 6 months, and VIE tag retention was 96% through 6 months despite extensive handling of fish within 24 h of tagging. Based on the ease of application, high visibility, and high retention observed in this study, we recommend the use of VIE tags as a batch mark in similarly sized, similarly pigmented fish. The retention of VIE tags was slightly higher than that of anchor tags, and cost per fish was less for VIE than for anchor tags. However, VIE tags would have limited utility if numerous individual tags are necessary; therefore, we recommend anchor tags as individual marks in similarly sized salmonids. Retention for both tag types was relatively high and could be corrected for when estimating population parameters from tagging data.

  12. Telemetry methods for monitoring physiological parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The use of telemetry to monitor various physiological functions is discussed. The advantages of the technique and the parameters that it can monitor are assessed, and the main telemetry systems, including pressure telemetry, flow telemetry, and multichannel telemetry, are detailed. Human applications of implanted flow transducers, total implant versus backpack telemetry, the use of power sources and integrated circuits in telemetry, and the future prospects of the technique in hypertension treatment and research are discussed.

  13. Antibiotic use during the intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags into fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of antibiotics, in particular, the use of a single dose of antibiotics during electronic tag implantation is of unproven value, and carries with it the potential for the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and the alteration of the immune response of the fish. Antibiotic use during electronic tag implantation must conform to relevant drug laws and regulations in the country where work is being done, including the requirements for withdrawal times before human consumption is a possibility. Currently, the choice of antibiotics (most often tetracycline or oxytetracycline) and the use of a single dose of the drug are decisions made without knowledge of the basic need for antibiotic usage and of the bacteria involved in infections that occur following electronic tag implantation. Correct perioperative use of an antibiotic is to apply the drug to the animal before surgery begins, to assure serum and tissue levels of the drug are adequate before the incision is made. However, the most common perioperative application of antibiotics during implantation of an electronic tag is to delay the administration of the drug, injecting it into the coelom after the electronic tag is inserted, just prior to closure of the incision. There is little empirical evidence that the present application of antibiotics in fish being implanted with electronic tags is of value. Improvements should first be made to surgical techniques, especially the use of aseptic techniques and sterilized instruments and electronic tags, before resorting to antibiotics. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  14. An evaluation of the maximum tag burden for implantation of acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Deters, Katherine A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2010-04-01

    Abstract.—The influence of a surgically implanted acoustic micro-transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag on the growth and survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon was examined. Growth and survival were compared between treatment (implanted) and control fish within three fork length (FL) size groups (80-89, 90-99, and 100-109 mm). The acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag implanted in our study had a combined weight of 0.74 g. Weights of study fish ranged from 4.7 to 16.3 g for treatment fish and from 5.1 to 16.8 g for control fish. The burden for the combined acoustic and PIT tag experienced by implanted fish ranged from 8.8% to 15.7% for the 80-89 mm FL group, 6.0-10.9% for the 90-99 mm FL group, and 4.5-8.6% for the 100-109 mm FL group. Results indicated that growth and survival were size-dependent among implanted juvenile Chinook salmon. Significant differences in growth rate and survival were observed between treatment and control fish in the 80-89 mm FL group. Within this group, growth of fish smaller than 88.5 mm FL (tag burden > 10.0%) was negatively affected by the implantation or presence of an acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag. Survival of fish in the 90-99 mm FL group did not differ between treatment and control fish. However, survival of implanted fish within this size group that were smaller than 97.2 mm FL (tag burden > 7.4%) was negatively influenced. These results indicate that the burden of an acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag should be maintained at or below about 7.0% for studies that use hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon.

  15. Techniques for telemetry transmitter attachment and evaluation of transmitter effects on fish performance: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Wargo Rub, A. Michelle; Adams, Noah S.; Beeman, John W.; Eiler, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis.

  16. An introduction to the practical and ethical perspectives on the need to advance and standardize the intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Eppard, M. B.; Murchie, Karen J.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags (including radio and acoustic telemetry transmitters, passive integrated transponders and archival biologgers) is frequently used for conducting studies on fish. Electronic tagging studies provide information on the spatial ecology, behavior and survival of fish in marine and freshwater systems. However, any surgical procedure, particularly one where a laparotomy is performed and the coelomic cavity is opened, has the potential to alter the survival, behavior or condition of the animal which can impair welfare and introduce bias. Given that management, regulatory and conservation decisions are based on the assumption that fish implanted with electronic tags have similar fates and behavior relative to untagged conspecifics, it is critical to ensure that best surgical practices are being used. Also, the current lack of standardized surgical procedures and reporting of specific methodological details precludes cross-study and cross-year analyses which would further progress the field of fisheries science. This compilation of papers seeks to identify the best practices for the entire intracoelomic tagging procedure including pre- and post-operative care, anesthesia, wound closure, and use of antibiotics. Although there is a particular focus on salmonid smolts given the large body of literature available on that group, other life-stages and species of fish are discussed where there is sufficient knowledge. Additional papers explore the role of the veterinarian in fish surgeries, the need for minimal standards in the training of fish surgeons, providing a call for more complete and transparent procedures, and identifying trends in procedures and research needs. Collectively, this body of knowledge should help to improve data quality (including comparability and repeatability), enhance management and conservation strategies, and maintain the welfare status of tagged fish.

  17. An introduction to the practical and ethical perspectives on the need to advance and standardize the intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.S.; Eppard, M.B.; Murchie, K.J.; Nielsen, J.L.; Cooke, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags (including radio and acoustic telemetry transmitters, passive integrated transponders and archival biologgers) is frequently used for conducting studies on fish. Electronic tagging studies provide information on the spatial ecology, behavior and survival of fish in marine and freshwater systems. However, any surgical procedure, particularly one where a laparotomy is performed and the coelomic cavity is opened, has the potential to alter the survival, behavior or condition of the animal which can impair welfare and introduce bias. Given that management, regulatory and conservation decisions are based on the assumption that fish implanted with electronic tags have similar fates and behavior relative to untagged conspecifics, it is critical to ensure that best surgical practices are being used. Also, the current lack of standardized surgical procedures and reporting of specific methodological details precludes cross-study and cross-year analyses which would further progress the field of fisheries science. This compilation of papers seeks to identify the best practices for the entire intracoelomic tagging procedure including pre- and post-operative care, anesthesia, wound closure, and use of antibiotics. Although there is a particular focus on salmonid smolts given the large body of literature available on that group, other life-stages and species of fish are discussed where there is sufficient knowledge. Additional papers explore the role of the veterinarian in fish surgeries, the need for minimal standards in the training of fish surgeons, providing a call for more complete and transparent procedures, and identifying trends in procedures and research needs. Collectively, this body of knowledge should help to improve data quality (including comparability and repeatability), enhance management and conservation strategies, and maintain the welfare status of tagged fish. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. Surgical implantation techniques for electronic tags in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Glenn N.; Cooke, Steven J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Intracoelomic implantation of transmitters into fish requires making a surgical incision, incision closure, and other surgery related techniques; however, the tools and techniques used in the surgical process vary widely. We review the available literature and focus on tools and techniques used for conducting surgery on juvenile salmonids because of the large amount of research that is conducted on them. The use of sterilized surgical instruments properly selected for a given size of fish will minimize tissue damage and infection rates, and speed the wound healing of fish implanted with transmitters. For the implantation of transmitters into small fish, the optimal surgical methods include making an incision on the ventral midline along the linea alba (for studies under 1 month), protecting the viscera (by lifting the skin with forceps while creating the incision), and using absorbable monofilament suture with a small-swaged-on swaged-on tapered or reverse-cutting needle. Standardizing the implantation techniques to be used in a study involving particular species and age classes of fish will improve survival and transmitter retention while allowing for comparisons to be made among studies and across multiple years. This review should be useful for researchers working on juvenile salmonids and other sizes and species of fish.

  19. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7

  20. Novel Technique for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Willens, Scott; Cox, David M; Braue, Ernest H; Myers, Todd M; Wegner, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Telemetric monitoring of physiologic parameters in animal models is a critical component of chemical and biologic agent studies. The long-term collection of neurobehavioral and other physiologic data can require larger telemetry devices. Furthermore, such devices must be implanted in a location that is safe, well-tolerated, and functional. Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) present an ideal large animal model for chemical agent studies due to their relatively small size, characterized health status, and ease of training and handling. We report an effective approach to implanting a novel device to measure transthoracic impedance to approximate respiratory tidal volume and rate in Suidae. We tested the approach using 24 male Göttingen minipigs. A ventral midline abdominal incision extending from the umbilicus to the prepuce was followed by a paramedian incision of the parietal peritoneum and dorsal blunt dissection to create a retroperitoneal pocket. The device was anchored inside the pocket to the internal abdominal musculature with 3-0 nonabsorbable suture, biopotential leads were routed through the abdominal musculature, and the pocket was closed with 3-0 absorbable suture. Paired biopotential leads were anchored intermuscularly at the level of the seventh rib midway between spine and sternum bilaterally to provide surrogate data for respiratory function. Postoperative recovery and gross pathology findings at necropsy were used to assess safety and refine the surgical procedure. Results demonstrated that this procedure permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance, without negatively affecting the health and behavior of the animals. PMID:25527027

  1. Assignment tests, telemetry and tag-recapture data converge to identify natal origins of leatherback turtles foraging in Atlantic Canadian waters.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly R; James, Michael C; Roden, Suzanne; Dutton, Peter H

    2013-07-01

    Investigating migratory connectivity between breeding and foraging areas is critical to effective management and conservation of highly mobile marine taxa, particularly threatened, endangered, or economically important species that cross through regional, national and international boundaries. The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea, Vandelli 1761) is one such transboundary species that spends time at breeding areas at low latitudes in the northwest Atlantic during spring and summer. From there, they migrate widely throughout the North Atlantic, but many show fidelity to one region off eastern Canada, where critical foraging habitat has been proposed. Our goal was to identify nesting beach origins for turtles foraging here. Using genetics, we identified natal beaches for 288 turtles that were live-captured off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. Turtles were sampled (skin or blood) and genotyped using 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Results from three assignment testing programs (ONCOR, GeneClass2 and Structure) were compared. Our nesting population reference data set included 1417 individuals from nine Atlantic nesting assemblages. A supplementary data set for 83 foraging turtles traced to nesting beaches using flipper tags and/or PIT tags (n = 72), or inferred from satellite telemetry (n = 11), enabled ground-truthing of the assignments. We first assigned turtles using only genetic information and then used the supplementary recapture information to verify assignments. ONCOR performed best, assigning 64 of the 83 recaptured turtles to natal beaches (77·1%). Turtles assigned to Trinidad (164), French Guiana (72), Costa Rica (44), St. Croix (7), and Florida (1) reflect the relative size of those nesting populations, although none of the turtles were assigned to four other potential source nesting assemblages. Our results demonstrate the utility of genetic approaches for determining source populations of foraging marine animals and include the first

  2. Assignment tests, telemetry and tag-recapture data converge to identify natal origins of leatherback turtles foraging in Atlantic Canadian waters.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly R; James, Michael C; Roden, Suzanne; Dutton, Peter H

    2013-07-01

    Investigating migratory connectivity between breeding and foraging areas is critical to effective management and conservation of highly mobile marine taxa, particularly threatened, endangered, or economically important species that cross through regional, national and international boundaries. The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea, Vandelli 1761) is one such transboundary species that spends time at breeding areas at low latitudes in the northwest Atlantic during spring and summer. From there, they migrate widely throughout the North Atlantic, but many show fidelity to one region off eastern Canada, where critical foraging habitat has been proposed. Our goal was to identify nesting beach origins for turtles foraging here. Using genetics, we identified natal beaches for 288 turtles that were live-captured off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. Turtles were sampled (skin or blood) and genotyped using 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Results from three assignment testing programs (ONCOR, GeneClass2 and Structure) were compared. Our nesting population reference data set included 1417 individuals from nine Atlantic nesting assemblages. A supplementary data set for 83 foraging turtles traced to nesting beaches using flipper tags and/or PIT tags (n = 72), or inferred from satellite telemetry (n = 11), enabled ground-truthing of the assignments. We first assigned turtles using only genetic information and then used the supplementary recapture information to verify assignments. ONCOR performed best, assigning 64 of the 83 recaptured turtles to natal beaches (77·1%). Turtles assigned to Trinidad (164), French Guiana (72), Costa Rica (44), St. Croix (7), and Florida (1) reflect the relative size of those nesting populations, although none of the turtles were assigned to four other potential source nesting assemblages. Our results demonstrate the utility of genetic approaches for determining source populations of foraging marine animals and include the first

  3. Analysis and verification of a proposed antenna design for an implantable RFID Tag at 915 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakore, Rahul

    This work focused on design and analysis of an antenna to be used with an RFID tag that is implanted in human brain tissue. The goal is to maximize the power transferred between the external RFID measurement system and the implanted RFID tag while minimizing the power dissipated within the surrounding tissue. The commercial computational electromagnetics software package COMSOL, based on finite element method (FEM) has been used for design process. The COMSOL models have been validated against additional simulations using the FEKO commercial package based on method of moments (MOM) as well as against measurement of test antenna structures radiating in bulk homogeneous medium. The proposed antenna geometry is compatible with the human tissue and viable for use in implantable RFID Tag. The proposed antenna is a planar folded dipole made from a gold conductor that acts as a biocompatible material. The metal thickness is 1 micrometer and the overall antenna dimensions are 22 mm × 3.5 mm. The antenna structure also includes a dielectric substrate and an acrylic coating. The antenna impedance is 28 + j201.5 Ω at 915 MHz. The inductive reactance is high enough to compensate the capacitive reactance of RFID tag and the antenna resistance is close to effective chip resistance providing a conjugate match. This antenna fulfills the criteria for minimizing the power dissipation within the human tissue. Also, a radiation efficiency of 87% is achieved with this antenna at 915 MHz. The quality factor of greater than 10 is achieved which is sufficient to turn on the diodes in the electronic circuit of the RFID tag due to the high D.C voltage obtained.

  4. Developing a quality assurance plan for telemetry studies: A necessary management tool for an effective study: Chapter 9.3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Walker, Christopher E.; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis.

  5. Bias from false-positive detections and strategies for their removal in studies using telemetry: Chapter 9.5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Perry, Russell W.

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis.

  6. Design and performance of radio telemetry systems for assessing juvenile fish passage at three hydroelectric dams: Chapter 6.5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hockersmith, Eric; Stevenson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis.

  7. A comparison of implantation methods for large PIT tags or injectable acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Katrina V.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Klett, Ryan S.; Li, Huidong; Seaburg, Adam; Eppard, M. B.

    2014-04-15

    The miniaturization of acoustic transmitters may allow greater flexibility in terms of the size and species of fish available to tag. New downsized injectable acoustic tags similar in shape to passive integrated transponder tags can be rapidly injected rather than surgically implanted through a sutured incision, as is current practice. Before wide-scale field use of these injectable transmitters, standard protocols to ensure the most effective and least damaging methods of implantation must be developed. Three implantation methods were tested in various sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha. Methods included a needle bevel-down injection, a needle bevel-up injection with a 90-degree rotation, and tag implantation through an unsutured incision. Tagged fish were compared to untagged control groups. Weight and wound area were measured at tagging and every week for 3 weeks; holding tanks were checked daily for mortalities and tag losses. No differences among treatments were found in growth, tag loss, or survival, but wound area was significantly reduced among incision-treated fish. The bevel-up injection had the worst results in terms of tag loss and wound area and also had high mortality. Implantation through an incision resulted in the lowest tag loss but the highest mortality. Fish from the bevel-down treatment group had the least mortality; wound areas also were smaller than the bevel-up treatment group. Cumulatively, the data suggest that the unsutured incision and bevel-down injection methods were the most effective; the drawbacks of both methods are described in detail. However, we further recommend larger and longer studies to find more robust thresholds for tagging size that include more sensitive measures.

  8. Effects of telemetry transmitter placement on egg retention in naturally spawning, captively reared steelhead

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Brown, Richard S.; Tatara, Chris P.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2007-05-01

    Maturing female anadromous salmonids receiving surgical intraperitoneally-implanted telemetry transmitters may experience difficulty depositing eggs during natural spawning. We allocated maturing adult steelhead females to three treatments: tags surgically implanted in the body cavity (internal), tags implanted between the skin and muscle tissue (subdermal), and non-tagged, and allowed them to spawn naturally in an experimental channel. Internally tagged females retained significantly more eggs than both the subdermally tagged treatment (P = 0.005) and non-tagged controls (P = 0.001); the subdermal and non-tag controls did not differ significantly (P = 0.934). The internal, subdermal and non-tag treatments retained an average of 49%, 11% and 2% of their eggs, respectively. The onset of sexual activity did not differ significantly among treatments (P = 0.413). Post-spawning mortality was 70% for both internally and subdermally tagged females and 0% for non-tagged females (P <0.01). We suggest that subdermal implantation techniques be considered in future studies during the reproductive period to reduce egg retention caused by internal implantation of transmitters.

  9. Anechoic aquarium for ultrasonic neural telemetry.

    PubMed Central

    Mensinger, A F; Deffenbaugh, M

    2000-01-01

    An acoustic neural telemetry tag has been developed for recording from free-swimming aquatic animals. Microwire electrodes were implanted into the VIIIth nerve of the toadfish, Opsanus tau, and interfaced to the subdermally implanted tag. The telemetry tag frequency modulates the neural signal, converting it into a varying frequency, which is amplified and transmitted acoustically (centre frequency of 90 kHz and a 20 kHz bandwidth). This acoustic signal is detected by a receiver hydrophone, and the receiver reconstructs the full neural waveform from the acoustic signal. However, due to the multipath environment in the experimental aquarium, the acoustic signal is quickly degraded as the hydrophone is moved away from the source. In order to receive the signal independent of fish position, an anechoic aquarium was designed. Streams of microbubbles (ca. 70 microm diameter) were generated to produce a curtain of sound-absorptive material along the walls and water surface of the aquarium. Microbubble generation significantly reduced the multipath artefacts, and allowed signal discrimination independent of fish and hydrophone position. The anechoic aquarium will allow the recording of neural activity from free-swimming fishes in quasi-natural habitats, thus allowing better understanding of the neural mechanisms of behaviour. PMID:11079420

  10. Inferring spatial and temporal behavioral patterns of free-ranging manatees using saltwater sensors of telemetry tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Slone, Daniel H.; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth Adriana; Reid, James P.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid

    2015-01-01

    Diving or respiratory behavior in aquatic mammals can be used as an indicator of physiological activity and consequently, to infer behavioral patterns. Five Antillean manatees, Trichechus manatus manatus, were captured in Chetumal Bay and tagged with GPS tracking devices. The radios were equipped with a micropower saltwater sensor (SWS), which records the times when the tag assembly was submerged. The information was analyzed to establish individual fine-scale behaviors. For each fix, we established the following variables: distance (D), sampling interval (T), movement rate (D/T), number of dives (N), and total diving duration (TDD). We used logic criteria and simple scatterplots to distinguish between behavioral categories: ‘Travelling’ (D/T ≥ 3 km/h), ‘Surface’ (↓TDD, ↓N), ‘Bottom feeding’ (↑TDD, ↑N) and ‘Bottom resting’ (↑TDD, ↓N). Habitat categories were qualitatively assigned: Lagoon, Channels, Caye shore, City shore, Channel edge, and Open areas. The instrumented individuals displayed a daily rhythm of bottom activities, with surfacing activities more frequent during the night and early in the morning. More investigation into those cycles and other individual fine-scale behaviors related to their proximity to concentrations of human activity would be informative

  11. Implantation of an RFID-tag into human molars to reduce hard forensic identification labor. Part I: working principle.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, Patrick W; Poelman, Guy; De Cooman, Michel; Puers, Robert; Willems, Guy

    2006-05-15

    Recently the tsunami disaster, the London bombings and the landfall of hurricane Katrina demonstrated once more the need for an accurate, quick and easy to handle identification system. The implantation of a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag into a human tooth and the read-out of its information may give an answer to this problem. A description is given of the modification of an existing RFID-tag that was made for veterinary use. This modified system was implanted in human molars using directly bonded resin composites. A protocol for tooth preparation and tag implantation was developed. A study of tag read-out patterns, revealed their accurate read-out distance range, the optimal site of RFID-tag implantation, assemblage of its components, and dimensions of the primary coil. It was found that disassembling the commercial RFID-tags was practically feasible and resulted in a properly working set-up. Further research is needed to optimize the design and the stability of RFID-tags for human identification purposes. PMID:16563681

  12. Optimization of an acoustic telemetry array for detecting transmitter-implanted fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clements, S.; Jepsen, D.; Karnowski, M.; Schreck, C.B.

    2005-01-01

    The development of miniature acoustic transmitters and economical, robust automated receivers has enabled researchers to study the movement patterns and survival of teleosts in estuarine and ocean environments, including many species and age-classes that were previously considered too small for implantation. During 2001-2003, we optimized a receiver mooring system to minimize gear and data loss in areas where current action or wave action and acoustic noise are high. In addition, we conducted extensive tests to determine (1) the performance of a transmitter and receiver (Vemco, Ltd.) that are widely used, particularly in North America and Europe and (2) the optimal placement of receivers for recording the passage of fish past a point in a linear-flow environment. Our results suggest that in most locations the mooring system performs well with little loss of data; however, boat traffic remains a concern due to entanglement with the mooring system. We also found that the reception efficiency of the receivers depends largely on the method and location of deployment. In many cases, we observed a range of 0-100% reception efficiency (the percentage of known transmissions that are detected while the receiver is within range of the transmitter) when using a conventional method of mooring. The efficiency was improved by removal of the mounting bar and obstructions from the mooring line. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  13. Advancing the surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish: a gap analysis and research agenda based on a review of trends in intracoelomic tagging effects studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Steven J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. B.; Brown, Richard S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2011-03-08

    Early approaches to surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish were often through trial and error, however, in recent years there has been an interest in using scientific research to identify techniques and procedures that improve the outcome of surgical procedures and determine the effects of tagging on individuals. Here we summarize the trends in 108 peer-reviewed electronic tagging effect studies focused on intracoleomic implantation to determine opportunities for future research. To date, almost all of the studies have been conducted in freshwater, typically in laboratory environments, and have focused on biotelemetry devices. The majority of studies have focused on salmonids, cyprinids, ictalurids and centrarchids, with a regional bias towards North America, Europe and Australia. Most studies have focused on determining whether there is a negative effect of tagging relative to control fish, with proportionally fewer that have contrasted different aspects of the surgical procedure (e.g., methods of sterilization, incision location, wound closure material) that could advance the discipline. Many of these studies included routine endpoints such as mortality, growth, healing and tag retention, with fewer addressing sublethal measures such as swimming ability, predator avoidance, physiological costs, or fitness. Continued research is needed to further elevate the practice of electronic tag implantation in fish in order to ensure that the data generated are relevant to untagged conspecifics (i.e., no long-term behavioural or physiological consequences) and the surgical procedure does not impair the health and welfare status of the tagged fish. To that end, we advocate for i) rigorous controlled manipulations based on statistical designs that have adequate power, account for inter-individual variation, and include controls and shams, ii) studies that transcend the laboratory and the field with more studies in marine waters, iii) incorporation of knowledge and

  14. Holding of juvenile salmonids for surgical implantation of electronic tags: a review and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.; Eppard, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    Many telemetry based studies require that fish be sampled from the wild and then held for some amount of time both prior to and after the implantation of a transmitter. However, the effects of such holding (or the lack thereof) are often overlooked. Pre-surgical holding often occurs to facilitate logistical needs of research projects and as an attempt to minimize negative physiological effects due to capture and handling stress. Further, post-surgical holding time and conditions greatly influence the physiological state of fish prior to being returned to the wild. This paper reviews pertinent studies pertaining to the effects of surgical holding on the behavior, physiology, and survival of fishes, with particular emphasis on juvenile salmonids. The effects of individual aspects of surgical holding such as stressors, time, holding conditions and water quality are also examined. Recommendations regarding certain aspects of surgical holding (e.g., holding duration) are offered with a goal of reducing bias related to the surgical process. Pre- and post-surgical holding times of 18–36 h are suggested as a general guideline for juvenile salmonids.

  15. Use of acoustic telemetry to evaluate survival and behavior of juvenile salmonids at hydroelectric dams: A case study from Rocky Reach Dam, Columbia River, USA: Chapter 8.1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steigl, Tracy W.; Holbrook, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis. Chapters are written by biologists, technicians, and engineers from the private, academic, and government sectors, with decades of experience using these technologies.

  16. Real time telemetry and data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The generation of telemetry and data compression by the flight program was verified. The adequacy of flight program telemetry control and timing is proven by the analysis of simulation laboratory runs of past programs through the use of telemetry. The telemetry data are correctly issued using specific tags called process input/output (P10) tags. Verification is accomplished by ensuring that a specific P10 tag and mode register setting identifies the correct parameter and that the data are properly scaled for subsequent ground station reduction. It was checked that the LVDC telemetry correctly adheres to the general requirements specified by the EDD. Data compression specifications are verified using compressed data from nominal flight simulations and from a series of perturbations designed to test data table overflows, data dump rates, and compression of data for occurrence events.

  17. Telemetry Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, Avtec Systems, Inc. developed its first telemetry boards for Goddard Space Flight Center. Avtec products now include PC/AT, PCI and VME-based high speed I/O boards and turn-key systems. The most recent and most successful technology transfer from NASA to Avtec is the Programmable Telemetry Processor (PTP), a personal computer- based, multi-channel telemetry front-end processing system originally developed to support the NASA communication (NASCOM) network. The PTP performs data acquisition, real-time network transfer, and store and forward operations. There are over 100 PTP systems located in NASA facilities and throughout the world.

  18. Medical Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Telemetry is the process whereby physiological or other data is acquired by instruments, translated into radio signals and j sent to a receiving station where the signals are decoded and recorded. Extensively used in I space operations, it is finding new Earth applications, among them transmission of medical data between emergency vehicles and hospitals. For example, transmission of an electrocardiogram from an ambulance to a hospital enables a physician to read the telemetered EKG and advise ambulance attendants on emergency procedures. Central Medical Emergency Dispatch (CMED) operates as a regional emergency medical communications center for Cleveland, Ohio and Cuyahoga County. The CMED system includes radio and telephone communications from hospital-to-hospital and from ambulance-to-hospital, but for improved emergency life support CMED sought to add a county-wide telemetry capability. The problem was that there were only eight radio frequencies available for telemetry and there were more than 30 potential users in Cleveland alone. NASA's Lewis Research Center volunteered its expert assistance. The Center's engineers studied the systems of other telemetry using cities, surveyed area hospitals to assure compatibility of telemetry equipment, and advised what types of equipment would be needed in emergency vehicles and at the various hospitals. The Lewis plan suggested that CMED be designated the central coordinating agency for the Cuyahoga County system, monitoring all telemetry frequencies and, when requested, assigning one not in use or one to be used at a sufficient distance that it would create no interference problem.

  19. The Influence of Tag Presence on the Mortality of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed to Simulated Hydroturbine Passage: Implications for Survival Estimates and Management of Hydroelectric Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Brown, Richard S.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Benjamin, Piper L.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-05-01

    Each year, millions of fish have telemetry tags (acoustic, radio, inductive) surgically implanted to assess their passage and survival through hydropower facilities. One route of passage of particular concern is through hydro turbines, in which fish may be exposed to a range of potential injuries, including barotraumas from rapid decompression. The change in pressure from acclimation to exposure (nadir) has been found to be an important factor in predicting the likelihood of mortality and injury for juvenile Chinook salmon undergoing rapid decompression associated with simulated turbine passage. The presence of telemetry tags has also been shown to influence the likelihood of injury and mortality for juvenile Chinook salmon. This research investigated the likelihood of mortality and injury for juvenile Chinook salmon carrying telemetry tags and exposed to a range of simulated turbine passage. Several factors were examined as predictors of mortal injury for fish undergoing rapid decompression, and the ratio of pressure change and tag burden were determined to be the most predictive factors. As the ratio of pressure change and tag burden increase, the likelihood of mortal injury also increases. The results of this study suggest that previous survival estimates of juvenile Chinook salmon passing through hydro turbines may have been biased due to the presence of telemetry tags, and this has direct implications to the management of hydroelectric facilities. Realistic examples indicate how the bias in turbine passage survival estimates could be 20% or higher, depending on the mass of the implanted tags and the ratio of acclimation to exposure pressures. Bias would increase as the tag burden and pressure ratio increase, and have direct implications on survival estimates. It is recommended that future survival studies use the smallest telemetry tags possible to minimize the potential bias that may be associated with carrying the tag.

  20. Reducing fungal infections and testing tag loss in juvenile Pacific lampreys implanted with passive integrated transponders.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, H.E.; Gee, L.P.; Mesa, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus are facing severe population declines, yet little is known about juvenile lamprey passage, life history, or adult return rates because until now, these small fish could not be tagged for unique identification of live individuals. Previously, we developed a simple and effective method for tagging juvenile lampreys with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and showed that tagging per se did not affect survival. Mortality in tagged and untagged control fish, however, was frequently associated with fungal infection. In this study, we addressed two outstanding issues related to handling and tagging juvenile lampreys. First, we tried to mitigate freshwater fungal infections by reducing irritation and stress from anesthesia and by treating tagged fish briefly with a prophylactic immediately after tagging. We tested four anesthetics at three concentrations each and determined that 100 mg/L MS-222 and 60 mg/L BENZOAK® (benzocaine) were the most effective for anesthetizing juvenile lampreys to handleable while minimizing irritation. We also showed that fish anesthetized with BENZOAK® may have lower rates of fungal infection than those anesthetized with MS-222 or AQUI-S® 20E (eugenol). When fish anesthetized with MS-222 or BENZOAK® were given a 30 min prophylactic treatment with Stress Coat®, hydrogen peroxide, or salt immediately after tagging, few fish presented with fungal infections. However, untreated, tagged control fish also showed few fungal infections, making it difficult to determine if the prophylactic treatments were successful. The second question we addressed was whether activity would increase tag loss in PIT-tagged lampreys. We found that active swimming did not cause tag loss if fish were first held for 20–24 h after tagging. Therefore, we recommend anesthesia with MS-222 or BENZOAK® and then tagging with a 20–24 h recovery period followed by immediate release. If field studies show that lampreys are not

  1. Training considerations for the intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags in fish with a summary of common surgical errors

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Steven J.; Wagner, Glenn N.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Training is a fundamental part of all scientific and technical disciplines. This is particularly true for all types of surgeons. For surgical procedures, a number of skills are necessary to reduce mistakes. Trainees must learn an extensive yet standardized set of problem-solving and technical skills to handle challenges as they arise. There are currently no guidelines or consistent training methods for those intending to implant electronic tags in fish; this is surprising, considering documented cases of negative consequences of fish surgeries and information from studies having empirically tested fish surgical techniques. Learning how to do fish surgery once is insufficient for ensuring the maintenance or improvement of surgical skill. Assessment of surgical skills is rarely incorporated into training, and is needed. Evaluation provides useful feedback that guides future learning, fosters habits of self-reflection and self-remediation, and promotes access to advanced training. Veterinary professionals should be involved in aspects of training to monitor basic surgical principles. We identified attributes related to knowledge, understanding, and skill that surgeons must demonstrate prior to performing fish surgery including a “hands-on” assessment using live fish. Included is a summary of common problems encountered by fish surgeons. We conclude by presenting core competencies that should be required as well as outlining a 3-day curriculum for training surgeons to conduct intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags. This curriculum could be offered through professional fisheries societies as professional development courses.

  2. In Vitro Testing of an Implantable Wireless Telemetry System for Long-Term Electromyography Recordings in Large Animals.

    PubMed

    Kneisz, Lukas; Unger, Ewald; Lanmüller, Hermann; Mayr, Winfried

    2015-10-01

    Multichannel bio-signal recording in undisturbed in vivo conditions is a frequent demand in experimental work for development of methodology and associated equipment for functional electrical stimulation (FES) application, limb prosthesis, and diagnostic tools in contemporary rehabilitation efforts. Intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) recordings can provide comprehensive insight in complex interactions of agonistic and antagonistic muscles during movement tasks and in contrast act as reliable control signals for both neuroprosthesis and mechanical prosthesis. We fabricated a fully implantable device, which is capable of recording electromyography signals from inside a body and transmit these signals wirelessly to an external receiver. The developed analog front end uses only two electrodes per channel, provides a gain of 60 dB, and incorporates a band pass filter with lower cut-off frequency of 4 Hz and upper cut-off frequency of 480 Hz. The bidirectional wireless data link, which operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band, is designed for transmission distances of 10 m using an application data rate of 1 kSps for each of the two channels. Performed in vitro tests with the devices coated in epoxy resin and inserted into a phantom with tissue-equivalent characteristics confirmed the functionality of our concept and the measurement results are consistent with those from preceding simulations.

  3. A Programmable Implantable Microstimulator SoC With Wireless Telemetry: Application in Closed-Loop Endocardial Stimulation for Cardiac Pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Shuenn-Yuh Lee; Su, M Y; Ming-Chun Liang; You-Yin Chen; Cheng-Han Hsieh; Chung-Min Yang; Hsin-Yi Lai; Jou-Wei Lin; Qiang Fang

    2011-12-01

    A low-power, wireless, and implantable microstimulator system on chip with smart powering management, immediate neural signal acquisition, and wireless rechargeable system is proposed. A system controller with parity checking handles the adjustable stimulus parameters for the stimulated objective. In the current paper, the rat's intra-cardiac electrogram is employed as the stimulated model in the animal study, and it is sensed by a low-voltage and low-power monitoring analog front end. The power management unit, which includes a rectifier, battery charging and detection, and a regulator, is used for the power control of the internal circuits. The stimulation data and required clock are extracted by a phase-locked-loop-based phase shift keying demodulator from an inductive AC signal. The full chip, which consumes 48 μW only, is fabricated in a TSMC 0.35 μm 2P4M standard CMOS process to perform the monitoring and pacing functions with inductively powered communication in the in vivo study.

  4. Telemetry of intracranial pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Corbin, S. D.; Silverberg, G. D.; Schmidt, E. V.; Ream, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    A completely implantable epidural pressure telemetry system designed for accurate measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is described. The implant device is batteryless, providing unlimited operating life. The described system uses a capacitive pressure transducer with excellent long-term stability. Once detected with the transducer and converted to a frequency with the oscillator electronics, the pressure signal is digitized. It is then telemetered without the possibility of further degradation. After detection with the small external module, the data can be retransmitted by a radio link for complete patient mobility or the energizer signal pickup module can be wired to a bedside readout unit. Continuous data are available from the system so that the dynamic ICP changes reflecting arterial blood pressure can be observed and used for diagnosis.

  5. Single frequency RF powered ECG telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. H.; Hynecek, J.; Homa, J.

    1979-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a radio frequency magnetic field can be used to power implanted electronic circuitry for short range telemetry to replace batteries. A substantial reduction in implanted volume can be achieved by using only one RF tank circuit for receiving the RF power and transmitting the telemetered information. A single channel telemetry system of this type, using time sharing techniques, was developed and employed to transmit the ECG signal from Rhesus monkeys in primate chairs. The signal from the implant is received during the period when the RF powering radiation is interrupted. The ECG signal is carried by 20-microsec pulse position modulated pulses, referred to the trailing edge of the RF powering pulse. Satisfactory results have been obtained with this single frequency system. The concept and the design presented may be useful for short-range long-term implant telemetry systems.

  6. Radio telemetry equipment and applications for carnivores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Mark R.; Fuller, Todd K.; Boitani, Luigi; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Radio-telemetry was not included in the first comprehensive manual of wildlife research techniques (Mosby 1960) because the first published papers were about physiological wildlife telemetry (LeMunyan et al. 1959) and because research using telemetry in field ecology was just being initiated (Marshall et al. 1962; Cochran and Lord 1963). Among the first uses of telemetry to study wildlife, however, was a study of carnivores (Craighead et al. 1963), and telemetry has become a common method for studying numerous topics of carnivore biology. Our goals for this chapter are to provide basic information about radio-telemetry equipment and procedures. Although we provide many references to studies using telemetry equipment and methods, we recommend Kenward's (2001) comprehensive book, A manual of wildlife radio tagging for persons who are unfamiliar with radio-telemetry, Fuller et al. (2005), and Tomkiewicz et al. (2010). Compendia of uses of radio-telemetry in animal research appear regularly as chapters in manuals (Cochran 1980; Samuel and Fuller 1994), in books about equipment, field procedures, study design, and applications (Amlaner and Macdonald 1980; Anderka 1987; Amlaner 1989; White and Garrott 1990; Priede and Swift 1992; Kenward 2001; Millspaugh and Marzluff 2001; Mech and Barber 2002), and in reviews highlighting new developments (Cooke et al. 2004; Rutz and Hays 2009; Cagnacci et al. 2010). Some animal telemetry products and techniques have remained almost unchanged for years, but new technologies and approaches emerge and replace previously available equipment at an increasing pace. Here, we emphasize recent studies for which telemetry was used with carnivores.

  7. Acoustic telemetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  8. Telemetry Ranging: Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Telemetry ranging is a proposed alternative to conventional two-way ranging for determining the two-way time delay between a Deep Space Station (DSS) and a spacecraft. The advantage of telemetry ranging is that the ranging signal on the uplink is not echoed to the downlink, so that telemetry alone modulates the downlink carrier. The timing information needed on the downlink, in order to determine the two-way time delay, is obtained from telemetry frames. This article describes the phase and timing estimates required for telemetry ranging, and how two-way range is calculated from these estimates. It explains why the telemetry ranging architecture does not require the spacecraft transponder to have a high-frequency or high-quality oscillator, and it describes how a telemetry ranging system can be infused in the Deep Space Network.

  9. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  10. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  11. Telemetry and Telestimulation via Implanted Devices Necessary in Long-Term Experiments Using Conscious Untethered Animals for the Development of New Medical Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Kawada, Toru; Uemura, Kazunori

    Effective countermeasures against explosive increase in healthcare expenditures are urgently needed. A paradigm shift in healthcare is called for, and academics and governments worldwide are working hard on the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a feasible and effective measure for reducing medical cost. The more prevalent the disease and the easier disease outcome can be improved, the more efficient is medical ICT in reducing healthcare cost. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are such examples. Chronic heart failure is another disease in which patients may benefit from ICT-based medical practice. It is conceivable that daily monitoring of hemodynamics together with appropriate treatments may obviate the expensive hospitalization. ICT potentially permit continuous monitoring with wearable or implantable medical devices. ICT may also help accelerate the development of new therapeutic devices. Traditionally effectiveness of treatments is sequentially examined by sacrificing a number of animals at a given time point. These inefficient and inaccurate methods can be replaced by applying ICT to the devices used in chronic animal experiments. These devices allow researchers to obtain biosignals and images from live animals without killing them. They include implantable telemetric devices, implantable telestimulation devices, and imaging devices. Implanted rather than wired monitoring and stimulation devices permit experiments to be conducted under even more physiological conditions, i.e., untethered, free-moving states. Wireless communication and ICT are indispensible technologies for the development of such telemetric and telestimulation devices.

  12. Programmable telemetry test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadiana, J. M.

    A portable programmable telemetry test system was designed to test shipboard telemetry systems used for evaluating performance of missile systems in the surface missile fleet. The test system accurately simulates any missile in the current Navy inventory, and provides test and calibration signals to verify telemetry systems. The total test system weighs just over 15 lbs and occupies less than 1 cubic foot. Internal batteries allow testing or calibration of RF front ends out on weather decks. The modulation section consists of an FM/PAM/PCM simulator and simple control circuitry, and is programmable via an Intel 2715 EPROM, the frame format memory. A second EPROM provides a wave-form library.

  13. Downhole telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Normann, R.A.; Kadlec, E.R.

    1994-11-08

    A downhole telemetry system is described for optically communicating to the surface operating parameters of a drill bit during ongoing drilling operations. The downhole telemetry system includes sensors mounted with a drill bit for monitoring at least one operating parameter of the drill bit and generating a signal representative thereof. The downhole telemetry system includes means for transforming and optically communicating the signal to the surface as well as means at the surface for producing a visual display of the optically communicated operating parameters of the drill bit. 7 figs.

  14. Downhole telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Normann, Randy A.; Kadlec, Emil R.

    1994-01-01

    A downhole telemetry system is described for optically communicating to the surface operating parameters of a drill bit during ongoing drilling operations. The downhole telemetry system includes sensors mounted with a drill bit for monitoring at least one operating parameter of the drill bit and generating a signal representative thereof. The downhole telemetry system includes means for transforming and optically communicating the signal to the surface as well as means at the surface for producing a visual display of the optically communicated operating parameters of the drill bit.

  15. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  16. Survival of Seaward-Migrating PIT and Acoustic-Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers: An Evaluation of Length-Specific Tagging Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Oldenburg, Eric W.; Seaburg, Adam; Cook, Katrina V.; Skalski, John R.; Eppard, M. B.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2013-06-12

    Studies examining the survival of juvenile salmon as they emigrate to the ocean provide important information regarding the management of regulated river systems. Acoustic telemetry is a widely used tool for evaluating the behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Thus, it is important to understand how the surgical tagging process and the presence of a transmitter affect survival so any biases can be accounted for or eliminated. This study evaluated the effects of fish length and tag type on the survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon during their seaward migrations through the Snake and Columbia rivers during 2006, 2007, and 2008. Fish were collected at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River (river kilometer 695) and implanted with either only a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag (PIT fish) or both a PIT tag and an acoustic transmitter (AT fish). Survival was estimated from release at Lower Granite Dam to multiple downstream locations (dams) using the Cormack–Jolly–Seber single release model, and analysis of variance was used to test for differences among length-classes and between tag types. No length-specific tag effect was detected between PIT and AT fish (i.e., length affected the survival of PIT fish in a manner similar to which it affected the survival of AT fish). Survival among the smallest length class (i.e., 80–89 mm) of both PIT and AT subyearling Chinook salmon was markedly low (i.e., 4%). Fish length was positively correlated with the survival of both PIT and AT fish. Significant differences in survival were detected between tag types; the survival of PIT fish was generally greater than that of AT fish. However, confounding variables warrant caution in making strong inferences regarding this factor. Further, results suggest that tag effects may be due to the process of surgically implanting the transmitter rather than the presence of the transmitter.

  17. A three channel telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesho, Jeffery C.; Eaton, Harry A. C.

    1993-01-01

    A three channel telemetry system intended for biomedical applications is described. The transmitter is implemented in a single chip using a 2 micron BiCMOS processes. The operation of the system and the test results from the latest chip are discussed. One channel is always dedicated to temperature measurement while the other two channels are generic. The generic channels carry information from transducers that are interfaced to the system through on-chip general purpose operational amplifiers. The generic channels have different bandwidths: one from dc to 250 Hz and the other from dc to 1300 Hz. Each generic channel modulates a current controlled oscillator to produce a frequency modulated signal. The two frequency modulated signals are summed and used to amplitude modulate the temperature signal which acts as a carrier. A near-field inductive link telemeters the combined signals over a short distance. The chip operates on a supply voltage anywhere from 2.5 to 3.6 Volts and draws less than 1 mA when transmitting a signal. The chip can be incorporated into ingestible, implantable and other configurations. The device can free the patient from tethered data collection systems and reduces the possibility of infection from subcutaneous leads. Data telemetry can increase patient comfort leading to a greater acceptance of monitoring.

  18. Acoustic telemetry reveals large-scale migration patterns of walleye in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayden, Todd A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Fielder, David G.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Dettmers, John M.; Krueger, Charles C.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish migration in large freshwater lacustrine systems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes is not well understood. The walleye (Sander vitreus) is an economically and ecologically important native fish species throughout the Great Lakes. In Lake Huron walleye has recently undergone a population expansion as a result of recovery of the primary stock, stemming from changing food web dynamics. During 2011 and 2012, we used acoustic telemetry to document the timing and spatial scale of walleye migration in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. Spawning walleye (n = 199) collected from a tributary of Saginaw Bay were implanted with acoustic tags and their migrations were documented using acoustic receivers (n = 140) deployed throughout U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron. Three migration pathways were described using multistate mark-recapture models. Models were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion. Fish sex did not influence migratory behavior but did affect migration rate and walleye were detected on all acoustic receiver lines. Most (95%) tagged fish migrated downstream from the riverine tagging and release location to Saginaw Bay, and 37% of these fish emigrated from Saginaw Bay into Lake Huron. Remarkably, 8% of walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay were detected at the acoustic receiver line located farthest from the release location more than 350 km away. Most (64%) walleye returned to the Saginaw River in 2012, presumably for spawning. Our findings reveal that fish from this stock use virtually the entirety of U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron.

  19. Acoustic Telemetry Reveals Large-Scale Migration Patterns of Walleye in Lake Huron

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Todd A.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Fielder, David G.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Dettmers, John M.; Krueger, Charles C.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish migration in large freshwater lacustrine systems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes is not well understood. The walleye (Sander vitreus) is an economically and ecologically important native fish species throughout the Great Lakes. In Lake Huron walleye has recently undergone a population expansion as a result of recovery of the primary stock, stemming from changing food web dynamics. During 2011 and 2012, we used acoustic telemetry to document the timing and spatial scale of walleye migration in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. Spawning walleye (n = 199) collected from a tributary of Saginaw Bay were implanted with acoustic tags and their migrations were documented using acoustic receivers (n = 140) deployed throughout U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron. Three migration pathways were described using multistate mark-recapture models. Models were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion. Fish sex did not influence migratory behavior but did affect migration rate and walleye were detected on all acoustic receiver lines. Most (95%) tagged fish migrated downstream from the riverine tagging and release location to Saginaw Bay, and 37% of these fish emigrated from Saginaw Bay into Lake Huron. Remarkably, 8% of walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay were detected at the acoustic receiver line located farthest from the release location more than 350 km away. Most (64%) walleye returned to the Saginaw River in 2012, presumably for spawning. Our findings reveal that fish from this stock use virtually the entirety of U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron. PMID:25506913

  20. Fully automatic telemetry data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, F. B.; Keipert, F. A.; Lee, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    Satellite Telemetry Automatic Reduction System /STARS 2/, a fully automatic computer-controlled telemetry data processor, maximizes data recovery, reduces turnaround time, increases flexibility, and improves operational efficiency. The system incorporates a CDC 3200 computer as its central element.

  1. Using stable isotope analysis with telemetry or mark-recapture data to identify fish movement and foraging.

    PubMed

    Cunjak, R A; Roussel, J-M; Gray, M A; Dietrich, J P; Cartwright, D F; Munkittrick, K R; Jardine, T D

    2005-08-01

    Information about animal movements has often been inferred from stable isotope analysis (SIA), but is dependent on animals assimilating site-specific isotopic signatures via diet. This potential weakness in ecological interpretation can be overcome by using other investigative tools that provide precise information about individual movement patterns. In this paper, we demonstrate the value of combining SIA with telemetry or mark-recapture data from trapping, electrofishing and remote detection of individuals to study the movement and feeding ecology of fishes in different habitats. In a fjord lake system in Newfoundland, Canada, juvenile Atlantic salmon delayed downstream migration (smolts) or actively moved into a large lake (parr) where they foraged for periods reflecting different life history strategies. In the Miramichi River (New Brunswick, Canada), SIA provided evidence of distinct foraging habitats (tributary versus large river). By tracking fish implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, we distinguished between movements related to foraging versus seeking cool water refugia during high temperature events. Finally, site fidelity and limited mobility of slimy sculpin, a small benthic fish, was established where delta13C in muscle tissue showed a progressive enrichment downstream and where a median displacement of <10 m was estimated for sculpin tagged with PIT tags. Technological improvements have permitted non-destructive tissue sampling of wild fishes for SIA, and the tagging and remote detection of animals smaller than was previously possible. These advancements and the combination of investigative tools promise new insights into animal ecology.

  2. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  3. Phoenix Telemetry Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Phxtelemproc is a C/C++ based telemetry processing program that processes SFDU telemetry packets from the Telemetry Data System (TDS). It generates Experiment Data Records (EDRs) for several instruments including surface stereo imager (SSI); robotic arm camera (RAC); robotic arm (RA); microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer (MECA); and the optical microscope (OM). It processes both uncompressed and compressed telemetry, and incorporates unique subroutines for the following compression algorithms: JPEG Arithmetic, JPEG Huffman, Rice, LUT3, RA, and SX4. This program was in the critical path for the daily command cycle of the Phoenix mission. The products generated by this program were part of the RA commanding process, as well as the SSI, RAC, OM, and MECA image and science analysis process. Its output products were used to advance science of the near polar regions of Mars, and were used to prove that water is found in abundance there. Phxtelemproc is part of the MIPL (Multi-mission Image Processing Laboratory) system. This software produced Level 1 products used to analyze images returned by in situ spacecraft. It ultimately assisted in operations, planning, commanding, science, and outreach.

  4. Wideband EMG telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosatino, S. A.; Westbrook, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Miniature, individual crystal-controlled RF transmitters located in EMG pressure sensors simplifies multichannel EMG telemetry for electronic gait monitoring. Transmitters which are assigned operating frequencies within 174 - 216 MHz band have linear frequency response from 20 - 2000 Hz and operate over range of 15 m.

  5. Generic telemetry processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Richard L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC) is a generic suite of ground data systems software. One main subsystem of SFOC is the Telemetry Input Subsystem (TIS). Utilizing techniques for the abstract representation of data, the TIS has provided a flexible software base that can be used as a baseline for multiple spacecraft missions.

  6. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  7. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  8. Effects of implanted transmitters on adult bluegills at two temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knights, Brent C.; Lasee, Becky A.

    1996-01-01

    Laterally compressed panfishes are small and have limited intraperitoneal space; thus, they may suffer adversely from surgically implanted transmitters even if the transmitter meets the generally recommended ratio of transmitter weight to fish weight of 2%. We studied the effects of intraperitoneal transmitters (2.81 g) on survival, growth, healing, and health of bluegills Lepomis macrochirus (mean weight 133 g) held for 8 weeks at 6 degree C and 20 degree C. Radio-tagged bluegills at 20 degree C had a mortality rate of 10% and tag loss rate of 15%. At 6 degree C, bluegills had no mortality or tag loss. Radio-tagged and reference fish fed in both 20 degree C raceways; however, a few reference fish appeared dominant at feeding time. This dominance by a few reference fish was also indicated by a large weight gain for three reference fish in each 20 degree C raceway. At 6 degree C, neither reference fish nor radio-tagged fish fed activity. Radio-tagged fish held at 20 degree C exhibited pelvic fin erosion, erythema and necrosis at the antenna exit and at suture insertions, and lost or loose sutures, effects not observed in other test fishes. Examination of fish held at 20 degree C also showed enclosure of the transmitters in a fibrous capsule and adhesion of visceral organs. Epithelialization over the incision occurred in radio-tagged bluegills at both temperatures, but there was little further healing at 6 degree C. At 20 degree C, tissue responses included chronic inflammation and dermal granulation. Radio-tagged fish did not appear to be more susceptible than reference fish to bacterial infection. Mortality, adverse morphological effects, altered behavior, and limited healing in bluegills suggest that implanted transmitters impaired their health. Thus, movement and habitat use data collected by telemetry for this species and perhaps for other panfishes should be interpreted with caution.

  9. A standard operating procedure for the surgical implantation of transmitters in juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, T.L.; Beeman, J.W.; Gee, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Biotelemetry is a useful tool to monitor the movements of animals and is widely applied in fisheries research. Radio or acoustic technology can be used, depending on the study design and the environmental conditions in the study area. A broad definition of telemetry also includes the use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, either separately or with a radio or acoustic transmitter. To use telemetry, fish must be equipped with a transmitter. Although there are several attachment procedures available, surgical implantation of transmitters in the abdominal cavity is recognized as the best technique for long-term telemetry studies in general (Stasko and Pincock, 1977; Winter, 1996; Jepsen, 2003), and specifically for juvenile salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp. (Adams and others, 1998a, 1998b; Martinelli and others, 1998; Hall and others, 2009). Studies that use telemetry assume that the processes by which the animals are captured, handled, and tagged, as well as the act of carrying the transmitter, will have minimal effect on their behavior and performance. This assumption, commonly stated as a lack of transmitter effects, must be valid if telemetry studies are to describe accurately the movements and behavior of an entire population of interest, rather than the subset of that population that carries transmitters. This document describes a standard operating procedure (SOP) for surgical implantation of radio or acoustic transmitters in juvenile salmonids. The procedures were developed from a broad base of published information, laboratory experiments, and practical experience in tagging thousands of fish for numerous studies of juvenile salmon movements near Columbia River and Snake River hydroelectric dams. Staff from the Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory (CRRL) frequently have used telemetry studies to evaluate new structures or operations at hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin, and these evaluations typically

  10. Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A next-generation telemetry workstation has been developed to replace the one currently used to test and control Range Safety systems. Improving upon the performance of the original system, the new telemetry workstation uses dual-channel telemetry boards for better synchronization of the two uplink telemetry streams. The new workstation also includes an Interrange Instrumentation Group/Global Positioning System (IRIG/GPS) time code receiver board for independent, local time stamping of return-link data. The next-generation system will also record and play back return-link data for postlaunch analysis.

  11. Optical transcutaneous link for low power, high data rate telemetry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyi; Bihr, Ulrich; Anis, Syed M; Ortmanns, Maurits

    2012-01-01

    A low power and high data rate wireless optical link for implantable data transmission is presented in this paper. In some neural prosthetic applications particularly in regard to neural recording system, there is a demand for high speed communication between an implanted device and an external device. An optical transcutaneous link is a promising implantable telemetry solution, since it shows lower power requirements than RF telemetry. In this paper, this advantage is further enhanced by using a modified on-off keying and a simple custom designed low power VCSEL driver. This transmitter achieves an optical transcutaneous link capable of transmitting data at 50 Mbps through the 4 mm tissue, with a tolerance of 2 mm misalignment and a BER of less than 10(-5), while the power consumption is only 4.1 mW or less. PMID:23366690

  12. Reentry vehicle adaptive telemetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kidner, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    In RF telemetry (TM) the allowable RF bandwidth limits the amount of data in the telemetered data set. Typically the data set is less than ideal to accommodate all aspects of a test. In the case of diagnostic data, the compromise often leaves insufficient diagnostic data when problems occur. As a solution, intelligence was designed into a TM, allowing it to adapt to changing data requirements. To minimize the computational requirements for an intelligent TM, a fuzzy logic inference engine was developed. This reference engine was simulated on a PC and then loaded into a TM hardware package for final testing.

  13. Reentry vehicle adaptive telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidner, R. E.

    1993-09-01

    In RF telemetry (TM) the allowable RF bandwidth limits the amount of data in the telemetered data set. Typically the data set is less than ideal to accommodate all aspects of a test. In the case of diagnostic data, the compromise often leaves insufficient diagnostic data when problems occur. As a solution, intelligence was designed into a TM allowing it to adapt to changing data requirements. To minimize the computational requirements for an intelligent TM, a fuzzy logic inference engine was developed. This reference engine was simulated on a PC and then loaded into a TM hardware package for final testing.

  14. Performance Assessment of Suture Type in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.

    2009-02-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the best overall suture material to close incisions from the surgical implantation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The effects of seven suture materials, four surgeons, and two water temperatures on suture retention, incision openness, tag retention, tissue inflammation, and tissue ulceration were quantified. The laboratory study, conducted by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, supports a larger effort under way for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, aimed at determining the suitability of acoustic telemetry for estimating short- and longer-term (30-60 days) juvenile-salmonid survival at Columbia and Snake River dams and through the lower Columbia River.

  15. Challenges and prospects in the telemetry of insects.

    PubMed

    Daniel Kissling, W; Pattemore, David E; Hagen, Melanie

    2014-08-01

    Radio telemetry has been widely used to study the space use and movement behaviour of vertebrates, but transmitter sizes have only recently become small enough to allow tracking of insects under natural field conditions. Here, we review the available literature on insect telemetry using active (battery-powered) radio transmitters and compare this technology to harmonic radar and radio frequency identification (RFID) which use passive tags (i.e. without a battery). The first radio telemetry studies with insects were published in the late 1980s, and subsequent studies have addressed aspects of insect ecology, behaviour and evolution. Most insect telemetry studies have focused on habitat use and movement, including quantification of movement paths, home range sizes, habitat selection, and movement distances. Fewer studies have addressed foraging behaviour, activity patterns, migratory strategies, or evolutionary aspects. The majority of radio telemetry studies have been conducted outside the tropics, usually with beetles (Coleoptera) and crickets (Orthoptera), but bees (Hymenoptera), dobsonflies (Megaloptera), and dragonflies (Odonata) have also been radio-tracked. In contrast to the active transmitters used in radio telemetry, the much lower weight of harmonic radar and RFID tags allows them to be used with a broader range of insect taxa. However, the fixed detection zone of a stationary radar unit (< 1 km diameter) and the restricted detection distance of RFID tags (usually < 1-5 m) constitute major constraints of these technologies compared to radio telemetry. Most of the active transmitters in radio telemetry have been applied to insects with a body mass exceeding 1 g, but smaller species in the range 0.2-0.5 g (e.g. bumblebees and orchid bees) have now also been tracked. Current challenges of radio-tracking insects in the field are related to the constraints of a small transmitter, including short battery life (7-21 days), limited tracking range on the ground

  16. Analysis of survival data from telemetry projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.; Winterstein, S.R.; Pollock, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    Telemetry techniques can be used to study the survival rates of animal populations and are particularly suitable for species or settings for which band recovery models are not. Statistical methods for estimating survival rates and parameters of survival distributions from observations of radio-tagged animals will be described. These methods have been applied to medical and engineering studies and to the study of nest success. Estimates and tests based on discrete models, originally introduced by Mayfield, and on continuous models, both parametric and nonparametric, will be described. Generalizations, including staggered entry of subjects into the study and identification of mortality factors will be considered. Additional discussion topics will include sample size considerations, relocation frequency for subjects, and use of covariates.

  17. Advanced Telemetry Data Capturing

    SciTech Connect

    Paschke, G.A.

    2000-05-16

    This project developed a new generation or advanced data capturing process specifically designed for use in future telemetry test systems at the Kansas City Plant (KCP). Although similar data capturing processes are performed both commercially and at other DOE weapon facilities, the equipment used is not specifically designed to perform acceptance testing requirements unique to the KCP. Commercially available equipment, despite very high cost (up to $125,000), is deficient in reliability and long-term maintainability necessary in test systems at this facility. There are no commercial sources for some requirements, specifically Terminal Data Analyzer (TDA) data processing. Although other custom processes have been developed to satisfy these test requirements, these designs have become difficult to maintain and upgrade.

  18. Nonlethal gill biopsy does not affect juvenile chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.; Shively, R.S.; Holmberg, G.S.; Sheer, M.B.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Using gastric and surgical transmitter implantation, we compared radio-tagged juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (T(O)) with tagged fish also having a gill biopsy (T(B)) to determine biopsy effects on fish implanted with radio transmitters. We found no evidence during the 21-d period to suggest that a gill biopsy reduced survival, growth, or gross condition of the tagged-biopsy group, regardless of transmitter implantation technique. We recorded 100% survival of all treatment groups. Relative growth rates of T(O) and T(B) fish did not differ significantly. Leukocrit and lysozyme levels were not significantly different among groups, suggesting that no signs of infection were present. Our findings suggest that small chinook salmon can tolerate the combination of transmitter implantation and gill biopsy without compromising condition relative to fish receiving only the transmitter. We believe a gill biopsy can be used in field telemetry studies, especially when physiological data are needed in addition to behavioral data.

  19. A laboratory evaluation of tagging-related mortality and tag loss in juvenile humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Persons, William R.; Young, Kirk; Stone, Dennis M.; Van Haverbeke, Randy; Knight, William R.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified tag retention, survival, and growth in juvenile, captive-reared Humpback Chub Gila cypha marked with three different tag types: (1) Biomark 12.5-mm, 134.2-kHz, full duplex PIT tags injected into the body cavity with a 12-gauge needle; (2) Biomark 8.4-mm, 134.2-kHz, full duplex PIT tags injected with a 16-gauge needle; and (3) Northwest Marine Technology visible implant elastomer (VIE) tags injected under the skin with a 29-gauge needle. Estimates of tag loss, tagging-induced mortality, and growth were evaluated for 60 d with each tag type for four different size-groups of fish: 40–49 mm, 50–59 mm, 60–69 mm, and 70–79 mm TL. Total length was a significant predictor of the probability of PIT tag retention and mortality for both 8-mm and 12-mm PIT tags, and the smallest fish had the highest rates of tag loss (12.5–30.0%) and mortality (7.5–20.0%). Humpback Chub of sizes 40–49 mm TL and tagged with VIE tags had no mortality but did have a 17.5% tag loss. Growth rates of all tagged fish were similar to controls. Our data indicate Humpback Chub can be effectively tagged using either 8-mm or 12-mm PIT tags with little tag loss or mortality at sizes as low as 65 mm TL.

  20. Orion Telemetry Testing in MCC

    NASA Video Gallery

    In preparation for Exploration Flight Test-1, Orion telemetry was recently tested at the Mission Control Center in Houston. The Flight Control Room (FCR) that was formerly used for shuttle will be ...

  1. Adaptable Transponder for Multiple Telemetry Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor); Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a stackable telemetry circuit board for use in telemetry systems for satellites and other purposes. The present invention incorporates previously-qualified interchangeable circuit boards, or "decks," that perform functions such as power, signal receiving and transmission, and processing. Each deck is adapted to serve a range of telemetry applications. This provides flexibility in the construction of the stackable telemetry circuit board and significantly reduces the cost and time necessary to develop a telemetry system.

  2. Advanced techniques of laser telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, S.; Gilardini, A.

    The relationships which govern a laser telemeter; noise sources; and measurement accuracy with pulsed and sinusoidal intensity modulation techniques are discussed. Developments in telemetry instrumention and optical detection are considered. Meteorological interferometers, geodimeters, and military telemeters are described. Propagation attenuation and signal to noise ratios are treated. It is shown that accuracy depends on the product of measurement time and received power. The frequency scanning technique of CW and long pulse telemetry; multifrequency techniques; pulse compression; and vernier technique are outlined.

  3. Telemetry-Enhancing Scripts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maimone, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Scripts Providing a Cool Kit of Telemetry Enhancing Tools (SPACKLE) is a set of software tools that fill gaps in capabilities of other software used in processing downlinked data in the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) flight and test-bed operations. SPACKLE tools have helped to accelerate the automatic processing and interpretation of MER mission data, enabling non-experts to understand and/or use MER query and data product command simulation software tools more effectively. SPACKLE has greatly accelerated some operations and provides new capabilities. The tools of SPACKLE are written, variously, in Perl or the C or C++ language. They perform a variety of search and shortcut functions that include the following: Generating text-only, Event Report-annotated, and Web-enhanced views of command sequences; Labeling integer enumerations with their symbolic meanings in text messages and engineering channels; Systematic detecting of corruption within data products; Generating text-only displays of data-product catalogs including downlink status; Validating and labeling of commands related to data products; Performing of convenient searches of detailed engineering data spanning multiple Martian solar days; Generating tables of initial conditions pertaining to engineering, health, and accountability data; Simplified construction and simulation of command sequences; and Fast time format conversions and sorting.

  4. Effects of suture material and ultrasonic transmitter size on survival, growth, wound healing, and tag expulsion in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivasauskas, Tomas J.; Bettoli, P.W.; Holt, T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of suture material (braided silk versus Monocryl) and relative ultrasonic transmitter size on healing, growth, mortality, and tag retention in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In experiment 1, 40 fish (205-281mmtotal length [TL], 106-264 g) were implanted with Sonotronics IBT-96-2 (23??7 mm; weight in air, 4.4 g; weight in water, 2.4 g) or IBT 96-2E (30 ?? 7 mm; weight in air, 4.9 g; weight in water, 2.4 g) ultrasonic telemetry tags. In experiment 2, 20 larger fish (342-405 mm TL; 520-844 g) were implanted with Sonotronics IBT-96-5 ultrasonic tags (36 ?? 11 mm; weight in air, 9.1 g; weight in water, 4.1 g). The tag burdens for all implanted fish ranged from 1.1% to 3.4%, and fish in both studies were held at 10-15??C. At the conclusion of both experiments (65 d after surgery), no mortalities were observed in any of the 60 tagged fish, most incisions were completely healed, and all fish in both experiments grew in length, although tagged fish grew more slowly than control fish in experiment 1. In both experiments, fish sutured with silk expelled tags more frequently than those sutured with Monocryl. Expulsion was observed in 45-50% of the fish sutured with silk and 0-25% of the fish sutured withMonocryl. Tag expulsion was not observed until 25-35 d after surgery. Fish sutured with silk exhibited a more severe inflammatory response 3 weeks after surgery than those sutured with Monocryl. In experiment 1, the rate of expulsion was linked to the severity of inflammation. Although braided silk sutures were applied faster than Moncryl sutures in both experiments, knots tied with either material were equally reliable and fish sutured with Monocryl experienced less inflammation and lower rates of tag expulsion. American Fisheries Society 2012.

  5. Introduction: tagging, telemetry, and Marking Compendium Project: Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, S; Waste, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    • Increase the opportunity for data collection to provide more reliable information and result in improved analyses and higher confidence in data analyses for making informed and more relevant decisions.

  6. Detection probability of an in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag detection system for juvenile salmonids in the Klamath River, northern California, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hayes, Brian; Wright, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    A series of in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) detection antennas installed across the Klamath River in August 2010 were tested using tagged fish in the summer of 2011. Six pass-by antennas were constructed and anchored to the bottom of the Klamath River at a site between the Shasta and Scott Rivers. Two of the six antennas malfunctioned during the spring of 2011 and two pass-through antennas were installed near the opposite shoreline prior to system testing. The detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was evaluated using yearling coho salmon implanted with a PIT tag and a radio transmitter and then released into the Klamath River slightly downstream of Iron Gate Dam. Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methods were used to estimate the detection probability of the PIT tag detection system based on detections of PIT tags there and detections of radio transmitters at radio-telemetry detection systems downstream. One of the 43 PIT- and radio-tagged fish released was detected by the PIT tag detection system and 23 were detected by the radio-telemetry detection systems. The estimated detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was 0.043 (standard error 0.042). Eight PIT-tagged fish from other studies also were detected. Detections at the PIT tag detection system were at the two pass-through antennas and the pass-by antenna adjacent to them. Above average river discharge likely was a factor in the low detection probability of the PIT tag detection system. High discharges dislodged two power cables leaving 12 meters of the river width unsampled for PIT detections and resulted in water depths greater than the read distance of the antennas, which allowed fish to pass over much of the system with little chance of being detected. Improvements in detection probability may be expected under river discharge conditions where water depth over the antennas is within maximum read distance of the antennas. Improvements also may be expected if

  7. Bidirectional Telemetry Controller for Neuroprosthetic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishnu; McCreery, Douglas B.; Han, Martin; Pikov, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We present versatile multifunctional programmable controller with bidirectional data telemetry, implemented using existing commercial microchips and standard Bluetooth protocol, which adds convenience, reliability, and ease-of-use to neuroprosthetic devices. Controller, weighing 190 g, is placed on animal's back and provides bidirectional sustained telemetry rate of 500 kb/s, allowing real-time control of stimulation parameters and viewing of acquired data. In continuously-active state, controller consumes ∼420 mW and operates without recharge for 8 h. It features independent 16-channel current-controlled stimulation, allowing current steering; customizable stimulus current waveforms; recording of stimulus voltage waveforms and evoked neuronal responses with stimulus artifact blanking circuitry. Flexibility, scalability, cost-efficiency, and a user-friendly computer interface of this device allow use in animal testing for variety of neuroprosthetic applications. Initial testing of the controller has been done in a feline model of brainstem auditory prosthesis. In this model, the electrical stimulation is applied to the array of microelectrodes implanted in the ventral cochlear nucleus, while the evoked neuronal activity was recorded with the electrode implanted in the contralateral inferior colliculus. Stimulus voltage waveforms to monitor the access impedance of the electrodes were acquired at the rate of 312 kilosamples/s. Evoked neuronal activity in the inferior colliculus was recorded after the blanking (transient silencing) of the recording amplifier during the stimulus pulse, allowing the detection of neuronal responses within 100 μs after the end of the stimulus pulse applied in the cochlear nucleus. PMID:19933010

  8. Radio tag retention and tag-related mortality among adult sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramstad, K.M.; Woody, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Tag retention and tag-related mortality are concerns for any tagging study but are rarely estimated. We assessed retention and mortality rates for esophageal radio tag implants in adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Migrating sockeye salmon captured at the outlet of Lake Clark, Alaska, were implanted with one of four different radio tags (14.5 ?? 43 mm [diameter ?? length], 14.5 ?? 49 mm, 16 ?? 46 mm, and 19 ?? 51 mm). Fish were observed for 15 to 35 d after tagging to determine retention and mortality rates. The overall tag retention rate was high (0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.00; minimum, 33 d), with one loss of a 19-mm ?? 51-mm tag. Mortality of tagged sockeye salmon (0.02; 95% CI, 0-0.08) was similar to that of untagged controls (0.03 [0-0.15]). Sockeye salmon with body lengths (mid-eye to tail fork) of 585-649 mm retained tags as large as 19 ?? 51 mm and those with body lengths of 499-628 mm retained tags as small as 14.5 ?? 43 mm for a minimum of 33 d with no increase in mortality. The tags used in this study represent a suite of radio tags that vary in size, operational life, and cost but that are effective in tracking adult anadromous salmon with little tag loss or increase in fish mortality.

  9. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; Sun, Yannan; Martinez, Jayson J.; Fu, Tao; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2014-11-01

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developed using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.

  10. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; Sun, Yannan; Martinez, Jayson J.; Fu, Tao; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developed using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature. PMID:25427517

  11. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z Daniel; Sun, Yannan; Martinez, Jayson J; Fu, Tao; McMichael, Geoffrey A; Carlson, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developed using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature. PMID:25427517

  12. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; USA, Richland Washington; Sun, Yannan; USA, Richland Washington; Martinez, Jayson J.; USA, Richland Washington; Fu, Tao; USA, Richland Washington; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; et al

    2014-11-27

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developedmore » using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.« less

  13. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z Daniel; Sun, Yannan; Martinez, Jayson J; Fu, Tao; McMichael, Geoffrey A; Carlson, Thomas J

    2014-11-27

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developed using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.

  14. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; USA, Richland Washington; Sun, Yannan; USA, Richland Washington; Martinez, Jayson J.; USA, Richland Washington; Fu, Tao; USA, Richland Washington; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; USA, Richland Washington; Carlson, Thomas J.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-11-27

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developed using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.

  15. Telemetry data via communications relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strock, O. J.; Witchey, Michael

    This paper responds to a test range engineer's need to relay one or more channels of various types of telemetry data from a remotely-located receiving station to the central telemetry station at range headquarters for real-time processing and display. Several types of data are identified, and specific equipment and technology for multiplexing, transmission, and demultiplexing up to eight streams from a variety of sources is discussed. The widely-used T3 communications link, also known as DS-3, can relay data via satellite, microwave link, or other high-speed path at 44.736 megabits per second, of which about 95 percent can be actual telemetry data; other standard links operate at lower aggregate rates. Several links and rates are discussed, with emphasis in the high-rate T3 link.

  16. Test Processor For PCM Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, David; Corbin, Brian

    1990-01-01

    User displays telemetric data in variety of formats. TDPlus system is a data-processing subsystem designed for use in testing pulse-code-modulation (PCM) telemetry equipment. Accommodates variety of PCM formats. Includes custom-built set of four circuit cards that plug into any personal computer compatible with Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus. Software written in 'C', very user-friendly, and enables anyone who has basic knowledge of telemetry to use system without instruction manual. Built for about tenth of cost of currently available commercial unit of similar capability.

  17. Designing the Optical Interface of a Transcutaneous Optical Telemetry Link

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brian; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Kilgore, Kevin L.; Peckham, P. Hunter

    2009-01-01

    Optical telemetry has long been an option for transcutaneous data transfer and has been used in various types of implanted systems. This telemetry modality and the efficiency of these optical links are becoming ever more important as higher bandwidth sources such as cortical recording arrays are being implemented in implanted systems. The design of the transmitter-skin-receiver interface (the “optical interface”) is paramount to the operation of a transcutaneous optical telemetry link. This interface functions to achieve sufficient receiver signal power for data communication. This paper describes a mathematical analysis and supporting data that quantitatively describes the relationship between the primary interface design parameters. These parameters include the thickness of the skin through which the light is transmitted, the size of the integration area of the optics, the degree of transmitter-receiver misalignment, the efficiency of the optics system, and the emitter power. The particular combination of these parameters chosen for the hardware device will determine the receiver signal power and, therefore, the data quality for the link. This paper demonstrates some of the tradeoffs involved in the selection of these design parameters and provides suggestions for link design. This analysis may also be useful for transcutaneous optical powering systems. PMID:18390327

  18. Transcutaneous optical telemetry system with infrared laser diode.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Shiba, K; Shu, E; Koshiji, K; Tsukahara, K; Oh-umi, T; Masuzawa, T; Tatsumi, E; Taenaka, Y; Takano, H

    1998-01-01

    A transcutaneous telemetry system is indispensable when monitoring and controlling the operation of an artificial heart totally implanted inside the body. A telemetry system using light is more useful than radio waves from the viewpoint of electromagnetic interference and power consumption. In this report, a transcutaneous optical coupler consisting of an infrared laser diode (LD) and a PIN photodiode (PINPD) was evaluated, and the transcutaneous optical coupling and information transmission characteristics were evaluated in in vitro experiments. The wavelength and directional angle of the LD used were 830 nm and 9.5 degrees, respectively. With regard to the directional angle of PINPD, the authors found that a PINPD with a larger directional angle allowed for more deviation between the axes optical axes of the LD and the PINPD. It was also found that the transcutaneous coupler had an optimum distance for the permissible deviation to be maximized. The information signals modulated by the phase shift keying (PSK) were transmitted at a rate of 9,600 bps through goat skin 4 mm thick, and demodulated by the phase locked loop (PLL) on the receiving side. As a result, the information signals were demodulated without any errors in deviation within 10.5 mm at a distance of 11 mm. In conclusion, the transcutaneous optical telemetry system using an infrared LD has sufficient characteristics to monitor and control the operation of an artificial heart totally implanted inside the body. PMID:9831095

  19. Consequences of antenna design in telemetry studies of small passerines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dougill, Steve J.; Johnson, Luanne; Banko, Paul C.; Goltz, Dan M.; Wiley, Michael R.; Semones, John D.

    2000-01-01

    Entanglement and mortality of Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, occurred when birds were radio-tagged with transmitters equipped with a long, limp, solder-tipped antenna. Birds were found suspended in trees by their transmitter antenna on eight occasions. Although these birds eventually freed themselves or were freed by us, at least one bird died afterwards. For radio telemetry studies of small passerine species we recommend avoiding transmitters equipped with an antenna that is bulbous at the tip, >16 cm in length, limp, and shiny.

  20. Digital electromagnetic telemetry system for studying behaviour of decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Smith; Collins; Jensen

    2000-05-01

    1 year and the receiving system batteries are replaced by divers at intervals of up to 4 weeks. In field tests, crab (Cancer pagurus L.) and lobster (Homarus gammarus (L.)) activity was monitored at an artificial reef for 14 months. Examples of the type of information acquired are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system and potential applications are discussed. Limitations of digital electromagnetic telemetry stem mainly from the short range of detection, the need for cables on the seabed and the size and shape of the transmitting tag. PMID:10742505

  1. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study: Steelhead, 1989-1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric

    1995-01-01

    A 4-year radio-telemetry study was made of steelhead in the Yakima River basin, with the objectives of determining the run timing, passage patterns at irrigation diversion dams, and morphometric characteristics of different Yakima basin steelhead substocks and determining where and when the substocks become separated; evaluating adult steelhead passage at Yakima River basin diversion dams; determining steelhead migration , temporal distribution, and habitat utilization in the Yakima River basin; identifying spawning distribution and timing of steelhead; and determining the amount and cause of pre-spawning mortality of radio-tagged steelhead. Recommendations are given.

  2. Telemetry experiments with a hibernating black bear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, J. J.; Varney, J. R.; Sumner, J. S.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop and test telemetry equipment suitable for monitoring physiological parameters and activity of a hibernating bear in its den, to monitor this data and other environmental information with the Nimbus 3 IRLS data collection system, and to refine immobilizing, handling, and other techniques required in future work with wild bears under natural conditions. A temperature-telemetering transmitter was implanted in the abdominal cavity of a captive black bear and body temperature data was recorded continuously during a 3 month hibernation period. Body temperatures ranging between 37.5 and 31.8 C were observed. Body temperature and overall activity were influenced by disturbances and ambient den temperature. Nychthemeral temperature changes were not noticable. A load cell weight recording device was tested for determining weight loss during hibernation. Monitoring of data by satellite was not attempted. The implanted transmitter was removed and the bear was released with a radiolocation collar at the conclusion of the experiment.

  3. Analysis of survival data from telemetry projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Telemetry is an increasingly popular method for studying animal movements and habitat use. Telemetry provides a means for studying survival and causes of mortality. This paper describes some statistical techniques which can provide valid estimates of survival rates based on data from telemetry studies.

  4. 47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within...

  5. 47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within...

  6. 47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within...

  7. 47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within...

  8. 47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within...

  9. XTCE. XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.

  10. BROADBAND DIGITAL GEOPHYSICAL TELEMETRY SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seeley, Robert L.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1984-01-01

    A system has been developed to simultaneously sample and transmit digital data from five remote geophysical data receiver stations to a control station that processes, displays, and stores the data. A microprocessor in each remote station receives commands from the control station over a single telemetry channel.

  11. Buoyancy compensation of juvenile chinook salmon implanted with two different size dummy transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, R.W.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two different sizes of surgically implanted transmitters on the buoyancy compensation of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We determined buoyancy by measuring the density of fish with a filled air bladder in graded salinity baths. In addition, we examined the effect of pressure changes on buoyancy by measuring the pressure reduction (PR) at which fish became neutrally buoyant. We found no significant difference between the density of control and tagged groups, indicating that fish were able to compensate for the transmitter by filling their air bladders. However, both groups of tagged fish had significantly lower PR than control fish. Regression analysis of fish density on PR indicated that density of the tagged groups changed at a higher rate than that of the controls. As a result, tagged fish attained neutral buoyancy with less pressure reduction even though the tagged and control groups exhibited similar densities. This relation was confirmed by using Boyle's law to simulate buoyancy changes with change in depth. Although fish compensated for the transmitter, changes in depth affected the buoyancy of tagged fish more than that of untagged fish. Reduced buoyancy at depth may affect the behavior and physiology of tagged juvenile salmonids, and researchers should be aware of this potential bias in telemetry data. In addition, there was little difference in PR or the slope of the density - PR regression lines between tagged groups. This was caused by the small difference in excess mass (i.e., weight in water) of the two transmitters. Thus, although two transmitters may not weigh the same, their effects on buoyancy may be similar depending on the excess mass.

  12. In-vivo characterization of left-ventricle pressure-volume telemetry system in swine model.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Kyle; Konecny, Filip; El-Warrak, Alexander; Hodgson, Chad; Cadieux-Pitre, Heather; Hill, Tracy; Sobot, Robert

    2016-10-01

    We present in-vivo study related to the use of our implantable RF telemetry system for pressure-volume (PV) cardiac monitoring in a animal subject. We implant a commercial MEMS PV sensor into the subject's heart left-ventricle (LV), while the telemetry system is implanted outside of the heart and connected to the sensor with a 7-microwires tether. The RF telemetry system is suitable for commercial application in medium sized subjects, its total volume of 2.475cm(3) and a weight of 4.0g. Our designed system is 58 % smaller in volume, 44 % in weight and has a 55 % reduction in sampling power over the last reported research in PV telemetry. In-vivo data was captured in both an acute and a freely moving setting over a 24 hour period. We experimentally demonstrated viability of the methodology that includes the surgical procedure and real-time monitoring of the in-vivo data in a freely moving subject. Further improvements in catheter design will improve the data quality and safety of the subject. This real-time implantable technology allows for researchers to quantify cardiac pathologies by extracting real-time pressure-volume loops, wirelessly from within freely moving subjects. PMID:27492638

  13. Wireless gigabit data telemetry for large-scale neural recording.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yen-Cheng; Lo, Yi-Kai; Kim, Yanghyo; Chang, Mau-Chung Frank; Liu, Wentai

    2015-05-01

    Implantable wireless neural recording from a large ensemble of simultaneously acting neurons is a critical component to thoroughly investigate neural interactions and brain dynamics from freely moving animals. Recent researches have shown the feasibility of simultaneously recording from hundreds of neurons and suggested that the ability of recording a larger number of neurons results in better signal quality. This massive recording inevitably demands a large amount of data transfer. For example, recording 2000 neurons while keeping the signal fidelity ( > 12 bit, > 40 KS/s per neuron) needs approximately a 1-Gb/s data link. Designing a wireless data telemetry system to support such (or higher) data rate while aiming to lower the power consumption of an implantable device imposes a grand challenge on neuroscience community. In this paper, we present a wireless gigabit data telemetry for future large-scale neural recording interface. This telemetry comprises of a pair of low-power gigabit transmitter and receiver operating at 60 GHz, and establishes a short-distance wireless link to transfer the massive amount of neural signals outward from the implanted device. The transmission distance of the received neural signal can be further extended by an externally rendezvous wireless transceiver, which is less power/heat-constraint since it is not at the immediate proximity of the cortex and its radiated signal is not seriously attenuated by the lossy tissue. The gigabit data link has been demonstrated to achieve a high data rate of 6 Gb/s with a bit-error-rate of 10(-12) at a transmission distance of 6 mm, an applicable separation between transmitter and receiver. This high data rate is able to support thousands of recording channels while ensuring a low energy cost per bit of 2.08 pJ/b.

  14. Wireless gigabit data telemetry for large-scale neural recording.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yen-Cheng; Lo, Yi-Kai; Kim, Yanghyo; Chang, Mau-Chung Frank; Liu, Wentai

    2015-05-01

    Implantable wireless neural recording from a large ensemble of simultaneously acting neurons is a critical component to thoroughly investigate neural interactions and brain dynamics from freely moving animals. Recent researches have shown the feasibility of simultaneously recording from hundreds of neurons and suggested that the ability of recording a larger number of neurons results in better signal quality. This massive recording inevitably demands a large amount of data transfer. For example, recording 2000 neurons while keeping the signal fidelity ( > 12 bit, > 40 KS/s per neuron) needs approximately a 1-Gb/s data link. Designing a wireless data telemetry system to support such (or higher) data rate while aiming to lower the power consumption of an implantable device imposes a grand challenge on neuroscience community. In this paper, we present a wireless gigabit data telemetry for future large-scale neural recording interface. This telemetry comprises of a pair of low-power gigabit transmitter and receiver operating at 60 GHz, and establishes a short-distance wireless link to transfer the massive amount of neural signals outward from the implanted device. The transmission distance of the received neural signal can be further extended by an externally rendezvous wireless transceiver, which is less power/heat-constraint since it is not at the immediate proximity of the cortex and its radiated signal is not seriously attenuated by the lossy tissue. The gigabit data link has been demonstrated to achieve a high data rate of 6 Gb/s with a bit-error-rate of 10(-12) at a transmission distance of 6 mm, an applicable separation between transmitter and receiver. This high data rate is able to support thousands of recording channels while ensuring a low energy cost per bit of 2.08 pJ/b. PMID:25823050

  15. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  16. A coded tracking telemetry system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howey, P.W.; Seegar, W.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Titus, K.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the general characteristics of an automated radio telemetry system designed to operate for prolonged periods on a single frequency. Each transmitter sends a unique coded signal to a receiving system that encodes and records only the appropriater, pre-programmed codes. A record of the time of each reception is stored on diskettes in a micro-computer. This system enables continuous monitoring of infrequent signals (e.g. one per minute or one per hour), thus extending operation life or allowing size reduction of the transmitter, compared to conventional wildlife telemetry. Furthermore, when using unique codes transmitted on a single frequency, biologists can monitor many individuals without exceeding the radio frequency allocations for wildlife.

  17. Astronomy. Laser telemetry from space.

    PubMed

    Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Harwit, Alex; Harwit, Martin

    2002-07-26

    Space missions currently on the drawing boards are expected to gather data at rates exceeding the transmission capabilities of today's telemetry systems by many orders of magnitude. Even on current missions, onboard data compression techniques are being implemented to compensate for lack of transmission speed. But while data compression can minimize the loss of data, it is no substitute for transmitting all of the data through a faster communications link. The transmission problem will soon reach crisis proportions and will affect astronomical, Earth resources, geophysical, meteorological, planetary and other space science missions. To overcome this communications bottleneck, the authors advocate the implementation of telemetry systems based on near-infrared laser transmission techniques. The fiber-optics communications industry has developed most of the basic components required for signal transmission in this wavelength band, which should make such a system affordable on scales relevant to the cost of anticipated space science missions.

  18. Surgical insertions of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wargo Rub, A. Michelle; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Moser, L; Weber III, E. P. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Use of electronic transmitter and monitoring systems to track movements of aquatic animals has increased continuously since the inception of these systems in the mid-1950s. The purpose of the present report is to provide information about veterinary principles and their incorporation into surgical implantation procedures for fish. We also intend to provide insight into the unique challenges of field-based aquatic surgical studies. Within this context, 4 aspects of the process for surgical implantation of transmitters in fish (ie, handling, aseptic technique, anesthesia, and implantation) will be described. Effects of surgical insertion of transmitters (ie, tagging) and aspects of the surgical implantation process where collaboration and professional exchanges among nonveterinarian researchers and veterinarians may be most fruitful will be discussed. Although this report focuses on surgical implantation, the principles and protocols described here (other than incision and suture placement) are also applicable to studies that involve injection of transmitters into fish.

  19. Passage and behavior of radio-tagged adult Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) at the Willamette Falls Project, Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Magie, Robert J.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in the Columbia River basin have declined and passage problems at dams are a contributing factor. We used radio telemetry to monitor the passage of adult Pacific lampreys at the Willamette Falls Project (a hydroelectric dam integrated into a natural falls) on the Willamette River near Portland, Oregon. In 2005 and 2006, fish were captured at the Project, implanted with a radio tag, and released downstream. We tagged 136 lampreys in 2005 and 107 in 2006. Over 90% of the fish returned to the Project in 7 – 9 h and most were detected from 2000 – 2300 h. In 2005, 43 fish (34%) passed the dam via the fishway, with peak passage in August. No fish passed over the falls, but 13% ascended at least partway up the falls. In 2006, 24 fish (23%) passed the Project using the fishway, with most prior to 9 June when the powerhouse was off. Although 19 lampreys ascended the falls, only two passed via this route. The time for fish to pass through the fishway ranged from 4 – 74 h, depending on route. Many fish stayed in the tailrace for hours to almost a year and eventually moved downstream. Our results indicate that passage of lampreys at the Project is lower than that for lampreys at dams on the Columbia River. Low passage success may result from low river flows, impediments in fishways, delayed tagging effects, changing environmental conditions, or performance or behavioral constraints.

  20. Retention of passive integrated transponder tags in largemouth bass brood fish

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.D.; Campbell, D.L. )

    1989-07-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags were injected into 22 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) brood fish to determine the retention rate of the tags, the effect on spawning success, and the utility of the tags as a means of individual fish identification. Fish were evaluated 12, 17, and 24 months after implantation. All tags were retained and all tagged fish were recognized. Tag injection and retention had no discernible effect on spawning success.

  1. Finding our way: On the sharing and reuse of animal telemetry data in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Hamish A; Beyer, Hawthorne L; Dennis, Todd E; Dwyer, Ross G; Forester, James D; Fukuda, Yusuke; Lynch, Catherine; Hindell, Mark A; Menke, Norbert; Morales, Juan M; Richardson, Craig; Rodgers, Essie; Taylor, Graeme; Watts, Matt E; Westcott, David A

    2015-11-15

    The presence and movements of organisms both reflect and influence the distribution of ecological resources in space and time. The monitoring of animal movement by telemetry devices is being increasingly used to inform management of marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we brought together academics, and environmental managers to determine the extent of animal movement research in the Australasian region, and assess the opportunities and challenges in the sharing and reuse of these data. This working group was formed under the Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS), whose overall aim was to facilitate trans-organisational and transdisciplinary synthesis. We discovered that between 2000 and 2012 at least 501 peer-reviewed scientific papers were published that report animal location data collected by telemetry devices from within the Australasian region. Collectively, this involved the capture and electronic tagging of 12 656 animals. The majority of studies were undertaken to address specific management questions; rarely were these data used beyond their original intent. We estimate that approximately half (~500) of all animal telemetry projects undertaken remained unpublished, a similar proportion were not discoverable via online resources, and less than 8.8% of all animals tagged and tracked had their data stored in a discoverable and accessible manner. Animal telemetry data contain a wealth of information about how animals and species interact with each other and the landscapes they inhabit. These data are expensive and difficult to collect and can reduce survivorship of the tagged individuals, which implies an ethical obligation to make the data available to the scientific community. This is the first study to quantify the gap between telemetry devices placed on animals and findings/data published, and presents methods for improvement. Instigation of these strategies will enhance the cost-effectiveness of the research and

  2. A cabled acoustic telemetry system for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon: part 1. Engineering design and instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Mark A; Deng, Z Daniel; Seim, Tom A; LaMarche, Brian L; Choi, Eric Y; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J; Thronas, Aaron I; Eppard, M Brad

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (OR, USA), started developing the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System, a nonproprietary sensing technology, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through eight large hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Initial development focused on coded acoustic microtransmitters and autonomous receivers that could be deployed in open reaches of the river for detection of the juvenile salmonids implanted with microtransmitters as they passed the autonomous receiver arrays. In 2006, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began the development of an acoustic receiver system for deployment at hydropower facilities (cabled receiver) for detecting fish tagged with microtransmitters as well as tracking them in two or three dimensions for determining route of passage and behavior as the fish passed at the facility. The additional information on route of passage, combined with survival estimates, is used by the dam operators and managers to make structural and operational changes at the hydropower facilities to improve survival of fish as they pass the facilities through the FCRPS. PMID:22163918

  3. A cabled acoustic telemetry system for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon: Part 1. Engineering design and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Seim, Thomas A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J.; Thronas, Aaron I.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-05-26

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Portland District started development of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS), a nonproprietary technology, in 2001 to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the 31 federal dams in the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Initial development focused on coded acoustic microtransmitters, and autonomous receivers that could be deployed in open reaches of the river for detection of the juvenile salmonids implanted with microtransmitters as they passed the autonomous receiver arrays. In 2006 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with development of an acoustic receiver system for deployment at hydropower facilities (cabled receiver) for detecting fish tagged with microtransmitters as well as tracking them in 2 or 3-dimensions as the fish passed at the facility for determining route of passage. The additional route of passage information, combined with survival estimates, is used by the dam operators and managers to make structural and operational changes at the hydropower facilities to improve survival of fish as they pass the facilities and through the FCRPS.

  4. A cabled acoustic telemetry system for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon: part 1. Engineering design and instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Mark A; Deng, Z Daniel; Seim, Tom A; LaMarche, Brian L; Choi, Eric Y; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J; Thronas, Aaron I; Eppard, M Brad

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (OR, USA), started developing the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System, a nonproprietary sensing technology, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through eight large hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Initial development focused on coded acoustic microtransmitters and autonomous receivers that could be deployed in open reaches of the river for detection of the juvenile salmonids implanted with microtransmitters as they passed the autonomous receiver arrays. In 2006, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began the development of an acoustic receiver system for deployment at hydropower facilities (cabled receiver) for detecting fish tagged with microtransmitters as well as tracking them in two or three dimensions for determining route of passage and behavior as the fish passed at the facility. The additional information on route of passage, combined with survival estimates, is used by the dam operators and managers to make structural and operational changes at the hydropower facilities to improve survival of fish as they pass the facilities through the FCRPS.

  5. Broadband wireless radio frequency power telemetry using a metamaterial resonator embedded with non-foster impedance circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guoqing; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2015-05-01

    Wireless powering of implantable biomedical devices and smart radio frequency identification (RFID) tags with very low profile antennas is desired. We propose a low profile electrically small antenna for near-field wireless power telemetry employing a metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) antenna. SRRs can be designed for operation over wide frequencies from RF to visible. However, they are inherently narrowband making them sensitive to component mismatch with respect to external transmit antenna. Here, we propose an embedding of a non-foster impedance circuitry into the metamaterial SRR structure that imparts conjugate negative complex impedance to this resonator antenna thereby increasing the effective bandwidth and thus overcoming the fundamental limit for efficient signal coupling. We demonstrate the concept through extensive numerical simulations and a prototype system at the board level using discrete off-the-shelf components and printed circuit SRR antenna at 500 MHz. We show that the power transfer between SRR receive antenna and the external transmit loop antenna is improved by more than 8 dB over a wide frequency band (from 525 MHz to 635 MHz), before and after non-foster circuit activation.

  6. Disposable telemetry cable deployment system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

  7. Preliminary neural response telemetry results.

    PubMed

    Cullington, H

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the neural response telemetry (NRT) results obtained from the first 30 patients tested at this centre. One hundred per cent of patients tested intra-operatively had NRT responses on at least one electrode; this compared to 82.4% of patients tested post-operatively. Reasonable correlations existed between post-operative NRT thresholds and psychophysical threshold and comfort levels, although there was too much variability for the data to be used to set these parameters directly. Post-operative NRT thresholds were always at levels audible to patients.

  8. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, was designed with the feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microns of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  9. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, has recently been designed with the novel feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microwatt of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  10. Do intracoelomic telemetry transmitters alter the post-release behaviour of migratory fish?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Alexander D.M.; Hayden, Todd A.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Kraus, Richard T.; Dettmers, John M.; Cooke, Steven J.; Charles C. Krueger,

    2016-01-01

    Electronic tags have become a common tool in fish research, enhancing our understanding of how fish interact with their environment and move among different habitats, for estimating mortality and recording internal physiological states. An often-untested assumption of electronic tagging studies is that tagged fish are representative of untagged conspecifics and thus show ‘normal’ behaviour (e.g. movement rates, swimming activity, feeding). Here, we use a unique data set for potamadromous walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Huron and Lake Erie tributaries to assess whether the lack of appropriate controls in electronic tagging could seriously affect behavioural data. We used fish tagged in previous years and compared their migratory behaviour during the spawning season to fish tagged in a current year at the same location. The objective of the study was to determine whether intracoelomic acoustic tag implantation altered downstream movement of walleye after spawning. Fish tagged in a given season travelled slower downstream from two river spawning sites than fish tagged in previous years. Fish tagged one or two years earlier showed no differences between each other in downstream travel time, in contrast to fish tagged in a given year. Our results support notions that standard collection and intracoelomic tagging procedures can alter short-term behaviour (i.e. days, weeks, months), and as such, researchers should use caution when interpreting data collected over such time periods. Further, whenever possible, researchers should also explicitly evaluate post-tagging effects on behaviour as part of their experimental objectives.

  11. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  12. Noncausal telemetry data recovery techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, H.; Lee, R.; Mileant, A.; Hinedi, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cost efficiency is becoming a major driver in future space missions. Because of the constraints on total cost, including design, implementation, and operation, future spacecraft are limited in terms of their size power and complexity. Consequently, it is expected that future missions will operate on marginal space-to-ground communication links that, in turn, can pose an additional risk on the successful scientific data return of these missions. For low data-rate and low downlink-margin missions, the buffering of the telemetry signal for further signal processing to improve data return is a possible strategy; it has been adopted for the Galileo S-band mission. This article describes techniques used for postprocessing of buffered telemetry signal segments (called gaps) to recover data lost during acquisition and resynchronization. Two methods, one for a closed-loop and the other one for an open-loop configuration, are discussed in this article. Both of them can be used in either forward or backward processing of signal segments, depending on where a gap is specifically situated in a pass.

  13. Impedance-matched drilling telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Normann, Randy A.; Mansure, Arthur J.

    2008-04-22

    A downhole telemetry system that uses inductance or capacitance as a mode through which signal is communicated across joints between assembled lengths of pipe wherein efficiency of signal propagation through a drill string, for example, over multiple successive pipe segments is enhanced through matching impedances associated with the various telemetry system components.

  14. System for Configuring Modular Telemetry Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for configuring telemetry transponder cards uses a database of error checking protocol data structures, each containing data to implement at least one CCSDS protocol algorithm. Using a user interface, a user selects at least one telemetry specific error checking protocol from the database. A compiler configures an FPGA with the data from the data structures to implement the error checking protocol.

  15. Making tough decisions about telemetry monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pelczarski, K M; Barbell, A S

    1993-11-01

    Telemetry monitoring, when used effectively and appropriately, is beneficial and plays an important role in enabling primary caregivers to provide optimum care for their patients. However, it is frequently used ineffectively and inappropriately, which can be extremely costly for hospitals. In this era of health care reform, careful review of this technology and analysis of telemetry utilization can avoid unnecessary expenditures or abuse.

  16. The design of LBT's telemetry source registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgin, Tony; Cushing, Norman

    2010-07-01

    In the current report, we describe the structure of the telemetry logging system of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and its approach to telemeter registration. The telemetry logging system, called Telemetry, has three functions. It will provide system data to LBT Observatory (LBTO) personnel in order to facilitate engineering activities such as commissioning, failure diagnosis and system repair. In order to detect failures as soon as possible after they occur, telemetry will allow for live monitoring of the functional status of key telescope systems. Finally, in order to help personnel understand how the LBT operating characteristics evolve with time, telemetry will provide access to historical telescope system data. Given this range of functions, a key requirement of Telemetry is that it must easily adapt to new sources of data. To minimize the changes required to Telemetry, it has no pre-existing knowledge about the structure of the data it will collect. Instead, it engages in a telemeter registration process, in which the data source must describe its own structure. This registration process requires no external data files to be maintained since the description is built up by a sequence of function calls to a C++ library. So far, this strategy has proven successful, as only minor modifications have been made to accommodate the nearly 400 sources of data introduced to the system in the past year. The current report describes the design of the LBT telemetry system and its source registration process.

  17. Telemetry Simulation Assembly Implementation in the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberda, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The telemetry simulation was implemented as part of the MARK IV network implementation project. The telemetry simulation assembly (TSA) is replacing the Simulation Conversion Assembly (SCA) throughout the DSN. The development of the TSA is discussed, and the design is described to the block diagram level.

  18. Shark Tagging Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  19. An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1992-03-24

    Acoustic telemetry has been a dream of the drilling industry for the past 50 years. It offers the promise of data rates which are one-hundred times greater than existing technology. Such a system would open the door to true logging-while-drilling technology and bring enormous profits to its developers. The oil and gas industry has led in most of the attempts to develop this type of telemetry system; however, very substantial efforts have also been made through government sponsored work in the geothermal industry. None of these previous attempts have lead to a commercial telemetry system. Conceptually, the problem looks easy. The basic idea is to produce an encoded sound wave at the bottom of the well, let it propagate up the steel drillpipe, and extract the data from the signal at the surface. Unfortunately, substantial difficulties arise. The first difficult problem is to produce the sound wave. Since the most promising transmission wavelengths are about 20 feet, normal transducer efficiencies are quite low. Compounding this problem is the structural complexity of the bottomhole assembly and drillstring. For example, the acoustic impedance of the drillstring changes every 30 feet and produces an unusual scattering pattern in the acoustic transmission. This scattering pattern causes distortion of the signal and is often confused with signal attenuation. These problems are not intractable. Recent work has demonstrated that broad frequency bands exist which are capable of transmitting data at rates up to 100 bits per second. Our work has also identified the mechanism which is responsible for the observed anomalies in the patterns of signal attenuation. Furthermore in the past few years a body of experience has been developed in designing more efficient transducers for application to metal Waveguides. The direction of future work is clear. New transducer designs which are more efficient and compatible with existing downhole power supplies need to be built and tested

  20. Acoustic telemetry reveals cryptic residency of whale sharks.

    PubMed

    Cagua, E Fernando; Cochran, Jesse E M; Rohner, Christoph A; Prebble, Clare E M; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H; Pierce, Simon J; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Although whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) have been documented to move thousands of kilometres, they are most frequently observed at a few predictable seasonal aggregation sites. The absence of sharks at the surface during visual surveys has led to the assumption that sharks disperse to places unknown during the long 'off-seasons' at most of these locations. Here we compare 2 years of R. typus visual sighting records from Mafia Island in Tanzania to concurrent acoustic telemetry of tagged individuals. Sightings revealed a clear seasonal pattern with a peak between October and February and no sharks observed at other times. By contrast, acoustic telemetry demonstrated year-round residency of R. typus. The sharks use a different habitat in the off-season, swimming deeper and further away from shore, presumably in response to prey distributions. This behavioural change reduces the sharks' visibility, giving the false impression that they have left the area. We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, year-round residency of unprovisioned, individual R. typus at an aggregation site, and highlight the importance of using multiple techniques to study the movement ecology of marine megafauna.

  1. Acoustic telemetry reveals cryptic residency of whale sharks

    PubMed Central

    Cagua, E. Fernando; Cochran, Jesse E. M.; Rohner, Christoph A.; Prebble, Clare E. M.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H.; Pierce, Simon J.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Although whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) have been documented to move thousands of kilometres, they are most frequently observed at a few predictable seasonal aggregation sites. The absence of sharks at the surface during visual surveys has led to the assumption that sharks disperse to places unknown during the long ‘off-seasons’ at most of these locations. Here we compare 2 years of R. typus visual sighting records from Mafia Island in Tanzania to concurrent acoustic telemetry of tagged individuals. Sightings revealed a clear seasonal pattern with a peak between October and February and no sharks observed at other times. By contrast, acoustic telemetry demonstrated year-round residency of R. typus. The sharks use a different habitat in the off-season, swimming deeper and further away from shore, presumably in response to prey distributions. This behavioural change reduces the sharks' visibility, giving the false impression that they have left the area. We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, year-round residency of unprovisioned, individual R. typus at an aggregation site, and highlight the importance of using multiple techniques to study the movement ecology of marine megafauna. PMID:25832816

  2. Estimating survival of radio-tagged birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.; Pollock, K.H.; Lebreton, J.-D.; North, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Parametric and nonparametric methods for estimating survival of radio-tagged birds are described. The general assumptions of these methods are reviewed. An estimate based on the assumption of constant survival throughout the period is emphasized in the overview of parametric methods. Two nonparametric methods, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of the survival funcrion and the log rank test, are explained in detail The link between these nonparametric methods and traditional capture-recapture models is discussed aloag with considerations in designing studies that use telemetry techniques to estimate survival.

  3. Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Transmitter Downsize Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Myjak, Mitchell J.

    2010-04-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated the use of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to reduce the weight and volume of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters while retaining current functionality. Review of the design of current JSATS transmitters identified components that could be replaced by an ASIC while retaining the function of the current transmitter and offering opportunities to extend function if desired. ASIC design alternatives were identified that could meet transmitter weight and volume targets of 200 mg and 100 mm3. If alternatives to the cylindrical batteries used in current JSATS transmitters can be identified, it could be possible to implant ASIC-based JSATS transmitters by injection rather than surgery. Using criteria for the size of fish suitable for surgical implantation of current JSATS transmitters, it was concluded that fish as small as 70 mm in length could be implanted with an ASIC-based transmitter, particularly if implantation by injection became feasible.

  4. Evacuation of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags from Northern Pikeminnow Consuming Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prey fish implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can be used in predation studies if the timing of tag evacuation from the predators is understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how PIT tags in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were consumed by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis were evacuated in relation to various parameters. The rate of evacuation was directly related to temperature, while predator size and the number of prey consumed had less effect on the timing of tag evacuation. A power model was fitted to predict the proportion of tags expected to be evacuated at different intervals after ingestion. These results could be used in planning field or laboratory predation experiments with PIT-tagged prey fish.

  5. Downhole tool adapted for telemetry

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2010-12-14

    A cycleable downhole tool such as a Jar, a hydraulic hammer, and a shock absorber adapted for telemetry. This invention applies to other tools where the active components of the tool are displaced when the tool is rotationally or translationally cycled. The invention consists of inductive or contact transmission rings that are connected by an extensible conductor. The extensible conductor permits the transmission of the signal before, after, and during the cycling of the tool. The signal may be continuous or intermittent during cycling. The invention also applies to downhole tools that do not cycle, but in operation are under such stress that an extensible conductor is beneficial. The extensible conductor may also consist of an extensible portion and a fixed portion. The extensible conductor also features clamps that maintain the conductor under stresses greater than that seen by the tool, and seals that are capable of protecting against downhole pressure and contamination.

  6. The effect of drag and attachment site of external tags on swimming eels: experimental quantification and evaluation tool.

    PubMed

    Tudorache, Christian; Burgerhout, Erik; Brittijn, Sebastiaan; van den Thillart, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Telemetry studies on aquatic animals often use external tags to monitor migration patterns and help to inform conservation effort. However, external tags are known to impair swimming energetics dramatically in a variety of species, including the endangered European eel. Due to their high swimming efficiency, anguilliform swimmers are very susceptibility for added drag. Using an integration of swimming physiology, behaviour and kinematics, we investigated the effect of additional drag and site of externally attached tags on swimming mode and costs. The results show a significant effect of a) attachment site and b) drag on multiple energetic parameters, such as Cost Of Transport (COT), critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and optimal swimming speed (Uopt), possibly due to changes in swimming kinematics. Attachment at 0.125 bl from the tip of the snout is a better choice than at the Centre Of Mass (0.35 bl), as it is the case in current telemetry studies. Quantification of added drag effect on COT and Ucrit show a (limited) correlation, suggesting that the Ucrit test can be used for evaluating external tags for telemetry studies until a certain threshold value. Uopt is not affected by added drag, validating previous findings of telemetry studies. The integrative methodology and the evaluation tool presented here can be used for the design of new studies using external telemetry tags, and the (re-) evaluation of relevant studies on anguilliform swimmers.

  7. The Effect of Drag and Attachment Site of External Tags on Swimming Eels: Experimental Quantification and Evaluation Tool

    PubMed Central

    Tudorache, Christian; Burgerhout, Erik; Brittijn, Sebastiaan; van den Thillart, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Telemetry studies on aquatic animals often use external tags to monitor migration patterns and help to inform conservation effort. However, external tags are known to impair swimming energetics dramatically in a variety of species, including the endangered European eel. Due to their high swimming efficiency, anguilliform swimmers are very susceptibility for added drag. Using an integration of swimming physiology, behaviour and kinematics, we investigated the effect of additional drag and site of externally attached tags on swimming mode and costs. The results show a significant effect of a) attachment site and b) drag on multiple energetic parameters, such as Cost Of Transport (COT), critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and optimal swimming speed (Uopt), possibly due to changes in swimming kinematics. Attachment at 0.125 bl from the tip of the snout is a better choice than at the Centre Of Mass (0.35 bl), as it is the case in current telemetry studies. Quantification of added drag effect on COT and Ucrit show a (limited) correlation, suggesting that the Ucrit test can be used for evaluating external tags for telemetry studies until a certain threshold value. Uopt is not affected by added drag, validating previous findings of telemetry studies. The integrative methodology and the evaluation tool presented here can be used for the design of new studies using external telemetry tags, and the (re-) evaluation of relevant studies on anguilliform swimmers. PMID:25409179

  8. Evolution of the LBT Telemetry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, K.; Biddick, C.; De La Peña, M. D.; Summers, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Telescope Control System (TCS) records about 10GB of telemetry data per night. Additionally, the vibration monitoring system records about 9GB of telemetry data per night. Through 2013, we have amassed over 6TB of Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files and almost 9TB in a MySQL database of TCS and vibration data. The LBT telemetry system, in its third major revision since 2004, provides the mechanism to capture and store this data. The telemetry system has evolved from a simple HDF file system with MySQL stream definitions within the TCS, to a separate system using a MySQL database system for the definitions and data, and finally to no database use at all, using HDF5 files.

  9. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences: PH Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Somps, Chris; Ricks, Robert; Kim, Lynn; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) program at NASA's Ames Research Center is currently developing a biotelemetry system for monitoring pH and temperature in unrestrained subjects. This activity is part of a broader scope effort to provide an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for use in future space life sciences research. Many anticipated research endeavors will require biomedical and biochemical sensors and related instrumentation to make continuous inflight measurements in a variable-gravity environment. Since crew time is limited, automated data acquisition, data processing, data storage, and subject health monitoring are required. An automated biochemical and physiological data acquisition system based on non invasive or implantable biotelemetry technology will meet these requirements. The ABTS will ultimately acquire a variety of physiological measurands including temperature, biopotentials (e.g. ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG), blood pressure, flow and dimensions, as well as chemical and biological parameters including pH. Development activities are planned in evolutionary, leveraged steps. Near-term activities include 1) development of a dual channel pH/temperature telemetry system, and 2) development of a low bandwidth, 4-channel telemetry system, that measures temperature, heart rate, pressure, and pH. This abstract describes the pH/temperature telemeter.

  10. Dynamics of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, seasonal migrations based on ultrasonic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Able, Kenneth W.; Grothues, Thomas M.

    2007-08-01

    Migrations of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, to and from estuaries to the continental shelf in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) occur seasonally but their dynamics are poorly understood. Ultrasonic telemetry, both passive and active, was used during 2003-2005 to determine timing and rate of juvenile and adult summer flounder (268-535 mm TL) migrating to and from the Mullica River-Great Bay estuary in southern New Jersey. Additionally, 7 years of inner continental shelf surveys off New Jersey were used to assess complementary seasonal movements. Most tagged fish emigrated from the estuary between July and September, though emigration lasted into December and appeared to be influenced by a number of factors. In July 2004, more tagged fish emigrated, at increased rates of movement, at low barometric pressure during a storm event. Trawl collections on the inner shelf demonstrated the same approximate immigration times as seen with telemetry. Later in the fall, increased numbers of tagged summer flounder emigrated from the estuary when dissolved oxygen was decreasing. Fall trawl surveys showed increased numbers of fish on the inner shelf when dissolved oxygen was decreasing in the Mullica River-Great Bay estuary, supporting the telemetry results. Fish emigrated from the estuary during the day and night but nighttime movements were in deeper water at slightly slower rates of movement. Exit and re-entry also occurred during the fall emigration. Ultrasonically tagged individuals demonstrated homing by returning to the same estuary, in March through June, in the second and third year of the study (39-6%, respectively). In summary, immigration may result from homing for a large proportion of summer flounder. Emigration may be associated with storms on an episodic scale, and dissolved oxygen and temperature on a seasonal scale.

  11. Elementary Implantable Force Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wachs, Rebecca A.; Ellstein, David; Drazan, John; Healey, Colleen P.; Uhl, Richard L.; Connor, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Implementing implantable sensors which are robust enough to maintain long term functionality inside the body remains a significant challenge. The ideal implantable sensing system is one which is simple and robust; free from batteries, telemetry, and complex electronics. We have developed an elementary implantable sensor for orthopaedic smart implants. The sensor requires no telemetry and no batteries to communicate wirelessly. It has no on-board signal conditioning electronics. The sensor itself has no electrical connections and thus does not require a hermetic package. The sensor is an elementary L-C resonator which can function as a simple force transducer by using a solid dielectric material of known stiffness between two parallel Archimedean coils. The operating characteristics of the sensors are predicted using a simplified, lumped circuit model. We have demonstrated sensor functionality both in air and in saline. Our preliminary data indicate that the sensor can be reasonably well modeled as a lumped circuit to predict its response to loading. PMID:24883335

  12. Using passive acoustic telemetry to infer mortality events in adult herbivorous coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, J. A.; Welsh, J. Q.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    Mortality is considered to be an important factor shaping the structure of coral reef fish communities, but data on the rate and nature of mortality of adult coral reef fishes are sparse. Mortality on coral reefs is intrinsically linked with predation, with most evidence suggesting that predation is highest during crepuscular periods. We tested this hypothesis using passive acoustic telemetry data to determine the time of day of potential mortality events (PMEs) of adult herbivorous reef fishes. A total of 94 fishes were tagged with acoustic transmitters, of which 43 exhibited a PME. Furthermore, we identified five categories of PMEs based on the nature of change in acoustic signal detections from tagged fishes. The majority of PMEs were characterised by an abrupt stop in detections, possibly as a result of a large, mobile predator. Overall, mortality rates were estimated to be approximately 59 % per year using passive acoustic telemetry. The time of day of PMEs suggests that predation was highest during the day and crepuscular periods and lowest at night, offering only partial support for the crepuscular predation hypothesis. Visually oriented, diurnal and crepuscular predators appear to be more important than their nocturnal counterparts in terms of predation on adult reef fishes. By timing PMEs, passive acoustic telemetry may offer an important new tool for investigating the nature of predation on coral reefs.

  13. Acoustic Telemetry Validates a Citizen Science Approach for Monitoring Sharks on Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Gabriel M. S.; Meekan, Mark G.; Bornovski, Tova H.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is promoted as a simple and cost-effective alternative to traditional approaches for the monitoring of populations of marine megafauna. However, the reliability of datasets collected by these initiatives often remains poorly quantified. We compared datasets of shark counts collected by professional dive guides with acoustic telemetry data from tagged sharks collected at the same coral reef sites over a period of five years. There was a strong correlation between the number of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) observed by dive guides and the telemetry data at both daily and monthly intervals, suggesting that variation in relative abundance of sharks was detectable in datasets collected by dive guides in a similar manner to data derived from telemetry at these time scales. There was no correlation between the number or mean depth of sharks recorded by telemetry and the presence of tourist divers, suggesting that the behaviour of sharks was not affected by the presence of divers during our study. Data recorded by dive guides showed that current strength and temperature were important drivers of the relative abundance of sharks at monitored sites. Our study validates the use of datasets of shark abundance collected by professional dive guides in frequently-visited dive sites in Palau, and supports the participation of experienced recreational divers as contributors to long-term monitoring programs of shark populations. PMID:24760081

  14. Acoustic telemetry validates a citizen science approach for monitoring sharks on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Gabriel M S; Meekan, Mark G; Bornovski, Tova H; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is promoted as a simple and cost-effective alternative to traditional approaches for the monitoring of populations of marine megafauna. However, the reliability of datasets collected by these initiatives often remains poorly quantified. We compared datasets of shark counts collected by professional dive guides with acoustic telemetry data from tagged sharks collected at the same coral reef sites over a period of five years. There was a strong correlation between the number of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) observed by dive guides and the telemetry data at both daily and monthly intervals, suggesting that variation in relative abundance of sharks was detectable in datasets collected by dive guides in a similar manner to data derived from telemetry at these time scales. There was no correlation between the number or mean depth of sharks recorded by telemetry and the presence of tourist divers, suggesting that the behaviour of sharks was not affected by the presence of divers during our study. Data recorded by dive guides showed that current strength and temperature were important drivers of the relative abundance of sharks at monitored sites. Our study validates the use of datasets of shark abundance collected by professional dive guides in frequently-visited dive sites in Palau, and supports the participation of experienced recreational divers as contributors to long-term monitoring programs of shark populations. PMID:24760081

  15. Acoustic telemetry validates a citizen science approach for monitoring sharks on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Gabriel M S; Meekan, Mark G; Bornovski, Tova H; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is promoted as a simple and cost-effective alternative to traditional approaches for the monitoring of populations of marine megafauna. However, the reliability of datasets collected by these initiatives often remains poorly quantified. We compared datasets of shark counts collected by professional dive guides with acoustic telemetry data from tagged sharks collected at the same coral reef sites over a period of five years. There was a strong correlation between the number of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) observed by dive guides and the telemetry data at both daily and monthly intervals, suggesting that variation in relative abundance of sharks was detectable in datasets collected by dive guides in a similar manner to data derived from telemetry at these time scales. There was no correlation between the number or mean depth of sharks recorded by telemetry and the presence of tourist divers, suggesting that the behaviour of sharks was not affected by the presence of divers during our study. Data recorded by dive guides showed that current strength and temperature were important drivers of the relative abundance of sharks at monitored sites. Our study validates the use of datasets of shark abundance collected by professional dive guides in frequently-visited dive sites in Palau, and supports the participation of experienced recreational divers as contributors to long-term monitoring programs of shark populations.

  16. An inexpensive pressure telemetry system.

    PubMed

    Barber, B J; Quillen, E W; Cowley, A W

    1980-10-01

    An inexpensive telemetry system using transducers and recorders commonly available, i.e., Statham and Grass, is described. The direct-current signal of a Statham transducer is applied to a voltage-controlled oscillator, thereby frequency encoding the pressure sensed by the transducer. This encoded signal frequency modulates a Colpitts oscillator, which acts as a radio-frequency oscillator-transmitter in the 88- to 108-MHz band. This transmitter and transducer, along with a rechargeable NiCd battery pack (total wt 0.5 kg), are mounted in a canvas jacket and worn by a dog previously prepared with a chronic indwelling arterial catheter. With a fully charged battery pack, a signal can be transmitted up to 250 ft for 50 h. A frequency-modulation automotive receiver, powered by and interfaced with a Grass 7B recorder, receives the signal and drives a tachometer circuit that reconverts the audio-frequency signal to a voltage proportional to pressure. This voltage is then applied to the driver amplifier of the Grass to produce a charted record. This system introduces no distortion as seen by comparison of direct and telemetered signals and is drift free for intervals exceeding 24 h. PMID:7425148

  17. Research notes: passive integrated transponder tags as markers for chicks.

    PubMed

    Jamison, B E; Beyer, R S; Robel, R J; Pontius, J S

    2000-07-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been used to mark a variety of organisms and have potential for marking poultry chicks. We examined the effects of PIT tags subcutaneously implanted in 3- and 7-d-old Leghorn chicks and found no significant differences over 40 d in survival or rate of daily body mass gain among tagged chicks and controls. The PIT-tagged birds were not more susceptible to pecking by other chicks than controls. No birds died, but 1 of 20 chicks lost its tag during the study. We believe that PIT tags provide a viable technique for marking individual juvenile birds, if tag loss can be reduced. Costs may be prohibitive in studies involving large numbers of birds.

  18. Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xiaowen; Li, Zengyuan; Ma, Mingguo; Wang, Jian; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Qiang; Che, Tao; Chen, Erxue; Yan, Guangjian; Hu, Zeyong; Zhang, Lixin; Chu, Rongzhong; Su, Peixi; Liu, Qinhuo; Liu, Shaomin; Wang, Jindi; Niu, Zheng; Chen, Yan; Jin, Rui; Wang, Weizhen; Ran, Youhua; Xin, Xiaozhou; Ren, Huazhong

    2009-11-01

    The Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) is a simultaneous airborne, satellite-borne, and ground-based remote sensing experiment aiming to improve the observability, understanding, and predictability of hydrological and related ecological processes at a catchment scale. WATER consists of the cold region, forest, and arid region hydrological experiments as well as a hydrometeorology experiment and took place in the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in the northwest of China. The field campaigns have been completed, with an intensive observation period lasting from 7 March to 12 April, from 15 May to 22 July, and from 23 August to 5 September 2008: in total, 120 days. Twenty-five airborne missions were flown. Airborne sensors including microwave radiometers at L, K, and Ka bands, imaging spectrometer, thermal imager, CCD, and lidar were used. Various satellite data were collected. Ground measurements were carried out at four scales, that is, key experimental area, foci experimental area, experiment site, and elementary sampling plot, using ground-based remote sensing instruments, densified network of automatic meteorological stations, flux towers, and hydrological stations. On the basis of these measurements, the remote sensing retrieval models and algorithms of water cycle variables are to be developed or improved, and a catchment-scale land/hydrological data assimilation system is being developed. This paper reviews the background, scientific objectives, experiment design, filed campaign implementation, and current status of WATER. The analysis of the data will continue over the next 2 years, and limited revisits to the field are anticipated.

  19. An overview of acoustic telemetry

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry has been a dream of the drilling industry for the past 50 years. It offers the promise of data rates which are one-hundred times greater than existing technology. Such a system would open the door to true logging-while-drilling technology and bring enormous profits to its developers. The basic idea is to produce an encoded sound wave at the bottom of the well, let it propagate up the steel drillpipe, and extract the data from the signal at the surface. Unfortunately, substantial difficulties arise. The first difficult problem is to produce the sound wave. Since the most promising transmission wavelengths are about 20 feet, normal transducer efficiencies are quire low. Compounding this problem is the structural complexity of the bottomhole assembly and drillstring. For example, the acoustic impedance of the drillstring changes every 30 feet and produces an unusual scattering pattern in the acoustic transmission. This scattering pattern causes distortion of the signal and is often confused with signal attenuation. These problems are not intractable. Recent work has demonstrated that broad frequency bands exist which are capable of transmitting data at rates up to 100 bits per second. Our work has also identified the mechanism which is responsible for the observed anomalies in the patterns of signal attenuation. Furthermore in the past few years a body of experience has been developed in designing more efficient transducers for application to metal waveguides. The direction of future work is clear. New transducer designs which are more efficient and compatible with existing downhole power supplies need to be built and tested; existing field test data need to be analyzed for transmission bandwidth and attenuation; and the new and less expensive methods of collecting data on transmission path quality need to be incorporated into this effort. 11 refs.

  20. Comparison of migration rate and survival between radio-tagged and PIT-tagged migrant yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hockersmith, E.E.; Muir, W.D.; Smith, S.G.; Sandford, B.P.; Perry, R.W.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the travel times, detection probabilities, and survival of migrant hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha tagged with either gastrically or surgically implanted sham radio tags (with an imbedded passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag) with those of their cohorts tagged only with PIT tags in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Juvenile chinook salmon with gastrically implanted radio tags migrated significantly faster than either surgically radio-tagged or PIT-tagged fish, while migration rates were similar among surgically radio-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. The probabilities of PIT tag detection at downstream dams varied by less than 5% and were not significantly different among the three groups. Survival was similar among treatments for median travel times of less than approximately 6 d (migration distance of 106 km). However, for both gastrically and surgically radio-tagged fish, survival was significantly less than for PIT-tagged fish, for which median travel times exceeded approximately 10 d (migration distance of 225 km). The results of this study support the use of radio tags to estimate the survival of juvenile chinook salmon having a median fork length of approximately 150 mm (range, 127-285 mm) and a median travel time of migration of less than approximately 6 d.

  1. Annual survival of Snail Kites in Florida: Radio telemetry versus capture-resighting data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennetts, R.E.; Dreitz, V.J.; Kitchens, W.M.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated annual survival of Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in Florida using the Kaplan-Meier estimator with data from 271 radio-tagged birds over a three-year period and capture-recapture (resighting) models with data from 1,319 banded birds over a six-year period. We tested the hypothesis that survival differed among three age classes using both data sources. We tested additional hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation using a combination of data from radio telemetry and single- and multistrata capture-recapture models. Results from these data sets were similar in their indications of the sources of variation in survival, but they differed in some parameter estimates. Both data sources indicated that survival was higher for adults than for juveniles, but they did not support delineation of a subadult age class. Our data also indicated that survival differed among years and regions for juveniles but not for adults. Estimates of juvenile survival using radio telemetry data were higher than estimates using capture-recapture models for two of three years (1992 and 1993). Ancillary evidence based on censored birds indicated that some mortality of radio-tagged juveniles went undetected during those years, resulting in biased estimates. Thus, we have greater confidence in our estimates of juvenile survival using capture-recapture models. Precision of estimates reflected the number of parameters estimated and was surprisingly similar between radio telemetry and single-stratum capture-recapture models, given the substantial differences in sample sizes. Not having to estimate resighting probability likely offsets, to some degree, the smaller sample sizes from our radio telemetry data. Precision of capture-recapture models was lower using multistrata models where region-specific parameters were estimated than using single-stratum models, where spatial variation in parameters was not taken into account.

  2. Review of research methodologies for tigers: telemetry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Clayton S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G

    2010-12-01

    Over the past half century, wildlife research has relied on technological advances to gain additional insight into the secretive lives of animals. This revolution started in the 1960s with the development of radio telemetry and continues today with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based research techniques. In the present paper we review the history of radio telemetry from its origins with grizzly bears in Yellowstone to its early applications in tiger research and conservation in Asia. We address the different types of data that are available using radio telemetry as opposed to using other research techniques, such as behavioral observations, camera trapping, DNA analysis and scat analysis. In the late 1990s, the rapid development of GPS collar technology revolutionized wildlife research. This new technology has enabled researchers to dramatically improve their ability to gather data on animal movements and ecology. Despite the ecological and conservation benefits of radio telemetry, there have been few telemetry studies of tigers in the wild, and most have been on the Bengal or Amur subspecies. We close with an assessment of the current tiger conservation efforts using GPS technology and discuss how this new information can help to preserve tigers for future generations.

  3. Review of research methodologies for tigers: telemetry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Clayton S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G

    2010-12-01

    Over the past half century, wildlife research has relied on technological advances to gain additional insight into the secretive lives of animals. This revolution started in the 1960s with the development of radio telemetry and continues today with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based research techniques. In the present paper we review the history of radio telemetry from its origins with grizzly bears in Yellowstone to its early applications in tiger research and conservation in Asia. We address the different types of data that are available using radio telemetry as opposed to using other research techniques, such as behavioral observations, camera trapping, DNA analysis and scat analysis. In the late 1990s, the rapid development of GPS collar technology revolutionized wildlife research. This new technology has enabled researchers to dramatically improve their ability to gather data on animal movements and ecology. Despite the ecological and conservation benefits of radio telemetry, there have been few telemetry studies of tigers in the wild, and most have been on the Bengal or Amur subspecies. We close with an assessment of the current tiger conservation efforts using GPS technology and discuss how this new information can help to preserve tigers for future generations. PMID:21392355

  4. Chronic, programmed polypeptide delivery from an implanted, multireservoir microchip device.

    PubMed

    Prescott, James H; Lipka, Sara; Baldwin, Samuel; Sheppard, Norman F; Maloney, John M; Coppeta, Jonathan; Yomtov, Barry; Staples, Mark A; Santini, John T

    2006-04-01

    Implanted drug delivery systems are being increasingly used to realize the therapeutic potential of peptides and proteins. Here we describe the controlled pulsatile release of the polypeptide leuprolide from microchip implants over 6 months in dogs. Each microchip contains an array of discrete reservoirs from which dose delivery can be controlled by telemetry.

  5. Implantable Myoelectric Sensors (IMESs) for Intramuscular Electromyogram Recording

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Richard F. ff.; Troyk, Phil R.; DeMichele, Glen A.; Kerns, Douglas A.; Schorsch, Jack F.; Maas, Huub

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a multichannel electrogmyography sensor system capable of receiving and processing signals from up to 32 implanted myoelectric sensors (IMES). The appeal of implanted sensors for myoelectric control is that electromyography (EMG) signals can be measured at their source providing relatively cross-talk-free signals that can be treated as independent control sites. An external telemetry controller receives telemetry sent over a transcutaneous magnetic link by the implanted electrodes. The same link provides power and commands to the implanted electrodes. Wireless telemetry of EMG signals from sensors implanted in the residual musculature eliminates the problems associated with percutaneous wires, such as infection, breakage, and marsupialization. Each implantable sensor consists of a custom-designed application-specified integrated circuit that is packaged into a bio-compatible RF BION capsule from the Alfred E. Mann Foundation. Implants are designed for permanent long-term implantation with no servicing requirements. We have a fully operational system. The system has been tested in animals. Implants have been chronically implanted in the legs of three cats and are still completely operational four months after implantation. PMID:19224729

  6. Myocardial Tagging With SSFP

    PubMed Central

    Herzka, Daniel A.; Guttman, Michael A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the first implementation of myocardial tagging with refocused steady-state free precession (SSFP) and magnetization preparation. The combination of myocardial tagging (a noninvasive method for quantitative measurement of regional and global cardiac function) with the high tissue signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained with SSFP is shown to yield improvements in terms of the myocardium–tag contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and tag persistence when compared to the current standard fast gradient-echo (FGRE) tagging protocol. Myocardium–tag CNR and tag persistence were studied using numerical simulations as well as phantom and human experiments. Both quantities were found to decrease with increasing imaging flip angle (α) due to an increased tag decay rate and a decrease in myocardial steady-state signal. However, higher α yielded better blood–myocardium contrast, indicating that optimal α is dependent on the application: higher α for better blood–myocardium boundary visualization, and lower α for better tag persistence. SSFP tagging provided the same myocardium–tag CNR as FGRE tagging when acquired at four times the bandwidth and better tag– and blood–myocardium CNRs than FGRE tagging when acquired at equal or twice the receiver bandwidth (RBW). The increased acquisition efficiency of SSFP allowed decreases in breath-hold duration, or increases in temporal resolution, as compared to FGRE. PMID:12541254

  7. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  8. High-Performance Wireless Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griebeler, Elmer; Nawash, Nuha; Buckley, James

    2011-01-01

    Prior technology for machinery data acquisition used slip rings, FM radio communication, or non-real-time digital communication. Slip rings are often noisy, require much space that may not be available, and require access to the shaft, which may not be possible. FM radio is not accurate or stable, and is limited in the number of channels, often with channel crosstalk, and intermittent as the shaft rotates. Non-real-time digital communication is very popular, but complex, with long development time, and objections from users who need continuous waveforms from many channels. This innovation extends the amount of information conveyed from a rotating machine to a data acquisition system while keeping the development time short and keeping the rotating electronics simple, compact, stable, and rugged. The data are all real time. The product of the number of channels, times the bit resolution, times the update rate, gives a data rate higher than available by older methods. The telemetry system consists of a data-receiving rack that supplies magnetically coupled power to a rotating instrument amplifier ring in the machine being monitored. The ring digitizes the data and magnetically couples the data back to the rack, where it is made available. The transformer is generally a ring positioned around the axis of rotation with one side of the transformer free to rotate and the other side held stationary. The windings are laid in the ring; this gives the data immunity to any rotation that may occur. A medium-frequency sine-wave power source in a rack supplies power through a cable to a rotating ring transformer that passes the power on to a rotating set of electronics. The electronics power a set of up to 40 sensors and provides instrument amplifiers for the sensors. The outputs from the amplifiers are filtered and multiplexed into a serial ADC. The output from the ADC is connected to another rotating ring transformer that conveys the serial data from the rotating section to

  9. New Jersey Tide Telemetry System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    Each summer the population of the barrier-island communities of New Jersey increases by tens of thousands. When a coastal storm threatens these communities, the limited number of bridges and causeways that connect the islands with the mainland become overcrowded, making evacuations from the barrier islands to the mainland difficult. Timely evacuation depends on well-defined emergency evacuation plans used in conjunction with accurate flood forecasting and up to the minute (real-time) tide-level information. The 'Great Nor'easter' storm that struck the coastal areas of New Jersey on December 11, 1992, caused about $270 million in insured damages to public and private property (Dorr and others, 1995). Most of the damage was due to tidal flooding and storm surge, which were especially severe along the back bay areas. Comprehensive and reliable tide-level and meteorological data for the back bays was needed to make accurate flood forecasts. Collection of tidal data for the ocean and large bays was adequately covered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Ocean Service (NOAA's NOS), but in New Jersey little to no data are available for the back-bay areas. The back bays behave quite differently than the ocean as a result of the complex interaction between the winds and the geometry of the inlets and bays. A slow moving Nor'easter can keep tide levels in back bays several feet higher than the ocean tide by not allowing tides to recede, resulting in flooding of bridges and causeways that link the barrier islands to the mainland. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT), designed and installed the New Jersey Tide Telemetry System (NJTTS) with assistance from NOAA's NOS in 1997. This system is part of a statewide network of tide gages, weather stations, and stream gages that collect data in real time. The NJTTS supplies comprehensive, reliable real-time tide-level and meteorological

  10. The SAS-3 programmable telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concept, system design and operation principles of the telemetry system developed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) are analyzed. The concept of programmable format selected for the SAS-3 represents an optical combination of the fixed format system of SAS-1 and SAS-2, and the adaptive format concept. The programmable telemetry system permits a very wide range of changes in the data sampling order by a ground control station, depending on the experimental requirements, so that the maximal amount of useful data can be returned from orbit. The programmable system also allows the data format to differ from one spacecraft to another without changing hardware. Attention is given to the command requirements and redundancy of the SAS-3 telemetry system.

  11. Telemetry Computer System at Wallops Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, H.; Strock, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Telemetry Computer System in operation at NASA's Wallops Flight Center for real-time or off-line processing, storage, and display of telemetry data from rockets and aircraft. The system accepts one or two PCM data streams and one FM multiplex, converting each type of data into computer format and merging time-of-day information. A data compressor merges the active streams, and removes redundant data if desired. Dual minicomputers process data for display, while storing information on computer tape for further processing. Real-time displays are located at the station, at the rocket launch control center, and in the aircraft control tower. The system is set up and run by standard telemetry software under control of engineers and technicians. Expansion capability is built into the system to take care of possible future requirements.

  12. Miniature infrared data acquisition and telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J. H.; Ward, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    The Miniature Infrared Data Acquisition and Telemetry (MIRDAT) Phase 1 study was performed to determine the technical and commercial feasibility of producing a miniaturized electro-optical telemetry system. This system acquires and transmits experimental data from aircraft scale models for realtime monitoring in wind tunnels. During the Phase 1 study, miniature prototype MIRDAT telemetry devices were constructed, successfully tested in the laboratory and delivered to the user for wind tunnel testing. A search was conducted for commercially available components and advanced hybrid techniques to further miniaturize the system during Phase 2 development. A design specification was generated from laboratory testing, user requirements and discussions with component manufacturers. Finally, a preliminary design of the proposed MIRDAT system was documented for Phase 2 development.

  13. Electromagnetic limits to radiofrequency (RF) neuronal telemetry.

    PubMed

    Diaz, R E; Sebastian, T

    2013-12-18

    The viability of a radiofrequency (RF) telemetry channel for reporting individual neuron activity wirelessly from an embedded antenna to an external receiver is determined. Comparing the power at the transmitting antenna required for the desired Channel Capacity, to the maximum power that this antenna can dissipate in the body without altering or damaging surrounding tissue reveals the severe penalty incurred by miniaturization of the antenna. Using both Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and thermal damage limits as constraints, and 300 Kbps as the required capacity for telemetry streams 100 ms in duration, the model shows that conventional antennas smaller than 0.1 mm could not support human neuronal telemetry to a remote receiver (1 m away.) Reducing the antenna to 10 microns in size to enable the monitoring of single human neuron signals to a receiver at the surface of the head would require operating with a channel capacity of only 0.3 bps.

  14. A cabled acoustic telemetry system for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon: part 2. Three-dimensional tracking and passage outcomes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z Daniel; Weiland, Mark A; Fu, Tao; Seim, Tom A; LaMarche, Brian L; Choi, Eric Y; Carlson, Thomas J; Eppard, M Brad

    2011-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled system, a nonproprietary sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Oregon, USA) to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m upstream from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.07 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the 2008 case study at John Day Dam, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more "fish-friendly" hydroelectric facilities. PMID:22163919

  15. A cabled acoustic telemetry system for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon: part 2. Three-dimensional tracking and passage outcomes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z Daniel; Weiland, Mark A; Fu, Tao; Seim, Tom A; LaMarche, Brian L; Choi, Eric Y; Carlson, Thomas J; Eppard, M Brad

    2011-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled system, a nonproprietary sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Oregon, USA) to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m upstream from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.07 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the 2008 case study at John Day Dam, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more "fish-friendly" hydroelectric facilities.

  16. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Fu, Tao; Seim, Thomas A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-05-26

    In Part 1 of this paper [1], we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled system, a nonproprietary technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the 31 dams in the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.05 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the case study at John Day Dam during 2008, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities.

  17. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Z. Daniel; Weiland, Mark A.; Fu, Tao; Seim, Tom A.; LaMarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, M. Brad

    2011-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled system, a nonproprietary sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Oregon, USA) to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m upstream from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.07 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the 2008 case study at John Day Dam, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities. PMID:22163919

  18. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  19. Pioneer Venus multiprobe entry telemetry recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. B.; Ramos, R.

    1980-01-01

    The entry phase of the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission involved data transmission over a two hour span. The criticality of recovering those two hours of data, coupled with the fact that there were no radio signals from the probes until their arrival at Venus, dictated unique telemetry recovery approaches on the ground. The result was double redundancy, use of spectrum analyzers to aid in rapid acquisition of the signals, and development of a technique for recovery of telemetry data without the use of real time coherent detection, which is normally employed for all other planetary missions.

  20. Using Onboard Telemetry for MAVEN Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Try; Trawny, Nikolas; Lee, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the spacecraft state has been traditional done using radiometric tracking data before and after the atmosphere drag pass. This paper describes our approach and results to include onboard telemetry measurements in addition to radiometric observables to refine the reconstructed trajectory estimate for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN). Uncertainties in the Mars atmosphere models, combined with non-continuous tracking degrade navigation accuracy, making MAVEN a key candidate for using onboard telemetry data to help complement its orbit determination process.

  1. Test Telemetry And Command System (TTACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, Alvin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a multimission Test Telemetry and Command System (TTACS) which provides a multimission telemetry and command data system in a spacecraft test environment. TTACS reuses, in the spacecraft test environment, components of the same data system used for flight operations; no new software is developed for the spacecraft test environment. Additionally, the TTACS is transportable to any spacecraft test site, including the launch site. The TTACS is currently operational in the Galileo spacecraft testbed; it is also being provided to support the Cassini and Mars Surveyor Program projects. Minimal personnel data system training is required in the transition from pre-launch spacecraft test to post-launch flight operations since test personnel are already familiar with the data system's operation. Additionally, data system components, e.g. data display, can be reused to support spacecraft software development; and the same data system components will again be reused during the spacecraft integration and system test phases. TTACS usage also results in early availability of spacecraft data to data system development and, as a result, early data system development feedback to spacecraft system developers. The TTACS consists of a multimission spacecraft support equipment interface and components of the multimission telemetry and command software adapted for a specific project. The TTACS interfaces to the spacecraft, e.g., Command Data System (CDS), support equipment. The TTACS telemetry interface to the CDS support equipment performs serial (RS-422)-to-ethernet conversion at rates between 1 bps and 1 mbps, telemetry data blocking and header generation, guaranteed data transmission to the telemetry data system, and graphical downlink routing summary and control. The TTACS command interface to the CDS support equipment is nominally a command file transferred in non-real-time via ethernet. The CDS support equipment is responsible for

  2. Performance Assessment of Suture Type, Water Temperature, and Surgeon Skill in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Eppard, M. B.; Seaburg, Adam

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed performance of seven suture types in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha implanted with acoustic microtransmitters. Nonabsorbable (Ethilon) and absorbable (Monocryl) monofilament and nonabsorbable (Nurolon, silk) and absorbable (Vicryl, Vicryl Plus, Vicryl Rapide) braided sutures were used to close incisions in Chinook salmon. Monocryl exhibited greater suture retention than all other suture types 7 d after surgery. Both monofilament suture types were retained better than all braided suture types at 14 d. Incision openness and tag retention did not differ among suture types. Wound inflammation was similar for Ethilon, Monocryl, and Nurolon at 7 d. Wound ulceration was lower for Ethilon, Monocryl, and Nurolon than for all other suture types at 14 d post-surgery. Fish held in 12°C water had more desirable post-surgery healing characteristics (i.e., higher suture and tag retention and lower incision openness, wound inflammation, and ulceration) at 7 and 14 d after surgery than those held in 17°C water. The effect of surgeon was a significant predictor for all response variables at 7 d. This result emphasizes the importance of including surgeon as a variable in telemetry study analyses when multiple surgeons are used. Monocryl performed better with regard to post-surgery healing characteristics in the study fish. The overall results support the conclusion that Monocryl is the best suture material to close incisions created during surgical implantation of acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon.

  3. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  4. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  5. 21 CFR 882.1855 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry system. 882... Electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry system. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry system consists of transmitters, receivers, and other components used for remotely monitoring or measuring...

  6. Monitoring fetal pH by telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, A.; Donahoe, T.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Ryan, W.

    1980-01-01

    Telemetry unit has been developed for possible use in measuring scalp-tissue pH and heart rate of unborn infant. Unit radius data to receiver as much as 50 ft. away. Application exists during hours just prior to childbirth to give warning of problems that might require cesarean delivery.

  7. Distortion in AM-baseband telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salter, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Report presents very thorough and rigorous analysis of bandwidths and filters required to achieve a specific error. Included is an investigation of contribution to error of 3- and 6-pole Chebyschev, Butterworth, and Bessel filters. Also included is methodology for designing DSB/FM telemetry system to make optimum use of available bandwidth while reducing error toward its theoretical minimum.

  8. Instrumentation and telemetry at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy multiprogram engineering and scientific facility with unique design, development, and test capabilities arising from their work in nuclear weapons, energy resources, defense systems, nuclear safeguards, and specialized scientific endeavors. To support these programs, they have developed instrumentation and telemetry expertise not available elsewhere. This technology is applicable to projects in government and industry. Since the 1950s, they have applied our technical competence to meet difficult challenges with innovative solutions to data acquisition and telemetry problems. Sandia - with experience in fields as diverse as parachute design and plasma physics, geology and rocket guidance, human factors and high-speed aerodynamics, non-destructive testing and satellite communications - can use the power of synergism among our many disciplines to solve your complex problems of data and acquisition and analysis. SNL solves difficult data acquisition problems for extreme environments with expertise in advanced telemetry techniques, high data rate telemetry design, specialized electronics packaging, MIL-STD-1553 communications, instrumentation development, real-time data analysis, project management, specialized testers and data encryption.

  9. NESTA: NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Smith, Kevin E.; Boloni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed an agent based tool to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during ground processing of the Shuttle's subsystems. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream and automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation. Sandia National Labs' Java Expert System Shell is employed as the rule engine. The shell's predicate logic lends itself well to capturing the heuristics and specifying the engineering rules of this spaceport domain. The declarative paradigm of the rule-based agent yields a highly modular and scalable design spanning multiple subsystems of the Shuttle. Several hundred monitoring rules have been written thus far with corresponding notifications sent to Shuttle engineers. This paper discusses the rule-based telemetry agent used for Space Shuttle ground processing and explains the problem domain, development of the agent software, benefits of AT technology, and deployment and sustaining engineering of the product.

  10. Eight-channel telephone telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.; Carr, T.

    1973-01-01

    Portable telemetry system uses conventional telephone link which eliminates mailing or messenger service between physician and analyst. Transmitter is used by physician; receiver is used by analyst. Each unit is inductively coupled to its respective telephone set, transmitter converting EEG into audio frequency and receiver converting this frequency back to EEG.

  11. Controller-Programmer for telemetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, R. Michael

    1988-10-01

    The development, testing, and implementation of modern, sophisticated telemetry systems requires a controller capable of adequately exercising the telemeter. A flight test requires a programmer to cycle through the flight events. This report describes an adaptable, programmable system that encompasses both of these requirements.

  12. Telemetry-based mortality estimates of juvenile spot in two North Carolina estuarine creeks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedl, Sarah E.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Scharf, Frederick S.; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated natural mortality rates (M) of age-1 Spot Leiostomus xanthurus by using a sonic telemetry approach. Sonic transmitters were surgically implanted into a total of 123 age-1 Spot in two North Carolina estuarine creeks during spring 2009 and 2010, and the fish were monitored by using a stationary acoustic receiver array and manual tracking. Fates of telemetered Spot were inferred based on telemetry information from estimated locations and swimming speeds. Potential competitors of age-1 Spot were assessed through simultaneous otter trawl sampling, while potential predators of Spot were collected using gill nets and trammel nets. The number of inferred natural mortalities was zero in 2009 (based on 29 telemetered Spot at risk) and four in 2010 (based on 52 fish at risk), with fish being at risk for up to about 70 d each year. Catches of potential competitors or predators did not differ between years, and age-1 Spot were not found in analyzed stomach contents of potential predators. Our estimated 30-d M of 0.03 (95% credible interval = 0.01–0.07) was lower than that predicted from weight-based (M = 0.07) and life-history-based (M = 0.06–0.36) estimates. Our field-based estimate of M for age-1 Spot in this estuarine system can assist in the assessment and management of Spot by allowing a direct comparison with M-values predicted from fish size or life history characteristics. The field telemetry and statistical analysis techniques developed here provide guidance for future telemetry studies of relatively small fish in open, dynamic habitat systems, as they highlight strengths and weaknesses of using a telemetry approach to estimate M.

  13. Measurement of right ventricular pressure by telemetry in conscious moving rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ronisz, Alicja; Delcroix, Marion; Quarck, Rozenn

    2013-07-01

    Implantable radiotelemetry methodology has been used to continuously monitor pulmonary hemodynamics including right ventricular pressure (RVP) or pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) in conscious, untethered and freely moving animals such as mice and rats. The use of implantable radiotelemetry to monitor RVP or PAP has never previously been described in rabbits. The aim of the present study was to use implantable radiotelemetry to continuously monitor RVP in conscious adult rabbits. Telemetry transmitters were implanted in 44 adult male New Zealand rabbits using a trans-diaphragm approach for the catheter placement. RVP, heart rate (HR) and activity were monitored every 15 min for 20 s. Body mass was recorded once a week. A total of 39 (88%) rabbits were successfully implanted. Thirty rabbits survived the surgical procedure resulting in an overall survival rate of 73%. RVP, HR and activity were long-term monitored in 17 rabbits for an average period of 103 ± 15 days. Weekly body mass follow-up showed that implantable radiotelemetry did not impair the normal development of the animal. Twenty-four-hour period monitoring of RVP, HR and activity showed concomitant changes in RVP, HR and activity according to the dark/light cycle applied to the rabbits. To conclude, implantable radiotelemetry methodology can be safely used to continuously monitor RVP in conscious rabbits.

  14. A Telemetry Browser Built with Java Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupart, E.

    In the context of CNES balloon scientific campaigns and telemetry survey field, a generic telemetry processing product, called TelemetryBrowser in the following, was developed reusing COTS, Java Components for most of them. Connection between those components relies on a software architecture based on parameter producers and parameter consumers. The first one transmit parameter values to the second one which has registered to it. All of those producers and consumers can be spread over the network thanks to Corba, and over every kind of workstation thanks to Java. This gives a very powerful mean to adapt to constraints like network bandwidth, or workstations processing or memory. It's also very useful to display and correlate at the same time information coming from multiple and various sources. An important point of this architecture is that the coupling between parameter producers and parameter consumers is reduced to the minimum and that transmission of information on the network is made asynchronously. So, if a parameter consumer goes down or runs slowly, there is no consequence on the other consumers, because producers don't wait for their consumers to finish their data processing before sending it to other consumers. An other interesting point is that parameter producers, also called TelemetryServers in the following are generated nearly automatically starting from a telemetry description using Flavori component. Keywords Java components, Corba, distributed application, OpenORBii, software reuse, COTS, Internet, Flavor. i Flavor (Formal Language for Audio-Visual Object Representation) is an object-oriented media representation language being developed at Columbia University. It is designed as an extension of Java and C++ and simplifies the development of applications that involve a significant media processing component (encoding, decoding, editing, manipulation, etc.) by providing bitstream representation semantics. (flavor.sourceforge.net) ii Open

  15. Contingency support using adaptive telemetry extractor and expert system technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Thomas; Cruse, Bryant; Wende, Charles

    The 'telemetry analysis logic for operations support' prototype system constitutes an expert system that is charged with contingency planning for the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST); this system has demonstrated the feasibility of using an adaptive telemetry extractor/reformatter that is integrated with an expert system. A test case generated by a simulator has demonstrated the reduction of the time required for analysis of a complex series of failures to a few minutes, from the hour usually required. The HST's telemetry extractor will be able to read real-time engineering telemetry streams and disk-based data. Telemetry format changes will be handled almost instantaneously.

  16. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 2: Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talipsky, R.

    1982-01-01

    The formats used for the transmission of LANDSAT-D and LANDSAT-D Prime spacecraft telemetry data through either the TDRS/GSTDN via the NASCOM Network to the CSF are described as well as the telemetry flow from the command and data handling subsystem, a telemetry list and telemetry matrix assignment for the mission and engineering formats. The on-board computer (OBC) controlled format and the dwell format are also discussed. The OBCs contribution to telemetry, and the format of the reports, are covered. The high rate data channel includes the payload correction data format, the narrowband tape recorder and the OBC dump formats.

  17. Tracking Three-Dimensional Fish Behavior with a New Marine Acoustic Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnan, Ian G.; McGarry, Louise P.; Greene, Charles H.; Steig, Tracey W.; Johnston, Samuel V.; Ehrenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The persistent monitoring capability provided by acoustic telemetry systems allows us to study behavior, movement, and resource selection of mobile marine animals. Current marine acoustic telemetry systems are challenged by localization errors and limits in the number of animals that can be tracked simultaneously. We designed a new system to provide detection ranges of up to 1 km, to reduce localization errors to less than 1 m, and to increase to 500 the number of unique tags simultaneously tracked. The design builds on HTIs experience of more than a decade developing acoustic telemetry systems for freshwater environments. A field trial of the prototype system was conducted at the University of Washingtons Friday Harbor Marine Laboratory (Friday Harbor, WA). Copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus) were selected for field trials of this new system because their high site-fidelity and small home ranges provide ample opportunity to track individual fish behavior while testing our ability to characterize the movements of a species of interest to management authorities.

  18. Telemetry location error in a forested habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, D.S.; Hoover, B.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Geissler, P.H.; Amlaner, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    The error associated with locations estimated by radio-telemetry triangulation can be large and variable in a hardwood forest. We assessed the magnitude and cause of telemetry location errors in a mature hardwood forest by using a 4-element Yagi antenna and compass bearings toward four transmitters, from 21 receiving sites. The distance error from the azimuth intersection to known transmitter locations ranged from 0 to 9251 meters. Ninety-five percent of the estimated locations were within 16 to 1963 meters, and 50% were within 99 to 416 meters of actual locations. Angles with 20o of parallel had larger distance errors than other angles. While angle appeared most important, greater distances and the amount of vegetation between receivers and transmitters also contributed to distance error.

  19. Telemetry Data Collection from Oscar Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Paul C.; Horan, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, configuration, and operation of a satellite station built for the Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Laboratory in the Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Engineering at New Mexico State University (NMSU). This satellite station consists of a computer-controlled antenna tracking system, 2m/70cm transceiver, satellite tracking software, and a demodulator. The satellite station receives satellite,telemetry, allows for voice communications, and will be used in future classes. Currently this satellite station is receiving telemetry from an amateur radio satellite, UoSAT-OSCAR-11. Amateur radio satellites are referred to as Orbiting Satellites Carrying Amateur Radio (OSCAR) satellites as discussed in the next section.

  20. Bluetooth telemetry system for a wearable electrocardiogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Ryan B.

    The rise of wireless networks has led to a new market in medicine: remote patient monitoring. Practitioners now desire to monitor the health conditions of their patients after hospital release. With the large number of cardiac related deaths and this new demand in medicine being the motivation, this study developed a BluetoothRTM telemetry system for a wearable Electrocardiogram. This study also developed a compression t-shirt to hold the ECG and telemetry system. This device communicates the ECG signal of a patient to an Android device within the ISM frequency bands (2.4-2.48 GHz) where the data is displayed and stored in real time. This study is a stepping stone toward more portable heart monitoring that can communicate with the doctor in real time from remote locations.

  1. Recent NASA contributions to biomedical telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.; Mccutcheon, E. P.; Fryer, T. B.; Rositano, S.; Westbrook, R.; Haro, P.

    1975-01-01

    The present work reviews technological progress over the past five years in the field of long-term telemetric monitoring of physiological parameters during space flight. Emphasis is placed on those developments that have direct application to animal or human use on earth. An effort was made in these recent developments to free subjects from encumbering wires: a swallowable telemetry capsule for monitoring body temperature and a wristwatch transmitter connected to EKG leads were two of the devices developed.

  2. Telemetry Tests Of The Advanced Receiver II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami M.; Bevan, Roland P.; Marina, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    Report describes telemetry tests of Advanced Receiver II (ARX-II): digital radio receiving subsystem operating on intermediate-frequency output of another receiving subsystem called "multimission receiver" (MMR), detecting carrier, subcarrier, and data-symbol signals transmitted by spacecraft, and extracts Doppler information from signals. Analysis of data shows performance of MMR/ARX-II system comparable and sometimes superior to performances of Blk-III/BPA and Blk-III/SDA/SSA systems.

  3. Implanting radio transmitters in wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Dein, F.J.; Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    To conduct telemetry studies of wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Chesapeake Bay [Maryland, USA], we needed to devise a suitable method of radio transmitter attachment. We describe as aseptic, intraabdominal surgical technique, using the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane, to implant 20-g radio transmitters in free-ranging canvasbacks. We evaluated the technique over 3 winters (1987-89), when an annual average of 83 female canvasbacks received implant surgery during a 9-day period in mid-December. Of 253 ducks, 248 (98%) were implanted successfully, and 200 (80.65) completed the 70-day study until early March. No mortality or abnormal behavior from surgery was identified post-release.

  4. Printed Multi-Turn Loop Antenna for RF Bio-Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Hall, David G.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a novel printed multi-turn loop antenna for contact-less powering and RF telemetry from implantable bio- MEMS sensors at a design frequency of 300 MHz is demonstrated. In addition, computed values of input reactance, radiation resistance, skin effect resistance, and radiation efficiency for the printed multi-turn loop antenna are presented. The computed input reactance is compared with the measured values and shown to be in fair agreement. The computed radiation efficiency at the design frequency is about 24 percent.

  5. Electromagnetic limits to radiofrequency (RF) neuronal telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, R. E.; Sebastian, T.

    2013-01-01

    The viability of a radiofrequency (RF) telemetry channel for reporting individual neuron activity wirelessly from an embedded antenna to an external receiver is determined. Comparing the power at the transmitting antenna required for the desired Channel Capacity, to the maximum power that this antenna can dissipate in the body without altering or damaging surrounding tissue reveals the severe penalty incurred by miniaturization of the antenna. Using both Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and thermal damage limits as constraints, and 300 Kbps as the required capacity for telemetry streams 100 ms in duration, the model shows that conventional antennas smaller than 0.1 mm could not support human neuronal telemetry to a remote receiver (1 m away.) Reducing the antenna to 10 microns in size to enable the monitoring of single human neuron signals to a receiver at the surface of the head would require operating with a channel capacity of only 0.3 bps. PMID:24346503

  6. Acoustic telemetry study to improve drilling data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Scientists at Sandia Natl. Laboratories hope to master a technique to improve measurement-while-drilling information rates 100-fold. These researchers are advancing acoustic telemetry--the transmission of data by means of sound waves along drillpipe from deep within a well--at a new surface-simulation facility in Albuquerque, NM, after years of unsuccessful, short-term studies by many private companies. The existing data-transmission system, called mud pulse, constricts drilling fluid with a downhole valve to send a series of pulses similar to a Morse code to provide information about the bit location. But mud pulse delivers data at low rates--about one data bit per second. Acoustic telemetry could dramatically improve those rates. The basic idea of acoustic telemetry is to produce a sound wave at the bottom of a well and allow the wave to run up the drillpipe to the surface. The hardware, or transducer, emitting the wave must produce sounds with wavelengths that can negotiate the long drill string. The wavelengths also must be compatible with power supplies available deep in the well. At the surface, data can be extracted form the sound waves to complete the transmission.

  7. Telemetry system for monitoring anterior cruciate ligament graft forces in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Eric L.; Hull, Maury L.; Howell, Stephen M.

    1997-02-01

    Quantifying changes in the tension of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft in vivo during rehabilitative exercises is vital for developing the optimal rehabilitation for patients who have had reconstructive surgery. The purpose of this project was to design, built, and test a telemetry system that can measure the in vivo ACL graft tension postoperatively. A commercially available fixation device was modified to sense the graft tension, house electronic components, transmit an output signal, and pass the power generating signal. A transcutaneous inductive link was used to power the implanted telemetry electronics. The current difference technique was used to measure changes in two strain gages that monitored shear strain developed on the femoral fixation device by the ACL graft. This current regulated a frequency modulated output signal and transmitted it, by using the ionic properties of body tissue as the medium, to external EMG surface electrodes. A signal conditioning board detected and converted the output to an analog voltage for collection by a computer data acquisition system. A performance evaluation demonstrated that the telemetry system either met or exceeded al of the criteria necessary for the application.

  8. PIT Tagging Anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCreary, Brome

    2008-01-01

    The following video demonstrates a procedure to insert a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag under the skin of an anuran (frog or toad) for research and monitoring purposes. Typically, a 12.5 mm tag (0.5 in.) is used to uniquely identify individual anurans as smal as 40 mm (1.6 in.) in length from snout to vent. Smaller tags are also available and allow smaller anurans to be tagged. The procedure does not differ for other sizes of tages or other sizes of anurans. Anyone using this procedure should ensure that the tag is small enough to fit easily behind the sacral hump of the anuran, as shown in this video.

  9. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  10. Micropower circuits for bidirectional wireless telemetry in neural recording applications.

    PubMed

    Neihart, Nathan M; Harrison, Reid R

    2005-11-01

    State-of-the art neural recording systems require electronics allowing for transcutaneous, bidirectional data transfer. As these circuits will be implanted near the brain, they must be small and low power. We have developed micropower integrated circuits for recovering clock and data signals over a transcutaneous power link. The data recovery circuit produces a digital data signal from an ac power waveform that has been amplitude modulated. We have also developed an FM transmitter with the lowest power dissipation reported for biosignal telemetry. The FM transmitter consists of a low-noise biopotential amplifier and a voltage controlled oscillator used to transmit amplified neural signals at a frequency near 433 MHz. All circuits were fabricated in a standard 0.5-microm CMOS VLSI process. The resulting chip is powered through a wireless inductive link. The power consumption of the clock and data recovery circuits is measured to be 129 microW; the power consumption of the transmitter is measured to be 465 microW when using an external surface mount inductor. Using a parasitic antenna less than 2 mm long, a received power level was measured to be -59.73 dBm at a distance of one meter. PMID:16285399

  11. Micropower circuits for bidirectional wireless telemetry in neural recording applications.

    PubMed

    Neihart, Nathan M; Harrison, Reid R

    2005-11-01

    State-of-the art neural recording systems require electronics allowing for transcutaneous, bidirectional data transfer. As these circuits will be implanted near the brain, they must be small and low power. We have developed micropower integrated circuits for recovering clock and data signals over a transcutaneous power link. The data recovery circuit produces a digital data signal from an ac power waveform that has been amplitude modulated. We have also developed an FM transmitter with the lowest power dissipation reported for biosignal telemetry. The FM transmitter consists of a low-noise biopotential amplifier and a voltage controlled oscillator used to transmit amplified neural signals at a frequency near 433 MHz. All circuits were fabricated in a standard 0.5-microm CMOS VLSI process. The resulting chip is powered through a wireless inductive link. The power consumption of the clock and data recovery circuits is measured to be 129 microW; the power consumption of the transmitter is measured to be 465 microW when using an external surface mount inductor. Using a parasitic antenna less than 2 mm long, a received power level was measured to be -59.73 dBm at a distance of one meter.

  12. A fast and accurate decoder for underwater acoustic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingraham, J. M.; Deng, Z. D.; Li, X.; Fu, T.; McMichael, G. A.; Trumbo, B. A.

    2014-07-01

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has been used to monitor the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through hydroelectric facilities in the Federal Columbia River Power System. Cabled hydrophone arrays deployed at dams receive coded transmissions sent from acoustic transmitters implanted in fish. The signals' time of arrival on different hydrophones is used to track fish in 3D. In this article, a new algorithm that decodes the received transmissions is described and the results are compared to results for the previous decoding algorithm. In a laboratory environment, the new decoder was able to decode signals with lower signal strength than the previous decoder, effectively increasing decoding efficiency and range. In field testing, the new algorithm decoded significantly more signals than the previous decoder and three-dimensional tracking experiments showed that the new decoder's time-of-arrival estimates were accurate. At multiple distances from hydrophones, the new algorithm tracked more points more accurately than the previous decoder. The new algorithm was also more than 10 times faster, which is critical for real-time applications on an embedded system.

  13. A fast and accurate decoder for underwater acoustic telemetry.

    PubMed

    Ingraham, J M; Deng, Z D; Li, X; Fu, T; McMichael, G A; Trumbo, B A

    2014-07-01

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has been used to monitor the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through hydroelectric facilities in the Federal Columbia River Power System. Cabled hydrophone arrays deployed at dams receive coded transmissions sent from acoustic transmitters implanted in fish. The signals' time of arrival on different hydrophones is used to track fish in 3D. In this article, a new algorithm that decodes the received transmissions is described and the results are compared to results for the previous decoding algorithm. In a laboratory environment, the new decoder was able to decode signals with lower signal strength than the previous decoder, effectively increasing decoding efficiency and range. In field testing, the new algorithm decoded significantly more signals than the previous decoder and three-dimensional tracking experiments showed that the new decoder's time-of-arrival estimates were accurate. At multiple distances from hydrophones, the new algorithm tracked more points more accurately than the previous decoder. The new algorithm was also more than 10 times faster, which is critical for real-time applications on an embedded system. PMID:25085162

  14. Recording of intracranial pressure in conscious rats via telemetry.

    PubMed

    Guild, Sarah-Jane; McBryde, Fiona D; Malpas, Simon C

    2015-09-01

    Although cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is known to be fundamental in the control of normal brain function, there have been no previous long-term measurements in animal models. The aim of this study was to explore the stability and viability of long-term recordings of intracranial pressure (ICP) in freely moving rats via a telemetry device. We also developed a repeatable surgical approach with a solid-state pressure sensor at the tip of the catheter placed under the dura and in combination with arterial pressure (AP) measurement to enable the calculation of CPP. Telemeters with dual pressure catheters were implanted in Wistar rats to measure ICP and AP. We found that the signals were stable throughout the 28-day recording period with an average ICP value of 6 ± 0.8 mmHg. Significant light-dark differences were found in AP (3.1 ± 2.7 mmHg, P = 0.02) and HR (58 ± 12 beats/min, P = 0.003), but not ICP (0.3 ± 0.2 mmHg, P >0.05) or CPP (2.6 ± 2.8 mmHg, P > 0.05). Use of kaolin to induce hydrocephalus in several rats demonstrates the ability to measure changes in ICP throughout disease progression, validating this new solution for chronic measurement of ICP, CPP, and AP in conscious rats.

  15. Radio frequency interference effects of continuous wave signals on telemetry data, part 2. [Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. W.

    1979-01-01

    The results of radio frequency interference tests and the derived telemetry bit SNR degradation model, which includes the telemetry data rate and the telemetry data power as independent variables for characterizing the continuous wave interference effects on telemetry data, are presented. The telemetry bit SNR degradation model was implemented in the second version of the Deep Space Interference Prediction software.

  16. Group telemetry analysis using the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, J.

    1996-12-31

    Today it is not uncommon to have large contractor teams involved in the design and deployment of even small satellite systems. The larger (and more geographically remote) the team members, the more difficult it becomes to efficiently manage the disbursement of telemetry data for evaluation and analysis. Further complications are introduced if some of the telemetry data is sensitive. An application is described which can facilitate telemetry data sharing utilizing the National Information Infrastructure (Internet).

  17. User microprogrammable processors for high data rate telemetry preprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugsley, J. H.; Ogrady, E. P.

    1973-01-01

    The use of microprogrammable processors for the preprocessing of high data rate satellite telemetry is investigated. The following topics are discussed along with supporting studies: (1) evaluation of commercial microprogrammable minicomputers for telemetry preprocessing tasks; (2) microinstruction sets for telemetry preprocessing; and (3) the use of multiple minicomputers to achieve high data processing. The simulation of small microprogrammed processors is discussed along with examples of microprogrammed processors.

  18. XTCE: XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial, XTCE Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad

    2008-01-01

    These presentation slides are a tutorial on XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE). The goal of XTCE is to provide an industry standard mechanism for describing telemetry and command streams (particularly from satellites.) it wiill lower cost and increase validation over traditional formats, and support exchange or native format.XCTE is designed to describe bit streams, that are typical of telemetry and command in the historic space domain.

  19. Radio frequency overview of the high explosive radio telemetry project

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, R.; Dimsdle, J.; Rich, D.; Smith, F.

    1998-12-31

    High explosive radio telemetry (HERT) is a project that is being developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies. The ultimate goal is to develop a small, modular telemetry system capable of high-speed detection of explosive events, with an accuracy on the order of 10 nanoseconds. The reliable telemetry of this data, from a high-speed missile trajectory, is a very challenging opportunity. All captured data must be transmitted in less than 20 microseconds of time duration. This requires a high bits/Hertz microwave telemetry modulation code to insure transmission of the data with the limited time interval available.

  20. Tracking animals in freshwater with electronic tags: past, present and future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooke, Steven J.; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Thiem, Jason D.; Klimley, Peter; Lucas, Martyn C.; Thorstad, Eva B.; Eiler, John; Holbrook, Chris; Ebner, Brendan C.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable technical developments over the past half century have enabled widespread application of electronic tags to the study of animals in the wild, including in freshwater environments. We review the constraints associated with freshwater telemetry and biologging and the technical developments relevant to their use. Technical constraints for tracking animals are often influenced by the characteristics of the animals being studied and the environment they inhabit. Collectively, they influence which and how technologies can be used and their relative effectiveness. Although radio telemetry has historically been the most commonly used technology in freshwater, passive integrated transponder (PIT) technology, acoustic telemetry and biologgers are becoming more popular. Most telemetry studies have focused on fish, although an increasing number have focused on other taxa, such as turtles, crustaceans and molluscs. Key technical developments for freshwater systems include: miniaturization of tags for tracking small-size life stages and species, fixed stations and coded tags for tracking large samples of animals over long distances and large temporal scales, inexpensive PIT systems that enable mass tagging to yield population- and community-level relevant sample sizes, incorporation of sensors into electronic tags, validation of tag attachment procedures with a focus on maintaining animal welfare, incorporation of different techniques (for example, genetics, stable isotopes) and peripheral technologies (for example, geographic information systems, hydroacoustics), development of novel analytical techniques, and extensive international collaboration. Innovations are still needed in tag miniaturization, data analysis and visualization, and in tracking animals over larger spatial scales (for example, pelagic areas of lakes) and in challenging environments (for example, large dynamic floodplain systems, under ice). There seems to be a particular need for adapting

  1. Telemetry Boards Interpret Rocket, Airplane Engine Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.

  2. A detachable mobile and adjustable telemetry system

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Tommy S; Persons, William E; Bradley, Joseph G; Gregg, Margaret; Gonzales, Shinelle K; Helton, Jesse S

    2013-01-01

    Many traditional mobile telemetry systems require permanently mounting a rod through the cabin of a vehicle to serve as the mast for a directional antenna. In this article we present an alternative to this configuration by providing a platform that can be placed atop the vehicle in which the antenna mast can be mounted and controlled from the cabin of the vehicle. Thereby making this design a viable option for researchers who share vehicles with others that may not approve of permanent vehicle modifications such as placing a hole in the roof of the vehicle as required by traditional mobile configurations. We tested the precision and accuracy of detachable mobile and adjustable telemetry system (DMATS) in an urban park with varying terrain, tree stands, overhead wires, and other structures that can contribute to signal deflection. We placed three radiocollars 50 m apart and 1.2 m above the ground then established three testing stations ∼280 m from the location of the radiocollars. The DMATS platform required 12 h for completion and cost $1059 USD. Four technicians were randomly assigned radio collars to triangulate using DMATS and a handheld telemetry system. We used a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Scheffe post hoc test to compare error ellipses between azimuths taken using DMATS and the hand held system. Average error ellipses for all testers was 1.96 ± 1.22 ha. No significant differences were found between error ellipses of testers (P = 0.292). Our design, the DMATS, does not require any vehicle modification; thereby, making this a viable option for researchers sharing vehicles with others that may not approve of permanent vehicle alterations. PMID:23919133

  3. Accuracy of telemetry signal power loss in a filter as an estimate for telemetry degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    When telemetry data is transmitted through a communication link, some degradation in telemetry performance occurs as a result of the imperfect frequency response of the channel. The term telemetry degradation as used here is the increase in received signal power required to offset this filtering. The usual approach to assessing this degradation is to assume that it is equal to the signal power loss in the filtering, which is easily calculated. However, this approach neglects the effects of the nonlinear phase response of the filter, the effect of any reduction of the receiving system noise due to the filter, and intersymbol interference. Here, an exact calculation of the telemetry degradation, which includes all of the above effects, is compared with the signal power loss calculation for RF filtering of NRZ data on a carrier. The signal power loss calculation is found to be a reasonable approximation when the filter follows the point at which the receiving system noise is introduced, especially if the signal power loss is less than 0.5 dB. The signal power loss approximation is less valid when the receiving system noise is not filtered.

  4. A multichannel electromagnetic flowmeter telemetry system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.; Doane, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    An eight-channel biomedical telemetry system provides four channels of blood flow measurements in addition to blood-pressure and EKG data. Emphasis is placed on the amplifiers and signal conditioning circuitry required for interfacing of the electromagnetic flow transducers with the transmission and modulation subsystems. The large number of data channels permits measurement of flow distribution as well as total cardiac output. The batteries and electronics for four channels (blood flow) weigh about 500 g and have a volume of 250 cu cm.

  5. Real Time Telemetry Data Capture and Storage

    1997-05-14

    This program is used to capture telemetry data from remote instrumentation systems. The data can be captured at the rate of 1M bit per second. The data can come in one of several formats, NRZ, RZ, and Bi-Phase. The DECOM software takes the serial data stream and locks on to a unique code word. By tracking the code word the software can strip out the information. Thus the program can display the incoming data realmore » time while saving the data to disk.« less

  6. Telemetry and Science Data Software System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Lakesha; Hong, Liang

    2011-01-01

    The Telemetry and Science Data Software System (TSDSS) was designed to validate the operational health of a spacecraft, ease test verification, assist in debugging system anomalies, and provide trending data and advanced science analysis. In doing so, the system parses, processes, and organizes raw data from the Aquarius instrument both on the ground and while in space. In addition, it provides a user-friendly telemetry viewer, and an instant pushbutton test report generator. Existing ground data systems can parse and provide simple data processing, but have limitations in advanced science analysis and instant report generation. The TSDSS functions as an offline data analysis system during I&T (integration and test) and mission operations phases. After raw data are downloaded from an instrument, TSDSS ingests the data files, parses, converts telemetry to engineering units, and applies advanced algorithms to produce science level 0, 1, and 2 data products. Meanwhile, it automatically schedules upload of the raw data to a remote server and archives all intermediate and final values in a MySQL database in time order. All data saved in the system can be straightforwardly retrieved, exported, and migrated. Using TSDSS s interactive data visualization tool, a user can conveniently choose any combination and mathematical computation of interesting telemetry points from a large range of time periods (life cycle of mission ground data and mission operations testing), and display a graphical and statistical view of the data. With this graphical user interface (GUI), the data queried graphs can be exported and saved in multiple formats. This GUI is especially useful in trending data analysis, debugging anomalies, and advanced data analysis. At the request of the user, mission-specific instrument performance assessment reports can be generated with a simple click of a button on the GUI. From instrument level to observatory level, the TSDSS has been operating supporting

  7. Sensor data autonomy. [for spacecraft telemetry systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.; Desjardins, R.

    1978-01-01

    'Smart' sensors onboard NASA space missions will require variable data output bandwidth as they respond to phenomena of interest. An Instrument Telemetry Packet (ITP) approach has been developed which encodes experimental instrument data into an autonomous data package, along with pertinent engineering parameters and ancillary data (time, position, attitude, etc.). New requirements for onboard concentration and buffering, as well as for end-to-end error control, arise from this approach. Emphasis is placed on packet protocols compatible with the data link standard ADCCP, to enable one set of ground support equipment to readily support instrument development, launch site checkout and mission operations phases.

  8. Behavioral and Physiological Analyses of Parturition In Pregnant Rats: Insights Derived from Intrauterine Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villareal, J.; Mallery, E.; Lynch, A.; Mills, N.; Baer, L.; Wade, C.; Ronca, A.; Dalton, Donnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During labor and birth, fetuses are exposed to considerable physical stimulation associated with labor contractions and expulsion from the womb These forces are important for the neonates' adaptation to tile extrauterine environment. To further our understanding of the relationship between labor and postpartum outcome, we developed a novel method for measuring intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats that enables us to make precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small (1.25 x 4 cm) telemetric blood pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. On Gestational day (G) 19 of the rats' 22/23 day pregnancy, each dam was anesthetized and a balloon/sensor unit surgically implanted within the uterus following removal of two fetuses. Comparisons were made between sensor-implanted dams (IMPL) and a control conditions: 1) LAP-R, laparotomy with two fetuses removed or 2) LAP-NR, laparotomy with no fetuses removed. IUP signals were sampled at 10s intervals from the IMPL dams during labor and birth. Dams in all three conditions were videorecorded enabling us to analyze the effect of the implant on behavioral expressions of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured from one hour prior to the first pup birth until the birth of the third pup were unaffected by the sensor implant. Intrauterine telemetry of freely-moving dams offers significant advantages over conventional hardwired IUP measurement techniques. These findings establish and validate intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying pressures associated with parturition.

  9. Use of oviduct-inserted acoustic transmitters and positional telemetry to estimate timing and location of spawning: a feasibility study in lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas R.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Miehls, Scott M.; Thompson, Henry T.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Our results satisfied the three assumptions of oviduct tagging and suggested that oviduct transmitters can be used with positional telemetry to estimate time and location of spawning in lake trout and other species. In situations where oviduct transmitters may be difficult to position once expelled into substrate, pairing oviduct transmitters with a normal-sized fish transmitter that remains in the fish is recommended, with spawning inferred when the two tags separate in space. Optimal transmitter delay will depend on expected degree of spawning site residency and swim speed.

  10. TAG Advertisement Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    LaRc SI Material Overall photograph showing the material specimens, the graphite composite, the gold composite and the molded gears on a black background. These photos were used for the TAG CO-OP Public Relations and promotions

  11. Performance assessment of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices in juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-07-02

    Acoustic transmitters used in survival and telemetry studies are often surgically implanted in fish. While this is a well-established method, it has the potential to affect health, behavior, and survival, thus affecting study results. Much research has been done to try to minimize the harmful effects caused by the transmitter and tagging process. In 2009, we first investigated the use of a bi-directional knotless (barbed) suture material in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We found that it resulted in higher tag retention than the simple interrupted suture pattern; however, the occurrence of ulceration and redness increased. The objective of this study was to refine the suturing patterns of the bi-directional knotless suture and retest suture performance in juvenile Chinook salmon. We tested the bi-directional suture using 3 different suture patterns and two needle types: 6-Point (12-mm needle circumference), Wide “N” (12-mm needle circumference), Wide “N” Knot 12 (12-mm needle circumference), and Wide “N” Knot 18 (18-mm needle circumference).

  12. Remote down-hole well telemetry

    DOEpatents

    Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Coates, Don M.; Freund, Samuel M.

    2004-07-20

    The present invention includes an apparatus and method for telemetry communication with oil-well monitoring and recording instruments located in the vicinity of the bottom of gas or oil recovery pipes. Such instruments are currently monitored using electrical cabling that is inserted into the pipes; cabling has a short life in this environment, and requires periodic replacement with the concomitant, costly shutdown of the well. Modulated reflectance, a wireless communication method that does not require signal transmission power from the telemetry package will provide a long-lived and reliable way to monitor down-hole conditions. Normal wireless technology is not practical since batteries and capacitors have to frequently be replaced or recharged, again with the well being removed from service. RF energy generated above ground can also be received, converted and stored down-hole without the use of wires, for actuating down-hole valves, as one example. Although modulated reflectance reduces or eliminates the loss of energy at the sensor package because energy is not consumed, during the transmission process, additional stored extra energy down-hole is needed.

  13. Internet Distribution of Spacecraft Telemetry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Specht, Ted; Noble, David

    2006-01-01

    Remote Access Multi-mission Processing and Analysis Ground Environment (RAMPAGE) is a Java-language server computer program that enables near-real-time display of spacecraft telemetry data on any authorized client computer that has access to the Internet and is equipped with Web-browser software. In addition to providing a variety of displays of the latest available telemetry data, RAMPAGE can deliver notification of an alarm by electronic mail. Subscribers can then use RAMPAGE displays to determine the state of the spacecraft and formulate a response to the alarm, if necessary. A user can query spacecraft mission data in either binary or comma-separated-value format by use of a Web form or a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script to automate the query process. RAMPAGE runs on Linux and Solaris server computers in the Ground Data System (GDS) of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and includes components designed specifically to make it compatible with legacy GDS software. The client/server architecture of RAMPAGE and the use of the Java programming language make it possible to utilize a variety of competitive server and client computers, thereby also helping to minimize costs.

  14. Results of wide-angle underwater acoustic-telemetry tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, D.E.

    1982-03-01

    Acoustic telemetry provides wireless communication between subsurface ocean instrumentation systems and surface receiving equipment. Sandia National Laboratories' high data rate acoustic telemetry system has previously been demonstrated in water depths to 1600 feet and vertical cone angles to 70/sup 0/. Design changes and tests of the system are discussed showing that it can operate within vertical cone angles of 145/sup 0/.

  15. 49. VIEW OF ANALOG RECORD BAY OF TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW OF ANALOG RECORD BAY OF TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM. BAY LOCATED CENTRALLY IN TELEMETRY ROOM (ROOM 106) MIDWAY BETWEEN EAST AND WEST WALLS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry

    This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…

  17. Movement and habitat use by radio-tagged paddlefish in the upper Mississippi River and tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.; Knights, B.C.; Runstrom, A.L.; Steingraeber, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    We used radio telemetry to evaluate the movement and habitat use of paddlefish Polyodon spathula in the upper Mississippi River and two tributary rivers. Radio transmitters were surgically implanted into 71 paddlefish in Navigation Pools 5A and 8 of the upper Mississippi River, the Chippewa River, and the Wisconsin River during fall 1994 through fall 1996. Radiotagged paddlefish were located through summer 1997. The range of paddlefish movement was typically low during all seasons except spring, but some paddlefish moved throughout the 420-km extent of the study area. Paddlefish tagged in the Chippewa River were closely linked with the upper Mississippi River, as substantial portions of the population inhabited the adjacent Navigation Pool 4 each spring; paddlefish in the Wisconsin River, however, rarely ventured out of that tributary. The use of aquatic area types by paddlefish varied among the study reaches. A cartographic model of paddlefish habitat suitability was developed for Navigation Pool 8 based on geographic information systems (GIS) coverages of bathymetry and current velocity. The value of paddlefish habitat in the cartographic model increased with depth and decreased with current velocity. For example, areas modeled as excellent corresponded to regions classified as having both deep water (greater than or equal to6.0 m) and negligible (<5 cm/s) current velocities. Our study suggests that aquatic area types are an inadequate basis for making sound management decisions regarding the critical habitats of paddlefish in complex riverine systems because such strata rely on gross geomorpological features rather than on the physicochemical variables that fish use to choose habitats. The development of systemic GIS coverages of such variables could improve the understanding of fish habitat selection and management in the upper Mississippi River.

  18. Telemetry ground system development via the component approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorn, Karen E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's deployment of major space projects such as the Earth Observing System (EOS) will demand increased functionality and ground-based telemetry processing performance well above current capabilities. At the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, custom hardware and software components have been developed and combined into a unique architecture to address this problem. The hardware components utilize Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's) developed specifically to support NASA's telemetry data systems needs and designed to handle data rates up to 300 Mbps. A generalized set of software components, called the Telemetry Processing Control Environment facilitate the rapid construction of control and monitoring functions for the ground-based telemetry processing systems. This combination of hardware and software elements enables rapid construction of flexible, cost-effective telemetry processing systems capable of meeting the performance requirements facing NASA in the coming decade.

  19. Incorporating CCSDS telemetry standards and philosophy on Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John C.; Elson, Anne B.

    1995-01-01

    The Cassini project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is implementing a spacecraft telemetry system based on the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packet telemetry standards. Resolving the CCSDS concepts with a Ground Data System designed to handle time-division-multiplexed telemetry and also handling constraints unique to a deep-space planetary spacecraft (such as fixed downlink opportunities, small downlink rates and requirements for on-board data storage) have resulted in spacecraft and ground system design challenges. Solving these design challenges involved adapting and extending the CCSDS telemetry standards as well as changes to the spacecraft and ground system designs. The resulting spacecraft/ground system design is an example of how new ideas and philosophies can be incorporated into existing systems and design approaches without requiring significant rework. In addition, it shows that the CCSDS telemetry standards can be successfully applied to deep-space planetary spacecraft.

  20. Inferring foraging areas of nesting loggerhead turtles using satellite telemetry and stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Ceriani, Simona A; Roth, James D; Evans, Daniel R; Weishampel, John F; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of intrinsic markers such as stable isotopes to link breeding and foraging grounds of migratory species has increased. Nevertheless, several assumptions still must be tested to interpret isotopic patterns found in the marine realm. We used a combination of satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis to (i) identify key foraging grounds used by female loggerheads nesting in Florida and (ii) examine the relationship between stable isotope ratios and post-nesting migration destinations. We collected tissue samples for stable isotope analysis from 14 females equipped with satellite tags and an additional 57 untracked nesting females. Telemetry identified three post-nesting migratory pathways and associated non-breeding foraging grounds: (1) a seasonal continental shelf-constrained migratory pattern along the northeast U.S. coastline, (2) a non-breeding residency in southern foraging areas and (3) a residency in the waters adjacent to the breeding area. Isotopic variability in both δ(13)C and δ(15)N among individuals allowed identification of three distinct foraging aggregations. We used discriminant function analysis to examine how well δ(13)C and δ(15)N predict female post-nesting migration destination. The discriminant analysis classified correctly the foraging ground used for all but one individual and was used to predict putative feeding areas of untracked turtles. We provide the first documentation that the continental shelf of the Mid- and South Atlantic Bights are prime foraging areas for a large number (61%) of adult female loggerheads from the largest loggerhead nesting population in the western hemisphere and the second largest in the world. Our findings offer insights for future management efforts and suggest that this technique can be used to infer foraging strategies and residence areas in lieu of more expensive satellite telemetry, enabling sample sizes that are more representative at the population level.

  1. Inferring Foraging Areas of Nesting Loggerhead Turtles Using Satellite Telemetry and Stable Isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Ceriani, Simona A.; Roth, James D.; Evans, Daniel R.; Weishampel, John F.; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of intrinsic markers such as stable isotopes to link breeding and foraging grounds of migratory species has increased. Nevertheless, several assumptions still must be tested to interpret isotopic patterns found in the marine realm. We used a combination of satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis to (i) identify key foraging grounds used by female loggerheads nesting in Florida and (ii) examine the relationship between stable isotope ratios and post-nesting migration destinations. We collected tissue samples for stable isotope analysis from 14 females equipped with satellite tags and an additional 57 untracked nesting females. Telemetry identified three post-nesting migratory pathways and associated non-breeding foraging grounds: (1) a seasonal continental shelf–constrained migratory pattern along the northeast U.S. coastline, (2) a non-breeding residency in southern foraging areas and (3) a residency in the waters adjacent to the breeding area. Isotopic variability in both δ13C and δ15N among individuals allowed identification of three distinct foraging aggregations. We used discriminant function analysis to examine how well δ13C and δ15N predict female post-nesting migration destination. The discriminant analysis classified correctly the foraging ground used for all but one individual and was used to predict putative feeding areas of untracked turtles. We provide the first documentation that the continental shelf of the Mid- and South Atlantic Bights are prime foraging areas for a large number (61%) of adult female loggerheads from the largest loggerhead nesting population in the western hemisphere and the second largest in the world. Our findings offer insights for future management efforts and suggest that this technique can be used to infer foraging strategies and residence areas in lieu of more expensive satellite telemetry, enabling sample sizes that are more representative at the population level. PMID:23028943

  2. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study, Rainbow Trout, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1995-04-01

    Rainbow trout populations in the upper Yakima River Basin have increased due to reduced competition from declining populations of steelhead, chinook salmon, and coho salmon. Changing population abundances have increased the potential for interactions between rainbow trout and steelhead. In 1993, NMFS, in cooperation with WDW, proposed a 1-year radio-telemetry study to determine the spawning distribution, timing, and behavior of rainbow trout in the upper Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives were to: (1) Determine the spatial and temporal spawning distributions of rainbow trout in the upper Yakima River Basin. (2) Describe post-spawning behavior of rainbow trout in the upper Yakima River Basin. (3) Determine the magnitude and causes of mortalities to rainbow trout that were radio- tagged.

  3. Micro-battery Development for Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Honghao; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Wang, Qiang; Lozano, Terence J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Li, Huidong; Chen, Xilin; Yuan, Yong; Gross, Mark E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-21

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. This study focuses on the optimization of microbattery design based on Li/CFx chemistry. Through appropriate modifications, a steady high-rate pulse current with desirable life time has been achieved while the weight and volume of the battery is largely reduced. The impedance variation in as-designed microbatteries is systematically compared with that of currently used watch batteries in JSATS with an attempt to understand the intrinsic factors that control the performances of microbatteries under the real testing environments.

  4. Dental Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain Fixed Bridges Porcelain Veneers Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth- ...

  5. Electromechanical transducer for acoustic telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1993-01-01

    An improved electromechanical transducer is provided for use in an acoustic telemetry system. The transducer of this invention comprises a stack of ferroelectric ceramic disks interleaved with a plurality of spaced electrodes which are used to electrically pole the ceramic disks. The ceramic stack is housed in a metal tubular drill collar segment. The electrodes are preferably alternatively connected to ground potential and driving potential. This alternating connection of electrodes to ground and driving potential subjects each disk to an equal electric field; and the direction of the field alternates to match the alternating direction of polarization of the ceramic disks. Preferably, a thin metal foil is sandwiched between electrodes to facilitate the electrical connection. Alternatively, a thicker metal spacer plate is selectively used in place of the metal foil in order to promote thermal cooling of the ceramic stack.

  6. Electromechanical transducer for acoustic telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1993-06-22

    An improved electromechanical transducer is provided for use in an acoustic telemetry system. The transducer of this invention comprises a stack of ferroelectric ceramic disks interleaved with a plurality of spaced electrodes which are used to electrically pole the ceramic disks. The ceramic stack is housed in a metal tubular drill collar segment. The electrodes are preferably alternatively connected to ground potential and driving potential. This alternating connection of electrodes to ground and driving potential subjects each disk to an equal electric field; and the direction of the field alternates to match the alternating direction of polarization of the ceramic disks. Preferably, a thin metal foil is sandwiched between electrodes to facilitate the electrical connection. Alternatively, a thicker metal spacer plate is selectively used in place of the metal foil in order to promote thermal cooling of the ceramic stack.

  7. Ultrasonic ranging and data telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Brashear, Hugh R.; Blair, Michael S.; Phelps, James E.; Bauer, Martin L.; Nowlin, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic ranging and data telemetry system determines a surveyor's position and automatically links it with other simultaneously taken survey data. An ultrasonic and radio frequency (rf) transmitter are carried by the surveyor in a backpack. The surveyor's position is determined by calculations that use the measured transmission times of an airborne ultrasonic pulse transmitted from the backpack to two or more prepositioned ultrasonic transceivers. Once a second, rf communications are used both to synchronize the ultrasonic pulse transmission-time measurements and to transmit other simultaneously taken survey data. The rf communications are interpreted by a portable receiver and microcomputer which are brought to the property site. A video display attached to the computer provides real-time visual monitoring of the survey progress and site coverage.

  8. Telemetry and Communication IP Video Player

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OFarrell, Zachary L.

    2011-01-01

    Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.

  9. Target telemetry in medical isotope production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickles, R. J.; Votaw, J. R.; Hutchins, G. D.; Rosenthal, M. S.; Funk, K. M.; Sunderland, J. J.; Satter, M. R.

    1985-05-01

    Positron emission tomography reveals the biochemical basis underlying many disease processes. The key step is the labeling of authentic metabolic substrates, generally starting with precursor compounds of the short-lived radionuclides 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F. These, in turn, are produced on accelerators, with small cyclotrons now appearing in hospitals. The success of maintaining a reliable source of imaging agents in a clinical setting hinges more on making effective use of modest beams and energies (50 μA; 10 MeV) rather than scaling up the cyclotron in an engineering overkill. Target performance is observed by telemetry of a number of parameters during irradiation. In particular, the neutron flux can be singled out as an immediate signature of the (p, n) reaction, and serves as an important variable to optimize during the bombardment.

  10. A comparison of single-suture and double-suture incision closures in seaward-migrating juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters: implications for research in river basins containing hydropower structures

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.; Cook, Katrina V.; Eppard, M. B.

    2013-07-15

    Reductions in the size of acoustic transmitters implanted in migrating juvenile salmonids have resulted in the ability to make shorter incisions that may warrant using only a single suture for closure. However, it is not known if one suture will sufficiently hold the incision closed, particularly when outward pressure is placed on the surgical site such as when migrating fish experience pressure changes associated with passage at hydroelectric dams. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of single-suture incision closures on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Juvenile Chinook salmon were surgically implanted with a 2012 Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitter (0.30 g) and a passive integrated transponder tag (0.10 g) and incisions were closed with either one suture or two sutures. Mortality and tag retention were monitored and fish were examined after 7 and 14 days to evaluate tissue responses. In a separate experiment, surgically implanted fish were exposed to simulated turbine passage and then examined for expulsion of transmitters, expulsion of viscera through the incision, and mortal injury. With incisions closed using a single suture, there was no mortality or tag loss and similar or reduced tissue reaction compared to incisions closed with two sutures. Further, surgery time was significantly reduced when one suture was used, which leads to less handling and reduced stress. No tags were expelled during pressure scenarios and expulsion of viscera only occurred in two non-mortally injured fish (5%) with single sutures that were also exposed to very high pressure changes. No viscera expulsion was present in fish exposed to pressure scenarios likely representative of hydroturbine passage at many Columbia River dams (e.g. <2.7 ratio of pressure change; an acclimation pressure of 146.2 absolute kpa and a lowest exposure pressure of ~ 53.3 absolute kpa). Based on these results, we recommend the use of a

  11. High-tech or field techs: Radio-telemetry is a cost-effective method for reducing bias in songbird nest searching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Fish, Alexander C.; Andersen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of standard nest-searching methods with finding nests via radio-tagged birds to assess how search technique influenced our determination of nest-site characteristics and nest success for Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera). We also evaluated the cost-effectiveness of using radio-tagged birds to find nests. Using standard nest-searching techniques for 3 populations, we found 111 nests in locations with habitat characteristics similar to those described in previous studies: edges between forest and relatively open areas of early successional vegetation or shrubby wetlands, with 43% within 5 m of forest edge. The 83 nests found using telemetry were about half as likely (23%) to be within 5 m of forest edge. We spent little time searching >25 m into forest because published reports state that Golden-winged Warblers do not nest there. However, 14 nests found using telemetry (18%) were >25 m into forest. We modeled nest success using nest-searching method, nest age, and distance to forest edge as explanatory variables. Nest-searching method explained nest success better than nest age alone; we estimated that nests found using telemetry were 10% more likely to fledge young than nests found using standard nest-searching methods. Although radio-telemetry was more expensive than standard nest searching, the cost-effectiveness of both methods differed depending on searcher experience, amount of equipment owned, and bird population density. Our results demonstrate that telemetry can be an effective method for reducing bias in Golden-winged Warbler nest samples, can be cost competitive with standard nest-searching methods in some situations, and is likely to be a useful approach for finding nests of other forest-nesting songbirds.

  12. A Reliable Tag Anti-Collision Algorithm for Mobile Tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaodong; Rong, Mengtian; Liu, Tao

    As RFID technology is being more widely adopted, it is fairly common to read mobile tags using RFID systems, such as packages on conveyer belt and unit loads on pallet jack or forklift truck. In RFID systems, multiple tags use a shared medium for communicating with a reader. It is quite possible that tags will exit the reading area without being read, which results in tag leaking. In this letter, a reliable tag anti-collision algorithm for mobile tags is proposed. It reliably estimates the expectation of the number of tags arriving during a time slot when new tags continually enter the reader's reading area and no tag leaves without being read. In addition, it gives priority to tags that arrived early among read cycles and applies the expectation of the number of tags arriving during a time slot to the determination of the number of slots in the initial inventory round of the next read cycle. Simulation results show that the reliability of the proposed algorithm is close to that of DFSA algorithm when the expectation of the number of tags entering the reading area during a time slot is a given, and is better than that of DFSA algorithm when the number of time slots in the initial inventory round of next read cycle is set to 1 assuming that the number of tags arriving during a time slot follows Poisson distribution.

  13. Optimizing bandwidth utilization in packet based telemetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, J.R.

    1995-10-17

    A consistent theme in spacecraft telemetry system design is the desire to obtain maximum bandwidth utilization given a fixed transmission capability (usually due to cost/weight criteria). Extensions to basic packetization telemetry architectures are discussed which can facilitate a reduction in the amount of actual data telemetered, without loss of data quality. Central to the extensions are the establishment of an ``intelligent`` telemetry process, which can evaluate pending data to be telemetered, and act to compress, discard, or re-formulate data before actual transmission to ground stations.

  14. A Real-Time Telemetry Simulator of the IUS Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, Michael E.; Forman, Douglas A.; Baker, Damon M.; Khazoyan, Louis B.; Viazzo, Danilo

    1998-01-01

    A real-time telemetry simulator of the IUS spacecraft has recently entered operation to train Flight Control Teams for the launch of the AXAF telescope from the Shuttle. The simulator has proven to be a successful higher fidelity implementation of its predecessor, while affirming the rapid development methodology used in its design. Although composed of COTS hardware and software, the system simulates the full breadth of the mission: Launch, Pre-Deployment-Checkout, Burn Sequence, and AXAF/IUS separation. Realism is increased through patching the system into the operations facility to simulate IUS telemetry, Shuttle telemetry, and the Tracking Station link (commands and status message).

  15. Self-synchronizing, bi-orthogonal coded PCM telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W.; Muller, R.; Taylor, T.; Yagelowich, J.

    1971-01-01

    Communications and data handling system improves signal to noise ratio when transmission channel is perturbed by noise. Telemetry system consists of airborne source, Gaussian additive noise channel, and ground receiver unit. Advantages of system are given.

  16. Definition and maintenance of a telemetry database dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knopf, William P. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A telemetry dictionary database includes a component for receiving spreadsheet workbooks of telemetry data over a web-based interface from other computer devices. Another component routes the spreadsheet workbooks to a specified directory on the host processing device. A process then checks the received spreadsheet workbooks for errors, and if no errors are detected the spreadsheet workbooks are routed to another directory to await initiation of a remote database loading process. The loading process first converts the spreadsheet workbooks to comma separated value (CSV) files. Next, a network connection with the computer system that hosts the telemetry dictionary database is established and the CSV files are ported to the computer system that hosts the telemetry dictionary database. This is followed by a remote initiation of a database loading program. Upon completion of loading a flatfile generation program is manually initiated to generate a flatfile to be used in a mission operations environment by the core ground system.

  17. Evaluating harvest-based control of invasive fish with telemetry: Performance of sea lamprey traps in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bravener, Gale A; Jones, Michael L.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical removal (e.g., harvest via traps or nets) of mature individuals may be a cost-effective or socially acceptable alternative to chemical control strategies for invasive species, but requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of a population over time. We used acoustic telemetry to determine the current and possible future role of traps to control and assess invasive sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Exploitation rates (i.e., fractions of an adult sea lamprey population removed by traps) at two upstream locations were compared among three years and two points of entry to the system. Telemetry receivers throughout the drainage allowed trap performance (exploitation rate) to be partitioned into two components: proportion of migrating sea lampreys that visited trap sites (availability) and proportion of available sea lampreys that were caught by traps (local trap efficiency). Estimated exploitation rates were well below those needed to provide population control in the absence of lampricides and were limited by availability and local trap efficiency. Local trap efficiency estimates for acoustic-tagged sea lampreys were lower than analogous estimates regularly obtained using traditional mark–recapture methods, suggesting that abundance had been previously underestimated. Results suggested major changes would be required to substantially increase catch, including improvements to existing traps, installation of new traps, or other modifications to attract and retain more sea lampreys. This case study also shows how bias associated with telemetry tags can be estimated and incorporated in models to improve inferences about parameters that are directly relevant to fishery management.

  18. A programmable sampling format telemetry system. [for SAS-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. R.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes the programmable sampling format telemetry system to be used by the near-earth Small Astronomy Satellite-C (SAS-C) and possible future SAS missions. The concept of the programmable sampling format is introduced and the features of the system are illustrated by an example. The SAS-C telemetry system is described at the block diagram level and redundancy of the system is discussed briefly.

  19. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  20. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-01

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  1. Experience with the EURECA Packet Telemetry and Packet Telecommand system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Erik Mose; Ferri, Paolo

    1994-01-01

    The European Retrieval Carrier (EURECA) was launched on its first flight on the 31st of July 1992 and retrieved on the 29th of June 1993. EURECA is characterized by several new on-board features, most notably Packet telemetry, and a partial implementation of packet telecommanding, the first ESA packetised spacecraft. Today more than one year after the retrieval the data from the EURECA mission has to a large extent been analysed and we can present some of the interesting results. This paper concentrates on the implementation and operational experience with the EURECA Packet Telemetry and Packet Telecommanding. We already discovered during the design of the ground system that the use of packet telemetry has major impact on the overall design and that processing of packet telemetry may have significant effect on the computer loading and sizing. During the mission a number of problems were identified with the on-board implementation resulting in very strange anomalous behaviors. Many of these problems directly violated basic assumptions for the design of the ground segment adding to the strange behavior. The paper shows that the design of a telemetry packet system should be flexible enough to allow a rapid configuration of the telemetry processing in order to adapt it to the new situation in case of an on-board failure. The experience gained with the EURECA mission control should be used to improve ground systems for future missions.

  2. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  3. Electromagnetic anti-jam telemetry tool

    DOEpatents

    Ganesan, Harini; Mayzenberg, Nataliya

    2008-02-12

    A mud-pulse telemetry tool includes a tool housing, a motor disposed in the tool housing, and a magnetic coupling coupled to the motor and having an inner shaft and an outer shaft. The tool may also include a stator coupled to the tool housing, a restrictor disposed proximate the stator and coupled to the magnetic coupling, so that the restrictor and the stator adapted to generate selected pulses in a drilling fluid when the restrictor is selectively rotated. The tool may also include a first anti-jam magnet coupled to the too housing, and an second anti-jam magnet disposed proximate the first anti-jam magnet and coupled to the inner shaft and/or the outer shaft, wherein at least one of the first anti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet is an electromagnet, and wherein the first anti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet are positioned with adjacent like poles.

  4. Telemetry via satellites for raptor studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, M.R.; Ellis, D.H.; Klugman, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Monitoring animal movements by satellite was first ac complished in 1970 with an elk in Wyoming. The large size of early transmitter packages restricted their use to very large animals. Miniaturization of electronic components in the 1980s allowed application of satellite telemetry to large birds. Satellite transmitters have been tested with mixed results on geese, swans, petrels, bustards, eagles, and falcons. Dramatic weight reduction in the 1980s was quickly followed by tests of a variety of transmitter shapes on captive birds. Research on attachment methods helped in selecting those methods least likely to elicit adverse behavior. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to produce more aerodynamically efficient PTT designs. Recently, the utility of satellite tracking has been demonstrated in studies of wandering albatrosses in the Indian Ocean, migrating Bewick's swans, bald eagles, and golden eagles. Two other studies demonstrated the feasibility of tracking cranes by satellite. The types of information from these techniques will be presented and cross-referenced to a poster display and demonstration.

  5. SCA Waveform Development for Space Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, Dale J.; Kifle, Multi; Hall, C. Steve; Quinn, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating and developing suitable reconfigurable radio architectures for future NASA missions. This effort is examining software-based open-architectures for space based transceivers, as well as common hardware platform architectures. The Joint Tactical Radio System's (JTRS) Software Communications Architecture (SCA) is a candidate for the software approach, but may need modifications or adaptations for use in space. An in-house SCA compliant waveform development focuses on increasing understanding of software defined radio architectures and more specifically the JTRS SCA. Space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power. This waveform development effort is key to evaluating tradeoffs with the SCA for space applications. Existing NASA telemetry links, as well as Space Exploration Initiative scenarios, are the basis for defining the waveform requirements. Modeling and simulations are being developed to determine signal processing requirements associated with a waveform and a mission-specific computational burden. Implementation of the waveform on a laboratory software defined radio platform is proceeding in an iterative fashion. Parallel top-down and bottom-up design approaches are employed.

  6. Nevada Test Site seismic: telemetry measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J N; Parker, L E; Horton, E H

    1983-08-01

    The feasibility and limitations of surface-to-tunnel seismic telemetry at the Nevada Test Site were explored through field measurements using current technology. Range functions for signaling were determined through analysis of monofrequency seismic signals injected into the earth at various sites as far as 70 km (43 mi) from installations of seismometers in the G-Tunnel complex of Rainier Mesa. Transmitted signal power at 16, 24, and 32 Hz was measured at two locations in G-Tunnel separated by 670 m (2200 ft). Transmissions from 58 surface sites distributed primarily along three azimuths from G-Tunnel were studied. The G-Tunnel noise environment was monitored over the 20-day duration of the field tests. Noise-power probability functions were calculated for 20-s and 280-s seismic-record populations. Signaling rates were calculated for signals transmitted from superior transmitter sites to G-Tunnel. A detection threshold of 13 dB re 1 nm/sup 2/ displacement power at 95% reliability was demanded. Consideration of field results suggests that even for the frequency range used in this study, substantially higher signaling rates are likely to be obtained in future work in view of the present lack of information relevant to hardware-siting criteria and the seismic propagation paths at the Nevada Test Site. 12 references.

  7. Intrauterine Pressure (IUP) Telemetry in Pregnant and Parturient Rats: Potential Applications for Spacecraft and Centrifugation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Wade, C. E.

    2003-01-01

    Rats exposed to spaceflight or centrifugation from mid-to late pregnancy undergo either more or fewer labor contractions at birth, respectively, as compared to those in normal Earth gravity (1-g). In this paper, we report the development and validation of a new telemetric method for quantifying intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats. We plan to utilize this technique for studies of labor in altered gravity, specifically, to ascertain forces of uterine during birth, which we believe may be changed in micro- and hypergravity. The technique we describe yields precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small, surgically-implantable telemetric pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon. The total volume of the sensor-balloon assembly matched that of a full term rat fetus. Real-time videorecordings of sensor-implanted rat dams and non- implanted control dams enabled us to characterize effects of the intrauterine implant on behavioral aspects of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured during the peri-birth period were unaffected by the sensor implant. These findings establish intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying intrauterine pressures associated with parturition on Earth and in altered gravity environments. This new technology, readily amenable to spaceflight and centrifugation platforms, will enable us to answer key questions regarding the role of altered labor frequency labor in the adaptation of newborn mammals to hypo- and hypergravity.

  8. Recording EEG in immature rats with a novel miniature telemetry system

    PubMed Central

    Zayachkivsky, A.; Lehmkuhle, M. J.; Fisher, J. H.; Ekstrand, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Serial EEG recordings from immature rat pups are extremely difficult to obtain but important for analyzing animal models of neonatal seizures and other pediatric neurological conditions as well as normal physiology. In this report, we describe the features and applications of a novel miniature telemetry system designed to record EEG in rat pups as young as postnatal day 6 (P6). First, we have recorded electrographic seizure activity in two animal models of neonatal seizures, hypoxia- and kainate-induced seizures at P7. Second, we describe a viable approach for long-term continuous EEG monitoring of naturally reared rat pups implanted with EEG at P6. Third, we have used serial EEG recordings to record age-dependent changes in the background EEG signal as the animals matured from P7 to P11. The important advantages of using miniature wireless EEG technology are: 1) minimally invasive surgical implantation; 2) a device form-factor that is compatible with housing of rat pups with the dam and littermates; 3) serial recordings of EEG activity; and 4) low power consumption of the unit, theoretically allowing continuous monitoring for up to 2 yr without surgical reimplantation. The miniature EEG telemetry system provides a technical advance that allows researchers to record continuous and serial EEG recordings in neonatal rodent models of human neurological disorders, study the progression of the disease, and then assess possible therapies using quantitative EEG as an outcome measure. This new technical approach should improve animal models of human conditions that rely on EEG monitoring for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23114207

  9. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasability of a New Fish Tagging System : Annual Report, 1986-1987.

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, Earl F.; Flagg, T.A.

    1987-12-01

    In 1983, a multi-year project to evaluate the technical and biological feasibility of adapting a new identification system to salmonids was established. The system is based upon a miniaturized passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag. This report discusses the work completed and is divided into laboratory studies, field studies, and systems development. All studies were conducted using a glass-encapsulated tag implanted into the body cavity of test fish via a 12-gauge hypodermic needle. Laboratory studies with juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, showed that retention of glass-encapsulated PIT tags was 99-100% in fish weighing 3 g (mean weight) or larger. No adverse tissue response to the tag was noted. The survival of fish 5 g (mean weight) or larger was usually greater than 99%. However, fish ranging in weight from 2 to 4 g, or fish undergoing a physiological change such as smoltification may have a low mortality (usually less than 5.0%) after tagging. The mortality rate in the smaller fish was dependent upon tagging skill whereas mortality in smolting fish seemed dependent upon the level of stress. Growth comparisons between tagged and control fish indicated PIT-tagged fish had a slightly depressed growth rate at some measurement periods. The operational life of glass-encapsulated PIT tags implanted in fish was good, with 100% of the tags operating after 401 days. No tags were rejected from the fish during the observation period.

  10. Electronic tags and genetics explore variation in migrating steelhead kelts (oncorhynchus mykiss), Ninilchik river, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.; Turner, S.M.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic and archival tags examined freshwater and marine migrations of postspawn steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Ninilchik River, Alaska, USA. Postspawn steelhead were captured at a weir in 2002-2005. Scale analysis indicated multiple migratory life histories and spawning behaviors. Acoustic tags were implanted in 99 kelts (2002-2003), and an array of acoustic receivers calculated the average speed of outmigration, timing of saltwater entry, and duration of residency in the vicinity of the river mouth. Ocean migration data were recovered from two archival tags implanted in kelts in 2004 (one male and one female). Archival tags documented seasonal differences in maximum depth and behavior with both fish spending 97% of time at sea <6 m depth (day and night). All study fish were double tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted in the body cavity. Less than 4% of PIT tags were retained in postspawn steelhead. Molecular genetics demonstrated no significant differences in genetic population structure across years or among spawning life history types, suggesting a genetically panmictic population with highly diverse life history characteristics in the Ninilchik River.

  11. Miniature sonar fish tag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered sonar device may be implanted in body of fish. It transmits signal that can be detected with portable tracking gear or by automatic detection-and-tracking system. Operating life of over 4000 hours may be expected. Device itself may be used almost indefinitely.

  12. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... electrodes are inserted. The electronic device at the base of the electrode array is then placed under ... FDA approval for implants The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates cochlear implant devices for both adults ...

  13. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.

  14. Acoustic telemetry: The new MWD system

    SciTech Connect

    Tochikawa, T.; Sakai, T.; Taniguchi, R.; Shimada, T.

    1996-12-31

    A new MWD system utilizing acoustic telemetry system has been researched, based on the principle of elastic wave propagation and magnetostrictive technology. The system is intended for data transmission through jointed drill strings with much higher reliability and transmitting efficiency. In order to achieve a good acoustical propagation characteristics through the drillstring the elastic wave signal requirements have had to be less than 1 kHz. The development of an optimum oscillator that generates such a low elastic wave frequency under harsh drilling conditions has been one of the technical breakthroughs. In this regard, one of the features of the system is the use of a magnetostrictive material as an oscillator in the transmitter. Utilzing the phenomena in which a magnetostrictive material as an oscillator in the transmitter. Utilizing the phenomena in which a magnetostrictive material drastically distorts by applying magnetic field to it, the oscillator generates and elastic wave for propagation and transmission through the drill strings. Several field tests have proven that the system could transmit canned data from the depth of 1914 meters and data demodulation at the surface free from troubles while drilling forty nine (49) degrees deviated well. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of wave propagation characteristics which the authors are assured that practical MWD equipment with higher than normal transmission rates can be developed and commercialized. Since the system can offer several unique features especially in terms of miniaturization and non-dependence on drilling fluids it can be applied to the emerging technologies such as slim-hole drilling, coiled tubing drilling, local communication on the bottom hole assembly. Furthermore it can offer wider application for the drilling environment such as underbalanced drilling.

  15. Social Tagging of Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; Pyrzak, Guy; Vaughn, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  16. Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

    2012-01-31

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

  17. Evaluation of a GPS used in conjunction with aerial telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olexa, E.M.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Eiler, John; Alcorn, Doris J.; Neuman, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the use of a non-correctable Global Positioning System (NGPS) in association with aerial telemetry to determine animal locations. Average error was determined for 3 components of the location process: use of a NGPS receiver on the ground, use of a NGPS receiver in a aircraft while flying over a visual marker, and use of the same receiver while flying over a location determined by standard aerial telemetry. Average errors were 45.3, 88.1 and 137.4 m, respectively. A directional bias of <35 m was present for the telemetry component only. Tests indicated that use of NGPS to determine aircraft, and thereby animal, location is an efficient alternative to interpolation from topographic maps. This method was more accurate than previously reported Long-Range Navigation system, version C (LORAN-C) and Argos satellite telemetry. It has utility in areas where animal-borne GPS receivers are not practical due to a combination of topography, canopy coverage, weight or cost of animal-borne GPS units. Use of NGPS technology in conjunction with aerial telemetry will provide the location accuracy required for identification of gross movement patterns and coarse-grained habitat use.

  18. Bottlenose dolphins modify behavior to reduce metabolic effect of tag attachment.

    PubMed

    van der Hoop, Julie M; Fahlman, Andreas; Hurst, Thomas; Rocho-Levine, Julie; Shorter, K Alex; Petrov, Victor; Moore, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Attaching bio-telemetry or -logging devices ('tags') to marine animals for research and monitoring adds drag to streamlined bodies, thus affecting posture, swimming gaits and energy balance. These costs have never been measured in free-swimming cetaceans. To examine the effect of drag from a tag on metabolic rate, cost of transport and swimming behavior, four captive male dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were trained to swim a set course, either non-tagged (n=7) or fitted with a tag (DTAG2; n=12), and surface exclusively in a flow-through respirometer in which oxygen consumption VO₂ and carbon dioxide production (VO₂; ml kg(-1) min(-1)) rates were measured and respiratory exchange ratio (VO₂/resting VO₂) was calculated. Tags did not significantly affect individual mass-specific oxygen consumption, physical activity ratios (exercise /resting ), total or net cost of transport (COT; J m(-1) kg(-1)) or locomotor costs during swimming or two-minute recovery phases. However, individuals swam significantly slower when tagged (by ~11%; mean ± s.d., 3.31±0.35 m s(-1)) than when non-tagged (3.73±0.41 m s(-1)). A combined theoretical and computational fluid dynamics model estimating drag forces and power exertion during swimming suggests that drag loading and energy consumption are reduced at lower swimming speeds. Bottlenose dolphins in the specific swimming task in this experiment slowed to the point where the tag yielded no increases in drag or power, while showing no difference in metabolic parameters when instrumented with a DTAG2. These results, and our observations, suggest that animals modify their behavior to maintain metabolic output and energy expenditure when faced with tag-induced drag. PMID:25324344

  19. Bottlenose dolphins modify behavior to reduce metabolic effect of tag attachment.

    PubMed

    van der Hoop, Julie M; Fahlman, Andreas; Hurst, Thomas; Rocho-Levine, Julie; Shorter, K Alex; Petrov, Victor; Moore, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Attaching bio-telemetry or -logging devices ('tags') to marine animals for research and monitoring adds drag to streamlined bodies, thus affecting posture, swimming gaits and energy balance. These costs have never been measured in free-swimming cetaceans. To examine the effect of drag from a tag on metabolic rate, cost of transport and swimming behavior, four captive male dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were trained to swim a set course, either non-tagged (n=7) or fitted with a tag (DTAG2; n=12), and surface exclusively in a flow-through respirometer in which oxygen consumption VO₂ and carbon dioxide production (VO₂; ml kg(-1) min(-1)) rates were measured and respiratory exchange ratio (VO₂/resting VO₂) was calculated. Tags did not significantly affect individual mass-specific oxygen consumption, physical activity ratios (exercise /resting ), total or net cost of transport (COT; J m(-1) kg(-1)) or locomotor costs during swimming or two-minute recovery phases. However, individuals swam significantly slower when tagged (by ~11%; mean ± s.d., 3.31±0.35 m s(-1)) than when non-tagged (3.73±0.41 m s(-1)). A combined theoretical and computational fluid dynamics model estimating drag forces and power exertion during swimming suggests that drag loading and energy consumption are reduced at lower swimming speeds. Bottlenose dolphins in the specific swimming task in this experiment slowed to the point where the tag yielded no increases in drag or power, while showing no difference in metabolic parameters when instrumented with a DTAG2. These results, and our observations, suggest that animals modify their behavior to maintain metabolic output and energy expenditure when faced with tag-induced drag.

  20. [Hearing implants].

    PubMed

    Stokroos, Robert J; George, Erwin L J

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, more than 1.5 million people suffer from sensorineural hearing loss or deafness. However, fitting conventional hearing aids does not provide a solution for everyone. In recent decades, developments in medical technology have produced implantable and other devices that restore both sensorineural and conductive hearing losses. These hearing devices can be categorized into bone conductive devices, implantable middle ear prostheses, cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants. Furthermore, new implants aimed at treating tinnitus and loss of vestibular function have recently been developed.

  1. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  2. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer; Deland, Sharon M.

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  3. The advanced receiver 2: Telemetry test results in CTA 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Bevan, R.; Marina, M.

    1991-01-01

    Telemetry tests with the Advanced Receiver II (ARX II) in Compatibility Test Area 21 are described. The ARX II was operated in parallel with a Block-III Receiver/baseband processor assembly combination (BLK-III/BPA) and a Block III Receiver/subcarrier demodulation assembly/symbol synchronization assembly combination (BLK-III/SDA/SSA). The telemetry simulator assembly provided the test signal for all three configurations, and the symbol signal to noise ratio as well as the symbol error rates were measured and compared. Furthermore, bit error rates were also measured by the system performance test computer for all three systems. Results indicate that the ARX-II telemetry performance is comparable and sometimes superior to the BLK-III/BPA and BLK-III/SDA/SSA combinations.

  4. Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    PubMed

    Double, Michael C; Andrews-Goff, Virginia; Jenner, K Curt S; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Laverick, Sarah M; Branch, Trevor A; Gales, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km) at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day). Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km) until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape) after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km). Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation. PMID:24718589

  5. Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    PubMed

    Double, Michael C; Andrews-Goff, Virginia; Jenner, K Curt S; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Laverick, Sarah M; Branch, Trevor A; Gales, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km) at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day). Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km) until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape) after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km). Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation.

  6. Migratory Movements of Pygmy Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as Revealed by Satellite Telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Double, Michael C.; Andrews-Goff, Virginia; Jenner, K. Curt S.; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Laverick, Sarah M.; Branch, Trevor A.; Gales, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km–14,101 km) at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km–455.80 km/day). Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km) until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape) after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km). Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation. PMID:24718589

  7. Optimization of Concurrent Deployments of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System and Other Hydroacoustic Equipment at John Day Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jina; Lamarche, Brian L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Choi, Eric Y.; Faber, Derrek M.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Cushing, Aaron W.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the acoustic optimization study conducted at John Day Dam during January and February 2008. The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods to minimize electrical and acoustic interference from various other acoustic sampling devices. Thereby, this would allow concurrent sampling by active and passive acoustic methods during the formal evaluations of the prototype surface flow outlets at the dam during spring and summer outmigration seasons for juvenile salmonids. The objectives for the optimization study at John Day Dam were to: 1. Design and test prototypes and provide a total needs list of pipes and trolleys to deploy JSATS hydrophones on the forebay face of the powerhouse and spillway. 2. Assess the effect on mean percentage decoded of JSATS transmissions from tags arrayed in the forebay and detected on the hydrophones by comparing: turbine unit OFF vs. ON; spill bay OPEN vs. CLOSED; dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) both OFF vs. ON at a spill bay; and, fixed-aspect hydroacoustic system OFF vs. ON at a turbine unit and a spill bay. 3. Determine the relationship between fixed-aspect hydroacoustic transmit level and mean percentage of JSATS transmissions decoded. The general approach was to use hydrophones to listen for transmissions from JSATS tags deployed in vertical arrays in a series perpendicular to the face of the dam. We used acoustic telemetry equipment manufactured by Technologic and Sonic Concepts. In addition, we assessed old and new JSATS signal detectors and decoders and two different types of hydrophone baffling. The optimization study consisted of a suite of off/on tests. The primary response variable was mean percentage of tag transmissions decoded. We found that there was no appreciable adverse effect on mean percentage

  8. Chronically Implanted Pressure Sensors: Challenges and State of the Field

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lawrence; Kim, Brian J.; Meng, Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Several conditions and diseases are linked to the elevation or depression of internal pressures from a healthy, normal range, motivating the need for chronic implantable pressure sensors. A simple implantable pressure transduction system consists of a pressure-sensing element with a method to transmit the data to an external unit. The biological environment presents a host of engineering issues that must be considered for long term monitoring. Therefore, the design of such systems must carefully consider interactions between the implanted system and the body, including biocompatibility, surgical placement, and patient comfort. Here we review research developments on implantable sensors for chronic pressure monitoring within the body, focusing on general design requirements for implantable pressure sensors as well as specifications for different medical applications. We also discuss recent efforts to address biocompatibility, efficient telemetry, and drift management, and explore emerging trends. PMID:25365461

  9. Behavior Of Costas Loop In Reception Of Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien Manh

    1992-01-01

    Report presents study of behavior of Costas loop in reception of binary non-return-to-zero telemetry signal phase-shift-modulated onto sinusoidal or square-wave subcarrier signal in turn phase-modulated onto carrier signal. Equations describe degradation of performance of Costas loop in terms of phase jitter, conditions causing loss of lock, and other effects. Costas loop used to track telemetry signal with residual carrier in presence of Doppler shift. Performance optimized by suitable choice of bit rate, waveform and frequency of subcarrier, and noise bandwidth of filters in arms of Costas loop.

  10. Process and methodology of developing Cassini G and C Telemetry Dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.

    1994-01-01

    While the Cassini spacecraft telemetry design had taken on the new approach of 'packetized telemetry', the AACS (Attitude and Articulation Subsystem) had further extended into the design of 'mini-packets' in its telemetry system. Such telemetry packet and mini-packet design produced the AACS Telemetry Dictionary; iterations of the latter in turn provided changes to the former. The ultimate goals were to achieve maximum telemetry packing density, optimize the 'freshness' of more time-critical data, and to effect flexibility, i.e., multiple AACS data collection schemes, without needing to change the overall spacecraft telemetry mode. This paper describes such a systematic process and methodology, evidenced by various design products related to, or as part of, the AACS Telemetry Dictionary.

  11. An Overview of Social Tagging and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manish; Li, Rui; Yin, Zhijun; Han, Jiawei

    Social tagging on online portals has become a trend now. It has emerged as one of the best ways of associating metadata with web objects. With the increase in the kinds of web objects becoming available, collaborative tagging of such objects is also developing along new dimensions. This popularity has led to a vast literature on social tagging. In this survey paper, we would like to summarize different techniques employed to study various aspects of tagging. Broadly, we would discuss about properties of tag streams, tagging models, tag semantics, generating recommendations using tags, visualizations of tags, applications of tags, integration of different tagging systems and problems associated with tagging usage. We would discuss topics like why people tag, what influences the choice of tags, how to model the tagging process, kinds of tags, different power laws observed in tagging domain, how tags are created and how to choose the right tags for recommendation. Metadata generated in the form of tags can be efficiently used to improve web search, for web object classification, for generating ontologies, for enhanced browsing etc. We would discuss these applications and conclude with thoughts on future work in the area.

  12. The behavior of a Costas loop in the presence of space telemetry signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. M.

    1988-05-01

    The telemetry modulation index, telemetry bit rate, subcarrier waveform, and subcarrier frequency are shown to be the key system parameters that contribute to the performance degradation of a Costas loop in the presence of space telemetry signals. The effects of the Doppler in the loop are also investigated. The results of this study were input to the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) for consideration in the future standard suppressed-carrier space telemetry system.

  13. The behavior of a Costas loop in the presence of space telemetry signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    The telemetry modulation index, telemetry bit rate, subcarrier waveform, and subcarrier frequency are shown to be the key system parameters that contribute to the performance degradation of a Costas loop in the presence of space telemetry signals. The effects of the Doppler in the loop are also investigated. The results of this study were input to the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) for consideration in the future standard suppressed-carrier space telemetry system.

  14. Implantable Microimagers

    PubMed Central

    Ng, David C.; Tokuda, Takashi; Shiosaka, Sadao; Tano, Yasuo; Ohta, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers, drug-delivery systems, and defibrillators have had a tremendous impact on the quality of live for many disabled people. To date, many devices have been developed for implantation into various parts of the human body. In this paper, we focus on devices implanted in the head. In particular, we describe the technologies necessary to create implantable microimagers. Design, fabrication, and implementation issues are discussed vis-à-vis two examples of implantable microimagers; the retinal prosthesis and in vivo neuro-microimager. Testing of these devices in animals verify the use of the microimagers in the implanted state. We believe that further advancement of these devices will lead to the development of a new method for medical and scientific applications.

  15. Hermetic electronic packaging of an implantable brain-machine-interface with transcutaneous optical data communication.

    PubMed

    Schuettler, Martin; Kohler, Fabian; Ordonez, Juan S; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Future brain-computer-interfaces (BCIs) for severely impaired patients are implanted to electrically contact the brain tissue. Avoiding percutaneous cables requires amplifier and telemetry electronics to be implanted too. We developed a hermetic package that protects the electronic circuitry of a BCI from body moisture while permitting infrared communication through the package wall made from alumina ceramic. The ceramic package is casted in medical grade silicone adhesive, for which we identified MED2-4013 as a promising candidate.

  16. Cochlear implants: our experience and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão; de Lima, Francis Vinicius Fontes; Santos, Ronaldo Carvalho; Santos, Arlete Cristina Granizo; Barreto, Valéria Maria Prado; de Jesus, Eduardo Passos Fiel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Cochlear Implants are important for individuals with severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Objective: Evaluate the experience of cochlear implant center of Otorhinolaryngology through the analysis of records of 9 patients who underwent cochlear implant surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed with the patients records. Number 0191.0.107.000-11 ethics committee approval. We evaluated gender, etiology, age at surgery, duration of deafness, classification of deafness, unilateral or bilateral surgery, intraoperative and postoperative neural response and impedance of the electrodes in intraoperative and preoperative tests and found those that counter-indicated surgery. Results: There were 6 pediatric and 3 adult patients. Four male and 5 female. Etiologies: maternal rubella, cytomegalovirus, ototoxicity, meningitis, and sudden deafness. The age at surgery and duration of deafness ranged from 2–46 years and 2–18 years, respectively. Seven patients were pre-lingual. All had profound bilateral PA. There were 7 bilateral implants. Intraoperative complications: hemorrhage. Complications after surgery: vertigo and internal device failure. In 7 patients the electrodes were implanted through. Telemetry showed satisfactory neural response and impedance. CT and MRI was performed in all patients. We found enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct in a patient and incudomalleolar malformation. Conclusion: The cochlear implant as a form of auditory rehabilitation is well established and spreading to different centers specialized in otoaudiology. Thus, the need for structured services and trained professionals in this type of procedure is clear. PMID:25991976

  17. Sex reversal by implantations of ethanol-treated androgenic glands of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, crustacea).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1998-09-01

    The androgenic glands (AGs) of malacostracan crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characteristics, and sex reversal is readily obtained by implantation of AGs in female crustaceans. In order to induce sex reversal, we implanted inactive AGs (dead cells) into young females of Armadillidium vulgare. Before implantation fresh AGs (living cells) were treated twice with 80% ethanol for 3 min and kept in crustacean physiological saline for 30 s. We refer to these AGs as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Stage 6 females were used as recipients of t-AG implantation. They received an implant of three t-AGs (3 t-AGs) three times, once each week. Testis formation in recipients was used as an indicator of the masculinized levels of female gonads. Female sexual characteristics were masculinized in proportion to the number of 3 t-AG implantations. Three implantations (total number of t-AGs, nine glands) induced development of testes, penes, and male copulatory organs in the recipient females. Furthermore, they could produce progeny. These results show that t-AG implantations are capable of inducing masculinization of female sexual characteristics. The procedure of three implantations with 3 t-AGs at stage 6 is enough to transform the sex from a genetic female into a functional male. If t-AGs are used to implant instead of fresh AGs, we can detect the effects induced by newly formed AGs of recipient females, not by implanted donor's AGs. The present method may be useful for examining the regulatory mechanism of sex differentiation of female A. vulgare. PMID:9707482

  18. Telemetry with an Optical Fiber Revisited: An Alternative Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    With a new data-acquisition system developed by PASCO scientific, an experiment on telemetry with an optical fiber can be made easier and more accurate. For this aim, an alternative strategy of the remote temperature measurements is proposed: the frequency of light pulses transmitted via the light guide numerically equals the temperature using…

  19. Satellite Telemetry and Command using Big LEO Mobile Telecommunications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huegel, Fred

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with satellite telemetry and command using Big LEO mobile telecommunications systems are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Commercial Satellite system overviews: Globalstar, ICO, and Iridium; 2) System capabilities and cost reduction; 3) Satellite constellations and contact limitations; 4) Capabilities of Globalstar, ICO and Iridium with emphasis on Globalstar; and 5) Flight transceiver issues and security.

  20. An explosive acoustic telemetry system for seabed penetrators

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, G.C.; Hickerson, J.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the design and past applications of an explosive acoustic telemetry system (EATS) for gathering and transmitting data from seabed penetrators. The system was first fielded in 1982 and has since been used to measure penetrator performance on three other occasions. Descriptions are given of the mechanical hardware, system electronics, and software.

  1. Radio frequency telemetry system for sensors and actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches apparatus for combining Radio Frequency (RF) technology with novel micro-inductor antennas and signal processing circuits for RF telemetry of real time, measured data, from microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, through electromagnetic coupling with a remote powering/receiving device. Such technology has many applications, but is especially useful in the biomedical area.

  2. Radio Frequency Telemetry System for Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches apparatus for combining Radio Frequency (RF) technology with novel micro-inductor antennas and signal processing circuits for RF telemetry of real time, measured data, from microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, through electromagnetic coupling with a remote poweringheceiving device. Such technology has many applications, but is especially useful in the biomedical area.

  3. Stability analysis of the multimegabit telemetry demodulator/detector design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    Stability of the multimegabit telemetry digital Costas loop is considered. It is shown that the present design is stable with about 35.2 dB gain margin, and therefore is quite stable. The bandpass filter implementation of the data filters is covered.

  4. Effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongwei; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2014-10-01

    The study assessed the effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in April 2011. Before the surgery, 15 blood samples were extracted randomly from 195 bighead carp samples, and then the rest of the fish were divided into three groups: (1) control group, handing but no tagging, (2) sham group, surgical procedure without implantation of transmitter and (3) surgery group, surgical implantation of transmitters. In 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery, 15 fish were extracted randomly from the three groups, respectively, for sampling. Then the plasma samples were analyzed, and physiological measures of stress response (cortisol, glucose), tissue damage [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and nutritional status [total protein, globulin, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were compared. The result showed that there was no significant difference between sham and surgery groups in 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery. When compared to the control group, there were significant increases in concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, ALT, AST, total protein and globulin of sham and surgery groups in 3 h after surgery. After 24 h, the levels of plasma cortisol, ALT, AST, total protein, globulin and ALP were elevated in both sham and surgery groups, whereas the levels of plasma glucose had declined to normal level and plasma albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in both sham and surgery groups. After 7 days, the levels of plasma glucose, albumin and cholesterol continued to decline, while the level of plasma ALT, globulin and ALP had declined but still remained higher for sham and surgery groups than control group; however, the plasma total protein level had returned to normal. After 14 days, there was no significant difference between the three groups. The above results showed that

  5. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa.

    PubMed

    Gianasi, Bruno L; Verkaik, Katie; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality). The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days). Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d). Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects. PMID:26011165

  6. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa

    PubMed Central

    Gianasi, Bruno L.; Verkaik, Katie; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality). The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days). Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d). Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects. PMID:26011165

  7. Doubly-Tagged D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Ernest Navaroop

    1995-01-01

    The D_{s} is a pseudoscalar meson composed of two second generation quarks, the heavy charm and the light strange. The bulk of our knowledge of the D_{s} comes from secondary production via B decays. These experiments have high statistics but are poorly suited to absolute branching fraction or production cross-section measurements. The best way to perform those is to use double-tagging of threshold pair production. Unfortunately, there is no strong resonance near D_{s } threshold, making it difficult to obtain sufficient statistics. This thesis makes use of the {cal L} = 22.8 +/- 0.6 {rm pb}^ {-1} integrated luminosity collected by the Beijing Spectrometer from the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider at 4.03 GeV. This energy was chosen because the coupled-channel model of Eichten et al. predicts an enhancement there of the D_sp{s}{+}D _sp{s}{-} cross section to somewhat below 1 nb. We attempt to fully reconstruct hadronic and semileptonic D_{s} pairs from six-prong events not containing any photons. We combine the chi^2 from kinematic fitting and particle identification to form a single value, the joint confidence level, for each event. Using this in the analysis yields five hadronic events, with multiple combinations per event. Since the D_{s} principally decays to resonant moves, we preferentially select those combinations which lead to resonant two-body masses. This gives us a signal containing 7 resonant decays and 3 non-resonant K^+K^-pi^+ decays. We use Monte Carlo efficiencies and knowledge of the ratio B(D_sp{s}{+} to | K^{*0}K^+)/B(D _sp{s}{+} to K^+K ^-pi^+) to estimate the production rates represented by these tags. We perform a likelihood analysis using those numbers, together with the absolute branching fractions, to obtain a value of sigma(e^+e^- to D_sp{s}{+}D_sp{s }{-}) at 4.03 GeV = 0.53 _sp{-0.20}{+0.28}_sp{ -0.09}{+0.07}nb, one sigma below the coupled channel model. Using only relative branching fractions, we fit to a value for the ratio B(D _sp

  8. Reception of Multiple Telemetry Signals via One Dish Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Ryan; Vilnrotter, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A microwave aeronautical-telemetry receiver system includes an antenna comprising a seven-element planar array of receiving feed horns centered at the focal point of a paraboloidal dish reflector that is nominally aimed at a single aircraft or at multiple aircraft flying in formation. Through digital processing of the signals received by the seven feed horns, the system implements a method of enhanced cancellation of interference, such that it becomes possible to receive telemetry signals in the same frequency channel simultaneously from either or both of two aircraft at slightly different angular positions within the field of view of the antenna, even in the presence of multipath propagation. The present system is an advanced version of the system described in Spatio- Temporal Equalizer for a Receiving-Antenna Feed Array NPO-43077, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 2 (February 2010), page 32. To recapitulate: The radio-frequency telemetry signals received by the seven elements of the array are digitized, converted to complex baseband form, and sent to a spatio-temporal equalizer that consists mostly of a bank of seven adaptive finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters (one for each element in the array) plus a unit that sums the outputs of the filters. The combination of the spatial diversity of the feedhorn array and the temporal diversity of the filter bank affords better multipath suppression performance than is achievable by means of temporal equalization alone. The FIR filter bank adapts itself in real time to enable reception of telemetry at a low bit error rate, even in the presence of frequency-selective multipath propagation like that commonly found at flight-test ranges. The combination of the array and the filter bank makes it possible to constructively add multipath incoming signals to the corresponding directly arriving signals, thereby enabling reductions in telemetry bit-error rates.

  9. A long-range and long-life telemetry data-acquisition system for heart rate and multiple body temperatures from free-ranging animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.; Miranda, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The system includes an implantable transmitter, external receiver-retransmitter collar, and a microprocessor-controlled demodulator. The size of the implant is suitable for animals with body weights of a few kilograms or more; further size reduction of the implant is possible. The ECG is sensed by electrodes designed for internal telemetry and to reduce movement artifacts. The R-wave characteristics are then specifically selected to trigger a short radio frequency pulse. Temperatures are sensed at desired locations by thermistors and then, based on a heartbeat counter, transmitted intermittently via pulse interval modulation. This modulation scheme includes first and last calibration intervals for a reference by ratios with the temperature intervals to achieve good accuracy even over long periods. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as RF interference.

  10. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  11. Ring Network with VLAN Tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi

    The proposed Ring Network with VLAN Tag offers the features of wrapping/steering control functions and 1+1 path protection function, keeping the compatibility with Ethernet media access control scheme. The key technology for “Path concept” is VLAN tag swapping operation. A set of primary and back-up paths is defined between ring nodes, which are distinguished by a flag bit in VLAN tag field. On failure detection, the path is switched within the path set by the tag swapping. Tag swapping at the failure detection node, while tag swapping at the source node achieves staring operation, achieves Wrapping operation. The restoration behavior is almost the same as that of Resilient Packet Ring (RPR). Since the tag swapping control is based on hardware processing, high-speed operation is also expected. Furthermore, because the paths are independently designed from the physical topology, the scheme can be applied to other networks than physical ring networks. The proposed scheme will fit to the path control for next generation Ethernet over WDM system.

  12. Histrelin Implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to histrelin implant. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about histrelin implant.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  13. Tagging insulin in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobeck, Michael; Nelson, Ronald S.

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the exact subcellular sites of action of insulin in the body has the potential to give basic science investigators a basis from which a cause and cure for this disease can be approached. The goal of this project is to create a test reagent that can be used to visualize these subcellular sites. The unique microgravity environment of the Shuttle will allow the creation of a reagent that has the possibility of elucidating the subcellular sites of action of insulin. Several techniques have been used in an attempt to isolate the sites of action of items such as insulin. One of these is autoradiography in which the test item is obtained from animals fed radioactive materials. What is clearly needed is to visualize individual insulin molecules at their sites of action. The insulin tagging process to be used on G-399 involves the conjugation of insulin molecules with ferritin molecules to create a reagent that will be used back on Earth in an attempt to elucidate the sites of action of insulin.

  14. D-TAG: erasing the tag of gang membership.

    PubMed

    Gurke, B; Armstrong, M L

    1997-04-01

    Gangs are noted for establishing their territory, flaunting gang affiliation, intimidating nonmembers, and documenting their "services performed." These examples are a few reasons for the practice of "tagging," the labeling of an area, person, or object with gang-related graffiti or markings, such as tattoos. This article describes a school nurse's response to gang "tagging" and her efforts to assist former gang members who request removal of their tattoos, to get them removed-in essence to D-TAG themselves from their gang affiliation. D-TAG is a volunteer rehabilitation program utilizing family and community interaction to support gang tattoo removal and direct activities away from gang affiliations toward alternative educational programs and life styles.

  15. MEMS fabricated chip for an implantable drug delivery device.

    PubMed

    Sbiaa, Z

    2006-01-01

    We present a silicon-based implantable drug delivery system (IDDS) for the administration of compounds in vivo. The implanted device contains the drug-filled silicon microchip, control circuitry, telemetry capability, and a battery. At the heart of the IDDS is the drug-containing microchip, a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems)-based device. A process was developed for the fabrication of the silicon chip. MicroCHIPS' drug release technology has been successfully demonstrated in vitro and in vivo using the therapeutic peptide leuprolide as a model compound.

  16. Quantum tagging for tags containing secret classical data

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Adrian

    2011-08-15

    Various authors have considered schemes for quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is potentially unbounded. All of the schemes proposed elsewhere in the literature assume that the adversary is able to inspect the interior of the tagging device. All of these schemes have been shown to be breakable if the adversary has unbounded predistributed entanglement. We consider here the case in which the tagging device contains a finite key string shared with distant sites but kept secret from the adversary, and show this allows the location of the tagging device to be authenticated securely and indefinitely. Our protocol relies on quantum key distribution between the tagging device and at least one distant site, and demonstrates a new practical application of quantum key distribution. It also illustrates that the attainable security in position-based cryptography can depend crucially on apparently subtle details in the security scenario considered.

  17. Cellular tagging as a neural network mechanism for behavioural tagging

    PubMed Central

    Nomoto, Masanori; Ohkawa, Noriaki; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Yokose, Jun; Suzuki, Akinobu; Matsuo, Mina; Tsujimura, Shuhei; Takahashi, Yukari; Nagase, Masashi; Watabe, Ayako M.; Kato, Fusao; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural tagging is the transformation of a short-term memory, induced by a weak experience, into a long-term memory (LTM) due to the temporal association with a novel experience. The mechanism by which neuronal ensembles, each carrying a memory engram of one of the experiences, interact to achieve behavioural tagging is unknown. Here we show that retrieval of a LTM formed by behavioural tagging of a weak experience depends on the degree of overlap with the neuronal ensemble corresponding to a novel experience. The numbers of neurons activated by weak training in a novel object recognition (NOR) task and by a novel context exploration (NCE) task, denoted as overlapping neurons, increases in the hippocampal CA1 when behavioural tagging is successfully achieved. Optical silencing of an NCE-related ensemble suppresses NOR–LTM retrieval. Thus, a population of cells recruited by NOR is tagged and then preferentially incorporated into the memory trace for NCE to achieve behavioural tagging. PMID:27477539

  18. Automated data analysis to rapidly derive and communicate ecological insights from satellite-tag data: a case study of reintroduced red kites.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, René; Zeng, Cheng; Heptinstall, Danny; Ponnamperuma, Kapila; Mellish, Chris; Ben, Stuart; Siddharthan, Advaith

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of satellite-telemetry data mostly occurs long after it has been collected, due to the time and effort needed to collate and interpret such material. Delayed reporting reduces the usefulness of such data for nature conservation where timely information about animal movements is required. To counter this problem, we present a novel approach which combines automated analysis of satellite-telemetry data with rapid communication of insights derived from such data. A relatively simple algorithm (based on radial and angular velocity calculated from fixes) allowed instantaneous detection of excursions away from settlement areas and automated calculation of home ranges on the remaining data. Automating the detection of both excursions and home-range calculations enabled us to disseminate ecological insights from satellite-tag data instantaneously through a dedicated web portal. The automated analysis, interpretation, and communication of satellite-tag and other ecological data offer clear benefits to nature conservation research and practice. PMID:26508348

  19. Automated data analysis to rapidly derive and communicate ecological insights from satellite-tag data: a case study of reintroduced red kites.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, René; Zeng, Cheng; Heptinstall, Danny; Ponnamperuma, Kapila; Mellish, Chris; Ben, Stuart; Siddharthan, Advaith

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of satellite-telemetry data mostly occurs long after it has been collected, due to the time and effort needed to collate and interpret such material. Delayed reporting reduces the usefulness of such data for nature conservation where timely information about animal movements is required. To counter this problem, we present a novel approach which combines automated analysis of satellite-telemetry data with rapid communication of insights derived from such data. A relatively simple algorithm (based on radial and angular velocity calculated from fixes) allowed instantaneous detection of excursions away from settlement areas and automated calculation of home ranges on the remaining data. Automating the detection of both excursions and home-range calculations enabled us to disseminate ecological insights from satellite-tag data instantaneously through a dedicated web portal. The automated analysis, interpretation, and communication of satellite-tag and other ecological data offer clear benefits to nature conservation research and practice.

  20. Strep-Tagged Protein Purification.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Barbara; Spriestersbach, Anne; Kubicek, Jan; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Strep-tag system can be used to purify recombinant proteins from any expression system. Here, protocols for lysis and affinity purification of Strep-tagged proteins from E. coli, baculovirus-infected insect cells, and transfected mammalian cells are given. Depending on the amount of Strep-tagged protein in the lysate, a protocol for batch binding and subsequent washing and eluting by gravity flow can be used. Agarose-based matrices with the coupled Strep-Tactin ligand are the resins of choice, with a binding capacity of up to 9 mg ml(-1). For purification of lower amounts of Strep-tagged proteins, the use of Strep-Tactin magnetic beads is suitable. In addition, Strep-tagged protein purification can also be automated using prepacked columns for FPLC or other liquid-handling chromatography instrumentation, but automated purification is not discussed in this protocol. The protocols described here can be regarded as an update of the Strep-Tag Protein Handbook (Qiagen, 2009).

  1. Strep-Tagged Protein Purification.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Barbara; Spriestersbach, Anne; Kubicek, Jan; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Strep-tag system can be used to purify recombinant proteins from any expression system. Here, protocols for lysis and affinity purification of Strep-tagged proteins from E. coli, baculovirus-infected insect cells, and transfected mammalian cells are given. Depending on the amount of Strep-tagged protein in the lysate, a protocol for batch binding and subsequent washing and eluting by gravity flow can be used. Agarose-based matrices with the coupled Strep-Tactin ligand are the resins of choice, with a binding capacity of up to 9 mg ml(-1). For purification of lower amounts of Strep-tagged proteins, the use of Strep-Tactin magnetic beads is suitable. In addition, Strep-tagged protein purification can also be automated using prepacked columns for FPLC or other liquid-handling chromatography instrumentation, but automated purification is not discussed in this protocol. The protocols described here can be regarded as an update of the Strep-Tag Protein Handbook (Qiagen, 2009). PMID:26096503

  2. Active microelectronic neurosensor arrays for implantable brain communication interfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Y-K; Borton, D A; Park, S; Patterson, W R; Bull, C W; Laiwalla, F; Mislow, J; Simeral, J D; Donoghue, J P; Nurmikko, A V

    2009-08-01

    We have built a wireless implantable microelectronic device for transmitting cortical signals transcutaneously. The device is aimed at interfacing a cortical microelectrode array to an external computer for neural control applications. Our implantable microsystem enables 16-channel broadband neural recording in a nonhuman primate brain by converting these signals to a digital stream of infrared light pulses for transmission through the skin. The implantable unit employs a flexible polymer substrate onto which we have integrated ultra-low power amplification with analog multiplexing, an analog-to-digital converter, a low power digital controller chip, and infrared telemetry. The scalable 16-channel microsystem can employ any of several modalities of power supply, including radio frequency by induction, or infrared light via photovoltaic conversion. As of the time of this report, the implant has been tested as a subchronic unit in nonhuman primates ( approximately 1 month), yielding robust spike and broadband neural data on all available channels. PMID:19502132

  3. Active Microelectronic Neurosensor Arrays for Implantable Brain Communication Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Song, Y.-K.; Borton, D. A.; Park, S.; Patterson, W. R.; Bull, C. W.; Laiwalla, F.; Mislow, J.; Simeral, J. D.; Donoghue, J. P.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    We have built a wireless implantable microelectronic device for transmitting cortical signals transcutaneously. The device is aimed at interfacing a microelectrode array cortical to an external computer for neural control applications. Our implantable microsystem enables presently 16-channel broadband neural recording in a non-human primate brain by converting these signals to a digital stream of infrared light pulses for transmission through the skin. The implantable unit employs a flexible polymer substrate onto which we have integrated ultra-low power amplification with analog multiplexing, an analog-to-digital converter, a low power digital controller chip, and infrared telemetry. The scalable 16-channel microsystem can employ any of several modalities of power supply, including via radio frequency by induction, or infrared light via a photovoltaic converter. As of today, the implant has been tested as a sub-chronic unit in non-human primates (~ 1 month), yielding robust spike and broadband neural data on all available channels. PMID:19502132

  4. Implantable Bladder Sensors: A Methodological Review.

    PubMed

    Dakurah, Mathias Naangmenkpeong; Koo, Chiwan; Choi, Wonseok; Joung, Yeun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The loss of urinary bladder control/sensation, also known as urinary incontinence (UI), is a common clinical problem in autistic children, diabetics, and the elderly. UI not only causes discomfort for patients but may also lead to kidney failure, infections, and even death. The increase of bladder urine volume/pressure above normal ranges without sensation of UI patients necessitates the need for bladder sensors. Currently, a catheter-based sensor is introduced directly through the urethra into the bladder to measure pressure variations. Unfortunately, this method is inaccurate because measurement is affected by disturbances in catheter lines as well as delays in response time owing to the inertia of urine inside the bladder. Moreover, this technique can cause infection during prolonged use; hence, it is only suitable for short-term measurement. Development of discrete wireless implantable sensors to measure bladder volume/pressure would allow for long-term monitoring within the bladder, while maintaining the patient's quality of life. With the recent advances in microfabrication, the size of implantable bladder sensors has been significantly reduced. However, microfabricated sensors face hostility from the bladder environment and require surgical intervention for implantation inside the bladder. Here, we explore the various types of implantable bladder sensors and current efforts to solve issues like hermeticity, biocompatibility, drift, telemetry, power, and compatibility issues with popular imaging tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We also discuss some possible improvements/emerging trends in the design of an implantable bladder sensor.

  5. Implantable Bladder Sensors: A Methodological Review

    PubMed Central

    Dakurah, Mathias Naangmenkpeong; Koo, Chiwan; Choi, Wonseok; Joung, Yeun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The loss of urinary bladder control/sensation, also known as urinary incontinence (UI), is a common clinical problem in autistic children, diabetics, and the elderly. UI not only causes discomfort for patients but may also lead to kidney failure, infections, and even death. The increase of bladder urine volume/pressure above normal ranges without sensation of UI patients necessitates the need for bladder sensors. Currently, a catheter-based sensor is introduced directly through the urethra into the bladder to measure pressure variations. Unfortunately, this method is inaccurate because measurement is affected by disturbances in catheter lines as well as delays in response time owing to the inertia of urine inside the bladder. Moreover, this technique can cause infection during prolonged use; hence, it is only suitable for short-term measurement. Development of discrete wireless implantable sensors to measure bladder volume/pressure would allow for long-term monitoring within the bladder, while maintaining the patient’s quality of life. With the recent advances in microfabrication, the size of implantable bladder sensors has been significantly reduced. However, microfabricated sensors face hostility from the bladder environment and require surgical intervention for implantation inside the bladder. Here, we explore the various types of implantable bladder sensors and current efforts to solve issues like hermeticity, biocompatibility, drift, telemetry, power, and compatibility issues with popular imaging tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We also discuss some possible improvements/emerging trends in the design of an implantable bladder sensor. PMID:26620894

  6. Implantable Bladder Sensors: A Methodological Review.

    PubMed

    Dakurah, Mathias Naangmenkpeong; Koo, Chiwan; Choi, Wonseok; Joung, Yeun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The loss of urinary bladder control/sensation, also known as urinary incontinence (UI), is a common clinical problem in autistic children, diabetics, and the elderly. UI not only causes discomfort for patients but may also lead to kidney failure, infections, and even death. The increase of bladder urine volume/pressure above normal ranges without sensation of UI patients necessitates the need for bladder sensors. Currently, a catheter-based sensor is introduced directly through the urethra into the bladder to measure pressure variations. Unfortunately, this method is inaccurate because measurement is affected by disturbances in catheter lines as well as delays in response time owing to the inertia of urine inside the bladder. Moreover, this technique can cause infection during prolonged use; hence, it is only suitable for short-term measurement. Development of discrete wireless implantable sensors to measure bladder volume/pressure would allow for long-term monitoring within the bladder, while maintaining the patient's quality of life. With the recent advances in microfabrication, the size of implantable bladder sensors has been significantly reduced. However, microfabricated sensors face hostility from the bladder environment and require surgical intervention for implantation inside the bladder. Here, we explore the various types of implantable bladder sensors and current efforts to solve issues like hermeticity, biocompatibility, drift, telemetry, power, and compatibility issues with popular imaging tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We also discuss some possible improvements/emerging trends in the design of an implantable bladder sensor. PMID:26620894

  7. The ESA standard for telemetry and telecommand packet utilisation: PUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    ESA has developed standards for packet telemetry and telecommand, which are derived from the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). These standards are now mandatory for future ESA programs as well as for many programs currently under development. However, while these packet standards address the end-to-end transfer of telemetry and telecommand data between applications on the ground and Application Processes on-board, they leave open the internal structure or content of the packets. This paper presents the ESA Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) which addresses this very subject and, as such, serves to extend and complement the ESA packet standards. The goal of the PUS is to be applicable to future ESA missions in all application areas (Telecommunications, Science, Earth Resources, microgravity, etc.). The production of the PUS falls under the responsibility of the ESA Committee for Operations and EGSE Standards (COES).

  8. A miniaturized digital telemetry system for physiological data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portnoy, W. M.; Stotts, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiological date telemetry system, consisting basically of a portable unit and a ground base station was designed, built, and tested. The portable unit to be worn by the subject is composed of a single crystal controlled transmitter with AM transmission of digital data and narrowband FM transmission of voice; a crystal controlled FM receiver; thirteen input channels follwed by a PCM encoder (three of these channels are designed for ECG data); a calibration unit; and a transponder control system. The ground base station consists of a standard telemetry reciever, a decoder, and an FM transmitter for transmission of voice and transponder signals to the portable unit. The ground base station has complete control of power to all subsystems in the portable unit. The phase-locked loop circuit which is used to decode the data, remains in operation even when the signal from the portable unit is interrupted.

  9. A multichannel physiological data/voice telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portnoy, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    A seven channel physiological telemetry system was designed, constructed, and tested for a space environment to transfer physiological and voice information to and from an astronaut. Three ECG leads were monitored simultaneously, and two-way voice communication was achieved. The portable unit operated properly under ground based station (GBS) control. The major design problem was associated with the constraints of a wide bandwidth FM transmitter with crystal control combined with the tri-state logic format used. However, by using an ''indirect FM'' scheme and incorporating additional waveshaping circuits at the GBS, proper operation of the system was obtained. In the present form, the telemetry system has capability for seven channels of low level (2.5 mv peak maximum) physiological signals with bandwidths between 0.03 Hz and 100 Hz. Additional signal conditioning and modification of the instrumentation amplifier gains are required for other signals.

  10. A portable computer-augmented telemetry system (PCATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, L.; Shaw, H.

    The design and operation of PCATS, an integrated PC-based telemetry ground station developed for the U.S. Army, are described and illustrated with extensive block diagrams. The PCATS hardware includes an 8-MHz 80286-based computer with mathematics coprocessor, a PCM bit synchronizer/decoder, a decommutator, a 16-channel D/A converter, and a 120-Mb hard disk and a 9-track digital tape drive for telemetry data storage. Consideration is given to the performance of real-time data logging, data scaling and display, and analog output; playback capabilities; hard-copy reports; and data analysis. The PCATS software is menu-driven and provides setup, analysis, and utility functions while minimizing hardware requirements.

  11. CCSDS telemetry systems experience at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, Richard D.; Stallings, William H., III

    1990-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designs, builds, manages, and operates science and applications spacecraft in near-earth orbit, and provides data capture, data processing, and flight control services for these spacecraft. In addition, GSFC has the responsibility of providing space-ground and ground-ground communications for near-earth orbiting spacecraft, including those of the manned spaceflight programs. The goal of reducing both the developmental and operating costs of the end-to-end information system has led the GSFC to support and participate in the standardization activities of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), including those for packet telemetry. The environment in which such systems function is described, and the GSFC experience with CCSDS packet telemetry in the context of the Gamma-Ray Observatory project is discussed.

  12. CCSDS telemetry systems experience at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carper, Richard D.; Stallings, William H., III

    1990-09-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designs, builds, manages, and operates science and applications spacecraft in near-earth orbit, and provides data capture, data processing, and flight control services for these spacecraft. In addition, GSFC has the responsibility of providing space-ground and ground-ground communications for near-earth orbiting spacecraft, including those of the manned spaceflight programs. The goal of reducing both the developmental and operating costs of the end-to-end information system has led the GSFC to support and participate in the standardization activities of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), including those for packet telemetry. The environment in which such systems function is described, and the GSFC experience with CCSDS packet telemetry in the context of the Gamma-Ray Observatory project is discussed.

  13. A spatial mark–resight model augmented with telemetry data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sollmann, Rachel; Gardner, Beth; Parsons, Arielle W.; Stocking, Jessica J.; McClintock, Brett T.; Simons, Theodore R.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; O’Connell, Allan F.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance and population density are fundamental pieces of information for population ecology and species conservation, but they are difficult to estimate for rare and elusive species. Mark-resight models are popular for estimating population abundance because they are less invasive and expensive than traditional mark-recapture. However, density estimation using mark-resight is difficult because the area sampled must be explicitly defined, historically using ad-hoc approaches. We develop a spatial mark-resight model for estimating population density that combines spatial resighting data and telemetry data. Incorporating telemetry data allows us to inform model parameters related to movement and individual location. Our model also allows 2. The model presented here will have widespread utility in future applications, especially for species that are not naturally marked.

  14. Telemetry, tracking, and command consolidation in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Jeff B.; Odea, J. Andrew; Bryant, Scott H.; Guerreo, Ana Maria P.; Louie, John J.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) functions are distributed between multiple subsystem computers. Control design of these subsystems did not consider the interaction necessary between the functions, which create opportunities for loss of data. Also, the current controller design can force the use of equipment that is not needed for the task at hand, to the detriment of others. As part of the Network Simplification Project (NSP), the TTC implementation has been re-examined, New telemetry and commanding equipment is being built, and the control of the TT&C functions is being consolidated into two controllers, Uplink and Downlink. The new equipment uses commercial components, as opposed to the custom built equipment it is replacing, which improves reliability and simplifies maintenance.

  15. Using Geostationary Communications Satellites as a Sensor: Telemetry Search Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, K.; Carlton, A.; Lohmeyer, W. Q.

    2014-12-01

    For decades, operators and manufacturers have collected large amounts of telemetry from geostationary (GEO) communications satellites to monitor system health and performance, yet this data is rarely mined for scientific purposes. The goal of this work is to mine data archives acquired from commercial operators using new algorithms that can detect when a space weather (or non-space weather) event of interest has occurred or is in progress. We have developed algorithms to statistically analyze power amplifier current and temperature telemetry and identify deviations from nominal operations or other trends of interest. We then examine space weather data to see what role, if any, it might have played. We also closely examine both long and short periods of time before an anomaly to determine whether or not the anomaly could have been predicted.

  16. Cochlear implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... implant. These specialists may include: Audiologists Speech therapists Ear, nose, and throat doctors (otolaryngologists) This is a very important part of the process. You will need to work closely with your team of specialists to get ...

  17. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... additional visits are needed for activating, adjusting, and programming the various electrodes that have been implanted. Also, ... to the center for checkups once the final programming is made to the speech processor. Both children ...

  18. Ground equipment for the support of packet telemetry and telecommand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hell, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes ground equipment for packet telemetry and telecommand which has been recently developed by industry for the European Space Agency. The architectural concept for this type of equipment is outlined and the actual implementation is presented. Focus is put on issues related to cross support and telescience as far as they affect the design of the interfaces to the users of the services provided by the equipment and to the management entities in charge of equipment control and monitoring.

  19. Field tests of acoustic telemetry for a portable coastal observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, M.; Butman, B.; Ware, J.; Frye, D.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term field tests of a low-cost acoustic telemetry system were carried out at two sites in Massachusetts Bay. At each site, an acoustic Doppler current profiler mounted on a bottom tripod was fitted with an acoustic modem to transmit data to a surface buoy; electronics mounted on the buoy relayed these data to shore via radio modem. The mooring at one site (24 m water depth) was custom-designed for the telemetry application, with a custom designed small buoy, a flexible electro-mechanical buoy to mooring joint using a molded chain connection to the buoy, quick-release electro-mechanical couplings, and dual hydrophones suspended 7 m above the bottom. The surface buoy at the second site (33 m water depth) was a U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) channel buoy fitted with telemetry electronics and clamps to hold the hydrophones. The telemetry was tested in several configurations for a period of about four years. The custom-designed buoy and mooring provided nearly error-free data transmission through the acoustic link under a variety of oceanographic conditions for 261 days at the 24 m site. The electro mechanical joint, cables and couplings required minimal servicing and were very reliable, lasting 862 days deployed before needing repairs. The acoustic communication results from the USCG buoy were poor, apparently due to the hard cobble bottom, noise from the all-steel buoy, and failure of the hydrophone assembly. Access to the USCG buoy at sea required ideal weather. ??2006 IEEE.

  20. High speed preprocessing in real time telemetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strock, O. J.; O'Brien, Michael

    A versatile high-speed preprocessor, the EMR 8715, is described which is used as a closed-coupled input device for the host computer in a telemetry system. Much of the data and time merging, number conversion, floating-point processing, and data distribution are performed by the system, reducing the host load. The EMR 8715 allows a choice of serial processing, parallel processing, or a combination of the two, on a measurement-by-measurement basis.

  1. A multichannel EEG telemetry system utilizing a PCM subcarrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    A multichannel personal-type telemetry system is described that utilizes PCM encoding for the most effective range with minimum RF bandwidth and noise interference. Recent IC developments (COS MOS) make it possible to implement a sophisticated encoding system (PCM) within the low power and size constraints necessary for a personal biotelemetry system. This system includes low-level high-impedance preamplifiers to make the system suitable for EEG recording.

  2. Systems utilization enhancement data system overview. [for PCM telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, J. Andre

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the Systems Utilization Enhancement (SUE) data system is presented. The subsystems are described, including the telemetry processor, communications processor, digital maintenance and control subsystem, link console subsystem, digital recording subsystem, communications processor SUE system interface unit, data quality monitoring subsystem, analog parameter and event recorder, status SUE system interface unit, and portable maintenance subsystem. Hardware design considerations are discussed, including architecture, coupling, commonality, modularity. reliability, fault-tolerance, and growth.

  3. Telemetry link for an automatic salmon migration monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, H. A.; Freyman, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The antenna and transmitter described in this report were designed for integration into the remote acoustic assessment system for detection of sockeye salmon in the Bristol Bay region of the Bering Sea. The assessment system configuration consists of an upward directed sonar buoy anchored 150 ft below the surface and attached by cable to a spar buoy tethered some 300 ft laterally. The spar buoy contains a telemetry transmitter, power supply, data processing electronics, an antenna and a beacon light.

  4. Contraceptive implants.

    PubMed

    McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E

    2010-03-01

    Implantable contraception has been extensively used worldwide. Implants are one of the most effective and reversible methods of contraception available. These devices may be particularly appropriate for certain populations of women, including women who cannot use estrogen-containing contraception. Implants are safe for use by women with many chronic medical problems. The newest implant, Implanon (Organon International, Oss, The Netherlands), is the only device currently available in the United States and was approved in 2006. It is registered for 3 years of pregnancy prevention. Contraceptive implants have failure rates similar to tubal ligation, and yet they are readily reversible with a return to fertility within days of removal. Moreover, these contraceptive devices can be safely placed in the immediate postpartum period, ensuring good contraceptive coverage for women who may be at risk for an unintended pregnancy. Irregular bleeding is a common side effect for all progestin-only contraceptive implants. Preinsertion counseling should address possible side effects, and treatment may be offered to women who experience prolonged or frequent bleeding.

  5. Wireless communication with implanted medical devices using the conductive properties of the body

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, John E; Redish, A David

    2013-01-01

    Many medical devices that are implanted in the body use wires or wireless radiofrequency telemetry to communicate with circuitry outside the body. However, the wires are a common source of surgical complications, including breakage, infection and electrical noise. In addition, radiofrequency telemetry requires large amounts of power and results in low-efficiency transmission through biological tissue. As an alternative, the conductive properties of the body can be used to enable wireless communication with implanted devices. In this article, several methods of intrabody communication are described and compared. In addition to reducing the complications that occur with current implantable medical devices, intrabody communication can enable novel types of miniature devices for research and clinical applications. PMID:21728728

  6. Advanced telemetry systems for payloads. Technology needs, objectives and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The current trends in advanced payload telemetry are the new developments in advanced modulation/coding, the applications of intelligent techniques, data distribution processing, and advanced signal processing methodologies. Concerted efforts will be required to design ultra-reliable man-rated software to cope with these applications. The intelligence embedded and distributed throughout various segments of the telemetry system will need to be overridden by an operator in case of life-threatening situations, making it a real-time integration issue. Suitable MIL standards on physical interfaces and protocols will be adopted to suit the payload telemetry system. New technologies and techniques will be developed for fast retrieval of mass data. Currently, these technology issues are being addressed to provide more efficient, reliable, and reconfigurable systems. There is a need, however, to change the operation culture. The current role of NASA as a leader in developing all the new innovative hardware should be altered to save both time and money. We should use all the available hardware/software developed by the industry and use the existing standards rather than inventing our own.

  7. Upscaling behavioural studies to the field using acoustic telemetry.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Gustav; Klaminder, Jonatan; Jonsson, Micael; Fick, Jerker; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory-based behavioural assays are often used in ecotoxicological studies to assess the environmental risk of aquatic contaminants. While results from such laboratory-based risk assessments may be difficult to extrapolate to natural environments, technological advancements over the past decade now make it possible to perform risk assessments through detailed studies of exposed individuals in natural settings. Acoustic telemetry is a technology to monitor movement and behaviour of aquatic organism in oceans, lakes, and rivers. The technology allows for tracking of multiple individuals simultaneously with very high temporal and spatial resolution, with the option to incorporate sensors to measure various physiological and environmental parameters. Although frequently used in fisheries research, aquatic ecotoxicology has been slow to adopt acoustic telemetry as a tool in field-based studies. This mini-review intends to introduce acoustic telemetry to aquatic ecotoxicologists, focusing on the potential of the technology to bridge the gap between laboratory assays and natural behaviours when making toxicological risk assessments. PMID:26683267

  8. Design of an acoustic telemetry system for rebreathers.

    PubMed

    Egi, S M

    2009-01-01

    Despite the abundance of telemetric applications for ecology, behavior and physiology of marine life, few efforts were reported about the use of acoustic telemetry for SCUBA divers. The objective of this study is to design and test an acoustic telemetry system for monitoring breathing gases of a Dräger Dolphin semi-closed circuit rebreather as well as the depth of the diver. The system is designed around a PC based surface unit and a microcontroller based diver carried module that digitizes the output of CO2 and O2 sensors located in the inhalation side of the canister. One pair of acoustic modems establishes the data link between the microcontroller and the topside PC. The graphical user interface is written in C# and enables the recording of the diving session as well. The system is calibrated in a hyperbaric chamber and tested successfully with four dives in three different environments using 100% O2 and Nitrox (47.9% O2 - 52.1% N2) up to 15 m depth and a distance of 40 m between acoustic modems. The telemetry data cannot be used only for recording physiological data but also provides an important operational safety tool to monitor the rebreather user. The future designs will include actuators for controlling the diluent and oxygen flow to closed circuit mix gas rebreathers.

  9. Advanced telemetry systems for payloads. Technology needs, objectives and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-08-01

    The current trends in advanced payload telemetry are the new developments in advanced modulation/coding, the applications of intelligent techniques, data distribution processing, and advanced signal processing methodologies. Concerted efforts will be required to design ultra-reliable man-rated software to cope with these applications. The intelligence embedded and distributed throughout various segments of the telemetry system will need to be overridden by an operator in case of life-threatening situations, making it a real-time integration issue. Suitable MIL standards on physical interfaces and protocols will be adopted to suit the payload telemetry system. New technologies and techniques will be developed for fast retrieval of mass data. Currently, these technology issues are being addressed to provide more efficient, reliable, and reconfigurable systems. There is a need, however, to change the operation culture. The current role of NASA as a leader in developing all the new innovative hardware should be altered to save both time and money. We should use all the available hardware/software developed by the industry and use the existing standards rather than inventing our own.

  10. Flight Avionics Sequencing Telemetry (FAST) DIV Latching Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Engineering (NE) Directorate at Kennedy Space Center provides engineering services to major programs such as: Space Shuttle, Inter national Space Station, and the Launch Services Program (LSP). The Av ionics Division within NE, provides avionics and flight control syste ms engineering support to LSP. The Launch Services Program is respons ible for procuring safe and reliable services for transporting critical, one of a kind, NASA payloads into orbit. As a result, engineers mu st monitor critical flight events during countdown and launch to asse ss anomalous behavior or any unexpected occurrence. The goal of this project is to take a tailored Systems Engineering approach to design, develop, and test Iris telemetry displays. The Flight Avionics Sequen cing Telemetry Delta-IV (FAST-D4) displays will provide NASA with an improved flight event monitoring tool to evaluate launch vehicle heal th and performance during system-level ground testing and flight. Flight events monitored will include data from the Redundant Inertial Fli ght Control Assembly (RIFCA) flight computer and launch vehicle comma nd feedback data. When a flight event occurs, the flight event is ill uminated on the display. This will enable NASA Engineers to monitor c ritical flight events on the day of launch. Completion of this project requires rudimentary knowledge of launch vehicle Guidance, Navigatio n, and Control (GN&C) systems, telemetry, and console operation. Work locations for the project include the engineering office, NASA telem etry laboratory, and Delta launch sites.

  11. New Concept of Telemetry Subsystem Architecture for Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peragin, E.; Richard, G.

    2008-08-01

    The missions devoted to small satellites, always more and more diverse and comples, require high performance and flexible platform subsystems. In that context, the next generation of TTC and Payload TeleMetry subsystems should be flexible in order to cover the needs of a large variety of missions and orbits. They must also be optimized in consumption because energy is restricted on small platforms. Currently, TT&C and payload TM subsystems are fully independent. Small platform and payload telemetry data rate missions are supported by the S band TT&C subsystem. The maximum data rate is limited to few Mbits/s due to the congestion of the S band and to the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations. Higher data rate missions are covered by Payload TM subsystem in X band. This type of architecture does not permit to answer efficiently to medium data rate missions needs and limits possible improvements at the equipment level. This paper presents a new concept of TT&C and Payload TM subsystems in S and X band, based on modular architecture, able to provide continuous telemetry data rate from 100 kbits/s to 10 Mbits/s, with significant power consumption reduction and extended antenna coverage in X band. The validity of the concept is consolidated by Research & Development (R&D0 studies, performed to prepare a new generation of low cost equipment and based on Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) use.

  12. A high-rate PCI-based telemetry processor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turri, R.

    2002-07-01

    The high performances reached by the Satellite on-board telemetry generation and transmission, as consequently, will impose the design of ground facilities with higher processing capabilities at low cost to allow a good diffusion of these ground station. The equipment normally used are based on complex, proprietary bus and computing architectures that prevent the systems from exploiting the continuous and rapid increasing in computing power available on market. The PCI bus systems now allow processing of high-rate data streams in a standard PC-system. At the same time the Windows NT operating system supports multitasking and symmetric multiprocessing, giving the capability to process high data rate signals. In addition, high-speed networking, 64 bit PCI-bus technologies and the increase in processor power and software, allow creating a system based on COTS products (which in future may be easily and inexpensively upgraded). In the frame of EUCLID RTP 9.8 project, a specific work element was dedicated to develop the architecture of a system able to acquire telemetry data of up to 600 Mbps. Laben S.p.A - a Finmeccanica Company -, entrusted of this work, has designed a PCI-based telemetry system making possible the communication between a satellite down-link and a wide area network at the required rate.

  13. Overview of affinity tags for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Michelle E; Brill, Allison L; Pasker, Renee L

    2013-01-01

    Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, as well as for detecting protein-protein interactions. This overview describes the historical basis for the development of affinity tags, affinity tags that are commonly used today, how to choose an appropriate affinity tag for a particular purpose, and several recently developed affinity tag technologies that may prove useful in the near future. PMID:24510596

  14. Heart rate, multiple body temperature, long-range and long-life telemetry system for free-ranging animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.

    1980-01-01

    The design details and rationale for a versatile, long-range, long-life telemetry data acquisition system for heart rates and body temperatures at multiple locations from free-ranging animals are presented. The design comprises an implantable transmitter for short to medium range transmission, a receiver retransmitter collar to be worn for long-range transmission, and a signal conditioner interface circuit to assist in signal discrimination and demodulation of receiver or tape-recorded audio outputs. Implanted electrodes are used to obtain an ECG, from which R-wave characteristics are selected to trigger a short RF pulse. Pulses carrying heart rate information are interrupted periodically by a series of pulse interval modulated RF pulses conveying temperature information sensed at desired locations by thermistors. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as radio frequency interference. The implanted transmitter may be used alone for medium and short-range tracking, or with a receiver-transmitter collar that employs commercial tracking equipment for transmissions of up to 12 km. A system prototype has been tested on a dog.

  15. Mapping spatial resources with GPS animal telemetry: foraging manatees locate seagrass beds in the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson

    2013-01-01

    Turbid water conditions make the delineation and characterization of benthic habitats difficult by traditional in situ and remote sensing methods. Here, we develop and validate modeling and sampling methodology for detecting and characterizing seagrass beds by analyzing GPS telemetry records from radio-tagged manatees. Between October 2002 and October 2005, 14 manatees were tracked in the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) in southwest Florida (USA) using Global Positioning System (GPS) tags. High density manatee use areas were found to occur off each island facing the open, nearshore waters of the Gulf of Mexico. We implemented a spatially stratified random sampling plan and used a camera-based sampling technique to observe and record bottom observations of seagrass and macroalgae presence and abundance. Five species of seagrass were identified in our study area: Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, Halophila engelmannii, and Halophila decipiens. A Bayesian model was developed to choose and parameterize a spatial process function that would describe the observed patterns of seagrass and macroalgae. The seagrasses were found in depths <2 m and in the higher manatee use strata, whereas macroalgae was found at moderate densities at all sampled depths and manatee use strata. The manatee spatial data showed a strong association with seagrass beds, a relationship that increased seagrass sampling efficiency. Our camera-based field sampling proved to be effective for assessing seagrass density and spatial coverage under turbid water conditions, and would be an effective monitoring tool to detect changes in seagrass beds.

  16. Modulation Techniques for Biomedical Implanted Devices and Their Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Mahammad A.; Abbas, Saad M.; Samad, Salina A.; Hussain, Aini

    2012-01-01

    Implanted medical devices are very important electronic devices because of their usefulness in monitoring and diagnosis, safety and comfort for patients. Since 1950s, remarkable efforts have been undertaken for the development of bio-medical implanted and wireless telemetry bio-devices. Issues such as design of suitable modulation methods, use of power and monitoring devices, transfer energy from external to internal parts with high efficiency and high data rates and low power consumption all play an important role in the development of implantable devices. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on various modulation and demodulation techniques such as amplitude shift keying (ASK), frequency shift keying (FSK) and phase shift keying (PSK) of the existing wireless implanted devices. The details of specifications, including carrier frequency, CMOS size, data rate, power consumption and supply, chip area and application of the various modulation schemes of the implanted devices are investigated and summarized in the tables along with the corresponding key references. Current challenges and problems of the typical modulation applications of these technologies are illustrated with a brief suggestions and discussion for the progress of implanted device research in the future. It is observed that the prime requisites for the good quality of the implanted devices and their reliability are the energy transformation, data rate, CMOS size, power consumption and operation frequency. This review will hopefully lead to increasing efforts towards the development of low powered, high efficient, high data rate and reliable implanted devices. PMID:22368470

  17. Temporal and spatial estimates of adult striped bass mortality from telemetry and transmitter return data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of total mortality, fishing mortality, and natural mortality in the fishery for the adult striped bass Morone saxatilis in J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir, South Carolina-Georgia, were determined from long-term radiotelemetry data and high-reward radio transmitter return data using catch curve analyses. Annual total mortality rates were 0.81 ?? 0.06 (mean ?? SE) for year 1 (July 1999-June 2000) and 0.42 ?? 0.04 for year 2 (July 2000-June 2001). We observed that the force of fishing was much greater than the force of natural death on total mortality in this fishery. Total exploitation of all implanted striped bass over the 2-year study period was 48%. Fishing mortality rates were 0.67 ?? 0.04 for year 1 and 0.33 ?? 0.02 for year 2, and natural mortality rates were 0.14 ?? 0.02 for year 1 and 0.09 ?? 0.02 for year 2. We also identified seasonal increases in total and fishing mortality rates from July to September. Fishing mortality was highest temporally and spatially during late spring and late summer near the tailrace below Richard B. Russell Dam owing to high angling pressure for striped bass while the fish were congregated in summer refugia. Natural mortality occurred only during mid to late summer in the middle section of the reservoir. These deaths were attributed to striped bass's becoming trapped in unsuitable summer habitat in the lower and middle sections of the reservoir. Mean postsurgery growth from 15 harvested study fish at large for a mean of 1.16 ?? 0.81 years was estimated to be 1.71 ?? 0.73 kg/year. Internal implantation of telemetry devices appeared to have no negative effect on long-term growth, health, and survival of adult striped bass and did not bias mortality and survival estimates.

  18. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  19. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  20. A microcontroller-based telemetry system for sympathetic nerve activity and ECG measurement.

    PubMed

    Harada, E; Yonezawa, Y; Caldwell, W M; Hahn, A W

    1999-01-01

    A telemetry system employing a low power 8-bit microcontroller has been developed for chronic unanesthetized small animal studies. The two-channel system is designed for use with animals in shielded cages. Analog signals from implantable ECG and nerve electrodes are converted to an 8-bit serial digital format. This is accomplished by individual 8 bit A/D converters included in the microcontroller, which also has serial I/O port. The converted serial binary code is applied directly to an antenna wire. Therefore, the system does not need to employ a separate transmitter, such as in FM or infrared optical telemeters. The system is used in a shielded animal cage to reduce interference from external radio signals and 60 Hz power line fields. The code is received by a high input impedance amplifier in the cage and is then demodulated. The telemeter is powered by a small 3 V lithium battery, which provides 100 hours of continuous operation. The circuit is constructed on two 25 x 25 mm. printed circuit boards and encapsulated in epoxy, yielding a total volume of 6.25 cc. The weight is 15 g. PMID:11143393

  1. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System: Annual Report, 1985-1986.

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, Earl F.; Park, D.L.; Flagg, T.A.; McCutcheon, S.

    1986-12-01

    An ongoing cooperative project between the Bonneville Power Administration and the National Marine Fisheries Service was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the technical and biological feasibility of adapting a new identification system to salmonids. The system is based upon the passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag. This report discusses the work completed in 1985 and is divided into laboratory and field studies. All studies were conducted with the tag implanted into the body cavity of the test fish via a 12-gauge hypodermic needle.

  2. A packet based, data driven telemetry system for autonomous experimental sub-orbital spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, J.R.

    1993-04-26

    A data driven telemetry system is described that responds to the rapid nature in which experimental satellite telemetry content is changed during the development process. It also meets the needs of a diverse experiment which the many phases of a mission may contain radically different types of telemetry data. The system emphasizes mechanisms for achieving high redundancy of critical data. A practical example of such an implementation, Brilliant Pebbles Flight Experiment Three (FE-3), is cited.

  3. Social image tagging with diverse semantics.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xueming; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Tang, Yuan Yan; Mei, Tao

    2014-12-01

    We have witnessed the popularity of image-sharing websites for sharing personal experiences through photos on the Web. These websites allow users describing the content of their uploaded images with a set of tags. Those user-annotated tags are often noisy and biased. Social image tagging aims at removing noisy tags and suggests new relevant tags. However, most existing tag enrichment approaches predominantly focus on tag relevance and overlook tag diversity problem. How to make the top-ranked tags covering a wide range of semantic is still an opening, yet challenging, issue. In this paper, we propose an approach to retag social images with diverse semantics. Both the relevance of a tag to image as well as its semantic compensations to the already determined tags are fused to determine the final tag list for a given image. Different from existing image tagging approaches, the top-ranked tags are not only highly relevant to the image but also have significant semantic compensations with each other. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25415950

  4. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  5. WebTag: Web Browsing into Sensor Tags over NFC

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, Juan Jose; Ruiz-de-Garibay, Jonathan; Legarda, Jon; Álvarez, Maite; Ayerbe, Ana; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) continue to overcome many of the challenges related to wireless sensor monitoring, such as for example the design of smarter embedded processors, the improvement of the network architectures, the development of efficient communication protocols or the maximization of the life cycle autonomy. This work tries to improve the communication link of the data transmission in wireless sensor monitoring. The upstream communication link is usually based on standard IP technologies, but the downstream side is always masked with the proprietary protocols used for the wireless link (like ZigBee, Bluetooth, RFID, etc.). This work presents a novel solution (WebTag) for a direct IP based access to a sensor tag over the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for secure applications. WebTag allows a direct web access to the sensor tag by means of a standard web browser, it reads the sensor data, configures the sampling rate and implements IP based security policies. It is, definitely, a new step towards the evolution of the Internet of Things paradigm. PMID:23012511

  6. WebTag: Web browsing into sensor tags over NFC.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Juan Jose; Ruiz-de-Garibay, Jonathan; Legarda, Jon; Alvarez, Maite; Ayerbe, Ana; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) continue to overcome many of the challenges related to wireless sensor monitoring, such as for example the design of smarter embedded processors, the improvement of the network architectures, the development of efficient communication protocols or the maximization of the life cycle autonomy. This work tries to improve the communication link of the data transmission in wireless sensor monitoring. The upstream communication link is usually based on standard IP technologies, but the downstream side is always masked with the proprietary protocols used for the wireless link (like ZigBee, Bluetooth, RFID, etc.). This work presents a novel solution (WebTag) for a direct IP based access to a sensor tag over the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for secure applications. WebTag allows a direct web access to the sensor tag by means of a standard web browser, it reads the sensor data, configures the sampling rate and implements IP based security policies. It is, definitely, a new step towards the evolution of the Internet of Things paradigm.

  7. Increased project efficiency using telemetry technology as part of an integrated data management system

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Until recently, the use of telemetry in the environmental consulting industry has generally been limited to large scale projects and the occasional collection of equipment or field instrumentation data from environmental remediation hardware. With today`s ever increasing personal computer processing power and decreasing prices, telemetry based management is feasible for smaller scale projects. With the increased focus on cost reduction within the environmental industry, successful project managers will take advantage of increased efficiencies available through the use of telemetry. Like any tool though, those that use it must understand how to make use of telemetry technology from raw data collection through data reduction and analysis to production of the final report.

  8. Satellite relay telemetry of seismic data in earthquake prediction and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Wayne H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

    1971-01-01

    The Satellite Telemetry Earthquake Monitoring Program was started in FY 1968 to evaluate the applicability of satellite relay telemetry in the collection of seismic data from a large number of dense seismograph clusters laid out along the major fault systems of western North America. Prototype clusters utilizing phone-line telemetry were then being installed by the National Center for Earthquake Research (NCER) in 3 regions along the San Andreas fault in central California; and the experience of installing and operating the clusters and in reducing and analyzing the seismic data from them was to provide the raw materials for evaluation in the satellite relay telemetry project.

  9. Performance degradation of the Block IV telemetry system due to the presence of a CW interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of an in-band continuous wave interference can seriously degrade the performance of a telemetry system. Degradation effects for a phase shift keying (PSK) system can be found in Refs. 1 and 2. The telemetry system employed for deep space communications is a binary phase-shift keying system (BPSK) with squarewave subcarriers. The use of squarewave subcarriers makes the system less sensitive to in-band interference than a system using sinusoidal subcarriers. A model that allows one to predict the telemetry degradation for the deep space telemetry system is presented and backed with experimental data.

  10. The behavior of a Costas loop in the presence of space telemetry signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1992-01-01

    When the Costas loop is operated in the presence of a residual carrier space telemetry signal, the loop reconstructs its carrier reference from an input signal whose carrier component is not completely suppressed. The telemetry signal investigated in this work is generated by phase shift-keying the data onto a subcarrier and then phase modulating onto the sinusoidal carrier. The telemetry modulation index, telemetry bit rate, subcarrier waveform, and subcarrier frequency are shown to be the key system parameters that contribute to the performance degradation of a Costas loop. Furthermore, the effect of Doppler shift on the loop is also investigated in this work.

  11. What Do Tag Games Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belka, David

    2006-01-01

    Tag games have been described as "Chasing, fleeing, and dodging" type activities. Most "fleeing" activities involve dramatic play, use of movement concepts (such as quick and light), or movement changes without a partner, while many of the chasing and dodging activities utilize dodging concepts between partners or within small groups and are…

  12. SRNL Tagging and Tracking Video

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    SRNL generates a next generation satellite base tracking system. The tagging and tracking system can work in remote wilderness areas, inside buildings, underground and other areas not well served by traditional GPS. It’s a perfect response to customer needs and market demand.

  13. Micro-battery Development for Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honghao; Cartmell, Samuel; Wang, Qiang; Lozano, Terence; Deng, Z. Daniel; Li, Huidong; Chen, Xilin; Yuan, Yong; Gross, Mark E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act requires actions that improve the passage and survival rates for migrating salmonoids and other fish species that sustain injury and mortality when passing through hydroelectric dams. To develop a low-cost revolutionary acoustic transmitter that may be injected instead of surgically implanted into the fish, one major challenge that needs to be addressed is the micro-battery power source. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of micro-batteries for injectable fish tags. High pulse current and required service life have both been achieved as well as doubling the gravimetric energy density of the battery. The newly designed micro-batteries have intrinsically low impedance, leading to significantly improved electrochemical performances at low temperatures as compared with commercial SR416 batteries. Successful field trial by using the micro-battery powered transmitters injected into fish has been demonstrated, providing an exemplary model of transferring fundamental research into practical devices with controlled qualities. PMID:24445689

  14. Micro-battery development for juvenile salmon acoustic telemetry system applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honghao; Cartmell, Samuel; Wang, Qiang; Lozano, Terence; Deng, Z Daniel; Li, Huidong; Chen, Xilin; Yuan, Yong; Gross, Mark E; Carlson, Thomas J; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act requires actions that improve the passage and survival rates for migrating salmonoids and other fish species that sustain injury and mortality when passing through hydroelectric dams. To develop a low-cost revolutionary acoustic transmitter that may be injected instead of surgically implanted into the fish, one major challenge that needs to be addressed is the micro-battery power source. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of micro-batteries for injectable fish tags. High pulse current and required service life have both been achieved as well as doubling the gravimetric energy density of the battery. The newly designed micro-batteries have intrinsically low impedance, leading to significantly improved electrochemical performances at low temperatures as compared with commercial SR416 batteries. Successful field trial by using the micro-battery powered transmitters injected into fish has been demonstrated, providing an exemplary model of transferring fundamental research into practical devices with controlled qualities. PMID:24445689

  15. Micro-battery Development for Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Honghao; Cartmell, Samuel; Wang, Qiang; Lozano, Terence; Deng, Z. Daniel; Li, Huidong; Chen, Xilin; Yuan, Yong; Gross, Mark E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act requires actions that improve the passage and survival rates for migrating salmonoids and other fish species that sustain injury and mortality when passing through hydroelectric dams. To develop a low-cost revolutionary acoustic transmitter that may be injected instead of surgically implanted into the fish, one major challenge that needs to be addressed is the micro-battery power source. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of micro-batteries for injectable fish tags. High pulse current and required service life have both been achieved as well as doubling the gravimetric energy density of the battery. The newly designed micro-batteries have intrinsically low impedance, leading to significantly improved electrochemical performances at low temperatures as compared with commercial SR416 batteries. Successful field trial by using the micro-battery powered transmitters injected into fish has been demonstrated, providing an exemplary model of transferring fundamental research into practical devices with controlled qualities.

  16. Micro-battery development for juvenile salmon acoustic telemetry system applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honghao; Cartmell, Samuel; Wang, Qiang; Lozano, Terence; Deng, Z Daniel; Li, Huidong; Chen, Xilin; Yuan, Yong; Gross, Mark E; Carlson, Thomas J; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-21

    The Endangered Species Act requires actions that improve the passage and survival rates for migrating salmonoids and other fish species that sustain injury and mortality when passing through hydroelectric dams. To develop a low-cost revolutionary acoustic transmitter that may be injected instead of surgically implanted into the fish, one major challenge that needs to be addressed is the micro-battery power source. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of micro-batteries for injectable fish tags. High pulse current and required service life have both been achieved as well as doubling the gravimetric energy density of the battery. The newly designed micro-batteries have intrinsically low impedance, leading to significantly improved electrochemical performances at low temperatures as compared with commercial SR416 batteries. Successful field trial by using the micro-battery powered transmitters injected into fish has been demonstrated, providing an exemplary model of transferring fundamental research into practical devices with controlled qualities.

  17. Monitoring Spacecraft Telemetry Via Optical or RF Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielhauer, K. B.; Boone, B. G.

    2011-01-01

    A patent disclosure document discusses a photonic method for connecting a spacecraft with a launch vehicle upper-stage telemetry system as a means for monitoring a spacecraft fs health and status during and right after separation and deployment. This method also provides an efficient opto-coupled capability for prelaunch built-in-test (BIT) on the ground to enable more efficient and timely integration, preflight checkout, and a means to obviate any local EMI (electromagnetic interference) during integration and test. Additional utility can be envisioned for BIT on other platforms, such as the International Space Station (ISS). The photonic telemetry system implements an optical free-space link with a divergent laser transmitter beam spoiled over a significant cone angle to accommodate changes in spacecraft position without having to angle track it during deployment. Since the spacecraft may lose attitude control and tumble during deployment, the transmitted laser beam interrogates any one of several low-profile meso-scale retro-reflective spatial light modulators (SLMs) deployed over the surface of the spacecraft. The return signal beam, modulated by the SLMs, contains health, status, and attitude information received back at the launch vehicle. Very compact low-power opto-coupler technology already exists for the received signal (requiring relatively low bandwidths, e.g., .200 kbps) to enable transfer to a forward pass RF relay from the launch vehicle to TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System) or another recipient. The link would be active during separation and post-separation to monitor spacecraft health, status, attitude, or other data inventories until attitude recovery and ground control can be re-established. An optical link would not interfere with the existing upper stage telemetry and beacon systems, thus meeting launch vehicle EMI environmental constraints.

  18. Radio-tracking manatees from land and space: tag design, implementation, and lessons learned from long-term study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, C.J.; Bonde, R.K.; Reid, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) were tracked along the Atlantic coast of Florida and Georgia (N = 83 manatees, n = 439 tag deployments, 1986-1996) and in eastern Puerto Rico (N = 8, n = 43, 1992-1996) using conventional and satellite-based radio-telemetry systems. A floating radio-tag, attached by a flexible tether to a padded belt around the base of the tail, enabled us to track manatees in saltwater environments. The tag incorporated VHF (very high frequency) and ultrasonic transmitters for field tracking and tag recovery, and an Argos satellite-monitored transmitter for remote tracking. We located each animal in the field about twice per week, received more than 60 000 good-quality Argos locations, and recovered tags in over 90% of deployments. The tag was designed to detach from the belt when entangled to prevent injury or drowning, and this often led to premature termination of tracking bouts. We had considerable success, however, in retagging belted manatees without recapture (97% of 392 retagging events). Most individuals were radio-tagged more than once (median = 3.0, maximum = 43) for a median total duration of 7.5 months (maximum = 6.8 yr). Data obtained through Argos have been valuable in addressing questions relating to long-distance movements, site fidelity, and identification of high-use areas. Fine-scale analyses of manatee habitat use and movements may require restricting the data set to the highest location quality or developing new analytical techniques to incorporate locational error. Field tracking provided useful ancillary data on life-history parameters, but sample sizes were small and survival estimates imprecise. Modification of the existing tag design to include Global Positioning System (GPS) functionality, with its finer spatial and temporal resolution, will offer new opportunities to address critical research and management problems facing this endangered species.

  19. Assessment of Barotrauma Resulting from Rapid Decompression of Depth Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radio Telemetry Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Theriault, Marie-Helene

    2007-09-06

    A multifactor study was conducted by Battelle for the US Army Corps of Engineers to assess the significance of the presence of a radio telemetry transmitter on the effects of rapid decompression from simulated hydro turbine passage on depth acclimated juvenile run-of-the-river Chinook salmon. Study factors were: (1) juvenile chinook salmon age;, subyearling or yearling, (2) radio transmitter present or absent, (3) three transmitter implantation factors: gastric, surgical, and no transmitter, and (4) four acclimation depth factors: 1, 10, 20, and 40 foot submergence equivalent absolute pressure, for a total of 48 unique treatments. Exposed fish were examined for changes in behavior, presence or absence of barotrauma injuries, and immediate or delayed mortality. Logistic models were used to test hypotheses that addressed study objectives. The presence of a radio transmitter was found to significantly increase the risk of barotrauma injury and mortality at exposure to rapid decompression. Gastric implantation was found to present a higher risk than surgical implantation. Fish were exposed within 48 hours of transmitter implantation so surgical incisions were not completely healed. The difference in results obtained for gastric and surgical implantation methods may be the result of study design and the results may have been different if tested fish had completely healed surgical wounds. However, the test did simulate the typical surgical-release time frame for in-river telemetry studies of fish survival so the results are probably representative for fish passing through a turbine shortly following release into the river. The finding of a significant difference in response to rapid decompression between fish bearing radio transmitters and those not implies a bias may exist in estimates of turbine passage survival obtained using radio telemetry. However, the rapid decompression (simulated turbine passage) conditions used for the study represented near worst case exposure

  20. Studies relating to FM television and telemetry transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albritton, W. P.; Honnell, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Auburn University Model S-2 FM television transmitter was examined to determine if the performance and reliability could be improved by application of new techniques and devices developed since completion of the original design work. In particular this study examined the possibility of increased use of integrated circuits. It was determined that improvements in both performance and reliability were possible. In addition a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of converting the transmitter to handle telemetry signals. The study revealed that this conversion was feasible and the modifications were made to the prototype model for verification.

  1. Plant Habitat Telemetry / Command Interface and E-MIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Uriae M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant Habitat (PH) is an experiment to be taken to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016. It is critical that ground support computers have the ability to uplink commands to control PH, and that ISS computers have the ability to downlink PH telemetry data to ground support. This necessitates communication software that can send, receive, and process, PH specific commands and telemetry. The objective of the Plant Habitat Telemetry/ Command Interface is to provide this communication software, and to couple it with an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI). Initial investigation of the project objective led to the decision that code be written in C++ because of its compatibility with existing source code infrastructures and robustness. Further investigation led to a determination that multiple Ethernet packet structures would need to be created to effectively transmit data. Setting a standard for packet structures would allow us to distinguish these packets that would range from command type packets to sub categories of telemetry packets. In order to handle this range of packet types, the conclusion was made to take an object-oriented programming approach which complemented our decision to use the C++ programming language. In addition, extensive utilization of port programming concepts was required to implement the core functionality of the communication software. Also, a concrete understanding of a packet processing software was required in order to put aU the components of ISS-to-Ground Support Equipment (GSE) communication together and complete the objective. A second project discussed in this paper is Exposing Microbes to the Stratosphere (EMIST). This project exposes microbes into the stratosphere to observe how they are impacted by atmospheric effects. This paper focuses on the electrical and software expectations of the project, specifically drafting the printed circuit board, and programming the on-board sensors. The Eagle Computer-Aided Drafting

  2. A grouped binary time code for telemetry and space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    A computer oriented time code designed for users with various time resolution requirements is presented. It is intended as a time code for spacecraft and ground applications where direct code compatibility with automatic data processing equipment is of primary consideration. The principal features of this time code are: byte oriented format, selectable resolution options (from seconds to nanoseconds); and long ambiguity period. The time code is compatible with the new data handling and management concepts such as the NASA End-to-End Data System and the Telemetry Data Packetization format.

  3. Buried telemetry system for in-situ energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D. E.; Caffey, T. W.H.

    1980-01-01

    During an in-situ energy extraction process, a continuous knowledge of the temperature profile through the combustion area is desirable for analysis and control. To provide this data, a telemetry system has been developed that will monitor the thermocouples from beneath the process bed, digitize the data into 12 bit words and store them into memory. Every six hours, the stored data is transmitted laterally through the earth to a receiver outside of the high temperature zone and then sent to the surface by wire where it is stored on magnetic tape and processed and displayed on a Texas Instruments Silent 700 terminal.

  4. Simulation of communication line for down hole telemetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchenko, A. V.; Belov, M. D.; Khokhlov, K. O.; Tcherepanov, A. N.; Naronov, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The results of simulation of equivalent circuit of transmission line of down hole telemetry system has been presented. The paper shows the possible solution of communication system by a power-line communication technique for downhole monitoring. On the base of simulation results of equivalent circuit of presented model of transmission line the binary frequency-shift keying (BFSK) method of information transmission is proposed. The simulation of the temperature changing and disturbance appearance has been made. The influence of them on the signal parameters are presented and discussed.

  5. Tracking the Galileo spacecraft with the DSCC Galileo Telemetry prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, T. T.; Shambayati, S.; Hardi, D. E.; Finley, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    On day of the year 062, 1994, a prototype of the Deep Space Communications Complex Galileo Telemetry subsystem successfully tracked and processed signals from the Galileo spacecraft, under fully suppressed-carrier modulation. The demonstration took place at Goldstone, employing the 70-m antenna and the 34-m high-efficiency antenna. This article presents the findings from that demonstration. Specific issues are the system performance in terms of signal-to-noise (SNR) degradation and the arraying gain. Validation of the test results is via symbol-error-rate measurement and the standard symbol SNR. The analysis is also extended to include characterization of the signal received from Galileo.

  6. Thermal recoil force, telemetry, and the Pioneer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, Viktor T.; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2009-02-15

    Precision navigation of spacecraft requires accurate knowledge of small forces, including the recoil force due to anisotropies of thermal radiation emitted by spacecraft systems. We develop a formalism to derive the thermal recoil force from the basic principles of radiative heat exchange and energy-momentum conservation. The thermal power emitted by the spacecraft can be computed from engineering data obtained from flight telemetry, which yields a practical approach to incorporate the thermal recoil force into precision spacecraft navigation. Alternatively, orbit determination can be used to estimate the contribution of the thermal recoil force. We apply this approach to the Pioneer anomaly using a simulated Pioneer 10 Doppler data set.

  7. Apollo 11 Telemetry Data Recordings: A Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    When astronauts landed on the moon on July 20, 1969, the Eagle lander carried a small, unconventional television camera affixed to the inside of the door. It had one mission. Once astronauts opened the door and activated the camera, it would begin shooting live images of the historic event, transmitting the raw footage by way of an antenna to Earth below. There, engineers at three tracking stations would tape the original signals onto one-inch telemetry tapes fpr backup and then also convert the raw feed into a conventional format compatible with American broadcast standards.

  8. ISTAR: Intelligent System for Telemetry Analysis in Real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Charles

    1994-05-01

    The intelligent system for telemetry analysis in real-time (ISTAR) is an advanced vehicle monitoring environment incorporating expert systems, analysis tools, and on-line hypermedia documentation. The system was developed for the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) in Los Angeles, California, in support of the inertial upper stage (IUS) booster vehicle. Over a five year period the system progressed from rapid prototype to operational system. ISTAR has been used to support five IUS missions and countless mission simulations. There were a significant number of lessons learned with respect to integrating an expert system capability into an existing ground system.

  9. Behavior Of Costas Loop In Reception Of Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1991-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of behavior of Costas loop in reception of radio carrier signal modulated in phase by sinusoidal or square-wave subcarrier, further modulated in phase by nonreturn-to-zero binary data signal. Phase and frequency of received signal affected by Doppler shift, and instantaneous amplitude of received signal corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. Signals of this type ordinarily used in spacecraft telemetry, sine-wave subcarrier being preferred for shorter signal paths and square-wave subcarrier for longer signal paths.

  10. Telemetry formats for the Space Station RF links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marker, Walter

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the formats that have been proposed for the manned Space Station space/ground RF link. In addition to discussing the specific RF formats, the paper seeks to discuss the requirements that have caused the proposed format to exist in its current form. The paper begins by briefly discussing the historical basis for telemetry formats within NASA, and then discusses the unique requirements that the Space Station imposes, compared to traditional space probes. The paper next treats the overall requirements that must be satisfied by the Space Station communications system. Finally the paper discusses the details of the RF format and its proposed operational usage.

  11. Effect of PCM encoding on wide band telemetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, T. F.; Nichols, M. H.

    In order to comply with certain mission requirements, it is necessary to encode telemetry data into pulse code modulation (PCM). For this reason, test data have been obtained in order to determine the effects of quantization errors and bit errors with special reference to wide-band noise-like data signals involving data reduction by spectral analysis. The use of notch noises tests for determining coder/decoder (CODEC) performance has been evaluated. Test procedures and test results are given using CODEC configurations of 4 to 12 bits per word. Parameters for encoding constant bandwidth (CBW) and proportional bandwidth (PBW) subcarrier multiplexes for PCM transmission are included.

  12. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... outside of the body, behind the ear. A second part is surgically placed under the skin. An implant does not restore normal hearing. It can help a person understand speech. Children and adults can benefit from them. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  13. Facial implants.

    PubMed

    Arcuri, M R; Rubenstein, J T

    1998-01-01

    The application of endosseous dental implants for the retention and stabilization of extraoral prostheses and hearing aids has been shown to be effective functionally and aesthetically. Implants have reduced the need for adhesive use, simplifying cleaning procedures and thus extending the life of the prosthesis. Implant-retained prostheses have provided patients the opportunity to participate in routine activities such as work, shopping, swimming, and jogging with less fear of losing their prosthesis. The implants' impact on patients has resulted in their ability to function in society with confidence that their defects will be less noticeable and their ability to respond to the environment enhanced. The culmination of these effects have without doubt improved the overall quality of life for patients. As with any new technology, its application will encounter unanticipated problems and some limitations in use. As the art and science of this technique evolve, however, it is anticipated that it will result in the ability to provide improved health care for patients.

  14. Tag removal in cardiac tagged MRI images using coupled dictionary learning.

    PubMed

    Makram, Abram W; Rushdi, Muhammad A; Khalifa, Ayman M; El-Wakad, Mohamed T

    2015-01-01

    Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging (tMRI) is considered to be the gold standard for quantitative assessment of the cardiac local functions. However, the tagging patterns and low myocardium-to-blood-pool contrast of tagged images bring great challenges to cardiac image processing and analysis tasks such as myocardium segmentation and tracking. Hence, there has been growing interest in techniques for removing tagging lines. In this work, a method for removing tagging patterns in tagged MR images using a coupled dictionary learning (CDL) model is proposed. In this model, identical sparse representations are assumed for image patches in the tagged MRI and corresponding cine MRI image spaces. First, we learn a dictionary for the tagged MRI image space. Then, we compute a dictionary for the cine MRI image space so that corresponding tagged and cine patches have the same sparse codes in terms of their respective dictionaries. Finally, in order to produce the de-tagged (cine version) of a test tagged image, the sparse codes of the tagged patches and the trained cine dictionary are used together to construct the de-tagged patches. We have tested this tag removal method on a dataset of tagged cardiac MR images. Our experimental results compared favorably with a recently proposed tag removal method that removes tags in the frequency domain using an optimal band-stop filter of harmonic peaks.

  15. Computational Modeling of Electromagnetic and Thermal Effects for a Dual-Unit Retinal Prosthesis: Inductive Telemetry, Temperature Increase, and Current Densities in the Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Cela, Carlos J.; Singh, Vinit; Weiland, James; Humayun, Mark S.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    Recent advances in electromagnetic and thermal modeling of a dual-unit retinal prosthesis are presented. The focus is on the latest computational methods to quantify electrical and thermal deposition in the human tissue with the ultimate goal of addressing safety concerns and optimizing the overall performance of the system. A Partial Inductance Method (PIM) is used for the computation of the electrical coupling parameters of the radiating and receiving telemetry coils. Results for the inductive coil coupling are presented and different coil geometries are compared. Further, a finite difference method for the solution of a bio-heat equation is used to compute the temperature increase caused by the implanted electronics and the electromagnetic absorption due to the external power and data telemetry link. Temperature increases due to the implanted microchip, coils, and stimulating electrode array are shown. Finally, our computational approach based on a multi-resolution impedance method is used for the computation current spread in the human tissue. Results are presented showing variations of current spread in the retina and eye due to different electrode array geometries and placement configurations.

  16. Migration and wintering sites of Pelagic Cormorants determined by satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Factors affecting winter survival may be key determinants of status and population trends of seabirds, but connections between breeding sites and wintering areas of most populations are poorly known. Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus; N= 6) surgically implanted with satellite transmitters migrated from a breeding colony on Middleton Island, northern Gulf of Alaska, to wintering sites in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Winter locations averaged 920 km (range = 600-1190 km) from the breeding site. Migration flights in fall and spring lasted ???5 d in four instances. After reaching wintering areas, cormorants settled in narrowly circumscribed inshore locations (~10-km radius) and remained there throughout the nonbreeding period (September- March). Two juveniles tagged at the breeding colony as fledglings remained at their wintering sites for the duration of the tracking interval (14 and 22 mo, respectively). Most cormorants used multiple sites within their winter ranges for roosting and foraging. Band recoveries show that Pelagic Cormorants in southern British Columbia and Washington disperse locally in winter, rather than migrating like the cormorants in our study. Radio-tagging and monitoring cormorants and other seabirds from known breeding sites are vital for understanding migratory connectivity and improving conservation strategies for local populations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  17. Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

  18. Evidence that coded-wire-tagging procedures can enhance transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarum in chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Binary coded wire tags (CWTs) are used extensively for identification and management of anadromous salmonid populations. A study of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in two brood year groups of hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha provided strong evidence that horizontal transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of BKD, might be enhanced by CWT-marking procedures. About 4 months after CWTs were implanted in the snouts of juvenile fish, 14-16 different tissues were sampled from each of 60 fish per brood year group for histological analysis. Of the fish that were positive for R. salmoninarum by histological examination, 41% (7 of 17) of the 1988 brood year fish and 24% (10 of 42) of the 1989 brood year fish had BKD lesions confined to the head near the site of tag implantation. These lesions often resulted in the destruction of tissues of one or both olfactory organs. No focal snout infections were observed in fish that had not been marked with CWTs. Further data obtained from tissue analyses by use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a fluorescent antibody test for detection of R. salmoninarum supported the hypothesis that infections of R. salmoninarum can be initiated in the snout tissues of CWT-marked fish and then spread to other organs. The tagging procedures might promote transmission of the pathogen among fish via contaminated tagging needles, by facilitating the entry of pathogens through the injection wound, or both. Limited evidence from this study suggested that implantation of passive integrated transponder tags in the peritoneal cavities of fish might also promote the transmission of R. salmoninarum or exacerbate existing infections. The results indicated a need for strict sanitary procedures during the tagging of fish in populations positive for R. salmoninarum to reduce the probability of enhanced horizontal transmission of the pathogen.

  19. Survival and growth of age-0 steelhead after surgical implantation of 23-mm passive integrated transponders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, D.S.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little information is available on the effects of implanting 23-mm passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in salmonids less than 90 mm fork length (FL). Using juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (range, 73–97 mm FL), we compared instantaneous growth rates and survival among three experimental groups: control, surgery with no tag, and surgery with tag. Survival rate was lower for tagged fish (86%) than for control and surgery−no tag fish (virtually 100% in each group). Approximately 90% of the mortalities occurred during days 1–3. Growth rate for the tagged group was lower for the first two 10-d measurement intervals; however, during the third 10-d interval, growth rates for tagged fish equaled or exceeded values for the other groups. These results suggest that tagged fish recovered by day 20. Growth rates for the control and surgery−no tag groups did not differ from one another during any measurement interval. Tag retention rate was 97% over the 30-d period of the study. It appears that the combination of fish length and tag size in this study resulted in short-term negative effects on growth rate and survival; however, 23-mm PIT tags may still be useful for studies of salmonids 80–90 mm FL when survival is not the parameter of interest.

  20. A passive biodegradable implant for subcutaneous soft-tissue trauma monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rigelsford, Jonathan M; Al-Azzawi, Baraa F; Davenport, Christopher James; Novodvorsky, Peter

    2015-05-01

    In-body medical devices can play an important role in clinical monitoring and diagnosis of diseases. Wireless devices implanted within a patient have to be physically small, and must overcome the challenges of having a little or no onboard electrical power and the highly attenuating electromagnetic propagation environment which is the human body. In this paper, we investigate the use of biodegradable implant to monitor the healing of soft-tissue trauma and to allow early stage diagnosis of infection. The implantable tag is designed to degrade in a predetermined and controlled method, the stage of which can be measured from outside the body without the need for further surgical intervention. The speed of degradation of the tag depends on the temperature and acidity of the subcutaneous tissue in which the tag is implanted. We show that as the electrical length of the tag pattern increases due to degradation, the resonant frequency changes significantly, and this change in resonant frequency can be detected from outside the patient. Results are presented showing the tag's performance at normal and oblique incidence, and techniques for miniaturizing and enhancing the tag's response sensitivity are given. As the entire tag is biodegradable, there is no need for further postoperative surgery to remove it from the patient at the end of its useful life. PMID:25826811

  1. A passive biodegradable implant for subcutaneous soft-tissue trauma monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rigelsford, Jonathan M; Al-Azzawi, Baraa F; Davenport, Christopher James; Novodvorsky, Peter

    2015-05-01

    In-body medical devices can play an important role in clinical monitoring and diagnosis of diseases. Wireless devices implanted within a patient have to be physically small, and must overcome the challenges of having a little or no onboard electrical power and the highly attenuating electromagnetic propagation environment which is the human body. In this paper, we investigate the use of biodegradable implant to monitor the healing of soft-tissue trauma and to allow early stage diagnosis of infection. The implantable tag is designed to degrade in a predetermined and controlled method, the stage of which can be measured from outside the body without the need for further surgical intervention. The speed of degradation of the tag depends on the temperature and acidity of the subcutaneous tissue in which the tag is implanted. We show that as the electrical length of the tag pattern increases due to degradation, the resonant frequency changes significantly, and this change in resonant frequency can be detected from outside the patient. Results are presented showing the tag's performance at normal and oblique incidence, and techniques for miniaturizing and enhancing the tag's response sensitivity are given. As the entire tag is biodegradable, there is no need for further postoperative surgery to remove it from the patient at the end of its useful life.

  2. Cochlear implant electrode array misplaced in Hyrtl's fissure.

    PubMed

    Mouzali, Amina; Ouennoughi, Kheiredidine; Haraoubia, Mohamed-Salah; Zemirli, Omar; Triglia, Jean Michel

    2011-11-01

    Hyrtl's fissure is a cleft that is present in the developing fetal petrous temporal bone and extends from the area inferior to the round window to the meninges of the posterior fossa. Persistent Hyrtl's fissure, due to incomplete ossification, is considered a rare temporal bone malformation, and is a known cause of perilabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Very few cases are reported as being at risk of complication of cochlear implant surgery. Here we report the case of an 8-year-old boy with misplacement of an electrode array in Hyrtl's fissure. The diagnosis was made postoperatively, since cochlear implant failure was suspected from non-auditory responses. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the extracochlear location of the electrode array. We emphasize the role of presurgical imaging CT and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting temporal bone abnormalities, and we discuss the value of intraoperative auditory nerve response telemetry and postoperative radiological evaluation in diagnosing cochlear implant misplacement.

  3. Design and implementation of a volume conduction based RFID system for smart implants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Ogirala, Ajay; Berger, Lee; Mickle, Marlin

    2011-01-01

    As the population ages, knee and hip replacement surgeries are more and more popular, and embedding an RFID (radio frequency identification) tag on these implants for identification becomes an important issue. Traditional operation of an RFID tag by wireless means will not work on the implantable knees or hips which are made of metal because of the interference caused by metallic objects degrading the field strength near the RFID tag. This paper proposes a method of operating an RFID tag using volume conduction while avoiding the RF interference in a metallic environment. To increase the efficiency of power transmission, electrodes in this paper are designed and optimized for a real knee implant. Experiments using saline have been conducted and the results have shown that volume conduction has a better performance than wireless methods in that signal attenuation is far less in metallic environments. Finally, the experiment on reading an implanted RFID tag through pig skin shows that volume conduction is an effective method to operate an RFID tag embedded on a metallic implant. PMID:22254945

  4. Method for designing gas tag compositions

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1995-04-11

    For use in the manufacture of gas tags such as employed in a nuclear reactor gas tagging failure detection system, a method for designing gas tagging compositions utilizes an analytical approach wherein the final composition of a first canister of tag gas as measured by a mass spectrometer is designated as node No. 1. Lattice locations of tag nodes in multi-dimensional space are then used in calculating the compositions of a node No. 2 and each subsequent node so as to maximize the distance of each node from any combination of tag components which might be indistinguishable from another tag composition in a reactor fuel assembly. Alternatively, the measured compositions of tag gas numbers 1 and 2 may be used to fix the locations of nodes 1 and 2, with the locations of nodes 3-N then calculated for optimum tag gas composition. A single sphere defining the lattice locations of the tag nodes may be used to define approximately 20 tag nodes, while concentric spheres can extend the number of tag nodes to several hundred. 5 figures.

  5. Digital filtering for data compression in telemetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. M.

    There are many obstacles to using data compression in a telemetry system. Non-linear quantization is often too lossy, and the data is too highly structured to make variable-length entropy codes practical. This paper describes a lossless telemetry data compression system that was built using digital FIR filters. The method of compression takes advantage of the fact that the optimal Nyquist sampling rate is rarely achievable due to two factors: (1) Sensor/transducers are not bandlimited to the frequencies of interest; and (2) Accurate, high-order analog filters are not available to perform effective band limiting and prevent aliasing. Real-time digital filtering can enhance the performance of a typical sampling system so that it approaches Nyquist sampling rates, effectively compressing the amount of data and reducing transmission bandwidth. The system that was built reduced the sampling rate of 14 high-frequency vibration channels by a factor of two, and reduced the bandwidth of the-data link from 1.8 Mbps to 1.28 Mbps. The entire circuit uses seven function-specific, digital-filter DSP's operating in parallel (two 128-tap FIR filters can be implemented on each Motorola DSP56200), one EPROM and a Programmable Logic Device as the controller.

  6. Design and Testing of Space Telemetry SCA Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, Dale J.; Handler, Louis M.; Quinn, Todd M.

    2006-01-01

    A Software Communications Architecture (SCA) Waveform for space telemetry is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The space telemetry waveform is implemented in a laboratory testbed consisting of general purpose processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The radio hardware is integrated with an SCA Core Framework and other software development tools. The waveform design is described from both the bottom-up signal processing and top-down software component perspectives. Simulations and model-based design techniques used for signal processing subsystems are presented. Testing with legacy hardware-based modems verifies proper design implementation and dynamic waveform operations. The waveform development is part of an effort by NASA to define an open architecture for space based reconfigurable transceivers. Use of the SCA as a reference has increased understanding of software defined radio architectures. However, since space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power, the SCA may be impractical for today s space ready technology. Specific requirements for an SCA waveform and other lessons learned from this development are discussed.

  7. Digital filtering for data compression in telemetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.M.

    1994-08-01

    There are many obstacles to using data compression in a telemetry system. Non-linear quantization is often too lossy, and the data is too highly structured to make variable-length entropy codes practical. This paper describes a lossless telemetry data compression system that was built using digital FIR filters. The method of compression takes advantage of the fact that the optimal Nyquist sampling rate is rarely achievable due to two factors: (1) Sensor/transducers are not bandlimited to the frequencies of interest, and (2) Accurate, high-order analog filters are not available to perform effective band limiting and prevent aliasing. Real-time digital filtering can enhance the performance of a typical sampling system so that it approaches Nyquist sampling rates, effectively compressing the amount of data and reducing transmission bandwidth. The system that was built reduced the sampling rate of 14 high-frequency vibration channels by a factor of two, and reduced the bandwidth of the-data link from 1.8 Mbps to 1.28 Mbps. The entire circuit uses seven function-specific, digital-filter DSP`s operating in parallel (two 128-tap FIR filters can be implemented on each Motorola DSP56200), one EPROM and a Programmable Logic Device as the controller.

  8. Browser-Based Application for Telemetry Monitoring of Robotic Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Kelly S.; Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Petras, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    AEGSE Virtuoso Charting is an application that enables animated, real-time charting of telemetry streams of data from a rover. These automatically scaled charts are completely interactive, and allow users to choose the variables that they want to monitor. The charts can process data from streams with many variables. This application allows for the simultaneous viewing of up to four individually configured charts on a small touch-screen laptop. The charting application has been tested and found to be extremely robust during long operations. It was left running overnight, with incoming telemetry at 100 Hz, and it did not experience any signs of lost functionality or memory leaks. This robustness is critical for an application that will be used to support vital tests for the Mars Science Laboratory rover. The charting component also provides an interactive interface that allows the engineers to decide how many charts they want on their screen, and which attributes should be plotted on each chart. The application is optimized to make the charts on display take up as much of the available space as possible to maximize the use of the screen real estate. Engineers are also able to plot multiple attributes on the same chart, which enables them to observe the correlation between various attributes.

  9. Dynamic habitat models: using telemetry data to project fisheries bycatch.

    PubMed

    Zydelis, Ramūnas; Lewison, Rebecca L; Shaffer, Scott A; Moore, Jeffrey E; Boustany, Andre M; Roberts, Jason J; Sims, Michelle; Dunn, Daniel C; Best, Benjamin D; Tremblay, Yann; Kappes, Michelle A; Halpin, Patrick N; Costa, Daniel P; Crowder, Larry B

    2011-11-01

    Fisheries bycatch is a recognized threat to marine megafauna. Addressing bycatch of pelagic species however is challenging owing to the dynamic nature of marine environments and vagility of these organisms. In order to assess the potential for species to overlap with fisheries, we propose applying dynamic habitat models to determine relative probabilities of species occurrence for specific oceanographic conditions. We demonstrate this approach by modelling habitats for Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) using telemetry data and relating their occurrence probabilities to observations of Hawaii-based longline fisheries in 1997-2000. We found that modelled habitat preference probabilities of black-footed albatrosses were high within some areas of the fishing range of the Hawaiian fleet and such preferences were important in explaining bycatch occurrence. Conversely, modelled habitats of Laysan albatrosses overlapped little with Hawaii-based longline fisheries and did little to explain the bycatch of this species. Estimated patterns of albatross habitat overlap with the Hawaiian fleet corresponded to bycatch observations: black-footed albatrosses were more frequently caught in this fishery despite being 10 times less abundant than Laysan albatrosses. This case study demonstrates that dynamic habitat models based on telemetry data may help to project interactions with pelagic animals relative to environmental features and that such an approach can serve as a tool to guide conservation and management decisions.

  10. Coupled Electromagnetic Resonators for Enhanced Communications and Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimmock, John O.

    2005-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require the collection of an increasing quantity and quality of data which, in turn, will place increasing demands on advanced sensors and advanced high bandwidth telemetry and communications systems. The capabilities of communication and telemetry systems depend, among other factors, on the stability, controllability and spectral purity of the carrier wave. These, in turn, depend on the quality of the oscillator, or resonator, or the Q of the system. Recent work on high Q optical resonators has indicated that the Q, or quality factor, of optical microsphere resonators can be substantially enhanced by coupling several such resonators together.1-3 In addition to the possibility of enhanced Q and increased energy storage capacity, the coupled optical resonators indicate that a wide variety of interesting and potentially useful phenomena such as induced transparency and interactive mode splitting can be observed depending critically on the morphology and configuration of the microresonators. The purpose of this SFFP has been to examine several different coupled electromagnetic oscillator configurations in order to evaluate their potential for enhanced electromagnetic communications.

  11. An alternative index of satellite telemetry location error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keating, Kim A.

    1994-01-01

    Existing indices of satellite telemetry error offer objective standards for censoring poor locations, but have drawbacks. Examining distances and relative directions between consecutive satellite telemetry locations, I developed an alternative error index, ξ, and compared its performance with that of the location quality index, NQ (Serv. Argos 1988). In controlled tests, ξ was more (P ≤ 0.005) effective for improving precision than was a threshold of NQ > 1. The ξ index also conferred greater control over the trade off between sample size and precision, making ξ more cost-effective than NQ. Performances of ξ and NQ were otherwise comparable. In field tests with bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), rejecting locations where ξ ≥ 1.5 km reduced (P 1 and 63% fewer data were censored, so that the extent of animals' movements was better indicated by using ξ rather than NQ. Because use of ξ may lead to underestimating the number of long-range, short-term forays (especially when the frequency of forays is high relative to sampling frequency), potential bias should be considered before using ξ. Nonetheless, ξ should be a useful alternative to NQ in many animal-tracking studies.

  12. Increased flexibility for modeling telemetry and nest-survival data using the multistate framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Devineau, Olivier; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F.; Shenk, Tanya M.; White, Gary C.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Although telemetry is one of the most common tools used in the study of wildlife, advances in the analysis of telemetry data have lagged compared to progress in the development of telemetry devices. We demonstrate how standard known-fate telemetry and related nest-survival data analysis models are special cases of the more general multistate framework. We present a short theoretical development, and 2 case examples regarding the American black duck and the mallard. We also present a more complex lynx data analysis. Although not necessary in all situations, the multistate framework provides additional flexibility to analyze telemetry data, which may help analysts and biologists better deal with the vagaries of real-world data collection.

  13. Infrared tag and track technique

    DOEpatents

    Partin, Judy K.; Stone, Mark L.; Slater, John; Davidson, James R.

    2007-12-04

    A method of covertly tagging an object for later tracking includes providing a material capable of at least one of being applied to the object and being included in the object, which material includes deuterium; and performing at least one of applying the material to the object and including the material in the object in a manner in which in the appearance of the object is not changed, to the naked eye.

  14. Electronic Tag and Position Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    The intent of this study phase program was to adequately define the Electronic Tag and Position Sensor chip so as to be able to price and schedule the full design and development culminating in a silicon IC. Therefore, even though Hughes Aircraft Company feels that the approach submitted in this document is what should be developed, it is still considered preliminary and could change as the full design is developed.

  15. Phase modulation in RF tag

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-02-20

    A radio frequency (RF) communication system employs phase-modulated backscatter signals for RF communication from an RF tag to an interrogator. The interrogator transmits a continuous wave interrogation signal to the RF tag, which based on an information code stored in a memory, phase-modulates the interrogation signal to produce a backscatter response signal that is transmitted back to the interrogator. A phase modulator structure in the RF tag may include a switch coupled between an antenna and a quarter-wavelength stub; and a driver coupled between the memory and a control terminal of the switch. The driver is structured to produce a modulating signal corresponding to the information code, the modulating signal alternately opening and closing the switch to respectively decrease and increase the transmission path taken by the interrogation signal and thereby modulate the phase of the response signal. Alternatively, the phase modulator may include a diode coupled between the antenna and driver. The modulating signal from the driver modulates the capacitance of the diode, which modulates the phase of the response signal reflected by the diode and antenna.

  16. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration. PMID:27790598

  17. Passage and Behavior of Radio-Tagged Adult Pacific Lamprey (Entosphenus tridentata) at the Willamette Falls Project, Oregon, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Magie, Robert J.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    We used radio telemetry to monitor passage and describe behavior characteristics of adult Pacific lampreys, Entosphenus tridentata, during their upstream migration at the Willamette Falls Project (Project) on the Willamette River near Portland, Oregon. Our objectives were to document: (1) specific routes of passage at the dam and falls; (2) duration of passage through different routes; and (3) overall passage success. During the spring through autumn of 2005 and 2006, fish were captured in a trap located in the fishway at the Project or collected by hand from the falls, surgically implanted with a radio tag, and released 2 kilometers downstream of the Project. We radio tagged 136 lampreys in 2005 and 107 in 2006. In both years, more than 90 percent of the fish returned to the Project with a median travel time of 7-9 hours. Most fish were first detected at the Project from about 20:00-23:00 hours. In 2005, 43 fish (35 percent) successfully passed through the fishway of the Project, which has four separate entrances and three distinct passage channels or legs that converge at one exit. Prior to the installation of flashboards around the perimeter of the falls in July, lampreys used all three legs of the fishway to pass the Project. After flashboards were installed, only fishway leg 1 was used. The peak of passage occurred in August. No fish passed over the falls, but 13 percent of the lampreys that traveled to the Project ascended at least partway up the falls. In 2006, 24 fish (23 percent) passed the Project, again primarily using fishway leg 1. Most fish passed prior to June 9 when the powerhouse was shut down due to construction. Although 19 lampreys ascended the falls, only 2 passed through this route in late June and early July. Flashboards were not installed in 2006. For both years, the time it took for fish to pass through the fishway depended on which leg they used - the median passage time was at least 4-5 hours in fishway legs 2 and 3 and ranged from 23 to

  18. Investigation of methods for successful installation and operation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) hydrophones in the Willamette River, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutz, Gary L.; Sholtis, Matthew D.; Adams, Noah S.; Beeman, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry equipment was installed at three sites in the Willamette River during October 2012 to test the effectiveness of using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System to monitor the movements of fish in a high-flow, high-velocity riverine environment. Hydrophones installed on concrete blocks were placed on the bottom of the river, and data cables were run from the hydrophones to shore where they were attached to anchor points. Under relatively low-flow conditions (less than approximately 10,000 cubic feet per second) the monitoring system remained in place and could be used to detect tagged fish as they traveled downstream during their seaward migration. At river discharge over approximately 10,000 cubic feet per second, the hydrophones were damaged and cables were lost because of the large volume of woody debris in the river and the increase in water velocity. Damage at two of the sites was sufficient to prevent data collection. A limited amount of data was collected from the equipment at the third site. Site selection and deployment strategies were re-evaluated, and an alternate deployment methodology was designed for implementation in 2013.

  19. Electrode migration after cochlear implant surgery: more common than expected?

    PubMed

    Dietz, Aarno; Wennström, Minna; Lehtimäki, Antti; Löppönen, Heikki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    The overall complication rate of cochlear implant surgery is low and so-called electrode failures (electrode migration, misplacement, etc.,) account for only a minority of all complications. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of electrode migration as the cause for increased impedance values and non-auditory stimulation in the basal channels. Within the scope of a quality control process, the cochlear implant database of the Kuopio University Hospital (Finland) was reviewed. Patients with gradual elevation of impedance values and/or non-auditory stimulation of the basal electrode channels were re-examined and cone-beam computed tomography was administered. There were 162 cochlear implant recipients and 201 implanted devices registered in the database. A total of 18 patients (18 devices) were identified having significantly increased impedance values or non-auditory stimulation of the basal electrodes. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed extra-cochlear electrodes in 12 of these patients due to the migration of the electrode array. All extruded electrodes were lateral wall electrodes, i.e., straight electrode arrays (Cochlear CI422 and Med-El devices). The most common feature of electrode migration was the gradual increase of the impedance values in the basal electrodes, even though telemetry could also be unsuspicious. Electrode migration after cochlear implant surgery may be more common than previously reported. At surgery, special attention should be paid to the reliable fixation of the electrode array. This study underlines the importance of postoperative imaging after cochlear implant surgery.

  20. A fully implantable rodent neural stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. W. J.; Grayden, D. B.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    The ability to electrically stimulate neural and other excitable tissues in behaving experimental animals is invaluable for both the development of neural prostheses and basic neurological research. We developed a fully implantable neural stimulator that is able to deliver two channels of intra-cochlear electrical stimulation in the rat. It is powered via a novel omni-directional inductive link and includes an on-board microcontroller with integrated radio link, programmable current sources and switching circuitry to generate charge-balanced biphasic stimulation. We tested the implant in vivo and were able to elicit both neural and behavioural responses. The implants continued to function for up to five months in vivo. While targeted to cochlear stimulation, with appropriate electrode arrays the stimulator is well suited to stimulating other neurons within the peripheral or central nervous systems. Moreover, it includes significant on-board data acquisition and processing capabilities, which could potentially make it a useful platform for telemetry applications, where there is a need to chronically monitor physiological variables in unrestrained animals.

  1. Evaluating habitat selection with radio-telemetry triangulation error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Kenow, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-telemetry triangulation errors result in the mislocation of animals and misclassification of habitat use. We present analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use when misclassification probabilities can be determined. When misclassification probabilities cannot be determined, we use random subsamples from the error distribution of an estimated animal location to improve habitat use estimates. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of this subsampling method, triangulation error, number of animal locations, habitat availability, and habitat complexity on bias and variation in habitat use estimates. Results for the subsampling method are illustrated using habitat selection by redhead ducks (Aythya americana ). We recommend the subsampling method with a minimum of 50 random points to reduce problems associated with habitat misclassification.

  2. Evaluating habitat selection with radio-telemetry triangulation error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Kenow, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-telemetry triangulation errors result in the mislocation of animals and misclassification of habitat use. We present analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use when misclassification probabilities can be determined. When misclassification probabilities cannot be determined, we use random subsamples from the error distribution of an estimated animal location to improve habitat use estimates. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of this subsampling method, triangulation error, number of animal locations, habitat availability, and habitat complexity on bias and variation in habitat use estimates. Results for the subsampling method are illustrated using habitat selection by redhead ducks (Aythya americana). We recommend the subsampling method with a minimum of 50 random points to reduce problems associated with habitat misclassification.

  3. The NASA Airborne Science Data And Telemetry System (NASDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, C. E.; Forgione, J.; Barnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    A system providing a common core set of facility data services across the NASA Airborne Science Program research aircraft fleet is described. The NASA Airborne Science Data And Telemetry System (NASDAT) is a rugged avionics box that fits in a standard aeronautical radio rack mounting tray, and provides both aircraft and experimenter data interfaces. Ethernet, satcom, and legacy connections are supported. Standardized protocols allow this system to serve as an abstraction layer for interfacing any instrument to any aircraft. Built-in Iridium modems allow low rate baseline global data communications. Built on open standards and dynamically reconfigurable, the NASDAT enables any research platform to participate in the wider sensor web, such that remote experimenters can control their instruments, and display applications can receive near real time data. The production NASDAT was built this year, based in part on prototypes which have been flying on several research aircraft such as the NASA DC-8 and Global Hawk.

  4. Disposable fiber optics telemetry for measuring while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, D.J.; Hardy, R.D.; Glowka, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    The project addressed the need of the oil and gas industry for real-time information about the drilling process and the formations being drilled. An ideal system would allow measuring while drilling (MWD) and would transmit data to the surface immediately at a rate high enough to support video or televiewer systems. A proposed solution was to use an optical fiber as a link between the surface and the instrumentation package. We explored the use of a disposable MWD telemetry cable, drawing on the technology developed for missile guidance which deploys miles of fiber from a small spool at missile speeds approaching half the speed of sound. Emphasis In was on the questions of survivability of the unarmored fiber in the drill string environment and deployability. Laboratory and field testing showed the concept worked under realistic conditions; a field demonstration transmitted data at 10 kilobits per second from a depth of 3500 feet.

  5. Microcontroller-based underwater acoustic ECG telemetry system.

    PubMed

    Istepanian, R S; Woodward, B

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a microcontroller-based underwater acoustic telemetry system for digital transmission of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The system is designed for the real time, through-water transmission of data representing any parameter, and it was used initially for transmitting in multiplexed format the heart rate, breathing rate and depth of a diver using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). Here, it is used to monitor cardiovascular reflexes during diving and swimming. The programmable capability of the system provides an effective solution to the problem of transmitting data in the presence of multipath interference. An important feature of the paper is a comparative performance analysis of two encoding methods, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and Pulse Position Modulation (PPM).

  6. Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System. [PCM telemetry unit for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giri, R. R.; Maxwell, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System (MOMS) is a high-data-rate PCM telemetry unit capable of sampling and encoding 60 scanning radiometer and four vidicon channels at 250 kilosamples/second and 5 megasamples/second, respectively. This sampling capacity plus the seven-bit quantization requires a total throughput rate of 40 megasamples/second and 280 megabits/second. To produce these rates efficiently, the system was divided into a pair of identical 140-megabit blocks. A low-power 20-MHz analog multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter were developed together with a video sample-and-hold that features an aperture time error of less than 50 psec. Breadboard testing of these basic building blocks confirmed the design prediction that the total system would consume 27 watts of power. Two 140-megabit output parts are suitable for quadriphase modulation.

  7. A compact presentation of DSN array telemetry performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The telemetry performance of an arrayed receiver system, including radio losses, is often given by a family of curves giving bit error rate vs bit SNR, with tracking loop SNR at one receiver held constant along each curve. This study shows how to process this information into a more compact, useful format in which the minimal total signal power and optimal carrier suppression, for a given fixed bit error rate, are plotted vs data rate. Examples for baseband-only combining are given. When appropriate dimensionless variables are used for plotting, receiver arrays with different numbers of antennas and different threshold tracking loop bandwidths look much alike, and a universal curve for optimal carrier suppression emerges.

  8. Three-channel telemetry system with optical interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesho, Jeffrey C.; Eaton, Harry A.

    1994-10-01

    An optical interface was incorporated into a three channel telemetry device to allow for communication to a packaged telemeter. Information transmitted on the optical link includes calibration parameters and commands to program the operation of the telemeter. The optical ink allows calibration information to be programmed into a telemeter, without the need for a bio-compatible electrical connection. The optical link was designed to completely reside on an integrated circuit chip. One of the three channels of the telemeter is dedicated to temperature measurement, while the other two channels are generic. The generic channels carry information from transducers that are interfaced to the system through on-chip general purpose operational amplifiers. The calibration information that is programmed into the telemeter is retrieved by time division multiplexing it with one of the generic channels.

  9. Long frame sync words for binary PSK telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Correlation criteria have previously been established for identifying whether a given binary sequence would be a good frame sync word for phase-shift keyed telemetry. In the past, the search for a good K-bit sync word has involved the application of these criteria to the entire set of 2 exponent K binary K-tuples. It is shown that restricting this search to a much smaller subset consisting of K-bit prefixes of pseudonoise sequences results in sync words of comparable quality, with greatly reduced computer search times for larger values of K. As an example, this procedure is used to find good sync words of length 16-63; from a storage viewpoint, each of these sequences can be generated by a 5- or 6-bit linear feedback shift register.

  10. Valve latch device for drilling fluid telemetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Larronde, M. L.; Hoos, R. G.

    1985-07-30

    A latch device for controlling a valve in a mud pulse telemetry system for imparting data pulses to drilling fluids circulating in a drill string is disclosed. A latch device and valve arrangement including an improved shear type, solenoid operated valve for modulating the pressure of the circulating drilling fluid is disclosed. A latching solenoid armature is connected to the valve gate through separate open and close solenoids having their armatures operatively connected to act as a single unit. The single unit armature is normally restrained from movement by the solenoid deactivated latch device. The latch device is arranged so that the vibrational and impact loads on the drill string serve to further maintain the modulating valve in a closed position.

  11. Latency Reduction during Telemetry Transmission in Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Oweiss, Karim

    2005-01-01

    Advanced array processing techniques are becoming an indispensable requirement for integrating the rapid developments in wireless high-density electronic interfaces to the central nervous system with computational neuroscience. This work aims at describing a systems approach for latency reduction in telemetry-linked brain machine interfaces to enable real-time transmission of high volumes of neural data. We show that the tradeoff between transmission bit rate and processing complexity requires a smart processing mechanism to strip the redundancy and extract the useful information early in the data stream. The results presented demonstrate that space-time processing offers tremendous savings in communication costs compared to on-chip spike detection followed by off-chip classification. They also demonstrate that the performance asymptotically approaches that of on-chip spike detection and sorting. Detailed performance evaluation is described.

  12. Flexible network wireless transceiver and flexible network telemetry transceiver

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kenneth D.

    2008-08-05

    A transceiver for facilitating two-way wireless communication between a baseband application and other nodes in a wireless network, wherein the transceiver provides baseband communication networking and necessary configuration and control functions along with transmitter, receiver, and antenna functions to enable the wireless communication. More specifically, the transceiver provides a long-range wireless duplex communication node or channel between the baseband application, which is associated with a mobile or fixed space, air, water, or ground vehicle or other platform, and other nodes in the wireless network or grid. The transceiver broadly comprises a communication processor; a flexible telemetry transceiver including a receiver and a transmitter; a power conversion and regulation mechanism; a diplexer; and a phased array antenna system, wherein these various components and certain subcomponents thereof may be separately enclosed and distributable relative to the other components and subcomponents.

  13. Wireless Telemetry and Command (T and C) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Hui; Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The Wireless Telemetry and Command (T&C) program is to investigate methods of using commercial telecommunications service providers to support command and telemetry services between a remote user and a base station. While the initial development is based on ground networks, the development is being done with an eye towards future space communications needs. Both NASA and the Air Force have indicated a plan to consider the use of commercial telecommunications providers to support their space missions. To do this, there will need to be an understanding of the requirements and limitations of interfacing with the commercial providers. The eventual payoff will be the reduced operations cost and the ability to tap into commercial services being developed by the commercial networks. This should enable easier realization of EP services to the end points, commercial routing of data, and quicker integration of new services into the space mission operations. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this program is not just to provide wireless radio communications for T&C services but to enhance those services through wireless networking and provider enhancements that come with the networks. In the following chapters, the detailed technical procedure will be showed step by step. Chapter 2 will talk about the general idea of simulation as well as the implementation of data acquisition including sensor array data and GPS data. Chapter 3 will talk about how to use LabVEEW and Component Works to do wireless communication simulation and how to distribute the real-time information over the Internet by using Visual Basic and ActiveX controls. Also talk about the test configuration and validation. Chapter 4 will show the test results both from In-Lab test and Networking Test. Chapter 5 will summarize the whole procedure and give the perspective for the future consideration.

  14. Architecture and performances of the AGILE Telemetry Preprocessing System (TMPPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Lazzarotto, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Tavani, M.

    2008-07-01

    AGILE is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) satellite dedicated to high energy Astrophysics. It was launched successfully on 23 April 2007, and it has been operated by the AGILE Ground Segment, consisting of the Ground Station located in Malindi (Kenia), the Mission Operations Centre (MOC) and the AGILE Data Centre (ADC) established in Italy, at Telespazio in Fucino and at the ASI Science Data Centre (ASDC) in Frascati respectively. Due to the low equatorial orbit at ~ 530 Km. with inclination angle of ~ 2.5°, the satellite passes over the Ground Station every ~ 100'. During the visibility period of . ~ 12', the Telemetry (TM) is down linked through two separated virtual channels, VC0 and VC1. The former is devoted to the real time TM generated during the pass at the average rate of 50 Kbit/s and is directly relayed to the Control Centre. The latter is used to downlink TM data collected on the satellite on-board mass memory during the non visibility period. This generates at the Ground Station a raw TM file of up to 37 MByte. Within 20' after the end of the contact, both the real time and mass memory TM arrive at ADC through the dedicated VPN ASINet. Here they are automatically detected and ingested by the TMPPS pipeline in less than 5 minutes. The TMPPS archives each TM file and sorts its packets into one stream for each of the different TM layout. Each stream is processed in parallel in order to unpack the various telemetry field and archive them into suitable FITS files. Each operation is tracked into a MySQL data base which interfaces the TMPPS pipeline to the rest of the scientific pipeline running at ADC. In this paper the architecture and the performance of the TMPPS will be described and discussed.

  15. Monitoring of International Space Station Telemetry Using Shewhart Control Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitch, Jeffery T.; Simon, Alan L.; Gouveia, John A.; Hillin, Andrew M.; Hernandez, Steve A.

    2012-01-01

    Shewhart control charts have been established as an expedient method for analyzing dynamic, trending data in order to identify anomalous subsystem performance as soon as such performance would exceed a statistically established baseline. Additionally, this leading indicator tool integrates a selection methodology that reduces false positive indications, optimizes true leading indicator events, minimizes computer processor unit duty cycles, and addresses human factor concerns (i.e., the potential for flight-controller data overload). This innovation leverages statistical process control, and provides a relatively simple way to allow flight controllers to focus their attention on subtle system changes that could lead to dramatic off-nominal system performance. Finally, this capability improves response time to potential hardware damage and/or crew injury, thereby improving space flight safety. Shewhart control charts require normalized data. However, the telemetry from the ISS Early External Thermal Control System (EETCS) was not normally distributed. A method for normalizing the data was implemented, as was a means of selecting data windows, the number of standard deviations (Sigma Level), the number of consecutive points out of limits (Sequence), and direction (increasing or decreasing trend data). By varying these options, and treating them like dial settings, the number of nuisance alerts and leading indicators were optimized. The goal was to capture all leading indicators while minimizing the number of nuisances. Lean Six Sigma (L6S) design of experiment methodologies were employed. To optimize the results, Perl programming language was used to automate the massive amounts of telemetry data, control chart plots, and the data analysis.

  16. Movement Patterns and Residency of the Critically Endangered Horseshoe Crab Tachypleus tridentatus in a Semi-Enclosed Bay Determined Using Acoustic Telemetry.

    PubMed

    Wada, Toshifumi; Mitsushio, Takahiro; Inoue, Shinya; Koike, Hiroko; Kawabe, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    The horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus is critically endangered in Japan due to rapidly decreasing numbers resulting from the loss of tidal flats and sandy beaches, and the deterioration of coastal environments. We monitored the year-round migratory patterns and residency of this species in a coastal embayment at Tsuyazaki, Japan, using acoustic telemetry. Total 20 adult crabs (15 males and 5 females) were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked during two periods (2006-2008; n = 10 and 2007-2009; n = 10). Adult crabs were more active during periods of higher water temperatures and their activity peaked in July, during the spawning period. Water temperature appeared to be one of the key factors influencing the movement patterns for the species. Moreover, the crabs tended to be more active at night than in the day. The nocturnal activity pattern was clearly evident before and during the reproductive period (May-August). Tracking data also showed that one pair-bond was maintained for a maximum of 17 days after the pair-bonded female had spawned. Overall, 11 males (73% of 15 individuals) remained in the bay area over winter, whereas three females (60% of 5 individuals) overwintered outside of the bay. Telemetry data showed that over 60% (13 of 20) of tagged crabs overwintered within the bay where there are sandy beaches, mudflats, and scattered seagrass beds. This year-round residence by adult T. tridentatus in the bay area identifies it as a critical habitat for the management of this species, regardless of life-stage. Not only is it a comprehensive management strategy that effectively reflects this species' habitat use patterns but also its implementation, such as the establishment of a protected area, would contribute to its conservation.

  17. Movement Patterns and Residency of the Critically Endangered Horseshoe Crab Tachypleus tridentatus in a Semi-Enclosed Bay Determined Using Acoustic Telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Toshifumi; Mitsushio, Takahiro; Inoue, Shinya; Koike, Hiroko; Kawabe, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    The horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus is critically endangered in Japan due to rapidly decreasing numbers resulting from the loss of tidal flats and sandy beaches, and the deterioration of coastal environments. We monitored the year-round migratory patterns and residency of this species in a coastal embayment at Tsuyazaki, Japan, using acoustic telemetry. Total 20 adult crabs (15 males and 5 females) were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked during two periods (2006–2008; n = 10 and 2007–2009; n = 10). Adult crabs were more active during periods of higher water temperatures and their activity peaked in July, during the spawning period. Water temperature appeared to be one of the key factors influencing the movement patterns for the species. Moreover, the crabs tended to be more active at night than in the day. The nocturnal activity pattern was clearly evident before and during the reproductive period (May–August). Tracking data also showed that one pair-bond was maintained for a maximum of 17 days after the pair-bonded female had spawned. Overall, 11 males (73% of 15 individuals) remained in the bay area over winter, whereas three females (60% of 5 individuals) overwintered outside of the bay. Telemetry data showed that over 60% (13 of 20) of tagged crabs overwintered within the bay where there are sandy beaches, mudflats, and scattered seagrass beds. This year-round residence by adult T. tridentatus in the bay area identifies it as a critical habitat for the management of this species, regardless of life-stage. Not only is it a comprehensive management strategy that effectively reflects this species’ habitat use patterns but also its implementation, such as the establishment of a protected area, would contribute to its conservation. PMID:26863205

  18. Movement Patterns and Residency of the Critically Endangered Horseshoe Crab Tachypleus tridentatus in a Semi-Enclosed Bay Determined Using Acoustic Telemetry.

    PubMed

    Wada, Toshifumi; Mitsushio, Takahiro; Inoue, Shinya; Koike, Hiroko; Kawabe, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    The horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus is critically endangered in Japan due to rapidly decreasing numbers resulting from the loss of tidal flats and sandy beaches, and the deterioration of coastal environments. We monitored the year-round migratory patterns and residency of this species in a coastal embayment at Tsuyazaki, Japan, using acoustic telemetry. Total 20 adult crabs (15 males and 5 females) were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked during two periods (2006-2008; n = 10 and 2007-2009; n = 10). Adult crabs were more active during periods of higher water temperatures and their activity peaked in July, during the spawning period. Water temperature appeared to be one of the key factors influencing the movement patterns for the species. Moreover, the crabs tended to be more active at night than in the day. The nocturnal activity pattern was clearly evident before and during the reproductive period (May-August). Tracking data also showed that one pair-bond was maintained for a maximum of 17 days after the pair-bonded female had spawned. Overall, 11 males (73% of 15 individuals) remained in the bay area over winter, whereas three females (60% of 5 individuals) overwintered outside of the bay. Telemetry data showed that over 60% (13 of 20) of tagged crabs overwintered within the bay where there are sandy beaches, mudflats, and scattered seagrass beds. This year-round residence by adult T. tridentatus in the bay area identifies it as a critical habitat for the management of this species, regardless of life-stage. Not only is it a comprehensive management strategy that effectively reflects this species' habitat use patterns but also its implementation, such as the establishment of a protected area, would contribute to its conservation. PMID:26863205

  19. Directional Radio-Frequency Identification Tag Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John D.; Henderson, John J.

    2004-01-01

    A directional radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag reader has been designed to facilitate finding a specific object among many objects in a crowded room. The device could be an adjunct to an electronic inventory system that tracks RFID-tagged objects as they move through reader-equipped doorways. Whereas commercial RFID-tag readers do not measure directions to tagged objects, the device is equipped with a phased-array antenna and a received signal-strength indicator (RSSI) circuit for measuring direction. At the beginning of operation, it is set to address only the RFID tag of interest. It then continuously transmits a signal to interrogate that tag while varying the radiation pattern of the antenna. It identifies the direction to the tag as the radiation pattern direction of peak strength of the signal returned by the tag. An approximate distance to the tag is calculated from the peak signal strength. The direction and distance can be displayed on a screen. A prototype containing a Yagi antenna was found to be capable of detecting a 915.5-MHz tag at a distance of approximately equal to 15 ft (approximately equal to 4.6 m).

  20. Preliminary PANSAT ground station software design and use of an expert system to analyze telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Gregory W.

    1994-03-01

    The Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT) is a communications satellite designed to be used by civilian amateur radio operators. A master ground station is being built at the Naval Postgraduate School. This computer system performs satellite commands, displays telemetry, trouble-shoots problems, and passes messages. The system also controls an open loop tracking antenna. This paper concentrates on the telemetry display, decoding, and interpretation through artificial intelligence (AI). The telemetry is displayed in an easily interpretable format, so that any user can understand the current health of the satellite and be cued as to any problems and possible solutions. Only the master ground station has the ability to receive all telemetry and send commands to the spacecraft; civilian ham users do not have access to this information. The telemetry data is decommutated and analyzed before it is displayed to the user, so that the raw data will not have to be interpreted by ground users. The analysis will use CLIPS imbedded in the code, and derive its inputs from telemetry decommutation. The program is an expert system using a forward chaining set of rules based on the expected operation and parameters of the satellite. By building the rules during the construction and design of the satellite, the telemetry can be well understood and interpreted after the satellite is launched and the designers may no longer be available to provide input to the problem.

  1. Wireless, Ultra-Low-Power Implantable Sensor for Chronic Bladder Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    MAJERUS, STEVE J. A.; GARVERICK, STEVEN L.; SUSTER, MICHAEL A.; FLETTER, PAUL C.; DAMASER, MARGOT S.

    2015-01-01

    The wireless implantable/intracavity micromanometer (WIMM) system was designed to fulfill the unmet need for a chronic bladder pressure sensing device in urological fields such as urodynamics for diagnosis and neuromodulation for bladder control. Neuromodulation in particular would benefit from a wireless bladder pressure sensor which could provide real-time pressure feedback to an implanted stimulator, resulting in greater bladder capacity while using less power. The WIMM uses custom integrated circuitry, a MEMS transducer, and a wireless antenna to transmit pressure telemetry at a rate of 10 Hz. Aggressive power management techniques yield an average current draw of 9 μA from a 3.6-Volt micro-battery, which minimizes the implant size. Automatic pressure offset cancellation circuits maximize the sensing dynamic range to account for drifting pressure offset due to environmental factors, and a custom telemetry protocol allows transmission with minimum overhead. Wireless operation of the WIMM has demonstrated that the external receiver can receive the telemetry packets, and the low power consumption allows for at least 24 hours of operation with a 4-hour wireless recharge session. PMID:26778926

  2. Tagged-weak {pi} method

    SciTech Connect

    Margaryan, A.; Hashimoto, O.; Kakoyan, V.; Knyazyan, S.; Tang, L.

    2011-02-15

    A new 'tagged-weak {pi} method' is proposed for determination of electromagnetic transition probabilities B(E2) and B(M1) of the hypernuclear states with lifetimes of {approx}10{sup -10} s. With this method, we are planning to measure B(E2) and B(M1) for light hypernuclei at JLab. The results of Monte Carlo simulations for the case of E2(5/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +} {yields} 1/2{sup +}) transitions in {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}He hypernuclei are presented.

  3. Implantable flexible pressure measurement system based on inductive coupling.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristina C; Sepúlveda, Alexandra T; Almeida, Nuno; Wardle, Brian L; da Silva, José Machado; Rocha, Luís A

    2015-02-01

    One of the currently available treatments for aortic aneurysms is endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In spite of major advances in the operating techniques, complications still occur and lifelong surveillance is recommended. In order to reduce and even eliminate the commonly used surveillance imaging exams, as well as to reduce follow-up costs, new technological solutions are being pursued. In this paper, we describe the development, including design and performance characterization, of a flexible remote pressure measurement system based on inductive-coupling for post-EVAR monitoring purposes. The telemetry system architecture and operation are described and main performance characteristics discussed. The implantable sensor details are provided and its model is presented. Simulations with the reading circuit and the sensor's model were performed and compared with measurements carried out with air and a phantom as media, in order to characterize the telemetry system and validate the models. The transfer characteristic curve (pressure versus frequency) of the monitoring system was obtained with measurements performed with the sensor inside a controlled pressure vacuum chamber. Additional experimental results which proof the system functionality were obtained within a hydraulic test bench that emulates the aorta. Several innovative aspects, when compared to the state of the art, both in the sensor and in the telemetry system were achieved. PMID:25347867

  4. A primer for telemetry interfacing in accordance with NASA standards using low cost FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Jake; Schultz, Ted; Tutt, James; Rogers, Thomas; Miles, Drew; McEntaffer, Randall

    2015-08-01

    Photon counting detector systems on sounding rocket payloads often require interfacing asynchronous outputs with a synchronously clocked telemetry stream. Though this can be handled with an on-board computer, there are several low cost alternatives including custom hardware, microcontrollers, and Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This paper outlines how a telemetry interface for detectors on a sounding rocket with asynchronous parallel digital output can be implemented using low cost FPGAs and minimal custom hardware. It also discusses how this system can be tested with a simulated telemetry chain in the small laboratory setting.

  5. A graphic system for telemetry monitoring and procedure performing at the Telecom SCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeyre, Jean Philippe

    1994-01-01

    The increasing amount of telemetry parameters and the increasing complexity of procedures used for the in-orbit satellite follow-up has led to the development of new tools for telemetry monitoring and procedures performing. The name of the system presented here is Graphic Server. It provides an advanced graphic representation of the satellite subsystems, including real-time telemetry and alarm displaying, and a powerful help for decision making with on line contingency procedures. Used for 2.5 years at the TELECOM S.C.C. for procedure performing, it has become an essential part of the S.C.C.

  6. The experiment of CCSDS packet telemetry using a highly elliptical orbit satellite 'Hiten'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Tadashi; Yamada, Takahiro; Shuto, Koshiro; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Moyd, Katherine I.

    This paper describes the outline of the telemetry scheme proposed by the Consultative Committee of Space Data Systems (CCSDS), and the on-orbit experiment which was carried out to show the applicability of the CCSDS packet telemetry scheme using the Japan's satellite Hiten in a highly elliptical orbit. The telemetry data which are generated by the instruments are packetized in Hiten and reformed to the original data in earth stations successfully. The experimental results showed that the standardized scheme is helpful in allowing for tracking cross support between organizations, and the concatenated code is quite effective to transmit data in a low C/N condition.

  7. Onboard tagging for smart medical devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Kejia; Warren, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Most medical devices are 'dumb:' their role is to acquire, display, and forward data. They make few if any operational decisions based on those data. Onboard tagging is a means whereby a device can embed information about itself, its data, and the sensibility of those data into its data stream. This diagnostic add-on offers a move toward 'smart' devices that will have the ability to affect changes in operational modes based on onboard contextual decision making, such as decisions to avoid needless wireless transmission of corrupt data. This paper presents a description of three types of onboard tags that relate to device hardware (type I tag), signal statistics (type II tag), and signal viability for the intended application (type III tag). A custom wireless pulse oximeter is presented as a use case to show how type II and III tags that convey photoplethysmogram (PPG) statistics and usability specifiers can be calculated and embedded into the data stream without degrading performance.

  8. Migration behaviour of silver eels (Anguilla anguilla) in a large estuary of Western Europe inferred from acoustic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultel, Elise; Lasne, Emilien; Acou, Anthony; Guillaudeau, Julien; Bertier, Christine; Feunteun, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Despite intensive research on eels, the behaviour of silver eels in estuaries during their migration remains poorly documented which creates serious gaps in planning the restoration of the European eel population. Estuaries are complex environments that can be exposed to large human pressures which could impede, delay migration or impact fish reproductive potential. This study investigated the estuarine migration of female silver eels in the Loire River using an acoustic telemetry system. An array of 31 hydrophones was deployed in the Loire estuary and 51 female seaward migrants were tagged with acoustic transmitters and released 20 km upstream of the estuary, at 100 km from the river mouth. 94% of the silver eels could be followed down to the river mouth. Mean global estuarine speed was 4.5 km days-1, i.e., 0.05 m s-1 and residence times varied significantly between upstream and lower compartments. Mean directional migration speed was found to be 48.6 km days-1, i.e., 0.56 m s-1, and appeared correlated with total length and body weight. Also, daily escapement rate was highly influenced by river flow.

  9. Residency, site fidelity and habitat use of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at an offshore wind farm using acoustic telemetry.

    PubMed

    Reubens, Jan T; Pasotti, Francesca; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-09-01

    Because offshore wind energy development is fast growing in Europe it is important to investigate the changes in the marine environment and how these may influence local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. One of the species affected by these ecosystem changes is Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), a heavily exploited, commercially important fish species. In this research we investigated the residency, site fidelity and habitat use of Atlantic cod on a temporal scale at windmill artificial reefs in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Acoustic telemetry was used and the Vemco VR2W position system was deployed to quantify the movement behaviour. In total, 22 Atlantic cod were tagged and monitored for up to one year. Many fish were present near the artificial reefs during summer and autumn, and demonstrated strong residency and high individual detection rates. When present within the study area, Atlantic cod also showed distinct habitat selectivity. We identified aggregation near the artificial hard substrates of the wind turbines. In addition, a clear seasonal pattern in presence was observed. The high number of fish present in summer and autumn alternated with a period of very low densities during the winter period. PMID:23937893

  10. Residency, site fidelity and habitat use of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at an offshore wind farm using acoustic telemetry.

    PubMed

    Reubens, Jan T; Pasotti, Francesca; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-09-01

    Because offshore wind energy development is fast growing in Europe it is important to investigate the changes in the marine environment and how these may influence local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. One of the species affected by these ecosystem changes is Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), a heavily exploited, commercially important fish species. In this research we investigated the residency, site fidelity and habitat use of Atlantic cod on a temporal scale at windmill artificial reefs in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Acoustic telemetry was used and the Vemco VR2W position system was deployed to quantify the movement behaviour. In total, 22 Atlantic cod were tagged and monitored for up to one year. Many fish were present near the artificial reefs during summer and autumn, and demonstrated strong residency and high individual detection rates. When present within the study area, Atlantic cod also showed distinct habitat selectivity. We identified aggregation near the artificial hard substrates of the wind turbines. In addition, a clear seasonal pattern in presence was observed. The high number of fish present in summer and autumn alternated with a period of very low densities during the winter period.

  11. An analysis of spacecraft data time tagging errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    An indepth examination of the timing and telemetry in just one spacecraft points out the genesis of various types of timing errors and serves as a guide in the design of future timing/telemetry systems. The principal sources of timing errors are examined carefully and are described in detail. Estimates of these errors are also made and presented. It is found that the timing errors within the telemetry system are larger than the total timing errors resulting from all other sources.

  12. Understanding why users tag: A survey of tagging motivation literature and results from an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Strohmaier, Markus; Körner, Christian; Kern, Roman

    2012-01-01

    While recent progress has been achieved in understanding the structure and dynamics of social tagging systems, we know little about the underlying user motivations for tagging, and how they influence resulting folksonomies and tags. This paper addresses three issues related to this question. (1) What distinctions of user motivations are identified by previous research, and in what ways are the motivations of users amenable to quantitative analysis? (2) To what extent does tagging motivation vary across different social tagging systems? (3) How does variability in user motivation influence resulting tags and folksonomies? In this paper, we present measures to detect whether a tagger is primarily motivated by categorizing or describing resources, and apply these measures to datasets from seven different tagging systems. Our results show that (a) users’ motivation for tagging varies not only across, but also within tagging systems, and that (b) tag agreement among users who are motivated by categorizing resources is significantly lower than among users who are motivated by describing resources. Our findings are relevant for (1) the development of tag-based user interfaces, (2) the analysis of tag semantics and (3) the design of search algorithms for social tagging systems. PMID:23471473

  13. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? What are the

  14. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4-2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 [Formula: see text] for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-[Formula: see text] sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring. PMID:27170865

  15. The evolution of electronic tracking, optical, telemetry, and command systems at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurran, W. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A history is presented of the major electronic tracking, optical, telemetry, and command systems used at ETR in support of Apollo-Saturn and its forerunner vehicles launched under the jurisdiction of the Kennedy Space Center and its forerunner organizations.

  16. The usefulness of GPS telemetry to study wolf circadian and social activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Samuel B.; Mech, L. David

    2003-01-01

    This study describes circadian and social movement patterns of 9 wolves and illustrates capabilities and limitations of Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry for analysis of animal activity patterns. Global Positioning System telemetry was useful in determining when pack members were traveling together or apart and how long a breeding female wolf spent near her pups (e.g., 10-month-old pups were left unattended by their mother for as long as 17 days).

  17. ETC '87 - European Telemetry Conference, Aix-en-Provence, France, June 22-25, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Space transmission standards, telemetry, bus acquisition, data storage and compression, acquisition systems, and test techniques are among the topics discussed. Particular papers are presented on packet space communications, the application of Reed-Solomon techniques to space communications systems, the integration of decommutation techniques into postflight analysis systems, magnetic recording aboard aircraft, the simultaneous recording of analog and digital data on magnetic tape, and intelligent telemetry.

  18. Estimating animal resource selection from telemetry data using point process models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Devin S.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Kuhn, Carey E.

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the analysis of telemetry data with the point process approach, we analysed a data set of telemetry locations from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. Both a space–time and an aggregated space-only model were fitted. At the individual level, the space–time analysis showed little selection relative to the habitat covariates. However, at the study area level, the space-only model showed strong selection relative to the covariates.

  19. Engineering the ATLAS TAG Browser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qizhi; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    ELSSI is a web-based event metadata (TAG) browser and event-level selection service for ATLAS. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges encountered in the process of developing ELSSI, and the software engineering strategies adopted to address those challenges. Approaches to management of access to data, browsing, data rendering, query building, query validation, execution, connection management, and communication with auxiliary services are discussed. We also describe strategies for dealing with data that may vary over time, such as run-dependent trigger decision decoding. Along with examples, we illustrate how programming techniques in multiple languages (PHP, JAVASCRIPT, XML, AJAX, and PL/SQL) have been blended to achieve the required results. Finally, we evaluate features of the ELSSI service in terms of functionality, scalability, and performance.

  20. New venting in TAG Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelsen, Terry L.

    The Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) Hydrothermal Field, which lies on the east wall of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at about 26°N, has been a focus of study since low-temperature hydrothermal activity was discovered there in 1973. In July 1985, scientists making an intensive investigation of the site discovered the first black smokers on the ridge (Eos, 66, October 1, 1985, p. 682).The smokers appeared in images from a towed deep-sea photovideo camera. Water temperature anomalies were recorded by a near-bottom thermister array mounted on the camera. A conductivity-temperaturedepth (CTD)/nephelometer package sent real-time data of plume depth, distribution, and concentration. Shipboard analysis provided total reactive Mn.