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Sample records for implement dynamic wafer

  1. Estimation of emissivity of a wafer in an RTP chamber by a dynamic observer

    SciTech Connect

    Belikov, S.; Hur, D.; Friedland, B.; Ravindra, N.M.

    1996-12-01

    A method of estimation of wavelength-dependent emissivity of silicon wafers using thermocouple measurements is presented here. A dynamic observer and a persistent excitation of the lamps are required for convergence of the observer`s estimates to the actual values of parameters for emissivity approximation. A TI designed RTP equipment and adaptive close-loop temperature control have been used to generate the required persistent excitation. Theory of emissivity estimation by this method has been developed and illustrated by experiment with this 3-zone RTP system.

  2. Wafer-scale fabrication and growth dynamics of suspended graphene nanoribbon arrays.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroo; Kaneko, Toshiro; Shibuta, Yasushi; Ohno, Munekazu; Maekawa, Yuki; Kato, Toshiaki

    2016-06-02

    Adding a mechanical degree of freedom to the electrical and optical properties of atomically thin materials can provide an excellent platform to investigate various optoelectrical physics and devices with mechanical motion interaction. The large scale fabrication of such atomically thin materials with suspended structures remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate the wafer-scale bottom-up synthesis of suspended graphene nanoribbon arrays (over 1,000,000 graphene nanoribbons in 2 × 2 cm(2) substrate) with a very high yield (over 98%). Polarized Raman measurements reveal graphene nanoribbons in the array can have relatively uniform-edge structures with near zigzag orientation dominant. A promising growth model of suspended graphene nanoribbons is also established through a comprehensive study that combined experiments, molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical calculations with a phase-diagram analysis. We believe that our results can contribute to pushing the study of graphene nanoribbons into a new stage related to the optoelectrical physics and industrial applications.

  3. Wafer-scale fabrication and growth dynamics of suspended graphene nanoribbon arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroo; Kaneko, Toshiro; Shibuta, Yasushi; Ohno, Munekazu; Maekawa, Yuki; Kato, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    Adding a mechanical degree of freedom to the electrical and optical properties of atomically thin materials can provide an excellent platform to investigate various optoelectrical physics and devices with mechanical motion interaction. The large scale fabrication of such atomically thin materials with suspended structures remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate the wafer-scale bottom-up synthesis of suspended graphene nanoribbon arrays (over 1,000,000 graphene nanoribbons in 2 × 2 cm2 substrate) with a very high yield (over 98%). Polarized Raman measurements reveal graphene nanoribbons in the array can have relatively uniform-edge structures with near zigzag orientation dominant. A promising growth model of suspended graphene nanoribbons is also established through a comprehensive study that combined experiments, molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical calculations with a phase-diagram analysis. We believe that our results can contribute to pushing the study of graphene nanoribbons into a new stage related to the optoelectrical physics and industrial applications.

  4. Wafer screening device and methods for wafer screening

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rupnowski, Przemyslaw

    2014-07-15

    Wafer breakage is a serious problem in the photovoltaic industry because a large fraction of wafers (between 5 and 10%) break during solar cell/module fabrication. The major cause of this excessive wafer breakage is that these wafers have residual microcracks--microcracks that were not completely etched. Additional propensity for breakage is caused by texture etching and incomplete edge grinding. To eliminate the cost of processing the wafers that break, it is best to remove them prior to cell fabrication. Some attempts have been made to develop optical techniques to detect microcracks. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to detect microcracks that are embedded within the roughness/texture of the wafers. Furthermore, even if such detection is successful, it is not straightforward to relate them to wafer breakage. We believe that the best way to isolate the wafers with fatal microcracks is to apply a stress to wafers--a stress that mimics the highest stress during cell/module processing. If a wafer survives this stress, it has a high probability of surviving without breakage during cell/module fabrication. Based on this, we have developed a high throughput, noncontact method for applying a predetermined stress to a wafer. The wafers are carried on a belt through a chamber that illuminates the wafer with an intense light of a predetermined intensity distribution that can be varied by changing the power to the light source. As the wafers move under the light source, each wafer undergoes a dynamic temperature profile that produces a preset elastic stress. If this stress exceeds the wafer strength, the wafer will break. The broken wafers are separated early, eliminating cost of processing into cell/module. We will describe details of the system and show comparison of breakage statistics with the breakage on a production line.

  5. Wafer-scale fabrication and growth dynamics of suspended graphene nanoribbon arrays

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroo; Kaneko, Toshiro; Shibuta, Yasushi; Ohno, Munekazu; Maekawa, Yuki; Kato, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Adding a mechanical degree of freedom to the electrical and optical properties of atomically thin materials can provide an excellent platform to investigate various optoelectrical physics and devices with mechanical motion interaction. The large scale fabrication of such atomically thin materials with suspended structures remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate the wafer-scale bottom–up synthesis of suspended graphene nanoribbon arrays (over 1,000,000 graphene nanoribbons in 2 × 2 cm2 substrate) with a very high yield (over 98%). Polarized Raman measurements reveal graphene nanoribbons in the array can have relatively uniform-edge structures with near zigzag orientation dominant. A promising growth model of suspended graphene nanoribbons is also established through a comprehensive study that combined experiments, molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical calculations with a phase-diagram analysis. We believe that our results can contribute to pushing the study of graphene nanoribbons into a new stage related to the optoelectrical physics and industrial applications. PMID:27250877

  6. Classical Molecular Dynamics and Self-Consistent Tight-Binding Simulations of Si-Si Wafer Bonding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, J. G.; Kim, Jeongnim; Wilkins, John W.; Kirchhoff, Florian

    2000-03-01

    We have carried out a series of atomistic simulations of the room temperature bonding of clean, defect-free Si wafers under UHV conditions using Classical Molecular Dynamics (CMD) and Self-Consistent Tight-Binding (SCTB) Our simulations indicate that even when the wafers are perfectly aligned, bonding does not typically result in the formation of bulk crystalline Si. Instead, the basic geometry of the original dimerized surface tends to persist, producing an interface characterized by linked dimers. As the wafers bond, considerable chemical energy is released resulting in rapid heating (up to 800 K) at the interface. However, this heat is rapidly conducted away from the interface and so does not have an appreciable annealing effect. Large-scale CMD calculations show that the ground state energy of the bonded system is sensitively dependent on twist angle. The SCTB calculations were performed using the using the parameterization of Lenosky et al.( Thomas J. Lenosky, Joel D. Kress, Inhee Kwon, Arthur F. Voter, Byard Edwards, David F. Richards, Sang Yang, and James B. Adams, Phys. Rev. B 55), 1528 (1997).

  7. Dynamic Implementation Seeking Equilibrium Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riboldi, Pablo Jose

    Implementing exportable instructional systems has always been a problem for instructional developers. Even the best instructional systems lose effectiveness when they are poorly implemented. Researchers have focused their efforts on creating mechanisms to help developers and managers improve and control implementation. However, most of these…

  8. Improving School Effectiveness: The Dynamics of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, Alan K.; Clauset, Karl H., Jr.

    Six causal-influence diagrams introduce a model showing the difficulties of implementing school improvement policies in such areas as teacher expectations and student behavior. The first diagram deals with basic dynamics of improvement. Cybernetics of activities to correct student achievement are revealed in a second diagram, which portrays…

  9. Performance Evaluations of Ceramic Wafer Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2006-01-01

    Future hypersonic vehicles will require high temperature, dynamic seals in advanced ramjet/scramjet engines and on the vehicle airframe to seal the perimeters of movable panels, flaps, and doors. Seal temperatures in these locations can exceed 2000 F, especially when the seals are in contact with hot ceramic matrix composite sealing surfaces. NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced ceramic wafer seals to meet the needs of these applications. High temperature scrub tests performed between silicon nitride wafers and carbon-silicon carbide rub surfaces revealed high friction forces and evidence of material transfer from the rub surfaces to the wafer seals. Stickage between adjacent wafers was also observed after testing. Several design changes to the wafer seals were evaluated as possible solutions to these concerns. Wafers with recessed sides were evaluated as a potential means of reducing friction between adjacent wafers. Alternative wafer materials are also being considered as a means of reducing friction between the seals and their sealing surfaces and because the baseline silicon nitride wafer material (AS800) is no longer commercially available.

  10. Barrier reduction via implementation of InGaN interlayer in wafer-bonded current aperture vertical electron transistors consisting of InGaAs channel and N-polar GaN drain

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeonghee Laurent, Matthew A.; Li, Haoran; Lal, Shalini; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2015-01-12

    This letter reports the influence of the added InGaN interlayer on reducing the inherent interfacial barrier and hence improving the electrical characteristics of wafer-bonded current aperture vertical electron transistors consisting of an InGaAs channel and N-polar GaN drain. The current-voltage characteristics of the transistors show that the implementation of N-polar InGaN interlayer effectively reduces the barrier to electron transport across the wafer-bonded interface most likely due to its polarization induced downward band bending, which increases the electron tunneling probability. Fully functional wafer-bonded transistors with nearly 600 mA/mm of drain current at V{sub GS} = 0 V and L{sub go} = 2 μm have been achieved, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of using wafer-bonded heterostructures for applications that require active carrier transport through both materials.

  11. Wafer-level reliability characterization for wafer-level packaged microbolometer with ultra-small array size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Yeoun; Yang, Chungmo; Park, Jae Hong; Jung, Ho; Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Kyung Tae; Lim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sang Woo; Mitchell, Jay; Hwang, Wook Joong; Lee, Kwyro

    2013-06-01

    For the development of small and low cost microbolometer, wafer level reliability characterization techniques of vacuum packaged wafer are introduced. Amorphous silicon based microbolometer-type vacuum sensors fabricated in 8 inch wafer are bonded with cap wafer by Au-Sn eutectic solder. Membrane deflection and integrated vacuum sensor techniques are independently used to characterize the hermeticity in a wafer-level. For the packaged wafer with membrane thickness below 100um, it is possible to determine the hermeticity as screening test by optical detection technique. Integrated vacuum sensor having the same structure as bolometer pixel shows the vacuum level below 100mTorr. All steps from packaging process to fine hermeticity test are implemented in wafer level to prove the high volume and low cost production.

  12. Wafer characteristics via reflectometry

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2010-10-19

    Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

  13. Organizational Readiness for Stage-Based Dynamics of Innovation Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, D. Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    Implementing innovations in social and health-related service programs is a dynamic stage-based process. This article discusses training, adoption, implementation, and practice as sequential elements of a conceptual framework for effective preparation and implementation of evidence-based innovations. However, systems need to be prepared for change…

  14. High Throughput, Noncontact System for Screening Silicon Wafers Predisposed to Breakage During Solar Cell Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Basnyat, P.; Mehta, V.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a non-contact, on-line system for screening wafers that are likely to break during solar cell/module fabrication. The wafers are transported on a conveyor belt under a light source, which illuminates the wafers with a specific light distribution. Each wafer undergoes a dynamic thermal stress whose magnitude mimics the highest stress the wafer will experience during cell/module fabrication. As a result of the stress, the weak wafers break, leaving only the wafers that are strong enough to survive the production processes. We will describe the mechanism of wafer breakage, introduce the wafer system, and discuss the results of the time-temperature (t-T) profile of wafers with and without microcracks.

  15. Stable wafer-carrier system

    DOEpatents

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T; Beese, Steven C

    2013-10-22

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a wafer-carrier system used in a deposition chamber for carrying wafers. The wafer-carrier system includes a base susceptor and a top susceptor nested inside the base susceptor with its wafer-mounting side facing the base susceptor's wafer-mounting side, thereby forming a substantially enclosed narrow channel. The base susceptor provides an upward support to the top susceptor.

  16. Structured wafer for device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-11-25

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  17. Structured wafer for device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-05-20

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  18. A User Driven Dynamic Circuit Network Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Guok, Chin; Robertson, David; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Thompson, Mary; Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian

    2008-10-01

    The requirements for network predictability are becoming increasingly critical to the DoE science community where resources are widely distributed and collaborations are world-wide. To accommodate these emerging requirements, the Energy Sciences Network has established a Science Data Network to provide user driven guaranteed bandwidth allocations. In this paper we outline the design, implementation, and secure coordinated use of such a network, as well as some lessons learned.

  19. Within-wafer CD variation induced by wafer shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chi-hao; Yang, Mars; Yang, Elvis; Yang, T. H.; Chen, K. C.

    2016-03-01

    In order to meet the increasing storage capacity demand and reduce bit cost of NAND flash memories, 3D stacked vertical flash cell array has been proposed. In constructing 3D NAND flash memories, the bit number per unit area is increased as increasing the number of stacked layers. However, the increased number of stacked layers has made the film stress control extremely important for maintaining good process quality. The residual film stress alters the wafer shape accordingly several process impacts have been readily observed across wafer, such as film deposition non-uniformity, etch rate non-uniformity, wafer chucking error on scanner, materials coating/baking defects, overlay degradation and critical dimension (CD) non-uniformity. The residual tensile and compressive stresses on wafers will result in concave and convex wafer shapes, respectively. This study investigates within-wafer CD uniformity (CDU) associated with wafer shape change induced by the 3D NAND flash memory processes. Within-wafer CDU was correlated with several critical parameters including different wafer bow heights of concave and convex wafer shapes, photo resists with different post exposure baking (PEB) temperature sensitivities, and DoseMapper compensation. The results indicated the trend of within-wafer CDU maintains flat for convex wafer shapes with bow height up to +230um and concave wafer shapes with bow height ranging from 0 ~ -70um, while the within-wafer CDU trends up from -70um to -246um wafer bow heights. To minimize the within-wafer CD distribution induced by wafer warpage, carefully tailoring the film stack and thermal budget in the process flow for maintaining the wafer shape at CDU friendly range is indispensable and using photo-resist materials with lower PEB temperature sensitivity is also suggested. In addition, DoseMapper compensation is also an alternative to greatly suppress the within-wafer CD non-uniformity but the photo-resist profile variation induced by across-wafer

  20. Minimum wafer thickness by rotated ingot ID wafering. [Inner Diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Leipold, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The efficient utilization of materials is critical to certain device applications such as silicon for photovoltaics or diodes and gallium-gadolinium-garnet for memories. A variety of slicing techniques has been investigated to minimize wafer thickness and wafer kerf. This paper presents the results of analyses of ID wafering of rotated ingots based on predicted fracture behavior of the wafer as a result of forces during wafering and the properties of the device material. The analytical model indicated that the minimum wafer thickness is controlled by the depth of surface damage and the applied cantilever force. Both of these factors should be minimized. For silicon, a minimum thickness was found to be approximately 200 x 10 - 6th m for conventional sizes of rotated ingot wafering. Fractures through the thickness of the wafer rather than through the center supporting column were found to limit the minimum wafer thickness. The model suggested that the use of a vacuum chuck on the wafer surface to enhance cleavage fracture of the center supporting core and, with silicon, by using 111-line-type ingots could have potential for reducing minimum wafer thickness.

  1. Dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipole implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, W.C.; Meng, W.; Mernick, K.; Pai, C.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.

    2010-05-02

    AC-dipole magnets are typically implemented as a parallel LC resonant circuit. To maximize efficiency, it's beneficial to operate at a high Q. This, however, limits the magnet to a narrow frequency range. Current designs therefore operate at a low Q to provide a wider bandwidth at the cost of efficiency. Dynamically tuning a high Q resonant circuit tries to maintain a high efficiency while providing a wide frequency range. The results of ongoing efforts at BNL to implement dynamically tuned high-Q AC dipoles will be presented.

  2. Wafer level warpage characterization of 3D interconnect processing wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Po-Yi; Ku, Yi-Sha

    2012-03-01

    We present a new metrology system based on a fringe reflection method for warpage characterizations during wafer thinning and temporary bonding processes. A set of periodic fringe patterns is projected onto the measuring wafer and the reflected fringe images are captured by a CCD camera. The fringe patterns are deformed due to the slope variation of the wafer surface. We demonstrate the use of phase-shit algorithms, the wafer surface slope variation and quantitative 3D surface profile even tiny dimples and dents on a wafer can be reconstructed. The experimental results show the warpages of the bonded wafer are below 20 μm after thinning down to the nominal thickness of 75 μm and 50 μm. The measurement precision is better than 2 um.

  3. Contamination control: removing small particles from increasingly large wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, A. J.; van der Donck, J. C. J.; Huijser, T.; Kievit, O.; Koops, R.; Koster, N. B.; Molkenboer, F. T.; Theulings, A. M. M. G.

    2012-03-01

    With the introduction of 450 mm wafers, which are considerably larger than the currently largest wafers of 300mm, handling with side grippers is no longer possible and backside grippers are required. Backside gripping increases the possible buildup of particles on the backside of the wafers with possible cross-contamination to the front-side. Therefore, regular backside cleaning is required. Three vacuum compatible cleaning methods were selected. Tacky rollers and highvoltage cleaning were selected for particles and plasma cleaning for molecular layers. A test-bench was designed and constructed implementing these three cleaning methods. The first experiments show promising results for the plasma cleaner and the tacky roller.

  4. Design Study of Wafer Seals for Future Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Future hypersonic vehicles require high temperature, dynamic seals in advanced hypersonic engines and on the vehicle airframe to seal the perimeters of movable panels, flaps, and doors. Current seals do not meet the demanding requirements of these applications, so NASA Glenn Research Center is developing improved designs to overcome these shortfalls. An advanced ceramic wafer seal design has shown promise in meeting these needs. Results from a design of experiments study performed on this seal revealed that several installation variables played a role in determining the amount of leakage past the seals. Lower leakage rates were achieved by using a tighter groove width around the seals, a higher seal preload, a tighter wafer height tolerance, and a looser groove length. During flow testing, a seal activating pressure acting behind the wafers combined with simulated vibrations to seat the seals more effectively against the sealing surface and produce lower leakage rates. A seal geometry study revealed comparable leakage for full-scale wafers with 0.125 and 0.25 in. thicknesses. For applications in which lower part counts are desired, fewer 0.25-in.-thick wafers may be able to be used in place of 0.125-in.-thick wafers while achieving similar performance. Tests performed on wafers with a rounded edge (0.5 in. radius) in contact with the sealing surface resulted in flow rates twice as high as those for wafers with a flat edge. Half-size wafers had leakage rates approximately three times higher than those for full-size wafers.

  5. Gettering Silicon Wafers with Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon wafers subjected to gettering in phosphorus atmosphere have longer diffusion lengths and higher solar-cell efficiencies than untreated wafers. Gettering treatment improves properties of solar cells manufactured from impure silicon and is compatible with standard solar-cell processing.

  6. Implementing dynamic arrays: a challenge for high-performance machines

    SciTech Connect

    Mago, G.; Partain, W.

    1986-01-01

    There is an increasing need for high-performance AI machines. What is unusual about AI is that its programs are typically dynamic in the way their execution unfolds and in the data structures they use. AI therefore needs machines that are late-binding. Multiprocessors are often held out as the answer to AI's computing requirements. However, most success with multiprocessing has come from exploiting numerical computations' basic data structure - the static array (as in FORTRAN). A static array's structure does not change, so its elements (and the processing on them) may be readily distributed. In AI, the ability to change and manipulate the structure of data is paramount; hence, the pre-eminence of the LISP list. Unfortunately, the traditional pointer-based list has serious drawbacks for distributed processing. The dynamic array is a data structure that allows random access to its elements (like static arrays) yet whose structure - size and dimensions - can be easily changed, i.e., bound and re-bound at run - time. It combines the flexibility that AI requires with the potential for high performance through parallel operation. A machine's implementation of dynamic arrays gives a good insight into its potential usefulness for AI applications. Therefore, the authors outline the implementation of dynamic arrays on a machine that we are developing.

  7. Compact implementation of dynamic receive apodization in ultrasound scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, Borislav G.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2004-04-01

    The image quality in medical ultrasound scanners is determined by several factors, one of which is the ability of the receive beamformer to change the aperture weighting function with depth and beam angle. In digital beamformers, precise dynamic apodization can be achieved by representing that function by numeric sequences. For a 15 cm scan depth and 100 lines per image, a 64-channel, 40 MHz ultrasound beamformer may need almost 50 million coefficients. A more coarse representation of the aperture relieves the memory requirements but does not enable compact and precise beamforming. Previously, the authors have developed a compact beamformer architecture which utilizes sigma-delta A/D conversion, recursive delay generation and sparse sample reconstruction using FIR filters. The channel weights were here fixed. In this paper, a compact implementation of dynamic receive apodization is presented. It allows precise weighting coefficient generation and utilizes a recursive algorithm which shares its starting parameters with the recursive delay generation logic. Thus, only a separate calculation block, consisting of 5 adders and 5 registers, is necessary. A VHDL implementation in a Xilinx XCV2000E-7 FPGA has been made for the whole receive beamformer for assessing the necessary hardware resources and the achievable performance for that platform. The code implements dynamic apodization with an expanding aperture for either linear or phased array imaging. A complete 32-channel beamformer can operate at 129.82 MHz and occupies 1.28 million gates. Simulated in Matlab, a 64-channel beamformer provides gray scale image with around 55 dB dynamic range. The beamformed data can also be used for flow estimation.

  8. Optical analysis on the wafer defect inspection for yield enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeongho; Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Seong, Shijin; Kim, Hyungseop; Choi, Seongchae; Sunwoo, Heewon; Lee, Junbum; Ihm, Dongchul; Chin, Soobok; Kang, Ho-Kyu

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a methodology for detecting defects more effectively that have a substantial yield impact on several critical layers using a simulation program, which is considerably helpful in analyzing defects on the wafer. First, this paper presents a simple analysis method that uses mathematical treatment for multi thin film layers. This instantly gives us a highly intuitive idea for selecting an inspection mode based on the reflectivity and transmittivity. Second, we introduce numerical method for wafer defect of interest with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, and provide correlation between the expectation and experimental results. The goal of these studies is to determine the feasibility of implementing theoretical approaches with numerical method at wafer defect inspection. Overall, this paper discusses the effective wafer inspection methodology and the advantages of defect simulation with numerical analysis at semiconductor manufacturing for accelerated development of advanced design node devices.

  9. Influence of the bonding front propagation on the wafer stack curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, E.; Bréchet, Y.; Barthelemy, A.; Radu, I.; Pardoen, T.; Raskin, J.-P.

    2014-08-11

    The influence of the dynamics of the direct wafer bonding process on the curvature of the final wafer stack is investigated. An analytical model for the final curvature of the bonded wafers is developed, as a function of the different load components acting during the bonding front propagation, using thin plate theory and considering a strain discontinuity locked at the bonding interface. Experimental profiles are measured for different bonding conditions and wafer thicknesses. A very good agreement with the model prediction is obtained and the influence of the thin air layer trapped in-between the two wafers is demonstrated. The proposed model contributes to further improvement of the bonding process, in particular, for the stacking of layers of electronic devices, which requires a high accuracy of wafer-to-wafer alignment and a very low distortion level.

  10. Mask registration and wafer overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulseung; Bang, Changjin; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kang, Hyosang; Lee, Dohwa; Jeong, Woonjae; Lim, Ok-Sung; Yoon, Seunghoon; Jung, Jaekang; Laske, Frank; Parisoli, Lidia; Roeth, Klaus-Dieter; Robinson, John C.; Jug, Sven; Izikson, Pavel; Dinu, Berta; Widmann, Amir; Choi, DongSub

    2010-03-01

    Overlay continues to be one of the key challenges for lithography in advanced semiconductor manufacturing. It becomes even more challenging due to the continued shrinking of the device node. Some low k1 techniques, such as Double Exposure and Double Patterning also add additional loss of the overlay margin due to the fact that the single layer pattern is created based on more than 1 exposure. Therefore, the overlay between 2 exposures requires very tight overlay specification. Mask registration is one of the major contributors to wafer overlay, especially field related overlay. We investigated mask registration and wafer overlay by co-analyzing the mask data and the wafer overlay data. To achieve the accurate cohesive results, we introduced the combined metrology mark which can be used for both mask registration measurement as well as for wafer overlay measurement. Coincidence of both metrology marks make it possible to subtract mask signature from wafer overlay without compromising the accuracy due to the physical distance between measurement marks, if we use 2 different marks for both metrologies. Therefore, it is possible to extract pure scanner related signatures, and to analyze the scanner related signatures in details to in order to enable root cause analysis and ultimately drive higher wafer yield. We determined the exact mask registration error in order to decompose wafer overlay into mask, scanner, process and metrology. We also studied the impact of pellicle mounting by comparison of mask registration measurement pre-pellicle mounting and post-pellicle mounting in this investigation.

  11. High-speed dynamic domino circuit implemented with gaas mesfets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Long (Inventor); Long, Stephen I. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic logic circuit (AND or OR) utilizes one depletion-mode metal-semiconductor FET for precharging an internal node A, and a plurality of the same type of FETs in series, or a FET in parallel with one or more of the series connected FETs for implementing the logic function. A pair of FETs are connected to provide an output inverter with two series diodes for level shift. A coupling capacitor may be employed with a further FET to provide level shifting required between the inverter and the logic circuit output terminal. These circuits may be cascaded to form a domino chain.

  12. Design and implementation of dynamic hybrid Honeypot network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Peili; Hu, Shan-Shan; Zhai, Ji-Qiang

    2013-05-01

    The method of constructing a dynamic and self-adaptive virtual network is suggested to puzzle adversaries, delay and divert attacks, exhaust attacker resources and collect attacking information. The concepts of Honeypot and Honeyd, which is the frame of virtual Honeypot are introduced. The techniques of network scanning including active fingerprint recognition are analyzed. Dynamic virtual network system is designed and implemented. A virtual network similar to real network topology is built according to the collected messages from real environments in this system. By doing this, the system can perplex the attackers when Hackers attack and can further analyze and research the attacks. The tests to this system prove that this design can successfully simulate real network environment and can be used in network security analysis.

  13. Laser wafering for silicon solar.

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2011-03-01

    Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

  14. Wafer handling and placement tool

    DOEpatents

    Witherspoon, Linda L.

    1988-01-05

    A spring arm tool is provided for clamp engaging and supporting wafers while the tool is hand held. The tool includes a pair of relatively swingable jaw element supporting support arms and the jaw elements are notched to enjoy multiple point contact with a wafer peripheral portion. Also, one disclosed form of the tool includes remotely operable workpiece ejecting structure carried by the jaw elements thereof.

  15. Note: Near infrared interferometric silicon wafer metrology.

    PubMed

    Choi, M S; Park, H M; Joo, K N

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation, two near infrared (NIR) interferometric techniques for silicon wafer metrology are described and verified with experimental results. Based on the transparent characteristic of NIR light to a silicon wafer, the fiber based spectrally resolved interferometry can measure the optical thickness of the wafer and stitching low coherence scanning interferometry can reconstruct entire surfaces of the wafer. PMID:27131722

  16. Spinner For Etching Of Semiconductor Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive apparatus coats semiconductor wafers uniformly with hydrofluoric acid for etching. Apparatus made in part from small commercial electric-fan motor. Features bowl that collects acid. Silicon wafer placed on platform and centered on axis; motor switched on. As wafer spins, drops of hydrofluoric acid applied from syringe. Centrifugal force spreads acid across wafer in fairly uniform sheet.

  17. Strategy optimization for mask rule check in wafer fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuen Huei; Lin, Shaina; Lin, Roger; Wang, Alice; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin

    2015-07-01

    Photolithography process is getting more and more sophisticated for wafer production following Moore's law. Therefore, for wafer fab, consolidated and close cooperation with mask house is a key to achieve silicon wafer success. However, generally speaking, it is not easy to preserve such partnership because many engineering efforts and frequent communication are indispensable. The inattentive connection is obvious in mask rule check (MRC). Mask houses will do their own MRC at job deck stage, but the checking is only for identification of mask process limitation including writing, etching, inspection, metrology, etc. No further checking in terms of wafer process concerned mask data errors will be implemented after data files of whole mask are composed in mask house. There are still many potential data errors even post-OPC verification has been done for main circuits. What mentioned here are the kinds of errors which will only occur as main circuits combined with frame and dummy patterns to form whole reticle. Therefore, strategy optimization is on-going in UMC to evaluate MRC especially for wafer fab concerned errors. The prerequisite is that no impact on mask delivery cycle time even adding this extra checking. A full-mask checking based on job deck in gds or oasis format is necessary in order to secure acceptable run time. Form of the summarized error report generated by this checking is also crucial because user friendly interface will shorten engineers' judgment time to release mask for writing. This paper will survey the key factors of MRC in wafer fab.

  18. Automated reticle inspection data analysis for wafer fabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Derek; Chen, Gong; Reese, Bryan; Hutchinson, Trent; Liesching, Marcus; Ying, Hai; Dover, Russell

    2009-03-01

    To minimize potential wafer yield loss due to mask defects, most wafer fabs implement some form of reticle inspection system to monitor photomask quality in high-volume wafer manufacturing environments. Traditionally, experienced operators review reticle defects found by an inspection tool and then manually classify each defect as 'pass, warn, or fail' based on its size and location. However, in the event reticle defects are suspected of causing repeating wafer defects on a completed wafer, potential defects on all associated reticles must be manually searched on a layer-by-layer basis in an effort to identify the reticle responsible for the wafer yield loss. This 'problem reticle' search process is a very tedious and time-consuming task and may cause extended manufacturing line-down situations. Often times, Process Engineers and other team members need to manually investigate several reticle inspection reports to determine if yield loss can be tied to a specific layer. Because of the very nature of this detailed work, calculation errors may occur resulting in an incorrect root cause analysis effort. These delays waste valuable resources that could be spent working on other more productive activities. This paper examines an automated software solution for converting KLA-Tencor reticle inspection defect maps into a format compatible with KLA-Tencor's Klarity DefectTM data analysis database. The objective is to use the graphical charting capabilities of Klarity Defect to reveal a clearer understanding of defect trends for individual reticle layers or entire mask sets. Automated analysis features include reticle defect count trend analysis and potentially stacking reticle defect maps for signature analysis against wafer inspection defect data. Other possible benefits include optimizing reticle inspection sample plans in an effort to support "lean manufacturing" initiatives for wafer fabs.

  19. Automated reticle inspection data analysis for wafer fabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Derek; Chen, Gong; Reese, Bryan; Hutchinson, Trent; Liesching, Marcus; Ying, Hai; Dover, Russell

    2008-10-01

    To minimize potential wafer yield loss due to mask defects, most wafer fabs implement some form of reticle inspection system to monitor photomask quality in high-volume wafer manufacturing environments. Traditionally, experienced operators review reticle defects found by an inspection tool and then manually classify each defect as 'pass, warn, or fail' based on its size and location. However, in the event reticle defects are suspected of causing repeating wafer defects on a completed wafer, potential defects on all associated reticles must be manually searched on a layer-by-layer basis in an effort to identify the reticle responsible for the wafer yield loss. This 'problem reticle' search process is a very tedious and time-consuming task and may cause extended manufacturing line-down situations. Often times, Process Engineers and other team members need to manually investigate several reticle inspection reports to determine if yield loss can be tied to a specific layer. Because of the very nature of this detailed work, calculation errors may occur resulting in an incorrect root cause analysis effort. These delays waste valuable resources that could be spent working on other more productive activities. This paper examines an automated software solution for converting KLA-Tencor reticle inspection defect maps into a format compatible with KLA-Tencor's Klarity DefecTM data analysis database. The objective is to use the graphical charting capabilities of Klarity Defect to reveal a clearer understanding of defect trends for individual reticle layers or entire mask sets. Automated analysis features include reticle defect count trend analysis and potentially stacking reticle defect maps for signature analysis against wafer inspection defect data. Other possible benefits include optimizing reticle inspection sample plans in an effort to support "lean manufacturing" initiatives for wafer fabs.

  20. Automated reticle inspection data analysis for wafer fabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Derek; Chen, Gong; Reese, Bryan; Hutchinson, Trent; Liesching, Marcus; Ying, Hai; Dover, Russell

    2009-04-01

    To minimize potential wafer yield loss due to mask defects, most wafer fabs implement some form of reticle inspection system to monitor photomask quality in high-volume wafer manufacturing environments. Traditionally, experienced operators review reticle defects found by an inspection tool and then manually classify each defect as 'pass, warn, or fail' based on its size and location. However, in the event reticle defects are suspected of causing repeating wafer defects on a completed wafer, potential defects on all associated reticles must be manually searched on a layer-by-layer basis in an effort to identify the reticle responsible for the wafer yield loss. This 'problem reticle' search process is a very tedious and time-consuming task and may cause extended manufacturing line-down situations. Often times, Process Engineers and other team members need to manually investigate several reticle inspection reports to determine if yield loss can be tied to a specific layer. Because of the very nature of this detailed work, calculation errors may occur resulting in an incorrect root cause analysis effort. These delays waste valuable resources that could be spent working on other more productive activities. This paper examines an automated software solution for converting KLA-Tencor reticle inspection defect maps into a format compatible with KLA-Tencor's Klarity Defect(R) data analysis database. The objective is to use the graphical charting capabilities of Klarity Defect to reveal a clearer understanding of defect trends for individual reticle layers or entire mask sets. Automated analysis features include reticle defect count trend analysis and potentially stacking reticle defect maps for signature analysis against wafer inspection defect data. Other possible benefits include optimizing reticle inspection sample plans in an effort to support "lean manufacturing" initiatives for wafer fabs.

  1. A practical approach to LWIR wafer-level optics for thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symmons, Alan; Pini, Ray

    2013-06-01

    The development and implementation of wafer level packaging for commercial microbolometers has opened the pathway towards full wafer-based thermal imaging systems. The next challenge in development is moving from discrete element LWIR imaging systems to a wafer based optical system, similar to lens assemblies found in cell phone cameras. This paper will compare a typical high volume thermal imaging design manufactured from discrete lens elements to a similar design optimized for manufacture through a wafer based approach. We will explore both performance and cost tradeoffs as well as review the manufacturability of all designs.

  2. Dynamics of the public concern and risk communication program implementation.

    PubMed

    Zaryabova, Victoria; Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The public concern about electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure varies due to different reasons. A part of them are connected with the better and higher quality of information that people receive from science, media, Internet, social networks, industry, but others are based on good communication programs performed by the responsible institutions, administration and persons. Especially, in Bulgaria, public concern follows interesting changes, some of them in correlation with the European processes of concern, but others following the economic and political processes in the country. Here, we analyze the dynamics of the public concern over the last 10 years. Our explanation of the decrease of the people's complaints against EMF exposure from base stations for mobile communication is as a result of our risk communication program that is in implementation for >10 years.

  3. Wafer sampling by regression for systematic wafer variation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byungsool; McNames, James; Whitefield, Bruce; Rudolph, Paul; Zola, Jeff

    2005-05-01

    In-line measurements are used to monitor semiconductor manufacturing processes for excessive variation using statistical process control (SPC) chart techniques. Systematic spatial wafer variation often occurs in a recognizable pattern across the wafer that is characteristic of a particular manufacturing step. Visualization tools are used to associate these patterns with specific manufacturing steps preceding the measurement. Acquiring the measurements is an expensive and slow process. The number of sites measured on a wafer must be minimized while still providing sufficient data to monitor the process. We address two key challenges to effective wafer-level monitoring. The first challenge is to select a small sample of inspection sites that maximize detection sensitivity to the patterns of interest, while minimizing the confounding effects of other types of wafer variation. The second challenge is to develop a detection algorithm that maximizes sensitivity to the patterns of interest without exceeding a user-specified false positive rate. We propose new sampling and detection methods. Both methods are based on a linear regression model with distinct and orthogonal components. The model is flexible enough to include many types of systematic spatial variation across the wafer. Because the components are orthogonal, the degree of each type of variation can be estimated and detected independently with very few samples. A formal hypothesis test can then be used to determine whether specific patterns are present. This approach enables one to determine the sensitivity of a sample plan to patterns of interest and the minimum number of measurements necessary to adequately monitor the process.

  4. Optical pressure sensor head fabrication using ultrathin silicon wafer anodic bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggans, Michael H.; Ivanov, Dentcho I.; Fu, Steven G.; Digges, Thomas G., III; Farmer, Kenneth R.

    1999-03-01

    A technology for fabricating fiber optically interrogated pressure sensors is described. This technology is based on anodic bonding of ultra-thin silicon wafers to patterned, micro-machined glass wafers, providing low-cost fabrication of optical pressure sensor heads that operate with reproducible technical characteristics in various dynamic ranges. Pressure sensors using 10, 20 and 50 micron thick silicon wafers for membranes have been fabricated on 10 cm diameter, 500-micron thick, Pyrex glass wafers. The glass wafers have been micro-machined using ultrasonic drilling in order to form cavities, optical fiber feedthrough holes and vent holes. One of the main challenges of the manufacturing process is the handling of the ultra-thin silicon wafers. Being extremely flexible, the thin silicon wafers cannot be cleaned, oxidized, or dried in the same way as normal since wafers with a thickness of the order of 400 microns. Specific handling techniques have been developed in order to achieve reproducible cleaning and oxidation processes. The anodic bonding was performed using an Electronic Visions EV501S bonder. The wafers were heated at 420 degrees C and a voltage of 1200 volts was applied in vacuum of 10-5 Torr. The bonded wafer stack was then fixed in a wax and diced. The resulting chips have been used to fabricate operating pressure sensors.

  5. Wafer characteristics via reflectometry and wafer processing apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2007-07-03

    An exemplary system includes a measuring device to acquire non-contact thickness measurements of a wafer and a laser beam to cut the wafer at a rate based at least in part on one or more thicknesses measurements. An exemplary method includes illuminating a substrate with radiation, measuring at least some radiation reflected from the substrate, determining one or more cutting parameters based at least in part on the measured radiation and cutting the substrate using the one or more cutting parameters. Various other exemplary methods, devices, systems, etc., are also disclosed.

  6. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOEpatents

    Vosen, S.R.

    1999-07-27

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernible pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light. 4 figs.

  7. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOEpatents

    Vosen, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernable pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light.

  8. Implementation of Green's function molecular dynamics: An extension to LAMMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ling Ti; Bartels, Guido; Campañá, Carlos; Denniston, Colin; Müser, Martin H.

    2009-06-01

    The Green's function molecular dynamics method, which enables one to study the elastic response of a three-dimensional solid to an external stress field by taking into consideration only the surface atoms, was implemented as an extension to an open source classical molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS. This was done in the style of fixes. The first fix, FixGFC, measures the elastic stiffness coefficients for a (small) solid block of a given material by making use of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. With the help of the second fix, FixGFMD, the coefficients obtained from FixGFC can then be used to compute the elastic forces for a (large) block of the same material. Both fixes are designed to be run in parallel and to exploit the functions provided by LAMMPS. Program summaryProgram title: FixGFC/FixGFMD Catalogue identifier: AECW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 33 469 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 383 631 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: All Operating system: Linux Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Parallelized via MPI RAM: Depends on the problem Classification: 7.7 External routines: MPI, FFTW 2.1.5 ( http://www.fftw.org/), LAMMPS version May 21, 2008 ( http://lammps.sandia.gov/) Nature of problem: Using molecular dynamics to study elastically deforming solids imposes very high computational costs because portions of the solid far away from the interface or contact points need to be included in the simulation to reproduce the effects of long-range elastic deformations. Green's function molecular dynamics (GFMD) incorporates the full elastic response of semi-infinite solids so that only surface atoms have to be considered in molecular dynamics simulations, thus

  9. Smoother Scribing of Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed new tool used to scribe silicon wafers into chips more smoothly than before. New scriber produces surface that appears ductile. Scribed groove cuts have relatively smooth walls. Scriber consists of diamond pyramid point on rigid shaft. Ethanol flows through shaft and around point, like ink in ballpoint pen. Ethanol has significantly different effect for scribing silicon than water, used in conventional diamond scribers.

  10. White-light interferometric microscopy for wafer defect inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renjie; Edwards, Christopher; Bryniarski, Casey; Dallmann, Marjorie F.; Popescu, Gabriel; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2015-03-01

    White-light imaging systems are free of laser-speckle. Thus, they offer high sensitivity for optical defect metrology, especially when used with interferometry based quantitative phase imaging. This can be a potential solution for wafer inspection beyond the 9 nm node. Recently, we built a white-light epi-illumination diffraction phase microscopy (epi-wDPM) for wafer defect inspection. The system is also equipped with an XYZ scanning stage and real-time processing. Preliminary results have demonstrated detection of 15 nm by 90 nm in a 9 nm node densely patterned wafer with bright-field imaging. Currently, we are implementing phase imaging with epi-wDPM for additional sensitivity.

  11. WaferOptics® mass volume production and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolterink, E.; Demeyer, K.

    2010-05-01

    The Anteryon WaferOptics® Technology platform contains imaging optics designs, materials, metrologies and combined with wafer level based Semicon & MEMS production methods. WaferOptics® first required complete new system engineering. This system closes the loop between application requirement specifications, Anteryon product specification, Monte Carlo Analysis, process windows, process controls and supply reject criteria. Regarding the Anteryon product Integrated Lens Stack (ILS), new design rules, test methods and control systems were assessed, implemented, validated and customer released for mass production. This includes novel reflowable materials, mastering process, replication, bonding, dicing, assembly, metrology, reliability programs and quality assurance systems. Many of Design of Experiments were performed to assess correlations between optical performance parameters and machine settings of all process steps. Lens metrologies such as FFL, BFL, and MTF were adapted for wafer level production and wafer mapping was introduced for yield management. Test methods for screening and validating suitable optical materials were designed. Critical failure modes such as delamination and popcorning were assessed and modeled with FEM. Anteryon successfully managed to integrate the different technologies starting from single prototypes to high yield mass volume production These parallel efforts resulted in a steep yield increase from 30% to over 90% in a 8 months period.

  12. Determination of wafer center position during the transfer process by using the beam-breaking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Gen; Huang, Bo-Kai

    2014-09-01

    A wafer on a robot blade may slip due to inertia sliding during the acceleration or deceleration process. This study presents the implementation and experimental verification of a novel real-time wafer positioning system to be used during the transfer process. A system-integration computer program involving a human-machine interface (HMI) was also developed, exhibiting the following functions: (a) moving direction judgment; (b) notch-passing judgment; (c) indicating the sensor by which the notch passes; and (d) computing the wafer center in real time. The position of the wafer center is calculated based on the time-sequence of the beam-breaking signals from two optical sensors, and the geometric relations among the sensing points of the robot blade and wafer. When using eight-inch wafers, the experimental results indicated the capabilities of the proposed positioning system under various conditions, including distinct parameters regarding the moving direction, wafer displacement and notch-passing sensors. The accuracy and precision (repeatability) of the measurement in various conditions were calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the experimental results demonstrate that, after combining the novel wafer positioning system and HMI program, the proposed method can be used to compute the position of the wafer center in real time in various conditions.

  13. Performance of a 10 Gbps FSO System Implementing Novel Beam Tracking a Dynamic Buffering Modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John; Valencia, J. Emilio; Peach, Robert; Visone, Chris; Burdge, Geoffrey; Vickers, John; Leclerc, Troy; Sauer, Paul; Andrews, Larry; Phillips, Ron

    2012-01-01

    A 10 Gbps Free space optical (FSO) system implements beam tracking, a high dynamic range optical receiver, and a dynamic buffering packet modem. Performance was characterized at the 4.5 km Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center Florida.

  14. Wafering economies for industrialization from a wafer manufacturer's viewpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, T. P.; Fuerst, F. P.

    1982-01-01

    The key technical limitations which inhibit the lowering of value-added costs for state-of-the-art wafering techniques are assessed. From the best experimental results to date, a projection was made to identify those parts of each system which need to be developed in order to meet or improve upon the value-added cost reduction necessary for $0.70/Wp photovoltaics modules.

  15. Temperature Dependent Electrical Properties of PZT Wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, T.; Sen, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, A.

    2016-04-01

    The electrical and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafers were investigated and compared with PZT bulk. PZT wafers were prepared by tape casting technique. The transition temperature of both the PZT forms remained the same. The transition from an asymmetric to a symmetric shape was observed for PZT wafers at higher temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) values obtained were 560 pc/N and 234 pc/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (k p) values were 0.68 and 0.49 for bulk and wafer, respectively. The reduction in polarization after fatigue was only ~3% in case of PZT bulk and ~7% for PZT wafer.

  16. Deposition uniformity inspection in IC wafer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. C.; Lin, Y. T.; Jeng, J. J.; Chang, C. L.

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on the task of automatic visual inspection of color uniformity on the surface of integrated circuits (IC) wafers arising from the layering process. The oxide thickness uniformity within a given wafer with a desired target thickness is of great importance for modern semiconductor circuits with small oxide thickness. The non-uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a wafer surface will proceed to fail testing in Wafer Acceptance Test (WAT). Early detection of non-uniform deposition in a wafer surface can reduce material waste and improve production yields. The fastest and most low-priced inspection method is a machine vision-based inspection system. In this paper, the proposed visual inspection system is based on the color representations which were reflected from wafer surface. The regions of non-uniform deposition present different colors from the uniform background in a wafer surface. The proposed inspection technique first learns the color data via color space transformation from uniform deposition of normal wafer surfaces. The individual small region statistical comparison scheme then proceeds to the testing wafers. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect the non-uniform deposition regions on the wafer surface. The inspection time of the deposited wafers is quite compatible with the atmospheric pressure CVD time.

  17. Support apparatus for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOEpatents

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Nilson, Robert H.; Torres, Kenneth J.

    2003-06-10

    A support apparatus for minimizing gravitational stress in semiconductor wafers, and particularly silicon wafers, during thermal processing. The support apparatus comprises two concentric circular support structures disposed on a common support fixture. The two concentric circular support structures, located generally at between 10 and 70% and 70 and 100% and preferably at 35 and 82.3% of the semiconductor wafer radius, can be either solid rings or a plurality of spaced support points spaced apart from each other in a substantially uniform manner. Further, the support structures can have segments removed to facilitate wafer loading and unloading. In order to withstand the elevated temperatures encountered during semiconductor wafer processing, the support apparatus, including the concentric circular support structures and support fixture can be fabricated from refractory materials, such as silicon carbide, quartz and graphite. The claimed wafer support apparatus can be readily adapted for use in either batch or single-wafer processors.

  18. Wafer Manufacturing and Slicing Using Wiresaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Imin; Chung, Chunhui; Moreno Rodriguez, Roosevelt

    Wafer manufacturing (or wafer production) refers to a series of modern manufacturing processes of producing single-crystalline or poly-crystalline wafers from crystal ingot (or boule) of different sizes and materials. The majority of wafers are single-crystalline silicon wafers used in microelectronics fabrication although there is increasing importance in slicing poly-crystalline photovoltaic (PV) silicon wafers as well as wafers of different materials such as aluminum oxide, lithium niobate, quartz, sapphire, III-V and II-VI compounds, and others. Slicing is the first major post crystal growth manufacturing process toward wafer production. The modern wiresaw has emerged as the technology for slicing various types of wafers, especially for large silicon wafers, gradually replacing the ID saw which has been the technology for wafer slicing in the last 30 years of the 20th century. Modern slurry wiresaw has been deployed to slice wafers from small to large diameters with varying wafer thickness characterized by minimum kerf loss and high surface quality. The needs for slicing large crystal ingots (300 mm in diameter or larger) effectively with minimum kerf losses and high surface quality have made it indispensable to employ the modern slurry wiresaw as the preferred tool for slicing. In this chapter, advances in technology and research on the modern slurry wiresaw manufacturing machines and technology are reviewed. Fundamental research in modeling and control of modern wiresaw manufacturing process are required in order to understand the cutting mechanism and to make it relevant for improving industrial processes. To this end, investigation and research have been conducted for the modeling, characterization, metrology, and control of the modern wiresaw manufacturing processes to meet the stringent precision requirements of the semiconductor industry. Research results in mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experiments, and composition of slurry versus wafer

  19. Reticle process monitoring and qualification based on reticle CDU and wafer CDU correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Choi, Byoung Il; Holfeld, Christian; Ngow, Yee Ta; Tan, Sia Kim; Tchikoulaeva, Anna; Gn, Fang Hong

    2011-11-01

    Reticle process of record (POR) sometimes needs fine tuning for some reasons such as multiple layer process, better critical dimension uniformity (CDU) or new etch chamber. The sidewall angle and corner rounding will be varied due to the reticle processing tuned comparing to previous POR. However, because the reticle critical dimension (CD) measurement is based on middle side lobe measurement or other algorithm, the reticle CD cannot reflect the changes of reticle sidewall angle and corner rounding variation which are critical for 65nm node and below. Each of the scanner, wafer process, reticle and metrology tool contributes to the intra-field wafer CD. Normally, the reticle contribution to the wafer CDU should be as small as possible, that is less than 33%. By averaging all wafer CD of individual features to obtain a wafer CD reference independent of feature location and wafer die, the correlation of wafer measurement to target (MTT) and reticle MTT can be obtained. The correlation can accurately qualify and monitor the tuning processing of reticle. We have manufactured two masks for active layer of 65nm tech node by different reticle process. One used the original POR process of active layer, while another used multi-layer-reticle (MLR) process. The correlations between wafer CDU and reticle CDU of these reticles are demonstrated for both isolated and dense features in vertical and horizontal direction, respectively. Similar experiments were implemented and the correlations for both dense and isolated structures are demonstrated as well, for two different POR process for first metal layer of 40nm tech node. Referring to the wafer and reticle MTT correlation, the contribution of reticle CDU to wafer CDU can be used as an evaluation methodology for reticle processing. The wafer and reticle CDU correlations for 45nm node poly and contact layers POR process are also demonstrated.

  20. On the effect of linear algebra implementations in real-time multibody system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Manuel; González, Francisco; Dopico, Daniel; Luaces, Alberto

    2008-03-01

    This paper compares the efficiency of multibody system (MBS) dynamic simulation codes that rely on different implementations of linear algebra operations. The dynamics of an N-loop four-bar mechanism has been solved with an index-3 augmented Lagrangian formulation combined with the trapezoidal rule as numerical integrator. Different implementations for this method, both dense and sparse, have been developed, using a number of linear algebra software libraries (including sparse linear equation solvers) and optimized sparse matrix computation strategies. Numerical experiments have been performed in order to measure their performance, as a function of problem size and matrix filling. Results show that optimal implementations can increase the simulation efficiency in a factor of 2 3, compared with our starting classical implementations, and in some topics they disagree with widespread beliefs in MBS dynamics. Finally, advices are provided to select the implementation which delivers the best performance for a certain MBS dynamic simulation.

  1. Phase shift reflectometry for wafer inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Kuang; Cao, Yiping; Li, Hongru; Sun, Jianfei; Bourgade, Thomas; Asundi, Anand Krishna

    2015-07-01

    In 3D measurement, specular surfaces can be reconstructed by phase shift reflectometry and the system configuration is simple. In this paper, a wafer is measured for industrial inspection to make sure the quality of the wafer by calibrating, phase unwrapping, slope calculation and integration. The profile result of the whole wafer can be reconstructed and it is a curve. As the height of the structures on the wafer is the target we are interested in, by fitting and subtracting the curve surface, the structures on the wafer can be observed on the flat surface. To confirm the quality farther, a part of the wafer is captured and zoomed in to be detected so that the difference between two structures can be observed better.

  2. An Approach for Dynamic Optimization of Prevention Program Implementation in Stochastic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuncheol; Prabhu, Vittal

    The science of preventing youth problems has significantly advanced in developing evidence-based prevention program (EBP) by using randomized clinical trials. Effective EBP can reduce delinquency, aggression, violence, bullying and substance abuse among youth. Unfortunately the outcomes of EBP implemented in natural settings usually tend to be lower than in clinical trials, which has motivated the need to study EBP implementations. In this paper we propose to model EBP implementations in natural settings as stochastic dynamic processes. Specifically, we propose Markov Decision Process (MDP) for modeling and dynamic optimization of such EBP implementations. We illustrate these concepts using simple numerical examples and discuss potential challenges in using such approaches in practice.

  3. MEMS packaging with etching and thinning of lid wafer to form lids and expose device wafer bond pads

    DOEpatents

    Chanchani, Rajen; Nordquist, Christopher; Olsson, Roy H; Peterson, Tracy C; Shul, Randy J; Ahlers, Catalina; Plut, Thomas A; Patrizi, Gary A

    2013-12-03

    In wafer-level packaging of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices a lid wafer is bonded to a MEMS wafer in a predermined aligned relationship. Portions of the lid wafer are removed to separate the lid wafer into lid portions that respectively correspond in alignment with MEMS devices on the MEMS wafer, and to expose areas of the MEMS wafer that respectively contain sets of bond pads respectively coupled to the MEMS devices.

  4. Stress Voiding During Wafer Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, F.G.

    1999-03-01

    Wafer processing involves several heating cycles to temperatures as high as 400 C. These thermal excursions are known to cause growth of voids that limit reliability of parts cut from the wafer. A model for void growth is constructed that can simulate the effect of these thermal cycles on void growth. The model is solved for typical process steps and the kinetics and extent of void growth are determined for each. It is shown that grain size, void spacing, and conductor line width are very important in determining void and stress behavior. For small grain sizes, stress relaxation can be rapid and can lead to void shrinkage during subsequent heating cycles. The effect of rapid quenching from process temperatures is to suppress void growth but induce large remnant stress in the conductor line. This stress can provide the driving force for void growth during storage even at room temperature. For isothermal processes the model can be solved analytically and estimates of terminal void size a nd lifetime are obtained.

  5. Implementation of the dynamic laser goniometer for noncontact measurement of angular movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohkman, Eugene; Burnashev, Mikhail; Filatov, Yuri; Pavlov, Petr

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic laser goniometer (LG) implementation for noncontact measurements of an object's angular position is presented. One of the possible implementations involves determining the time dependence of the scanning mirror's angular position. Another application is aimed at determining the oscillatory movement parameters on the test table. The results obtained in the course of the research show that the dynamic LG makes it possible to calibrate various kinds of test beds making angular oscillations or angular movement of arbitrary law.

  6. Simulational nanoengineering: Molecular dynamics implementation of an atomistic Stirling engine.

    PubMed

    Rapaport, D C

    2009-04-01

    A nanoscale-sized Stirling engine with an atomistic working fluid has been modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The design includes heat exchangers based on thermostats, pistons attached to a flywheel under load, and a regenerator. Key aspects of the behavior, including the time-dependent flows, are described. The model is shown to be capable of stable operation while producing net work at a moderate level of efficiency.

  7. Simulational nanoengineering: Molecular dynamics implementation of an atomistic Stirling engine.

    PubMed

    Rapaport, D C

    2009-04-01

    A nanoscale-sized Stirling engine with an atomistic working fluid has been modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The design includes heat exchangers based on thermostats, pistons attached to a flywheel under load, and a regenerator. Key aspects of the behavior, including the time-dependent flows, are described. The model is shown to be capable of stable operation while producing net work at a moderate level of efficiency. PMID:19518394

  8. Dynamic Visualizations: How Attraction, Motivation and Communication Affect Streaming Video Tutorial Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement in the capabilities of computer technologies has made it easier to design and deploy dynamic visualizations in web-based learning environments; yet, the implementation of these dynamic visuals has been met with mixed results. While many guidelines exist to assist instructional designers in the design and application of…

  9. Dynamic Training Elements in a Circuit Theory Course to Implement a Self-Directed Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krouk, B. I.; Zhuravleva, O. B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a self-directed learning process in a circuit theory course, incorporating dynamic training elements which were designed on the basis of a cybernetic model of cognitive process management. These elements are centrally linked in a dynamic learning frame, created on the monitor screen, which displays the…

  10. Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2014-03-25

    The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

  11. Cryogenic wafer prober for Josephson devices

    SciTech Connect

    Geary, J.; Vella-Coleiro, G.

    1983-05-01

    A wafer probing system has been built for the testing of Josephson junction devices at helium temperature. A mechanism moves a probe card from one position to another on a two inch wafer while immersed in liquid helium. The mechanism is actuated by shafts which connect to stepper motors positioned above the helium dewar. A positioning accuracy of + or - 50 ..mu..m at the probe tips is achieved. The replaceable probe card is all ceramic and carries 120 rigidly mounted palladium-alloy needles, arranged in signal-ground pairs and positioned in an array which matches the pad design of the particular device under test. Controlled impedance transmission lines are maintained all the way to the wafer's surface. A computer interface is included so that probing of a whole wafer can be conducted under software control. The system is intended for routine testing of Josephson devices in wafer form as well as for testing very large numbers of individual junctions.

  12. Influence of Internal Electric Field on the Recombination Dynamics of Localized Excitons in an InGaN Double-Quantum-Well Laser Diode Wafer Operated at 450 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, Takeyoshi; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.; Aoyama, Toyomi; Nakajima, Kiyomi; Ahmet, Parhat; Azuhata, Takashi; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Sota, Takayuki; Nagahama, Shin-ichi; Mukai, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    Optical and structural properties of an InGaN double-quantum-well (DQW) laser diode (LD) wafer that lased at 450 nm were investigated to discuss an enormous impact of a polarization-induced electric field on the recombination dynamics in InGaN quantum structures. The quantum-well (QW) structure was shown to have the well thickness as thin as approximately 1 nm and InN molar fraction x of approximately 14%. The gross effective electric field in the QW (FQW) was estimated to be 490 kV/cm from the Franz-Keldysh oscillation (FKO) period in the electroreflectance (ER) spectrum, implying that an internal piezoelectric field (Fpiz) of approximately 1.4 MV/cm was cancelled by the pn junction built-in field (Fbi) and Coulomb screening due to carriers in the DQW. The magnitude of FQW can be further weakened by applying reverse bias (VR) on the junction; the decrease in the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime at low temperature measured under VR was explained to be due to a recovery of electron-hole wavefunction overlap for small VR (|VR|<4 V), and due mainly to the tunneling escape of carriers through the barriers for larger VR. By applying an appropriate VR smaller than 4 V, electron-hole wavefunction overlap, which had been separated vertically along the c-axis due to quantum-confined Stark effect, could be partially recovered, and then the time-resolved PL signals exhibited a less-pronounced stretched exponential decay, giving a scaling parameter (β) of 0.85 and effective in-plane localization depth (E0) of 40-50 meV for the spontaneous emission. These values were closer to those of much homogeneous QWs compared to those reported previously for InGaN QWs having similar InN molar fractions. The use of very thin QWs is considered to bring easier Coulomb screening of FQW and population inversion under high excitation conditions.

  13. Models to relate wafer geometry measurements to in-plane distortion of wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Kevin T.; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Sinha, Jaydeep K.

    2016-04-01

    Achieving satisfactory overlay is increasingly challenging as feature sizes are reduced and allowable overlay budgets shrink to several nanometers and below. Overlay errors induced by wafer processing, such as film deposition and etching, constitute a meaningful fraction of overlay budgets. Wafer geometry measurements provide the opportunity to quantify stress-induced distortions at the wafer level and provide information that can be used in a feedback mode to alter wafer processing or in a feed-forward mode to set wafer-specific corrections in the lithography tool. In order for such feed-forward schemes based on wafer geometry to be realized, there is a need for mechanics models that relate in-plane distortion of a chucked wafer to the out-of-plane distortion of a wafer in a free state. Here, a simple analytical model is presented that shows the stress-induced component of overlay is correlated to a corrected local wafer slope metric for a wide range of cases. The analytical model is validated via finite element (FE) simulations of wafers with nonuniform stress distributions. Furthermore, FE modeling is used here to examine the effect of the spatial wavelength of stress variation on the connection between slope and the wafer stress-induced component of overlay.

  14. Implementation of optical dynamic RAM using spatially distributed spectral storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Alan E.; Maniloff, Eric S.; Mossberg, Thomas W.

    1999-11-01

    Optical Dynamic RAM (ODRAM) is a high capacity, low latency optical memory architecture based on persistent spectral hole burning in frequency selective materials. This paper describes the basic ODRAM architecture and progress towards realization of a high capacity, low latency, tabletop demonstration unit. In particular, a new technique, Spatially Distributed Spectral Storage (SDSS) is introduced and demonstrated to provide over two orders of magnitude improvement in spectral capacity for materials that experience excitation induced frequency shifts. Finally, the relative strengths and weaknesses of ODRAM are emphasized in a competitive analysis that includes currently available memory technologies such as semiconductor DRAM and magnetic disks.

  15. An optimized ultrasound digital beamformer with dynamic focusing implemented on FPGA.

    PubMed

    Almekkawy, Mohamed; Xu, Jingwei; Chirala, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    We present a resource-optimized dynamic digital beamformer for an ultrasound system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). A comprehensive 64-channel receive beamformer with full dynamic focusing is embedded in the Altera Arria V FPGA chip. To improve spatial and contrast resolution, full dynamic beamforming is implemented by a novel method with resource optimization. This was conceived using the implementation of the delay summation through a bulk (coarse) delay and fractional (fine) delay. The sampling frequency is 40 MHz and the beamformer includes a 240 MHz polyphase filter that enhances the temporal resolution of the system while relaxing the Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC) bandwidth requirement. The results indicate that our 64-channel dynamic beamformer architecture is amenable for a low power FPGA-based implementation in a portable ultrasound system.

  16. LQR Control of Thin Shell Dynamics: Formulation and Numerical Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delRosario, R. C. H.; Smith, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    A PDE-based feedback control method for thin cylindrical shells with surface-mounted piezoceramic actuators is presented. Donnell-Mushtari equations modified to incorporate both passive and active piezoceramic patch contributions are used to model the system dynamics. The well-posedness of this model and the associated LQR problem with an unbounded input operator are established through analytic semigroup theory. The model is discretized using a Galerkin expansion with basis functions constructed from Fourier polynomials tensored with cubic splines, and convergence criteria for the associated approximate LQR problem are established. The effectiveness of the method for attenuating the coupled longitudinal, circumferential and transverse shell displacements is illustrated through a set of numerical examples.

  17. Diffusion length and resistivity distribution characteristics of silicon wafer by photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Dohyun; Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Analytical photoluminescence efficiency calculation and PL intensity ratio method are developed. • Wafer resistivity and diffusion length characteristics are investigated by PL intensity ratio. • PL intensity is well correlated with resistivity, diffusion length or defect density on wafer measurement. - Abstract: Photoluminescence is a convenient, contactless method to characterize semiconductors. Its use for room-temperature silicon characterization has only recently been implemented. We have developed the PL efficiency theory as a function of substrate doping densities, bulk trap density, photon flux density, and reflectance and compared it with experimental data initially for bulk Si wafers. New developed PL intensity ratio method is able to predict the silicon wafer properties, such as doping densities, minority carrier diffusion length and bulk trap density.

  18. Three wafer stacking for 3D integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Greth, K. Douglas; Ford, Christine L.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.; Shinde, Subhash L.; Timon, Robert P.; Bauer, Todd M.; Hetherington, Dale Laird; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony

    2011-11-01

    Vertical wafer stacking will enable a wide variety of new system architectures by enabling the integration of dissimilar technologies in one small form factor package. With this LDRD, we explored the combination of processes and integration techniques required to achieve stacking of three or more layers. The specific topics that we investigated include design and layout of a reticle set for use as a process development vehicle, through silicon via formation, bonding media, wafer thinning, dielectric deposition for via isolation on the wafer backside, and pad formation.

  19. Development of megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, A.

    1980-01-01

    A cleaning and drying system for processing at least 2500 three in. diameter wafers per hour was developed with a reduction in process cost. The system consists of an ammonia hydrogen peroxide bath in which both surfaces of 3/32 in. spaced, ion implanted wafers are cleaned in quartz carriers moved on a belt past two pairs of megasonic transducers. The wafers are dried in the novel room temperature, high velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis.

  20. Improvement of process control using wafer geometry for enhanced manufacturability of advanced semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Honggoo; Lee, Jongsu; Kim, Sang Min; Lee, Changhwan; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kwon, Wontaik; Park, Sung-Ki; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Awasthi, Amartya; Kim, J. H.; Veeraraghavan, Sathish; Choi, DongSub; Huang, Kevin; Dighe, Prasanna; Lee, Cheouljung; Byeon, Jungho; Dey, Soham; Sinha, Jaydeep

    2015-03-01

    Aggressive advancements in semiconductor technology have resulted in integrated chip (IC) manufacturing capability at sub-20nm half-pitch nodes. With this, lithography overlay error budgets are becoming increasingly stringent. The delay in EUV lithography readiness for high volume manufacturing (HVM) and the need for multiple-patterning lithography with 193i technology has further amplified the overlay issue. Thus there exists a need for technologies that can improve overlay errors in HVM. The traditional method for reducing overlay errors predominantly focused on improving lithography scanner printability performance. However, processes outside of the lithography sector known as processinduced overlay errors can contribute significantly to the total overlay at the current requirements. Monitoring and characterizing process-induced overlay has become critical for advanced node patterning. Recently a relatively new technique for overlay control that uses high-resolution wafer geometry measurements has gained significance. In this work we present the implementation of this technique in an IC fabrication environment to monitor wafer geometry changes induced across several points in the process flow, of multiple product layers with critical overlay performance requirement. Several production wafer lots were measured and analyzed on a patterned wafer geometry tool. Changes induced in wafer geometry as a result of wafer processing were related to down-stream overlay error contribution using the analytical in-plane distortion (IPD) calculation model. Through this segmentation, process steps that are major contributors to down-stream overlay were identified. Subsequent process optimization was then isolated to those process steps where maximum benefit might be realized. Root-cause for the within-wafer, wafer-to-wafer, tool-to-tool, and station-to-station variations observed were further investigated using local shape curvature changes - which is directly related to

  1. Forming electrical interconnections through semiconductor wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, T. R.

    1981-01-01

    An information processing system based on CMOS/SOS technology is being developed by NASA to process digital image data collected by satellites. An array of holes is laser drilled in a semiconductor wafer, and a conductor is formed in the holes to fabricate electrical interconnections through the wafers. Six techniques are used to form conductors in the silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) wafers, including capillary wetting, wedge extrusion, wire intersection, electroless plating, electroforming, double-sided sputtering and through-hole electroplating. The respective strengths and weaknesses of these techniques are discussed and compared, with double-sided sputtering and the through-hole plating method achieving best results. In addition, hollow conductors provided by the technique are available for solder refill, providing a natural way of forming an electrically connected stack of SOS wafers.

  2. Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.

  3. Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.

  4. Parallel implementation of three-dimensional molecular dynamic simulation for laser-cluster interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Holkundkar, Amol R.

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this article is to report the parallel implementation of the 3D molecular dynamic simulation code for laser-cluster interactions. The benchmarking of the code has been done by comparing the simulation results with some of the experiments reported in the literature. Scaling laws for the computational time is established by varying the number of processor cores and number of macroparticles used. The capabilities of the code are highlighted by implementing various diagnostic tools. To study the dynamics of the laser-cluster interactions, the executable version of the code is available from the author.

  5. Molecular Dynamics implementation of BN2D or 'Mercedes Benz' water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scukins, Arturs; Bardik, Vitaliy; Pavlov, Evgen; Nerukh, Dmitry

    2015-05-01

    Two-dimensional 'Mercedes Benz' (MB) or BN2D water model (Naim, 1971) is implemented in Molecular Dynamics. It is known that the MB model can capture abnormal properties of real water (high heat capacity, minima of pressure and isothermal compressibility, negative thermal expansion coefficient) (Silverstein et al., 1998). In this work formulas for calculating the thermodynamic, structural and dynamic properties in microcanonical (NVE) and isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensembles for the model from Molecular Dynamics simulation are derived and verified against known Monte Carlo results. The convergence of the thermodynamic properties and the system's numerical stability are investigated. The results qualitatively reproduce the peculiarities of real water making the model a visually convenient tool that also requires less computational resources, thus allowing simulations of large (hydrodynamic scale) molecular systems. We provide the open source code written in C/C++ for the BN2D water model implementation using Molecular Dynamics.

  6. Genesis Ultrapure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, Judith H.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    A device removes, with high precision, the majority of surface particle contamination greater than 1-micron-diameter in size from ultrapure semiconductor wafer materials containing implanted solar wind samples returned by NASA's Genesis mission. This cleaning device uses a 1.5-liter/minute flowing stream of heated ultrapure water (UPW) with 1- MHz oscillating megasonic pulse energy focused at 3 to 5 mm away from the wafer surface spinning at 1,000 to 10,000 RPM, depending on sample size. The surface particle contamination is removed by three processes: flowing UPW, megasonic cavitations, and centripetal force from the spinning wafer. The device can also dry the wafer fragment after UPW/megasonic cleaning by continuing to spin the wafer in the cleaning chamber, which is purged with flowing ultrapure nitrogen gas at 65 psi (.448 kPa). The cleaner also uses three types of vacuum chucks that can accommodate all Genesis-flown array fragments in any dimensional shape between 3 and 100 mm in diameter. A sample vacuum chuck, and the manufactured UPW/megasonic nozzle holder, replace the human deficiencies by maintaining a consistent distance between the nozzle and wafer surface as well as allowing for longer cleaning time. The 3- to 5-mm critical distance is important for the ability to remove particles by megasonic cavitations. The increased UPW sonication time and exposure to heated UPW improve the removal of 1- to 5-micron-sized particles.

  7. Analyzes Data from Semiconductor Wafers

    2002-07-23

    This program analyzes reflectance data from semiconductor wafers taken during the deposition or evolution of a thin film, typically via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is used to determine the growth rate and optical constants of the deposited thin films using a virtual interface concept. Growth rates and optical constants of multiple-layer structures is possible by selecting appropriate sections in the reflectance vs time waveform. No prior information or estimatesmore » of growth rates and materials properties is required if an absolute reflectance waveform is used. If the optical constants of a thin film are known, then the growth rate may be extracted from a relative reflectance data set. The analysis is valid for either s or p polarized light at any incidence angle and wavelength. The analysis package is contained within an easy-to-use graphical user interface. The program is based on the algorighm described in the following two publications: W.G. Breiland and K.P. Killen, J. Appl. Phys. 78 (1995) 6726, and W. G. Breiland, H.Q. Hou, B.E. Hammons, and J.F. Klem, Proc. XXVIII SOTAPOCS Symp. Electrochem. Soc. San Diego, May 3-8, 1998. It relies on the fact that any multiple-layer system has a reflectance spectrum that is mathematically equivalent to a single-layer thin film on a virtual substrate. The program fits the thin film reflectance with five adjustable parameters: 1) growth rate, 2) real part of complex refractive index, 3) imaginary part of refractive index, 4) amplitude of virtual interface reflectance, 5) phase of virtual interface reflectance.« less

  8. Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules

    DOEpatents

    Arora, Michelle B.; Hestekin, Jamie A.; Lin, YuPo J.; St. Martin, Edward J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2007-12-11

    A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag. A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above.

  9. Evolution of Ada technology in the flight dynamics area: Implementation/testing phase analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quimby, Kelvin L.; Esker, Linda; Miller, John; Smith, Laurie; Stark, Mike; Mcgarry, Frank

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the software engineering issues related to the use of Ada for the implementation and system testing phases of four Ada projects developed in the flight dynamics area. These projects reflect an evolving understanding of more effective use of Ada features. In addition, the testing methodology used on these projects has changed substantially from that used on previous FORTRAN projects.

  10. Implementation of Abstract Data Types in Dynamic Sketches for Learning Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasute, Egle; Dagiene, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    A long-term observation of students' usage of a dynamic geometry in a classroom at all grade levels has challenged to develop an approach for learning and understanding mathematics in an easier way for both students and teachers. The paper deals with the results of a study that investigates the process and outcomes of the implementation of…

  11. Improvement of focus accuracy on processed wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashibata, Satomi; Komine, Nobuhiro; Fukuhara, Kazuya; Koike, Takashi; Kato, Yoshimitsu; Hashimoto, Kohji

    2013-04-01

    As feature size shrinkage in semiconductor device progress, process fluctuation, especially focus strongly affects device performance. Because focus control is an ongoing challenge in optical lithography, various studies have sought for improving focus monitoring and control. Focus errors are due to wafers, exposure tools, reticles, QCs, and so on. Few studies are performed to minimize the measurement errors of auto focus (AF) sensors of exposure tool, especially when processed wafers are exposed. With current focus measurement techniques, the phase shift grating (PSG) focus monitor 1) has been already proposed and its basic principle is that the intensity of the diffraction light of the mask pattern is made asymmetric by arranging a π/2 phase shift area on a reticle. The resist pattern exposed at the defocus position is shifted on the wafer and shifted pattern can be easily measured using an overlay inspection tool. However, it is difficult to measure shifted pattern for the pattern on the processed wafer because of interruptions caused by other patterns in the underlayer. In this paper, we therefore propose "SEM-PSG" technique, where the shift of the PSG resist mark is measured by employing critical dimension-scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) to measure the focus error on the processed wafer. First, we evaluate the accuracy of SEM-PSG technique. Second, by applying the SEM-PSG technique and feeding the results back to the exposure, we evaluate the focus accuracy on processed wafers. By applying SEM-PSG feedback, the focus accuracy on the processed wafer was improved from 40 to 29 nm in 3σ.

  12. Grand-Canonical Adaptive Resolution Centroid Molecular Dynamics: Implementation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Animesh; Delle Site, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    We have implemented the Centroid Molecular Dynamics scheme (CMD) into the Grand Canonical-like version of the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Molecular Dynamics (GC-AdResS) method. We have tested the implementation on two different systems, liquid parahydrogen at extreme thermodynamic conditions and liquid water at ambient conditions; the reproduction of structural as well as dynamical results of reference systems are highly satisfactory. The capability of performing GC-AdResS CMD simulations allows for the treatment of a system characterized by some quantum features and open boundaries. This latter characteristic not only is of computational convenience, allowing for equivalent results of much larger and computationally more expensive systems, but also suggests a tool of analysis so far not explored, that is the unambiguous identification of the essential degrees of freedom required for a given property.

  13. Intra-lot wafer by wafer overlay control using integrated and standalone metrology combined sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Sin; Nam, Young Sun; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Jae Il; Kang, Young Seog; Jang, Se Yeon; Kong, Jeong Heung

    2016-03-01

    As overlay margin is getting tighter, traditional overlay correction method is not enough to secure more overlay margin without extended correction potential on lithography tool. Timely, the lithography tool has a capability of wafer to wafer correction. From these well-timed industry's preparations, the uncorrected overlay error from current sampling in a lot could be corrected for yield enhancement. In this paper, overlay budget break was performed prior to experiments with the purpose of estimating amount of overlay improvement. And wafer to wafer correction was simulated to the specified layer of a 2x node DRAM device. As a result, not only maximum 94.4% of residual variation improvement is estimated, but also recognized that more samplings to cover all wafer's behavior is inevitable. Integrated metrology with optimized sampling scheme was also introduced as a supportive method for more samplings.

  14. Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells: Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: 1366 is developing a process to reduce the cost of solar electricity by up to 50% by 2020—from $0.15 per kilowatt hour to less than $0.07. 1366’s process avoids the costly step of slicing a large block of silicon crystal into wafers, which turns half the silicon to dust. Instead, the company is producing thin wafers directly from molten silicon at industry-standard sizes, and with efficiencies that compare favorably with today’s state-of-the-art technologies. 1366’s wafers could directly replace wafers currently on the market, so there would be no interruptions to the delivery of these products to market. As a result of 1366’s technology, the cost of silicon wafers could be reduced by 80%.

  15. Silicon Wafer-Scale Substrate for Microshutters and Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Franz, David E.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Jhabvala, Christine; Babu, Sachi; Snodgrass, Stephen; Costen, Nicholas; Zincke, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The silicon substrate carrier was created so that a large-area array (in this case 62,000+ elements of a microshutter array) and a variety of discrete passive and active devices could be mounted on a single board, similar to a printed circuit board. However, the density and number of interconnects far exceeds the capabilities of printed circuit board technology. To overcome this hurdle, a method was developed to fabricate this carrier out of silicon and implement silicon integrated circuit (IC) technology. This method achieves a large number of high-density metal interconnects; a 100-percent yield over a 6-in. (approximately equal to 15-cm) diameter wafer (one unit per wafer); a rigid, thermally compatible structure (all components and operating conditions) to cryogenic temperatures; re-workability and component replaceability, if required; and the ability to precisely cut large-area holes through the substrate. A method that would employ indium bump technology along with wafer-scale integration onto a silicon carrier was also developed. By establishing a silicon-based version of a printed circuit board, the objectives could be met with one solution. The silicon substrate would be 2 mm thick to survive the environmental loads of a launch. More than 2,300 metal traces and over 1,500 individual wire bonds are required. To mate the microshutter array to the silicon substrate, more than 10,000 indium bumps are required. A window was cut in the substrate to allow the light signal to pass through the substrate and reach the microshutter array. The substrate was also the receptacle for multiple unpackaged IC die wire-bonded directly to the substrate (thus conserving space over conventionally packaged die). Unique features of this technology include the implementation of a 2-mmthick silicon wafer to withstand extreme mechanical loads (from a rocket launch); integrated polysilicon resistor heaters directly on the substrate; the precise formation of an open aperture

  16. Design and implementation of the flight dynamics system for COMS satellite mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Hwang, Yoola; Kim, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Jaehoon

    2011-04-01

    The first Korean multi-mission geostationary Earth orbit satellite, Communications, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) was launched by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle in June 26, 2010. The COMS satellite has three payloads including Ka-band communications, Geostationary Ocean Color Imager, and Meteorological Imager. Although the COMS spacecraft bus is based on the Astrium Eurostar 3000 series, it has only one solar array to the south panel because all of the imaging sensors are located on the north panel. In order to maintain the spacecraft attitude with 5 wheels and 7 thrusters, COMS should perform twice a day wheel off-loading thruster firing operations, which affect on the satellite orbit. COMS flight dynamics system provides the general on-station functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, station-keeping maneuver planning, station-relocation maneuver planning, and fuel accounting. All orbit related functions in flight dynamics system consider the orbital perturbations due to wheel off-loading operations. There are some specific flight dynamics functions to operate the spacecraft bus such as wheel off-loading management, oscillator updating management, and on-station attitude reacquisition management. In this paper, the design and implementation of the COMS flight dynamics system is presented. An object oriented analysis and design methodology is applied to the flight dynamics system design. Programming language C# within Microsoft .NET framework is used for the implementation of COMS flight dynamics system on Windows based personal computer.

  17. Response to Intervention and Dynamic Assessment: Implementing Systematic, Dynamic and Individualised Interventions in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Stefan; Svensson, Idor; Fälth, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, response to intervention (RTI) has been the focus of research, debate and educational implementations, especially regarding early reading instruction. RTI provides an educational framework characterised by different tiers or layers of instruction, providing increasingly more intense and individualised interventions for children in…

  18. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Edwin Y.; James, Ralph B.

    2002-01-01

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  19. Innovation implementation in the public sector: an integration of institutional and collective dynamics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Nam; Chang, Jae Yoon

    2009-01-01

    The present study integrates institutional factors and employee-based collective processes as predictors of 2 key implementation outcomes: implementation effectiveness and innovation effectiveness (Klein, Conn, & Sorra, 2001). Specifically, the authors proposed that institutional factors shape employees' collective implementation efficacy and innovation acceptance. The authors further hypothesized that these employee-based collective processes mediate the effects of institutional factors on implementation outcomes. This integrative framework was examined in the context of 47 agencies and ministries of the Korean Government that were implementing a process innovation called E-Government. Three-wave longitudinal data were collected from 60 external experts and 1,732 government employees. The results reveal the importance of management support for collective implementation efficacy, which affected employees' collective acceptance of the innovation. As hypothesized, these collective employee dynamics mediated the effects of institutional enablers on successful implementation as well as the amount of long-term benefit that accrued to the agencies and ministries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186909

  20. Implementation of Parallel Dynamic Simulation on Shared-Memory vs. Distributed-Memory Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Chen, Yousu; Wu, Di; Diao, Ruisheng; Huang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-09

    Power system dynamic simulation computes the system response to a sequence of large disturbance, such as sudden changes in generation or load, or a network short circuit followed by protective branch switching operation. It consists of a large set of differential and algebraic equations, which is computational intensive and challenging to solve using single-processor based dynamic simulation solution. High-performance computing (HPC) based parallel computing is a very promising technology to speed up the computation and facilitate the simulation process. This paper presents two different parallel implementations of power grid dynamic simulation using Open Multi-processing (OpenMP) on shared-memory platform, and Message Passing Interface (MPI) on distributed-memory clusters, respectively. The difference of the parallel simulation algorithms and architectures of the two HPC technologies are illustrated, and their performances for running parallel dynamic simulation are compared and demonstrated.

  1. Environmentally benign processing of YAG transparent wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Yiquan

    2015-12-01

    Transparent yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) wafers were successfully produced via aqueous tape casting and vacuum sintering techniques using a new environmentally friendly binder, a copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride with the commercial name ISOBAM (noted as ISOBAM). Aqueous YAG slurries were mixed by ball-milling, which was followed by de-gassing and tape casting of wafers. The final YAG green tapes were homogenous and flexible, and could be bent freely without cracking. After the drying and sintering processes, transparent YAG wafers were achieved. The microstructures of both the green tape and vacuum-sintered YAG ceramic were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Phase compositions were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical transmittance was measured in UV-VIS regions with the result that the transmittance is 82.6% at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  2. Analysis of Ecodesign Implementation and Solutions for Packaging Waste System by Using System Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzina, Alise; Dace, Elina; Bazbauers, Gatis

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research project which explored the packaging waste management system in Latvia. The paper focuses on identifying how the policy mechanisms can promote ecodesign implementation and material efficiency improvement and therefore reduce the rate of packaging waste accumulation in landfill. The method used for analyzing the packaging waste management policies is system dynamics modeling. The main conclusion is that the existing legislative instruments can be used to create an effective policy for ecodesign implementation but substantially higher tax rates on packaging materials and waste disposal than the existing have to be applied.

  3. Multiscale molecular dynamics/hydrodynamics implementation of two dimensional "Mercedes Benz" water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scukins, A.; Nerukh, D.; Pavlov, E.; Karabasov, S.; Markesteijn, A.

    2015-09-01

    A multiscale Molecular Dynamics/Hydrodynamics implementation of the 2D Mercedes Benz (MB or BN2D) [1] water model is developed and investigated. The concept and the governing equations of multiscale coupling together with the results of the two-way coupling implementation are reported. The sensitivity of the multiscale model for obtaining macroscopic and microscopic parameters of the system, such as macroscopic density and velocity fluctuations, radial distribution and velocity autocorrelation functions of MB particles, is evaluated. Critical issues for extending the current model to large systems are discussed.

  4. Video-rate fuzzy Golay processor for wafer scale integration

    SciTech Connect

    Steinvorth, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The fuzzy Golay transformation is a novel approach for gray-level image processing. Fuzzy-set theory is used to modify the binary image processing techniques developed by M. J. Golay to permit direct gray-level image processing without thresholding. The comparison between gray-level pixels is accomplished with the Pixel Closeness Value (PCV) while comparison between gray-level neighborhoods uses the Neighborhood Closeness Value (NCV). Feature extraction is done by comparing the gray-level image neighborhood to a subset of the fourteen Golay neighborhoods using the NCV function. The Fuzzy Golay Processor (FGP) is an architecture designed to implement the fuzzy Golay transformation. The design of the FGP has been optimized to permit a successful implementation in Wafer Scale Integration (WSI). A system containing four FGPs is capable of performing thirty fuzzy Golay transformations per second on a 256 by 256 eight-bit pixel image. Such a system could fit on a four-inch wafer with enough redundant dies to allow a 30% die yield. The required dies are four Input-Output Modules (IOM) and 56 Neighborhood Evaluation Modules (NEM).

  5. Laser furnace and method for zone refining of semiconductor wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, Donald B. (Inventor); zur Burg, Frederick W. (Inventor); Penn, Wayne M. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A method of zone refining a crystal wafer (116 FIG. 1) comprising the steps of focusing a laser beam to a small spot (120) of selectable size on the surface of the crystal wafer (116) to melt a spot on the crystal wafer, scanning the small laser beam spot back and forth across the surface of the crystal wafer (116) at a constant velocity, and moving the scanning laser beam across a predetermined zone of the surface of the crystal wafer (116) in a direction normal to the laser beam scanning direction and at a selectible velocity to melt and refine the entire crystal wafer (116).

  6. Semiconducting wafer form shaping with an electric discharge machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Tung

    1988-09-01

    Gallium can be used as a temporary glue for semiconducting wafer mounting. The good electric contact between the electrode, the gallium layer, and the semiconducting wafer makes the spark cutting and the semiconducting wafer form shaping much easier. After wafer spark cutting, the residual gallium can be easily removed by a cotton swab from the surface of the wafer in warm isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Also, in this report, improved circuitry of the electric discharge machine for easy and economical construction is described. Gallium arsenide wafers have been form shaped by the present method.

  7. Making Porous Luminescent Regions In Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W.; Jones, Eric W.

    1994-01-01

    Regions damaged by ion implantation stain-etched. Porous regions within single-crystal silicon wafers fabricated by straightforward stain-etching process. Regions exhibit visible photoluminescence at room temperature and might constitute basis of novel class of optoelectronic devices. Stain-etching process has advantages over recently investigated anodic-etching process. Process works on both n-doped and p-doped silicon wafers. Related development reported in article, "Porous Si(x)Ge(1-x) Layers Within Single Crystals of Si," (NPO-18836).

  8. Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ming; Valdes-Garcia, Alberto; Han, Shu-Jen; Farmer, Damon B; Meric, Inanc; Sun, Yanning; Wu, Yanqing; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Grill, Alfred; Avouris, Phaedon; Jenkins, Keith A

    2011-06-10

    A wafer-scale graphene circuit was demonstrated in which all circuit components, including graphene field-effect transistor and inductors, were monolithically integrated on a single silicon carbide wafer. The integrated circuit operates as a broadband radio-frequency mixer at frequencies up to 10 gigahertz. These graphene circuits exhibit outstanding thermal stability with little reduction in performance (less than 1 decibel) between 300 and 400 kelvin. These results open up possibilities of achieving practical graphene technology with more complex functionality and performance.

  9. MPI implementation of PHOENICS: A general purpose computational fluid dynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Simunovic, S.; Zacharia, T.; Baltas, N.; Spalding, D.B.

    1995-04-01

    PHOENICS is a suite of computational analysis programs that are used for simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, and dynamical reaction processes. The parallel version of the solver EARTH for the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program PHOENICS has been implemented using Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. Implementation of MPI version of PHOENICS makes this computational tool portable to a wide range of parallel machines and enables the use of high performance computing for large scale computational simulations. MPI libraries are available on several parallel architectures making the program usable across different architectures as well as on heterogeneous computer networks. The Intel Paragon NX and MPI versions of the program have been developed and tested on massively parallel supercomputers Intel Paragon XP/S 5, XP/S 35, and Kendall Square Research, and on the multiprocessor SGI Onyx computer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The preliminary testing results of the developed program have shown scalable performance for reasonably sized computational domains.

  10. MPI implementation of PHOENICS: A general purpose computational fluid dynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunovic, S.; Zacharia, T.; Baltas, N.; Spalding, D. B.

    1995-03-01

    PHOENICS is a suite of computational analysis programs that are used for simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, and dynamical reaction processes. The parallel version of the solver EARTH for the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program PHOENICS has been implemented using Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. Implementation of MPI version of PHOENICS makes this computational tool portable to a wide range of parallel machines and enables the use of high performance computing for large scale computational simulations. MPI libraries are available on several parallel architectures making the program usable across different architectures as well as on heterogeneous computer networks. The Intel Paragon NX and MPI versions of the program have been developed and tested on massively parallel supercomputers Intel Paragon XP/S 5, XP/S 35, and Kendall Square Research, and on the multiprocessor SGI Onyx computer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The preliminary testing results of the developed program have shown scalable performance for reasonably sized computational domains.

  11. Parallel performance of an object-oriented contact implementation for transient solid dynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyong, Bai; Yingbo, He; Chengjun, Chen

    2010-06-01

    In order to make it easier to extend an finite element software framework with contact implementation for transient solid dynamic analysis, we have designed a general-purposed framework-oriented parallel contact class in this article. A parallel contact computation algorithm model has been generated based on contact schemes reported on last two decades. The class is integrated to an open source platform easily without affecting the rest code of the platform.

  12. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, M.; Jensen, F.; Bunk, O.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Breiby, D.W.

    2005-12-26

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 {mu}m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides to excite single guided modes at typical x-ray energies.

  13. Apparatus for edge etching of semiconductor wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casajus, A.

    1986-01-01

    A device for use in the production of semiconductors, characterized by etching in a rapidly rotating etching bath is described. The fast rotation causes the surface of the etching bath to assume the form of a paraboloid of revolution, so that the semiconductor wafer adjusted at a given height above the resting bath surface is only attacked by etchant at the edges.

  14. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  15. Scanning holographic scatterometer for wafer surface inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klooster, Alex; Marks, James; Hanson, Kael; Sawatari, Takeo

    2004-05-01

    The semiconductor industry requires ever smaller semiconductor structures with faster response times and more function per unit area of each chip. In addition, the industry is changing from 200 mm to 300 mm diameter wafers with fewer defects and rapid detection at all processing stages. To meet these needs, defect data must be processed in near-real-time to expedite correction of processing problems at the earliest possible stage. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, sponsored by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Division at Wright Laboratory, Dayton, Ohio, Sentec Corporation has developed a revolutionary technology for contaminant particle detection on unpatterned semiconductor wafers. A key to the Sentec technology is detection, not of the intensity of backscattered energy from particles or defects, but of the amplitude of the electro-magneitc field of this backscattered energy. This new technology will allow the detection of particles that are significantly smaller than those which can be reliably located using current scatterometers. The technical concepts for a stand-alone particle detection tool have been created. It uses a continuous scanning mechanism to perform high-speed examinations of target wafers. This tool, also, has the capability of quantifying the microroughness or background haze of a subject wafer and presenting that information separate from the contamination particle data. During the course of this project, three patent applications were filed.

  16. Bubble-domain circuit wafer evaluation coil set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, T. T.; Williams, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Coil structures have been designed to permit nondestructive testing of bubble wafers. Wafers can be electrically or optically inspected and operated from quasi-static frequency to maximum device operating frequency.

  17. Process variation monitoring (PVM) by wafer inspection tool as a complementary method to CD-SEM for mapping LER and defect density on production wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabtay, Saar; Blumberg, Yuval; Levi, Shimon; Greenberg, Gadi; Harel, Daniel; Conley, Amiad; Meshulach, Doron; Kan, Kobi; Dolev, Ido; Kumar, Surender; Mendel, Kalia; Goto, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Naoaki; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Shinichi; Nagaoka, Shirou; Sekito, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    As design rules shrink, Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) and Line Edge Roughness (LER) constitute a higher percentage of the line-width and hence the need to control these parameters increases. Sources of CDU and LER variations include: scanner auto-focus accuracy and stability, lithography stack thickness and composition variations, exposure variations, etc. These process variations in advanced VLSI manufacturing processes, specifically in memory devices where CDU and LER affect cell-to-cell parametric variations, are well known to significantly impact device performance and die yield. Traditionally, measurements of LER are performed by CD-SEM or Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) metrology tools. Typically, these measurements require a relatively long time and cover only a small fraction of the wafer area. In this paper we present the results of a collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials® and Nikon Corporation®, on the implementation of a complementary method to the CD-SEM and OCD tools, to monitor post litho develop CDU and LER on production wafers. The method, referred to as Process Variation Monitoring (PVM), is based on measuring variations in the light reflected from periodic structures, under optimized illumination and collection conditions, and is demonstrated using Applied Materials DUV brightfield (BF) wafer inspection tool. It will be shown that full polarization control in illumination and collection paths of the wafer inspection tool is critical to enable to set an optimized Process Variation Monitoring recipe.

  18. A canonical replica exchange molecular dynamics implementation with normal pressure in each replica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Emanuel K.; Pivkin, Igor V.; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new canonical replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulation method with normal pressure for all replicas (REMD-NV(p) T). This method is suitable for systems for which conventional constant NPT-setups are difficult to implement. In this implementation, each replica has an individual volume, with normal pressure maintained for each replica in the simulation. We derive a novel exchange term and validate this method on the structural properties of SPC/E water and dialanine (Ala2) in the bulk and in the presence of a graphene layer. Compared to conventional constant NPT-REMD and NVT-REMD simulations, we find that the structural properties of our new method are in good agreement with simulations in the NPT-ensemble at all temperatures. The structural properties of the systems considered are affected by high pressures at elevated temperatures in the constant NVT-ensemble, an effect that our method corrects for. Unprojected distributions reveal that essential motions of the peptide are affected by the presence of the barostat in the NPT implementation but that the dynamical eigenmodes of the NV(p)T method are in close quantitative agreement with the NVT-ensemble.

  19. A canonical replica exchange molecular dynamics implementation with normal pressure in each replica.

    PubMed

    Peter, Emanuel K; Pivkin, Igor V; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2016-07-28

    In this paper, we present a new canonical replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulation method with normal pressure for all replicas (REMD-NV(p) T). This method is suitable for systems for which conventional constant NPT-setups are difficult to implement. In this implementation, each replica has an individual volume, with normal pressure maintained for each replica in the simulation. We derive a novel exchange term and validate this method on the structural properties of SPC/E water and dialanine (Ala2) in the bulk and in the presence of a graphene layer. Compared to conventional constant NPT-REMD and NVT-REMD simulations, we find that the structural properties of our new method are in good agreement with simulations in the NPT-ensemble at all temperatures. The structural properties of the systems considered are affected by high pressures at elevated temperatures in the constant NVT-ensemble, an effect that our method corrects for. Unprojected distributions reveal that essential motions of the peptide are affected by the presence of the barostat in the NPT implementation but that the dynamical eigenmodes of the NV(p)T method are in close quantitative agreement with the NVT-ensemble. PMID:27475393

  20. Three-dimensional transient model for time-domain free-carrier absorption measurement of excess carriers in silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Shengdong; Huang, Qiuping; Li, Bincheng

    2013-12-28

    A three-dimensional transient model for time-domain (modulated) free-carrier absorption (FCA) measurement was developed to describe the transport dynamics of photo-generated excess carriers in silicon (Si) wafers. With the developed transient model, numerical simulations were performed to investigate the dependences of the waveforms of the transient FCA signals on the electronic transport parameters of Si wafers and the geometric parameters of the FCA experiment. Experimental waveforms of FCA signals of both n- and p-type Si wafers with resistivity ranging 1–38 Ω·cm were then fitted to the three-dimensional transient model to extract simultaneously and unambiguously the transport parameters of Si wafers, namely, the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity via multi-parameter fitting. A basic agreement between the extracted parameter values and the literature values was obtained.

  1. Reconfigurable Flight Control Using Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion with a Special Accelerometer Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Barton J.; Ostroff, Aaron J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to on-line control design for aircraft that have suffered either actuator failure, missing effector surfaces, surface damage, or any combination. The approach is based on a modified version of nonlinear dynamic inversion. The approach does not require a model of the baseline vehicle (effectors at zero deflection), but does require feedback of accelerations and effector positions. Implementation issues are addressed and the method is demonstrated on an advanced tailless aircraft. An experimental simulation analysis tool is used to directly evaluate the nonlinear system's stability robustness.

  2. EUVL mask substrate specifications (wafer-type)

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W

    1999-07-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) program currently is constructing an alpha-class exposure tool known as the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) that will employ 200mm wafer format masks. This report lists and explains the current specifications for the EUVL mask substrates suitable for use on the ETS. The shape and size of the mask are the same as those of a standard 200mm Si wafer. The flatness requirements are driven by the potential image placement distortion caused by the non-telecentric illumination of EUVL. The defect requirements are driven by the printable-defect size and desired yield for mask blank fabrication. Surface roughness can cause both a loss of light throughput and image speckle. The EUVL mask substrate must be made of low-thermal-expansion material because 40% of the light is absorbed by the multilayers and causes some uncorrectable thermal distortion during printing.

  3. Devices using resin wafers and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Lin, YuPo J.; Henry, Michael P.; Snyder, Seth W.; St. Martin, Edward; Arora, Michelle; de la Garza, Linda

    2009-03-24

    Devices incorporating a thin wafer of electrically and ionically conductive porous material made by the method of introducing a mixture of a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material into a mold. The mixture is subjected to temperatures in the range of from about 60.degree. C. to about 170.degree. C. at pressures in the range of from about 0 to about 500 psig for a time in the range of from about 1 to about 240 minutes to form thin wafers. Devices include electrodeionization and separative bioreactors in the production of organic and amino acids, alcohols or esters for regenerating cofactors in enzymes and microbial cells.

  4. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  5. Studying chemical reactions in biological systems with MBN Explorer: implementation of molecular mechanics with dynamical topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushko, Gennady B.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Verkhovtsev, Alexey V.; Volkov, Sergey N.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of molecular mechanics force field has been widely accepted nowadays for studying various processes in biomolecular systems. In this paper, we suggest a modification for the standard CHARMM force field that permits simulations of systems with dynamically changing molecular topologies. The implementation of the modified force field was carried out in the popular program MBN Explorer, and, to support the development, we provide several illustrative case studies where dynamical topology is necessary. In particular, it is shown that the modified molecular mechanics force field can be applied for studying processes where rupture of chemical bonds plays an essential role, e.g., in irradiation- or collision-induced damage, and also in transformation and fragmentation processes involving biomolecular systems. Contribution to the Topical Issue "COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey V. Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Gustavo Garcia and Eugene Surdutovich.

  6. Simple method for decreasing wafer topography effect for implant mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Taejun; Lee, Taehyeong; Yoo, Gyun; Park, Youngjoon; Kim, Cheolkyun; Yim, Donggyu

    2016-03-01

    Controlling critical dimension (CD) of implant blocking layers during photolithography has been challenging due to reflection caused by wafer topography. Unexpected reflection which comes from wafer topography makes severe CD variation on mask patterns of implant layer. Using bottom antireflective coatings(BARCs) can reduce the topography effect, but it could also damage wafer surface during BARCs dry etching. Developable BARCs(D-BARCs) could be alternative solution for wafer topography effect. However there are some issues that should be considered in D-BARCs process such as sensitive temperature control and managing defects. There are also papers introducing model based topography aware OPC as a solution for wafer topography effect implant layer. But building topography aware OPC model is very complex and it takes too much time to build. In this paper, we will introduce experimental results of wafer topography effect using various test patterns and propose a simple method that could effectively reduce wafer topography effect.

  7. High-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) of quasistatic contact angles on silanized silicon wafers with different surface topographies during inclining-plate measurements: Influence of the surface roughness on the contact line dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heib, F.; Hempelmann, R.; Munief, W. M.; Ingebrandt, S.; Fug, F.; Possart, W.; Groß, K.; Schmitt, M.

    2015-07-01

    Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θa and the receding θr contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple line dis relative to the first boundary points XB,10. Therefore, sessile drops during the inclination of the sample surface are video recorded and different specific contact angle events in dependence on the acceleration/deceleration of the triple line motion are analyzed. This procedure results in characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. The used procedures lead to the possibility to investigate influences on contact

  8. Precipitating Chromium Impurities in Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Two new treatments for silicon wafers improve solar-cell conversion efficiency by precipitating electrically-active chromium impurities. One method is simple heat treatment. Other involves laser-induced damage followed by similar heat treatment. Chromium is one impurity of concern in metallurgical-grade silicon for solar cells. In new treatment, chromium active centers are made electrically inactive by precipitating chromium from solid solution, enabling use of lower grade, lower cost silicon in cell manufacture.

  9. VLED for Si wafer-level packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chen-Fu; Chen, Chiming; Yen, Jui-Kang; Chen, Yung-Wei; Tsou, Chingfu; Chang, Chunming; Doan, Trung; Tran, Chuong Anh

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we introduced the advantages of Vertical Light emitting diode (VLED) on copper alloy with Si-wafer level packaging technologies. The silicon-based packaging substrate starts with a <100> dou-ble-side polished p-type silicon wafer, then anisotropic wet etching technology is done to construct the re-flector depression and micro through-holes on the silicon substrate. The operating voltage, at a typical cur-rent of 350 milli-ampere (mA), is 3.2V. The operation voltage is less than 3.7V under higher current driving conditions of 1A. The VLED chip on Si package has excellent heat dissipation and can be operated at high currents up to 1A without efficiency degradation. The typical spatial radiation pattern emits a uniform light lambertian distribution from -65° to 65° which can be easily fit for secondary optics. The correlated color temperature (CCT) has only 5% variation for daylight and less than 2% variation for warm white, when the junction temperature is increased from 25°C to 110°C, suggesting a stable CCT during operation for general lighting application. Coupled with aspheric lens and micro lens array in a wafer level process, it has almost the same light distribution intensity for special secondary optics lighting applications. In addition, the ul-tra-violet (UV) VLED, featuring a silicon substrate and hard glass cover, manufactured by wafer level pack-aging emits high power UV wavelengths appropriate for curing, currency, document verification, tanning, medical, and sterilization applications.

  10. Mask-to-wafer alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Tichenor, Daniel A.; Haney, Steven J.

    2003-11-04

    A modified beam splitter that has a hole pattern that is symmetric in one axis and anti-symmetric in the other can be employed in a mask-to-wafer alignment device. The device is particularly suited for rough alignment using visible light. The modified beam splitter transmits and reflects light from a source of electromagnetic radiation and it includes a substrate that has a first surface facing the source of electromagnetic radiation and second surface that is reflective of said electromagnetic radiation. The substrate defines a hole pattern about a central line of the substrate. In operation, an input beam from a camera is directed toward the modified beam splitter and the light from the camera that passes through the holes illuminates the reticle on the wafer. The light beam from the camera also projects an image of a corresponding reticle pattern that is formed on the mask surface of the that is positioned downstream from the camera. Alignment can be accomplished by detecting the radiation that is reflected from the second surface of the modified beam splitter since the reflected radiation contains both the image of the pattern from the mask and a corresponding pattern on the wafer.

  11. Wafer level test solutions for IR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessmann, Sebastian; Werner, Frank-Michael

    2014-05-01

    Wafer probers provide an established platform for performing electrical measurements at wafer level for CMOS and similar process technologies. For testing IR sensors, the requirements are beyond the standard prober capabilities. This presentation will give an overview about state of the art IR sensor probing systems reaching from flexible engineering solutions to automated production needs. Cooled sensors typically need to be tested at a target temperature below 80 K. Not only is the device temperature important but also the surrounding environment is required to prevent background radiation from reaching the device under test. To achieve that, a cryogenic shield is protecting the movable chuck. By operating that shield to attract residual gases inside the chamber, a completely contamination-free test environment can be guaranteed. The use of special black coatings are furthermore supporting the removal of stray light. Typically, probe card needles are operating at ambient (room) temperature when connecting to the wafer. To avoid the entrance of heat, which can result in distorted measurements, the probe card is fully embedded into the cryogenic shield. A shutter system, located above the probe field, is designed to switch between the microscope view to align the sensor under the needles and the test relevant setup. This includes a completely closed position to take dark current measurements. Another position holds a possible filter glass with the required aperture opening. The necessary infrared sources to stimulate the device are located above.

  12. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard

    2012-07-01

    Micro-optics is an indispensable key enabling technology for many products and applications today. Probably the most prestigious examples are the diffractive light shaping elements used in high-end DUV lithography steppers. Highly-efficient refractive and diffractive micro-optical elements are used for precise beam and pupil shaping. Micro-optics had a major impact on the reduction of aberrations and diffraction effects in projection lithography, allowing a resolution enhancement from 250 nm to 45 nm within the past decade. Micro-optics also plays a decisive role in medical devices (endoscopes, ophthalmology), in all laser-based devices and fiber communication networks, bringing high-speed internet to our homes. Even our modern smart phones contain a variety of micro-optical elements. For example, LED flash light shaping elements, the secondary camera, ambient light and proximity sensors. Wherever light is involved, micro-optics offers the chance to further miniaturize a device, to improve its performance, or to reduce manufacturing and packaging costs. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication is based on technology established by the semiconductor industry. Thousands of components are fabricated in parallel on a wafer. This review paper recapitulates major steps and inventions in wafer-scale micro-optics technology. The state-of-the-art of fabrication, testing and packaging technology is summarized.

  13. Wafer weak point detection based on aerial images or WLCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Ackmann, Paul; Crell, Christian; Chen, Norman

    2015-10-01

    Aerial image measurement is a key technique for model based optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. Actual aerial images obtained by AIMS (aerial image measurement system) or WLCD (wafer level critical dimension) can detect printed wafer weak point structures in advance of wafer exposure and defect inspection. Normally, the potential wafer weak points are determined based on optical rule check (ORC) simulation in advance. However, the correlation to real wafer weak points is often not perfect due to the contribution of mask three dimension (M3D) effects, actual mask errors, and scanner lens effects. If the design weak points can accurately be detected in advance, it will reduce the wafer fab cost and improve cycle time. WLCD or AIMS tools are able to measure the aerial images CD and bossung curve through focus window. However, it is difficult to detect the wafer weak point in advance without defining selection criteria. In this study, wafer weak points sensitive to mask mean-to-nominal values are characterized for a process with very high MEEF (normally more than 4). Aerial image CD uses fixed threshold to detect the wafer weak points. By using WLCD through threshold and focus window, the efficiency of wafer weak point detection is also demonstrated. A novel method using contrast range evaluation is shown in the paper. Use of the slope of aerial images for more accurate detection of the wafer weak points using WLCD is also discussed. The contrast range can also be used to detect the wafer weak points in advance. Further, since the mean to nominal of the reticle contributes to the effective contrast range in a high MEEF area this work shows that control of the mask error is critical for high MEEF layers such as poly, active and metal layers. Wafer process based weak points that cannot be detected by wafer lithography CD or WLCD will be discussed.

  14. Wrinkled bilayer graphene with wafer scale mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikael, Solomon; Seo, Jung-Hun; Javadi, Alireza; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-05-01

    Wafer-scale strained bilayer graphene is demonstrated by employing a silicon nitride (Si3N4) stressor layer. Different magnitudes of compressive stress up to 840 MPa were engineered by adjusting the Si3N4 deposition recipes, and different strain conditions were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The strained graphene displayed significant G peak shifts and G peak splitting with 16.2 cm-1 and 23.0 cm-1 of the G band and two-dimensional band shift, which corresponds to 0.26% of strain. Raman mapping of large regions of the graphene films found that the largest shifts/splitting occurred near the bilayer regions of the graphene films. The significance of our approach lies in the fact that it can be performed in a conventional microfabrication process, i.e., the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, and thus easily implemented for large scale production.

  15. Testing the effects of basic numerical implementations of water migration on models of subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinquis, M. E. T.; Buiter, S. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    feeds back to the dynamics of the system by the associated weakening. This finding underlines the importance of using dynamic time evolution models to investigate the effects of (de)hydration. We also show that hydrated material can be transported down to the base of the upper mantle at 670 km. Although (de)hydration processes influence subduction dynamics, we find that the exact numerical implementation of free water migration is not important in the basic schemes we investigated. A simple implementation of water migration could be sufficient for a first-order impression of the effects of water for studies that focus on large-scale features of subduction dynamics.

  16. On the implementation of error handling in dynamic interfaces to scientific codes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, C.J.

    1993-11-01

    With the advent of powerful workstations with windowing systems, the scientific community has become interested in user friendly interfaces as a means of promoting the distribution of scientific codes to colleagues. Distributing scientific codes to a wider audience can, however, be problematic because scientists, who are familiar with the problem being addressed but not aware of necessary operational details, are encouraged to use the codes. A more friendly environment that not only guides user inputs, but also helps catch errors is needed. This thesis presents a dynamic graphical user interface (GUI) creation system with user controlled support for error detection and handling. The system checks a series of constraints defining a valid input set whenever the state of the system changes and notifies the user when an error has occurred. A naive checking scheme was implemented that checks every constraint every time the system changes. However, this method examines many constraints whose values have not changed. Therefore, a minimum evaluation scheme that only checks those constraints that may have been violated was implemented. This system was implemented in a prototype and user testing was used to determine if it was a success. Users examined both the GUI creation system and the end-user environment. The users found both to be easy to use and efficient enough for practical use. Moreover, they concluded that the system would promote distribution.

  17. Implementation of an ANCF beam finite element for dynamic response optimization of elastic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohar, B.; Kegl, M.; Ren, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of an absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) beam finite element implementation are considered in the context of dynamic transient response optimization of elastic manipulators. The proposed implementation is based on the introduction of new nodal degrees of freedom, which is achieved by an adequate nonlinear mapping between the original and new degrees of freedom. This approach preserves the mechanical properties of the ANCF beam, but converts it into a conventional finite element so that its nodal degrees of freedom are initially always equal to zero and never depend explicitly on the design variables. Consequently, the sensitivity analysis formulas can be derived in the usual manner, except that the introduced nonlinear mapping has to be taken into account. Moreover, the adjusted element can also be incorporated into general finite element analysis and optimization software in the conventional way. The introduced design variables are related to the cross-section of the beam, to the shape of the (possibly) skeletal structure of the manipulator and to the drive functions. The layered cross-section approach and the design element technique are utilized to parameterize the shape of individual elements and the whole structure. A family of implicit time integration methods is adopted for the response and sensitivity analysis. Based on this assumption, the corresponding sensitivity formulas are derived. Two numerical examples illustrate the performance of the proposed element implementation.

  18. Parallel implementation of geometrical shock dynamics for two dimensional converging shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi; Liu, Kuang; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-10-01

    Geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) theory is an appealing method to predict the shock motion in the sense that it is more computationally efficient than solving the traditional Euler equations, especially for converging shock waves. However, to solve and optimize large scale configurations, the main bottleneck is the computational cost. Among the existing numerical GSD schemes, there is only one that has been implemented on parallel computers, with the purpose to analyze detonation waves. To extend the computational advantage of the GSD theory to more general applications such as converging shock waves, a numerical implementation using a spatial decomposition method has been coupled with a front tracking approach on parallel computers. In addition, an efficient tridiagonal system solver for massively parallel computers has been applied to resolve the most expensive function in this implementation, resulting in an efficiency of 0.93 while using 32 HPCC cores. Moreover, symmetric boundary conditions have been developed to further reduce the computational cost, achieving a speedup of 19.26 for a 12-sided polygonal converging shock.

  19. Efficient implementation of constant pH molecular dynamics on modern graphics processors.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Evan J; Brooks, Charles L

    2016-09-15

    The treatment of pH sensitive ionization states for titratable residues in proteins is often omitted from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. While static charge models can answer many questions regarding protein conformational equilibrium and protein-ligand interactions, pH-sensitive phenomena such as acid-activated chaperones and amyloidogenic protein aggregation are inaccessible to such models. Constant pH molecular dynamics (CPHMD) coupled with the Generalized Born with a Simple sWitching function (GBSW) implicit solvent model provide an accurate framework for simulating pH sensitive processes in biological systems. Although this combination has demonstrated success in predicting pKa values of protein structures, and in exploring dynamics of ionizable side-chains, its speed has been an impediment to routine application. The recent availability of low-cost graphics processing unit (GPU) chipsets with thousands of processing cores, together with the implementation of the accurate GBSW implicit solvent model on those chipsets (Arthur and Brooks, J. Comput. Chem. 2016, 37, 927), provide an opportunity to improve the speed of CPHMD and ionization modeling greatly. Here, we present a first implementation of GPU-enabled CPHMD within the CHARMM-OpenMM simulation package interface. Depending on the system size and nonbonded force cutoff parameters, we find speed increases of between one and three orders of magnitude. Additionally, the algorithm scales better with system size than the CPU-based algorithm, thus allowing for larger systems to be modeled in a cost effective manner. We anticipate that the improved performance of this methodology will open the door for broad-spread application of CPHMD in its modeling pH-mediated biological processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27405884

  20. Massive black hole and gas dynamics in galaxy nuclei mergers - I. Numerical implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Alessandro; Haardt, Francesco; Dotti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Numerical effects are known to plague adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) codes when treating massive particles, e.g. representing massive black holes (MBHs). In an evolving background, they can experience strong, spurious perturbations and then follow unphysical orbits. We study by means of numerical simulations the dynamical evolution of a pair MBHs in the rapidly and violently evolving gaseous and stellar background that follows a galaxy major merger. We confirm that spurious numerical effects alter the MBH orbits in AMR simulations, and show that numerical issues are ultimately due to a drop in the spatial resolution during the simulation, drastically reducing the accuracy in the gravitational force computation. We therefore propose a new refinement criterion suited for massive particles, able to solve in a fast and precise way for their orbits in highly dynamical backgrounds. The new refinement criterion we designed enforces the region around each massive particle to remain at the maximum resolution allowed, independently upon the local gas density. Such maximally resolved regions then follow the MBHs along their orbits, and effectively avoids all spurious effects caused by resolution changes. Our suite of high-resolution, AMR hydrodynamic simulations, including different prescriptions for the sub-grid gas physics, shows that the new refinement implementation has the advantage of not altering the physical evolution of the MBHs, accounting for all the non-trivial physical processes taking place in violent dynamical scenarios, such as the final stages of a galaxy major merger.

  1. Super-flat wafer chucks: from simulation and testing to a complete 300mm wafer chuck with low wafer deformation between pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Renate; Afanasiev, Kanstantin; Ziemann, Marcel; Schmidt, Volker

    2014-04-01

    Berliner Glas is a privately owned, mid-sized manufacturer of precision opto-mechanics in Germany. One specialty of Berliner Glas is the design and production of high performance vacuum and electrostatic wafer chucks. Driven by the need of lithography and inspection for smaller overlay values, we pursue the production of an ideally flat wafer chuck. An ideally flat wafer chuck holds a wafer with a completely flat backside and without lateral distortion within the wafer surface. Key parameters in influencing the wafer chucks effective flatness are thermal performance and thermal management, roughness of the surface, choice of materials and the contact area between wafer and wafer chuck. In this presentation we would like to focus on the contact area. Usually this is decreased as much as possible to avoid sticking effects and the chance of trapped particles between the chuck surface and the backside of the wafer. This can be realized with a pin structure on the chuck surface. Making the pins smaller and moving pins further apart from each other makes the contact area ever smaller but also adds new challenges to achieve a flat and undistorted wafer on the chuck. We would like to address methods of designing and evaluating such a pin structure. This involves not only the capability to simulate the ideal pattern of pins on the chuck's surface, for which we will present 2D and 3D simulation results. As well, we would like to share first results of our functional models. Finally, measurement capability has to be ensured, which means improving and further development of Fizeau flatness test interferometers.

  2. Simultaneous analysis of edge quality parameters for submillimeter-thick silicon wafer bar with Fourier optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chaitavon, Kosom

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes an edge quality assessment system for a submillimeter thick wafer bar suitable for semiconductor and hard disk drive industries. Our key approach is based on Fourier optics analysis in a retro-reflective optical architecture featuring nondestructive and noncontact measurement. In our proposed design, a collimated optical beam is incident on a submillimeter thick wafer bar from its side. In this way, part of the optical beam is reflected back and is then Fourier transformed on a two-dimensional image sensor. By investigating the far-field diffraction pattern, important parameters of the wafer bar such as thickness, surface parallelism, edge parallelism, and surface defect can simultaneously be analyzed. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these important parameters are analyzed by only one system. Other key features include low cost and vibration insensitivity. Our field test study using a 635-nm wavelength laser and a 15-cm plano-convex lens for specified 246-μm thick rectangular wafer bars shows that our retro-reflective approach can measure the bar thickness within its specified +/-10 μm. It can also simultaneously evaluate the remaining desired parameters and can distinguish nicely edged bars from poorly edged bars. Other key features include low cost, ease of implementation, robustness, and low component counts.

  3. Wafer-scale aluminum nano-plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Matthew C.; Nielson, Stew; Petrova, Rumyana; Frasier, James; Gardner, Eric

    2014-09-01

    The design, characterization, and optical modeling of aluminum nano-hole arrays are discussed for potential applications in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and surface-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SEFS). In addition, recently-commercialized work on narrow-band, cloaked wire grid polarizers composed of nano-stacked metal and dielectric layers patterned over 200 mm diameter wafers for projection display applications is reviewed. The stacked sub-wavelength nanowire grid results in a narrow-band reduction in reflectance by 1-2 orders of magnitude, which can be tuned throughout the visible spectrum for stray light control.

  4. Wafer temperature measurement: Status utilizing optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Schietinger, C.; Jensen, E.

    1996-12-01

    This paper reviews the current status and problems of optical fiber temperature measurements for RTP and single wafer processing. Included is a discussion of a range of fiber based options available and currently being utilized today. The advantages and disadvantages of the options are presented. In addition new data from the use of the Ripple Technique pyrometer is presented. Included are data from AT and T (Lucent Technologies) ripple pyrometer development. Lucent Technologies is evaluating and improving the ripple pyrometer on a number of different style production RTP furnaces. Recent advances in signal processing for very low level photo diode currents in the range of 10 e-14 amps, also is presented.

  5. Wafer-Level Membrane-Transfer Process for Fabricating MEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Wiberg, Dean

    2003-01-01

    A process for transferring an entire wafer-level micromachined silicon structure for mating with and bonding to another such structure has been devised. This process is intended especially for use in wafer-level integration of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) that have been fabricated on dissimilar substrates. Unlike in some older membrane-transfer processes, there is no use of wax or epoxy during transfer. In this process, the substrate of a wafer-level structure to be transferred serves as a carrier, and is etched away once the transfer has been completed. Another important feature of this process is that two electrodes constitutes an electrostatic actuator array. An SOI wafer and a silicon wafer (see Figure 1) are used as the carrier and electrode wafers, respectively. After oxidation, both wafers are patterned and etched to define a corrugation profile and electrode array, respectively. The polysilicon layer is deposited on the SOI wafer. The carrier wafer is bonded to the electrode wafer by using evaporated indium bumps. The piston pressure of 4 kPa is applied at 156 C in a vacuum chamber to provide hermetic sealing. The substrate of the SOI wafer is etched in a 25 weight percent TMAH bath at 80 C. The exposed buried oxide is then removed by using 49 percent HF droplets after an oxygen plasma ashing. The SOI top silicon layer is etched away by using an SF6 plasma to define the corrugation profile, followed by the HF droplet etching of the remaining oxide. The SF6 plasma with a shadow mask selectively etches the polysilicon membrane, if the transferred membrane structure needs to be patterned. Electrostatic actuators with various electrode gaps have been fabricated by this transfer technique. The gap between the transferred membrane and electrode substrate is very uniform ( 0.1 m across a wafer diameter of 100 mm, provided by optimizing the bonding control). Figure 2 depicts the finished product.

  6. Wafer level reliability testing: An idea whose time has come

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trapp, O. D.

    1987-01-01

    Wafer level reliability testing has been nurtured in the DARPA supported workshops, held each autumn since 1982. The seeds planted in 1982 have produced an active crop of very large scale integration manufacturers applying wafer level reliability test methods. Computer Aided Reliability (CAR) is a new seed being nurtured. Users are now being awakened by the huge economic value of the wafer reliability testing technology.

  7. Implementation of variable time step stochastic dynamics for electronically inelastic gas-surface collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Bruce C.; Swaminathan, P. K.; Murthy, C. S.; Redmon, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A variable time step algorithm has been implemented for solving the stochastic equations of motion for gas-surface collisions. It has been tested for a simple model of electronically inelastic collisions with an insulator surface in which the phonon manifold acts as a heat bath and electronic states are localized. In addition to reproducing the accurate nuclear dynamics of the surface atoms, numerical calculations have shown the algorithm to yield accurate ensemble averages of physical observables such as electronic transition probabilities and total energy loss of the gas atom to the surface. This new algorithm offers a gain in efficieny of up to an order of magnitude compared to fixed time step integration.

  8. Implementation of non-uniform FFT based Ewald summation in dissipative particle dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Laaksonen, Aatto; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2013-02-01

    The ENUF method, i.e., Ewald summation based on the non-uniform FFT technique (NFFT), is implemented in dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation scheme to fast and accurately calculate the electrostatic interactions at mesoscopic level. In a simple model electrolyte system, the suitable ENUF-DPD parameters, including the convergence parameter α, the NFFT approximation parameter p, and the cut-offs for real and reciprocal space contributions, are carefully determined. With these optimized parameters, the ENUF-DPD method shows excellent efficiency and scales as O(NlogN). The ENUF-DPD method is further validated by investigating the effects of charge fraction of polyelectrolyte, ionic strength and counterion valency of added salts on polyelectrolyte conformations. The simulations in this paper, together with a separately published work of dendrimer-membrane complexes, show that the ENUF-DPD method is very robust and can be used to study charged complex systems at mesoscopic level.

  9. A scalable implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mirin, A A; Sawyer, W B

    2004-09-24

    A distributed memory message-passing parallel implementation of a finite-volume discretization of the primitive equations in the Community Atmosphere Model is presented. Due to the data dependencies resulting from the polar singularity of the latitude-longitude coordinate system, we employ two separate domain decompositions within the dynamical core--one in latitude/level space, and the other in longitude/latitude space. This requires that the data be periodically redistributed between these two decompositions. In addition, the domains contain halo regions that cover the nearest neighbor data dependencies. A combination of several techniques, such as one-sided communication and multithreading, are presented to optimize data movements. The resulting algorithm is shown to scale to very large machine configurations, even for relatively coarse resolutions.

  10. A Scalable Implementation of a Finite-Volume Dynamical Core in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, W; Mirin, A

    2004-06-25

    A distributed memory message-passing parallel implementation of a finite-volume discretization of the primitive equations in the Community Atmosphere Model is presented. Due to the data dependencies resulting from the polar singularity of the latitude-longitude coordinate system, it is necessary to employ two separate domain decompositions within the dynamical core. Data must be periodically redistributed between these two decompositions. In addition, the domains contain halo regions that cover the nearest neighbor data dependencies. A combination of several techniques, such as one-sided communication and multithreading, are presented to optimize data movements. The resulting algorithm is shown to scale to very large machine configurations, even for relatively coarse resolutions.

  11. Dynamic detection of window starting positions and its implementation within an activity recognition framework.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qin; Patterson, Timothy; Cleland, Ian; Nugent, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Activity recognition is an intrinsic component of many pervasive computing and ambient intelligent solutions. This has been facilitated by an explosion of technological developments in the area of wireless sensor network, wearable and mobile computing. Yet, delivering robust activity recognition, which could be deployed at scale in a real world environment, still remains an active research challenge. Much of the existing literature to date has focused on applying machine learning techniques to pre-segmented data collected in controlled laboratory environments. Whilst this approach can provide valuable ground truth information from which to build recognition models, these techniques often do not function well when implemented in near real time applications. This paper presents the application of a multivariate online change detection algorithm to dynamically detect the starting position of windows for the purposes of activity recognition. PMID:27392647

  12. Static and dynamic behavior of multiphase porous media: Governing equations and finite element implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Changfu

    2001-09-01

    The mechanical behavior of porous media such as geomaterials is largely governed by the interactions of the solid skeleton (or grains) with the fluids existing in the pores. These interactions occur through the interfaces between bulk components. Traditional analysis procedures of porous media, based on the principle of effective stress and Darcy's law, commonly fail to account for these interactions. In this dissertation, a continuum theory of multiphase porous media is developed, capable of rigorously characterizing the interactions among bulk components. Central to the theory is the implementation of the dynamic compatibility conditions that microscopically represent the constraints on the pressure jumps through interfaces. It is shown that Terzaghi's effective stress and capillary pressure can be characterized within a common framework. Within this context, a theoretical framework for poroelastoplasticity is developed, allowing the hysteresis in capillary pressure and plastic deformation of skeleton to be simulated in a hierarchical way. It is found that the mixture theory-based models of porous media can be linked with Biot's poroelasticity theory. A linear model based on the proposed theory is developed and used to analyze the propagation of acoustic waves in unsaturated soils and favorable comparisons to experimental results are obtained. A finite element procedure is developed and implemented into a computer code (called U_DYSAC2) for elastoplastic static and dynamic analyses of saturated and unsaturated porous media. Numerical examples including wave propagation, two-phase flow, consolidation, and seismic behavior of an embankment are presented. These examples show the capability of the theory for modeling a wide variety of behaviors of porous media.

  13. Dominant factors of the laser gettering of silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhan, Yu. I. E-mail: yuibokhan@gmail.com; Kamenkov, V. S.; Tolochko, N. K.

    2015-02-15

    The laser gettering of silicon wafers is experimentally investigated. The typical gettering parameters are considered. The surfaces of laser-treated silicon wafers are investigated by microscopy. When studying the effect of laser radiation on silicon wafers during gettering, a group of factors determining the conditions of interaction between the laser beam and silicon-wafer surface and affecting the final result of treatment are selected. The main factors determining the gettering efficiency are revealed. Limitations on the desired value of the getter-layer capacity on surfaces with insufficiently high cleanness (for example, ground or matte) are established.

  14. Micro-miniature gas chromatograph column disposed in silicon wafers

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2000-01-01

    A micro-miniature gas chromatograph column is fabricated by forming matching halves of a circular cross-section spiral microcapillary in two silicon wafers and then bonding the two wafers together using visual or physical alignment methods. Heating wires are deposited on the outside surfaces of each wafer in a spiral or serpentine pattern large enough in area to cover the whole microcapillary area inside the joined wafers. The visual alignment method includes etching through an alignment window in one wafer and a precision-matching alignment target in the other wafer. The two wafers are then bonded together using the window and target. The physical alignment methods include etching through vertical alignment holes in both wafers and then using pins or posts through corresponding vertical alignment holes to force precision alignment during bonding. The pins or posts may be withdrawn after curing of the bond. Once the wafers are bonded together, a solid phase of very pure silicone is injected in a solution of very pure chloroform into one end of the microcapillary. The chloroform lowers the viscosity of the silicone enough that a high pressure hypodermic needle with a thumbscrew plunger can force the solution into the whole length of the spiral microcapillary. The chloroform is then evaporated out slowly to leave the silicone behind in a deposit.

  15. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  16. The impact of wafering on organic and inorganic surface contaminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S.; Wahl, S.; Timmel, S.; Köpge, R.; Jang, B.-Y.

    2016-08-01

    Beside the silicon feedstock material, the crystallization process and the cell processing itself, the wafer sawing process can strongly determine the final solar cell quality. Especially surface contamination is introduced in this process step because impurities from sawing meet with a virgin silicon surface which is highly reactive until the oxide layer is formed. In this paper we quantitatively analysed both, the organic and inorganic contamination on wafer surfaces and show that changes of process parameters during wafering may cause dramatic changes in surface purity. We present powerful techniques for the monitoring of wafer surface quality which is essential for the production of high efficiency and high quality solar cells.

  17. FPGA implementation of dynamic channel assignment algorithm for cognitive wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Daniela M.; Andrade, Ángel G.

    2015-07-01

    The reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in industrial applications can be thwarted due to multipath fading, noise generated by industrial equipment or heavy machinery and particularly by the interference generated from other wireless devices operating in the same spectrum band. Recently, cognitive WSNs (CWSNs) were proposed to improve the performance and reliability of WSNs in highly interfered and noisy environments. In this class of WSN, the nodes are spectrum aware, that is, they monitor the radio spectrum to find channels available for data transmission and dynamically assign and reassign nodes to low-interference condition channels. In this work, we present the implementation of a channel assignment algorithm in a field-programmable gate array, which dynamically assigns channels to sensor nodes based on the interference and noise levels experimented in the network. From the results obtained from the performance evaluation of the CWSN when the channel assignment algorithm is considered, it is possible to identify how many channels should be available in the network in order to achieve a desired percentage of successful transmissions, subject to constraints on the signal-to-interference plus noise ratio on each active link.

  18. Mask qualification strategies in a wafer fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaehnert, Carmen; Kunowski, Angela

    2007-02-01

    Having consistent high quality photo masks is one of the key factors in lithography in the wafer fab. Combined with stable exposure- and resist processes, it ensures yield increases in production and fast learning cycles for technology development and design evaluation. Preventive controlling of incoming masks and quality monitoring while using the mask in production is essential for the fab to avoid yield loss or technical problems caused by mask issues, which eventually result in delivery problems to the customer. In this paper an overview of the procedures used for mask qualification and production release, for both logic and DRAM, at Infineon Dresden is presented. Incoming qualification procedures, such as specification checks, incoming inspection, and inline litho process window evaluation, are described here. Pinching and electrical tests, including compatibility tests for mask copies for high volume products on optimized litho processes, are also explained. To avoid mask degradation over lifetime, re-inspection checks are done for re-qualification while using the mask in production. The necessity of mask incoming inspection and re-qualification, due to the repeater printing from either the processing defects of the original mask or degrading defects of being used in the fab (i.e. haze, ESD, and moving particles, etc.), is demonstrated. The need and impact of tight mask specifications, such as CD uniformity signatures and corresponding electrical results, are shown with examples of mask-wafer CD correlation.

  19. 1366 Direct Wafer: Demolishing the Cost Barrier for Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Adam

    2013-08-30

    The goal of 1366 Direct Wafer™ is to drastically reduce the cost of silicon-based PV by eliminating the cost barrier imposed by sawn wafers. The key characteristics of Direct Wafer are 1) kerf-free, 156-mm standard silicon wafers 2) high throughput for very low CAPEX and rapid scale up. Together, these characteristics will allow Direct Wafer™ to become the new standard for silicon PV wafers and will enable terawatt-scale PV – a prospect that may not be possible with sawn wafers. Our single, high-throughput step will replace the expensive and rate-limiting process steps of ingot casting and sawing, thereby enabling drastically lower wafer cost. This High-Impact PV Supply Chain project addressed the challenges of scaling Direct Wafer technology for cost-effective, high-throughput production of commercially viable 156 mm wafers. The Direct Wafer process is inherently simple and offers the potential for very low production cost, but to realize this, it is necessary to demonstrate production of wafers at high-throughput that meet customer specifications. At the start of the program, 1366 had demonstrated (with ARPA-E funding) increases in solar cell efficiency from 10% to 15.9% on small area (20cm2), scaling wafer size up to the industry standard 156mm, and demonstrated initial cell efficiency on larger wafers of 13.5%. During this program, the throughput of the Direct Wafer furnace was increased by more than 10X, simultaneous with quality improvements to meet early customer specifications. Dedicated equipment for laser trimming of wafers and measurement methods were developed to feedback key quality metrics to improve the process and equipment. Subsequent operations served both to determine key operating metrics affecting cost, as well as generating sample product that was used for developing downstream processing including texture and interaction with standard cell processing. Dramatic price drops for silicon wafers raised the bar significantly, but the

  20. Understanding the dynamics of information technology implementation: a study of clinical information systems.

    PubMed

    Paré, G; Elam, J J

    1995-01-01

    the work of a variety of clinicians. Finally, we study a nursing assessment system used by two groups of nurses (intensive care unit and resuscitation unit) at a state-of-the-art, newly established Trauma Center. Qualitative was gathered through semi-structured interviews with people involved in the implementation process as well as a sample of user representatives. More than 90 interviews were conducted over a period of six months. Observational data completed our qualitative assessment. Quantitative evidence was gathered through questionnaires administered to a small sample of key informants. Three techniques of qualitative data analysis are being used in combination, namely, coding, analytical memos and displays. Data analysis is still in its infancy at this point. Regarding its relevance to the role of the administrator, this study will allow general and health care management as well as IT professionals to gain insight into the dynamics of the implementation of innovative technologies. In other words, results from this study will provide clear and relevant answers to the questions of how and why the outcome of the information system project is influenced by the way in which the technology is introduced. PMID:8591258

  1. Eutectic bonds on wafer scale by thin film multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Carsten; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1996-09-01

    The use of gold based thin film multilayer systems for forming eutectic bonds on wafer scale is investigated and preliminary results will be presented. On polished 4 inch wafers different multilayer systems are developed using thin film techniques and bonded afterwards under reactive atmospheres and different bonding temperatures and forces. Pull tests are performed to extract the bonding strengths.

  2. Analysis of wafer heating in 14nm DUV layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, Woong Jae; Samudrala, Pavan; Gao, Haiyong; Aung, Nyan; Gomez, Juan Manuel; Minghetti, Blandine; Lee, Shawn

    2016-03-01

    To further shrink the contact and trench dimensions, Negative Tone Development (NTD) has become the de facto process at these layers. The NTD process uses a positive tone resist and an organic solvent-based negative tone developer which leads to improved image contrast, larger process window and smaller Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF)[1]. The NTD masks have high transmission values leading to lens heating and as observed here wafer heating as well. Both lens and wafer heating will contribute to overlay error, however the effects of lens heating can be mitigated by applying lens heating corrections while no such corrections exist for wafer heating yet. Although the magnitude of overlay error due to wafer heating is low relative to lens heating; ever tightening overlay requirements imply that the distortions due to wafer heating will quickly become a significant part of the overlay budget. In this work the effects, analysis and observations of wafer heating on contact and metal layers of the 14nm node are presented. On product wafers it manifests as a difference in the scan up and scan down signatures between layers. An experiment to further understand wafer heating is performed with a test reticle that is used to monitor scanner performance.

  3. Effects of Wafer Emissivity on Rapid Thermal Processing Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. H.; DeWitt, D. P.; Tsai, B. K.; Kreider, K. G.; Kimes, W. A.

    2003-09-01

    Lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs) are widely used to measure wafer temperatures in rapid thermal processing (RTP) tools. To use blackbody-calibrated LPRTs to infer the wafer temperature, it is necessary to build a model to predict the effective emissivity accounting for the wafer and chamber radiative properties as well as geometrical features of the chamber. The uncertainty associated with model-corrected temperatures can be investigated using test wafers instrumented with thin-film thermocouples (TFTCs) on which the LPRT target spot has been coated with films of different emissivity. A finite-element model of the wafer-chamber arrangement was used to investigate the effects of Pt spot (ɛs = 0.25) and Au spot (ɛs = 0.05) on the temperature distribution of test wafers with spectral emissivities of 0.65 and 0.84. The effects of the shield reflectivity and the cool lightpipe (LP) tip on the wafer temperature were evaluated. A radiance analysis method was developed, and a comparison of model-based predictions with experimental observations was made on a 200 mm diameter wafer in the NIST RTP test bed. The temperature rises caused by the low-emissivity spot were predicted and the cooling effect of the LP tip was determined. The results of the study are important for developing the model-based corrections for temperature measurements and related uncertainties using LPRTs in semiconductor thermal processes.

  4. Fabrication of Uniform Nanoscale Cavities via Silicon Direct Wafer Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Stephen R. D.; Perron, Justin K.; Kimball, Mark O.; Mehta, Sarabjit; Gasparini, Francis M.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the heat capacity and superfluid fraction of confined 4He have been performed near the lambda transition using lithographically patterned and bonded silicon wafers. Unlike confinements in porous materials often used for these types of experiments3, bonded wafers provide predesigned uniform spaces for confinement. The geometry of each cell is well known, which removes a large source of ambiguity in the interpretation of data. Exceptionally flat, 5 cm diameter, 375 µm thick Si wafers with about 1 µm variation over the entire wafer can be obtained commercially (from Semiconductor Processing Company, for example). Thermal oxide is grown on the wafers to define the confinement dimension in the z-direction. A pattern is then etched in the oxide using lithographic techniques so as to create a desired enclosure upon bonding. A hole is drilled in one of the wafers (the top) to allow for the introduction of the liquid to be measured. The wafers are cleaned2 in RCA solutions and then put in a microclean chamber where they are rinsed with deionized water4. The wafers are bonded at RT and then annealed at ~1,100 °C. This forms a strong and permanent bond. This process can be used to make uniform enclosures for measuring thermal and hydrodynamic properties of confined liquids from the nanometer to the micrometer scale. PMID:24457563

  5. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  6. Fabrication of uniform nanoscale cavities via silicon direct wafer bonding.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Stephen R D; Perron, Justin K; Kimball, Mark O; Mehta, Sarabjit; Gasparini, Francis M

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the heat capacity and superfluid fraction of confined (4)He have been performed near the lambda transition using lithographically patterned and bonded silicon wafers. Unlike confinements in porous materials often used for these types of experiments(3), bonded wafers provide predesigned uniform spaces for confinement. The geometry of each cell is well known, which removes a large source of ambiguity in the interpretation of data. Exceptionally flat, 5 cm diameter, 375 µm thick Si wafers with about 1 µm variation over the entire wafer can be obtained commercially (from Semiconductor Processing Company, for example). Thermal oxide is grown on the wafers to define the confinement dimension in the z-direction. A pattern is then etched in the oxide using lithographic techniques so as to create a desired enclosure upon bonding. A hole is drilled in one of the wafers (the top) to allow for the introduction of the liquid to be measured. The wafers are cleaned(2) in RCA solutions and then put in a microclean chamber where they are rinsed with deionized water(4). The wafers are bonded at RT and then annealed at ~1,100 °C. This forms a strong and permanent bond. This process can be used to make uniform enclosures for measuring thermal and hydrodynamic properties of confined liquids from the nanometer to the micrometer scale.

  7. A new dynamic tactile display for reconfigurable braille: implementation and tests

    PubMed Central

    Motto Ros, Paolo; Dante, Vittorio; Mesin, Luca; Petetti, Erminio; Del Giudice, Paolo; Pasero, Eros

    2014-01-01

    Different tactile interfaces have been proposed to represent either text (braille) or, in a few cases, tactile large-area screens as replacements for visual displays. None of the implementations so far can be customized to match users' preferences, perceptual differences and skills. Optimal choices in these respects are still debated; we approach a solution by designing a flexible device allowing the user to choose key parameters of tactile transduction. We present here a new dynamic tactile display, a 8 × 8 matrix of plastic pins based on well-established and reliable piezoelectric technology to offer high resolution (pin gap 0.7mm) as well as tunable strength of the pins displacement, and refresh rate up to 50s−1. It can reproduce arbitrary patterns, allowing it to serve the dual purpose of providing, depending on contingent user needs, tactile rendering of non-character information, and reconfigurable braille rendering. Given the relevance of the latter functionality for the expected average user, we considered testing braille encoding by volunteers a benchmark of primary importance. Tests were performed to assess the acceptance and usability with minimal training, and to check whether the offered flexibility was indeed perceived by the subject as an added value compared to conventional braille devices. Different mappings between braille dots and actual tactile pins were implemented to match user needs. Performances of eight experienced braille readers were defined as the fraction of correct identifications of rendered content. Different information contents were tested (median performance on random strings, words, sentences identification was about 75%, 85%, 98%, respectively, with a significant increase, p < 0.01), obtaining statistically significant improvements in performance during the tests (p < 0.05). Experimental results, together with qualitative ratings provided by the subjects, show a good acceptance and the effectiveness of the proposed solution

  8. A new dynamic tactile display for reconfigurable braille: implementation and tests.

    PubMed

    Motto Ros, Paolo; Dante, Vittorio; Mesin, Luca; Petetti, Erminio; Del Giudice, Paolo; Pasero, Eros

    2014-01-01

    Different tactile interfaces have been proposed to represent either text (braille) or, in a few cases, tactile large-area screens as replacements for visual displays. None of the implementations so far can be customized to match users' preferences, perceptual differences and skills. Optimal choices in these respects are still debated; we approach a solution by designing a flexible device allowing the user to choose key parameters of tactile transduction. We present here a new dynamic tactile display, a 8 × 8 matrix of plastic pins based on well-established and reliable piezoelectric technology to offer high resolution (pin gap 0.7mm) as well as tunable strength of the pins displacement, and refresh rate up to 50s(-1). It can reproduce arbitrary patterns, allowing it to serve the dual purpose of providing, depending on contingent user needs, tactile rendering of non-character information, and reconfigurable braille rendering. Given the relevance of the latter functionality for the expected average user, we considered testing braille encoding by volunteers a benchmark of primary importance. Tests were performed to assess the acceptance and usability with minimal training, and to check whether the offered flexibility was indeed perceived by the subject as an added value compared to conventional braille devices. Different mappings between braille dots and actual tactile pins were implemented to match user needs. Performances of eight experienced braille readers were defined as the fraction of correct identifications of rendered content. Different information contents were tested (median performance on random strings, words, sentences identification was about 75%, 85%, 98%, respectively, with a significant increase, p < 0.01), obtaining statistically significant improvements in performance during the tests (p < 0.05). Experimental results, together with qualitative ratings provided by the subjects, show a good acceptance and the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  9. Parallel implementation of the particle simulation method with dynamic load balancing: Toward realistic geodynamical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuichi, M.; Nishiura, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fully Lagrangian methods such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) have been widely used to solve the continuum and particles motions in the computational geodynamics field. These mesh-free methods are suitable for the problems with the complex geometry and boundary. In addition, their Lagrangian nature allows non-diffusive advection useful for tracking history dependent properties (e.g. rheology) of the material. These potential advantages over the mesh-based methods offer effective numerical applications to the geophysical flow and tectonic processes, which are for example, tsunami with free surface and floating body, magma intrusion with fracture of rock, and shear zone pattern generation of granular deformation. In order to investigate such geodynamical problems with the particle based methods, over millions to billion particles are required for the realistic simulation. Parallel computing is therefore important for handling such huge computational cost. An efficient parallel implementation of SPH and DEM methods is however known to be difficult especially for the distributed-memory architecture. Lagrangian methods inherently show workload imbalance problem for parallelization with the fixed domain in space, because particles move around and workloads change during the simulation. Therefore dynamic load balance is key technique to perform the large scale SPH and DEM simulation. In this work, we present the parallel implementation technique of SPH and DEM method utilizing dynamic load balancing algorithms toward the high resolution simulation over large domain using the massively parallel super computer system. Our method utilizes the imbalances of the executed time of each MPI process as the nonlinear term of parallel domain decomposition and minimizes them with the Newton like iteration method. In order to perform flexible domain decomposition in space, the slice-grid algorithm is used. Numerical tests show that our

  10. Wafer Mapping Using Deuterium Enhanced Defect Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, K.; Holland, O. W.; Hellmer, R.; Vanmil, B.; Bubulac, L. O.; Golding, T. D.

    2010-07-01

    Deuterium (as well as other hydrogen isotopes) binds with a wide range of morphological defects in semiconductors and, as such, becomes distributed similarly to those defects. Thus, the deuterium profile within the sample serves as the basis of a technique for defect mapping known as amethyst wafer mapping (AWM). The efficiency of this technique has been demonstrated by evaluation of ion-induced damage in implanted Si, as well as as-grown defects in HgCdTe (MCT) epilayers. The defect tagging or decoration capability of deuterium is largely material independent and applicable to a wide range of defect morphologies. A number of analytical techniques including ion channeling and etch pit density measurements were used to evaluate the AWM results.

  11. Backside EBR process performance with various wafer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tomohiro; Shigemori, Kazuhito; Vangheluwe, Rik; Erich, Daub; Sanada, Masakazu

    2009-03-01

    In immersion lithography process, film stacking architecture will be necessary to avoid top coat film peeling. To achieve suitable stacking architecture for immersion lithography process, an EBR process that delivers tightly controlled film edge position and good uniformity around the wafer circumference is needed. We demonstrated a new bevel rinse system on a SOKUDO RF3 coat-and-develop track for immersion lithography. The performance of the new bevel rinse system for various wafer properties was evaluated. It was found that the bevel rinse system has a good controllability of film edge position and good uniformity around the wafer circumference. The results indicate that the bevel rinse system has a large margin for wafer centering accuracy, back side particles, wafer shape and substrates with good film edge position controllability, uniformity and clean apex. The system has been demonstrated to provide a suitable film stacking architecture for immersion lithography mass production process.

  12. Investigations of Wafer Scale Etching with Xenon Difluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. N.; Hoivik, N.; Lin, C. Y.; Young, A.; Ieong, M.; Shahidi, G.

    2006-03-01

    A good and uniform bulk silicon wafer etching method can be applied to the wafer thinning process in MEMS and 3D applications. In this study, the use of a Xenon Difluoride (XeF2) gas-phase etching system, operating at room temperature, has been investigated for bulk silicon wafer thinning. We investigated the Si-wafer surface morphology and profile following each XeF2 etching process cycle. Theoretical results are used to compare with the experimental results as well. A clean wafer surface by proper surface treatments is significant to achieve a uniform surface profile and morphology for XeF2 etching. A proper design of etching cycle with nitrogen ambient during etching is necessary to achieve the fastest and uniform silicon etching rate. The silicon etching rate is reported as a function of etching pressure, nitrogen pressure, and etching duration.

  13. Reduction of Thermal Conductivity in Wafer-Bonded Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    ZL Liau; LR Danielson; PM Fourspring; L Hu; G Chen; GW Turner

    2006-11-27

    Blocks of silicon up to 3-mm thick have been formed by directly bonding stacks of thin wafer chips. These stacks showed significant reductions in the thermal conductivity in the bonding direction. In each sample, the wafer chips were obtained by polishing a commercial wafer to as thin as 36 {micro}m, followed by dicing. Stacks whose starting wafers were patterned with shallow dots showed greater reductions in thermal conductivity. Diluted-HF treatment of wafer chips prior to bonding led to the largest reduction of the effective thermal conductivity, by approximately a factor of 50. Theoretical modeling based on restricted conduction through the contacting dots and some conduction across the planar nanometer air gaps yielded fair agreement for samples fabricated without the HF treatment.

  14. Interferometric metrology of wafer nanotopography for advanced CMOS process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, John F.; Koliopoulos, Chris L.; Tang, Shouhong

    2001-12-01

    According to industry standards (SEMI M43, Guide for Reporting Wafer Nanotopography), Nanotopography is the non- planar deviation of the whole front wafer surface within a spatial wavelength range of approximately 0.2 to 20 mm and within the fixed quality area (FQA). The need for precision metrology of wafer nanotopography is being actively addressed by interferometric technology. In this paper we present an approach to mapping the whole wafer front surface nanotopography using an engineered coherence interferometer. The interferometer acquires a whole wafer raw topography map. The raw map is then filtered to remove the long spatial wavelength, high amplitude shape contributions and reveal the nanotopography in the filtered map. Filtered maps can be quantitatively analyzed in a variety of ways to enable statistical process control (SPC) of nanotopography parameters. The importance of tracking these parameters for CMOS gate level processes at 180-nm critical dimension, and below, is examined.

  15. Overlay Tolerances For VLSI Using Wafer Steppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.; Rice, Rory

    1988-01-01

    In order for VLSI circuits to function properly, the masking layers used in the fabrication of those devices must overlay each other to within the manufacturing tolerance incorporated in the circuit design. The capabilities of the alignment tools used in the masking process determine the overlay tolerances to which circuits can be designed. It is therefore of considerable importance that these capabilities be well characterized. Underestimation of the overlay accuracy results in unnecessarily large devices, resulting in poor utilization of wafer area and possible degradation of device performance. Overestimation will result in significant yield loss because of the failure to conform to the tolerances of the design rules. The proper methodology for determining the overlay capabilities of wafer steppers, the most commonly used alignment tool for the production of VLSI circuits, is the subject of this paper. Because cost-effective manufacturing process technology has been the driving force of VLSI, the impact on productivity is a primary consideration in all discussions. Manufacturers of alignment tools advertise the capabilities of their equipment. It is notable that no manufacturer currently characterizes his aligners in a manner consistent with the requirements of producing very large integrated circuits, as will be discussed. This has resulted in the situation in which the evaluation and comparison of the capabilities of alignment tools require the attention of a lithography specialist. Unfortunately, lithographic capabilities must be known by many other people, particularly the circuit designers and the managers responsible for the financial consequences of the high prices of modern alignment tools. All too frequently, the designer or manager is confronted with contradictory data, one set coming from his lithography specialist, and the other coming from a sales representative of an equipment manufacturer. Since the latter generally attempts to make his

  16. Graphitized silicon carbide microbeams: wafer-level, self-aligned graphene on silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunning, Benjamin V.; Ahmed, Mohsin; Mishra, Neeraj; Ranjbar Kermany, Atieh; Wood, Barry; Iacopi, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Currently proven methods that are used to obtain devices with high-quality graphene on silicon wafers involve the transfer of graphene flakes from a growth substrate, resulting in fundamental limitations for large-scale device fabrication. Moreover, the complex three-dimensional structures of interest for microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems are hardly compatible with such transfer processes. Here, we introduce a methodology for obtaining thousands of microbeams, made of graphitized silicon carbide on silicon, through a site-selective and wafer-scale approach. A Ni-Cu alloy catalyst mediates a self-aligned graphitization on prepatterned SiC microstructures at a temperature that is compatible with silicon technologies. The graphene nanocoating leads to a dramatically enhanced electrical conductivity, which elevates this approach to an ideal method for the replacement of conductive metal films in silicon carbide-based MEMS and NEMS devices.

  17. Performance study of new segmented overlay marks for advanced wafer processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, Mike; Allgair, John A.; Benoit, David C.; Ghinovker, Mark; Kassel, Elyakim; Nelson, C.; Robinson, John C.; Seligman, Gary S.

    2003-05-01

    We explore the implementation of improved overlay mark designs increasing mark fidelity and device correlation for advanced wafer processing. The effect of design rule segmentation on overlay mark performance is studied. Short loop wafers with 193 nm lithography for front-end (poly to STI active) as well as back-end (via to metal) were processed and evaluated. A comparison of 6 different box-in-box (BiB) overlay marks, including non-segmented, multi bar, and design-rule segmented were compared to several types of AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) grating targets which were non-segmented and design rule segmented in various ways. The key outcomes of the performance study include the following: the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) was estimated by the RMS of the precision, TIS 3-sigma and overlay mark fidelity (OMF). The TMU calculated in this way show a 40% reduction for the grating marks compared to BiB. The major contributors to this performance improvement were OMF and precision, which were both improved by nearly a factor of 2 on the front-end layer. TIS-3-sigma was observed to improve when design rule segmentation was implemented, while OMF was marginally degraded. Similar results were found for the back end wafers. Several different pitches and segmentation schemes were reviewed and this has allowed the development of a methodology for target design optimization. Resulting improvements in modeled residuals were also achieved.

  18. Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP): An Optimized Algorithm and Tool for Dynamical Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Wart, Adam T; Durrant, Jacob; Votapka, Lane; Amaro, Rommie E

    2014-02-11

    Allostery can occur by way of subtle cooperation among protein residues (e.g., amino acids) even in the absence of large conformational shifts. Dynamical network analysis has been used to model this cooperation, helping to computationally explain how binding to an allosteric site can impact the behavior of a primary site many ångstroms away. Traditionally, computational efforts have focused on the most optimal path of correlated motions leading from the allosteric to the primary active site. We present a program called Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP) capable of rapidly identifying additional suboptimal pathways that may also play important roles in the transmission of allosteric signals. Aside from providing signal redundancy, suboptimal paths traverse residues that, if disrupted through pharmacological or mutational means, could modulate the allosteric regulation of important drug targets. To demonstrate the utility of our program, we present a case study describing the allostery of HisH-HisF, an amidotransferase from T. maritima thermotiga. WISP and its VMD-based graphical user interface (GUI) can be downloaded from http://nbcr.ucsd.edu/wisp.

  19. Using System Dynamics to Define, Study, and Implement Smart Control Strategies on the Electric Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    The United States electric power grid is the most complex and expansive control system in the world. Local generation control occurs at individual units based on response time and unit economics, larger regional control coordinates unit response to error conditions, and high level large-area regional control is ultimately administered by a network of humans guided by economic and resiliency related factors. Under normal operating conditions, the grid is a relatively slow moving entity that exhibits high inertia to outside stimuli, and behaves along repeatable diurnal and seasonal patterns. However, that paradigm is quickly changing because of the increasing implementation of renewable generation sources. Renewable generators by nature cannot be tightly controlled or scheduled. They appear like a negative load to the system with all of the variability associated with load on a larger scale. Also, grid-reactive loads (i.e. smart devices) can alter their consumption based on price or demand rules adding more variability to system behavior. This paper demonstrates how a systems dynamic modeling approach capable of operating over multiple time scales, can provide valuable insight into developing new “smart-grid” control strategies and devices needed to accommodate renewable generation and regulate the frequency of the grid.

  20. Capabilities and performance of the Automated Planet Finder telescope with the implementation of a dynamic scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer; Holden, Bradford; Hanson, Russell; Laughlin, Greg; Vogt, Steve; Butler, Paul; Keiser, Sandy; Deich, William

    2015-10-01

    We report initial performance results emerging from 600 h of observations with the Automated Planet Finder (APF) telescope and Levy spectrometer located at UCO/Lick Observatory. We have obtained multiple spectra of 80 G, K, and M-type stars, which comprise 4954 individual Doppler radial velocity (RV) measurements with a median internal uncertainty of 1.35 ms-1. We find a strong, expected correlation between the number of photons accumulated in the 5000 to 6200 Å iodine region of the spectrum and the resulting internal uncertainty estimates. Additionally, we find an offset between the population of G and K stars and the M stars within the dataset when comparing these parameters. As a consequence of their increased spectral line densities, M-type stars permit the same level of internal uncertainty with 2× fewer photons than G-type and K-type stars. When observing M stars, we show that the APF/Levy has essentially the same speed-on-sky as Keck/high resolution echelle spectrometer (HIRES) for precision RVs. In the interest of using the APF for long-duration RV surveys, we have designed and implemented a dynamic scheduling algorithm. We discuss the operation of the scheduler, which monitors ambient conditions and combines on-sky information with a database of survey targets to make intelligent, real-time targeting decisions.

  1. Implementation of intrinsic lumped parameter modeling into computational fluid dynamics studies of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Tim A S; Neidlin, Michael; Büsen, Martin; Sonntag, Simon J; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2014-02-01

    Stroke and cerebral hypoxia are among the main complications during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The two main reasons for these complications are the cannula jet, due to altered flow conditions and the sandblast effect, and impaired cerebral autoregulation which often occurs in the elderly. The effect of autoregulation has so far mainly been modeled using lumped parameter modeling, while Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been applied to analyze flow conditions during CPB. In this study, we combine both modeling techniques to analyze the effect of lumped parameter modeling on blood flow during CPB. Additionally, cerebral autoregulation is implemented using the Baroreflex, which adapts the cerebrovascular resistance and compliance based on the cerebral perfusion pressure. The results show that while a combination of CFD and lumped parameter modeling without autoregulation delivers feasible results for physiological flow conditions, it overestimates the loss of cerebral blood flow during CPB. This is counteracted by the Baroreflex, which restores the cerebral blood flow to native levels. However, the cerebral blood flow during CPB is typically reduced by 10-20% in the clinic. This indicates that either the Baroreflex is not fully functional during CPB, or that the target value for the Baroreflex is not a full native cerebral blood flow, but the plateau phase of cerebral autoregulation, which starts at approximately 80% of native flow.

  2. Combined aerodynamic and structural dynamic problem emulating routines (CASPER): Theory and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William H.

    1985-01-01

    The Combined Aerodynamic and Structural Dynamic Problem Emulating Routines (CASPER) is a collection of data-base modification computer routines that can be used to simulate Navier-Stokes flow through realistic, time-varying internal flow fields. The Navier-Stokes equation used involves calculations in all three dimensions and retains all viscous terms. The only term neglected in the current implementation is gravitation. The solution approach is of an interative, time-marching nature. Calculations are based on Lagrangian aerodynamic elements (aeroelements). It is assumed that the relationships between a particular aeroelement and its five nearest neighbor aeroelements are sufficient to make a valid simulation of Navier-Stokes flow on a small scale and that the collection of all small-scale simulations makes a valid simulation of a large-scale flow. In keeping with these assumptions, it must be noted that CASPER produces an imitation or simulation of Navier-Stokes flow rather than a strict numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. CASPER is written to operate under the Parallel, Asynchronous Executive (PAX), which is described in a separate report.

  3. Implementation of a Research-Based Lab Module in a High School Chemistry Curriculum: A Study of Classroom Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilarz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For this study, a research-based lab module was implemented in two high school chemistry classes for the purpose of examining classroom dynamics throughout the process of students completing the module. A research-based lab module developed for use in undergraduate laboratories by the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) was…

  4. Using Sociocultural Perspectives: The Dynamic Process of Designing and Implementing Class Activities in an Online Japanese Language Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibakawa, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    The study documented the dynamic process of designing and implementing instructional interventions in an online course of Japanese language and culture at a two-year college. The results have impact in three distinct areas: pedagogical, theoretical, and methodological. First, the interventions that encouraged student agency with rich…

  5. Implementation of window shading models into dynamic whole-building simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomanowski, Bartosz Aleksander

    resistances of sealed cavities between glazing/shading layers are calculated at each time-step for various fill gases and mixtures. In addition to modeling glazing/shading layer combinations, the CFC type also provides an alternate method of modeling unshaded windows without relying on third party software to supply the solar optics and cavity resistances. To build confidence in the CFC code implementation, two comparison studies were carried out to compare the CFC type against other models. The first study compared the CFC models for unshaded windows with the standard ESP-r transparent multi-layer construction (TMC) models. The second study compared the CFC slat-type blind models with EnergyPlus 2.0. Good agreement was seen in the simulation results in both studies. The successful implementation of the Complex Fenestration Construction within ESP-r has been demonstrated in the current research. In order for ESP-r users to fully exploit the capabilities of the CFC framework, it is recommended that the current models be extended to include a facility for dynamic shading control as well as the treatment of other types of shading layers. The coupling of daylighting models with the CFC type would provide a useful tool for modeling luminance control in combination with shading control strategies. With these enhancements, it is anticipated that the CFC implementation will be of significant value to practitioners.

  6. Development of optical automatic positioning and wafer defect detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Chuen-Lin; Lai, Qun-Huang; Lin, Chern-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The data of a wafer with defects can provide engineers with very important information and clues to improve the yield rate and quality in manufacturing. This paper presents a microscope automatic positioning and wafer detection system with human-machine interface based on image processing and fuzzy inference algorithms. In the proposed system, a XY table is used to move the position of each die on 6 inch or 8 inch wafers. Then, a high-resolution CCD and one set of two-axis optical linear encoder are used to accurately measure the position on the wafer. Finally, the developed human-machine interface is used to display the current position of an actual wafer in order to complete automatic positioning, and a wafer map database can be created. In the process of defect detection, CCD is used for image processing, and during preprocessing, it is required to filter noise, acquire the defect characteristics, define the defective template, and then take the characteristic points of the defective template as the reference input for fuzzy inference. A high-accuracy optical automatic positioning and wafer defect detection system is thus constructed. This study focused on automatic detection of spots, scratches, and bruises, and attempted to reduce the time to detect defective die and improve the accuracy of determining the defects of semiconductor devices.

  7. Multifunctional medicated lyophilised wafer dressing for effective chronic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshavardhan V; Boateng, Joshua S; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John

    2014-06-01

    Wafers combining weight ratios of Polyox with carrageenan (75/25) or sodium alginate (50/50) containing streptomycin and diclofenac were prepared to improve chronic wound healing. Gels were freeze-dried using a lyophilisation cycle incorporating an annealing step. Wafers were characterised for morphology, mechanical and in vitro functional (swelling, adhesion, drug release in the presence of simulated wound fluid) characteristics. Both blank (BLK) and drug-loaded (DL) wafers were soft, flexible, elegant in appearance and non-brittle in nature. Annealing helped to improve porous nature of wafers but was affected by the addition of drugs. Mechanical characterisation demonstrated that the wafers were strong enough to withstand normal stresses but also flexible to prevent damage to newly formed skin tissue. Differences in swelling, adhesion and drug release characteristics could be attributed to differences in pore size and sodium sulphate formed because of the salt forms of the two drugs. BLK wafers showed relatively higher swelling and adhesion than DL wafers with the latter showing controlled release of streptomycin and diclofenac. The optimised dressing has the potential to reduce bacterial infection and can also help to reduce swelling and pain associated with injury due to the anti-inflammatory action of diclofenac and help to achieve more rapid wound healing.

  8. Optima XE Single Wafer High Energy Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Shu; Ferrara, Joseph; Bell, Edward; Patel, Shital; Sieradzki, Manny

    2008-11-03

    The Optima XE is the first production worthy single wafer high energy implanter. The new system combines a state-of-art single wafer endstation capable of throughputs in excess of 400 wafers/hour with a production-proven RF linear accelerator technology. Axcelis has been evolving and refining RF Linac technology since the introduction of the NV1000 in 1986. The Optima XE provides production worthy beam currents up to energies of 1.2 MeV for P{sup +}, 2.9 MeV for P{sup ++}, and 1.5 MeV for B{sup +}. Energies as low as 10 keV and tilt angles as high as 45 degrees are also available., allowing the implanter to be used for a wide variety of traditional medium current implants to ensure high equipment utilization. The single wafer endstation provides precise implant angle control across wafer and wafer to wafer. In addition, Optima XE's unique dose control system allows compensation of photoresist outgassing effects without relying on traditional pressure-based methods. We describe the specific features, angle control and dosimetry of the Optima XE and their applications in addressing the ever-tightening demands for more precise process controls and higher productivity.

  9. A parallel implementation of the Lattice Solid Model for large scale simulation of earthquake dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, S.; Place, D.; Mora, P.

    2001-12-01

    The particle based lattice solid model has been used successfully as a virtual laboratory to simulate the dynamics of faults, earthquakes and gouge processes. The phenomena investigated with the lattice solid model range from the stick-slip behavior of faults, localization phenomena in gouge and the evolution of stress correlation in multi-fault systems, to the influence of rate and state-dependent friction laws on the macroscopic behavior of faults. However, the results from those simulations also show that in order to make a next step towards more realistic simulations it will be necessary to use three-dimensional models containing a large number of particles with a range of sizes, thus requiring a significantly increased amount of computing resources. Whereas the computing power provided by a single processor can be expected to double every 18 to 24 months, parallel computers which provide hundreds of times the computing power are available today and there are several efforts underway to construct dedicated parallel computers and associated simulation software systems for large-scale earth science simulation (e.g. The Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator[1] and Japanese Earth Simulator[2])". In order to use the computing power made available by those large parallel computers, a parallel version of the lattice solid model has been implemented. In order to guarantee portability over a wide range of computer architectures, a message passing approach based on MPI has been used in the implementation. Particular care has been taken to eliminate serial bottlenecks in the program, thus ensuring high scalability on systems with a large number of CPUs. Measures taken to achieve this objective include the use of asynchronous communication between the parallel processes and the minimization of communication with and work done by a central ``master'' process. Benchmarks using models with up to 6 million particles on a parallel computer with 128 CPUs show that the

  10. A molecular dynamics implementation of the 3D Mercedes-Benz water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynninen, T.; Dias, C. L.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Heinonen, V.; Karttunen, M.; Foster, A. S.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2012-02-01

    The three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model was recently introduced to account for the structural and thermodynamic properties of water. It treats water molecules as point-like particles with four dangling bonds in tetrahedral coordination, representing H-bonds of water. Its conceptual simplicity renders the model attractive in studies where complex behaviors emerge from H-bond interactions in water, e.g., the hydrophobic effect. A molecular dynamics (MD) implementation of the model is non-trivial and we outline here the mathematical framework of its force-field. Useful routines written in modern Fortran are also provided. This open source code is free and can easily be modified to account for different physical context. The provided code allows both serial and MPI-parallelized execution. Program summaryProgram title: CASHEW (Coarse Approach Simulator for Hydrogen-bonding Effects in Water) Catalogue identifier: AEKM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 20 501 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 551 044 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Program has been tested on desktop workstations and a Cray XT4/XT5 supercomputer. Operating system: Linux, Unix, OS X Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: The code has been parallelized using MPI. RAM: Depends on size of system, about 5 MB for 1500 molecules. Classification: 7.7 External routines: A random number generator, Mersenne Twister ( http://www.math.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/m-mat/MT/VERSIONS/FORTRAN/mt95.f90), is used. A copy of the code is included in the distribution. Nature of problem: Molecular dynamics simulation of a new geometric water model. Solution method: New force-field for

  11. The uses of Man-Made diamond in wafering applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    The continuing, rapid growth of the semiconductor industry requires the involvement of several specialized industries in the development of special products geared toward the unique requirements of this new industry. A specialized manufactured diamond to meet various material removal needs was discussed. The area of silicon wafer slicing has presented yet anothr challenge and it is met most effectively. The history, operation, and performance of Man-Made diamond and particularly as applied to silicon wafer slicing is discussed. Product development is underway to come up with a diamond specifically for sawing silicon wafers on an electroplated blade.

  12. Implementation of Speed Variation in the Structural Dynamic Assessment of Turbomachinery Flow-Path Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Davis, R. Benjamin; DeHaye, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    During the design of turbomachinery flow path components, the assessment of possible structural resonant conditions is critical. Higher frequency modes of these structures are frequently found to be subject to resonance, and in these cases, design criteria require a forced response analysis of the structure with the assumption that the excitation speed exactly equals the resonant frequency. The design becomes problematic if the response analysis shows a violation of the HCF criteria. One possible solution is to perform "finite-life" analysis, where Miner's rule is used to calculate the actual life in seconds in comparison to the required life. In this situation, it is beneficial to incorporate the fact that, for a variety of turbomachinery control reasons, the speed of the rotor does not actually dwell at a single value but instead dithers about a nominal mean speed and during the time that the excitation frequency is not equal to the resonant frequency, the damage accumulated by the structure is diminished significantly. Building on previous investigations into this process, we show that a steady-state assumption of the response is extremely accurate for this typical case, resulting in the ability to quickly account for speed variation in the finite-life analysis of a component which has previously had its peak dynamic stress at resonance calculated. A technique using Monte Carlo simulation is also presented which can be used when specific speed time histories are not available. The implementation of these techniques can prove critical for successful turbopump design, as the improvement in life when speed variation is considered is shown to be greater than a factor of two.

  13. Implementation of Speed Variation in the Structural Dynamic Assessment of Turbomachinery Flow-Path Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Davis, R. Benjamin; DeHaye, Michael

    2013-01-01

    During the design of turbomachinery flow path components, the assessment of possible structural resonant conditions is critical. Higher frequency modes of these structures are frequently found to be subject to resonance, and in these cases, design criteria require a forced response analysis of the structure with the assumption that the excitation speed exactly equals the resonant frequency. The design becomes problematic if the response analysis shows a violation of the HCF criteria. One possible solution is to perform "finite-life" analysis, where Miner's rule is used to calculate the actual life in seconds in comparison to the required life. In this situation, it is beneficial to incorporate the fact that, for a variety of turbomachinery control reasons, the speed of the rotor does not actually dwell at a single value but instead dithers about a nominal mean speed and during the time that the excitation frequency is not equal to the resonant frequency, the damage accumulated by the structure is diminished significantly. Building on previous investigations into this process, we show that a steady-state assumption of the response is extremely accurate for this typical case, resulting in the ability to quickly account for speed variation in the finite-life analysis of a component which has previously had its peak dynamic stress at resonance calculated. A technique using Monte Carlo simulation is also presented which can be used when specific speed time histories are not available. The implementation of these techniques can prove critical for successful turbopump design, as the improvement in life when speed variation is considered is shown to be greater than a factor of two

  14. Multiagent Systems Based Modeling and Implementation of Dynamic Energy Management of Smart Microgrid Using MACSimJX.

    PubMed

    Raju, Leo; Milton, R S; Mahadevan, Senthilkumaran

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is implementation of multiagent system (MAS) for the advanced distributed energy management and demand side management of a solar microgrid. Initially, Java agent development environment (JADE) frame work is used to implement MAS based dynamic energy management of solar microgrid. Due to unstable nature of MATLAB, when dealing with multithreading environment, MAS operating in JADE is linked with the MATLAB using a middle ware called Multiagent Control Using Simulink with Jade Extension (MACSimJX). MACSimJX allows the solar microgrid components designed with MATLAB to be controlled by the corresponding agents of MAS. The microgrid environment variables are captured through sensors and given to agents through MATLAB/Simulink and after the agent operations in JADE, the results are given to the actuators through MATLAB for the implementation of dynamic operation in solar microgrid. MAS operating in JADE maximizes operational efficiency of solar microgrid by decentralized approach and increase in runtime efficiency due to JADE. Autonomous demand side management is implemented for optimizing the power exchange between main grid and microgrid with intermittent nature of solar power, randomness of load, and variation of noncritical load and grid price. These dynamics are considered for every time step and complex environment simulation is designed to emulate the distributed microgrid operations and evaluate the impact of agent operations.

  15. Multiagent Systems Based Modeling and Implementation of Dynamic Energy Management of Smart Microgrid Using MACSimJX

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Leo; Milton, R. S.; Mahadevan, Senthilkumaran

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is implementation of multiagent system (MAS) for the advanced distributed energy management and demand side management of a solar microgrid. Initially, Java agent development environment (JADE) frame work is used to implement MAS based dynamic energy management of solar microgrid. Due to unstable nature of MATLAB, when dealing with multithreading environment, MAS operating in JADE is linked with the MATLAB using a middle ware called Multiagent Control Using Simulink with Jade Extension (MACSimJX). MACSimJX allows the solar microgrid components designed with MATLAB to be controlled by the corresponding agents of MAS. The microgrid environment variables are captured through sensors and given to agents through MATLAB/Simulink and after the agent operations in JADE, the results are given to the actuators through MATLAB for the implementation of dynamic operation in solar microgrid. MAS operating in JADE maximizes operational efficiency of solar microgrid by decentralized approach and increase in runtime efficiency due to JADE. Autonomous demand side management is implemented for optimizing the power exchange between main grid and microgrid with intermittent nature of solar power, randomness of load, and variation of noncritical load and grid price. These dynamics are considered for every time step and complex environment simulation is designed to emulate the distributed microgrid operations and evaluate the impact of agent operations. PMID:27127802

  16. Multiagent Systems Based Modeling and Implementation of Dynamic Energy Management of Smart Microgrid Using MACSimJX.

    PubMed

    Raju, Leo; Milton, R S; Mahadevan, Senthilkumaran

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is implementation of multiagent system (MAS) for the advanced distributed energy management and demand side management of a solar microgrid. Initially, Java agent development environment (JADE) frame work is used to implement MAS based dynamic energy management of solar microgrid. Due to unstable nature of MATLAB, when dealing with multithreading environment, MAS operating in JADE is linked with the MATLAB using a middle ware called Multiagent Control Using Simulink with Jade Extension (MACSimJX). MACSimJX allows the solar microgrid components designed with MATLAB to be controlled by the corresponding agents of MAS. The microgrid environment variables are captured through sensors and given to agents through MATLAB/Simulink and after the agent operations in JADE, the results are given to the actuators through MATLAB for the implementation of dynamic operation in solar microgrid. MAS operating in JADE maximizes operational efficiency of solar microgrid by decentralized approach and increase in runtime efficiency due to JADE. Autonomous demand side management is implemented for optimizing the power exchange between main grid and microgrid with intermittent nature of solar power, randomness of load, and variation of noncritical load and grid price. These dynamics are considered for every time step and complex environment simulation is designed to emulate the distributed microgrid operations and evaluate the impact of agent operations. PMID:27127802

  17. Automated radiometric cryoprobe of IR focal plane array wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whicker, Stephen L.

    1994-07-01

    Texas Instruments (TI) validated the feasibility of cryoprobing IRFPA arrays in late 1991. Since then, TI has developed a revolutionary automated cryoprobe for screening four and six inch wafers of IRFPAs. Generic prober automation features include cassette to cassette wafer load and unload, wafer alignment, black body selection, aperture selection, probe tip continuity test, and 77.5 degree(s) to 400 degree(s)K wafer temperature control. Modular construction of the prober enables placement of product specific components such as MWIR or LWIR bandpass filters, coldshield, coldfilter, probe card, and noise suppression circuitry on an easily removable `product specific' tooling plate. Prober operation is controlled through object oriented software. IRFPA specific software modules control array operation, data collection, and data reduction. In addition to describing the prober capabilities and versatility, this paper compares prober test data to lab dewar test data for 240 X 1 IRFPAs and projects benefits in reduced cycle time and labor savings.

  18. 9nm node wafer defect inspection using visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renjie; Edwards, Chris; Popescu, Gabriel; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 2 years, we have developed a common optical-path, 532 nm laser epi-illumination diffraction phase microscope (epi-DPM) and successfully applied it to detect different types of defects down to 20 by 100 nm in a 22nm node intentional defect array (IDA) wafer. An image post-processing method called 2DISC, using image frame 2nd order differential, image stitching, and convolution, was used to significantly improve sensitivity of the measured images. To address 9nm node IDA wafer inspection, we updated our system with a highly stable 405 nm diode laser. By using the 2DISC method, we detected parallel bridge defects in the 9nm node wafer. To further enhance detectability, we are exploring 3D wafer scanning, white-light illumination, and dark-field inspection.

  19. Proceedings of the Low-Cost Solar Array Wafering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    The technology and economics of silicon ingot wafering for low cost solar arrays were discussed. Fixed and free abrasive sawing wire, ID, and multiblade sawing, materials, mechanisms, characterization, and innovative concepts were considered.

  20. Efficient data transmission from silicon wafer strip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, B.J.; Lackner, K.S.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Sharp, D.H.; Winter, L.; Ziock, H.J.

    1991-12-31

    An architecture for on-wafer processing is proposed for central silicon-strip tracker systems as they are currently designed for high energy physics experiments at the SSC, and for heavy ion experiments at RHIC. The data compression achievable with on-wafer processing would make it possible to transmit all data generated to the outside of the detector system. A set of data which completely describes the state of the wafer for low occupancy events and which contains important statistical information for more complex events can be transmitted immediately. This information could be used in early trigger decisions. Additional data packages which complete the description of the state of the wafer vary in size and are sent through a second channel. By buffering this channel the required bandwidth can be kept far below the peak data rates which occur in rate but interesting events. 18 refs.

  1. Development of Megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, A.

    1980-09-01

    The major goals to develop a cleaning and drying system for processing at least 2500 three-in.-diameter wafers per hour and to reduce the process cost were achieved. The new system consists of an ammonia-hydrogen peroxide bath in which both surfaces of 3/32-in.-spaced, ion-implanted wafers are cleaned in quartz carriers moved on a belt past two pairs of Megasonic transducers. The wafers are dried in the novel room-temperature, high-velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis. The following factors contribute to the improved effectiveness of the process: (1) recirculation and filtration of the cleaning solution permit it to be used for at least 100,000 wafers with only a relatively small amount of chemical make-up before discarding; (2) uniform cleanliness is achieved because both sides of the wafer are Megasonically scrubbed to remove particulate impurities; (3) the novel dryer permits wafers to be dried in a high-velocity room-temperature air stream on a moving belt in their quartz carriers; and (4) the personnel safety of such a system is excellent and waste disposal has no adverse ecological impact. With the addition of mechanical transfer arms, two systems like the one developed will produce enough cleaned wafers for a 30-MW/year production facility. A projected scale-up well within the existing technology would permit a system to be assembled that produces about 12,745 wafers per hour; about 11 such systems, each occupying about 110 square feet, would be needed for each cleaning stage of a 500-MW/year production facility.

  2. Electrochemical method for defect delineation in silicon-on-insulator wafers

    DOEpatents

    Guilinger, Terry R.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Kelly, Michael J.; Medernach, John W.; Stevenson, Joel O.; Tsao, Sylvia S.

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical method for defect delineation in thin-film SOI or SOS wafers in which a surface of a silicon wafer is electrically connected so as to control the voltage of the surface within a specified range, the silicon wafer is then contacted with an electrolyte, and, after removing the electrolyte, defects and metal contamination in the silicon wafer are identified.

  3. Real-time direct and diffraction X-ray imaging of irregular silicon wafer breakage.

    PubMed

    Rack, Alexander; Scheel, Mario; Danilewsky, Andreas N

    2016-03-01

    Fracture and breakage of single crystals, particularly of silicon wafers, are multi-scale problems: the crack tip starts propagating on an atomic scale with the breaking of chemical bonds, forms crack fronts through the crystal on the micrometre scale and ends macroscopically in catastrophic wafer shattering. Total wafer breakage is a severe problem for the semiconductor industry, not only during handling but also during temperature treatments, leading to million-dollar costs per annum in a device production line. Knowledge of the relevant dynamics governing perfect cleavage along the {111} or {110} faces, and of the deflection into higher indexed {hkl} faces of higher energy, is scarce due to the high velocity of the process. Imaging techniques are commonly limited to depicting only the state of a wafer before the crack and in the final state. This paper presents, for the first time, in situ high-speed crack propagation under thermal stress, imaged simultaneously in direct transmission and diffraction X-ray imaging. It shows how the propagating crack tip and the related strain field can be tracked in the phase-contrast and diffracted images, respectively. Movies with a time resolution of microseconds per frame reveal that the strain and crack tip do not propagate continuously or at a constant speed. Jumps in the crack tip position indicate pinning of the crack tip for about 1-2 ms followed by jumps faster than 2-6 m s(-1), leading to a macroscopically observed average velocity of 0.028-0.055 m s(-1). The presented results also give a proof of concept that the described X-ray technique is compatible with studying ultra-fast cracks up to the speed of sound. PMID:27006774

  4. The Dynamics of Implementing and Sustaining Standards-Based Mathematics Curricula in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Jennifer M.

    This study examined both district-level and teacher-level considerations in the implementation of standards-based middle school mathematics curriculum. In particular, the following questions were addressed: (1) What district-level constraints and considerations impact decisions regarding implementation of a standards-based middle school…

  5. Development of a Whole-Wafer, Macroscale Inspection Software Method for Semiconductor Wafer Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2003-05-22

    This report describes the non CRADA-protected results of the project performed between Nova Measuring Systems, Ltd., and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to test and prototype defect signature analysis method for potential incorporation into an in-situ wafer inspection microscope. ORNL's role in this activity was to collaborate with Nova on the analysis and software side of the effort, wile Nova's role was to build the physical microscope and provide data to ORNL for test and evaluation. The objective of this project was to adapt and integrate ORNL's SSA and ADC methods and technologies in the Nova imaging environment. ORNL accomplished this objective by modifying the existing SSA technology for use as a wide-area signature analyzer/classifier on the Nova macro inspection tool (whole-wafer analysis). During this effort ORNL also developed a strategy and methodology for integrating and presenting the results of SSA/ADC analysis to the tool operator and/or data management system (DMS) used by the semiconductor manufacturer (i.e., the end-user).

  6. A wafer-level vacuum package using glass-reflowed silicon through-wafer interconnection for nano/micro devices.

    PubMed

    Jin, Joo-Young; Yoo, Seung-Hyun; Yoo, Byung-Wook; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2012-07-01

    We propose a vacuum wafer-level packaging (WLP) process using glass-reflowed silicon via for nano/micro devices (NMDs). A through-wafer interconnection (TWIn) substrate with silicon vias and reflowed glass is introduced to accomplish a vertical feed-through of device. NMDs are fabricated in the single crystal silicon (SCS) layer which is formed on the TWIn substrate by Au eutectic bonding including Cr adhesion layer. The WLPof the devices is achieved with the capping glass wafer anodically bonded to the SCS layer. In order to demonstrate the successful hermetic packaging, we fabricated the micro-Pirani gauge in the SCS layer, and packaged it in the wafer-level. The vacuum level inside the packaging was measured to be 3.1 Torr with +/- 0.12 Torr uncertainty, and the packaging leakage was not detected during 24 hour after the packaging.

  7. A wafer-level vacuum package using glass-reflowed silicon through-wafer interconnection for nano/micro devices.

    PubMed

    Jin, Joo-Young; Yoo, Seung-Hyun; Yoo, Byung-Wook; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2012-07-01

    We propose a vacuum wafer-level packaging (WLP) process using glass-reflowed silicon via for nano/micro devices (NMDs). A through-wafer interconnection (TWIn) substrate with silicon vias and reflowed glass is introduced to accomplish a vertical feed-through of device. NMDs are fabricated in the single crystal silicon (SCS) layer which is formed on the TWIn substrate by Au eutectic bonding including Cr adhesion layer. The WLPof the devices is achieved with the capping glass wafer anodically bonded to the SCS layer. In order to demonstrate the successful hermetic packaging, we fabricated the micro-Pirani gauge in the SCS layer, and packaged it in the wafer-level. The vacuum level inside the packaging was measured to be 3.1 Torr with +/- 0.12 Torr uncertainty, and the packaging leakage was not detected during 24 hour after the packaging. PMID:22966554

  8. Development of a Wafer Positioning System for the Sandia Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronosky, John B.; Smith, Tony G.; Darnold, Joel R.

    1996-01-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the system. Specifics regarding control system electronics, including software and control algorithm structure, as well as performance design goals and test results are presented. Potential system enhancements, some of which are in process, are also discussed.

  9. High performance wafer-fused semiconductor disk lasers emitting in the 1300 nm waveband.

    PubMed

    Sirbu, Alexei; Rantamäki, Antti; Saarinen, Esa J; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Mereuta, Alexandru; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Caliman, Andrei; Volet, Nicolas; Okhotnikov, Oleg G; Kapon, Eli

    2014-12-01

    We report for the first time on the performance of 1300 nm waveband semiconductor disc lasers (SDLs) with wafer fused gain mirrors that implement intracavity diamond and flip-chip heat dissipation schemes based on the same gain material. With a new type of gain mirror structure, maximum output power values reach 7.1 W with intracavity diamond gain mirrors and 5.6 W with flip-chip gain mirrors, using a pump spot diameter of 300 µm, exhibiting a beam quality factor M(2)< 1.25 in the full operation range. These results confirm previously published theoretical modeling of these types of SDLs. PMID:25606874

  10. Development of a wafer positioning system for the Sandia extreme ultraviolet lithography tool

    SciTech Connect

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Darnold, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the system. Specifics regarding control system electronics, including software and control algorithm structure, as well as performance design goals and test results are presented. Potential system enhancements, some of which are in process, are also discussed.

  11. Identification of continuous-time dynamical systems: Neural network based algorithms and parallel implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, R.M.; Lapedes, A.S.; Rico-Martinez, R.; Kevrekidis, I.G.

    1993-12-31

    Time-delay mappings constructed using neural networks have proven successful in performing nonlinear system identification; however, because of their discrete nature, their use in bifurcation analysis of continuous-time systems is limited. This shortcoming can be avoided by embedding the neural networks in a training algorithm that mimics a numerical integrator. Both explicit and implicit integrators can be used. The former case is based on repeated evaluations of the network in a feedforward implementation; the latter relies on a recurrent network implementation. Here the algorithms and their implementation on parallel machines (SIMD and MIMD architectures) are discussed.

  12. Identification of continuous-time dynamical systems: Neural network based algorithms and parallel implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, R.M.; Lapedes, A.S. ); Rico-Martinez, R.; Kevrekidis, I.G. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Time-delay mappings constructed using neural networks have proven successful performing nonlinear system identification; however, because of their discrete nature, their use in bifurcation analysis of continuous-tune systems is limited. This shortcoming can be avoided by embedding the neural networks in a training algorithm that mimics a numerical integrator. Both explicit and implicit integrators can be used. The former case is based on repeated evaluations of the network in a feedforward implementation; the latter relies on a recurrent network implementation. Here the algorithms and their implementation on parallel machines (SIMD and MIMD architectures) are discussed.

  13. Identification of continuous-time dynamical systems: Neural network based algorithms and parallel implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, R.M.; Lapedes, A.S.; Rico-Martinez, R.; Kevrekidis, I.G.

    1993-06-01

    Time-delay mappings constructed using neural networks have proven successful performing nonlinear system identification; however, because of their discrete nature, their use in bifurcation analysis of continuous-tune systems is limited. This shortcoming can be avoided by embedding the neural networks in a training algorithm that mimics a numerical integrator. Both explicit and implicit integrators can be used. The former case is based on repeated evaluations of the network in a feedforward implementation; the latter relies on a recurrent network implementation. Here the algorithms and their implementation on parallel machines (SIMD and MIMD architectures) are discussed.

  14. Use of dMLC for implementation of dynamic respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To simulate and evaluate the use of dynamic multileaf collimators (dMLC) in respiratory gating to compensate for baseline drift.Methods: Tumor motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 322 treatment fractions was analyzed with the finite state model. A dynamic respiratory gating window was established in real-time by determining the average positions during the previous two end-of-expiration breathing phases and centering the dMLC aperture on a weighted average of these positions. A simulated dMLC with physical motion constraints was used in dynamic gating treatment simulations. Fluence maps were created to provide a statistical description of radiation delivery for each fraction. Duty cycle was also calculated for each fraction.Results: The average duty cycle was 2.3% greater under dynamic gating conditions. Dynamic gating also showed higher fluences and less tumor obstruction. Additionally, dynamic gating required fewer beam toggles and each delivery period was longer on average than with static gating.Conclusions: The use of dynamic gating showed better performance than static gating and the physical constraints of a dMLC were shown to not be an impediment to dynamic gating.

  15. Investigation of the Relationship between Whole-Wafer Strength and Control of Its Edge Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Ying; Tsai, Ming-Hsing; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Jing, Ming-Haw; Chang, Yukon

    2009-12-01

    Silicon wafer breakage has become a major concern for all semiconductor fabrication lines because it is brittle, and thus high stresses are easily induced in its manufacture. The production cost of devices significantly increases even for a breakage loss of a few percent if wafers are broken near completion. Even wafer breakage near the beginning of the process is significant. In this investigation, we develop a brand new approach to reducing breakage by using a charge-coupled device (CCD) to capture the cross-section image of the wafer at its edge; the data measured at the edge can be used to determine overall wafer strength. Analysis of the image of the wafer edge is used to characterize silicon strength, and a simple drop test is conducted to elucidate wafer failure, improving our understanding of the accumulation of stress in the wafer bulk before failure. We also describe many of the improvements that have resulted in the virtual elimination of wafer breakage due to unidentified causes. Our analysis gives the optimal front size (B1), edge widths (A1,A2), and bevel angle (θ) for the edge profiles of wafers to prevent wafer breakage. Briefly, when a suitable material and suitable process control approaches are utilized, silicon wafer breakage can be prevented. This is the first investigation providing evidence that whole-wafer strength is an important issue. We present a physical model to explain why wafer fracture has become an increasingly serious problem as the diameter of wafers has increased. The control of wafer edge geometry has been demonstrated to be an effective means of protecting wafers with large diameters against breakage. This model reveals that the breakage rate of wafers can be reduced by controlling the uniformity of the differences between the front size and the rear edge widths during the wafer manufacturing process.

  16. Low-temperature titanium-based wafer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian

    This thesis presents novel methods of metal-based wafer bonding at back-end-of-the-line (BEOL) compatible conditions (≤450°C). For the first time to our knowledge, 200 mm diameter oxidized Si wafers are bonded with prime Si wafers using 10-300 nm thick Ti as bonding intermediate at 300-450°C. Nearly void-free bonding with strong mechanical integrity has been confirmed. Moreover, microcavity formation has been demonstrated by bonding of patterned wafers. Both Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) show clear evidence of Si and Ti interdiffusion, whereas high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals an approximately 8 nm thick amorphous layer at the bonding interface. Those results indicate that the strong adhesion at the Ti/Si bonding interface is attributed to a solid-state amorphization (SSA) assisted by interdiffusion. A key effort is devoted to fundamental investigation of low-temperature transition metal(TM)/Si-based wafer bonding. With the extensive work on Ti/Si system, additional experiments are performed with six other TM/Si systems, namely Ni/Si, Co/Si, Pd/Si, Hf/Si, Au/Si and Ta/Si. The results indicate there are two principal requirements for TM/Si-based wafer bonding: (1) intimate contact (able to break through kinetic barriers), and (2) adequate chemical bonding. Three kinetic barriers addressed in this thesis are: (1) enclosed microvoids due to surface roughness, (2) gas molecules at the bonding interface, and (3) interfacial oxides. Presence of these barriers can prevent formation of intimate contact, consequently retarding or even blocking interfacial interactions for chemical bonding. The unique properties of Group IVA metals (e.g., Ti and Hf) to reduce native SiO2 on Si surfaces and their exceptionally large solid solubility for O2 and N2, help overcome those issues. Once kinetic barriers are surmounted, the key for strong metal/Si-based wafer bonding is formation of chemical bonds

  17. Dynamic partial reconfiguration implementation of the SVM/KNN multi-classifier on FPGA for bioinformatics application.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hanaa M; Benkrid, Khaled; Seker, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Bioinformatics data tend to be highly dimensional in nature thus impose significant computational demands. To resolve limitations of conventional computing methods, several alternative high performance computing solutions have been proposed by scientists such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The latter have shown to be efficient and high in performance. In recent years, FPGAs have been benefiting from dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR) feature for adding flexibility to alter specific regions within the chip. This work proposes combing the use of FPGAs and DPR to build a dynamic multi-classifier architecture that can be used in processing bioinformatics data. In bioinformatics, applying different classification algorithms to the same dataset is desirable in order to obtain comparable, more reliable and consensus decision, but it can consume long time when performed on conventional PC. The DPR implementation of two common classifiers, namely support vector machines (SVMs) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) are combined together to form a multi-classifier FPGA architecture which can utilize specific region of the FPGA to work as either SVM or KNN classifier. This multi-classifier DPR implementation achieved at least ~8x reduction in reconfiguration time over the single non-DPR classifier implementation, and occupied less space and hardware resources than having both classifiers. The proposed architecture can be extended to work as an ensemble classifier.

  18. Dynamic partial reconfiguration implementation of the SVM/KNN multi-classifier on FPGA for bioinformatics application.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hanaa M; Benkrid, Khaled; Seker, Huseyin

    2015-08-01

    Bioinformatics data tend to be highly dimensional in nature thus impose significant computational demands. To resolve limitations of conventional computing methods, several alternative high performance computing solutions have been proposed by scientists such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The latter have shown to be efficient and high in performance. In recent years, FPGAs have been benefiting from dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR) feature for adding flexibility to alter specific regions within the chip. This work proposes combing the use of FPGAs and DPR to build a dynamic multi-classifier architecture that can be used in processing bioinformatics data. In bioinformatics, applying different classification algorithms to the same dataset is desirable in order to obtain comparable, more reliable and consensus decision, but it can consume long time when performed on conventional PC. The DPR implementation of two common classifiers, namely support vector machines (SVMs) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) are combined together to form a multi-classifier FPGA architecture which can utilize specific region of the FPGA to work as either SVM or KNN classifier. This multi-classifier DPR implementation achieved at least ~8x reduction in reconfiguration time over the single non-DPR classifier implementation, and occupied less space and hardware resources than having both classifiers. The proposed architecture can be extended to work as an ensemble classifier. PMID:26738068

  19. Quantitative phase measurement for wafer-level optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Weijuan; Wen, Yongfu; Wang, Zhaomin; Yang, Fang; Huang, Lei; Zuo, Chao

    2015-07-01

    Wafer-level-optics now is widely used in smart phone camera, mobile video conferencing or in medical equipment that require tiny cameras. Extracting quantitative phase information has received increased interest in order to quantify the quality of manufactured wafer-level-optics, detect defective devices before packaging, and provide feedback for manufacturing process control, all at the wafer-level for high-throughput microfabrication. We demonstrate two phase imaging methods, digital holographic microscopy (DHM) and Transport-of-Intensity Equation (TIE) to measure the phase of the wafer-level lenses. DHM is a laser-based interferometric method based on interference of two wavefronts. It can perform a phase measurement in a single shot. While a minimum of two measurements of the spatial intensity of the optical wave in closely spaced planes perpendicular to the direction of propagation are needed to do the direct phase retrieval by solving a second-order differential equation, i.e., with a non-iterative deterministic algorithm from intensity measurements using the Transport-of-Intensity Equation (TIE). But TIE is a non-interferometric method, thus can be applied to partial-coherence light. We demonstrated the capability and disability for the two phase measurement methods for wafer-level optics inspection.

  20. Silicon wafer-based tandem cells: The ultimate photovoltaic solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent large price reductions with wafer-based cells have increased the difficulty of dislodging silicon solar cell technology from its dominant market position. With market leaders expected to be manufacturing modules above 16% efficiency at 0.36/Watt by 2017, even the cost per unit area (60-70/m2) will be difficult for any thin-film photovoltaic technology to significantly undercut. This may make dislodgement likely only by appreciably higher energy conversion efficiency approaches. A silicon wafer-based cell able to capitalize on on-going cost reductions within the mainstream industry, but with an appreciably higher than present efficiency, might therefore provide the ultimate PV solution. With average selling prices of 156 mm quasi-square monocrystalline Si photovoltaic wafers recently approaching 1 (per wafer), wafers now provide clean, low cost templates for overgrowth of thin, wider bandgap high performance cells, nearly doubling silicon's ultimate efficiency potential. The range of possible Si-based tandem approaches is reviewed together with recent results and ultimate prospects.

  1. Simple and accurate optical height sensor for wafer inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, Kei; Nakai, Naoya; Taniguchi, Koichi; Itoh, Masahide

    2016-02-01

    An accurate method for measuring the wafer surface height is required for wafer inspection systems to adjust the focus of inspection optics quickly and precisely. A method for projecting a laser spot onto the wafer surface obliquely and for detecting its image displacement using a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector is known, and a variety of methods have been proposed for improving the accuracy by compensating the measurement error due to the surface patterns. We have developed a simple and accurate method in which an image of a reticle with eight slits is projected on the wafer surface and its reflected image is detected using an image sensor. The surface height is calculated by averaging the coordinates of the images of the slits in both the two directions in the captured image. Pattern-related measurement error was reduced by applying the coordinates averaging to the multiple-slit-projection method. Accuracy of better than 0.35 μm was achieved for a patterned wafer at the reference height and ±0.1 mm from the reference height in a simple configuration.

  2. Measuring Radiation Patterns of Reconfigurable Patch Antennas on Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus and technique have been devised for measuring the radiation pattern of a microwave patch antenna that is one of a number of identical units that have been fabricated in a planar array on a high-resistivity silicon wafer. The apparatus and technique are intended, more specifically, for application to such an antenna that includes a DC-controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) actuator for switching the antenna between two polarization states or between two resonance frequencies. Prior to the development of the present apparatus and technique, patch antennas on wafers were tested by techniques and equipment that are more suited to testing of conventional printed-circuit antennas. The techniques included sawing of the wafers to isolate individual antennas for testing. The equipment included custom-built test fixtures that included special signal launchers and transmission-line transitions. The present apparatus and technique eliminate the need for sawing wafers and for custom-built test fixtures, thereby making it possible to test antennas in less time and at less cost. Moreover, in a production setting, elimination of the premature sawing of wafers for testing reduces loss from breakage, thereby enhancing yield.

  3. A benchmark investigation on cleaning photomasks using wafer cleaning technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Louis; Burnham, Jay; Marmillion, Pat

    2004-12-01

    As new technologies are developed for smaller linewidths, the specifications for mask cleanliness become much stricter. Not only must the particle removal efficiency increase, but the largest allowable particle size decreases. Specifications for film thickness and surface roughness are becoming tighter and consequently the integrity of these films must be maintained in order to preserve the functionality of the masks. Residual contamination remaining on the surface of the mask after cleaning processes can lead to subpellicle defect growth once the mask is exposed in a stepper environment. Only during the last several years, has an increased focus been put on improving mask cleaning. Over the years, considerably more effort has been put into developing advanced wafer cleaning technologies. However, because of the small market involved with mask cleaning, wafer cleaning equipment vendors have been reluctant to invest time and effort into developing cleaning processes and adapting their toolset to accommodate masks. With the advent of 300 mm processing, wafer cleaning tools are now more easily adapted to processing masks. These wafer cleaning technologies may offer a solution to the difficulties of mask cleaning and need to be investigated to determine whether or not they warrant continued investigation. This paper focuses on benchmarking advanced wafer cleaning technologies applied to mask cleaning. Ozonated water, hydrogenated water, super critical fluids, and cryogenic cleaning have been investigated with regards to stripping resist and cleaning particles from masks. Results that include film thickness changes, surface contamination, and particle removal efficiency will be discussed.

  4. Optical wafer metrology sensors for process-robust CD and overlay control in semiconductor device manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Boef, Arie J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents three optical wafer metrology sensors that are used in lithography for robustly measuring the shape and position of wafers and device patterns on these wafers. The first two sensors are a level sensor and an alignment sensor that measure, respectively, a wafer height map and a wafer position before a new pattern is printed on the wafer. The third sensor is an optical scatterometer that measures critical dimension-variations and overlay after the resist has been exposed and developed. These sensors have different optical concepts but they share the same challenge that sub-nm precision is required at high throughput on a large variety of processed wafers and in the presence of unknown wafer processing variations. It is the purpose of this paper to explain these challenges in more detail and give an overview of the various solutions that have been introduced over the years to come to process-robust optical wafer metrology.

  5. Implementation and Test of the Automatic Flight Dynamics Operations for Geostationary Satellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangwook; Lee, Young-Ran; Hwang, Yoola; Javier Santiago Noguero Galilea

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the Flight Dynamics Automation (FDA) system for COMS Flight Dynamics System (FDS) and its test result in terms of the performance of the automation jobs. FDA controls the flight dynamics functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, and fuel accounting. The designed FDA is independent from the specific characteristics which are defined by spacecraft manufacturer or specific satellite missions. Therefore, FDA could easily links its autonomous job control functions to any satellite mission control system with some interface modification. By adding autonomous system along with flight dynamics system, it decreases the operator’s tedious and repeated jobs but increase the usability and reliability of the system. Therefore, FDA is used to improve the completeness of whole mission control system’s quality. The FDA is applied to the real flight dynamics system of a geostationary satellite, COMS and the experimental test is performed. The experimental result shows the stability and reliability of the mission control operations through the automatic job control.

  6. Dynamic Sustainability: Practitioners' Perspectives on Housing First Implementation Challenges and Model Fidelity Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Zerger, Suzanne; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Connelly, Jolynn; Kruk, Katherine; O'Campo, Patricia; Hwang, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Although Housing First (HF) is a popular evidence-based intervention for persons experiencing homelessness and mental illness, research exploring its sustainability over time is scant. This mixed methods study captures practitioners' perspectives on key shifts in implementation of Housing First in a large urban center, and factors…

  7. Using Dynamic Value Stream Mapping and Lean Accounting Box Scores to Support Lean Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehrle, Stephen L.; Abou-Shady, Louay

    2010-01-01

    Lean has proven to be an effective management philosophy for improving businesses in a competitive market by eliminating waste and improving operations. An impact of implementing lean projects is the rapid reduction in inventory levels, which gives management the false impression that profits are decreasing while workers on the shop floor observe…

  8. Organizational Strategies for Promoting Instructional Change: Implementation Dynamics in Schools Working with Comprehensive School Reform Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Brian; Miller, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework for studying how three comprehensive school reform (CSR) programs organized schools for instructional change and how the distinctive strategies they pursued affected implementation outcomes. The conceptual model views the Accelerated Schools Project as using a system of cultural control to produce…

  9. Implementation of Malaria Dynamic Models in Municipality Level Early Warning Systems in Colombia. Part I: Description of Study Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Daniel; Cerón, Viviana; Molina, Adriana M.; Quiñónes, Martha L.; Jiménez, Mónica M.; Ahumada, Martha; Gutiérrez, Patricia; Osorio, Salua; Mantilla, Gilma; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Integrated National Adaptation Pilot project and the Integrated Surveillance and Control System, the Colombian National Institute of Health is working on the design and implementation of a Malaria Early Warning System framework, supported by seasonal climate forecasting capabilities, weather and environmental monitoring, and malaria statistical and dynamic models. In this report, we provide an overview of the local ecoepidemiologic settings where four malaria process-based mathematical models are currently being implemented at a municipal level. The description includes general characteristics, malaria situation (predominant type of infection, malaria-positive cases data, malaria incidence, and seasonality), entomologic conditions (primary and secondary vectors, mosquito densities, and feeding frequencies), climatic conditions (climatology and long-term trends), key drivers of epidemic outbreaks, and non-climatic factors (populations at risk, control campaigns, and socioeconomic conditions). Selected pilot sites exhibit different ecoepidemiologic settings that must be taken into account in the development of the integrated surveillance and control system. PMID:24891460

  10. Implementation of malaria dynamic models in municipality level early warning systems in Colombia. Part I: description of study sites.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Daniel; Cerón, Viviana; Molina, Adriana M; Quiñónes, Martha L; Jiménez, Mónica M; Ahumada, Martha; Gutiérrez, Patricia; Osorio, Salua; Mantilla, Gilma; Connor, Stephen J; Thomson, Madeleine C

    2014-07-01

    As part of the Integrated National Adaptation Pilot project and the Integrated Surveillance and Control System, the Colombian National Institute of Health is working on the design and implementation of a Malaria Early Warning System framework, supported by seasonal climate forecasting capabilities, weather and environmental monitoring, and malaria statistical and dynamic models. In this report, we provide an overview of the local ecoepidemiologic settings where four malaria process-based mathematical models are currently being implemented at a municipal level. The description includes general characteristics, malaria situation (predominant type of infection, malaria-positive cases data, malaria incidence, and seasonality), entomologic conditions (primary and secondary vectors, mosquito densities, and feeding frequencies), climatic conditions (climatology and long-term trends), key drivers of epidemic outbreaks, and non-climatic factors (populations at risk, control campaigns, and socioeconomic conditions). Selected pilot sites exhibit different ecoepidemiologic settings that must be taken into account in the development of the integrated surveillance and control system.

  11. Nonlinear resonance ultrasonic vibrations in Czochralski-silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, S.; Tarasov, I.

    2000-04-01

    A resonance effect of generation of subharmonic acoustic vibrations is observed in as-grown, oxidized, and epitaxial silicon wafers. Ultrasonic vibrations were generated into a standard 200 mm Czochralski-silicon (Cz-Si) wafer using a circular ultrasound transducer with major frequency of the radial vibrations at about 26 kHz. By tuning frequency (f) of the transducer within a resonance curve, we observed a generation of intense f/2 subharmonic acoustic mode assigned as a "whistle." The whistle mode has a threshold amplitude behavior and narrow frequency band. The whistle is attributed to a nonlinear acoustic vibration of a silicon plate. It is demonstrated that characteristics of the whistle mode are sensitive to internal stress and can be used for quality control and in-line diagnostics of oxidized and epitaxial Cz-Si wafers.

  12. Growth of silver nanowires on GaAs wafers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yugang

    2011-05-01

    Silver (Ag) nanowires with chemically clean surfaces have been directly grown on semi-insulating gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafers through a simple solution/solid interfacial reaction (SSIR) between the GaAs wafers themselves and aqueous solutions of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) at room temperature. The success in synthesis of Ag nanowires mainly benefits from the low concentration of surface electrons in the semi-insulating GaAs wafers that can lead to the formation of a low-density of nuclei that facilitate their anisotropic growth into nanowires. The resulting Ag nanowires exhibit rough surfaces and reasonably good electric conductivity. These characteristics are beneficial to sensing applications based on single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and possible surface-adsorption-induced conductivity variation.

  13. Monitoring of acoustic emission activity using thin wafer piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Blaine; Zagrai, Andrei; Meisner, Daniel; Momeni, Sepand

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is a well-known technique for monitoring onset and propagation of material damage. The technique has demonstrated utility in assessment of metallic and composite materials in applications ranging from civil structures to aerospace vehicles. While over the course of few decades AE hardware has changed dramatically with the sensors experiencing little changes. A traditional acoustic emission sensor solution utilizes a thickness resonance of the internal piezoelectric element which, coupled with internal amplification circuit, results in relatively large sensor footprint. Thin wafer piezoelectric sensors are small and unobtrusive, but they have seen limited AE applications due to low signal-to-noise ratio and other operation difficulties. In this contribution, issues and possible solutions pertaining to the utility of thin wafer piezoelectrics as AE sensors are discussed. Results of AE monitoring of fatigue damage using thin wafer piezoelectric and conventional AE sensors are presented.

  14. Microwave Induced Direct Bonding of Single Crystal Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budraa, N. K.; Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.

    1999-01-01

    We have heated polished doped single-crystal silicon wafers in a single mode microwave cavity to temperatures where surface to surface bonding occurred. The absorption of microwaves and heating of the wafers is attributed to the inclusion of n-type or p-type impurities into these substrates. A cylindrical cavity TM (sub 010) standing wave mode was used to irradiate samples of various geometry's at positions of high magnetic field. This process was conducted in vacuum to exclude plasma effects. This initial study suggests that the inclusion of impurities in single crystal silicon significantly improved its microwave absorption (loss factor) to a point where heating silicon wafers directly can be accomplished in minimal time. Bonding of these substrates, however, occurs only at points of intimate surface to surface contact. The inclusion of a thin metallic layer on the surfaces enhances the bonding process.

  15. One-step implementation of the 1->3 orbital state quantum cloning machine via quantum Zeno dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Xiaoqiang; Wang Hongfu; Zhang Shou; Chen Li; Zhao Yongfang; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang

    2009-12-15

    We present an approach for implementation of a 1->3 orbital state quantum cloning machine based on the quantum Zeno dynamics via manipulating three rf superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits to resonantly interact with a superconducting cavity assisted by classical fields. Through appropriate modulation of the coupling constants between rf SQUIDs and classical fields, the quantum cloning machine can be realized within one step. We also discuss the effects of decoherence such as spontaneous emission and the loss of cavity in virtue of master equation. The numerical simulation result reveals that the quantum cloning machine is especially robust against the cavity decay, since all qubits evolve in the decoherence-free subspace with respect to cavity decay due to the quantum Zeno dynamics.

  16. 450mm wafer patterning with jet and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ecron; Hellebrekers, Paul; Hofemann, Paul; LaBrake, Dwayne L.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The next step in the evolution of wafer size is 450mm. Any transition in sizing is an enormous task that must account for fabrication space, environmental health and safety concerns, wafer standards, metrology capability, individual process module development and device integration. For 450mm, an aggressive goal of 2018 has been set, with pilot line operation as early as 2016. To address these goals, consortiums have been formed to establish the infrastructure necessary to the transition, with a focus on the development of both process and metrology tools. Central to any process module development, which includes deposition, etch and chemical mechanical polishing is the lithography tool. In order to address the need for early learning and advance process module development, Molecular Imprints Inc. has provided the industry with the first advanced lithography platform, the Imprio® 450, capable of patterning a full 450mm wafer. The Imprio 450 was accepted by Intel at the end of 2012 and is now being used to support the 450mm wafer process development demands as part of a multi-year wafer services contract to facilitate the semiconductor industry's transition to lower cost 450mm wafer production. The Imprio 450 uses a Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) process that employs drop dispensing of UV curable resists to assist high resolution patterning for subsequent dry etch pattern transfer. The technology is actively being used to develop solutions for markets including NAND Flash memory, patterned media for hard disk drives and displays. This paper reviews the recent performance of the J-FIL technology (including overlay, throughput and defectivity), mask development improvements provided by Dai Nippon Printing, and the application of the technology to a 450mm lithography platform.

  17. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  18. Guidelines for Implementing a Dynamic Warm-Up for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery; McFarland, James E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Since recent studies have not found substantial evidence to support the use of static stretching during the warm-up period, there has been a growing interest in dynamic warm-up procedures that can enhance physical fitness, improve performance, and better prepare students for the main part of physical education. In this article, the potential…

  19. Teachers' Critical Evaluations of Dynamic Geometry Software Implementation in 1:1 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Jennifer; Stein, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Although the use of dynamic software in high school mathematics in the United States has emerged as a research topic, little research has been conducted on how teachers integrate new software in relation to at-home technology networks. Interviews with eight mathematics teachers from four North Carolina counties participating in 1:1 laptop…

  20. Apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a semiconductor wafer

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1995-03-07

    Apparatus for measuring thicknesses of semiconductor wafers is discussed, comprising: housing means for supporting a wafer in a light-tight environment; a light source mounted to the housing at one side of the wafer to emit light of a predetermined wavelength to normally impinge the wafer; a light detector supported at a predetermined distance from a side of the wafer opposite the side on which a light source impinges and adapted to receive light transmitted through the wafer; and means for measuring the transmitted light. 4 figs.

  1. Wafer CD variation for random units of track and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Ackmann, Paul; Richter, Frank; Kurth, Karin; Maelzer, Stephanie; Hsieh, Michael; Schurack, Frank; GN, Fang Hong

    2012-03-01

    After wafer processing in a scanner the process of record (POR) flows in a photo track are characterized by a random correlation between post exposure bake (PEB) and development (DEV) units of the photo track. The variation of the critical dimensions (CD) of the randomly correlated units used for PEB and DEV should be as small as possible - especially for technology nodes of 28nm and below. Even a point-to-point error of only 1nm could affect the final product yield results due to the relatively narrow process window of 28nm tech-node. The correlation between reticle measurements to target (MTT) and wafer MTT may in addition be influenced by the random correlation between units used for PEB and DEV. The polarization of the light source of the scanner is one of the key points for the wafer CD performance too - especially for the critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) performance. We have investigated two track flows, one with fixed and one with random unit correlation. The reticle used for the experiments is a 28nm active layer sample reticle. The POR track flow after wafer process in the scanner is characterized by a random correlation between PEB- and DEV-units. The set-up of the engineering (ENG) process flow is characterized by a fixed unit correlation between PEB- and development-units. The critical dimension trough pitch (CDTP) and linearity performance is demonstrated; also the line-end performance for two dimensional (2D) structures is shown. The sub-die of intra-field CDU for isolated and dense structures is discussed as well as the wafer intra-field CD performance. The correlation between reticle MTT and wafer intra-field MTT is demonstrated for track POR and ENG processes. For different polarization conditions of the scanner source, the comparison of CDU for isolated and dense features has been shown. The dependency of the wafer intra-field MTT with respect to different polarization settings of the light source is discussed. The correlation between reticle

  2. Digital model planning and computerized fabrication of orthognathic surgery wafers.

    PubMed

    Cousley, Richard R J; Turner, Mark J A

    2014-03-01

    Conventional orthognathic wafers are made by a process involving manual movement of stone dental models and acrylic laboratory fabrication. In addition, a facebow record and semi-adjustable articulator system are required for maxillary osteotomy cases. This paper introduces a novel process of producing both intermediate and final orthognathic surgical wafers using a combination of computerized digital model simulation and three-dimensional print fabrication, without the need for either a facebow record or the additional ionizing radiation exposure associated with cone beam computerized tomography.

  3. An application of selective electrochemical wafer thinning for silicon characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Medernach, J.W.; Stein, H.J.; Stevenson, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique is reported for the rapid determination of interstitial oxygen (O{sub i}) in heavily doped n{sup +} and p{sup +} silicon. This technique includes application of a selective electrochemical thinning (SET) process and FTIR transmittance measurement on a limited area of a silicon wafer. The O{sub i} is calculated using ASTM F1188--88 with the IOC 88 calibration factor. An advantage of SET over mechanical thinning is that the original wafer thickness and diameter are maintained for additional processing. 1 tab.

  4. [Decentralization and regionalization: dynamics and conditioning factors for the implementation of the Health Pact in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; de Queiroz, Lúcia F N; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila

    2012-07-01

    Decentralization and regionalization represent constitutional guidelines for the organization of the Unified Health System, which in the last 20 years has required the adoption of mechanisms to coordinate and accommodate federative tensions in Brazil's healthcare sector. This paper analyzes the national implementation of the Health Pact between 2006 and 2010 involving a strategy that reconfigures intergovernmental relations in the sector. The study involved the analysis of documents, official data and interviews with federal, state and municipal managers in the Brazilian states. The content of the national proposal is initially discussed, including its implications for health policy. The different rhythms and degrees of implementation of the Health Pact are then reviewed, with respect to adherence by states and municipalities and the formation of Regional Management Boards. Lastly, the conditioning factors for the multiplicity of experiences observed in the country are identified and the challenges facing progress toward a decentralized and regionalized health system in Brazil are discussed.

  5. The Implementation of the Finite-Volume Dynamical Core in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, W B; Mirin, A A

    2004-11-30

    A distributed memory message-passing parallel implementation of a finite-volume discretization of the primitive equations in the Community Atmosphere Model is presented. These three-dimensional equations can be decoupled into a set of two-dimensional equations by the introduction of a floating vertical coordinate, resulting in considerable potential parallelism. Subsequent analysis of the data dependencies--in particular those arising from the polar singularity of the latitude-longitude coordinate system--suggests that two separate domain decompositions should be employed, each tailored for a different part of the model. The implementation requires that data be periodically redistributed between these two decompositions. Furthermore, data from nearest neighbors are kept in halo regions, which are updated between iterations. These data movements are optimized through one-sided communication primitives and multithreading. The resulting algorithm is shown to scale to very large machine configurations, even for relatively coarse resolutions.

  6. The Implementation of the Finite-Volume Dynamical Core in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, W B; Mirin, A A

    2005-07-26

    A distributed memory message-passing parallel implementation of a finite-volume discretization of the primitive equations in the Community Atmosphere Model 3.0 is presented. These three-dimensional equations can be decoupled into a set of two-dimensional equations by the introduction of a floating vertical coordinate, resulting in considerable potential parallelism. Subsequent analysis of the data dependencies --in particular those arising from the polar singularity of the latitude-longitude coordinate system--suggests that two separate domain decompositions should be employed, each tailored for a different part of the model. The implementation requires that data be periodically redistributed between these two decompositions. Furthermore, data from nearest neighbors are kept in halo regions, which are updated between iterations. These data movements are optimized through one-sided communication primitives and multithreading. The resulting algorithm is shown to scale to very large machine configurations, even for relatively coarse resolutions.

  7. A simplified implementation of van der Waals density functionals for first-principles molecular dynamics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Gygi, François

    2012-06-01

    We present a simplified implementation of the non-local van der Waals correlation functional introduced by Dion et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)] and reformulated by Román-Pérez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 096102 (2009)]. The proposed numerical approach removes the logarithmic singularity of the kernel function. Complete expressions of the self-consistent correlation potential and of the stress tensor are given. Combined with various choices of exchange functionals, five versions of van der Waals density functionals are implemented. Applications to the computation of the interaction energy of the benzene-water complex and to the computation of the equilibrium cell parameters of the benzene crystal are presented. As an example of crystal structure calculation involving a mixture of hydrogen bonding and dispersion interactions, we compute the equilibrium structure of two polymorphs of aspirin (2-acetoxybenzoic acid, C9H8O4) in the P21/c monoclinic structure.

  8. The Effect of the Dynamic Skills Protocol RTI Model on Reading Achievement in an Elementary School and the Predictive Validity of Phonics Screening Measures Implemented in the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laben, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    With the implementation of RTI, educators are attempting to find models that are the best fit for their schools. The problem solving and standard protocol models are the two most common. This study of 65 students examines a new model, the dynamic skills protocol implemented in an elementary school starting in their fourth quarter of kindergarten…

  9. Process variation monitoring (PVM) by wafer inspection tool as a complementary method to CD-SEM for mapping field CDU on advanced production devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Jong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Kim, Chul Hong; Lee, Hak Kwon; Kim, Sung Su; Bae, Koon Ho; Spielberg, Hedvi; Lee, Yun Ho; Levi, Shimon; Bustan, Yariv; Rozentsvige, Moshe

    2010-03-01

    As design rules shrink, Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) and Line Edge Roughness (LER) have a dramatic effect on printed final lines and hence the need to control these parameters increases. Sources of CDU and LER variations include scanner auto-focus accuracy and stability, layer stack thickness, composition variations, and exposure variations. Process variations, in advanced VLSI production designs, specifically in memory devices, attributed to CDU and LER affect cell-to-cell parametric variations. These variations significantly impact device performance and die yield. Traditionally, measurements of LER are performed by CD-SEM or OCD metrology tools. Typically, these measurements require a relatively long time to set and cover only selected points of wafer area. In this paper we present the results of a collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials and Hynix Semiconductor Inc. on the implementation of a complementary method to the CDSEM and OCD tools, to monitor defect density and post litho develop CDU and LER on production wafers. The method, referred to as Process Variation Monitoring (PVM) is based on measuring variations in the scattered light from periodic structures. The application is demonstrated using Applied Materials DUV bright field (BF) wafer inspection tool under optimized illumination and collection conditions. The UVisionTM has already passed a successful feasibility study on DRAM products with 66nm and 54nm design rules. The tool has shown high sensitivity to variations across an FEM wafer in both exposure and focus axes. In this article we show how PVM can help detection of Field to Field variations on DRAM wafers with 44nm design rule during normal production run. The complex die layout and the shrink in cell dimensions require high sensitivity to local variations within Dies or Fields. During normal scan of production wafers local Process variations are translated into GL (Grey Level) values

  10. Model implementation for dynamic computation of system cost for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, J. A.; Vaccari, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Life support system designs for long-duration space missions have a multitude of requirements drivers, such as mission objectives, political considerations, cost, crew wellness, inherent mission attributes, as well as many other influences. Evaluation of requirements satisfaction can be difficult, particularly at an early stage of mission design. Because launch cost is a critical factor and relatively easy to quantify, it is a point of focus in early mission design. The method used to determine launch cost influences the accuracy of the estimate. This paper discusses the appropriateness of dynamic mission simulation in estimating the launch cost of a life support system. This paper also provides an abbreviated example of a dynamic simulation life support model and possible ways in which such a model might be utilized for design improvement. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementation of recurrent artificial neural networks for nonlinear dynamic modeling in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Stošovic, Miona V Andrejevic; Litovski, Vanco B

    2013-11-01

    Simulation is indispensable during the design of many biomedical prostheses that are based on fundamental electrical and electronic actions. However, simulation necessitates the use of adequate models. The main difficulties related to the modeling of such devices are their nonlinearity and dynamic behavior. Here we report the application of recurrent artificial neural networks for modeling of a nonlinear, two-terminal circuit equivalent to a specific implantable hearing device. The method is general in the sense that any nonlinear dynamic two-terminal device or circuit may be modeled in the same way. The model generated was successfully used for simulation and optimization of a driver (operational amplifier)-transducer ensemble. This confirms our claim that in addition to the proper design and optimization of the hearing actuator, optimization in the electronic domain, at the electronic driver circuit-to-actuator interface, should take place in order to achieve best performance of the complete hearing aid.

  12. Parallel Molecular Dynamics simulation: implementation of PVM for a lipid membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhiwu; Haymet, A. D. J.; Shinoda, Wataru; Okazaki, Susumu

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a parallel algorithm for Molecular Dynamics simulation of a lipid membrane using the isothermal—isobaric ensemble. A message-passing paradigm is adopted for interprocessor communications using PVM3 (Parallel Virtual Machine). A data decomposition technique is employed for the parallelization of the calculation of intermolecular forces. The algorithm has been tested both on distributed memory architecture (DEC Alpha 500 workstation clusters) and shared memory architecture (SGI Powerchallenge with 20 R10000 processors) for a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer consisting of 32 DPPC molecules and 928 water molecules. For each architecture, we measure the execution time with average work load, and the optimal number of processors for the current simulation. Some dynamical quantities are presented for a 2 ns simulation obtained with 5 processors on DEC Alpha 500 workstations. Our results show that the code is extremely efficient on 5-8 processors, and a useful addition to other major computational resources.

  13. Implementing and Simulating Dynamic Traffic Assignment with Intelligent Transportation Systems in Cube Avenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foytik, Peter; Robinson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    As urban populations and traffic congestion levels increase, effective use of information and communication tools and intelligent transportation systems as becoming increasingly important in order to maximize the efficiency of transportation networks. The appropriate placement and employment of these tools within a network is critical to their effectiveness. This presentation proposes and demonstrates the use of a commercial transportation simulation tool to simulate dynamic traffic assignment and rerouting to model route modifications as a result of traffic information.

  14. Analog Electronic Implementation of a Class of Hybrid Dissipative Dynamical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ontañón-García, L. J.; Campos-Cantón, E.; Femat, R.

    An analog electronic implementation by means of operational amplifiers of a class of hybrid dissipative systems in R3 is presented. The switching systems have two unstable hyperbolic focus-saddle equilibria with the same stability index, a positive real eigenvalue and a pair of complex conjugated eigenvalues with negative real part. The analog circuit generates signals that oscillate in an attractor located between the two unstable equilibria, and may present saturation states at the moment of energizing it, i.e. if the initial voltage on the capacitors do not belong to the basin of attraction the circuit will end on a saturation state.

  15. Silicon Alignment Pins: An Easy Way to Realize a Wafer-to-Wafer Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung-Kubiak, Cecile; Reck, Theodore J.; Lin, Robert H.; Peralta, Alejandro; Gill, John J.; Lee, Choonsup; Siles, Jose; Toda, Risaku; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cooper, Ken B.; Mehdi, Imran; Thomas, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Submillimeter heterodyne instruments play a critical role in addressing fundamental questions regarding the evolution of galaxies as well as being a crucial tool in planetary science. To make these instruments compatible with small platforms, especially for the study of the outer planets, or to enable the development of multi-pixel arrays, it is essential to reduce the mass, power, and volume of the existing single-pixel heterodyne receivers. Silicon micromachining technology is naturally suited for making these submillimeter and terahertz components, where precision and accuracy are essential. Waveguide and channel cavities are etched in a silicon bulk material using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) techniques. Power amplifiers, multiplier and mixer chips are then integrated and the silicon pieces are stacked together to form a supercompact receiver front end. By using silicon micromachined packages for these components, instrument mass can be reduced and higher levels of integration can be achieved. A method is needed to assemble accurately these silicon pieces together, and a technique was developed here using etched pockets and silicon pins to align two wafers together.

  16. A reclaiming process for solar cell silicon wafer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pa, P S

    2011-01-01

    The low yield of epoxy film and Si3N4 thin-film deposition is an important factor in semiconductor production. A new design system using a set of three lamination-shaped electrodes as a machining tool and micro electro-removal as a precision reclaiming process of the Si3N4 layer and epoxy film removal from silicon wafers of solar cells surface is presented. In the current experiment, the combination of the small thickness of the anode and cathodes corresponds to a higher removal rate for the thin films. The combination of the short length of the anode and cathodes combined with enough electric power produces fast electroremoval. A combination of the small edge radius of the anode and cathodes corresponds to a higher removal rate. A higher feed rate of silicon wafers of solar cells combined with enough electric power produces fast removal. A precise engineering technology constructed a clean production approach for the removal of surface microstructure layers from silicon wafers is to develop a mass production system for recycling defective or discarded silicon wafers from solar cells that can reduce pollution and lower cost. PMID:21446525

  17. Ultra-Gradient Test Cavity for Testing SRF Wafer Samples

    SciTech Connect

    N.J. Pogue, P.M. McIntyre, A.I. Sattarov, C. Reece

    2010-11-01

    A 1.3 GHz test cavity has been designed to test wafer samples of superconducting materials. This mushroom shaped cavity, operating in TE01 mode, creates a unique distribution of surface fields. The surface magnetic field on the sample wafer is 3.75 times greater than elsewhere on the Niobium cavity surface. This field design is made possible through dielectrically loading the cavity by locating a hemisphere of ultra-pure sapphire just above the sample wafer. The sapphire pulls the fields away from the walls so the maximum field the Nb surface sees is 25% of the surface field on the sample. In this manner, it should be possible to drive the sample wafer well beyond the BCS limit for Niobium while still maintaining a respectable Q. The sapphire's purity must be tested for its loss tangent and dielectric constant to finalize the design of the mushroom test cavity. A sapphire loaded CEBAF cavity has been constructed and tested. The results on the dielectric constant and loss tangent will be presented

  18. Fabricating a Microcomputer on a Single Silicon Wafer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanchuk, V. L.

    1983-01-01

    Concept for "microcomputer on a slice" reduces microcomputer costs by eliminating scribing, wiring, and packaging of individual circuit chips. Low-cost microcomputer on silicon slice contains redundant components. All components-central processing unit, input/output circuitry, read-only memory, and random-access memory (CPU, I/O, ROM, and RAM) on placed on single silicon wafer.

  19. Crack propagation and fracture in silicon wafers under thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Danilewsky, Andreas; Wittge, Jochen; Kiefl, Konstantin; Allen, David; McNally, Patrick; Garagorri, Jorge; Elizalde, M. Reyes; Baumbach, Tilo; Tanner, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of microcracks in silicon during thermal annealing has been studied using in situ X-ray diffraction imaging. Initial cracks are produced with an indenter at the edge of a conventional Si wafer, which was heated under temperature gradients to produce thermal stress. At temperatures where Si is still in the brittle regime, the strain may accumulate if a microcrack is pinned. If a critical value is exceeded either a new or a longer crack will be formed, which results with high probability in wafer breakage. The strain reduces most efficiently by forming (hhl) or (hkl) crack planes of high energy instead of the expected low-energy cleavage planes like {111}. Dangerous cracks, which become active during heat treatment and may shatter the whole wafer, can be identified from diffraction images simply by measuring the geometrical dimensions of the strain-related contrast around the crack tip. Once the plastic regime at higher temperature is reached, strain is reduced by generating dislocation loops and slip bands and no wafer breakage occurs. There is only a small temperature window within which crack propagation is possible during rapid annealing. PMID:24046487

  20. Interaction of an argon plasma jet with a silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Max; Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Kartaschew, Konstantin; Bibinov, Nikita; Havenith, Martina; Awakowicz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A filamentary discharge is ignited in an argon plasma jet under atmospheric pressure conditions. The gas discharge is characterized with voltage-current measurements, optical emission spectroscopy and an ICCD-camera with a high temporal resolution down to 10 ns. In the effluent of the plasma jet, filaments come into contact with the surface of a silicon wafer and modify it, namely etching traces are produced and microcrystals are deposited. These traces are studied with optical and electron microscopes. The material of the deposited microcrystals and the surface modifications of the silicon wafer are analyzed with Raman microspectroscopy. Amorphous silicon is found within the etching traces. The largest part of the deposited microcrystals are composed of nitratine (NaNO3) and some of them are calcite (CaCO3). Analyzing the possible reasons for the silicon wafer modifications we come to the conclusion that plasmoids, which are produced near the substrate surface by interaction with ionization waves, are a plausible explanation for the observed surface modifications of the silicon wafer.

  1. National solar technology roadmap: Wafer-silicon PV

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan

    2007-06-01

    This report applies to all bulk-silicon-based PV technologies, including those based on Czochralski, multicrystalline, float-zone wafers, and melt-grown crystals that are 100 μm or thicker, such as ribbons, sheet, or spheral silicon.

  2. Bonding silicon-on-insulator to glass wafers for integrated bio-electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun S.; Blick, Robert H.; Kim, D. M.; Eom, C. B.

    2004-09-01

    We report a method for bonding silicon-on-insulator wafers onto glass wafers. After pre-cleaning the wafers by an ozone and ultraviolet exposure, followed by mega-sonic water rinse, the SOI wafers are bonded to glass wafers in a vacuum chamber. This is performed at a temperature of 400 °C under an applied voltage of 700 V. The interface between the glass and SOI wafer is tested mechanically and inspected by electron beam microscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrate removal of the silicon bulk layer after wafer bonding. The quality of the single crystalline Si thin film on the glass wafers has been verified by four-circle x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. This process will allow us the integration of thin-film electronics in biological sensor applications.

  3. Decontaminating Solar Wind Samples with the Genesis Ultra-Pure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaway, M. J.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2009-03-01

    The cleaning efficiency of the Genesis Ultra-pure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner will be presented. Results show the effectiveness of the new cleaner removing particle contamination from Genesis silicon wafers implanted with solar wind.

  4. A Dynamic Bridge for Data Sharing on e-Science Grid Implementing Web 2.0 Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Im Y.; Yeom, Heon Y.

    This paper proposes a dynamic bridge for e-Science Grid, implementing Web 2.0 service in order to share experimental data effectively.An e-Science Grid has been established as a cyber laboratory for the users with a special research purpose on science. As an open space, e-Science Grid is expected to stimulate the collaborative researches and the cross domain ones. These research trends need a more efficient and convenient data service satisfying the science researchers. A dynamic bridge designed based on HVEM DataGrid, satisfies the users' requirements for the data sharing on e-Science Grid effectively. It supports a data tagging service in order for HVEM DataGrid to be utilized more extensively without any modification of the existing Grid architecture or services. Moreover, it can be adopted and deleted easily without any effect to the legacy Grid. With the legacyinterface to access data in e-Science Grid, the data tags endow the Grid with the flexibility for data access. This paper evaluates the usefulness of the dynamic bridge by analyzing its overhead and performance.

  5. Implementing dynamic clamp with synaptic and artificial conductances in mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin Y; Stiefel, Klaus M; Protti, Dario A

    2013-05-16

    Ganglion cells are the output neurons of the retina and their activity reflects the integration of multiple synaptic inputs arising from specific neural circuits. Patch clamp techniques, in voltage clamp and current clamp configurations, are commonly used to study the physiological properties of neurons and to characterize their synaptic inputs. Although the application of these techniques is highly informative, they pose various limitations. For example, it is difficult to quantify how the precise interactions of excitatory and inhibitory inputs determine response output. To address this issue, we used a modified current clamp technique, dynamic clamp, also called conductance clamp (1, 2, 3) and examined the impact of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs on neuronal excitability. This technique requires the injection of current into the cell and is dependent on the real-time feedback of its membrane potential at that time. The injected current is calculated from predetermined excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances, their reversal potentials and the cell's instantaneous membrane potential. Details on the experimental procedures, patch clamping cells to achieve a whole-cell configuration and employment of the dynamic clamp technique are illustrated in this video article. Here, we show the responses of mouse retinal ganglion cells to various conductance waveforms obtained from physiological experiments in control conditions or in the presence of drugs. Furthermore, we show the use of artificial excitatory and inhibitory conductances generated using alpha functions to investigate the responses of the cells.

  6. Implementation of remote sensing data in research of coastal dynamics at the Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. E.; Belova, N.; Noskov, A.; Ogorodov, S.

    2011-12-01

    The development of Arctic coastal regions is now in progress due to significant amount of hydrocarbon deposits discovered. In high latitudes, natural hazards such as coastal erosion and thermoerosion, deflation, linear erosion and thermal denudation, ice gouging can make petroleum production and transport unprofitable. A prominent feature of Kara Sea, as well as other Arctic seas, is the development of coast in permafrost conditions. Despite the long ice period (up to 9 months), during the ice free period coastal dynamics are very intensive. If pipeline landfall site occurs at a shore section with high retreat rate (1 - 3m/year and higher), danger of pipeline damage due to exposure, line sagging and mechanical deformations becomes high. Protective measures may appear inefficient, since shore sections with active coastal erosion are subject not only to bluff retreat, but also to nearshore zone and coastal slope erosion. Exposed pipeline sections also get in danger of sea ice effect. For correct definition of coastal dynamics setting we use dual approach. The first part is perennial instrumental monitoring of shore morphology, relying on system of benchmarks used for repeated measures, together with in-field geomorphologic expertise. Measures include direct observations and geodetic leveling onshore and echosounding offshore. Being the most precise method, direct measurements are expensive. The other drawback is that they can't give an overview of long-span tendencies of coastal evolution for prolonged shore sections, which is essential for shore deformation forecast complying with lifetime of structures (usually 30 to 50 years). This is where the importance of the 2nd part, analysis of the different time remote sensing data, becomes decisive. Most important sources of remote sensing data include Corona imagery from 1960s - 70s, aerial photos of different times (but most of them are inaccessible for Russian Arctic coast), Landsat imagery (covering a long time span

  7. Study on a new chaotic bitwise dynamical system and its FPGA implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian-Xue; Yu, Si-Min; Guyeux, C.; Bahi, J.; Fang, Xiao-Le

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the structure of a new chaotic bitwise dynamical system (CBDS) is described. Compared to our previous research work, it uses various random bitwise operations instead of only one. The chaotic behavior of CBDS is mathematically proven according to the Devaney's definition, and its statistical properties are verified both for uniformity and by a comprehensive, reputed and stringent battery of tests called TestU01. Furthermore, a systematic methodology developing the parallel computations is proposed for FPGA platform-based realization of this CBDS. Experiments finally validate the proposed systematic methodology. Project supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M552175), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, Chinese Education Ministry, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61172023), and the Specialized Research Foundation of Doctoral Subjects of Chinese Education Ministry (Grant No. 20114420110003).

  8. Implementation of Dynamically Corrected Gates on a Single Electron Spin in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Xing; Geng, Jianpei; Wang, Zixiang; Zhang, Qi; Ju, Chenyong; Shi, Fazhan; Duan, Chang-Kui; Du, Jiangfeng

    2014-02-01

    Precise control of an open quantum system is critical to quantum information processing but is challenging due to inevitable interactions between the quantum system and the environment. We demonstrated experimentally a type of dynamically corrected gates using only bounded-strength pulses on the nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. The infidelity of quantum gates caused by a nuclear-spin bath is reduced from being the second order to the sixth order of the noise-to-control-field ratio, which offers greater efficiency in reducing infidelity. The quantum gates have been protected to the limit essentially set by the spin-lattice relaxation time T1. Our work marks an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum computation in realistic systems.

  9. The implementation of a modernized Dynamic Digital Map on Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeck, J.; Condit, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, geology instructors present information to students via PowerPoint, Word, Excel and other programs that are not designed to parse or present geologic data. More tech-savvy, and perhaps better-funded, instructors use Google Earth or ArcGIS to display geologic maps and other visual information. However, Google Earth lacks the ability to present large portions of text, and ArcGIS restricts such functionality to labels and annotations. The original Dynamic Digital Map, which we have renamed Dynamic Digital Map Classic (DDMC), allows instructors to represent both visual and large portions of textual information to students. This summer we generalized the underlying architecture of DDMC, redesigned the user interface, modernized the analytical functionality, renamed the older version and labeled this new creature Dynamic Digital Map Extended (DDME). With the new DDME instructors can showcase maps, images, articles and movies, and create digital field trips. They can set the scale, coordinate system and caption of maps and images, add symbol links to maps and images that can transport the user to any specified destination—either internally (to data contained within the DDME) or externally (to a website address). Instructors and students can also calculate non-linear distances and irregular areas of maps and images, and create digital field trips with any number of stops—complete with notes and driving directions. DDMEs are perhaps best described as a sort of computerized, self-authored, interactive textbook. To display the vast capabilities of DDME, we created a DDME of Gale Crater (DDME-GC), which is the landing site of the most sophisticated NASA Mars Rover—Curiosity. DDME-GC hosts six thematic maps: a detailed geologic map provided by Brad Thompson of the Boston University Center for Remote Sensing (Thompson, et al., 2010), and five maps maintained in ASU's JMARS system, including global mosaics from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

  10. Rinsing of wafers after wet processing: Simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chieh-Chun

    In semiconductor manufacturing, a large amount (50 billion gallons for US semiconductor fabrication plants in 2006) of ultrapure water (UPW) is used to rinse wafers after wet chemical processing to remove ionic contaminants on surfaces. Of great concern are the contaminants left in narrow (tens of nm), high-aspect-ratio (5:1 to 20:1) features (trenches, vias, and contact holes). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) stipulates that ionic contaminant levels be reduced to below ˜ 10 10 atoms/cm2. Understanding the bottlenecks in the rinsing process would enable conservation of rinse water usage. A comprehensive process model has been developed on the COMSOL platform to predict the dynamics of rinsing of narrow structures on patterned SiO 2 substrates initially cleaned with NH4OH. The model considers the effect of various mass-transport mechanisms, including convection and diffusion/dispersion, which occur simultaneously with various surface phenomena, such as adsorption and desorption of impurities. The influences of charged species in the bulk and on the surface, and their induced electric field that affect both transport and surface interactions, have been addressed. Modeling results show that the efficacy of rinsing is strongly influenced by the rate of desorption of adsorbed contaminants, mass transfer of contaminants from the mouth of the feature to the bulk liquid, and the trench aspect ratio. Detection of the end point of rinsing is another way to conserve water used for rinsing after wet processing. The applicability of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to monitor rinsing of Si processed in HF with and without copper contaminant was explored. In the first study, the effect of the nature of surface state (flat band, depletion, or accumulation) of silicon on rinsing rate was investigated. The experimental results show that the state of silicon could affect rinsing kinetics through modulation of ion adsorption. In the second

  11. Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geum, Dae-Myeong; Park, Min-Su; Lim, Ju Young; Yang, Hyun-Duk; Song, Jin Dong; Kim, Chang Zoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Kim, Sanghyeon; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-02-01

    Si-based integrated circuits have been intensively developed over the past several decades through ultimate device scaling. However, the Si technology has reached the physical limitations of the scaling. These limitations have fuelled the search for alternative active materials (for transistors) and the introduction of optical interconnects (called “Si photonics”). A series of attempts to circumvent the Si technology limits are based on the use of III-V compound semiconductor due to their superior benefits, such as high electron mobility and direct bandgap. To use their physical properties on a Si platform, the formation of high-quality III-V films on the Si (III-V/Si) is the basic technology ; however, implementing this technology using a high-throughput process is not easy. Here, we report new concepts for an ultra-high-throughput heterogeneous integration of high-quality III-V films on the Si using the wafer bonding and epitaxial lift off (ELO) technique. We describe the ultra-fast ELO and also the re-use of the III-V donor wafer after III-V/Si formation. These approaches provide an ultra-high-throughput fabrication of III-V/Si substrates with a high-quality film, which leads to a dramatic cost reduction. As proof-of-concept devices, this paper demonstrates GaAs-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), solar cells, and hetero-junction phototransistors on Si substrates.

  12. Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Geum, Dae-Myeong; Park, Min-Su; Lim, Ju Young; Yang, Hyun-Duk; Song, Jin Dong; Kim, Chang Zoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Kim, SangHyeon; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    Si-based integrated circuits have been intensively developed over the past several decades through ultimate device scaling. However, the Si technology has reached the physical limitations of the scaling. These limitations have fuelled the search for alternative active materials (for transistors) and the introduction of optical interconnects (called “Si photonics”). A series of attempts to circumvent the Si technology limits are based on the use of III-V compound semiconductor due to their superior benefits, such as high electron mobility and direct bandgap. To use their physical properties on a Si platform, the formation of high-quality III-V films on the Si (III-V/Si) is the basic technology ; however, implementing this technology using a high-throughput process is not easy. Here, we report new concepts for an ultra-high-throughput heterogeneous integration of high-quality III-V films on the Si using the wafer bonding and epitaxial lift off (ELO) technique. We describe the ultra-fast ELO and also the re-use of the III-V donor wafer after III-V/Si formation. These approaches provide an ultra-high-throughput fabrication of III-V/Si substrates with a high-quality film, which leads to a dramatic cost reduction. As proof-of-concept devices, this paper demonstrates GaAs-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), solar cells, and hetero-junction phototransistors on Si substrates. PMID:26864968

  13. Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications.

    PubMed

    Geum, Dae-Myeong; Park, Min-Su; Lim, Ju Young; Yang, Hyun-Duk; Song, Jin Dong; Kim, Chang Zoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Kim, SangHyeon; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-02-11

    Si-based integrated circuits have been intensively developed over the past several decades through ultimate device scaling. However, the Si technology has reached the physical limitations of the scaling. These limitations have fuelled the search for alternative active materials (for transistors) and the introduction of optical interconnects (called "Si photonics"). A series of attempts to circumvent the Si technology limits are based on the use of III-V compound semiconductor due to their superior benefits, such as high electron mobility and direct bandgap. To use their physical properties on a Si platform, the formation of high-quality III-V films on the Si (III-V/Si) is the basic technology ; however, implementing this technology using a high-throughput process is not easy. Here, we report new concepts for an ultra-high-throughput heterogeneous integration of high-quality III-V films on the Si using the wafer bonding and epitaxial lift off (ELO) technique. We describe the ultra-fast ELO and also the re-use of the III-V donor wafer after III-V/Si formation. These approaches provide an ultra-high-throughput fabrication of III-V/Si substrates with a high-quality film, which leads to a dramatic cost reduction. As proof-of-concept devices, this paper demonstrates GaAs-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), solar cells, and hetero-junction phototransistors on Si substrates.

  14. Wafer Scale Integration of CMOS Chips for Biomedical Applications via Self-Aligned Masking

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Ashfaque; Milaninia, Kaveh; Chen, Chin-Hsuan; Theogarajan, Luke

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for the integration of small CMOS chips into a large area substrate. A key component of the technique is the CMOS chip based self-aligned masking. This allows for the fabrication of sockets in wafers that are at most 5 µm larger than the chip on each side. The chip and the large area substrate are bonded onto a carrier such that the top surfaces of the two components are flush. The unique features of this technique enable the integration of macroscale components, such as leads and microfluidics. Furthermore, the integration process allows for MEMS micromachining after CMOS die-wafer integration. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed technology, a low-power integrated potentiostat chip for biosensing implemented in the AMI 0.5 µm CMOS technology is integrated in a silicon substrate. The horizontal gap and the vertical displacement between the chip and the large area substrate measured after the integration were 4 µm and 0.5 µm, respectively. A number of 104 interconnects are patterned with high-precision alignment. Electrical measurements have shown that the functionality of the chip is not affected by the integration process. PMID:22400126

  15. Entropic lattice Boltzmann model for gas dynamics: Theory, boundary conditions, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Frapolli, N; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V

    2016-06-01

    We present in detail the recently introduced entropic lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows [N. Frapolli et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 061301(R) (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.061301]. The model is capable of simulating a wide range of laminar and turbulent flows, from thermal and weakly compressible flows to transonic and supersonic flows. The theory behind the construction of the model is laid out and its thermohydrodynamic limit is discussed. Based on this theory and the hydrodynamic limit thereof, we also construct the boundary conditions necessary for the simulation of solid walls. We present the inlet and outlet boundary conditions as well as no-slip and free-slip boundary conditions. Details necessary for the implementation of the compressible lattice Boltzmann model are also reported. Finally, simulations of compressible flows are presented, including two-dimensional supersonic and transonic flows around a diamond and a NACA airfoil, the simulation of the Schardin problem, and the three-dimensional simulation of the supersonic flow around a conical geometry. PMID:27415382

  16. Entropic lattice Boltzmann model for gas dynamics: Theory, boundary conditions, and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frapolli, N.; Chikatamarla, S. S.; Karlin, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    We present in detail the recently introduced entropic lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows [N. Frapolli et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 061301(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.061301]. The model is capable of simulating a wide range of laminar and turbulent flows, from thermal and weakly compressible flows to transonic and supersonic flows. The theory behind the construction of the model is laid out and its thermohydrodynamic limit is discussed. Based on this theory and the hydrodynamic limit thereof, we also construct the boundary conditions necessary for the simulation of solid walls. We present the inlet and outlet boundary conditions as well as no-slip and free-slip boundary conditions. Details necessary for the implementation of the compressible lattice Boltzmann model are also reported. Finally, simulations of compressible flows are presented, including two-dimensional supersonic and transonic flows around a diamond and a NACA airfoil, the simulation of the Schardin problem, and the three-dimensional simulation of the supersonic flow around a conical geometry.

  17. Entropic lattice Boltzmann model for gas dynamics: Theory, boundary conditions, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Frapolli, N; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V

    2016-06-01

    We present in detail the recently introduced entropic lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows [N. Frapolli et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 061301(R) (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.061301]. The model is capable of simulating a wide range of laminar and turbulent flows, from thermal and weakly compressible flows to transonic and supersonic flows. The theory behind the construction of the model is laid out and its thermohydrodynamic limit is discussed. Based on this theory and the hydrodynamic limit thereof, we also construct the boundary conditions necessary for the simulation of solid walls. We present the inlet and outlet boundary conditions as well as no-slip and free-slip boundary conditions. Details necessary for the implementation of the compressible lattice Boltzmann model are also reported. Finally, simulations of compressible flows are presented, including two-dimensional supersonic and transonic flows around a diamond and a NACA airfoil, the simulation of the Schardin problem, and the three-dimensional simulation of the supersonic flow around a conical geometry.

  18. Numerical implementation of mathematical model of the dynamics of a porous medium on supercomputers of cluster architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskaya, O. V.; Sadovskii, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    The parallel computational algorithm for analysis of the processes of elastic-plastic deformation of a porous medium under the action of external dynamic loads is developed. This algorithm is based on the mathematical model taking into account threshold nature of change in the strength of a material under the collapse of pores. The algorithm is implemented in Fortran by means of functions of the MPI library. The parallel program system has been tested on clusters in computations of the propagation of plane longitudinal shock waves of the compression and in computations of the expansion of a cylindrical cavity in an infinite porous medium. The comparison of numerical results and exact solutions has shown their good qualitative and quantitative correspondence. Using the obtained algorithm, the process of propagation of elastic-plastic waves of the compression in a homogenous porous medium, accompanied by the deformation of a skeleton and the collapse of pores, is analyzed.

  19. Real-time dynamic simulation of the Cassini spacecraft using DARTS. Part 2: Parallel/vectorized real-time implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, A.; Roberts, J. A.; Jain, A.; Man, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper presented the requirements for the real-time simulation of Cassini spacecraft along with some discussion of the DARTS algorithm. Here, in Part 2 we discuss the development and implementation of parallel/vectorized DARTS algorithm and architecture for real-time simulation. Development of the fast algorithms and architecture for real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation of spacecraft dynamics is motivated by the fact that it represents a hard real-time problem, in the sense that the correctness of the simulation depends on both the numerical accuracy and the exact timing of the computation. For a given model fidelity, the computation should be computed within a predefined time period. Further reduction in computation time allows increasing the fidelity of the model (i.e., inclusion of more flexible modes) and the integration routine.

  20. Method for implementation of back-illuminated CMOS or CCD imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for implementation of back-illuminated CMOS or CCD imagers. An oxide layer buried between silicon wafer and device silicon is provided. The oxide layer forms a passivation layer in the imaging structure. A device layer and interlayer dielectric are formed, and the silicon wafer is removed to expose the oxide layer.

  1. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims

    PubMed Central

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin’s location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin’s location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction. PMID:26099070

  2. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims.

    PubMed

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin's location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin's location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction. PMID:26099070

  3. Dynamics, Analysis and Implementation of a Multiscroll Memristor-Based Chaotic Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alombah, N. Henry; Fotsin, Hilaire; Ngouonkadi, E. B. Megam; Nguazon, Tekou

    This article introduces a novel four-dimensional autonomous multiscroll chaotic circuit which is derived from the actual simplest memristor-based chaotic circuit. A fourth circuit element — another inductor — is introduced to generate the complex behavior observed. A systematic study of the chaotic behavior is performed with the help of some nonlinear tools such as Lyapunov exponents, phase portraits, and bifurcation diagrams. Multiple scroll attractors are observed in Matlab, Pspice environments and also experimentally. We also observe the phenomenon of antimonotonicity, periodic and chaotic bubbles, multiple periodic-doubling bifurcations, Hopf bifurcations, crises and the phenomenon of intermittency. The chaotic dynamics of this circuit is realized by laboratory experiments, Pspice simulations, numerical and analytical investigations. It is observed that the results from the three environments agree to a great extent. This topology is likely convenient to be used to intentionally generate chaos in memristor-based chaotic circuit applications, given the fact that multiscroll chaotic systems have found important applications as broadband signal generators, pseudorandom number generators for communication engineering and also in biometric authentication.

  4. Nonadiabatic dynamics with intersystem crossings: A time-dependent density functional theory implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Franco de Carvalho, F.; Tavernelli, I.

    2015-12-14

    In this work, we derive a method to perform trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics that is able to describe both nonadiabatic transitions and intersystem crossing events (transitions between states of different spin-multiplicity) at the same level of theory, namely, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). To this end, we combined our previously developed TDDFT-based trajectory surface hopping scheme with an accurate and efficient algorithm for the calculation of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) matrix elements. More specifically, we designed two algorithms for the calculation of intersystem crossing transitions, one based on an extended Tully’s surface hopping scheme including SOC and the second based on a Landau-Zener approximation applied to the spin sector of the electronic Hilbert space. This development allows for the design of an efficient on-the-fly nonadiabatic approach that can handle, on an equal footing, nonadiabatic and intersystem crossing transitions. The method is applied to the study of the photophysics of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in gas and liquid phases.

  5. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in dynamical spacetimes: A new adaptive mesh refinement implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Etienne, Zachariah B.; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2010-10-15

    We have written and tested a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics code, capable of evolving magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluids in dynamical spacetimes with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR). Our code solves the Einstein-Maxwell-MHD system of coupled equations in full 3+1 dimensions, evolving the metric via the Baumgarte-Shapiro Shibata-Nakamura formalism and the MHD and magnetic induction equations via a conservative, high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. The induction equations are recast as an evolution equation for the magnetic vector potential, which exists on a grid that is staggered with respect to the hydrodynamic and metric variables. The divergenceless constraint {nabla}{center_dot}B=0 is enforced by the curl of the vector potential. Our MHD scheme is fully compatible with AMR, so that fluids at AMR refinement boundaries maintain {nabla}{center_dot}B=0. In simulations with uniform grid spacing, our MHD scheme is numerically equivalent to a commonly used, staggered-mesh constrained-transport scheme. We present code validation test results, both in Minkowski and curved spacetimes. They include magnetized shocks, nonlinear Alfven waves, cylindrical explosions, cylindrical rotating disks, magnetized Bondi tests, and the collapse of a magnetized rotating star. Some of the more stringent tests involve black holes. We find good agreement between analytic and numerical solutions in these tests, and achieve convergence at the expected order.

  6. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims.

    PubMed

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin's location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin's location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction.

  7. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin’s location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin’s location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction.

  8. Modeling Urban Dynamics Using Random Forest: Implementing Roc and Toc for Model Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadlou, M.; Delavar, M. R.; Shafizadeh-Moghadam, H.; Tayyebi, A.

    2016-06-01

    The importance of spatial accuracy of land use/cover change maps necessitates the use of high performance models. To reach this goal, calibrating machine learning (ML) approaches to model land use/cover conversions have received increasing interest among the scholars. This originates from the strength of these techniques as they powerfully account for the complex relationships underlying urban dynamics. Compared to other ML techniques, random forest has rarely been used for modeling urban growth. This paper, drawing on information from the multi-temporal Landsat satellite images of 1985, 2000 and 2015, calibrates a random forest regression (RFR) model to quantify the variable importance and simulation of urban change spatial patterns. The results and performance of RFR model were evaluated using two complementary tools, relative operating characteristics (ROC) and total operating characteristics (TOC), by overlaying the map of observed change and the modeled suitability map for land use change (error map). The suitability map produced by RFR model showed 82.48% area under curve for the ROC model which indicates a very good performance and highlights its appropriateness for simulating urban growth.

  9. Nonadiabatic dynamics with intersystem crossings: A time-dependent density functional theory implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco de Carvalho, F.; Tavernelli, I.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we derive a method to perform trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics that is able to describe both nonadiabatic transitions and intersystem crossing events (transitions between states of different spin-multiplicity) at the same level of theory, namely, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). To this end, we combined our previously developed TDDFT-based trajectory surface hopping scheme with an accurate and efficient algorithm for the calculation of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) matrix elements. More specifically, we designed two algorithms for the calculation of intersystem crossing transitions, one based on an extended Tully's surface hopping scheme including SOC and the second based on a Landau-Zener approximation applied to the spin sector of the electronic Hilbert space. This development allows for the design of an efficient on-the-fly nonadiabatic approach that can handle, on an equal footing, nonadiabatic and intersystem crossing transitions. The method is applied to the study of the photophysics of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in gas and liquid phases.

  10. Why FCTC policies have not been implemented in China: domestic dynamics and tobacco governance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiyong

    2014-06-01

    The international community, under the auspices of the World Health Organization, developed the landmark Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) to curb the global tobacco epidemic. As an internationally binding convention about global best practices on tobacco control, the FCTC has become an overriding source of policy transfer for developing countries in the fight against smoking. However, since its ratification of the first global norm over tobacco governance and against the grim background of the widespread tobacco-induced public health devastation within its borders, China has failed to genuinely pursue FCTC policies because of domestic political and social factors. The empirical findings of this article point to the dominance of political-social dynamics for China's nontransfer of FCTC policies, arguing that the government's GDPism, its sovereignty-first mentality, and hostility to NGOs as well as widespread social acceptability of tobacco consumption and high smoking prevalence are fundamental causes of China's nontransfer of FCTC policies. The article explicates how these variables correspond to FCTC policies in an analytic framework of policy transfer.

  11. Development and Implementation of Dynamic Scripts to Execute Cycled GSI/WRF Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Berndt, Emily; Li, Xuanli; Watson, Leela

    2014-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model and Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation (DA) are the operational systems that make up the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model and the NAM Data Assimilation System (NDAS) analysis used by National Weather Service forecasters. The Developmental Testbed Center (DTC) manages and distributes the code for the WRF and GSI, but it is up to individual researchers to link the systems together and write scripts to run the systems, which can take considerable time for those not familiar with the code. The objective of this project is to develop and disseminate a set of dynamic scripts that mimic the unique cycling configuration of the operational NAM to enable researchers to develop new modeling and data assimilation techniques that can be easily transferred to operations. The current version of the SPoRT GSI/WRF Scripts (v3.0.1) is compatible with WRF v3.3 and GSI v3.0.

  12. The design and implementation of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) science instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, Steven Reed

    Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) is a satellite project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to study the ionosphere, more particularly Storm Enhanced Densities (SED) with a payload consisting of plasma diagnostic instrumentation. Three instruments onboard DICE include an Electric Field Probe (EFP), Ion Langmuir Probe (ILP), and Three Axis Magnetometer (TAM). The EFP measures electric fields from +/-8V and consists of three channels a DC to 40Hz channel, a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), and an spectrographic channel with four bands from 16Hz to 512Hz. The ILP measures plasma densities from 1x104 cm--3 to 2x107 cm--3. The TAM measures magnetic field strength with a range +/-0.5 Gauss with a sensitivity of 2nT. To achieve desired mission requirements careful selection of instrument requirements and planning of the instrumentation design to achieve mission success. The analog design of each instrument is described in addition to the digital framework required to sample the science data at a 70Hz rate and prepare the data for the Command and Data Handing (C&DH) system. Calibration results are also presented and show fulfillment of the mission and instrumentation requirements.

  13. Wafer bonding process for building MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabo, Eric F.; Meiler, Josef; Matthias, Thorsten

    2014-06-01

    The technology for the measurement of colour rendering and colour quality is not new, but many parameters related to this issue are currently changing. A number of standard methods were developed and are used by different specialty areas of the lighting industry. CIE 13.3 has been the accepted standard implemented by many users and used for many years. Light-emitting Diode (LED) technology moves at a rapid pace and, as this lighting source finds wider acceptance, it appears that traditional colour-rendering measurement methods produce inconsistent results. Practical application of various types of LEDs yielded results that challenged conventional thinking regarding colour measurement of light sources. Recent studies have shown that the anatomy and physiology of the human eye is more complex than formerly accepted. Therefore, the development of updated measurement methodology also forces a fresh look at functioning and colour perception of the human eye, especially with regard to LEDs. This paper includes a short description of the history and need for the measurement of colour rendering. Some of the traditional measurement methods are presented and inadequacies are discussed. The latest discoveries regarding the functioning of the human eye and the perception of colour, especially when LEDs are used as light sources, are discussed. The unique properties of LEDs when used in practical applications such as luminaires are highlighted.

  14. Height inspection of wafer bumps without explicit 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Mei; Chung, Ronald; Zhao, Yang; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2006-02-01

    The shrunk dimension of electronic devices leads to more stringent requirement on process control and quality assurance of their fabrication. For instance, direct die-to-die bonding requires placement of solder bumps not on PCB but on the wafer itself. Such wafer solder bumps, which are much miniaturized from the counterparts on PCB, still need to have their heights meet the specification, or else the electrical connection could be compromised, or the dies be crushed, or even the manufacturing equipments be damaged. Yet the tiny size, typically tens of microns in diameter, and the textureless and mirror nature of the bumps pose great challenge to the 3D inspection process. This paper addresses how a large number of such wafer bumps could have their heights massively checked against the specification. We assume ball bumps in this work. We propose a novel inspection measure about the collection of bump heights that possesses these advantages: (1) it is sensitive to global and local disturbances to the bump heights, thus serving the bump height inspection purpose; (2) it is invariant to how individual bumps are locally displaced against one another on the substrate surface, thus enduring 2D displacement error in soldering the bumps onto the wafer substrate; and (3) it is largely invariant to how the wafer itself is globally positioned relative to the imaging system, thus having tolerance to repeatability error in wafer placement. This measure makes use of the mirror nature of the bumps, which used to cause difficulty in traditional inspection methods, to capture images of two planes. One contains the bump peaks and the other corresponds to the substrate. With the homography matrices of these two planes and fundamental matrix of the camera, we synthesize a matrix called Biplanar Disparity Matrix. This matrix can summarize the bumps' heights in a fast and direct way without going through explicit 3D reconstruction. We also present a design of the imaging and

  15. Implementation and evaluation of modified dynamic conformal arc (MDCA) technique for lung SBRT patients following RTOG protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Chengyu; Tazi, Adam; Fang, Deborah Xiangdong; Iannuzzi, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    To implement modified dynamic conformal arc (MDCA) technique and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocols in our clinic for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with Stage I/II non–small cell lung cancer. Five patients with non–small cell lung cancer have been treated with SBRT. All the patients were immobilized using CIVCO Body Pro-Lok system and scanned using GE 4-slice computed tomography. The MDCA technique that was previously published was adopted as our planning technique, and RTOG protocols for the lung SBRT were followed. The patients were treated on Novalis Tx system with cone-beam computed tomography imaging guidance. All the patient plans passed the RTOG criteria. The conformal index ranges from 0.99 to 1.12 for the planning target volume, and the biological equivalent dose for the planning target volume is overall 100 Gy. Critical structures (lung, spinal cord, brachial plexus, skin, and chest wall) also meet RTOG protocols or published data. A 6-month follow-up of one of the patients shows good local disease control. We have successfully implemented the MDCA technique into our clinic for the lung SBRT program. It shows that the MDCA is useful and efficient for the lung SBRT planning, with the plan quality meeting the RTOG protocols.

  16. Implementing Molecular Dynamics on Hybrid High Performance Computers - Three-Body Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W Michael; Yamada, Masako

    2013-01-01

    The use of coprocessors or accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power re- quirements. Hybrid high-performance computers, defined as machines with nodes containing more than one type of floating-point processor (e.g. CPU and GPU), are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. Although there has been extensive research into methods to efficiently use accelerators to improve the performance of molecular dynamics (MD) employing pairwise potential energy models, little is reported in the literature for models that include many-body effects. 3-body terms are required for many popular potentials such as MEAM, Tersoff, REBO, AIREBO, Stillinger-Weber, Bond-Order Potentials, and others. Because the per-atom simulation times are much higher for models incorporating 3-body terms, there is a clear need for efficient algo- rithms usable on hybrid high performance computers. Here, we report a shared-memory force-decomposition for 3-body potentials that avoids memory conflicts to allow for a deterministic code with substantial performance improvements on hybrid machines. We describe modifications necessary for use in distributed memory MD codes and show results for the simulation of water with Stillinger-Weber on the hybrid Titan supercomputer. We compare performance of the 3-body model to the SPC/E water model when using accelerators. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach can attain a speedup of 5.1 with acceleration on Titan for production simulations to study water droplet freezing on a surface.

  17. Parallel implementation of 3D FFT with volumetric decomposition schemes for efficient molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jaewoon; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Sugita, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (3D FFT) plays an important role in a wide variety of computer simulations and data analyses, including molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this study, we develop hybrid (MPI+OpenMP) parallelization schemes of 3D FFT based on two new volumetric decompositions, mainly for the particle mesh Ewald (PME) calculation in MD simulations. In one scheme, (1d_Alltoall), five all-to-all communications in one dimension are carried out, and in the other, (2d_Alltoall), one two-dimensional all-to-all communication is combined with two all-to-all communications in one dimension. 2d_Alltoall is similar to the conventional volumetric decomposition scheme. We performed benchmark tests of 3D FFT for the systems with different grid sizes using a large number of processors on the K computer in RIKEN AICS. The two schemes show comparable performances, and are better than existing 3D FFTs. The performances of 1d_Alltoall and 2d_Alltoall depend on the supercomputer network system and number of processors in each dimension. There is enough leeway for users to optimize performance for their conditions. In the PME method, short-range real-space interactions as well as long-range reciprocal-space interactions are calculated. Our volumetric decomposition schemes are particularly useful when used in conjunction with the recently developed midpoint cell method for short-range interactions, due to the same decompositions of real and reciprocal spaces. The 1d_Alltoall scheme of 3D FFT takes 4.7 ms to simulate one MD cycle for a virus system containing more than 1 million atoms using 32,768 cores on the K computer.

  18. Wafer-level packaging with compression-controlled seal ring bonding

    DOEpatents

    Farino, Anthony J

    2013-11-05

    A device may be provided in a sealed package by aligning a seal ring provided on a first surface of a first semiconductor wafer in opposing relationship with a seal ring that is provided on a second surface of a second semiconductor wafer and surrounds a portion of the second wafer that contains the device. Forcible movement of the first and second wafer surfaces toward one another compresses the first and second seal rings against one another. A physical barrier against the movement, other than the first and second seal rings, is provided between the first and second wafer surfaces.

  19. The role of biodiversity for the carbon cycle: Implementation of functional diversity in a dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakschewski, Boris; Boit, Alice; von Bloh, Werner; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2013-04-01

    Most dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) condense natural plant diversity to plant functional types (PFTs). A single PFT usually represents a whole biome, e.g. the PFT "tropical broadleaved evergreen tree" and its constant set of functional trait parameters covers entire regions in the model. This approach minimizes functional diversity and neglects the effects of functional diversity on the modeled vegetation and carbon dynamics. Our work aims to overcome this limitation and extend functional diversity in the vegetation model LPJmL to explore the role of biodiversity in climate change mitigation. Our approach improves the representation of biodiversity in the model by incorporating the natural ranges and eco-physiological interrelations of relevant plant traits. Empirical data on plant traits is provided by the TRY data base (www.try-db.org) and the ROBIN project (www.robinproject.info). A first sensitivity analysis revealed that simulated carbon stocks are very stable under a large range of trait combinations. However, several model output variables appeared highly sensitive to small changes of plant trait parameters and thus the introduction of trait ranges requires several improvements of the PFT concept of LPJmL. One possible way of improvement is to implement missing plant-trait tradeoffs, which will be used to simulate the growth of individual plants with flexible parameter combinations at the landscape scale. Our improved model will enable for the simulation of local competition and complementarity of individual plants which, according to their trait values and ranges, can then be categorized into a much broader variety of PFTs. This modeling approach will allow for investigating the role of bio- and functional diversity in the global carbon cycle as well as in regional vegetation dynamics.

  20. Characterization of Boron Diffusion Phenomena According to the Specific Resistivity of N-Type Si Wafer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Jin; Choi, Chel-Jong; Park, Gye-Choon; Yang, O-Bong

    2016-02-01

    This paper is directed to characterize the boron diffusion process according to the specific resistivity of the Si wafer. N-type Si wafers were used with the specific resistivity of 0.5-3.2 omega-cm, 1.0-6.5 omega-cm and 2.0-8.0 omega-cm. The boron tribromide (BBr3) was used as boron source to create the PN junction on N-type Si wafer. The boron diffusion in N-type Si wafer was characterized by sheet resistance of wafer surface, secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements (SIMS) and surface life time analysis. The degree of boron diffusion was depended on the variation in specific resistivity and sheet resistance of the bare N-type Si wafer. The boron diffused N-Si wafer exhibited the average junction depth of 750 nm and boron concentration of 1 x 10(19). N-type Si wafer with the different specific resistance considerably affected the boron diffusion length and life time of Si wafer. It was found that the lifetime of boron diffused wafer was proportional to the sheet resistance and resistivity. However, optimization process may necessary to achieve the high efficiency through the high sheet resistance wafer, because the metallization process control is very sensitive.

  1. A silicon wafer packaging solution for HB-LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Tom; Weichel, Steen; Isaacs, Steven; Kuhmann, Jochen

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present HyLED, a silicon wafer packaging solution for high-brightness LEDs. The associated technology is batch micro-machining/metallisation processing of silicon wafers allowing significant reduction of the final device size. The presented package is multi-functional where the micro-machined cavity acts as reflector, thermal conductor and reservoir for the silicone/colour conversion substance. The base material, silicon, has excellent mechanical and thermal properties and enables direct integration of intelligence. We present customer specific solutions, open tool samples and performance data for optical and thermal parameters and reliability testing. Thermal resistance values of R<5 K/W, junction-to-board are demonstrated.

  2. Chemical method for producing smooth surfaces on silicon wafers

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad

    2003-01-01

    An improved method for producing optically smooth surfaces in silicon wafers during wet chemical etching involves a pre-treatment rinse of the wafers before etching and a post-etching rinse. The pre-treatment with an organic solvent provides a well-wetted surface that ensures uniform mass transfer during etching, which results in optically smooth surfaces. The post-etching treatment with an acetic acid solution stops the etching instantly, preventing any uneven etching that leads to surface roughness. This method can be used to etch silicon surfaces to a depth of 200 .mu.m or more, while the finished surfaces have a surface roughness of only 15-50 .ANG. (RMS).

  3. JOINT RIGIDITY ASSESSMENT WITH PIEZOELECTRIC WAFERS AND ACOUSTIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Angela C.; Maji, Arup K.

    2010-02-22

    There has been an interest in the development of rapid deployment satellites. In a modular satellite design, different panels of specific functions can be pre-manufactured. The satellite can then be assembled and tested just prior to deployment. Traditional vibration testing is time-consuming and expensive. An alternative test method to evaluate the connection between two plates will be proposed. The method investigated and described employs piezoelectric wafers to induce and sense lamb waves in two aluminum plates, which were joined by steel brackets to form an 'L-Style' joint. Lamb wave behavior and piezoelectric material properties will be discussed; the experimental setup and results will be presented. A set of 4 piezoelectric ceramic wafers were used alternately as source and sensor. The energy transmitted was shown to correlate with a mechanical assessment of the joint, demonstrating that this method of testing is a feasible and reliable way to inspect the rigidity of joints.

  4. A domain decomposition approach to implementing fault slip in finite-element models of quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Knepley, M.G.; Williams, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We employ a domain decomposition approach with Lagrange multipliers to implement fault slip in a finite-element code, PyLith, for use in both quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation applications. This integrated approach to solving both quasi-static and dynamic simulations leverages common finite-element data structures and implementations of various boundary conditions, discretization schemes, and bulk and fault rheologies. We have developed a custom preconditioner for the Lagrange multiplier portion of the system of equations that provides excellent scalability with problem size compared to conventional additive Schwarz methods. We demonstrate application of this approach using benchmarks for both quasi-static viscoelastic deformation and dynamic spontaneous rupture propagation that verify the numerical implementation in PyLith.

  5. Surface shape control of the workpiece in a double-spindle triple-workstation wafer grinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianglong, Zhu; Renke, Kang; Zhigang, Dong; Guang, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Double-spindle triple-workstation (DSTW) ultra precision grinders are mainly used in production lines for manufacturing and back thinning large diameter (>= 300 mm) silicon wafers for integrated circuits. It is important, but insufficiently studied, to control the wafer shape ground on a DSTW grinder by adjusting the inclination angles of the spindles and work tables. In this paper, the requirements of the inclination angle adjustment of the grinding spindles and work tables in DSTW wafer grinders are analyzed. A reasonable configuration of the grinding spindles and work tables in DSTW wafer grinders are proposed. Based on the proposed configuration, an adjustment method of the inclination angle of grinding spindles and work tables for DSTW wafer grinders is put forward. The mathematical models of wafer shape with the adjustment amount of inclination angles for both fine and rough grinding spindles are derived. The proposed grinder configuration and adjustment method will provide helpful instruction for DSTW wafer grinder design.

  6. A photo-sensor on thin polysilicon membrane embedded in wafer level package LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Kwan; Lee, Hee Chul

    2012-06-01

    A wafer level packaging LED with photo-sensor which is fabricated on thin poly-silicon membrane located on the corner of silicon cavity is presented in this paper. The wafer substrate was fabricated with (100) orientation silicon wafer and a cavity was etched on the top of the wafer with wet chemical anisotropic etching process for mounting a LED chip. A thin polysilicon membrane was fabricated on the corner of the cavity and a MSM (Metal Semiconductor Metal) type photo-sensor was fabricated on the thin polysilicon membrane. The photo-sensor fabrication and LED packaging were completed on wafer level. The embedded photo-sensor in a wafer level packaging LED is designed to measure light intensity of a LED. The membrane structure photo-sensor can sense the light of the mounted LED directly, so it can measure accurate light intensity of the wafer level packing LED.

  7. Very large scale heterogeneous integration (VLSHI) and wafer-level vacuum packaging for infrared bolometer focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Fredrik; Roxhed, Niclas; Fischer, Andreas C.; Samel, Björn; Ericsson, Per; Hoivik, Nils; Lapadatu, Adriana; Bring, Martin; Kittilsland, Gjermund; Stemme, Göran; Niklaus, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Imaging in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 μm is an extremely useful tool for non-contact measurement and imaging of temperature in many industrial, automotive and security applications. However, the cost of the infrared (IR) imaging components has to be significantly reduced to make IR imaging a viable technology for many cost-sensitive applications. This paper demonstrates new and improved fabrication and packaging technologies for next-generation IR imaging detectors based on uncooled IR bolometer focal plane arrays. The proposed technologies include very large scale heterogeneous integration for combining high-performance, SiGe quantum-well bolometers with electronic integrated read-out circuits and CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packing. The fabrication and characterization of bolometers with a pitch of 25 μm × 25 μm that are arranged on read-out-wafers in arrays with 320 × 240 pixels are presented. The bolometers contain a multi-layer quantum well SiGe thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistance of -3.0%/K. The proposed CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packaging technology uses Cu-Sn solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding. The presented technologies are suitable for implementation in cost-efficient fabless business models with the potential to bring about the cost reduction needed to enable low-cost IR imaging products for industrial, security and automotive applications.

  8. Wafer-level radiometric performance testing of uncooled microbolometer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Denis G.; Topart, Patrice; Tremblay, Bruno; Julien, Christian; Martin, Louis; Vachon, Carl

    2014-03-01

    A turn-key semi-automated test system was constructed to perform on-wafer testing of microbolometer arrays. The system allows for testing of several performance characteristics of ROIC-fabricated microbolometer arrays including NETD, SiTF, ROIC functionality, noise and matrix operability, both before and after microbolometer fabrication. The system accepts wafers up to 8 inches in diameter and performs automated wafer die mapping using a microscope camera. Once wafer mapping is completed, a custom-designed quick insertion 8-12 μm AR-coated Germanium viewport is placed and the chamber is pumped down to below 10-5 Torr, allowing for the evaluation of package-level focal plane array (FPA) performance. The probe card is electrically connected to an INO IRXCAM camera core, a versatile system that can be adapted to many types of ROICs using custom-built interface printed circuit boards (PCBs). We currently have the capability for testing 384x288, 35 μm pixel size and 160x120, 52 μm pixel size FPAs. For accurate NETD measurements, the system is designed to provide an F/1 view of two rail-mounted blackbodies seen through the Germanium window by the die under test. A master control computer automates the alignment of the probe card to the dies, the positioning of the blackbodies, FPA image frame acquisition using IRXCAM, as well as data analysis and storage. Radiometric measurement precision has been validated by packaging dies measured by the automated probing system and re-measuring the SiTF and Noise using INO's pre-existing benchtop system.

  9. Wafer-scale plasmonic and photonic crystal sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M. C.; Liu, J.-N.; Farhang, A.; Williamson, B.; Black, M.; Wangensteen, T.; Fraser, J.; Petrova, R.; Cunningham, B. T.

    2015-08-01

    200 mm diameter wafer-scale fabrication, metrology, and optical modeling results are reviewed for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors based on 2-D metallic nano-dome and nano-hole arrays (NHA's) as well as 1-D photonic crystal sensors based on a leaky-waveguide mode resonance effect, with potential applications in label free sensing, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and surface-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SEFS). Potential markets include micro-arrays for medical diagnostics, forensic testing, environmental monitoring, and food safety. 1-D and 2-D nanostructures were fabricated on glass, fused silica, and silicon wafers using optical lithography and semiconductor processing techniques. Wafer-scale optical metrology results are compared to FDTD modeling and presented along with application-based performance results, including label-free plasmonic and photonic crystal sensing of both surface binding kinetics and bulk refractive index changes. In addition, SEFS and SERS results are presented for 1-D photonic crystal and 2-D metallic nano-array structures. Normal incidence transmittance results for a 550 nm pitch NHA showed good bulk refractive index sensitivity, however an intensity-based design with 665 nm pitch was chosen for use as a compact, label-free sensor at both 650 and 632.8 nm wavelengths. The optimized NHA sensor gives an SPR shift of about 480 nm per refractive index unit when detecting a series of 0-40% glucose solutions, but according to modeling shows about 10 times greater surface sensitivity when operating at 532 nm. Narrow-band photonic crystal resonance sensors showed quality factors over 200, with reasonable wafer-uniformity in terms of both resonance position and peak height.

  10. Towards reduced impact of EUV mask defectivity on wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, R.; Van den Heuvel, D.; Pacco, A.; Pollentier, I.; Baudemprez, B.; Jehoul, C.; Hermans, J.; Hendrickx, E.

    2014-07-01

    The defectivity challenges of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks, that need to be addressed before production readiness of EUV lithography is assured from the mask perspective, are twofold. First, the EUV-specific defect type relating to the multi-layer (ML) mirror, the so-called ML-defects, require to become more detectable than they are printable. This not only requires proven capability of blank inspection, but also the existence of satisfactory printability mitigation strategies (comprising avoidance, pattern shift methodology, compensation repair). Both these assets need to become available within the mask supply chain, as there is little that can still be done about such residual defects at the wafer fab. In a production phase, finding unexpected printing ML-defects is unacceptable. It is shown how the specific way-of-working in use at imec, starting from the printed wafer, contributes to related learning and identification of remaining gaps, in getting this issue fully dealt with. The second challenge relates to particle contamination during use of the reticle at the wafer fab. Avoiding overlaycritical particles on the backside of NXE3100 reticles is facilitated by the established way-of-working. Minimizing the occurrence of particles "hopping" between reticles via the electrostatic clamp of the scanner (so-called clamp-traveling particles) is a major driver for appropriate mask cleaning. The latter may not have negative impact by frequent use, in view of the highly vulnerable EUV mask stack, and especially for the present "black-border" solution in which the ML is etched away at the image border on the reticle. A lot of effort is spent into monitoring of NXE3100 reticles for particle adders on the pattern side. This is realized by comparing past and present mask defect maps obtained by inspection of printed wafers with subsequent repeater analysis.

  11. Method for making circular tubular channels with two silicon wafers

    DOEpatents

    Yu, C.M.; Hui, W.C.

    1996-11-19

    A two-wafer microcapillary structure is fabricated by depositing boron nitride (BN) or silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) on two separate silicon wafers (e.g., crystal-plane silicon with [100] or [110] crystal orientation). Photolithography is used with a photoresist to create exposed areas in the deposition for plasma etching. A slit entry through to the silicon is created along the path desired for the ultimate microcapillary. Acetone is used to remove the photoresist. An isotropic etch, e.g., such as HF/HNO{sub 3}/CH{sub 3}COOH, then erodes away the silicon through the trench opening in the deposition layer. A channel with a half-circular cross section is then formed in the silicon along the line of the trench in the deposition layer. Wet etching is then used to remove the deposition layer. The two silicon wafers are aligned and then bonded together face-to-face to complete the microcapillary. 11 figs.

  12. Method for making circular tubular channels with two silicon wafers

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.; Hui, Wing C.

    1996-01-01

    A two-wafer microcapillary structure is fabricated by depositing boron nitride (BN) or silicon nitride (Si.sub.3 N.sub.4) on two separate silicon wafers (e.g., crystal-plane silicon with [100] or [110] crystal orientation). Photolithography is used with a photoresist to create exposed areas in the deposition for plasma etching. A slit entry through to the silicon is created along the path desired for the ultimate microcapillary. Acetone is used to remove the photoresist. An isotropic etch, e.g., such as HF/HNO.sub.3 /CH.sub.3 COOH, then erodes away the silicon through the trench opening in the deposition layer. A channel with a half-circular cross section is then formed in the silicon along the line of the trench in the deposition layer. Wet etching is then used to remove the deposition layer. The two silicon wafers are aligned and then bonded together face-to-face to complete the microcapillary.

  13. Physical mechanisms of copper-copper wafer bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Rebhan, B.; Hingerl, K.

    2015-10-07

    The study of the physical mechanisms driving Cu-Cu wafer bonding allowed for reducing the bonding temperatures below 200 °C. Metal thermo-compression Cu-Cu wafer bonding results obtained at such low temperatures are very encouraging and suggest that the process is possible even at room temperature if some boundary conditions are fulfilled. Sputtered (PVD) and electroplated Cu thin layers were investigated, and the analysis of both metallization techniques demonstrated the importance of decreasing Cu surface roughness. For an equal surface roughness, the bonding temperature of PVD Cu wafers could be even further reduced due to the favorable microstructure. Their smaller grain size enhances the length of the grain boundaries (observed on the surface prior bonding), acting as efficient mass transfer channels across the interface, and hence the grains are able to grow over the initial bonding interface. Due to the higher concentration of random high-angle grain boundaries, this effect is intensified. The model presented is explaining the microstructural changes based on atomic migration, taking into account that the reduction of the grain boundary area is the major driving force to reduce the Gibbs free energy, and predicts the subsequent microstructure evolution (grain growth) during thermal annealing.

  14. Output blue light evaluation for phosphor based smart white LED wafer level packages.

    PubMed

    Kolahdouz, Zahra; Rostamian, Ali; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Ma, Teng; van Zeijl, Henk; Zhang, Kouchi

    2016-02-22

    This study presents a blue light detector for evaluating the output light of phosphor based white LED package. It is composed of a silicon stripe-shaped photodiode designed and implemented in a 2 μm BiCMOS process which can be used for wafer level integration of different passive and active devices all in just 5 lithography steps. The final device shows a high selectivity to blue light. The maximum responsivity at 480 nm is matched with the target blue LED illumination. The designed structure have better responsivity compared to simple photodiode structure due to reducing the effect of dead layer formation close to the surface because of implantation. It has also a two-fold increase in the responsivity and quantum efficiency compared to previously similar published sensors. PMID:26906985

  15. Adhesive wafer bonding using a molded thick benzocyclobutene layer for wafer-level integration of MEMS and LSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makihata, M.; Tanaka, S.; Muroyama, M.; Matsuzaki, S.; Yamada, H.; Nakayama, T.; Yamaguchi, U.; Mima, K.; Nonomura, Y.; Fujiyoshi, M.; Esashi, M.

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes a wafer bonding process using a 50 µm thick benzocyclobutene (BCB) layer which has vias and metal electrodes. The vias were fabricated by molding BCB using a glass mold. During the molding, worm-like voids grew between BCB and the mold due to the shrinkage of polymerizing BCB. They were completely removed by subsequent reflowing in N2. After patterning Al on the reflowed BCB for the electrodes and via connections, bonding with a glass substrate was performed. Voidless bonding without damage in the vias and electrodes was achieved. Through the process, the control of the polymerization degree of BCB is important, and thus the polymerization degree was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The developed process is useful for the wafer-bonding-based integration of different devices, e.g. micro electro mechanical systems and large-scale integrated circuits.

  16. Bulk Laser Material Modification: Towards a Kerfless Laser Wafering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBeau, James

    Due to the ever increasing relevance of finer machining control as well as necessary reduction in material waste by large area semiconductor device manufacturers, a novel bulk laser machining method was investigated. Because the cost of silicon and sapphire substrates are limiting to the reduction in cost of devices in both the light emitting diode (LED) and solar industries, and the present substrate wafering process results in >50% waste, the need for an improved ingot wafering technique exists. The focus of this work is the design and understanding of a novel semiconductor wafering technique that utilizes the nonlinear absorption properties of band-gapped materials to achieve bulk (subsurface) morphological changes in matter using highly focused laser light. A method and tool was designed and developed to form controlled damage regions in the bulk of a crystalline sapphire wafer leaving the surfaces unaltered. The controllability of the subsurface damage geometry was investigated, and the effect of numerical aperture of the focusing optic, energy per pulse, wavelength, and number of pulses was characterized for a nanosecond pulse length variable wavelength Nd:YAG OPO laser. A novel model was developed to describe the geometry of laser induced morphological changes in the bulk of semiconducting materials for nanosecond pulse lengths. The beam propagation aspect of the model was based on ray-optics, and the full Keldysh multiphoton photoionization theory in conjuncture with Thornber's and Drude's models for impact ionization were used to describe high fluence laser light absorption and carrier generation ultimately resulting in permanent material modification though strong electron-plasma absorption and plasma melting. Although the electron-plasma description of laser damage formation is usually reserved for extremely short laser pulses (<20 ps), this work shows that it can be adapted for longer pulses of up to tens of nanoseconds. In addition to a model

  17. Mechanical Properties of Photovoltaic Silicon in Relation to Wafer Breakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulshreshtha, Prashant Kumar

    This thesis focuses on the fundamental understanding of stress-modified crack-propagation in photovoltaic (PV) silicon in relation to the critical issue of PV silicon "wafer breakage". The interactions between a propagating crack and impurities/defects/residual stresses have been evaluated for consequential fracture path in a thin PV Si wafer. To investigate the mechanism of brittle fracture in silicon, the phase transformations induced by elastic energy released at a propagating crack-tip have been evaluated by locally stressing the diamond cubic Si lattice using a rigid Berkovich nanoindenter tip (radius ≈50 nm). Unique pressure induced phase transformations and hardness variations have been then related to the distribution of precipitates (O, Cu, Fe etc.), and the local stresses in the wafer. This research demonstrates for the first time the "ductile-like fracture" in almost circular crack path that significantly deviates from its energetically favorable crystallographic [110](111) system. These large diameter (≈ 200 mm) Si wafers were sliced to less than 180 microm thickness from a Czochralski (CZ) ingot that was grown at faster than normal growth rates. The vacancy (vSi) driven precipitation of oxygen at enhanced thermal gradients in the wafer core develops large localized stresses (upto 100 MPa) which we evaluated using Raman spectral analysis. Additional micro-FTIR mapping and microscopic etch pit measurements in the wafer core have related the observed crack path deviations to the presence of concentric ring-like distributions of oxygen precipitates (OPs). To replicate these "real-world" breakage scenarios and provide better insight on crack-propagation, several new and innovative tools/devices/methods have been developed in this study. An accurate quantitative profiling of local stress, phase changes and load-carrying ability of Si lattice has been performed in the vicinity of the controlled micro-cracks created using micro-indentations to represent

  18. Characterization of guided wave propagation with piezoelectric wafer actuators in prestressed plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, F.; Huang, G. L.

    2011-04-01

    Plate-like aerospace engineering structures are prone to mechanical/residual load during flight operation. The mechanical/residual prestresses can cause significant changes in guided-wave (GW) propagation for structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. The paper focuses on the characterization of the GW propagation using surfacebonded piezoelectric wafer actuators in metallic spacecraft plates under prestresses. First, a new in-plane analytical model with coupled piezo-elastodynamics is proposed to quantitatively capture the dynamic load transfer between a thin piezoelectric actuator bonded onto an isotropic plate that is subject to prestresses. Based on the developed model, effects of prestresses on the GW propagation generated by piezoelectric actuators are then analyzed and demonstrated. It can be found that the both time-of-flight and amplitude of wave responses can be affected by the presence of prestresses in plates. The results hopefully provide useful information for the real-time SHM.

  19. Metal-induced rapid transformation of diamond into single and multilayer graphene on wafer scale

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Diana; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Narayanan, Badri; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Yan, Zhong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Zinovev, Alexander; Rosenmann, Daniel; Sumant, Anirudha V.

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of intrinsic properties of graphene during the transfer process constitutes a major challenge in graphene device fabrication, stimulating the need for direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates. Previous attempts of metal-induced transformation of diamond and silicon carbide into graphene suffers from metal contamination and inability to scale graphene growth over large area. Here, we introduce a direct approach to transform polycrystalline diamond into high-quality graphene layers on wafer scale (4 inch in diameter) using a rapid thermal annealing process facilitated by a nickel, Ni thin film catalyst on top. We show that the process can be tuned to grow single or multilayer graphene with good electronic properties. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanism of graphene growth on polycrystalline diamond. In addition, we demonstrate the lateral growth of free-standing graphene over micron-sized pre-fabricated holes, opening exciting opportunities for future graphene/diamond-based electronics. PMID:27373740

  20. Metal-induced rapid transformation of diamond into single and multilayer graphene on wafer scale.

    PubMed

    Berman, Diana; Deshmukh, Sanket A; Narayanan, Badri; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Yan, Zhong; Balandin, Alexander A; Zinovev, Alexander; Rosenmann, Daniel; Sumant, Anirudha V

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of intrinsic properties of graphene during the transfer process constitutes a major challenge in graphene device fabrication, stimulating the need for direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates. Previous attempts of metal-induced transformation of diamond and silicon carbide into graphene suffers from metal contamination and inability to scale graphene growth over large area. Here, we introduce a direct approach to transform polycrystalline diamond into high-quality graphene layers on wafer scale (4 inch in diameter) using a rapid thermal annealing process facilitated by a nickel, Ni thin film catalyst on top. We show that the process can be tuned to grow single or multilayer graphene with good electronic properties. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanism of graphene growth on polycrystalline diamond. In addition, we demonstrate the lateral growth of free-standing graphene over micron-sized pre-fabricated holes, opening exciting opportunities for future graphene/diamond-based electronics. PMID:27373740

  1. Metal-induced rapid transformation of diamond into single and multilayer graphene on wafer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Diana; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Narayanan, Badri; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Yan, Zhong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Zinovev, Alexander; Rosenmann, Daniel; Sumant, Anirudha V.

    2016-07-01

    The degradation of intrinsic properties of graphene during the transfer process constitutes a major challenge in graphene device fabrication, stimulating the need for direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates. Previous attempts of metal-induced transformation of diamond and silicon carbide into graphene suffers from metal contamination and inability to scale graphene growth over large area. Here, we introduce a direct approach to transform polycrystalline diamond into high-quality graphene layers on wafer scale (4 inch in diameter) using a rapid thermal annealing process facilitated by a nickel, Ni thin film catalyst on top. We show that the process can be tuned to grow single or multilayer graphene with good electronic properties. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanism of graphene growth on polycrystalline diamond. In addition, we demonstrate the lateral growth of free-standing graphene over micron-sized pre-fabricated holes, opening exciting opportunities for future graphene/diamond-based electronics.

  2. Implementation of an integrated op-amp based chaotic neuron model and observation of its chaotic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinwoo; Lee, Jewon; Song, Hanjung

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated circuit implementation of an operational amplifier (op-amp) based chaotic neuron model with a bipolar output function, experimental measurements, and analyses of its chaotic behavior. The proposed chaotic neuron model integrated circuit consists of several op-amps, sample and hold circuits, a nonlinear function block for chaotic signal generation, a clock generator, a nonlinear output function, etc. Based on the HSPICE (circuit program) simulation results, approximated empirical equations for analyses were formulated. Then, the chaotic dynamical responses such as bifurcation diagrams, time series, and Lyapunov exponent were calculated using these empirical equations. In addition, we performed simulations about two chaotic neuron systems with four synapses to confirm neural network connections and got normal behavior of the chaotic neuron such as internal state bifurcation diagram according to the synaptic weight variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated using a 0.8-μm single poly complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. Measurements of the fabricated single chaotic neuron with ± 2.5 V power supplies and a 10 kHz sampling clock frequency were carried out and compared with the simulated results.

  3. Implementation of an integrated op-amp based chaotic neuron model and observation of its chaotic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Jinwoo; Lee, Jewon; Song, Hanjung

    2011-03-15

    This paper presents a fully integrated circuit implementation of an operational amplifier (op-amp) based chaotic neuron model with a bipolar output function, experimental measurements, and analyses of its chaotic behavior. The proposed chaotic neuron model integrated circuit consists of several op-amps, sample and hold circuits, a nonlinear function block for chaotic signal generation, a clock generator, a nonlinear output function, etc. Based on the HSPICE (circuit program) simulation results, approximated empirical equations for analyses were formulated. Then, the chaotic dynamical responses such as bifurcation diagrams, time series, and Lyapunov exponent were calculated using these empirical equations. In addition, we performed simulations about two chaotic neuron systems with four synapses to confirm neural network connections and got normal behavior of the chaotic neuron such as internal state bifurcation diagram according to the synaptic weight variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated using a 0.8-{mu}m single poly complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. Measurements of the fabricated single chaotic neuron with {+-}2.5 V power supplies and a 10 kHz sampling clock frequency were carried out and compared with the simulated results.

  4. Wafer-level manufacturing technology of glass microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossner, U.; Hoeftmann, T.; Wieland, R.; Hansch, W.

    2014-08-01

    In high-tech products, there is an increasing demand to integrate glass lenses into complex micro systems. Especially in the lighting industry LEDs and laser diodes used for automotive applications require encapsulated micro lenses. To enable low-cost production, manufacturing of micro lenses on wafer level base using a replication technology is a key technology. This requires accurate forming of thousands of lenses with a diameter of 1-2 mm on a 200 mm wafer compliant with mass production. The article will discuss the technical aspects of a lens manufacturing replication process and the challenges, which need to be solved: choice of an appropriate master for replication, thermally robust interlayer coating, choice of replica glass, bonding and separation procedure. A promising approach for the master substrate material is based on a lens structured high-quality glass wafer with high melting point covered by a coating layer of amorphous silicon or germanium. This layer serves as an interlayer for the glass bonding process. Low pressure chemical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition processes allow a deposition of layer coatings with different hydrogen and doping content influencing their chemical and physical behavior. A time reduced molding process using a float glass enables the formation of high quality lenses while preserving the recyclability of the mother substrate. The challenge is the separation of the replica from the master mold. An overview of chemical methods based on optimized etching of coating layer through small channels will be given and the impact of glass etching on surface roughness is discussed.

  5. GaAs wafer overlay performance affected by annealing heat treatment: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Black, Iain

    2002-07-01

    Further analysis on how wafer distortion affecting the overlay performance during annealing treatment in GaAs wafer fabrication was conducted quantitatively using MONO-LITH software. The experimental results were decomposed as wafer translation, scaling at X and Y direction, rotation and orthogonality. The grid residual was used to describe non- correctable distortion of the wafers, which fits the equations given below: Residual equals Measured - Modeled, which is not a modeled component. The Vector Map displays distribution of error vectors over the wafer or field for various components or overall effect. Based on the component analysis that the misalignment caused by translation and scaling can be compensated by heat treatment if the wafer is placed at a favorable orientation. This can help mitigate the effects of substrate quality in manufactory.

  6. Generation and detection of guided waves using PZT wafer transducers.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Jeroen H; Neumann, John J; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2005-11-01

    We report here the use of finite element simulation and experiments to further explore the operation of the wafer transducer. We have separately modeled the emission and detection processes. In particular, we have calculated the wave velocities and the received voltage signals due to A0 and S0 modes at an output transducer as a function of pulse center frequency. These calculations include the effects of finite pulse width, pulse dispersion, and the detailed interaction between the piezoelectric element and the transmitting medium. We show that the received signals for A0 and S0 modes have maxima near the frequencies predicted from the previously published point-force model.

  7. THz quantum cascade lasers with wafer bonded active regions.

    PubMed

    Brandstetter, M; Deutsch, C; Benz, A; Cole, G D; Detz, H; Andrews, A M; Schrenk, W; Strasser, G; Unterrainer, K

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with a 30 μm thick double-metal waveguide, which are fabricated by stacking two 15 μm thick active regions using a wafer bonding process. By increasing the active region thickness more optical power is generated inside the cavity, the waveguide losses are decreased and the far-field is improved due to a larger facet aperture. In this way the output power is increased by significantly more than a factor of 2 without reducing the maximum operating temperature and without increasing the threshold current.

  8. Addressable Inverter Matrix Tests Integrated-Circuit Wafer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.

    1988-01-01

    Addressing elements indirectly through shift register reduces number of test probes. With aid of new technique, complex test structure on silicon wafer tested with relatively small number of test probes. Conserves silicon area by reduction of area devoted to pads. Allows thorough evaluation of test structure characteristics and of manufacturing process parameters. Test structure consists of shift register and matrix of inverter/transmission-gate cells connected to two-by-ten array of probe pads. Entire pattern contained in square area having only 1.6-millimeter sides. Shift register is conventional static CMOS device using inverters and transmission gates in master/slave D flip-flop configuration.

  9. Network analyzer calibration for cryogenic on-wafer measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Housel, M.S.; Caldwell, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    A cryogenic probe station for on-wafer microwave measurements has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to explore the basic device physics and characterize advanced components for low-temperature applications. The station was designed to operate over a temperature range of 20 to 300 K with a frequency range of DC to 50 GHz. Due to the vacuum and the low temperature environment, the use of microwave probes and the calibration of network analyzer measurements are somewhat elaborate. This paper presents guidelines for probe use and calibration in this environment.

  10. Wafer-scale fabrication of penetrating neural microelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Rajmohan

    In order to have an efficient neural interface, uniformity and predictability of electrodes electrical, and mechanical characteristics are desired. Furthermore, the electrodes should have small active sites to selectively record or stimulate neural signals. Also, there should be close geometrical match between the electrode array and the targeted tissue for long-term stability. Currently the Utah electrode array (UEA) is in either constant electrode length (UEA) or varying length configurations (Utah slant electrode array: USEA). The current processes used to fabricate the UEAs impose limitations in the tolerances of the electrode array geometry. Furthermore, the flat architecture of the UEA and convoluted geometry of the targeted tissue results in poor coupling between the two "mating" surfaces, leading in active electrode tips that are not in proximity to the neuronal tissue. Therefore, a robust, flexible and high precision fabrication technology is needed that can produce (a) uniformly shaped microelectrodes (b) small and uniformly exposed active tip sites and (c) convoluted electrode arrays for better geometrical match. This dissertation presents a wafer-scale fabrication process for both the UEA and the USEA. A wafer-scale etching method has been developed and optimum etching conditions are established to achieve uniform shape electrode arrays. Also, the etching rate of silicon columns, produced by dicing, is studied as a function of temperature, etching time and stirring rate in the acid solution. Furthermore, a novel photoresist based masking technique for procuring extremely small active area has been developed on wafer-scale. In this technique, the tip exposure is controlled by varying the spin speed during photoresist coating. The technique allows fabrication of uniformly exposed tip lengths, over a range of 30 to 350 microm in length. Lastly, a novel array fabrication technique is developed for building a variety of neural interface devices having

  11. Characterization of wafer charging mechanisms and oxide survival prediction methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lukaszek, W.; Dixon, W.; Vella, M.; Messick, C.; Reno, S.; Shideler, J.

    1994-04-01

    Unipolar, EEPROM-based peak potential sensors and current sensors have been used to characterize the I-V relationship of charging transients which devices normally experience during the course of ion implantation. The results indicate that the charging sources may appear to behave like current-sources or voltage-sources, depending on the impedance of the load. This behavior may be understood in terms of plasma concepts. The ability to empirically characterize the I-V characteristics of charging sources using the CHARM-2 monitor wafers opens the way for prediction of failure rates of oxides subjected to specific processes, if the oxide Q{sub bd} distributions are known.

  12. Phosphorus-induced positive charge in native oxide of silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hirofumi; Munakata, Chusuke

    1994-06-01

    Alternating current surface photovoltage is enhanced in p-type silicon (Si) wafers, which are rinsed with a phosphorus (P)-contaminated water solution, whereas it is reduced in n-type Si wafers, indicating that the positive charge appears at wafer surfaces. This result suggests that P reacts with SiO2 in the form of (POSi)+ network, causing a positive charge in the native oxide.

  13. EUV mask and wafer defectivity: strategy and evaluation for full die defect inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonam, Ravi; Tien, Hung-Yu; Chou, Acer; Meli, Luciana; Halle, Scott; Wu, Ivy; Huang, Xiaoxia; Lei, Chris; Kuan, Chiyan; Wang, Fei; Corliss, Daniel; Fang, Wei; Jau, Jack; Qi, Zhengqing John; Badger, Karen; Turley, Christina; Rankin, Jed

    2016-03-01

    Over the past few years numerous advancements in EUV Lithography have proven its feasibility of insertion into High Volume Manufacturing (HVM).1, 2 A lot of progress is made in the area of pellicle development but a commercially solution with related infrastructure is currently unavailable.3, 4 Due to current mask structure and unavailability of a pellicle, a comprehensive strategy to qualify (native defects) and monitor (adder defects) defectivity on mask and wafer is required for implementing EUV Lithography in High Volume Manufacturing. In this work, we assess multiple strategies for mask and wafer defect inspection including a two-fold solution to leverage resolution of e-beam inspection along with throughput of optical inspection are evaluated. Defect capture rates for inspections based on full-die, critical areas based on priority and hotspots based on design and prior inspection data are evaluated. Each strategy has merits and de-merits, particularly related to throughput, effective die coverage and computational overhead. A production ready EUV Exposure tool was utilized to perform exposures at the IBM EUV Center of Excellence in Albany, NY for EUV Lithography Development along with a fully automated line of EUV Mask Infrastructure tools. We will present strategies considered in this study and discuss respective results. The results from the study indicate very low transfer rate of defect detection events from optical mask inspection. They also suggest a hybrid strategy of utilizing both optical and e-beam inspection can provide a comprehensive defect detection which can be employed in High Volume Manufacturing.

  14. Grid integration and smart grid implementation of emerging technologies in electric power systems through approximate dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jingjie

    A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of consumers' responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way communication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, the intelligent energy controller on the consumer-side can help increase the utilization rate of the intermittent renewable resource, as the demand can be managed to match the output profile of renewables, thus making the intermittent resource such as wind and solar more economically competitive in the long run. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to present how real-time retail pricing, aided by control automation devices, can be integrated into the wholesale electricity market under various uncertainties through approximate dynamic programming. What distinguishes this study from the existing work in the literature is that whole- sale electricity prices are endogenously determined as we solve a system operator's economic dispatch problem on an hourly basis over the entire optimization horizon. This modeling and algorithm framework will allow a feedback loop between electricity prices and electricity consumption to be fully captured. While we are interested in a near-optimal solution using approximate dynamic programming; deterministic linear programming benchmarks are use to demonstrate the quality of our solutions. The other goal of the dissertation is to use this framework to provide numerical evidence to the debate on whether real-time pricing is superior than the current flat rate structure in terms of both economic and environmental impacts. For this purpose, the modeling and algorithm framework is tested on a large-scale test case

  15. Clinical implementation of enhanced dynamic wedges into the Pinnacle treatment planning system: Monte Carlo validation and patient-specific QA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Munir; Deng, Jun; Lund, Molly W.; Chen, Zhe; Kimmett, James; Moran, Meena S.; Nath, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to present a systematic Monte Carlo validation study on the clinical implementation of the enhanced dynamic wedges (EDWs) into the Pinnacle3 (Philips Medical Systems, Fitchburg, WI) treatment planning system (TPS) and QA procedures for patient plan verification treated with EDWs. Modeling of EDW beams in the Pinnacle3 TPS, which employs a collapsed-cone convolution superposition (CCCS) dose model, was based on a combination of measured open-beam data and the 'Golden Segmented Treatment Table' (GSTT) provided by Varian for each photon beam energy. To validate EDW models, dose profiles of 6 and 10 MV photon beams from a Clinac 2100 C/D were measured in virtual water at depths from near-surface to 30 cm for a wide range of field sizes and wedge angles using the Profiler 2 (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) diode array system. The EDW output factors (EDWOFs) for square fields from 4 to 20 cm wide were measured in virtual water using a small-volume Farmer-type ionization chamber placed at a depth of 10 cm on the central axis. Furthermore, the 6 and 10 MV photon beams emerging from the treatment head of Clinac 2100 C/D were fully modeled and the central-axis depth doses, the off-axis dose profiles and the output factors in water for open and dynamically wedged fields were calculated using the Monte Carlo (MC) package EGS4. Our results have shown that (1) both the central-axis depth doses and the off-axis dose profiles of various EDWs computed with the CCCS dose model and MC simulations showed good agreement with the measurements to within 2%/2 mm; (2) measured EDWOFs used for monitor-unit calculation in Pinnacle3 TPS agreed well with the CCCS and MC predictions within 2%; (3) all the EDW fields satisfied our validation criteria of 1% relative dose difference and 2 mm distance-to-agreement (DTA) with 99-100% passing rate in routine patient treatment plan verification using MapCheck 2D diode array.

  16. Critical dimension control using ultrashort laser for improving wafer critical dimension uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avizemer, Dan; Sharoni, Ofir; Oshemkov, Sergey; Cohen, Avi; Dayan, Asaf; Khurana, Ranjan; Kewley, Dave

    2015-07-01

    Requirements for control of critical dimension (CD) become more demanding as the integrated circuit (IC) feature size specifications become tighter and tighter. Critical dimension control, also known as CDC, is a well-known laser-based process in the IC industry that has proven to be robust, repeatable, and efficient in adjusting wafer CD uniformity (CDU) [Proc. SPIE 6152, 615225 (2006)]. The process involves locally and selectively attenuating the deep ultraviolet light which goes through the photomask to the wafer. The input data for the CDC process in the wafer fab is typically taken from wafer CDU data, which is measured by metrology tools such as wafer-critical dimension-scanning electron microscopy (CD-SEM), wafer optical scatterometry, or wafer level CD (WLCD). The CD correction process uses the CDU data in order to create an attenuation correction contour, which is later applied by the in-situ ultrashort laser system of the CDC to locally change the transmission of the photomask. The ultrashort pulsed laser system creates small, partially scattered, Shade-In-Elements (also known as pixels) by focusing the laser beam inside the quartz bulk of the photomask. This results in the formation of a localized, intravolume, quartz modified area, which has a different refractive index than the quartz bulk itself. The CDC process flow for improving wafer CDU in a wafer fab with detailed explanations of the shading elements formation inside the quartz by the ultrashort pulsed laser is reviewed.

  17. Influence of temperature and backside roughness on the emissivity of Si wafers during rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Maex, Karen

    1992-12-01

    The influence of temperature and roughness on the backside emissivity of Si wafers was studied. In situ measurements were done in two commercial rapid thermal processing systems. An experimental setup was built for in situ emissivity measurements of wafers with a polished or nonpolished backside. The emissivity of double-side polished wafers was measured for temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C and at wavelengths of 1.7 and 3.4 μm. It was found that the absorption coefficient α of lightly doped silicon is described by the equation α=4.15×10-5λ1.51T2.95 exp(-7000/T) cm-1, for wavelengths λ ranging from 1.5 to 5 μm and temperatures T ranging from 673 to 973 K (λ in μm, T in K). The backside emissivity of Si wafers with different roughnesses was measured. At temperatures above 600-700 °C the wafers are opaque and the emissivity is only slightly dependent on backside roughness. At lower temperatures the wafers are partially transparent and the emissivity is strongly dependent on the backside roughness of the wafer due to light trapping in the bulk of the wafer. For the latter case a new model was developed to simulate the emissivity of wafers with a rough backside at low temperatures.

  18. Growth of Catalyst-Free Epitaxial InAs Nanowires on Si Wafers Using Metallic Masks.

    PubMed

    Soo, M Teng; Zheng, Kun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Zou, Jin

    2016-07-13

    Development of heteroepitaxy growth of catalyst-free vertical III-V nanowires on Si wafers is highly desirable for future nanoscale Si-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, a proof-of-concept approach is developed for catalyst-free heteroepitaxy growth of InAs nanowires on Si wafers. Before the growth of InAs nanowires, a Si-compatible metallic film with a thickness of several tens of nanometers was predeposited on a Si wafer and then annealed to form nanosize openings so as to obtain a metallic mask. These nano-openings exposed the surface of the Si wafer, which allowed subsequent nucleation and growth of epitaxial InAs nanowires directly on the surface of the Si wafer. The small size of the nano-openings limits the lateral growth of the nanostructures but promotes their axial growth. Through this approach, catalyst-free InAs nanowires were grown on both Si (111) and (001) wafers successfully at different growth temperatures. In particular, ultralong defect-free InAs nanowires with the wurtzite structure were grown the Si (111) wafers at 550 °C using the Ni mask. This study offers a simple, cost-effective, and scalable method to grow catalyst-free III-V nanowires on Si wafers. The simplicity of the approach opens a new avenue for the growth and integration of catalyst-free high-quality heteroepitaxial III-V nanowires on Si wafers.

  19. Growth of Catalyst-Free Epitaxial InAs Nanowires on Si Wafers Using Metallic Masks.

    PubMed

    Soo, M Teng; Zheng, Kun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Zou, Jin

    2016-07-13

    Development of heteroepitaxy growth of catalyst-free vertical III-V nanowires on Si wafers is highly desirable for future nanoscale Si-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, a proof-of-concept approach is developed for catalyst-free heteroepitaxy growth of InAs nanowires on Si wafers. Before the growth of InAs nanowires, a Si-compatible metallic film with a thickness of several tens of nanometers was predeposited on a Si wafer and then annealed to form nanosize openings so as to obtain a metallic mask. These nano-openings exposed the surface of the Si wafer, which allowed subsequent nucleation and growth of epitaxial InAs nanowires directly on the surface of the Si wafer. The small size of the nano-openings limits the lateral growth of the nanostructures but promotes their axial growth. Through this approach, catalyst-free InAs nanowires were grown on both Si (111) and (001) wafers successfully at different growth temperatures. In particular, ultralong defect-free InAs nanowires with the wurtzite structure were grown the Si (111) wafers at 550 °C using the Ni mask. This study offers a simple, cost-effective, and scalable method to grow catalyst-free III-V nanowires on Si wafers. The simplicity of the approach opens a new avenue for the growth and integration of catalyst-free high-quality heteroepitaxial III-V nanowires on Si wafers. PMID:27248817

  20. On finding and using identifiable parameter combinations in nonlinear dynamic systems biology models and COMBOS: a novel web implementation.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Kuo, Christine Er-zhen; DiStefano, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Parameter identifiability problems can plague biomodelers when they reach the quantification stage of development, even for relatively simple models. Structural identifiability (SI) is the primary question, usually understood as knowing which of P unknown biomodel parameters p1,…, pi,…, pP are-and which are not-quantifiable in principle from particular input-output (I-O) biodata. It is not widely appreciated that the same database also can provide quantitative information about the structurally unidentifiable (not quantifiable) subset, in the form of explicit algebraic relationships among unidentifiable pi. Importantly, this is a first step toward finding what else is needed to quantify particular unidentifiable parameters of interest from new I-O experiments. We further develop, implement and exemplify novel algorithms that address and solve the SI problem for a practical class of ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems biology models, as a user-friendly and universally-accessible web application (app)-COMBOS. Users provide the structural ODE and output measurement models in one of two standard forms to a remote server via their web browser. COMBOS provides a list of uniquely and non-uniquely SI model parameters, and-importantly-the combinations of parameters not individually SI. If non-uniquely SI, it also provides the maximum number of different solutions, with important practical implications. The behind-the-scenes symbolic differential algebra algorithms are based on computing Gröbner bases of model attributes established after some algebraic transformations, using the computer-algebra system Maxima. COMBOS was developed for facile instructional and research use as well as modeling. We use it in the classroom to illustrate SI analysis; and have simplified complex models of tumor suppressor p53 and hormone regulation, based on explicit computation of parameter combinations. It's illustrated and validated here for models of moderate complexity, with

  1. Dual-Side Wafer Processing and Resonant Tunneling Transistor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, J.S.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.; Hietala, V.M.; Reno, J.L.; Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.

    1999-07-20

    We describe dual-side wafer processing and its application to resonant tunneling transistors in a planar configuration. The fabrication technique utilizes a novel flip-chip, wafer thinning process called epoxy-bond and stop-etch (EBASE) process, where the substrate material is removed by selective wet etching and stopped at an etch-stop layer. This EBASE method results in a semiconductor epitaxial layer that is typically less than a micron thick and has a mirror-finish, allowing backside gates to be placed in close proximity to frontside gates. Utilizing this technique, a resonant tunneling transistor--the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT)--can be fabricated in a fully planar configuration, where the tunneling between two selectively-contacted 2DEGs in GaAs or InGaAs quantum wells is modulated by surface Schottky gate. Low temperature electrical characterization yields source-drain I-V curves with a gate-tunable negative differential resistance.

  2. Deposition and removal of sodium contamination on silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constant, I.; Tardif, F.; Derrien, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper investigations are performed in order to understand the source of sodium contamination in clean-room environments and to find different cleaning processes able to limit or suppress sodium deposition. In a clean-room environment, the human being has been identified as one of the major sources of sodium. The airborne sodium contamination is essentially transmitted in particle form. In order to limit sodium deposition from the air, the wafers awaiting subsequent processing need to be stored in a protective box or placed far from the human environment and should not be left for much more than 1 week in a class 1 clean room. Also, wet chemistries could cause sodium contamination on wafers particularly during the deionized water rinse. In order to limit the possible contamination, the sodium deposition mechanisms have been studied: they show the typical characteristics of Langmuir adsorption. Temperature and ionic concentration are both parameters which influence the deposition. In water, sodium deposition can be avoided by introducing acid or alkaline solutions or increasing the temperature: it can be drastically reduced by adding traces of HCl (0.01%). Finally, other cleaning chemistries such as SC1 (NH4 OH-H2 O2 -H2 O) in 0.25:1:5 proportion, SC2 (HCl-H2 O2 -H2 O) in 1:1:5 proportion, 0.1% HF and SPM (H2 SO4 -H2 O2 ) in 3:1 proportion reduce the contamination as well.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Photovoltaic Silicon in Relation to Wafer Breakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulshreshtha, Prashant Kumar

    This thesis focuses on the fundamental understanding of stress-modified crack-propagation in photovoltaic (PV) silicon in relation to the critical issue of PV silicon "wafer breakage". The interactions between a propagating crack and impurities/defects/residual stresses have been evaluated for consequential fracture path in a thin PV Si wafer. To investigate the mechanism of brittle fracture in silicon, the phase transformations induced by elastic energy released at a propagating crack-tip have been evaluated by locally stressing the diamond cubic Si lattice using a rigid Berkovich nanoindenter tip (radius ≈50 nm). Unique pressure induced phase transformations and hardness variations have been then related to the distribution of precipitates (O, Cu, Fe etc.), and the local stresses in the wafer. This research demonstrates for the first time the "ductile-like fracture" in almost circular crack path that significantly deviates from its energetically favorable crystallographic [110](111) system. These large diameter (≈ 200 mm) Si wafers were sliced to less than 180 microm thickness from a Czochralski (CZ) ingot that was grown at faster than normal growth rates. The vacancy (vSi) driven precipitation of oxygen at enhanced thermal gradients in the wafer core develops large localized stresses (upto 100 MPa) which we evaluated using Raman spectral analysis. Additional micro-FTIR mapping and microscopic etch pit measurements in the wafer core have related the observed crack path deviations to the presence of concentric ring-like distributions of oxygen precipitates (OPs). To replicate these "real-world" breakage scenarios and provide better insight on crack-propagation, several new and innovative tools/devices/methods have been developed in this study. An accurate quantitative profiling of local stress, phase changes and load-carrying ability of Si lattice has been performed in the vicinity of the controlled micro-cracks created using micro-indentations to represent

  4. Improving scanner wafer alignment performance by target optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Jehoul, Christiane; Socha, Robert; Menchtchikov, Boris; Raghunathan, Sudhar; Kent, Eric; Schoonewelle, Hielke; Tinnemans, Patrick; Tuffy, Paul; Belen, Jun; Wise, Rich

    2016-03-01

    In the process nodes of 10nm and below, the patterning complexity along with the processing and materials required has resulted in a need to optimize alignment targets in order to achieve the required precision, accuracy and throughput performance. Recent industry publications on the metrology target optimization process have shown a move from the expensive and time consuming empirical methodologies, towards a faster computational approach. ASML's Design for Control (D4C) application, which is currently used to optimize YieldStar diffraction based overlay (DBO) metrology targets, has been extended to support the optimization of scanner wafer alignment targets. This allows the necessary process information and design methodology, used for DBO target designs, to be leveraged for the optimization of alignment targets. In this paper, we show how we applied this computational approach to wafer alignment target design. We verify the correlation between predictions and measurements for the key alignment performance metrics and finally show the potential alignment and overlay performance improvements that an optimized alignment target could achieve.

  5. Wafer-scale fabrication of nanoapertures using corner lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burouni, Narges; Berenschot, Erwin; Elwenspoek, Miko; Sarajlic, Edin; Leussink, Pele; Jansen, Henri; Tas, Niels

    2013-07-01

    Several submicron probe technologies require the use of apertures to serve as electrical, optical or fluidic probes; for example, writing precisely using an atomic force microscope or near-field sensing of light reflecting from a biological surface. Controlling the size of such apertures below 100 nm is a challenge in fabrication. One way to accomplish this scale is to use high resolution tools such as deep UV or e-beam. However, these tools are wafer-scale and expensive, or only provide series fabrication. For this reason, in this study a versatile method adapted from conventional micromachining is investigated to fabricate protruding apertures on wafer-scale. This approach is called corner lithography and offers control of the size of the aperture with diameter less than 50 nm using a low-budget lithography tool. For example, by tuning the process parameters, an estimated mean size of 44.5 nm and an estimated standard deviation of 2.3 nm are found. The technique is demonstrated—based on a theoretical foundation including a statistical analysis—with the nanofabrication of apertures at the apexes of micromachined pyramids. Besides apertures, the technique enables the construction of wires, slits and dots into versatile three-dimensional structures.

  6. Process Performance of Optima XEx Single Wafer High Energy Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. H.; Yoon, Jongyoon; Kondratenko, S.; David, J.; Rubin, L. M.; Jang, I. S.; Cha, J. C.; Joo, Y. H.; Lee, A. B.; Jin, S. W.

    2011-01-07

    To meet the process requirements for well formation in future CMOS memory production, high energy implanters require more robust angle, dose, and energy control while maintaining high productivity. The Optima XEx high energy implanter meets these requirements by integrating a traditional LINAC beamline with a robust single wafer handling system. To achieve beam angle control, Optima XEx can control both the horizontal and vertical beam angles to within 0.1 degrees using advanced beam angle measurement and correction. Accurate energy calibration and energy trim functions accelerate process matching by eliminating energy calibration errors. The large volume process chamber and UDC (upstream dose control) using faraday cups outside of the process chamber precisely control implant dose regardless of any chamber pressure increase due to PR (photoresist) outgassing. An optimized RF LINAC accelerator improves reliability and enables singly charged phosphorus and boron energies up to 1200 keV and 1500 keV respectively with higher beam currents. A new single wafer endstation combined with increased beam performance leads to overall increased productivity. We report on the advanced performance of Optima XEx observed during tool installation and volume production at an advanced memory fab.

  7. New fabrication method of glass packages with inclined optical windows for micromirrors on wafer level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchly, Vanessa; Quenzer, Hans-Joachim; Hofmann, Ulrich; Janes, Joachim; Jensen, Björn; Benecke, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    For many applications it is inevitable to protect MEMS devices against environmental impacts like humidity which can affect their performance. Moreover recent publications demonstrates that micro mirrors can achieve very large optical scan angles at moderate driving voltages even exceeding 100 degrees when hermetically sealed under vacuum. While discrete chips may be evacuated and sealed on single die level using small can packages like TO housings, it is obvious that for high volume production a much more economical solution for the realisation of transparent optical packages already on wafer level must be developed. However, since any laser beam crossing a transparent glass surface is partly reflected even when anti-reflective coatings are applied, the construction of a wafer level optical housing suitable for laser projection purpose requires more than the integration of simple plane glass cap. The use of inclined optical windows avoids the occurrence of intense reflections of the incident laser beam in the projected images. This paper describes a unique technology to fabricate glass packages with inclined optical windows for micro mirrors on 8 inch wafers. The new process uses a high temperature glass forming process based on subsequent wafer bonding. A borosilicate glass wafer is bonded together with two structured silicon wafers. By grinding both sides of the wafer stack, a pattern of isolated silicon structures is defined. This preprocessed glass wafer is bonded thereon on a third structured silicon wafer, wherein the silicon islands are inserted into the cavities. By setting a defined pressure level inside the cavities during the final wafer bonding, the silicon glass stack extruded and it is out of plane during a subsequent annealing process at temperatures above the softening point of the glass. Finally the silicon is selectively removed in a wet etching process. This technique allows the fabrication of 8 inch glass wafers with oblique optical surfaces

  8. Implementation of dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model: evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes under corn and soybean rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; McIsaac, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting the earth's climate by altering carbon, water, and energy fluxes, but the climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water, and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). In particular, we implemented crop-specific phenology schemes and dynamic carbon allocation schemes. These schemes account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem, and grain pools. The dynamic vegetation structure simulation better captured the seasonal variability in leaf area index (LAI), canopy height, and root depth. We further implemented dynamic root distribution processes in soil layers, which better simulated the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration. Observational data for LAI, above- and belowground biomass, and carbon, water, and energy fluxes were compiled from two AmeriFlux sites, Mead, NE, and Bondville, IL, USA, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance. For the purposes of calibration and evaluation, we use a corn-soybean (C4-C3) rotation system over the period 2001-2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation and water and energy fluxes for the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated gross primary production (GPP), net radiation fluxes at the top of the canopy, and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results was in sensible heat flux (SH) for corn and soybean at both sites. The dynamic crop growth simulation better captured the seasonal variability in carbon and energy fluxes relative to the static simulation implemented in the original version of ISAM. Especially, with dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, the model

  9. Dynamic analysis and implementation of a digital signal processor of a fractional-order Lorenz-Stenflo system based on the Adomian decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (王会海, H. H. Wang; (孙克辉, K. H. Sun; (贺少波, S. B. He

    2015-01-01

    By adopting the Adomian decomposition method, the fractional-order Lorenz-Stenflo (LS) system is solved and implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP). The discrete iterative formula of the system is deduced, and a Lyapunov exponent spectrum algorithm is designed. The dynamics of the fractional-order LS system with sets of parameters are analyzed by means of Lyapunov exponent spectra, bifurcation diagrams and 0-1 test. The results illustrate that the fractional-order LS system has rich dynamic behaviors, and both the system parameter and the fractional order can be taken as bifurcation parameters. We implement the fractional-order LS system on a DSP platform. Phase portraits of the fractional-order LS system generated in the DSP agree well with those obtained by computer simulations. This lays a good foundation for the application of the fractional-order LS system.

  10. Alternative fabrication process for edgeless detectors on 6 in. wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalliopuska, Juha; Eränen, Simo; Virolainen, Tuula

    2011-05-01

    VTT has developed a straightforward and fast process to fabricate edgeless (active edge) microstrip and pixel detectors on 6 in. (150 mm) wafers. The process avoids all slow process steps, such as polysilicon growth, planarization and additional ICP-etching. We have successfully fabricated 150 μm thick p-on-n and n-on-n prototypes of edgeless detectors having dead layers at the edge with a thickness below a micron. Fabrication was done on high resistivity n-type FZ-silicon wafers. The prototypes include 5×5 and 1×1 cm2 edgeless microstrip detectors with DC-, FOXFET- and PT-couplings. In addition 1.4×1.4 cm2 Medipix2 edgeless pixel detectors were also fabricated.This paper presents leakage current, capacitance and breakdown voltage measurements of different DC-coupled microstrip designs and compares them with respect to the active edge distance and polarity of the detector. The active edge distances were 20, 50 and 100 μm from the strips. Electrical characterization of these detectors on the wafer level gave promising results. A good uniformity in the measured parameters was observed for the inner strips. The parameters of the adjacent strip to the edge showed a dramatic dependence on the active edge distance. Leakage current and capacitance of the inner microstrips were 50-70 nA/cm2 and 580-660 pF/cm2 at, respectively, 40 V reverse bias for the p-on-n. For the n-on-n design these parameters were 116-118 nA/cm2 and 930-960 pF/cm2. The breakdown voltages were above 150 V for p-on-n prototypes and increased as a function of active edge distance. To fully deplete the p-on-n detectors required twice as much reverse bias as was needed for the n-on-n detectors, i.e. 13-28 V.

  11. On Finding and Using Identifiable Parameter Combinations in Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Biology Models and COMBOS: A Novel Web Implementation

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Parameter identifiability problems can plague biomodelers when they reach the quantification stage of development, even for relatively simple models. Structural identifiability (SI) is the primary question, usually understood as knowing which of P unknown biomodel parameters p1,…, pi,…, pP are-and which are not-quantifiable in principle from particular input-output (I-O) biodata. It is not widely appreciated that the same database also can provide quantitative information about the structurally unidentifiable (not quantifiable) subset, in the form of explicit algebraic relationships among unidentifiable pi. Importantly, this is a first step toward finding what else is needed to quantify particular unidentifiable parameters of interest from new I–O experiments. We further develop, implement and exemplify novel algorithms that address and solve the SI problem for a practical class of ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems biology models, as a user-friendly and universally-accessible web application (app)–COMBOS. Users provide the structural ODE and output measurement models in one of two standard forms to a remote server via their web browser. COMBOS provides a list of uniquely and non-uniquely SI model parameters, and–importantly-the combinations of parameters not individually SI. If non-uniquely SI, it also provides the maximum number of different solutions, with important practical implications. The behind-the-scenes symbolic differential algebra algorithms are based on computing Gröbner bases of model attributes established after some algebraic transformations, using the computer-algebra system Maxima. COMBOS was developed for facile instructional and research use as well as modeling. We use it in the classroom to illustrate SI analysis; and have simplified complex models of tumor suppressor p53 and hormone regulation, based on explicit computation of parameter combinations. It’s illustrated and validated here for models of moderate complexity

  12. The application of a crosslinked pectin-based wafer matrix for gradual buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rubina P; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E; Du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Kumar, Pradeep; Khan, Riaz A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop crosslinked wafer matrices and establish the influence of the crosslinker type and processing sequence on achieving gradual buccal drug delivery. Three sets of drug-loaded crosslinked pectin wafers were produced employing the model water-soluble antihistamine, diphenhydramine and were compared with noncrosslinked wafers. The formulations were crosslinked with CaCl(2), BaCl(2), or ZnSO(4) pre- or postlyophilization (sets 1 and 2) as well as pre- and postlyophilization (set 3), respectively. The surface morphology, porositometry, molecular vibrational transitions, textural attributes, thermal and in vitro drug release were characterized and supported by in silico molecular mechanics simulations. Results revealed that crosslinked wafers produced smaller pore sizes (107.63 Å) compared with noncrosslinked matrices (180.53 Å) due to molecular crosslinks formed between pectin chains. Drug release performance was dependent on the wafer crosslinking production sequence. Noncrosslinked wafers displayed burst-release with 82% drug released at t(30min) compared with first-order kinetic profiles obtained for prelyophilized crosslinked matrices (50% released at t(30min) followed by steady release). Wafers crosslinked postlyophilization displayed superior control of drug release (40% at t(30min)). Molecular mechanics simulations corroborated with the experimental data and established that Ba(++), having the largest atomic radii (1.35 Å) formed a number of ionic bridges producing wafers of higher porosity (0.048 cm(2)/g) and had more influence on drug release. PMID:22323418

  13. Implementation of dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model: evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes under corn and soybean rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; McIsaac, G. F.

    2013-06-01

    Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting Earth's climate by altering the carbon, water and energy fluxes, but climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). In particular, we implement crop specific phenology schemes, which account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem and grain pools; dynamic vegetation structure growth, which better simulate the LAI and canopy height; dynamic root distribution processes in the soil layers, which better simulate the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration; and litter fall due to fresh and old dead leaves to better represent the water and energy interception by both stem and brown leaves of the canopy during leaf senescence. Observational data for LAI, above and below ground biomass, and carbon, water and energy fluxes were compiled from two Ameri-Flux sites, Mead, NE and Bondville, IL, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance under corn (C4)-soybean (C3) rotation system over the period 2001-2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation, water and energy fluxes under the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated GPP, net radiation fluxes at the top of canopy and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results is in sensible heat flux (H) for corn and soybean at both sites. With dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, model simulated GPP and latent heat flux (LH) were in much better agreement with observation data than for the without dynamic case. Modeled latent heat improved by 12-27% during the growing season at both sites, leading to the improvement in modeled GPP by 13

  14. Effect of lubricant environment on saw damage in silicon wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, T. S.; Shih, K. K.; Vanvechten, J. A.; Westdorp, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemomechanical effect of lubricant environments on the inner diameter (ID) sawing induced surface damage in Si wafers was tested for four different lubricants: water, dielectric oil, and two commercial cutting solutions. The effects of applying different potential on Si crystals during the sawing were also tested. It is indicated that the number and depth of surface damage are sensitive to the chemical nature of the saw lubricant. It is determined that the lubricants that are good catalysts for breaking Si bonds can dampen the out of plane blade vibration more effectively and produce less surface damage. Correlations between the applied potential and the depth of damage in the dielectric oil and one of the commercial cutting solutions and possible mechanisms involved are discussed.

  15. Patterned wafer inspection using spatial filtering for the cluster environment.

    PubMed

    Taubenblatt, M A; Batchelder, J S

    1992-06-10

    Automated-process tool clusters are becoming increasingly prevalent in advanced semiconductor manufacturing plants, necessitating integrated inspection of patterned semiconductor wafers for defects and particulates. Integrated inspection tools must be small, sensitive, inexpensive, and fast in order to be compatible with the cluster environment. We show that intensity spatial filtering, with some refinements, can provide the required sensitivity and speed in a small, inexpensive package. By using dark-field illumination and a nonrectangular azimuthal orientation (e.g., 45 degrees ) to the primarily rectangular pattern, we show that the strongest diffraction from the pattern can be made to bypass the optical system entirely. This technique alleviates stringent scatter and antireflection requirements on the optics, and it permits the use of off-the-shelf components.

  16. Visible luminescence from silicon wafers subjected to stain etches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Ksendzov, A.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    Etching of Si in a variety of solutions is known to cause staining. These stain layers consist of porous material similar to that produced by anodic etching of Si in HF solutions. In this work, photoluminescence peaked in the red from stain-etched Si wafers of different dopant types, concentrations, and orientations produced in solutions of HF:HNO3:H2O was observed. Luminescence is also observed in stain films produced in solutions of NaNO2 in HF, but not in stain films produced in solutions of CrO3 in HF. The luminescence spectra are similar to those reported recently for porous Si films produced by anodic etching in HF solutions. However, stain films are much easier to produce, requiring no special equipment.

  17. Wafer-level hysteresis-free resonant carbon nanotube transistors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ji; Bartsch, Sebastian T; Ionescu, Adrian M

    2015-03-24

    We report wafer-level fabrication of resonant-body carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) in a dual-gate configuration. An integration density of >10(6) CNTFETs/cm(2), an assembly yield of >80%, and nanoprecision have been simultaneously obtained. Through combined chemical and thermal treatments, hysteresis-free (in vacuum) suspended-body CNTFETs have been demonstrated. Electrostatic actuation by lateral gate and FET-based readout of mechanical resonance have been achieved at room temperature. Both upward and downward in situ frequency tuning has been experimentally demonstrated in the dual-gate architecture. The minuscule mass, high resonance frequency, and in situ tunability of the resonant CNTFETs offer promising features for applications in radio frequency signal processing and ultrasensitive sensing. PMID:25752991

  18. A Wafer Transfer Technology for MEMS Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Wiberg, Dean V.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive optics systems require the combination of several advanced technologies such as precision optics, wavefront sensors, deformable mirrors, and lasers with high-speed control systems. The deformable mirror with a continuous membrane is a key component of these systems. This paper describes a new technique for transferring an entire wafer-level silicon membrane from one substrate to another. This technology is developed for the fabrication of a compact deformable mirror with a continuous facet. A 1 (mu)m thick silicon membrane, 100 mm in diameter, has been successfully transferred without using adhesives or polymers (i.e. wax, epoxy, or photoresist). Smaller or larger diameter membranes can also be transferred using this technique. The fabricated actuator membrane with an electrode gap of 1.5 (mu)m shows a vertical deflection of 0.37 (mu)m at 55 V.

  19. Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

    2010-09-01

    This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

  20. Non-contact defect diagnostics in Cz-Si wafers using resonance ultrasonic vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A.; Kochelap, V. A.; Tarasov, I.; Ostapenko, S.

    2001-01-01

    A new resonance effect of generation of sub-harmonic acoustic vibrations was applied to characterize defects in as-grown and processed Cz-Si wafers. Ultrasonic vibrations were generated into standard 8″ wafers using an external ultrasonic transducer and their amplitude recorded in a non-contact mode using a scanning acoustic probe. By tuning the frequency, f, of the transducer we observed generation of intense sub-harmonic acoustic mode ("whistle" or w-mode) with f/2 frequency. The characteristics of the w-mode-amplitude dependence, frequency scans, spatial distribution allow a clear distinction versus harmonic vibrations of the same wafer. The origin of sub-harmonic vibrations observed on 8″ Cz-Si wafers is attributed to a parametric resonance of flexural vibrations in thin silicon circular plates. We present evidence that "whistle" effect shows a strong dependence on the wafer's growth and processing history and can be used for quality assurance purposes.

  1. Imaging Study of Multi-Crystalline Silicon Wafers Throughout the Manufacturing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Zaunbrecher, K.; Al-Jassim, M.; Sidelkheir, O.; Blosse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging techniques are applied to multi-crystalline silicon bricks, wafers at various process steps, and finished solar cells. Photoluminescence (PL) imaging is used to characterize defects and material quality on bricks and wafers. Defect regions within the wafers are influenced by brick position within an ingot and height within the brick. The defect areas in as-cut wafers are compared to imaging results from reverse-bias electroluminescence and dark lock-in thermography and cell parameters of near-neighbor finished cells. Defect areas are also characterized by defect band emissions. The defect areas measured by these techniques on as-cut wafers are shown to correlate to finished cell performance.

  2. Imaging Study of Multi-Crystalline Silicon Wafers Throughout the Manufacturing Process: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Zaunbracher, K.; Al-Jassim, M.; Sidelkheir, O.; Blosse, A.

    2011-07-01

    Imaging techniques are applied to multi-crystalline silicon bricks, wafers at various process steps, and finished solar cells. Photoluminescence (PL) imaging is used to characterize defects and material quality on bricks and wafers. Defect regions within the wafers are influenced by brick position within an ingot and height within the brick. The defect areas in as-cut wafers are compared to imaging results from reverse-bias electroluminescence and dark lock-in thermography and cell parameters of near-neighbor finished cells. Defect areas are also characterized by defect band emissions. The defect areas measured by these techniques on as-cut wafers are shown to correlate to finished cell performance.

  3. Wafer-based aberration metrology for lithographic systems using overlay measurements on targets imaged from phase-shift gratings.

    PubMed

    van Haver, Sven; Coene, Wim M J; D'havé, Koen; Geypen, Niels; van Adrichem, Paul; de Winter, Laurens; Janssen, Augustus J E M; Cheng, Shaunee

    2014-04-20

    In this paper, a new methodology is presented to derive the aberration state of a lithographic projection system from wafer metrology data. For this purpose, new types of phase-shift gratings (PSGs) are introduced, with special features that give rise to a simple linear relation between the PSG image displacement and the phase aberration function of the imaging system. By using the PSGs as the top grating in a diffraction-based overlay stack, their displacement can be measured as an overlay error using a standard wafer metrology tool. In this way, the overlay error can be used as a measurand based on which the phase aberration function in the exit pupil of the lithographic system can be reconstructed. In practice, the overlay error is measured for a set of different PSG targets, after which this information serves as input to a least-squares optimization problem that, upon solving, provides estimates for the Zernike coefficients describing the aberration state of the lithographic system. In addition to a detailed method description, this paper also deals with the additional complications that arise when the method is implemented experimentally and this leads to a number of model refinements and a required calibration step. Finally, the overall performance of the method is assessed through a number of experiments in which the aberration state of the lithographic system is intentionally detuned and subsequently estimated by the new method. These experiments show a remarkably good agreement, with an error smaller than 5  mλ, among the requested aberrations, the aberrations measured by the on-tool aberration sensor, and the results of the new wafer-based method.

  4. Investigation of bidirectional reflectance and transmittance of rough silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yu-Jiun

    2002-01-01

    This research seeks to perform accurate measurements of bidirectional reflectance and transmittance of rough silicon wafers by a new benchtop scatterometer. An empirical model was developed according to the measurement data. The results will contribute to the application of radiative heat transfer modeling for a rapid thermal processing (RTP) system. In an RTP system, the radiation environment can greatly affect the reading of a lightpipe radiation thermometer. Knowledge of the bidirectional reflectance of rough silicon wafers is needed for the prediction of the reflected radiation into the radiometer, so that it can be used for accurate temperature measurement. The new scatterometer is capable of measuring out-of-plane scattering distribution at wavelengths of 635, 785, and 1550 nm from a diode laser system. Results were analyzed and compared to standard measurements at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The relative difference is within the level of 5% for wavelengths of 635 and 785 nm and 10% for 1550 nm. An empirical model in the simple form of a two-parameter exponential function was proposed to fit the measured data. The results show that this approach can represent the measured data better than some other theoretical models discussed in this thesis. The empirical model can be used to estimate conical reflectance around a specular direction for different collecting half-cone angles. That provides a quick way to compare specular peak measurements from different instruments with varied collecting resolution. An in situ measurement in the mock-up RTP chamber was also performed. Results demonstrated the feasibility of compact optics setup, which mainly uses fiber-coupled devices.

  5. A universal process development methodology for complete removal of residues from 300mm wafer edge bevel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Mai; Linnane, Michael; Longstaff, Chris; Ueda, Kenichi; Winter, Tom

    2006-03-01

    Many yield limiting, etch blocking defects are attributed to "flake" type contamination from the lithography process. The wafer edge bevel is a prime location for generation of this type of defect. Wafer bevel quality is not readily observed with top down or even most off axis inspection equipment. Not all chemistries are removed with one "universal" cleaning process. IC manufacturers must maximize usable silicon area as well. These requirements have made traditional chemical treatments to clean the wafer edge inadequate for many chemistry types used in 193nm processing. IBM has evaluated a method to create a robust wafer bevel and backside cleaning process. An August Technology AXi TM Series advanced macro inspection tool with E20 TM edge inspection module has been used to check wafer bevel cleanliness. Process impact on the removal of post apply residues has been investigated. The new process used backside solvent rinse nozzles only and cleaned the wafer bevel completely. The use of the topside edge solvent clean nozzles was eliminated. Thickness, wet film defect measurements (wet FM), and pattern wafer defect monitors showed no difference between the new backside rinse edge bead removal process and the process of record. Solvent topside edge bead removal of both bottom anti-reflective coatings and resist materials showed better cut width control and uniformity. We conclude that the topside solvent edge bead removal nozzle can be removed from the process. Backside solvent rinse nozzles can clean the backside of the wafer, the wafer bevel, and can wrap to the front edge of the wafer to provide a uniform edge bead removal cut width that is not sensitive to coater module tolerances. Recommendations are made for changes to the typical preventive maintenance procedures.

  6. Effects of Lightpipe Proximity on Si Wafer Temperature in Rapid Thermal Processing Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Chen, D. H.; DeWitt, D. P.; Kimes, W. A.; Tsai, B. K.

    2003-09-01

    Lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs) are used as temperature monitoring sensors in most rapid thermal processing (RTP) tools for semiconductor fabrication. These tools are used for dopant anneal, gate oxide formation, and other high temperature processing. In order to assure uniform wafer temperatures during processing these RTP tools generally have highly reflecting chamber walls to promote a uniform heat flux on the wafer. Therefore, only minimal disturbances in the chamber reflectivity are permitted for the sensors, and the small 2 mm diameter sapphire lightpipe is generally the temperature sensor of choice. This study was undertaken to measure and model the effect of LPRT proximity on the wafer temperature. Our experiments were performed in the NIST RTP test bed using a NIST thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) calibration wafer. We measured the spectral radiance temperature with the center lightpipe and compared these with the TFTC junctions and with the three LPRTs at the mid-radius of the wafer. We measured LPRT outputs from a position flush with the reflecting plate to within 2 mm of the stationary wafer under steady-state conditions with wafer-to-cold plate separation distances of 6 mm, 10 mm and 12.5 mm. Depressions in the wafer temperature up to 25 °C were observed. A finite-element radiation model of the wafer-chamber-lightpipe was developed to predict the temperature depression as a function of proximity distance and separation distance. The experimental results were compared with those from a model that accounts for lightpipe geometry and radiative properties, wafer emissivity and chamber cold plate reflectivity.

  7. An On-the-Fly Surface-Hopping Program JADE for Nonadiabatic Molecular Dynamics of Polyatomic Systems: Implementation and Applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Likai; Lan, Zhenggang

    2015-04-14

    Nonadiabatic dynamics simulations have rapidly become an indispensable tool for understanding ultrafast photochemical processes in complex systems. Here, we present our recently developed on-the-fly nonadiabatic dynamics package, JADE, which allows researchers to perform nonadiabatic excited-state dynamics simulations of polyatomic systems at an all-atomic level. The nonadiabatic dynamics is based on Tully's surface-hopping approach. Currently, several electronic structure methods (CIS, TDHF, TDDFT(RPA/TDA), and ADC(2)) are supported, especially TDDFT, aiming at performing nonadiabatic dynamics on medium- to large-sized molecules. The JADE package has been interfaced with several quantum chemistry codes, including Turbomole, Gaussian, and Gamess (US). To consider environmental effects, the Langevin dynamics was introduced as an easy-to-use scheme into the standard surface-hopping dynamics. The JADE package is mainly written in Fortran for greater numerical performance and Python for flexible interface construction, with the intent of providing open-source, easy-to-use, well-modularized, and intuitive software in the field of simulations of photochemical and photophysical processes. To illustrate the possible applications of the JADE package, we present a few applications of excited-state dynamics for various polyatomic systems, such as the methaniminium cation, fullerene (C20), p-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) and its primary amino derivative aminobenzonitrile (ABN), and 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline (10-HBQ).

  8. An On-the-Fly Surface-Hopping Program JADE for Nonadiabatic Molecular Dynamics of Polyatomic Systems: Implementation and Applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Likai; Lan, Zhenggang

    2015-04-14

    Nonadiabatic dynamics simulations have rapidly become an indispensable tool for understanding ultrafast photochemical processes in complex systems. Here, we present our recently developed on-the-fly nonadiabatic dynamics package, JADE, which allows researchers to perform nonadiabatic excited-state dynamics simulations of polyatomic systems at an all-atomic level. The nonadiabatic dynamics is based on Tully's surface-hopping approach. Currently, several electronic structure methods (CIS, TDHF, TDDFT(RPA/TDA), and ADC(2)) are supported, especially TDDFT, aiming at performing nonadiabatic dynamics on medium- to large-sized molecules. The JADE package has been interfaced with several quantum chemistry codes, including Turbomole, Gaussian, and Gamess (US). To consider environmental effects, the Langevin dynamics was introduced as an easy-to-use scheme into the standard surface-hopping dynamics. The JADE package is mainly written in Fortran for greater numerical performance and Python for flexible interface construction, with the intent of providing open-source, easy-to-use, well-modularized, and intuitive software in the field of simulations of photochemical and photophysical processes. To illustrate the possible applications of the JADE package, we present a few applications of excited-state dynamics for various polyatomic systems, such as the methaniminium cation, fullerene (C20), p-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) and its primary amino derivative aminobenzonitrile (ABN), and 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline (10-HBQ). PMID:26574348

  9. An Analysis of How and Why High School Geometry Teachers Implement Dynamic Geometry Software Tasks for Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirode, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined teachers' use of student tasks involving dynamic geometry software, in which a figure is constructed then altered while maintaining its constructed properties. Although researchers, professional organizations, and policy makers generally have been proponents of dynamic geometry for instruction, there is little research…

  10. Creating a single twin boundary between two CdTe (111) wafers with controlled rotation angle by wafer bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ce; Lu, Ning; Wang, Jinguo; Lee, Jihyung; Peng, Xin; Kim, Moon J.; Klie, Robert F.

    2013-12-16

    The single twin boundary with crystallographic orientation relationship (1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯})//(111) [01{sup ¯}1]//[011{sup ¯}] was created by wafer bonding. Electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated the well control of the rotation angle between the bonded pair. At the twin boundary, one unit of wurtzite structure was found between two zinc-blende matrices. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed Cd- and Te-terminated for the two bonded portions, respectively. The I-V curve across the twin boundary showed increasingly nonlinear behavior, indicating a potential barrier at the bonded twin boundary.

  11. Wafer-scale integration and two-level pipelined implementations of systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.T.; Lam, M.S.

    1984-08-01

    For problems that have been solved exclusively by systolic arrays with feedback cycles, this paper introduces a new class of systolic algorithms based on a ring architecture. These systolic rings have the property that the throughput degrades gracefully as the number of failed cells in the rings increases. Furthermore, as a byproduct of the ring architecture approach, the authors have derived several new systolic algorithms which require only one-third to one-half of the cells used in previous designs while achieving the same throughput. They have shown that the two-level pipelining problem in systolic arrays are solved by the same techniques used to solve the fault-tolerance problem. An important task left for the future is the development of software to solve both problems automatically.

  12. Mechanics of the pad-abrasive-wafer contact in chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkaya, Dincer

    2009-12-01

    In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a rigid wafer is forced on a rough, elastomeric polishing pad, while a slurry containing abrasive particles flows through the interface. The applied pressure on the wafer is carried partially by the 2-body pad-wafer contact (direct contact) and partially by the 3-body contact of pad, wafer and abrasive particles ( particle contact). The fraction of the applied pressure carried by particle contacts is an important factor affecting the material removal rate (MRR) as the majority of the material is removed by the abrasive particles trapped between the pad asperities and the wafer. In this thesis, the contact of a rough, deformable pad and a smooth, rigid wafer in the presence of rigid abrasive particles at the contact interface is investigated by using contact mechanics and finite element (FE) modeling. The interactions between the pad, the wafer and the abrasive particles are modeled at different scales of contact, starting from particle level interactions, and gradually expanding the contact scale to the multi-asperity contact of pad and wafer. The effect of surface forces consisting of van der Waals and electrical double layer forces acting between the wafer and the abrasive particles are also investigated in this work. The wear rate due to each abrasive particle is calculated based on the wafer-abrasive particle contact force, and by considering adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms. A passivated layer on the wafer surface with a hardness and thickness determined by the chemical effects is modeled, in order to characterize the effect of chemical reactions between slurry and wafer on the MRR. The model provides accurate predictions for the MRR as a function of pad related parameters; pad elastic modulus, pad porosity and pad topography, particle related parameters; particle size and concentration, and slurry related parameters; slurry pH, thickness and hardness of the passivated surface layer of wafer. A good qualitative

  13. Evaluation of the Technical Feasibility and Effective Cost of Various Wafer Thicknesses for the Manufacture of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen wafering characterization runs were completed on a wire saw. Wafer thickness/taper uniformity was excellent. Several alternations and design adjustments were made, facilitating saw operation. A wafering characterization cycle was initiated, and is close to completion. A cell characterization cycle was initiated.

  14. Evaluation of the technical feasibility and effective cost of various wafer thicknesses for the manufacture of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Three wafering demonstration runs were completed on the Yasunaga wire saw. Wafer thickness/taper uniformity is excellent. Many small problems were encountered with Yasunaga accessories, slowing the effort. A wafer characterization cycle was defined and will be initiated during the next period.

  15. Full-wafer fabrication by nanostencil lithography of micro/nanomechanical mass sensors monolithically integrated with CMOS.

    PubMed

    Arcamone, J; van den Boogaart, M A F; Serra-Graells, F; Fraxedas, J; Brugger, J; Pérez-Murano, F

    2008-07-30

    Wafer-scale nanostencil lithography (nSL) is used to define several types of silicon mechanical resonators, whose dimensions range from 20 µm down to 200 nm, monolithically integrated with CMOS circuits. We demonstrate the simultaneous patterning by nSL of ∼2000 nanodevices per wafer by post-processing standard CMOS substrates using one single metal evaporation, pattern transfer to silicon and subsequent etch of the sacrificial layer. Resonance frequencies in the MHz range were measured in air and vacuum. As proof-of-concept towards an application as high performance sensors, CMOS integrated nano/micromechanical resonators are successfully implemented as ultra-sensitive areal mass sensors. These devices demonstrate the ability to monitor the deposition of gold layers whose average thickness is smaller than a monolayer. Their areal mass sensitivity is in the range of 10(-11) g cm(-2) Hz(-1), and their thickness resolution corresponds to approximately a thousandth of a monolayer.

  16. Edge printability: techniques used to evaluate and improve extreme wafer edge printability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Bill; Demmert, Cort; Jekauc, Igor; Tiffany, Jason P.

    2004-05-01

    The economics of semiconductor manufacturing have forced process engineers to develop techniques to increase wafer yield. Improvements in process controls and uniformities in all areas of the fab have reduced film thickness variations at the very edge of the wafer surface. This improved uniformity has provided the opportunity to consider decreasing edge exclusions, and now the outermost extents of the wafer must be considered in the yield model and expectations. These changes have increased the requirements on lithography to improve wafer edge printability in areas that previously were not even coated. This has taxed all software and hardware components used in defining the optical focal plane at the wafer edge. We have explored techniques to determine the capabilities of extreme wafer edge printability and the components of the systems that influence this printability. We will present current capabilities and new detection techniques and the influence that the individual hardware and software components have on edge printability. We will show effects of focus sensor designs, wafer layout, utilization of dummy edge fields, the use of non-zero overlay targets and chemical/optical edge bead optimization.

  17. Wafer-scale fabrication of plasmonic crystals from patterned silicon templates prepared by nanosphere lithography.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anthony Shoji; Friesen, Stuart A; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2013-06-12

    By combining nanosphere lithography with template stripping, silicon wafers were patterned with hexagonal arrays of nanowells or pillars. These silicon masters were then replicated in gold by metal evaporation, resulting in wafer-scale hexagonal gratings for plasmonic applications. In the nanosphere lithography step, two-dimensional colloidal crystals of 510 nm diameter polystyrene spheres were assembled at the air-water interface and transferred to silicon wafers. The spheres were etched in oxygen plasma in order to define their size for masking of the silicon wafer. For fabrication of metallic nanopillar arrays, an alumina film was grown over the nanosphere layer and the spheres were then removed by bath sonication. The well pattern was defined in the silicon wafer by reactive ion etching in a chlorine plasma. For fabrication of metal nanowell arrays, the nanosphere monolayer was used directly as a mask and exposed areas of the silicon wafer were plasma-etched anisotropically in SF6/Ar. Both techniques could be used to produce subwavelength metal replica structures with controlled pillar or well diameter, depth, and profile, on the wafer scale, without the use of direct writing techniques to fabricate masks or masters.

  18. End station design and wafer quality control for a high current oxygen implanter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, D. H.; Ruffell, John P.; Kaim, R. E.; Izumi, K.

    The end station of the Eaton NV-200 high current oxygen implanter is described. In this machine the beam enters at 30° from the horizontal and the wafers are mounted on the inside surface of a slightly conical drum which rotates about a vertical axis. A cone half angle of 16° results in an implant angle of 14°. The drum rotates at a high speed and the beam is broadened into a line which fully illuminates the wafers without scanning, resulting in a uniform implant as the wafers pass through it on the rotating drum. By adjusting the ion source apertures and beam line optics implant uniformity within a few percent has been achieved over the whole wafer. The drum holds twenty-five 4 in. wafers per batch. Sampling holes located in the drum together with a Faraday plate in the end station are used to monitor beam uniformity. Dose measurement is done calorimetrically using the power into the end station to calculate the integrated dose. The end station is equipped with heater lamps which will preheat the wafers to the desired temperature before the implantation process is begun. These lamps are also utilized to maintain the wafers at an elevated temperature if the implant is interrupted.

  19. Method and Apparatus for Obtaining a Precision Thickness in Semiconductor and Other Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for processing a wafer comprising a material selected from an electrical semiconducting material and an electrical insulating material is presented. The wafer has opposed generally planar front and rear sides and a peripheral edge, wherein said wafer is pressed against a pad in the presence of a slurry to reduce its thickness. The thickness of the wafer is controlled by first forming a recess such as a dimple on the rear side of the wafer. A first electrical conducting strip extends from a first electrical connection means to the base surface of the recess to the second electrical connector. The first electrical conducting strip overlies the base surface of the recess. There is also a second electrical conductor with an electrical potential source between the first electrical connector and the second electrical connector to form. In combination with the first electrical conducting strip, the second electrical conductor forms a closed electrical circuit, and an electrical current flows through the closed electrical circuit. From the front side of the wafer the initial thickness of the wafer is reduced by lapping until the base surface of the recess is reached. The conductive strip is at least partially removed from the base surface to automatically stop the lapping procedure and thereby achieve the desired thickness.

  20. Validation of thermodesorption method for analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds adsorbed on wafer surface.

    PubMed

    Hayeck, Nathalie; Gligorovski, Sasho; Poulet, Irène; Wortham, Henri

    2014-05-01

    To prevent the degradation of the device characteristics it is important to detect the organic contaminants adsorbed on the wafers. In this respect, a reliable qualitative and quantitative analytical method for analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds which can adsorb on wafer surfaces is of paramount importance. Here, we present a new analytical method based on Wafer Outgassing System (WOS) coupled to Automated Thermal Desorber-Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (ATD-GC-MS) to identify and quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from 6", 8" and 12" wafers. WOS technique allows the desorption of organic compounds from one side of the wafers. This method was tested on three important airborne contaminants in cleanroom i.e. tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). In addition, we validated this method for the analysis and quantification of DEP, TCEP and TCPP and we estimated the backside organic contamination which may contribute to the front side of the contaminated wafers. We are demonstrating that WOS/ATD-GC-MS is a suitable and highly efficient technique for desorption and quantitative analysis of organophosphorous compounds and phthalate ester which could be found on the wafer surface.

  1. Kerfless Silicon Precursor Wafer Formed by Rapid Solidification: October 2009 - March 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, A.

    2011-06-01

    1366 Direct Wafer technology is an ultra-low-cost, kerfless method of producing crystalline silicon wafers compatible with the existing dominant silicon PV supply chain. By doubling utilization of silicon and simplifying the wafering process and equipment, Direct Wafers will support drastic reductions in wafer cost and enable module manufacturing costs < $1/W. This Pre-Incubator subcontract enabled us to accelerate the critical advances necessary to commercialize the technology by 2012. Starting from a promising concept that was initially demonstrated using a model material, we built custom equipment necessary to validate the process in silicon, then developed sufficient understanding of the underlying physics to successfully fabricate wafers meeting target specifications. These wafers, 50 mm x 50 mm x 200 ..mu..m thick, were used to make prototype solar cells via standard industrial processes as the project final deliverable. The demonstrated 10% efficiency is already impressive when compared to most thin films, but still offers considerable room for improvement when compared to typical crystalline silicon solar cells.

  2. Therml & Gravitational Stress in Si Wafers; Lim. on Process Htg & Cool. Rates

    1997-01-14

    The MacWafer code determines maximum allowable processing temperatures and maximum heating and cooling rates for thermal processing of silicon semiconductor wafers in single and multiple wafer furnaces. The program runs interactively on Macintosh, PC, and workstation computers. Execution time is typically 20 seconds on a Macintosh 68040 processor operating at 33 MHz. Gravitational stresses and displacements are first calculated based on the user''s input of a support system consisting of a ring beneath the wafermore » and/or arbitrarily placed point supports. The maximum operating temperature is then deduced by comparing the calculated gravitational stresses with the temperature-dependent wafer strength. At lower temperatures, the difference between wafer strength and gravitational stress is used to determine the allowable thermal stress, and hence the allowable radial temperature difference across the wafer. Finally, an analytical model of radial heat transfer in a batch furnace yields the maximum heating or cooling rate as a function of the allowable temperature difference based on the user''s inputs of wafer spacing and furnace power. Outputs to the screen include plots of stress components and vertical displacement, as well as tables of maximum stresses and maximum heating and cooling rates as a function of temperature. All inputs and outputs may be directed to user-named files for further processing or graphical display.« less

  3. Fast-ramp rapid vertical processor for 300-mm Si wafer processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Cole; Laser, Allan; Herring, Robert; Pandey, Pradeep

    1998-09-01

    Fast-ramp vertical furnace technology has been established on the 200-nm wafer platform providing higher capacity production, decreased cycle time and lower thermal budgets. Fast-ramp furnaces are capable of instantaneous temperature ramp rates up to 100 degrees C/min. This fast-ramp technology is now applied to 300-nm wafer processing on the SVG/Thermco Rapid Vertical Processor Vertical Furnace. 300- mm fast-ramp capability using the latest in real-time adaptive model based temperature control technology, Clairvoyant Control, is reported. Atmospheric Thermal Oxidation, LPCVD Nitride and Polysilicon Deposition, and LPCVD TEOS-based SiO2 Deposition results are discussed. 300- mm wafer Radial Delta Temperature dependence on temperature ramp rate, wafer pitch, and wafer support fixtures are discussed. Wafer throughput is calculated and reported. The Clairvoyant Control methodology of combining thermal, direct and virtually-sensed parameters to produce real-tim e estimation of wafer temperatures, thermal trajectory optimization, and feedback to minimize variations in film thickness and electrical properties is presented.

  4. Intentional defect array wafers: their practical use in semiconductor control and monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Iraj; McIntyre, Michael; Retersdorf, Michael

    2003-07-01

    In the competitive world of semiconductor manufacturing today, control of the process and manufacturing equipment is paramount to success of the business. Consistent with the need for rapid development of process technology, is a need for development wiht respect to equipment control including defect metrology tools. Historical control methods for defect metrology tools included a raw count of defects detected on a characterized production or test wafer with little or not regard to the attributes of the detected defects. Over time, these characterized wafers degrade with multiple passes on the tools and handling requiring the tool owner to create and characterize new samples periodically. With the complex engineering software analysis systems used today, there is a strong reliance on the accuracy of defect size, location, and classification in order to provide the best value when correlating the in line to sort type of data. Intentional Defect Array (IDA) wafers were designed and manufacturered at International Sematech (ISMT) in Austin, Texas and is a product of collaboration between ISMT member companies and suppliers of advanced defect inspection equipment. These wafers provide the use with known defect types and sizes in predetermined locations across the entire wafer. The wafers are designed to incorporate several desired flows and use critical dimensions consistent with current and future technology nodes. This paper briefly describes the design of the IDA wafer and details many practical applications in the control of advanced defect inspection equipment.

  5. Lattice constants of pure methane and carbon dioxide hydrates at low temperatures. Implementing quantum corrections to classical molecular dynamics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K.; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K.; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a simple correction to the calculation of the lattice constants of fully occupied structure sI methane or carbon dioxide pure hydrates that are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations using the TIP4PQ/2005 water force field. The obtained corrected lattice constants are subsequently used in order to obtain isobaric thermal expansion coefficients of the pure gas hydrates that exhibit a trend that is significantly closer to the experimental behavior than previously reported classical molecular dynamics studies.

  6. Institutional pressures, dynamic capabilities and environmental management systems: investigating the ISO 9000--environmental management system implementation linkage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinghua; Cordeiro, James; Sarkis, Joseph

    2013-01-15

    We hypothesize a model where domestic and international institutional pressures lead to the successful implementation of ISO 9000 and can in turn lead to the successful implementation of environmental management systems such as ISO 14001 environmental certification systems or total quality environmental management (TQEM) systems. Using appropriate tests for mediation with dichotomous mediators and outcomes, we find that the model holds for a sample of 377 Chinese manufacturers in six major industrial groups in Suzhou, Dalian, and Tianjin. Our findings are consistent with the theory linking internal capabilities to heterogeneous external (in this case, institutional) pressures on organizations for environmentally proactive efforts. Our findings suggest that institutions in developing countries with significant environmental concerns such as China as well as foreign suppliers and partners to firms in these countries should encourage and support ISO 9000 implementations by local firms. These findings may influence other developing nations' adoption of quality and environmental process systems.

  7. Institutional pressures, dynamic capabilities and environmental management systems: investigating the ISO 9000--environmental management system implementation linkage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinghua; Cordeiro, James; Sarkis, Joseph

    2013-01-15

    We hypothesize a model where domestic and international institutional pressures lead to the successful implementation of ISO 9000 and can in turn lead to the successful implementation of environmental management systems such as ISO 14001 environmental certification systems or total quality environmental management (TQEM) systems. Using appropriate tests for mediation with dichotomous mediators and outcomes, we find that the model holds for a sample of 377 Chinese manufacturers in six major industrial groups in Suzhou, Dalian, and Tianjin. Our findings are consistent with the theory linking internal capabilities to heterogeneous external (in this case, institutional) pressures on organizations for environmentally proactive efforts. Our findings suggest that institutions in developing countries with significant environmental concerns such as China as well as foreign suppliers and partners to firms in these countries should encourage and support ISO 9000 implementations by local firms. These findings may influence other developing nations' adoption of quality and environmental process systems. PMID:23127965

  8. Fabrication of piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) microcantilevers by wafer-level surface micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sharon Roslyn; Yao, Kui; Eng Hock Tay, Francis

    2013-09-01

    A wafer-level microfabrication process using standard cleanroom facilities was established and implemented to batch produce free-standing poly(vinylidine fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems cantilevers via surface micromachining. Furthermore, the fabrication of a prototype of double-level cantilevers was demonstrated. The fabrication of working piezoelectric polymer cantilever structures required the deposition and patterning of multiple polymer and metal layers including the pattering and removal of the sacrificial layer, which posed many challenging limitations on the chemicals and processing conditions. Dedicatedly selected chemicals and materials were used in our fabrication, including water soluble PVA with an appropriate molecular weight and degree of hydrolysis as the sacrificial layer for releasing the cantilever structure. The temperature in the whole process was kept low with controlled durations, due to the sensitivity of the polymers to thermal impacts. The P(VDF-TrFE) active layers, after going through the fabrication, exhibited ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties comparable to the intact films. Furthermore, the free-standing P(VDF-TrFE) cantilevers exhibited piezoelectric vibrations under electrical excitation. This low temperature fabrication method, which only involves mild chemicals, also has the potential to be integrated with CMOS processes.

  9. Wafer chamber having a gas curtain for extreme-UV lithography

    DOEpatents

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.

    2001-01-01

    An EUVL device includes a wafer chamber that is separated from the upstream optics by a barrier having an aperture that is permeable to the inert gas. Maintaining an inert gas curtain in the proximity of a wafer positioned in a chamber of an extreme ultraviolet lithography device can effectively prevent contaminants from reaching the optics in an extreme ultraviolet photolithography device even though solid window filters are not employed between the source of reflected radiation, e.g., the camera, and the wafer. The inert gas removes the contaminants by entrainment.

  10. The removal of deformed submicron particles from silicon wafers by spin rinse and megasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Busnaina, Ahmed A.; Fury, Michael A.; Wang, Shi-Qing

    2000-02-01

    In order to successfully clean particulate contamination from wafer surfaces, it is necessary to understand the adhesion and deformation between the particles and the substrate in contact. The adhesion and removal mechanisms of deformed submicron particles have not been addressed in many previous studies. Submicron polystyrene latex particles (0.1-0.5 µm) were deposited on silicon wafers and removed by spin rinse and megasonic cleanings. Particle rolling is identified as the major removal mechanism for the deformed submicron particles from silicon wafers. Megasonics provides larger streaming velocity because of the extremely thin boundary layer resulting in a larger removal force that is capable of achieving complete removal of contamination particles.

  11. W-Band On-Wafer Measurement of Uniplanar Slot-Type Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Sanjay; Gauthier, Gildas P.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1997-01-01

    Uniplanar slot-type antennas such as coplanar waveguide fed single- and dual-polarized slot-ring antennas and double folded-slot antennas are characterized using a millimeter-wave network analyzer and on-wafer measurement techniques. The antennas are designed to be mounted on a dielectric lens to minimize power loss into substrate modes and realize high-gain antenna patterns. On-wafer measurements are performed by placing the antenna wafer on a thick dielectric spacer of similar e(sub t) and eliminating the reflection from the probe station chuck with time-domain gating. The measured results agree well with method-of-moments simulations.

  12. Development of a fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) for reducing the cost of photovoltaic wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, F. )

    1991-12-01

    This report examines a wafer slicing technique developed by Crystal Systems, Inc. that reduces the cost of photovoltaic wafers. This fixed, abrasive slicing technique (FAST) uses a multiwire bladepack and a diamond-plated wirepack; water is the coolant. FAST is in the prototype production stage and reduces expendable material costs while retaining the advantages of a multiwire slurry technique. The cost analysis revealed that costs can be decreased by making more cuts per bladepack and slicing more wafers per linear inch. Researchers studied the degradation of bladepacks and increased wirepack life. 21 refs.

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Material removal rate in chemical-mechanical polishing of wafers based on particle trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianxiu, Su; Xiqu, Chen; Jiaxi, Du; Renke, Kang

    2010-05-01

    Distribution forms of abrasives in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process are analyzed based on experimental results. Then the relationships between the wafer, the abrasive and the polishing pad are analyzed based on kinematics and contact mechanics. According to the track length of abrasives on the wafer surface, the relationships between the material removal rate and the polishing velocity are obtained. The analysis results are in accord with the experimental results. The conclusion provides a theoretical guide for further understanding the material removal mechanism of wafers in CMP.

  14. Low temperature solder process to join a copper tube to a silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, Christo; Scarpim de Souza, Marcio

    2014-06-01

    With the application for wafer level packages, which could be Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) based, and which requires a reduced atmosphere, a copper tube connection to a vacuum pump and the package is proposed. The method evaluated uses laser assisted brazing of a solder, to join the copper tube to a silicon wafer. The method was applied to a silicon wafer coated with a metallic interface to bond to the solder. The hermeticity of the joint was tested with a helium leak rate tester and the bonding energy thermal extent was verified with a thin layer of indium that melted wherever the substrate temperature rose above its melting temperature.

  15. Teachers' Implementation of Pre-Constructed Dynamic Geometry Tasks in Technology-Intensive Algebra 1 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cayton, Charity Sue-Adams

    2012-01-01

    Technology use and a focus on 21st century skills, coupled with recent adoption of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, marks a new challenge for mathematics teachers. Communication, discourse, and tools for enhancing discourse (NCTM, 1991, 2000) play an integral role in successful implementation of technology and mathematics standards.…

  16. Wafer-level vacuum packaged resonant micro-scanning mirrors for compact laser projection displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Oldsen, Marten; Quenzer, Hans-Joachim; Janes, Joachim; Heller, Martin; Weiss, Manfred; Fakas, Georgios; Ratzmann, Lars; Marchetti, Eleonora; D'Ascoli, Francesco; Melani, Massimiliano; Bacciarelli, Luca; Volpi, Emilio; Battini, Francesco; Mostardini, Luca; Sechi, Francesco; De Marinis, Marco; Wagner, Bernd

    2008-02-01

    Scanning laser projection using resonant actuated MEMS scanning mirrors is expected to overcome the current limitation of small display size of mobile devices like cell phones, digital cameras and PDAs. Recent progress in the development of compact modulated RGB laser sources enables to set up very small laser projection systems that become attractive not only for consumer products but also for automotive applications like head-up and dash-board displays. Within the last years continuous progress was made in increasing MEMS scanner performance. However, only little is reported on how mass-produceability of these devices and stable functionality even under harsh environmental conditions can be guaranteed. Automotive application requires stable MEMS scanner operation over a wide temperature range from -40° to +85°Celsius. Therefore, hermetic packaging of electrostatically actuated MEMS scanning mirrors becomes essential to protect the sensitive device against particle contamination and condensing moisture. This paper reports on design, fabrication and test of a resonant actuated two-dimensional micro scanning mirror that is hermetically sealed on wafer level. With resonant frequencies of 30kHz and 1kHz, an achievable Theta-D-product of 13mm.deg and low dynamic deformation <20nm RMS it targets Lissajous projection with SVGA-resolution. Inevitable reflexes at the vacuum package surface can be seperated from the projection field by permanent inclination of the micromirror.

  17. Evolution of grain structures during directional solidification of silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. K.; Wu, M. C.; Chen, C. C.; Lan, C. W.

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of grain structures, especially the types of grain boundaries (GBs), during directional solidification is crucial to the electrical properties of multicrystalline silicon used for solar cells. To study this, the electric molten zone crystallization (EMZC) of silicon wafers at different drift speeds from 2 to 6 mm/min was considered. It was found that <111> orientation was dominant at the lower drift velocity, while <112> orientation at the higher drift velocity. Most of the non-∑GBs tended to align with the thermal gradient, but some tilted toward the unfavorable grains having higher interfacial energies. On the other hand, the tilted ∑3GBs tended to decrease during grain competition, except at the higher speed, where the twin nucleation became frequent. The competition of grains separated by ∑GBs could be viewed as the interactions of GBs that two coherent ∑3n GBs turned into one ∑3nGB following certain relations as reported before. On the other hand, when ∑ GBs met non-∑ GBs, the non-∑ GBs remained which explained the decrease of ∑ GBs at the lower speed.

  18. Wafer-Scale Microwire Transistor Array Fabricated via Evaporative Assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoon; Sun, Qijun; Choi, Yongsuk; Lee, Seungwoo; Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-06-22

    One-dimensional (1D) nano/microwires have attracted significant attention as promising building blocks for various electronic and optical device applications. The integration of these elements into functional device networks with controlled alignment and density presents a significant challenge for practical device applications. Here, we demonstrated the fabrication of wafer-scale microwire field-effect transistor (FET) arrays based on well-aligned inorganic semiconductor microwires (indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO)) and organic polymeric insulator microwires fabricated via a simple and large-area evaporative assembly technique. This microwire fabrication method offers a facile approach to precisely manipulating the channel dimensions of the FETs. The resulting solution-processed monolithic IGZO microwire FETs exhibited a maximum electron mobility of 1.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on/off current ratio of 1 × 10(6). The appropriate choice of the polymeric microwires used to define the channel lengths enabled fine control over the threshold voltages of the devices, which were employed to fabricate high-performance depletion-load inverters. Low-voltage-operated microwire FETs were successfully fabricated on a plastic substrate using a high-capacitance ion gel gate dielectric. The microwire fabrication technique involving evaporative assembly provided a facile, effective, and reliable method for preparing flexible large-area electronics.

  19. Adhesive disbond detection using piezoelectric wafer active sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, William; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2015-04-01

    The aerospace industry continues to increase the use of adhesives for structural bonding due to the increased joint efficiency (reduced weight), even distribution of the load path and decreases in stress concentrations. However, the limited techniques for verifying the strength of adhesive bonds has reduced its use on primary structures and requires an intensive inspection schedule. This paper discusses a potential structural health monitoring (SHM) technique for the detection of disbonds through the in situ inspection of adhesive joints. This is achieved through the use of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS), thin unobtrusive sensors which are permanently bonded to the aircraft structure. The detection method discussed in this study is electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS), a local vibration method. This method detects disbonds from the change in the mechanical impedance of the structure surrounding the disbond. This paper will discuss how predictive modeling can provide valuable insight into the inspection method, and provide better results than empirical methods alone. The inspection scheme was evaluated using the finite element method, and the results were verified experimentally using a large aluminum test article, and included both pristine and disbond coupons.

  20. Cleanroom compatible anodization cell for 150 mm Si wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardwell, Jennifer A.; LeBrun, Les; Evans, R. James; Curry, Donald G.; Abbott, Roger

    1996-06-01

    A cleanroom compatible anodization cell for use with 150 mm Si wafers has been constructed and tested. The material of construction is polyvinylidene fluoride, Kynar■, with Chemraz■ (elastomeric polytetrafluoroethylene) O-rings used for sealing. The back contact is made through a dilute HF solution, thus eliminating the possibility for metallic contamination which exists for other forms of back contact. Pt electrodes immersed in the back contact and front contact solutions are the primary electrical connection sites. Ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and dilute HF etch rate experiments were used to characterize the as-grown and annealed anodic oxides produced in this cell. Ellipsometric thickness mapping showed excellent lateral oxide uniformity over the entire anodized area; the standard deviations were <2 Å (for oxides ≤100 Å in thickness), <6 Å (for oxides ≤400 Å in thickness), and <10 Å (for oxides <500 Å in thickness). The properties of the oxides, as evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy are essentially identical to those grown on small-area samples using conventional anodization with a metallic back contact.

  1. Wafer-Scale Microwire Transistor Array Fabricated via Evaporative Assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoon; Sun, Qijun; Choi, Yongsuk; Lee, Seungwoo; Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-06-22

    One-dimensional (1D) nano/microwires have attracted significant attention as promising building blocks for various electronic and optical device applications. The integration of these elements into functional device networks with controlled alignment and density presents a significant challenge for practical device applications. Here, we demonstrated the fabrication of wafer-scale microwire field-effect transistor (FET) arrays based on well-aligned inorganic semiconductor microwires (indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO)) and organic polymeric insulator microwires fabricated via a simple and large-area evaporative assembly technique. This microwire fabrication method offers a facile approach to precisely manipulating the channel dimensions of the FETs. The resulting solution-processed monolithic IGZO microwire FETs exhibited a maximum electron mobility of 1.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on/off current ratio of 1 × 10(6). The appropriate choice of the polymeric microwires used to define the channel lengths enabled fine control over the threshold voltages of the devices, which were employed to fabricate high-performance depletion-load inverters. Low-voltage-operated microwire FETs were successfully fabricated on a plastic substrate using a high-capacitance ion gel gate dielectric. The microwire fabrication technique involving evaporative assembly provided a facile, effective, and reliable method for preparing flexible large-area electronics. PMID:27228025

  2. Development of thin edgeless silicon pixel sensors on epitaxial wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Contin, G.; Giacomini, G.; Manzari, V.; Orzan, G.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2014-09-01

    The paper reports on the development of novel p-on-n thin edgeless planar pixel sensors, compatible with ALICE front-end electronics, fabricated by FBK on epitaxial material. The focus of the activity is the minimization of the material budget required for hybrid pixel detectors. This goal has been addressed in two different stages. In the first one, planar pixel detectors fabricated on epitaxial wafers have been thinned and bonded to the readout chips. The second stage is described by the present paper: the `active edge' concept has been studied for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the devices. An overview of the key technological steps and of the electrical characterization of the fabricated sensors is given. In addition, the preliminary results on the static behavior of test sensors after neutron irradiation at different fluences (up to 2.5 × 1015 1 MeV-neq/cm2) are reported. The results demonstrate that these kinds of devices are a viable solution for the reduction of the material budget while maintaining the typical electrical characteristics expected from radiation silicon sensors.

  3. Designing defect spins for wafer-scale quantum technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Koehl, William F.; Seo, Hosung; Galli, Giulia; Awschalom, David D.

    2015-11-27

    The past decade has seen remarkable progress in the development of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect center in diamond, which is one of the leading candidates for quantum information technologies. The success of the NV center as a solid-state qubit has stimulated an active search for similar defect spins in other technologically important and mature semiconductors, such as silicon carbide. If successfully combined with the advanced microfabrication techniques available to such materials, coherent quantum control of defect spins could potentially lead to semiconductor-based, wafer-scale quantum technologies that make use of exotic quantum mechanical phenomena like entanglement. In this article, we describe the robust spin property of the NV center and the current status of NV center research for quantum information technologies. We then outline first-principles computational modeling techniques based on density functional theory to efficiently search for potential spin defects in nondiamond hosts suitable for quantum information applications. The combination of computational modeling and experimentation has proven invaluable in this area, and we describe the successful interplay between theory and experiment achieved with the divacancy spin qubit in silicon carbide.

  4. Fast wafer-level detection and control of interconnect reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Sean; Molyneaux, James; Mathewson, Alan

    2000-08-01

    Many of the technological advances in the semiconductor industry have led to dramatic increases in device density and performance in conjunction with enhanced circuit reliability. As reliability is improved, the time taken to characterize particular failure modes with traditional test methods is getting substantially longer. Furthermore, semiconductor customers expect low product cost and fast time-to-market. The limits of traditional reliability testing philosophies are being reached and new approaches need to be investigated to enable the next generation of highly reliable products to be tested. This is especially true in the area of IC interconnect, where significant challenges are predicted for the next decade. A number of fast, wafer level test methods exist for interconnect reliability evaluation. The relative abilities of four such methods to detect the quality and reliability of IC interconnect over very short test times are evaluated in this work. Four different test structure designs are also evaluated and the results are bench-marked against conventional package level Median Time to Failure results. The Isothermal test method combine with SWEAT-type test structures is shown to be the most suitable combination for defect detection and interconnect reliability control over very short test times.

  5. Lattice constants of pure methane and carbon dioxide hydrates at low temperatures. Implementing quantum corrections to classical molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2016-03-28

    We introduce a simple correction to the calculation of the lattice constants of fully occupied structure sI methane or carbon dioxide pure hydrates that are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations using the TIP4PQ/2005 water force field. The obtained corrected lattice constants are subsequently used in order to obtain isobaric thermal expansion coefficients of the pure gas hydrates that exhibit a trend that is significantly closer to the experimental behavior than previously reported classical molecular dynamics studies. PMID:27036466

  6. Implementation of 3-D isoparametric finite elements on supercomputer for the formulation of recursive dynamical equations of multi-body systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shareef, N. H.; Amirouche, F. M. L.

    1991-01-01

    A computational algorithmic procedure is developed and implemented for the dynamic analysis of a multibody system with rigid/flexible interconnected bodies. The algorithm takes into consideration the large rotation/translation and small elastic deformations associated with the rigid-body degrees of freedom and the flexibility of the bodies in the system respectively. Versatile three-dimensional isoparametric brick elements are employed for the modeling of the geometric configurations of the bodies. The formulation of the recursive dynamical equations of motion is based on the recursive Kane's equations, strain energy concepts, and the techniques of component mode synthesis. In order to minimize CPU-intensive matrix multiplication operations and speed up the execution process, the concepts of indexed arrays is utilized in the formulation of the equations of motion. A spin-up maneuver of a space robot with three flexible links carrying a solar panel is used as an illustrative example.

  7. A coarse-graining approach for molecular simulation that retains the dynamics of the all-atom reference system by implementing hydrodynamic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Markutsya, Sergiy; Lamm, Monica H

    2014-11-07

    We report on a new approach for deriving coarse-grained intermolecular forces that retains the frictional contribution that is often discarded by conventional coarse-graining methods. The approach is tested for water and an aqueous glucose solution, and the results from the new implementation for coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation show remarkable agreement with the dynamics obtained from reference all-atom simulations. The agreement between the structural properties observed in the coarse-grained and all-atom simulations is also preserved. We discuss how this approach may be applied broadly to any existing coarse-graining method where the coarse-grained models are rigorously derived from all-atom reference systems.

  8. Reduction of the potential energy barrier and resistance at wafer-bonded n-GaAs/n-GaAs interfaces by sulfur passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael J.; Jackson, Biyun L.; Goorsky, Mark S.

    2011-11-01

    Sulfur passivation and subsequent wafer-bonding treatments are demonstrated for III-V semiconductor applications using GaAs-GaAs direct wafer-bonded structures. Two different sulfur passivation processes are addressed. A dry sulfur passivation method that utilizes elemental sulfur vapor activated by ultraviolet light in vacuum is compared with aqueous sulfide and native-oxide-etch treatments. The electrical conductivity across a sulfur-treated 400 - °C-bonded n-GaAs/n-GaAs interface significantly increased with a short anneal (1-2 min) at elevated temperatures (500-600 °C). Interfaces treated with the NH4OH oxide etch, on the other hand, exhibited only mild improvement in accordance with previously published studies in this area. TEM and STEM images revealed similar interfacial microstructure changes with annealing for both sulfur-treated and NH4OH interfaces, whereby some areas have direct semiconductor-semiconductor contact without any interfacial layer. Fitting the observed temperature dependence of zero-bias conductance using a model for tunneling through a grain boundary reveals that the addition of sulfur at the interface lowered the interfacial energy barrier by 0.2 eV. The interface resistance for these sulfur-treated structures is 0.03 Ω.cm at room temperature. These results emphasize that sulfur-passivation techniques reduce interface states that otherwise limit the implementation of wafer bonding for high-efficiency solar cells and other devices.

  9. MATLAB implementation of a dynamic clamp with bandwidth >125 KHz capable of generating INa at 37°C

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Chris; Valiunas, Virginijus; Brink, Peter R.; Cohen, Ira S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the construction of a dynamic clamp with bandwidth >125 KHz that utilizes a high performance, yet low cost, standard home/office PC interfaced with a high-speed (16 bit) data acquisition module. High bandwidth is achieved by exploiting recently available software advances (code-generation technology, optimized real-time kernel). Dynamic-clamp programs are constructed using Simulink, a visual programming language. Blocks for computation of membrane currents are written in the high-level matlab language; no programming in C is required. The instrument can be used in single- or dual-cell configurations, with the capability to modify programs while experiments are in progress. We describe an algorithm for computing the fast transient Na+ current (INa) in real time, and test its accuracy and stability using rate constants appropriate for 37°C. We then construct a program capable of supplying three currents to a cell preparation: INa, the hyperpolarizing-activated inward pacemaker current (If), and an inward-rectifier K+ current (IK1). The program corrects for the IR drop due to electrode current flow, and also records all voltages and currents. We tested this program on dual patch-clamped HEK293 cells where the dynamic clamp controls a current-clamp amplifier and a voltage-clamp amplifier controls membrane potential, and current-clamped HEK293 cells where the dynamic clamp produces spontaneous pacing behavior exhibiting Na+ spikes in otherwise passive cells. PMID:23224681

  10. Design and Effectiveness of Intelligent Tutors for Operators of Complex Dynamic Systems: A Tutor Implementation for Satellite System Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Govindaraj, T.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of intelligent tutoring systems as opposed to traditional on-the-job training for training operators of complex dynamic systems and describes the computer architecture for a system for operators of a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) satellite control system. An experimental evaluation with college students is…

  11. Constant pH Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics in Explicit Solvent Using Discrete Protonation States: Implementation, Testing, and Validation.

    PubMed

    Swails, Jason M; York, Darrin M; Roitberg, Adrian E

    2014-03-11

    By utilizing Graphics Processing Units, we show that constant pH molecular dynamics simulations (CpHMD) run in Generalized Born (GB) implicit solvent for long time scales can yield poor pKa predictions as a result of sampling unrealistic conformations. To address this shortcoming, we present a method for performing constant pH molecular dynamics simulations (CpHMD) in explicit solvent using a discrete protonation state model. The method involves standard molecular dynamics (MD) being propagated in explicit solvent followed by protonation state changes being attempted in GB implicit solvent at fixed intervals. Replica exchange along the pH-dimension (pH-REMD) helps to obtain acceptable titration behavior with the proposed method. We analyzed the effects of various parameters and settings on the titration behavior of CpHMD and pH-REMD in explicit solvent, including the size of the simulation unit cell and the length of the relaxation dynamics following protonation state changes. We tested the method with the amino acid model compounds, a small pentapeptide with two titratable sites, and hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). The proposed method yields superior predicted pKa values for HEWL over hundreds of nanoseconds of simulation relative to corresponding predicted values from simulations run in implicit solvent.

  12. Fabrication of capacitive absolute pressure sensor using Si-Au eutectic bonding in SOI wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryeol Lee, Kang; Kim, Kunnyun; Park, Hyo-Derk; Kim, Yong Kook; Choi, Seung-Woo; Choi, Woo-Beom

    2006-04-01

    A capacitive absolute pressure sensor was fabricated using a large deflected diaphragm with a sealed vacuum cavity formed by removing handling silicon wafer and oxide layers from a SOI wafer after eutectic bonding of a silicon wafer to the SOI wafer. The deflected displacements of the diaphragm formed by the vacuum cavity in the fabricated sensor were similar to simulation results. Initial capacitance values were about 2.18pF and 3.65pF under normal atmosphere, where the thicknesses of the diaphragm used to fabricate the vacuum cavity were 20 µm and 30 µm, respectively. Also, it was confirmed that the differences of capacitance value from 1000hPa to 5hPa were about 2.57pF and 5.35pF, respectively.

  13. Hydrogen-induced program threshold voltage degradation analysis in SONOS wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qing; Zhao, Crystal; Sheng, Nan

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies the hydrogen-induced program state threshold voltage degradation in SONOS wafers, which ultimately impacts wafer sort test yield. During wafer sort step, all individual integrated circuits noted as die are tested for functional defects by applying special test patterns to them. The proportion between the passing die (good die) and the non-passing die (bad die) is sort yield. The different N2/H2 ratio in IMD1 alloy process yields differently at flash checkerboard test. And the SIMS curves were also obtained to depict the distribution profile of H+ in SONOS ONO stack structure. It is found that, the H+ accumulated in the interface between the Tunnel oxide and Si layer, contributes the charge loss in Oxynitride layer, which leads to the program threshold voltage degradation and even fall below lower specification limit, and then impacts the sort yield of SONOS wafers.

  14. Wafer-scale synthesis of single-crystal zigzag silicon nanowire arrays with controlled turning angles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2010-03-10

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) having curved structures may have unique advantages in device fabrication. However, no methods are available to prepare curved SiNWs controllably. In this work, we report the preparation of three types of single-crystal SiNWs with various turning angles via metal-assisted chemical etching using (111)-oriented silicon wafers near room temperature. The zigzag SiNWs are single crystals and can be p- or n-doped using corresponding Si wafer as substrate. The controlled growth direction is attributed to the preferred movement of Ag nanoparticles along 001 and other directions in Si wafer. Our results demonstrate that metal-assisted chemical etching may be a viable approach to fabricate SiNWs with desired turning angles by utilizing the various crystalline directions in a Si wafer.

  15. Electromagnetic field modeling for defect detection in 7 nm node patterned wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Kedi; Davoudzadeh, Nima; Wang, Xiaozhen; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2016-03-01

    By 2017, the critical dimension in patterned wafers will shrink down to 7 nm, which brings great challenges to optics-based defect inspection techniques, due to the ever-decreasing signal to noise ratio with respect to defect size. To continue pushing forward the optics-based metrology technique, it is of great importance to analyze the full characteristics of the scattering field of a wafer with a defect and then to find the most sensitive signal type. In this article, the vector boundary element method is firstly introduced to calculate the scattering field of a patterned wafer at a specific objective plane, after which a vector imaging theory is introduced to calculate the field at an image plane for an imaging system with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The above methods enable the effective modeling of the image for an arbitrary vectorial scattering electromagnetic field coming from the defect pattern of the wafer.

  16. Silicon Wafer Surface-Temperature Monitoring System for Plasma Etching Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.; Nakaoka, A.; Mizojiri, Y.

    2011-08-01

    A thermoreflectance temperature measuring system was developed with the aim to realize monitoring of the silicon wafer surface temperature during plasma etching. The thermoreflectance detects variations in temperature through changes in optical reflectance. To overcome such difficulties as low sensitivity and limitation in installation space and position for in situ measurements, the differential thermoreflectance utilizing two orthogonal polarizations was introduced. Noise such as fluctuations in the incident beam intensity or changes of loss in the optical path would affect both polarizations equally and would not affect the measurement. The large angle of incidence of the beam allows measurement to be performed from outside the viewing ports of existing plasma etching process chambers through the gap between the plasma electrode and the silicon wafer. In this article, an off-line measurement result is presented, with results for bare wafers as well as for wafers with metal depositions. A prototype system developed for tests in plasma etching facilities in a production line is described.

  17. Eutectic bonding of a Ti sputter coated, carbon aerogel wafer to a Ni foil

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; Kanna, R.L.

    1994-06-01

    The formation of high energy density, storage devices is achievable using composite material systems. Alternate layering of carbon aerogel wafers and Ni foils with rnicroporous separators is a prospective composite for capacitor applications. An inherent problem exists to form a physical bond between Ni and the porous carbon wafer. The bonding process must be limited to temperatures less than 1000{degrees}C, at which point the aerogel begins to degrade. The advantage of a low temperature eutectic in the Ni-Ti alloy system solves this problem. Ti, a carbide former, is readily adherent as a sputter deposited thin film onto the carbon wafer. A vacuum bonding process is then used to join the Ni foil and Ti coating through eutectic phase formation. The parameters required for successfld bonding are described along with a structural characterization of the Ni foil-carbon aerogel wafer interface.

  18. Influence of thermal load on 450 mm Si-wafer IPD during lithographic patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschel, Thomas; Kalkowski, Gerhard; Eberhardt, Ramona

    2012-03-01

    We report on Finite Element Modeling (FEM) of the influence of heat load due to the lithographic exposure on the inplane distortion (IPD) of 450 mm Si-wafers and hence on the effect of the heat load on the achievable image placement accuracy. Based on a scenario of electron beam writing at an exposure power of 20 mW, the thermo-mechanical behavior of the chuck and the attached Si wafer is modeled and used to derive corresponding IPD values. To account for the pin structured chuck surface, an effective layer model is derived. Different materials for the wafer chuck are compared with respect to their influence on wafer IPD and thermal characteristics of the exposure process. Guidelines for the selection of the chuck material und suggestions for its cooling and corrective strategies on e-beam steering during exposure are derived.

  19. Photocatalytic water disinfection by simple and low-cost monolithic and heterojunction ceramic wafers.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Neel M; Hazael, Rachael; McMillan, Paul F; Darr, Jawwad A

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the photocatalytic disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) using dual layer ceramic wafers, prepared by a simple and low-cost technique, was investigated. Heterojunction wafers were prepared by pressing TiO2 and WO3 powders together into 2 layers within a single, self-supported monolith. Data modelling showed that the heterojunction wafers were able to sustain the formation of charged species (after an initial "charging" period). In comparison, a wafer made from pure TiO2 showed a less desirable bacterial inactivation profile in that the rate decreased with time (after being faster initially). The more favourable kinetics of the dual layer system was due to superior electron-hole vectorial charge separation and an accumulation of charges beyond the initial illumination period. The results demonstrate the potential for developing simplified photocatalytic devices for rapid water disinfection. PMID:25976167

  20. A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.

    2010-03-12

    The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

  1. Photocatalytic water disinfection by simple and low-cost monolithic and heterojunction ceramic wafers.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Neel M; Hazael, Rachael; McMillan, Paul F; Darr, Jawwad A

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the photocatalytic disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) using dual layer ceramic wafers, prepared by a simple and low-cost technique, was investigated. Heterojunction wafers were prepared by pressing TiO2 and WO3 powders together into 2 layers within a single, self-supported monolith. Data modelling showed that the heterojunction wafers were able to sustain the formation of charged species (after an initial "charging" period). In comparison, a wafer made from pure TiO2 showed a less desirable bacterial inactivation profile in that the rate decreased with time (after being faster initially). The more favourable kinetics of the dual layer system was due to superior electron-hole vectorial charge separation and an accumulation of charges beyond the initial illumination period. The results demonstrate the potential for developing simplified photocatalytic devices for rapid water disinfection.

  2. Rizatriptan wafer--sublingual vs. placebo at the onset of acute migraine.

    PubMed

    Klapper, J A; O'Connor, S

    2000-07-01

    Rizatriptan wafer is a 5HT1B/1D agonist for use in the acute treatment of migraine. It is a freeze-fried formulation, approved for oral administration, which dissolves on the tongue and is swallowed with saliva. In this study the efficacy of sublingually administered rizatriptan 10-mg wafer was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, out-patient study involving 39 migraineurs. Patients were instructed to treat a migraine at the onset of pain in order to evaluate time of onset of pain relief and pain relief at 1 h. The average time to onset of relief was 25 min for patients treated with rizatriptan wafer and 27 min for patients treated with placebo. At 1 h, 50% of the patients receiving rizatriptan wafer and 50% of the patients receiving placebo experienced significant relief. Implications and potential reasons for a high placebo response are discussed.

  3. Characterization and control of wafer charging effects during high-current ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Current, M.I.; Lukaszek, W.; Dixon, W.; Vella, M.C.; Messick, C.; Shideler, J.; Reno, S.

    1994-02-01

    EEPROM-based sense and memory devices provide direct measures of the charge flow and potentials occurring on the surface of wafers during ion beam processing. Sensor design and applications for high current ion implantation are discussed.

  4. Integrating III-V compound semiconductors with silicon using wafer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yucai

    2000-12-01

    From Main Street to Wall Street, everyone has felt the effects caused by the Internet revolution. The Internet has created a new economy in the New Information Age and has brought significant changes in both business and personal life. This revolution has placed strong demands for higher bandwidth and higher computing speed due to high data traffic on today's information highway. In order to alleviate this problem, growing interconnection bottlenecks in digital designs have to be solved. The most feasible and practical way is to replace the conventional electrical interconnect with an optical interconnect. Since silicon does not have the optical properties necessary to accommodate these optical interconnect requirements, III-V based devices, most of which are GaAs-based or InP-based, must be intimately interconnected with the Si circuit at chip level. This monolithic integration technology enables the development of both intrachip and interchip optical connectors to take advantage of the enormous bandwidth provided by both high-performance very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits and allied fiber and free-space optical technologies. However, lattice mismatch and thermal expansion mismatches between III-V materials and Si create enormous challenges for developing a feasible technology to tackle this problem. Among all the available approaches today, wafer bonding distinguishes itself as the most promising technology for integration due to its ability to overcome the constraints of both lattice constant mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient differences and even strain due to the crystal orientation. We present our development of wafer bonding technology for integrating III-V with Si in my dissertation. First, the pick-and-place multiple-wafer bonding technology was introduced. Then we systematically studied the wafer bonding of GaAs and InP with Si. Both high temperature wafer fusion and low/room temperature (LT/RT) wafer bonding have been investigated for

  5. Electronically and ionically conductive porous material and method for manufacture of resin wafers therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lin, YuPo J.; Henry, Michael P.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2011-07-12

    An electrically and ionically conductive porous material including a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material. The thermoplastic binder immobilizes the moieties with respect to each other but does not substantially coat the moieties and forms the electrically conductive porous material. A wafer of the material and a method of making the material and wafer are disclosed.

  6. Electronically and ionically conductive porous material and method for manufacture of resin wafers therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lin, YuPo J.; Henry, Michael P.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2008-11-18

    An electrically and ionically conductive porous material including a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material. The thermoplastic binder immobilizes the moieties with respect to each other but does not substantially coat the moieties and forms the electrically conductive porous material. A wafer of the material and a method of making the material and wafer are disclosed.

  7. Inline characterization of SiGe structures on 8 inch Si wafers using the Bede QC200 x-ray diffractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaumseil, P.; Lafford, T. A.; Taylor, M.

    2001-05-01

    Inline characterization of SiGe and SiGe:C heterobipolar transistors places stringent requirements on x-ray diffraction set-ups: (i) precise mounting and positioning of 8 inch wafers for single position scans and area mapping; (ii) high beam intensity in a small spot; and (iii) low background to realize a dynamic range better than five orders of magnitude for precise rocking curve simulation. The Bede QC200 x-ray diffractometer, which applies a novel micro-focus x-ray source and a novel beam conditioning optics to a double-crystal x-ray diffraction system, meets these requirements. Data collected on SiGe structures with the QC200 are compared with data collected at a synchrotron source. We demonstrate that reliable depth profiles of Ge content can be obtained in structures of 500×500 µm2 size in an automatic operation mode at different positions over an 8 inch wafer in a well defined grid. Two automatic fitting programs, one involving a genetic algorithm, are used to extract material information from simulation of the high-resolution diffraction scans. Rapid, reliable convergence on the global minimum gives objective fitting, suitable for quality control in a SiGe technology. Finally, we show how the lateral distribution of Ge content and layer thickness can be mapped over an 8 inch wafer.

  8. Influence of the Viscoelastic Properties of the Polyimide Dielectric Coating on the Wafer Warpage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunsheng; Ning, Wenguo; Xu, Gaowei; Luo, Le

    2014-09-01

    Polyimide is widely used as the dielectric material in wafer level packaging. One potential problem with its application is the warpage and stress generated in the curing process. This paper investigated the material properties of polyimide and its influence on the wafer warpage. The viscoelastic properties of polyimide film were measured and a mathematical model of the properties was developed. Finite element analysis of the wafer warpage was performed and this indicates that the viscoelastic material model gave the best prediction. To better understand the causation of the warpage, curvature evolution of the polyimide-coated silicon wafer during its curing process was measured by a multi-beam optical sensor system. It was found that the warpage was mainly induced by the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and that the cure shrinkage of polyimide had little effect. Additionally, the effect of the cooling rate on the wafer warpage was also studied. Both simulation and experiment results showed that a slower cooling rate in the temperature range around the glass transition temperature ( T g) of polyimide will help to reduce the final wafer warpage.

  9. A novel nanoglue and whole wafer self-alignment based upon self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, Ako; Walker, Ernest; Hallen, Hans

    2008-10-01

    New methodologies for fabrication of multilevel packaging, particularly for RF signal analysis, are investigated. A new method for ``gluing'' silicon wafers together with a Self Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) based nanoglue are discussed, as are methods to enable its use with nonconforming wafers. Results of bond strength measurements as a function of temperature and process will be presented. Surface area bonded is characterized by infrared (IR) imaging. We will also present a method of inducing self-alignment between whole silicon wafers with micrometer precision. This represents a qualitative departure from alignment of millimeter-sized object as has been previously demonstrated. Self-alignment is induced by creating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions on the wafers and using capillary forces of water in these regions to force the wafers to align with little to no outside influence. Results are characterized by IR imaging. Physical ideas that enable the whole-wafer alignment such as flow channels, elimination of secondary minima, large central capture areas and small edge features are discussed. The possibility of aligning with the nanoglue materials as the alignment drivers is discussed.

  10. Time-varying wetting behavior on copper wafer treated by wet-etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Sheng-Hung; Wu, Chuan-Chang; Wu, Hsing-Chen; Cheng, Shao-Liang; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2015-06-01

    The wet cleaning process in semiconductor fabrication often involves the immersion of the copper wafer into etching solutions and thereby its surface properties are significantly altered. The wetting behavior of a copper film deposited on silicon wafer is investigated after a short dip in various etching solutions. The etchants include glacial acetic acid and dilute solutions of nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and tetramethylammonium hydroxide. It was found that in most cases a thin oxide layer still remains on the surface of as-received Cu wafers when they are subject to etching treatments. However, a pure Cu wafer can be obtained by the glacial acetic acid treatment and its water contact angle (CA) is about 45°. As the pure Cu wafer is placed in the ambient condition, the oxide thickness grows rapidly to the range of 10-20 Å within 3 h and the CA on the hydrophilic surface also rises. In the vacuum, it is surprising to find that the CA and surface roughness of the pure Cu wafer can grow significantly. These interesting results may be attributed to the rearrangement of surface Cu atoms to reduce the surface free energy.

  11. A wafer mapping technique for residual stress in surface micromachined films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, G.; Murray, J.; Smith, S.; Desmulliez, M. P. Y.; Mount, A. R.; Walton, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The design of MEMS devices employing movable structures is crucially dependant on the mechanical behaviour of the deposited materials. It is therefore important to be able to fully characterize the micromachined films and predict with confidence the mechanical properties of patterned structures. This paper presents a characterization technique that enables the residual stress in MEMS films to be mapped at the wafer level by using microstructures released by surface micromachining. These dedicated MEMS test structures and the associated measurement techniques are used to extract localized information on the strain and Young’s modulus of the film under investigation. The residual stress is then determined by numerically coupling this data with a finite element analysis of the structure. This paper illustrates the measurement routine and demonstrates it with a case study using electrochemically deposited alloys of nickel and iron, particularly prone to develop high levels of residual stress. The results show that the technique enables wafer mapping of film non-uniformities and identifies wafer-to-wafer differences. A comparison between the results obtained from the mapping technique and conventional wafer bow measurements highlights the benefits of using a procedure tailored to films that are non-uniform, patterned and surface-micromachined, as opposed to simple standard stress extraction methods. The presented technique reveals detailed information that is generally unexplored when using conventional stress extraction methods such as wafer bow measurements.

  12. Universal set of dynamically protected gates for bipartite qubit networks: Soft pulse implementation of the [[5,1,3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Amrit; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2016-04-01

    We model repetitive quantum error correction (QEC) with the single-error-correcting five-qubit code on a network of individually controlled qubits with always-on Ising couplings. We use our previously designed universal set of quantum gates based on sequences of shaped decoupling pulses. In addition to being accurate quantum gates, the sequences also provide dynamical decoupling (DD) of low-frequency phase noise. The simulation involves integrating the unitary dynamics of six qubits over the duration of tens of thousands of control pulses, using classical stochastic phase noise as a source of decoherence. The combined DD and QEC protocol dramatically improves the coherence, with the QEC alone being responsible for more than an order of magnitude infidelity reduction.

  13. Mystic: Implementation of the Static Dynamic Optimal Control Algorithm for High-Fidelity, Low-Thrust Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiffen, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    Mystic software is designed to compute, analyze, and visualize optimal high-fidelity, low-thrust trajectories, The software can be used to analyze inter-planetary, planetocentric, and combination trajectories, Mystic also provides utilities to assist in the operation and navigation of low-thrust spacecraft. Mystic will be used to design and navigate the NASA's Dawn Discovery mission to orbit the two largest asteroids, The underlying optimization algorithm used in the Mystic software is called Static/Dynamic Optimal Control (SDC). SDC is a nonlinear optimal control method designed to optimize both 'static variables' (parameters) and dynamic variables (functions of time) simultaneously. SDC is a general nonlinear optimal control algorithm based on Bellman's principal.

  14. A physical framework for implementing virtual models of intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in hydrocephalus shunt testing.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Pranav; Browd, Samuel R; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The surgical placement of a shunt designed to resolve the brain's impaired ability to drain excess CSF is one of the most common treatments for hydrocephalus. The use of a dynamic testing platform is an important part of shunt testing that can faithfully reproduce the physiological environment of the implanted shunts. METHODS A simulation-based framework that serves as a proof of concept for enabling the application of virtual intracranial pressure (ICP) and CSF models to a physical shunt-testing system was engineered. This was achieved by designing hardware and software that enabled the application of dynamic model-driven inlet and outlet pressures to a shunt and the subsequent measurement of the resulting drainage rate. RESULTS A set of common physiological scenarios was simulated, including oscillations in ICP due to respiratory and cardiac cycles, changes in baseline ICP due to changes in patient posture, and transient ICP spikes caused by activities such as exercise, coughing, sneezing, and the Valsalva maneuver. The behavior of the Strata valve under a few of these physiological conditions is also demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS Testing shunts with dynamic ICP and CSF simulations can facilitate the optimization of shunts to be more failure resistant and better suited to patient physiology.

  15. A physical framework for implementing virtual models of intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in hydrocephalus shunt testing.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Pranav; Browd, Samuel R; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The surgical placement of a shunt designed to resolve the brain's impaired ability to drain excess CSF is one of the most common treatments for hydrocephalus. The use of a dynamic testing platform is an important part of shunt testing that can faithfully reproduce the physiological environment of the implanted shunts. METHODS A simulation-based framework that serves as a proof of concept for enabling the application of virtual intracranial pressure (ICP) and CSF models to a physical shunt-testing system was engineered. This was achieved by designing hardware and software that enabled the application of dynamic model-driven inlet and outlet pressures to a shunt and the subsequent measurement of the resulting drainage rate. RESULTS A set of common physiological scenarios was simulated, including oscillations in ICP due to respiratory and cardiac cycles, changes in baseline ICP due to changes in patient posture, and transient ICP spikes caused by activities such as exercise, coughing, sneezing, and the Valsalva maneuver. The behavior of the Strata valve under a few of these physiological conditions is also demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS Testing shunts with dynamic ICP and CSF simulations can facilitate the optimization of shunts to be more failure resistant and better suited to patient physiology. PMID:27203135

  16. Mechanical wafer engineering for semitransparent polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willeke, G.; Fath, P.

    1994-03-01

    A concept for the realization of semitransparent bifacially active highly efficient and light weight crystalline silicon solar cells is presented. The concept is based on the preparation of perpendicular V-grooves in silicon blanks by mechanical abrasion using a dicing saw and beveled blades. Holes of variable diameter are formed automatically in the processing step, which provide a connection between the passivated phosphorus doped front and back side emitters. A maximum bulk-emitter distance of ˜30 μm has been realized in 200 μm thick structures which should result in highly efficient solar cell devices even in small grain low quality polycrystalline material. The partial transparency of the presented solar cell structure opens the way for new applications (crystalline Si photovoltaic windows, etc.). The feasibility of the mechanical grooving process has been demonstrated on Wacker SILSO cast silicon. Double-side V-grooved structures (distance between grooves 90 and 140 μm, bevel angle 35°) with hole diameters in the range 10-70 μm, corresponding to a transmittance of up to 30% in the visible, have been prepared with excellent uniformity and mechanical stability over a large area (5×5 cm2). An average total reflectance in the range 500-1000 nm of Rav=0.9% has been measured on a structure with a geometrical hole fraction of 1.7% after growth of a 1170 Å thick layer of thermal oxide. This SILSO structure had an effective silicon thickness of 120 μm, whereas the absorptance spectrum near the band edge was similar to a 5.5 mm thick nongrooved silicon wafer, indicating the excellent light trapping obtained.

  17. NXE:3100 full wafer imaging performance and budget verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Setten, Eelco; van Ingen Schenau, Koen; O'Mahony, Mark; Hollink, Thijs; Wittebrood, Friso; Davydova, Natalia; Eurlings, Mark; Feenstra, Kees; Finders, Jo; Dusa, Mircea; Young, Stuart

    2012-02-01

    With the introduction of the NXE:3100 NA=0.25 exposure system a big step has been made to get EUV lithography ready for High Volume Manufacturing. Over the last year, 6 exposure systems have been shipped to various customers around the world, active in Logic, DRAM, MPU and Flash memory, covering all major segments in the semi-conductor industry. The integration and qualification of these systems have provided a great learning, identifying the benefits of EUV over ArF immersion and the critical parameters of the exposure tool and how to operate it. In this paper we will focus specifically on the imaging performance of the NXE:3100 EUV scanner. Having been operational for more than a year a wide range of features were evaluated for lithographic performance across the field and across wafer. CD results of 32nm contact holes, 27nm isolated and dense lines, 27nm two-bar, 22nm dense L/S with Dipole, as well as several device features will be discussed and benchmarked against the current ArF immersion performance. A budget verification will be presented showing CD and contrast budgets for a selection of lithographic features. The contribution of the resist process and the mask will be discussed as well. The litho performance optimization will be highlighted with the 27nm twobar and isolated lines features that are sensitive to the illuminator pupil shape and projection lens aberrations. We will estimate the amount of resist induced contrast loss for 27 and 22nm L/S based on measurements of Exposure Latitude and the contributors from the exposure system. We will further present on the impact of variations in the mask blank and patterned mask on imaging, with several new contributors to take into account compared to traditional transmission masks. Finally, the combined results will be projected to the NXE:3300 NA=0.33 exposure system to give an outlook for its imaging performance capabilities.

  18. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementation of the ORAC Molecular Dynamics Program for Generalized Ensemble and Fast Switching Alchemical Simulations.

    PubMed

    Procacci, Piero

    2016-06-27

    We present a new release (6.0β) of the ORAC program [Marsili et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2010, 31, 1106-1116] with a hybrid OpenMP/MPI (open multiprocessing message passing interface) multilevel parallelism tailored for generalized ensemble (GE) and fast switching double annihilation (FS-DAM) nonequilibrium technology aimed at evaluating the binding free energy in drug-receptor system on high performance computing platforms. The production of the GE or FS-DAM trajectories is handled using a weak scaling parallel approach on the MPI level only, while a strong scaling force decomposition scheme is implemented for intranode computations with shared memory access at the OpenMP level. The efficiency, simplicity, and inherent parallel nature of the ORAC implementation of the FS-DAM algorithm, project the code as a possible effective tool for a second generation high throughput virtual screening in drug discovery and design. The code, along with documentation, testing, and ancillary tools, is distributed under the provisions of the General Public License and can be freely downloaded at www.chim.unifi.it/orac . PMID:27231982

  19. Engine dynamic analysis with general nonlinear finite element codes. Part 2: Bearing element implementation overall numerical characteristics and benchmaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, J.; Adams, M.; Fertis, J.; Zeid, I.; Lam, P.

    1982-01-01

    Finite element codes are used in modelling rotor-bearing-stator structure common to the turbine industry. Engine dynamic simulation is used by developing strategies which enable the use of available finite element codes. benchmarking the elements developed are benchmarked by incorporation into a general purpose code (ADINA); the numerical characteristics of finite element type rotor-bearing-stator simulations are evaluated through the use of various types of explicit/implicit numerical integration operators. Improving the overall numerical efficiency of the procedure is improved.

  20. P/N InP solar cells on Ge wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven; Vernon, Stanley; Burke, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) P-on-N one-sun solar cells were epitaxially grown using a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process on germanium (Ge) wafers. The motivation for this work is to replace expensive InP wafers, which are fragile and must be thick and therefore heavy, with less expensive Ge wafers, which are stronger, allowing use of thinner, lighter weight wafers. An intermediate InxGs1-xP grading layer starting as In(0.49)Ga(0.51) at the GaAs-coated Ge wafer surface and ending as InP at the top of the grading layer (backside of the InP cell) was used to attempt to bend some of the threading dislocations generated by lattice-mismatch between the Ge wafer and InP cell so they would be harmlessly confined in this grading layer. The best InP/Ge cell was independently measured by NASA-Lewis with a one-sun 25 C AMO efficiently measured by NASA-Lewis with a one-circuit photocurrent 22.6 mA/sq cm. We believe this is the first published report of an InP cell grown on a Ge wafer. Why get excited over a 9 percent InP/Ge cell? If we look at the cell weight and efficiency, a 9 percent InP cell on an 8 mil Ge wafer has about the same cell power density, 118 W/kg (BOL), as the best InP cell ever made, a 19 percent InP cell on an 18 mil InP wafer, because of the lighter Ge wafer weight. As cell panel materials become lighter, the cell weight becomes more important, and the advantage of lightweight cells to the panel power density becomes more important. In addition, although InP/Ge cells have a low beginning-of-life (BOL) efficiency due to dislocation defects, the InP/Ge cells are very radiation hard (end-of-life power similar to beginning-of-life). We have irradiated an InP/Ge cell with alpha particles to an equivalent fluence of 1.6 x 10(exp 16) 1 MeV electrons/sq cm and the efficiency is still 83 percent of its BOL value. At this fluence level, the power output of these InP/Ge cells matches the GaAs/Ge cell data tabulated in the JPL handbook. Data are presented

  1. Thin, High Lifetime Silicon Wafers with No Sawing; Re-crystallization in a Thin Film Capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel Sachs Tonio Buonassisi

    2013-01-16

    The project fits within the area of renewable energy called photovoltaics (PV), or the generation of electricity directly from sunlight using semiconductor devices. PV has the greatest potential of any renewable energy technology. The vast majority of photovoltaic modules are made on crystalline silicon wafers and these wafers accounts for the largest fraction of the cost of a photovoltaic module. Thus, a method of making high quality, low cost wafers would be extremely beneficial to the PV industry The industry standard technology creates wafers by casting an ingot and then sawing wafers from the ingot. Sawing rendered half of the highly refined silicon feedstock as un-reclaimable dust. Being a brittle material, the sawing is actually a type of grinding operation which is costly both in terms of capital equipment and in terms of consumables costs. The consumables costs associated with the wire sawing technology are particularly burdensome and include the cost of the wire itself (continuously fed, one time use), the abrasive particles, and, waste disposal. The goal of this project was to make wafers directly from molten silicon with no sawing required. The fundamental concept was to create a very low cost (but low quality) wafer of the desired shape and size and then to improve the quality of the wafer by a specialized thermal treatment (called re-crystallization). Others have attempted to create silicon sheet by recrystallization with varying degrees of success. Key among the difficulties encountered by others were: a) difficulty in maintaining the physical shape of the sheet during the recrystallization process and b) difficulty in maintaining the cleanliness of the sheet during recrystallization. Our method solved both of these challenges by encapsulating the preform wafer in a protective capsule prior to recrystallization (see below). The recrystallization method developed in this work was extremely effective at maintaining the shape and the cleanliness of the

  2. Ab initio implementation of quantum trajectory mean-field approach and dynamical simulation of the N{sub 2}CO photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Binbin; Liu, Lihong; Cui, Ganglong; Fang, Wei-Hai; Cao, Jun; Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-qi

    2015-11-21

    In this work, the recently introduced quantum trajectory mean-field (QTMF) approach is implemented and employed to explore photodissociation dynamics of diazirinone (N{sub 2}CO), which are based on the high-level ab initio calculation. For comparison, the photodissociation process has been simulated as well with the fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) and the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) methods. Overall, the dynamical behavior predicted by the three methods is consistent. The N{sub 2}CO photodissociation at λ > 335 nm is an ultrafast process and the two C—N bonds are broken in a stepwise way, giving birth to CO and N{sub 2} as the final products in the ground state. Meanwhile, some noticeable differences were found in the QTMF, FSSH, and AIMS simulated time constants for fission of the C—N bonds, excited-state lifetime, and nonadiabatic transition ratios in different intersection regions. These have been discussed in detail. The present study provides a clear evidence that direct ab initio QTMF approach is one of the reliable tools for simulating nonadiabatic dynamics processes.

  3. Stress diagnostics and crack detection in full-size silicon wafers using resonance ultrasonic vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byelyayev, Anton

    Non-destructive monitoring of residual elastic stress in silicon wafers is a matter of strong concern for modern photovoltaic industry. The excess stress can generate cracks within the crystalline structure, which further may lead to wafer breakage. Cracks diagnostics and reduction in multicrystalline silicon, for example, are ones of the most important issues in photovoltaics now. The industry is intent to improve the yield of solar cells fabrication. There is a number of techniques to measure residual stress in semiconductor materials today. They include Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and infrared polariscopy. None of these methods are applicable for in-line diagnostics of residual elastic stress in silicon wafers for solar cells. Moreover, the method has to be fast enough to fit in solar cell sequential production line. In photovoltaics, fast in-line quality control has to be performed within two seconds per wafer to match the throughput of the production lines. During this Ph.D. research we developed the resonance ultrasonic vibration (RUV) approach to diagnose residual stress non-destructively in full-size multicrystalline silicon wafers used in solar cell manufacturing. This method is based on excitation of longitudinal resonance ultrasonic vibrations in the material using an external piezoelectric transducer combined with high sensitive ultrasonic probe and data acquisition of the frequency response to make the method suitable for in-line diagnostics during wafer and cell manufacturing. Theoretical and experimental analyses of the vibration mode in single crystal and multicrystalline silicon wafers were used to provide a benchmark reference analysis and validation of the approach. Importantly, we observed a clear trend of increasing resonance frequency of the longitudinal vibration mode with higher average in-plane stress obtained with scanning infrared polariscopy. Using the same experimental approach we assessed a fast crack detection and length

  4. Vibrational resonance and implementation of dynamic logic gate in a piecewise-linear Murali-Lakshmanan-Chua circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, P. R.; Venkatesan, A.

    2016-10-01

    We report the occurrence of vibrational resonance in piecewise-linear non-autonomous system. Especially, we show that an optimal amplitude of the high frequency second harmonic driving enhances the response of a piece-wise linear non-autonomous Murali-Lakshmanan-Chua (MLC) system to a low frequency first harmonic signal. This phenomenon is illustrated with the analytical solutions of circuit equations characterising the system and finally compared with the numerical method. Further, it has been enunciated explicitly, the implementation of the fundamental NOR/NAND gate via vibrational resonance, both by numerical and analytical solutions. In addition, these logical behaviours (AND/NAND/OR/NOR) can be decided by the amplitude of the input square waves without altering the system parameters.

  5. Nondestructive evaluation of large-area PZN-8%PT single crystal wafers for medical ultrasound imaging probe applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Francis J; Lim, Leong-Chew; Lim, Siak Piang; Lee, Kwok Hong

    2003-03-01

    A nondestructive quality evaluation and control procedure for large-area, (001)-cut PZN-8%PT wafers is described. The crystals were grown by the flux technique engineered to promote (001) layer growth of the crystals. The wafers were sliced parallel to the (001) layer growth plane. Curie temperature (Tc) variations, measured with matching arrays of dot electrodes (of 5.0 mm in center-to-center spacing), were found to be better than +/- 4.0 degrees C both within wafers and from wafer to wafer. After selective dicing to give final wafers of narrower Tc distributions (e.g., +/- 3.0 degrees C or better), the wafers were coated with complete electrodes and poled at room temperature at 0.7-0.9 kV/mm. Typical overall properties of the poled wafers were: K3T = 5,200 (+/- 10% from wafer to wafer), tan delta < 0.01 (all wafers), and kt = 0.55 (+/- 5%) (all percentage variations are in relative percentages). Then, the distributions of K3S, tan delta, and kt were measured by the array dot electrode technique. The variations in K3S (hence K3T) and kt within individual wafers were found to be within +/- 10% and +/- 5%, respectively. The dielectric loss values, measured at 1 kHz, were consistently low, being < 0.01 throughout the wafers. The kt values determined by the dot electrodes were found to be about 5% smaller than those obtained with the complete electrodes, which can be attributed to an increase in capacitance ratio due to the partial electroding. The k33 values, deduced using the relation K3S approximately (1 - k33(2))K3T, from the mean K3S and overall K3T values, average 0.94 (+/- 2%). The present work shows that the distribution of Tc within wafers can be used as a convenient check for the uniformity in composition and electromechanical properties of PZN-8%PT single crystal wafers. Our results show that, to control deltaK3T and deltakt within individual wafer to < or = 10% and 5%, respectively, the variation in Tc within the wafer should be kept within +/- 3.0 degrees

  6. The role of Gliadel wafers in the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Wei-kang; Shao, Chuan; Qi, Zhen-yu; Yang, Chao; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Standard treatment for high-grade glioma (HGG) includes surgery followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Insertion of carmustine wafers into the resection cavity as a treatment for malignant glioma is currently a controversial topic among neurosurgeons. Our meta-analysis focused on whether carmustine wafer treatment could significantly benefit the survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Method We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases without any restrictions on language using the keywords “Gliadel wafers”, “carmustine wafers”, “BCNU wafers”, or “interstitial chemotherapy” in newly diagnosed GBM for the period from January 1990 to March 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies/clinical trials that compared treatments designed with and without carmustine wafers and which reported overall survival or hazard ratio (HR) or survival curves were included in this study. Moreover, the statistical analysis was conducted by the STATA 12.0 software. Results Six studies including two RCTs and four cohort studies, enrolling a total of 513 patients (223 with and 290 without carmustine wafers), matched the selection criteria. Carmustine wafers showed a strong advantage when pooling all the included studies (HR =0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.49–0.81; P=0.019). However, the two RCTs did not show a statistical increase in survival in the group with carmustine wafer compared to the group without it (HR =0.51, 95% CI =0.18–1.41; P=0.426), while the cohort studies demonstrated a significant survival increase (HR =0.59, 95% CI =0.44–0.79; P<0.0001). Conclusion Carmustine-impregnated wafers play a significant role in improving survival when used for patients with newly diagnosed GBM. More studies should be designed for newly diagnosed GBM in the future. PMID:26170620

  7. [The implementation of computer model in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle].

    PubMed

    Abduvaliev, A A; Gil'dieva, M S; Khidirov, B N; Saĭdalieva, M; Khasanov, A A; Musaeva, Sh N; Saatov, T S

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with the results of computational experiments in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle in normal condition and in the case of malignant neoplasm. The model studies demonstrated that the chronic increase of parameter of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle results in abnormal behavior of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle. The stationary state interrupts, the auto-oscillations occur with transition to irregular oscillations with unpredictable cell proliferation and further to the "black hole" effect. It is demonstrated that the present medical biologic experimental data and theory propositions concerning the structural functional organization of thyroid gland on cell level permit to develop mathematical models for quantitative analysis of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle in normal conditions. The technique of modeling of regulative mechanisms of living systems and equations of cell cenosis regulations was used PMID:22768711

  8. A Two-grid Algorithm for Implementation of Fully Conservative Difference Schemes of the Gas Dynamics Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Koleva, M. N.

    2008-10-30

    This study is proposing a two-grid algorithm for solving a fully conservative difference schemes (FCDS) for gas dynamics equations. In this two-level scheme, the fully nonlinear problem is solved on a coarse grid with space mesh step H. The nonlinearities are expanded about the coarse grid solution and an appropriate interpolation operator is used to provide values of the coarse grid solution on the fine grid. The resulting linear system is solved on a fine mesh with step size h. Applications in the computation of shock and rarefaction waves model problems illustrate the method's effectiveness. It is shown numerically, that the coarse grid can be much coarser than the fine grid and achieve optimal approximation as long as the mesh sizes satisfy H = O({radical}(h))

  9. [The implementation of computer model in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle].

    PubMed

    Abduvaliev, A A; Gil'dieva, M S; Khidirov, B N; Saĭdalieva, M; Khasanov, A A; Musaeva, Sh N; Saatov, T S

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with the results of computational experiments in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle in normal condition and in the case of malignant neoplasm. The model studies demonstrated that the chronic increase of parameter of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle results in abnormal behavior of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle. The stationary state interrupts, the auto-oscillations occur with transition to irregular oscillations with unpredictable cell proliferation and further to the "black hole" effect. It is demonstrated that the present medical biologic experimental data and theory propositions concerning the structural functional organization of thyroid gland on cell level permit to develop mathematical models for quantitative analysis of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle in normal conditions. The technique of modeling of regulative mechanisms of living systems and equations of cell cenosis regulations was used

  10. Structural Damage Detection with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2011-07-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are lightweight and inexpensive enablers for a large class of damage detection and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. This paper starts with a brief review of PWAS physical principles and basic modelling and continues by considering the various ways in which PWAS can be used for damage detection: (a) embedded guided-wave ultrasonics, i.e., pitch-catch, pulse-echo, phased arrays, thickness mode; (b) high-frequency modal sensing, i.e., the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance method; (c) passive detection, i.e., acoustic emission and impact detection. An example of crack-like damage detection and localization with PWAS phased arrays on a small metallic plate is given. The modelling of PWAS detection of disbond damage in adhesive joints is achieved with the analytical transfer matrix method (TMM). The analytical methods offer the advantage of fast computation which enables parameter studies and carpet plots. A parametric study of the effect of crack size and PWAS location on disbond detection is presented. The power and energy transduction between PWAS and structure is studied analytically with a wave propagation method. Special attention is given to the mechatronics modeling of the complete transduction cycle from electrical excitation into ultrasonic acoustic waves by the piezoelectric effect, the transfer through the structure, and finally reverse piezoelectric transduction to generate the received electric signal. It is found that the combination of PWAS size and wave frequency/wavelength play an important role in identifying transduction maxima and minima that could be exploited to achieve an optimum power-efficient design. The multi-physics finite element method (MP-FEM), which permits fine discretization of damaged regions and complicated structural geometries, is used to study the generation of guided waves in a plate from an electrically excited transmitter PWAS and the capture of these waves as electric

  11. Behavior of piezoelectric wafer active sensor in various media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamas, Tuncay

    The dissertation addresses structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using ultrasonic waves generated by piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) with an emphasis on the development of theoretical models of standing harmonic waves and guided waves. The focal objective of the research is to extend the theoretical study of electro-mechanical coupled PWAS as a resonator/transducer that interacts with standing and traveling waves in various media through electro-mechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) method and guided wave propagation. The analytical models are developed and the coupled field finite element analysis (CF-FEA) models are simulated and verified with experiments. The dissertation is divided into two parts with respect to the developments in EMIS methods and GWP methods. In the first part, analytical and finite element models have been developed for the simulation of PWAS-EMIS in in-plane (longitudinal) and out-of-plane (thickness) mode. Temperature effects on free PWAS-EMIS are also discussed with respect to the in-plane mode. Piezoelectric material degradation on certain electrical and mechanical properties as the temperature increases is simulated by our analytical model for in-plane circular PWAS-EMIS that agrees well with the sets of experiments. Then the thickness mode PWAS-EMIS model was further developed for a PWAS resonator bonded on a plate-like structure. The latter analytical model was to determine the resonance frequencies for the normal mode expansion method through the global matrix method by considering PWAS-substrate and proof mass-PWAS-substrate models. The proof mass concept was adapted to shift the systems resonance frequencies in thickness mode. PWAS in contact with liquid medium on one of its surface has been analytically modeled and simulated the electro-mechanical response of PWAS with various liquids with different material properties such as the density and the viscosity. The second part discusses the guided wave propagation

  12. Recent developments in wafer-level fabrication of micro-optical multi-aperture imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitel, R.; Dannberg, P.; Brückner, A.; Bräuer, A.

    2011-10-01

    Micro-optical systems, that utilize multiple channels for imaging instead of a single one, are frequently discussed for ultra-compact applications such as digital cameras. The strategy of their fabrication differs due to different concepts of image formation. Illustrated by recently implemented systems for multi-aperture imaging, typical steps of wafer-level fabrication are discussed in detail. In turn, the made progress may allow for additional degrees of freedom in optical design. Pressing ahead with very short overall lengths and multiple diaphragm array layers, results in the use of extremely thin glass substrates down to 100 microns in thickness. The desire for a wide field of view for imaging has led to chirped arrays of microlenses and diaphragms. Focusing on imaging quality, aberrations were corrected by introducing toroidal lenslets and elliptical apertures. Such lenslets had been generated by thermal reflow of lithographic patterned photoresist and subsequent molding. Where useful, the system's performance can be further increased by applying aspheric microlenses from reactive ion etching (RIE) transfer or by achromatic doublets from superimposing two moldings with different polymers. Multiple diaphragm arrays prevent channel crosstalk. But using simple metal layers may lead to multiple reflections and an increased appearance of ghost images. A way out are low reflecting black matrix polymers that can be directly patterned by lithography. But in case of environmental stability and high resolution, organic coatings should be replaced by patterned metal coatings that exhibit matched antireflective layers like the prominent black chromium. The mentioned components give an insight into the fabrication process of multi-aperture imaging systems. Finally, the competence in each step decides on the overall image quality.

  13. Implementation of molecular dynamics and its extensions with the coarse-grained UNRES force field on massively parallel systems; towards millisecond-scale simulations of protein structure, dynamics, and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Liwo, Adam; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Czaplewski, Cezary; Kleinerman, Dana S; Blood, Philip; Scheraga, Harold A

    2010-03-01

    We report the implementation of our united-residue UNRES force field for simulations of protein structure and dynamics with massively parallel architectures. In addition to coarse-grained parallelism already implemented in our previous work, in which each conformation was treated by a different task, we introduce a fine-grained level in which energy and gradient evaluation are split between several tasks. The Message Passing Interface (MPI) libraries have been utilized to construct the parallel code. The parallel performance of the code has been tested on a professional Beowulf cluster (Xeon Quad Core), a Cray XT3 supercomputer, and two IBM BlueGene/P supercomputers with canonical and replica-exchange molecular dynamics. With IBM BlueGene/P, about 50 % efficiency and 120-fold speed-up of the fine-grained part was achieved for a single trajectory of a 767-residue protein with use of 256 processors/trajectory. Because of averaging over the fast degrees of freedom, UNRES provides an effective 1000-fold speed-up compared to the experimental time scale and, therefore, enables us to effectively carry out millisecond-scale simulations of proteins with 500 and more amino-acid residues in days of wall-clock time.

  14. Quantitative Myocardial Perfusion with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging in MRI and CT: Theoretical Models and Current Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Handayani, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Oudkerk, M.; Van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Vliegenthart, R.; Sijens, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), including higher spatial and temporal resolution, have made the prospect of performing absolute myocardial perfusion quantification possible, previously only achievable with positron emission tomography (PET). This could facilitate integration of myocardial perfusion biomarkers into the current workup for coronary artery disease (CAD), as MRI and CT systems are more widely available than PET scanners. Cardiac PET scanning remains expensive and is restricted by the requirement of a nearby cyclotron. Clinical evidence is needed to demonstrate that MRI and CT have similar accuracy for myocardial perfusion quantification as PET. However, lack of standardization of acquisition protocols and tracer kinetic model selection complicates comparison between different studies and modalities. The aim of this overview is to provide insight into the different tracer kinetic models for quantitative myocardial perfusion analysis and to address typical implementation issues in MRI and CT. We compare different models based on their theoretical derivations and present the respective consequences for MRI and CT acquisition parameters, highlighting the interplay between tracer kinetic modeling and acquisition settings. PMID:27088083

  15. Process for the controlled growth of single-crystal films of silicon carbide polytypes on silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony

    1992-11-01

    A method for the controlled growth of single-crystal semiconductor-device-quality films of SiC polytypes on vicinal (0001) SiC wafers with low tilt angles is presented. Both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial SiC films can be produced on the same wafer. In particular, 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films can be produced within selected areas of the same 6H-SiC wafer.

  16. Process for the controlled growth of single-crystal films of silicon carbide polytypes on silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony

    1994-11-01

    This invention is a method for the controlled growth of single-crystal semiconductor-device-quality films of SiC polytypes of vicinal (0001) SiC wafers with low tilt angles. Both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial SiC films can be produced on the same wafer. In particular, 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films can be produced within selected areas of the same 6H-SiC wafer.

  17. Process for the controlled growth of single-crystal films of silicon carbide polytypes on silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Anthony

    1991-06-01

    This invention is a method for the controlled growth of single-crystal semiconductor device quality films of SiC polytypes on vicinal (0001) SiC wafers with low tilt angles. Both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial SiC films can be produced on the same wafer. In particular, 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films can be produced within selected areas of the same 6H-SiC wafer.

  18. Process for the controlled growth of single-crystal films of silicon carbide polytypes on silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    This invention is a method for the controlled growth of single-crystal semiconductor device quality films of SiC polytypes on vicinal (0001) SiC wafers with low tilt angles. Both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial SiC films can be produced on the same wafer. In particular, 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films can be produced within selected areas of the same 6H-SiC wafer.

  19. Process for the controlled growth of single-crystal films of silicon carbide polytypes on silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, David J. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the controlled growth of single-crystal semiconductor-device-quality films of SiC polytypes on vicinal (0001) SiC wafers with low tilt angles is presented. Both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial SiC films can be produced on the same wafer. In particular, 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films can be produced within selected areas of the same 6H-SiC wafer.

  20. Nitrogen cycle implementation in the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model LPJmL: description, evaluation and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilain, Guillaume; Müller, Christoph; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Feulner, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycling affects carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere and imposes controls on carbon cycle response to variation in temperature and precipitation. In the absence of carbon-nitrogen interactions, surface warming significantly reduces carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soil by increasing respiration and decomposition (a positive feedback). If plant carbon uptake, however, is assumed to be nitrogen limited, an increase in decomposition leads to an increase in nitrogen availability stimulating plant growth. The resulting increase in carbon uptake by vegetation can exceed carbon loss from the soil, leading to enhanced carbon sequestration (a negative feedback). Cultivation of biofuel crops is expanding because of its potential for climate mitigation, whereas the environmental impacts of bioenergy production still remain unknown. While carbon payback times are being increasingly investigated, non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions of bioenergy production have received little attention so far. We introduced a process-based nitrogen cycle to the LPJmL model at the global scale (each grid cell being 0.5° latitude by 0.5° longitude in size). The model captures mechanisms essential for N cycling and their feedbacks on C cycling: the uptake, allocation and turnover on N in plants, N limitation of plant productivity, and soil N transformation including mineralization, N2 fixation, nitrification and denitrification, NH3 volatilization, N leaching and N2O emissions. Our model captures many essential characteristics of C-N interactions and is capable of broadly recreating spatial and temporal variations in N and C dynamics. Here we evaluate LPJmL by comparing the predicted variables with data from sites with sufficient observations to describe ecosystem nitrogen and carbon fluxes and contents and their responses to climate as well as with estimates of N-dynamics at the global scale. The simulations presented here use no site-specific parameterizations in

  1. Implementation of a wireless sensor network for monitoring the long term soil water dynamics at the hillslope-scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Edoardo; Kögler, Simon; Grau, Thomas; Wollschläger, Ute; Werban, Ulrike; Behrens, Thorsten; Schmidt, Karsten; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of soil water dynamics at the field scale is an important issue e.g. for water management, understanding runoff generation processes, and for calibration and validation of soil water balance models. There is a clear need for robust and flexible monitoring technologies which are able to capture high-resolution information over large areas. Fast and precise measurements may be obtained from geophysical surveys and distributed in situ sensor networks. The overall aim of the project is to design a spatially optimized monitoring strategy for hillslope-scale soil water dynamics by combining innovative geophysical methods and wireless soil moisture sensing technology. In the Harz Mountains (Central Germany), a 2.5 ha hillslope area was permanently instrumented with a wireless soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring network (SoilNet). Along the slopes, lateral flows are expected to play a relevant role in the runoff process, and the different soil types respond differently to the meteorological forcing. Based on Proximal Soil Sensing (PSS) data from geophysical surveys and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study site, a conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling strategy (cLHS) was applied to select 30 locations for the SoilNet nodes. In order to intensify the observations at shorter distances, 10 additional locations were added to the network. In total, 40 network nodes, each comprising 6 sensors, were installed at 3 depths (two repetitions at 5, 25 and 50 cm), providing measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution. A sensor-specific calibration was performed in order to enhance the accuracy of both, soil water content and soil temperature estimation. Therefore, each sensor of the node was calibrated in 7 fluids with several dielectric permittivities. Moreover, a mixture of ice and water was used for temperature calibration. Data are measured at an hourly interval, transferred via UMTS connection, automatically processed and plotted, both as

  2. Correlation between reticle- and wafer-CD difference of multiple 28nm reticle-sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Richter, Frank; Thamm, Thomas; Ackmann, Paul; Staples, Marc; Weisbuch, Francois; Kurth, Karin; Schenker, Joerg; Leschok, Andre; GN, Fang Hong

    2012-11-01

    Reticle critical dimension uniformity (CDU) is an important criterion for the qualification of mask layer processes. Normally, the smaller the three sigma value of reticle CDU is, the better is the reticle CDU performance. For qualification of mask processes, the mask layers to be qualified should have a comparable reticle CDU compared to the process of record (POR) mask layers. Because the reticle critical dimension (CD) measurement is based on algorithms like "middle side lobe measurement", evaluation of the reticle CD-values can not reflect aspects like the sidewall angle of the reticle and variation in corner rounding which may be critical for 45nm technology nodes (and below). All involved tools and processes contribute to the wafer intra-field CDU (scanner, track, reticle, metrology). Normally, the reticle contribution to the wafer CDU should be as small as possible. In order to reduce the process contributions to the wafer intra-field CDU during the mask qualification process, the same toolset (exposure tool, metrology tool) should be applied as for the POR. Out of the results of these investigations the correlation between wafer measurement to target (MTT) and reticle MTT can be obtained in order to accurately qualify the CDU performance of the mask processes. We will demonstrate the correlation between reticle MTT and wafer MTT by use of multiple mask processes and alternative mask blank materials. We will investigate the results of four process-layers looking at advanced binary maskblank material from two different suppliers (moreover the results of a 2X-via layer as an example for a phase-shift maskblank is discussed). Objective of this article is to demonstrate the distribution between reticle MTT and wafer MTT as a qualification criterion for mask processes. The correlation between wafer CD-difference and reticle CD-difference of these mask processes are demonstrated by having performed investigations of dense features of different 28nmtechnology

  3. An aluminum-germanium eutectic structure for silicon wafer bonding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Quintana, I.; Ottaviani, G.; Tonini, R.; Felisari, L.; Garavaglia, M.; Oggioni, L.; Morin, D.

    2005-08-01

    An aluminum-germanium eutectic bonding technology has been used to uniformly bond two silicon wafers for MEMS packaging at temperatures as low as 450 °C, well below the aluminum-silicon eutectic temperature (577 °C). A device silicon wafer has been put in contact with a cap wafer where an aluminum film covered by a germanium film has been thermally evaporated. The annealing has been performed in a vacuum furnace under uniaxial pressure variable from 1.8 up to 30 kbar. The samples have been analyzed with various analytical techniques. 4He+ MeV Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) has been used to measure the thicknesses of the deposited films and to follow the aluminum-germanium intermixing, Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) to control the uniformity of the bonding, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) associated with electron induced X-ray fluorescence to analyze composition, morphology and elements distribution in the film between the two bonded wafers. The temperatures for the annealing were selected above and below the Ge-Al the eutectic temperature. At temperatures below the eutectic no-bonding has been obtained for any applied pressure. Above the eutectic bonding occurs. The formation of a liquid film is mandatory to obtain a reproducible and robust bonding. The pressure is necessary to improve the contacts between the two wafers; its role in the metallurgy of the bonding needs to be explored.

  4. Direct wafer bonding technology for large-scale InGaAs-on-insulator transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, SangHyeon E-mail: sh-kim@kist.re.kr; Ikku, Yuki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Li, Jian; Kao, Yung-Chung

    2014-07-28

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V devices on Si wafers have been explored for realizing high device performance as well as merging electrical and photonic applications on the Si platform. Existing methodologies have unavoidable drawbacks such as inferior device quality or high cost in comparison with the current Si-based technology. In this paper, we present InGaAs-on-insulator (-OI) fabrication from an InGaAs layer grown on a Si donor wafer with a III-V buffer layer instead of growth on a InP donor wafer. This technology allows us to yield large wafer size scalability of III-V-OI layers up to the Si wafer size of 300 mm with a high film quality and low cost. The high film quality has been confirmed by Raman and photoluminescence spectra. In addition, the fabricated InGaAs-OI transistors exhibit the high electron mobility of 1700 cm{sup 2}/V s and uniform distribution of the leakage current, indicating high layer quality with low defect density.

  5. Minimizing wafer defectivity during high-temperature baking of organic films in 193nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Mai; Longstaff, Christopher; Ueda, Kenichi; Nicholson, Jim; Winter, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Demands for continued defect reduction in 300mm IC manufacturing is driving process engineers to examine all aspects of the apply process for improvement. Process engineers, and their respective tool sets, are required to process films at temperatures above the boiling point of the casting solvents. This can potentially lead to the sublimation of the film chemical components. The current methods used to minimize wafer defectivity due to bake residues include frequent cleaning of bake plate modules and surrounding equipment, process optimization, and hardware improvements until more robust chemistries are available. IBM has evaluated the Tokyo Electron CLEAN TRACK TM ACT TM 12 high exhaust high temperature hotplate (HHP) lid to minimize wafer level contamination due to the outgasing of a bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) films during the high temperature bake process. Goal was to minimize airborne contamination (particles in free space), reduce hotplate contamination build up, and ultimately reduce defects on the wafer. This evaluation was performed on a 193nm BARC material. Evaluation data included visual hardware inspections, airborne particle counting, relative thickness build up measurements on hotplate lids, wafer level defect measurements, and electrical open fail rate. Film coat thickness mean and uniformity were also checked to compare the high exhaust HHP with the standard HHP lid. Chemical analysis of the HHP module residue was performed to identify the source material. The work will quantify potential cost savings achieved by reducing added wafer defects during processing and extending PM frequency for equipment cleaning.

  6. Gated Silicon Drift Detector Fabricated from a Low-Cost Silicon Wafer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Hideharu; Sakurai, Shungo; Oda, Yuya; Fukushima, Shinya; Ishikawa, Shohei; Takeshita, Akinobu; Hidaka, Atsuki

    2015-01-01

    Inexpensive high-resolution silicon (Si) X-ray detectors are required for on-site surveys of traces of hazardous elements in food and soil by measuring the energies and counts of X-ray fluorescence photons radially emitted from these elements. Gated silicon drift detectors (GSDDs) are much cheaper to fabricate than commercial silicon drift detectors (SDDs). However, previous GSDDs were fabricated from 10-kΩ·cm Si wafers, which are more expensive than 2-kΩ·cm Si wafers used in commercial SDDs. To fabricate cheaper portable X-ray fluorescence instruments, we investigate GSDDs formed from 2-kΩ·cm Si wafers. The thicknesses of commercial SDDs are up to 0.5 mm, which can detect photons with energies up to 27 keV, whereas we describe GSDDs that can detect photons with energies of up to 35 keV. We simulate the electric potential distributions in GSDDs with Si thicknesses of 0.5 and 1 mm at a single high reverse bias. GSDDs with one gate pattern using any resistivity Si wafer can work well for changing the reverse bias that is inversely proportional to the resistivity of the Si wafer. PMID:26007742

  7. Lateral Scanning Linnik Interferometry for Large Field of View and Fast Scanning: Wafer Bump Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Y.; Veluvolu, Kalyana C.; Lee, Soon-Geul

    2011-07-01

    Wafer-level packaging is currently the major trend in semiconductor packaging for miniaturization and high-density integration. To ensure the package reliability, the wafer and substrate bumps utilized as connection junctions need to be in-line inspected as regards their top-height distribution, coplanarity, and volume uniformity. This article proposes a lateral scanning interferometric system for wafer bump shape inspection in three dimensions with a large field of view and fast inspection speed based on an optomechatronic system design. For multiple-peak interferogram from wafer bumps around a transparent film layer, two-step information extraction algorithms are suggested, including top surface profile and under-layer surface profile detection algorithms. The multiple-peak interferogram is acquired with variations of lateral position of the reference mirror by a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). A series of experiments is performed for representative wafer samples with solder and gold bumps, and the effectiveness of the proposed inspection system is verified from the test results.

  8. Automated 3D IR defect mapping system for CZT wafer and tile inspection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi; Heidari, Esmaeil; Abramovich, Gil; Nafis, Christopher; Butt, Amer; Czechowski, Joseph; Harding, Kevin; Tkaczyk, J. Eric

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the design and evaluation of a 3D stereo, near infrared (IR), defect mapping system for CZT inspection is described. This system provides rapid acquisition and data analysis that result in detailed mapping of CZT crystal defects across the area of wafers up to 100 millimeter diameter and through thicknesses of up to 20 millimeter. In this paper, system characterization has been performed including a close evaluation of the bright field and dark field illumination configurations for both wafer-scale and tile-scale inspection. A comparison of microscope image and IR image for the same sample is performed. As a result, the IR inspection system has successfully demonstrated the capability of detecting and localizing inclusions within minutes for a whole CZT wafer. Important information is provided for selecting defect free areas out of a wafer and thereby ensuring the quality of the tile. This system would support the CZT wafer dicing and assembly techniques that enable the economical production of CZT detectors. This capability can improve the yield and reduce the cost of the thick detector devices that are rarely produced today.

  9. The Imaging Properties of a Silicon Wafer X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, M. K.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Fair, S.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon wafers have excellent optical properties --- low microroughness and good medium-scale flatness --- which Make them suitable candidates for inexpensive flat-plate grazing-incidence x-ray mirrors. On short spatial scales (less than 3 mm) the surface quality of silicon wafers rivals that expected of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) high-resolution optics. On larger spatial scales, however, performance may be degraded by the departure from flatness of the wafer and by distortions induced by the mounting scheme. In order to investigate such effects, we designed and constructed a prototype silicon-wafer x-ray telescope. The device was then tested in both visible light and x rays. The telescope module consists of 94 150-mm-diameter wafers, densely packed into the first stage of a Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration. X-ray tests at three energies (4.5, 6.4, and 8.0 keV) showed an energy-independent line spread function with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 150 arcseconds, dominated by deviations from large-scale flatness.

  10. Engineering Controlled Spalling in (100)-Oriented GaAs for Wafer Reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Cassi A.; McNeely, Joshua E.; Gorman, Brian; Young, David L.; Ptak, Aaron J.; Packard, Corinne E.

    2015-06-14

    Controlled spalling offers a way to cleave thin, single-crystal films or devices from wafers, particularly if the fracture planes in the material are oriented parallel to the wafer surface. Unfortunately, misalignment between the favored fracture planes and the wafer surface preferred for photovoltaic growth in (100)-oriented GaAs produces a highly faceted surface when subject to controlled spalling. This highly faceted cleavage surface is problematic in several ways: (1) it can result in large variations of spall depth due to unstable crack propagation; (2) it may introduce defects into the device zone or underlying substrate; and (3) it consumes many microns of material outside of the device zone. We present the ways in which we have engineered controlled spalling for (100)-oriented GaAs to minimize these effects. We expand the operational window for controlled spalling to avoid spontaneous spalling, find no evidence of dislocation activity in the spalled film or the parent wafer, and reduce facet height and facet height irregularity. Resolving these issues provides a viable path forward for reducing III-V device cost through the controlled spalling of (100)-oriented GaAs devices and subsequent wafer reuse when these processes are combined with a high-throughput growth method such as Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy.

  11. Microwave ECR plasma electron flood for low pressure wafer charge neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderberg, Bo; Nakatsugawa, Tomoya; Divergilio, William

    2012-11-01

    Modern ion implanters typically use dc arc discharge Plasma Electron Floods (PEFs) to neutralize wafer charge. The arc discharge requires using at least some refractory metal hardware, e.g. a thermionically emitting filament, which can be undesirable in applications where no metallic contamination is critical. rf discharge PEFs have been proposed to mitigate contamination risks but the gas flows required can result in high process chamber pressures. Axcelis has developed a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) PEF to provide refractory metals contamination-free wafer neutralization with low gas flow requirement. Our PEF uses a custom, reentrant cusp magnet field providing ECR and superior electron confinement. Stable PEF operation with extraction slits sized for 300 mm wafers can be attained at Xe gas flows lower than 0.2 sccm. Electron extraction currents can be as high as 20 mA at absorbed microwave powers < 70 W. On Axcelis' new medium current implanter, plasma generation has proven robust against pressure transients caused by, for example, photoresist outgassing by high power ion beams. Charge monitor and floating potential measurements along the wafer surface corroborate adequate wafer charge neutralization for low energy, high current ion beams.

  12. Automated defect review of the wafer bevel with a defect review scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarvey, Steve; Kanezawa, Masakazu

    2009-03-01

    One of the few remaining bastions of non-regulated Integrated Circuit defectivity is the wafer bevel. Recent internal Integrated Circuit Manufacturing studies have suggested that the edge bevel may be responsible for as much as a two to three percent yield loss during a defect excursion on the manufacturing line and a one to two percent yield loss during ongoing wafer manufacturing. A new generation of defect inspection equipment has been introduced to the Research and Development, Integrated Circuit, MEM's and Si wafer manufacturing markets that has imparted the ability for the end equipment user to detect defects located on the bevel of the wafer. The inherent weakness of the current batch of wafer bevel inspection equipment is the lack of automatic discrete defect classification data into multiple, significant classification bins and the lack of discrete elemental analysis data. Root cause analysis is based on minimal discrete defect analysis as a surrogate for a statistically valid sampling of defects from the bevel. This paper provides a study of the methods employed with a Hitachi RS-5500EQEQ Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (DRSEM) to automatically capture high resolution/high magnification images and collect elemental analysis on a statistically valid sample of the discrete defects that were located by a bevel inspection system.

  13. Microwave ECR plasma electron flood for low pressure wafer charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderberg, Bo; Nakatsugawa, Tomoya; Divergilio, William

    2012-11-06

    Modern ion implanters typically use dc arc discharge Plasma Electron Floods (PEFs) to neutralize wafer charge. The arc discharge requires using at least some refractory metal hardware, e.g. a thermionically emitting filament, which can be undesirable in applications where no metallic contamination is critical. rf discharge PEFs have been proposed to mitigate contamination risks but the gas flows required can result in high process chamber pressures. Axcelis has developed a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) PEF to provide refractory metals contamination-free wafer neutralization with low gas flow requirement. Our PEF uses a custom, reentrant cusp magnet field providing ECR and superior electron confinement. Stable PEF operation with extraction slits sized for 300 mm wafers can be attained at Xe gas flows lower than 0.2 sccm. Electron extraction currents can be as high as 20 mA at absorbed microwave powers < 70 W. On Axcelis' new medium current implanter, plasma generation has proven robust against pressure transients caused by, for example, photoresist outgassing by high power ion beams. Charge monitor and floating potential measurements along the wafer surface corroborate adequate wafer charge neutralization for low energy, high current ion beams.

  14. ArF-laser-induced photochemical super mirror-finishing of Si wafer (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka M.

    2004-06-01

    Si wafer was polished accurately with ArF laser irradiation in the presence of the hydrofluoric acid water solution. The highest surface accuracy of Si wafer is needed for the Si substrate for using extremely ultra violet (EUV) lithography. Then we tried to polish the SiO2 with hydrofluoric acid water solution, which was photo-oxidized Si wafer surface with active oxygen. The active oxygen was photo-dissociated from water (H2O). The Si wafer surface was pressurized at 50g/cm2 on the fluorocarbon-polishing mat. Next the hydrofluoric acid water solution is infiltrated into the thin gap between the sample and the fluorocarbon. And ArF laser is irradiated through the fluorocarbon turntable. By this irradiation, the Si wafer surface was oxidized and produced SiO2. The moment it is dissolved by HF solution. After the etching, the polishing progresses by the friction with the fluorocarbon. The surface roughness was obtained 3 nm with 30 minute polishing with the ArF laser irradiation (20 mJ/cm2, 100 pps) in 15% HF/H2O ambience.

  15. Fabrication Characterization of Solar-Cell Silicon Wafers Using a Circular-Rhombus Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pa, Pai-Shan

    2010-01-01

    A new recycling fabrication method using a custom-built designed circular-rhombus tool for a process combining of micro-electroetching and electrochemical machining for removal of the surface layers from silicon wafers of solar cells is demonstrated. The low yields of epoxy film and Si3N4 thin-film depositions are important factors in semiconductor production. The aim of the proposed recycling fabrication method is to replace the current approach, which uses strong acid and grinding and may damage the physical structure of silicon wafers and pollute to the environment. A precisely engineered clean production approach for removal of surface microstructure layers from silicon wafers is to develop a mass production system for recycling defective or discarded silicon wafers of solar cells that can reduce pollution and cost. A large diameter cathode of the circular-rhombus tool (with a small gap between the anode and the cathode) corresponds to a high rate of epoxy film removal. A high feed rate of the silicon wafers combined with a high continuous DC electric voltage results in a high removal rate. The high rotational speed of the circular-rhombus tool increases the discharge mobility and improves the removal effect associated with the high feed rate of the workpiece. A small port radius or large end angle of the rhombus anode provides a large discharge space and good removal effect only a short period of time is required to remove the Si3N4 layer and epoxy film easily and cleanly.

  16. Influence of electrode geometry on the high-field characteristics of photoconductive silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Madangarli, V.P.; Gradinaru, G.; Korony, G.; Sudarshan, T.S.; Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Patterson, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    A series of experiment were conducted to study the influence of electrode geometry on the prebreakdown (and breakdown) characteristics of high resistivity ({rho} > 30 k{Omega}-cm), p-type Si wafers under quasi-uniform and non-uniform electric field configurations. In the quasi-uniform field configuration, the 1mm thick Si wafer was mounted between the slots of two plane parallel stainless steel disc electrodes (parallel), while the non-uniform field was obtained by mounting the wafer between two pillar-type electrodes with a hemispherical tip (pillar). The main objective of the above investigation was to verify if the uniform field configuration under a parallel system has a positive influence by reducing the field enhancement at the contact region, as opposed to the definite field enhancement present in the case of the non-uniform pillar system. Also, it was proposed to study the effect of the contact profile on the field distribution over the wafer surface and hence its influence on the high-field performance of the Si wafers.

  17. Wafer bonding technology for new generation vacuum MEMS: challenges and promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoi, V.; Pabo, E.

    2015-05-01

    Various MEMS devices are incorporated into consumer electronic devices. A particular category of MEMS require vacuum packaging by wafer bonding with the need to encapsulate vacuum levels of 10-2 mbar or higher with long time stability. The vacuum requirement is limiting the choice of the wafer bonding process and raises significant challenges to the existing investigation methods (metrology) used for results qualification. From the broad range of wafer bonding processes only few are compatible with vacuum applications: fusion bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding and metal-based bonding. The outgassing from the enclosed surfaces after bonding will affect the vacuum level in the cavity: in some cases, a getter material is used inside the device cavity to compensate for this outgassing. Additionally the selected bonding process must be compatible with the devices on the wafers being bonded. This work reviews the principles of vacuum encapsulation using wafer bonding. Examples showing the suitability of each process for specific applications types will be presented. A significant challenge in vacuum MEMS fabrication is the lack of analytical methods needed for process characterization or reliability testing. A short overview of the most used methods and their limitations will be presented. Specific needs to be addressed will be introduced with examples.

  18. Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chi, Albert; Curi, Sebastian; Clayton, Kevin; Luciano, David; Klauber, Kameron; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; D'hers, Sebastian; Elman, Noel M

    2014-08-01

    Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) are portable platforms that integrate microfluidics for rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs. Rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs using standard vials and syringes is an error-prone process. RRPs were designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to optimize fluidic structures for rapid mixing and integrating physical properties of targeted drugs and diluents. Devices were manufactured using stereo lithography 3D printing for micrometer structural precision and rapid prototyping. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was selected as the initial model drug to test the RRPs as it is unstable in solution. tPA is a thrombolytic drug, stored in lyophilized form, required in emergency settings for which rapid reconstitution is of critical importance. RRP performance and drug stability were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize release kinetics. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to test for drug activity after the RRPs were exposed to various controlled temperature conditions. Experimental results showed that RRPs provided effective reconstitution of tPA that strongly correlated with CFD results. Simulation and experimental results show that release kinetics can be adjusted by tuning the device structural dimensions and diluent drug physical parameters. The design of RRPs can be tailored for a number of applications by taking into account physical parameters of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and diluents. RRPs are portable platforms that can be utilized for reconstitution of emergency drugs in time-critical therapies.

  19. Fluid dynamics and convective heat transfer in impinging jets through implementation of a high resolution liquid crystal technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K.; Wiedner, B.; Camci, C.

    1993-01-01

    A combined convective heat transfer and fluid dynamics investigation in a turbulent round jet impinging on a flat surface is presented. The experimental study uses a high resolution liquid crystal technique for the determination of the convective heat transfer coefficients on the impingement plate. The heat transfer experiments are performed using a transient heat transfer method. The mean flow and the character of turbulent flow in the free jet is presented through five hole probe and hot wire measurements, respectively. The flow field character of the region near the impingement plate plays an important role in the amount of convective heat transfer. Detailed surveys obtained from five hole probe and hot wire measurements are provided. An extensive validation of the liquid crystal based heat transfer method against a conventional technique is also presented. After a complete documentation of the mean and turbulent flow field, the convective heat transfer coefficient distributions on the impingement plate are presented. The near wall of the impingement plate and the free jet region is treated separately. The current heat transfer distributions are compared to other studies available from the literature. The present paper contains complete sets of information on the three dimensional mean flow, turbulent velocity fluctuations, and convective heat transfer to the plate. The experiments also prove that the present nonintrusive heat transfer method is highly effective in obtaining high resolution heat transfer maps with a heat transfer coefficient uncertainty of 5.7 percent.

  20. Mask defect disposition: flux-area measurement of edge, contact, and OPC defects correlates to wafer and enables effective decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiekowsky, Peter; Taylor, Darren; Wang, David; Yang, Chien-Chu; Lin, Shu-Chun; Tu, L. H.; Lin, K. R.

    2001-09-01

    Lithographers' ability to set useful defect and contact specifications has almost disappeared as chip geometries have shrunk. As features sizes have decreased, measurement error has increased to 25% of the maximum allowable defect size. This has made defect disposition so difficult that many processes now require that all detected defects be repaired because the automatic defect sizing is almost meaningless, that is, the required guard band is nearly the size of the defect specification (Reynolds, BACUS 2000). Many mask processes have abandoned defect sizingin favor of stepper simulation, either using simulation microscope, such as AIMS, or software, such as NTI's VSS. However, AVI's optical Flux-Area measurement technique provides accuracy and repeatability that gives the simple, time tested defect specification technique new life. This study demonstrates high quality edge-, contact-, and OPC- defect disposition can be achieved using the Flux-Area technique. A test mask with a range of edge defects as well as mis-sized contacts and OPC defects was written. The mask defect sizing performed with the AVI is shown to be consistent on different chips using the same process. Thus it is shown that all the over-spec defects on the wafer were measured as over-spec on the mask. Results show that edge defect size on the wafer can be accurately predicted from the AVI defect area; that printed contact size is linearly proportional to the AVI measured area, on both square and irregular contacts; and that OPC defects (printed line-end separation errors) can be accurately predicted from AVI serif-area measurements on the mask. With the Flux-Area measurement technique as implemented on the AVI Photomask Metrology System, defects can be measured with long term repeatability and rms repeatability between machines of better than 10nm, 3% of a 0.3micrometers defect. This means that guard bands can often be reduced from 0.15micrometers to below 0.05micrometers .

  1. Calibration of Radiation Thermometers in Rapid Thermal Processing Tools Using Si Wafers with Thin-film Thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Kimes, W. A.; Meyer, C. W.; Ripple, D. C.; Tsai, B. K.; Chen, D. H.; DeWitt, D. P.

    2003-09-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) tools are currently monitored and controlled with lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs) which have been calibrated with thermocouple instrumented wafers. We have developed a thin-film thermocouple wafer that enables more accurate calibration of the LPRTs. The NIST thin-film thermocouple calibration wafer uses Pt/Pd wire thermocouples welded to thin-film Rh/Pt thermocouples to reduce the uncertainty of the wafer temperature measurement in situ. We present the results of testing these thin-film thermocouple calibration wafers in the NIST RTP test bed at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 830 °C together with a discussion of the materials limitations and capabilities. The difference between the thermocouple junction temperatures and the radiance temperatures indicated by the blackbody-calibrated LPRT can be attributed to the effective emissivity of the wafer, the parameter that accounts for the geometry and radiative properties of the wafer-chamber configuration. An analysis of the uncertainty, u = 1.3 K (k =1), of the wafer surface temperature measurements in the NIST RTP test bed is presented. Confirmation of this value was partially hampered by thermal gradients in the chamber and some problems with the weld pads at high temperature. In addition, we discuss the determination of the Seebeck coefficient of the thin-film thermocouples used on the wafers.

  2. Validation of Direct Analysis Real Time source/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for organophosphate quantitation on wafer surface.

    PubMed

    Hayeck, Nathalie; Ravier, Sylvain; Gemayel, Rachel; Gligorovski, Sasho; Poulet, Irène; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Wortham, Henri

    2015-11-01

    Microelectronic wafers are exposed to airborne molecular contamination (AMC) during the fabrication process of microelectronic components. The organophosphate compounds belonging to the dopant group are one of the most harmful groups. Once adsorbed on the wafer surface these compounds hardly desorb and could diffuse in the bulk of the wafer and invert the wafer from p-type to n-type. The presence of these compounds on wafer surface could have electrical effect on the microelectronic components. For these reasons, it is of importance to control the amount of these compounds on the surface of the wafer. As a result, a fast quantitative and qualitative analytical method, nondestructive for the wafers, is needed to be able to adjust the process and avoid the loss of an important quantity of processed wafers due to the contamination by organophosphate compounds. Here we developed and validated an analytical method for the determination of organic compounds adsorbed on the surface of microelectronic wafers using the Direct Analysis in Real Time-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (DART-ToF-MS) system. Specifically, the developed methodology concerns the organophosphate group.

  3. Development and Implementation of Dynamic Scripts to Support Local Model Verification at National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan L.; Gotway, John H.; White, Kristopher; Medlin, Jeffrey; Wood, Lance; Radell, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Local modeling with a customized configuration is conducted at National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to produce high-resolution numerical forecasts that can better simulate local weather phenomena and complement larger scale global and regional models. The advent of the Environmental Modeling System (EMS), which provides a pre-compiled version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and wrapper Perl scripts, has enabled forecasters to easily configure and execute the WRF model on local workstations. NWS WFOs often use EMS output to help in forecasting highly localized, mesoscale features such as convective initiation, the timing and inland extent of lake effect snow bands, lake and sea breezes, and topographically-modified winds. However, quantitatively evaluating model performance to determine errors and biases still proves to be one of the challenges in running a local model. Developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) verification software makes performing these types of quantitative analyses easier, but operational forecasters do not generally have time to familiarize themselves with navigating the sometimes complex configurations associated with the MET tools. To assist forecasters in running a subset of MET programs and capabilities, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed and transitioned a set of dynamic, easily configurable Perl scripts to collaborating NWS WFOs. The objective of these scripts is to provide SPoRT collaborating partners in the NWS with the ability to evaluate the skill of their local EMS model runs in near real time with little prior knowledge of the MET package. The ultimate goal is to make these verification scripts available to the broader NWS community in a future version of the EMS software. This paper provides an overview of the SPoRT MET scripts, instructions for how the scripts are run, and example use

  4. Implementation and Comparison of Acoustic Travel-Time Measurement Procedures for the Solar Dynamics Observatory-Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couvidat, S.; Zhao, J.; Birch, A. C.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Parchevsky, K.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite is designed to produce high-resolution Doppler-velocity maps of oscillations at the solar surface with high temporal cadence. To take advantage of these high-quality oscillation data, a time - distance helioseismology pipeline (Zhao et al., Solar Phys. submitted, 2010) has been implemented at the Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) at Stanford University. The aim of this pipeline is to generate maps of acoustic travel times from oscillations on the solar surface, and to infer subsurface 3D flow velocities and sound-speed perturbations. The wave travel times are measured from cross-covariances of the observed solar oscillation signals. For implementation into the pipeline we have investigated three different travel-time definitions developed in time - distance helioseismology: a Gabor-wavelet fitting (Kosovichev and Duvall, SCORE'96: Solar Convection and Oscillations and Their Relationship, ASSL, Dordrecht, 241, 1997), a minimization relative to a reference cross-covariance function (Gizon and Birch, Astrophys. J. 571, 966, 2002), and a linearized version of the minimization method (Gizon and Birch, Astrophys. J. 614, 472, 2004). Using Doppler-velocity data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument onboard SOHO, we tested and compared these definitions for the mean and difference traveltime perturbations measured from reciprocal signals. Although all three procedures return similar travel times in a quiet-Sun region, the method of Gizon and Birch (Astrophys. J. 614, 472, 2004) gives travel times that are significantly different from the others in a magnetic (active) region. Thus, for the pipeline implementation we chose the procedures of Kosovichev and Duvall (SCORE'96: Solar Convection and Oscillations and Their Relationship, ASSL, Dordrecht, 241, 1997) and Gizon and Birch (Astrophys. J. 571, 966, 2002). We investigated the relationships among

  5. Perpendicular-flow, single-wafer atomic layer deposition reactor chamber design for use with in situ diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kimes, W A; Moore, E F; Maslar, J E

    2012-08-01

    A description is given of the design and performance of a diagnostic-accessible, perpendicular-flow, single-wafer deposition reactor for use with 50 mm wafers. The reactor chamber design is based on a simple flow tube, with diagnostic access achieved by replacing sections of the reactor chamber wall with recessed diagnostic ports. Reactor chamber performance is evaluated for the purpose of performing optical measurements during atomic layer deposition (ALD). Computational fluid dynamics simulations predict that the when used with windows the diagnostic port design produces minimal perturbations to the gas flow under typical deposition conditions, as compared to a design without diagnostic ports. Temperature measurements of the inside surface of a window installed in a diagnostic port suggest that for reactor chamber operation at 110 °C, under typical deposition conditions, the inside surface window temperature is approximately equal to or greater than the surrounding reactor chamber temperature, thereby minimizing possible species condensation on the window surface. As a consequence of using recessed diagnostic ports, an increase in the amplitude of optical intensity fluctuations was generally observed when performing measurements at elevated chamber temperatures. These intensity fluctuations could be readily reduced by enclosing the optical path to the exterior side of the windows. The performance of two straight-forward methods to reduce these intensity fluctuations is presented. The results outlined above demonstrate that this reactor design can be operated with short gas residence times and with all reactor surfaces at elevated temperatures, making it useful for simulating a wide range of gas flow conditions with relevance to microelectronics-related ALD processes.

  6. Implementation of the dynamical system of the deposit and loan growth based on the Lotka-Volterra model and the improved model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadhlurrahman, Akmal; Sumarti, Novriana

    2016-04-01

    The Lotka-Volterra model is a very popular mathematical model based on the relationship in Ecology between predator, which is an organism that eats another organism, and prey, which is the organism which the predator eats. Predator and prey evolve together. The prey is part of the predator's environment, and the existence of the predator depends on the existence of the prey. As a dynamical system, this model could generate limit cycles, which is an interesting type of equilibrium sometime in the system of two or more dimensions. In [1,2], the dynamical system of the the Deposit and Loan Volumes based on the Lotka-Volterra Model had been developed. In this paper, we improve the definition of parameters in the model and then implement the model on the data of banking from January 2003 to December 2014 which consist of 4 (four) types of banks. The data is represented into the form of return in order to have data in a periodical-like form. The results show the periodicity in the deposit and loan growth data which is in line with paper in [3] that suggest the positive correlation between loan growth and deposit growth, and vice-versa.

  7. The linear and nonlinear response of infinite periodic systems to static and/or dynamic electric fields. Implementation in CRYSTAL code

    SciTech Connect

    Kirtman, Bernard; Springborg, Michael; Rérat, Michel; Ferrero, Mauro; Lacivita, Valentina; Dovesi, Roberto; Orlando, Roberto

    2015-01-22

    An implementation of the vector potential approach (VPA) for treating the response of infinite periodic systems to static and dynamic electric fields has been initiated within the CRYSTAL code. The VPA method is based on the solution of a time-dependent Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham equation for the crystal orbitals wherein the usual scalar potential, that describes interaction with the field, is replaced by the vector potential. This equation may be solved either by perturbation theory or by finite field methods. With some modification all the computational procedures of molecular ab initio quantum chemistry can be adapted for periodic systems. Accessible properties include the linear and nonlinear responses of both the nuclei and the electrons. The programming of static field pure electronic (hyper)polarizabilities has been successfully tested. Dynamic electronic (hyper)polarizabilities, as well as infrared and Raman intensities, are in progress while the addition of finite fields for calculation of vibrational (hyper)polarizabilities, through nuclear relaxation procedures, will begin shortly.

  8. Impact of the implementation of rest days in live bird markets on the dynamics of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Fournié, G; Guitian, F J; Mangtani, P; Ghani, A C

    2011-08-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) act as a network 'hub' and potential reservoir of infection for domestic poultry. They may therefore be responsible for sustaining H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus circulation within the poultry sector, and thus a suitable target for implementing control strategies. We developed a stochastic transmission model to understand how market functioning impacts on the transmission dynamics. We then investigated the potential for rest days-periods during which markets are emptied and disinfected-to modulate the dynamics of H5N1 HPAI within the poultry sector using a stochastic meta-population model. Our results suggest that under plausible parameter scenarios, HPAI H5N1 could be sustained silently within LBMs with the time spent by poultry in markets and the frequency of introduction of new susceptible birds' dominant factors determining sustained silent spread. Compared with interventions applied in farms (i.e. stamping out, vaccination), our model shows that frequent rest days are an effective means to reduce HPAI transmission. Furthermore, our model predicts that full market closure would be only slightly more effective than rest days to reduce transmission. Strategies applied within markets could thus help to control transmission of the disease.

  9. Object-oriented design and implementation of CFDLab: a computer-assisted learning tool for fluid dynamics using dual reciprocity boundary element methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J.

    1999-08-01

    As lecturers, our main concern and goal is to develop more attractive and efficient ways of communicating up-to-date scientific knowledge to our students and facilitate an in-depth understanding of physical phenomena. Computer-based instruction is very promising to help both teachers and learners in their difficult task, which involves complex cognitive psychological processes. This complexity is reflected in high demands on the design and implementation methods used to create computer-assisted learning (CAL) programs. Due to their concepts, flexibility, maintainability and extended library resources, object-oriented modeling techniques are very suitable to produce this type of pedagogical tool. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) enjoys not only a growing importance in today's research, but is also very powerful for teaching and learning fluid dynamics. For this purpose, an educational PC program for university level called 'CFDLab 1.1' for Windows™ was developed with an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for multitasking and point-and-click operations. It uses the dual reciprocity boundary element method as a versatile numerical scheme, allowing to handle a variety of relevant governing equations in two dimensions on personal computers due to its simple pre- and postprocessing including 2D Laplace, Poisson, diffusion, transient convection-diffusion.

  10. DynaPop-X: A population dynamics model applied to spatio-temporal exposure assessment - Implementation aspects from the CRISMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Christoph; Steinnocher, Klaus; Humer, Heinrich; Huber, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    In the context of proactive disaster risk as well as immediate situational crisis management knowledge of locational social aspects in terms of spatio-temporal population distribution dynamics is considered among the most important factors for disaster impact minimization (Aubrecht et al., 2013a). This applies to both the pre-event stage for designing appropriate preparedness measures and to acute crisis situations when an event chain actually unfolds for efficient situation-aware response. The presented DynaPop population dynamics model is developed at the interface of those interlinked crisis stages and aims at providing basic input for social impact evaluation and decision support in crisis management. The model provides the starting point for assessing population exposure dynamics - thus here labeled as DynaPop-X - which can either be applied in a sense of illustrating the changing locations and numbers of affected people at different stages during an event or as ex-ante estimations of probable and maximum expected clusters of affected population (Aubrecht et al., 2013b; Freire & Aubrecht, 2012). DynaPop is implemented via a gridded spatial disaggregation approach and integrates previous efforts on spatio-temporal modeling that account for various aspects of population dynamics such as human mobility and activity patterns that are particularly relevant in picturing the highly dynamic daytime situation (Ahola et al., 2007; Bhaduri, 2008; Cockings et al., 2010). We will present ongoing developments particularly focusing on the implementation logic of the model using the emikat software tool, a data management system initially designed for inventorying and analysis of spatially resolved regional air pollutant emission scenarios. This study was performed in the framework of the EU CRISMA project. CRISMA is funded from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement no. 284552. REFERENCES Ahola, T., Virrantaus, K., Krisp, J

  11. Novel spin-coating technology for 248-nm/193-nm DUV lithography and low-k spin on dielectrics of 200-mm/300-mm wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurer, Emir; Zhong, Tom X.; Lewellen, John W.; Lee, Ed C.

    2000-06-01

    An alternative coating technology was developed for 248 nm/193 nm DUV lithography and low-k spin on dielectric (SOD) materials used in the interconnect area. This is a 300 mm enabling technology which overcomes turbulent flow limitations above 2000 rpm and it prevents 40 - 60% reduction on the process latitudes of evaporation-related variables, common to 300 mm conventional coaters. Our new coating technology is fully enclosed and it is capable of controlling the solvent concentration above the resist film dynamically in the gas phase. This feature allows a direct control of the evaporation mass transfer which determines the quality of the final resist profiles. Following process advantages are reported in this paper: (1) Demonstrated that final resist film thickness can be routinely varied by 4000 angstrom at a fixed drying spin speed, thus minimizing the impact of turbulence wall for 300 mm wafers. (2) Evaporation control allows wider range of useful thickness from a fixed viscosity material. (3) Latitudes of evaporation-related process variables is about 40% larger than that of a conventional coater. (4) Highly uniform films of 0.05% were obtained for 8800 angstrom target thickness with tighter wafer-wafer profile control because of the enclosed nature of the technology. (5) Dynamic evaporation control facilitates resist consumption minimization. Preliminary results indicate feasibility of a 0.4 cc process of record (POR) for a 200 mm substrate. (6) Lower COO due to demonstrated relative insensitivity to environmental variables, robust resist consumption minimization and superior process capabilities. (7) Improved planarization and gap fill properties for the new generation photoresist/low-k SOD materials deposited using this enclosed coating technology.

  12. Effect of MeV nitrogen ion implantation on the resistivity transition in Czochralski silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byeong-Sam; Lee, In-Ji; Park, Jea-Gun

    2012-12-01

    We investigated how MeV nitrogen ion implantation affects the resistivity transition in Czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers. After annealing at 800 °C for 20 h and again at 1000 °C for 10 h, the implanted nitrogen atoms accumulated in the projected range (R P ) for ion doses less than 5 × 1014 cm-2 whereas they accumulated at both R P /2 and R P at ion doses above 3 × 1015 cm-2. These results indicate that no resistivity transition was found at nitrogen ion doses less than 5 × 1013 cm-2 whereas n-/p or n+/p resistivity transition was shown at ion doses higher than 5 × 1014 cm-2. Many fewer than 1% of the implanted nitrogen atoms were ionized after the heat treatment. Thus, the resistivity of nitrogen-doped silicon wafers is more than 100 times higher than that of phosphorous-doped silicon wafers.

  13. Wafer-scale growth of VO2 thin films using a combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Tian; Zhang, Lei; Mukherjee, Debangshu; Zheng, Yuan-Xia; Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Transition metal oxides offer functional properties beyond conventional semiconductors. Bridging the gap between the fundamental research frontier in oxide electronics and their realization in commercial devices demands a wafer-scale growth approach for high-quality transition metal oxide thin films. Such a method requires excellent control over the transition metal valence state to avoid performance deterioration, which has been proved challenging. Here we present a scalable growth approach that enables a precise valence state control. By creating an oxygen activity gradient across the wafer, a continuous valence state library is established to directly identify the optimal growth condition. Single-crystalline VO2 thin films have been grown on wafer scale, exhibiting more than four orders of magnitude change in resistivity across the metal-to-insulator transition. It is demonstrated that `electronic grade' transition metal oxide films can be realized on a large scale using a combinatorial growth approach, which can be extended to other multivalent oxide systems.

  14. Radiation thermometry of silicon wafers based on emissivity-invariant condition.

    PubMed

    Iuchi, Tohru; Seo, Tomohiro

    2011-01-20

    An emissivity-invariant condition for a silicon wafer was determined by simulation modeling and it was confirmed experimentally. The p-polarized spectral emissivity at a wavelength of 900 nm and at temperatures over 900 K was constant at 0.83 at an angle of about 55.4° irrespective of large variations in the oxide layer thickness and the resistivity due to the different impurity doping concentrations of the silicon wafer. The expanded uncertainty, U(c) = ku(c) (k = 2), of the temperature measurement is estimated to be 4.9 K. This result is expected to significantly enhance the accuracy of radiometric temperature measurements of silicon wafers in actual manufacturing processes.

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Low-k Dielectric Material on Patterned Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Jeffrey Chorkeung; Tan, Hao; Huang, Maggie Yamin; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Handong; Shen, Zexiang; Mai, Zhihong

    2012-11-01

    With many of research on Fourier transform IR (FTIR) on low-k materials, our experiments extended the FTIR spectroscopy application to characterization and analysis of the low-k dielectric thin film properties on patterned wafers. FTIR spectra on low-k materials were successfully captured under three sampling modes: reflection, attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and mapping mode. ATR mode is more suitable for CHx band than reflection mode due to its higher sensitivity in this range. FTIR spectroscopy signal analysis on mixed structures (metal and low-k dielectric material) on patterned wafers was also investigated with mapping mode. Based on our investigation, FTIR can be used for low-k material studies on patterned wafer.

  16. Synchronous control strategy of wafer and reticle stage of step and scan lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lanlan; Hu, Song; Zhao, Lixin; Ma, Ping

    2012-10-01

    For step and scan lithography systems, the synchronization of reticle stage and wafer stage during exposure is one of the most important factors that decides the image quality. In this paper, their principle is analyzed through investigating the structure of step and scan lithography systems. And the coarse and fine laminated model is built. Based on this model, three different kinds of synchronous control structures containing parallel, series and cross-coupled are proposed. Then, the reticle stage is used to compensate the error of the synchronous control system of wafer and reticle stage. Simulation results demonstrate that this control strategy has good synchronization performance, and the synchronous error of wafer stage and reticle stage is less than 0.5nm without disturbance.

  17. Resonance ultrasonic vibrations in Cz-Si wafers as a possible diagnostic technique in ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Ostapenko, S.; Anundson, R.; Tvinnereim, M.; Belyaev, A.; Anthony, M.

    2001-07-01

    The semiconductor industry does not have effective metrology for well implants. The ability to measure such deep level implants will become increasingly important as we progress along the technology road map. This work explores the possibility of using the acoustic whistle effect on ion implanted silicon wafers. The technique detects the elastic stress and defects in silicon wafers by measuring the sub-harmonic f/2 resonant vibrations on a wafer induced via backside contact to create standing waves, which are measured by a non-contact ultrasonic probe. Preliminary data demonstrates that it is sensitive to implant damage, and there is a direct correlation between this sub-harmonic acoustic mode and some of the implant and anneal conditions. This work presents the results of a feasibility study to assess and quantify the correspondent whistle effect to implant damage, residual damage after annealing and intrinsic defects.

  18. Vertically Conductive Single-Crystal SiC-Based Bragg Reflector Grown on Si Wafer.

    PubMed

    Massoubre, David; Wang, Li; Hold, Leonie; Fernandes, Alanna; Chai, Jessica; Dimitrijev, Sima; Iacopi, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC) thin-films on silicon (Si) were used for the fabrication and characterization of electrically conductive distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) on 100 mm Si wafers. The DBRs, each composed of 3 alternating layers of SiC and Al(Ga)N grown on Si substrates, show high wafer uniformity with a typical maximum reflectance of 54% in the blue spectrum and a stopband (at 80% maximum reflectance) as large as 100 nm. Furthermore, high vertical electrical conduction is also demonstrated resulting to a density of current exceeding 70 A/cm(2) above 1.5 V. Such SiC/III-N DBRs with high thermal and electrical conductivities could be used as pseudo-substrate to enhance the efficiency of SiC-based and GaN-based optoelectronic devices on large Si wafers. PMID:26601894

  19. Fabrication of high-density cantilever arrays and through-wafer interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    A. Harley, J.; Abdollahi-Alibeik, S.; Chow, E. M.; Kenney, T. W.; McCarthy, A. M.; McVittie, J. P.; Partridge; Quate, C. F.; Soh, H. T.

    1998-11-03

    Processes to fabricate dense, dry released microstructures with electrical connections on the opposite side of the wafer are described. A 10 x 10 array of silicon and polysilicon cantilevers with high packing density (5 tips/mm2) and high uniformity (<10 µm length variation across the wafer) are demonstrated. The cantilever release process uses a deep SF6/C4F8, plasma etch followed by a HBr plasma etch to accurately release cantilevers. A process for fabricating electrical contacts through the backside of the wafer is also described. Electrodeposited resist, conformal CVD metal deposition and deep SF6/C4F8 plasma etching are used to make 30 µm/side square vias each of which has a resistance of 50 m(omega).

  20. First On-Wafer Power Characterization of MMIC Amplifiers at Sub-Millimeter Wave Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A. K.; Gaier, T.; Samoska, L.; Deal, W. R.; Radisic, V.; Mei, X. B.; Yoshida, W.; Liu, P. S.; Uyeda, J.; Barsky, M.; Lai, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in semiconductor technology have enabled advanced submillimeter wave (300 GHz) transistors and circuits. These new high speed components have required new test methods to be developed for characterizing performance, and to provide data for device modeling to improve designs. Current efforts in progressing high frequency testing have resulted in on-wafer-parameter measurements up to approximately 340 GHz and swept frequency vector network analyzer waveguide measurements to 508 GHz. On-wafer noise figure measurements in the 270-340 GHz band have been demonstrated. In this letter we report on on-wafer power measurements at 330 GHz of a three stage amplifier that resulted in a maximum measured output power of 1.78mW and maximum gain of 7.1 dB. The method utilized demonstrates the extension of traditional power measurement techniques to submillimeter wave frequencies, and is suitable for automated testing without packaging for production screening of submillimeter wave circuits.