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Sample records for implementing clinical guidelines

  1. Provider education to promote implementation of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ockene, J K; Zapka, J G

    2000-08-01

    Although the interest in and promulgation of clinical practice guidelines have significantly increased in the past 2 decades, concern exists about their actual implementation. This article focuses on one strategy to encourage guideline implementation at the clinician level: clinician education. The objectives of the article are to review educational strategies, to consider them within the context of complementary strategies carried out at the organizational and clinic setting levels, and to outline challenges and recommendations for clinicians' continuing education. Experience and data from relevant randomized clinical trials within an educational framework are reviewed. Implementation of clinical practice guidelines requires a variety of skills, including assessment, appropriate delineation of a treatment and monitoring plan, patient tracking, and patient counseling and education skills. Continuing education strategies must reflect the content and teaching methods that best match the learning objectives. The pressures of current-day practices place limits on the resources, particularly clinician time, that are available for continuing education. Organizational resources must be committed to build the complementary supportive systems necessary for improved clinician practice. In addition to physicians, education must be directed at nonphysician clinicians, office staff, and administrators who also are responsible for guideline implementation. To meet the challenges of developing clinician motivation, balancing competing demands, and treating patients with complex medical conditions, all within time constraints, clinical leaders need to design education activities that have leadership support, reflect compelling evidence, use multiple strategies and teaching techniques, and engage learners in skill building and problem solving.

  2. Developing clinical practice guidelines: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and accounting for comorbid conditions in guideline development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this third paper we discuss the issues of: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the two emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and how guideline developers should approach dealing with the issue of patients who will be the subject of guidelines having co-morbid conditions. PMID:22762242

  3. Clinical guideline implementation strategies for common mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eliana María; Moriana, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There has been a considerable proliferation of clinical guidelines recently, but their practical application is low, and organisations do not always implement their own ones. The aim of this study is to analyse and describe key elements of strategies and resources designed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for the implementation of guidelines for common mental health disorders in adults, which are some of the most prevalent worldwide. A systematic review was performed following PRISMA model. Resources, tools and implementation materials where included and categorised considering type, objectives, target and scope. A total of 212 elements were analysed, of which 33.5 and 24.5% are related to the implementation of generalized anxiety and depression guidelines, respectively. Applied tools designed to estimate costs and assess the feasibility of the setting up at local level are the most frequent type of resource. The study highlights the important variety of available materials, classified into 3 main strategies: tools targeting the professionals (30.6%), structural (26.4%), and organizational (24%). Developing guidelines is not enough; it is also necessary to promote their implementation in order to encourage their application. The resources and strategies described in this study may be potentially applicable to other contexts, and helpful to public health managers and professionals in the design of programmes and in the process of informed decision making to help increase access to efficient treatments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España.

  4. Automating Guidelines for Clinical Decision Support: Knowledge Engineering and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Geoffrey J.; Tu, Samson W.; Oshiro, Connie; Martins, Susana; Ashcraft, Michael; Yuen, Kaeli W.; Wang, Dan; Robinson, Amy; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    As utilization of clinical decision support (CDS) increases, it is important to continue the development and refinement of methods to accurately translate the intention of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) into a computable form. In this study, we validate and extend the 13 steps that Shiffman et al.5 identified for translating CPG knowledge for use in CDS. During an implementation project of ATHENA-CDS, we encoded complex CPG recommendations for five common chronic conditions for integration into an existing clinical dashboard. Major decisions made during the implementation process were recorded and categorized according to the 13 steps. During the implementation period, we categorized 119 decisions and identified 8 new categories required to complete the project. We provide details on an updated model that outlines all of the steps used to translate CPG knowledge into a CDS integrated with existing health information technology. PMID:28269916

  5. [General Strategies for Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Torres-Arreola, Laura Laura

    2015-01-01

    The need to use clinical practice guidelines (CPG) arises from the health conditions and problems that public health institutions in the country face. CPG are informative documents that help improve the quality of care processes and patient safety; having among its objectives, to reduce the variability of medical practice. The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social designed a strategic plan for the dissemination, implementation, monitoring and control of CPG to establish an applicable model in the medical units in the three levels of care at the Instituto. This paper summarizes some of the strategies of the plan that were made with the knowledge and experience of clinicians and managers, with which they intend to promote the adoption of the key recommendations of the guidelines, to promote a sense of belonging for health personnel, and to encourage changes in organizational culture.

  6. Incorporation of Pharmacogenomics into Routine Clinical Practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline Development Process

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Kelly E.; Klein, Teri E.; Hoffman, James M.; Müller, Daniel J.; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Gong, Li; McDonagh, Ellen M.; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Thorn, Caroline F.; Schwab, Matthias; Agúndez, José A.G.; Freimuth, Robert R.; Huser, Vojtech; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Iwuchukwu, Otito F.; Crews, Kristine R.; Scott, Stuart A.; Wadelius, Mia; Swen, Jesse J.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Stein, C. Michael; Roden, Dan; Relling, Mary V.; Williams, Marc S.; Johnson, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine’s Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines. PMID:24479687

  7. Incorporation of pharmacogenomics into routine clinical practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline development process.

    PubMed

    Caudle, Kelly E; Klein, Teri E; Hoffman, James M; Muller, Daniel J; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Gong, Li; McDonagh, Ellen M; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Thorn, Caroline F; Schwab, Matthias; Agundez, Jose A G; Freimuth, Robert R; Huser, Vojtech; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Iwuchukwu, Otito F; Crews, Kristine R; Scott, Stuart A; Wadelius, Mia; Swen, Jesse J; Tyndale, Rachel F; Stein, C Michael; Roden, Dan; Relling, Mary V; Williams, Marc S; Johnson, Samuel G

    2014-02-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine's Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines.

  8. Implementation of Clinical Guidelines via a Computer Charting System

    PubMed Central

    Schriger, David L.; Baraff, Larry J.; Buller, Kelly; Shendrikar, Manali Ayatchit; Nagda, Sameer; Lin, Edward J.; Mikulich, Vladislav J.; Cretin, Shan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The authors have shown that clinical guidelines embedded in an electronic medical record improved the quality, while lowering the cost, of care for health care workers who incurred occupational exposures to body fluid. They seek to determine whether this system has similar effects on the emergency department care of young children with febrile illness. Design: Off-on-off, interrupted time series with intent-to-treat analysis. Setting: University hospital emergency department. Subjects: 830 febrile children less than 3 years of age and the physicians who treated them. Interventions: Implementation of an electronic medical record that provides real-time advice regarding the content of the history and physical examination and recommendations regarding laboratory testing, treatment, diagnosis, and disposition. Measurements: Documentation of essential items in the medical record and after-care instructions; compliance with guidelines regarding testing, treatment, and diagnosis; charges. Results: The computer was used in 64 percent of eligible cases. Mean percentage documentation of 21 essential history and physical examination items increased from 80 percent during the baseline period to 92 percent in the intervention phase (13 percent increase; 95 percent CI, 10-15 percent). Mean percentage documentation of ten items in the after-care instructions increased from 48 percent at baseline to 81 percent during the intervention phase (33 percent increase; 95 percent confidence interval, 28-38 percent). All documentation decreased to baseline when the computer system was removed. There were no demonstrable improvements in appropriateness of care, nor was there evidence that appropriateness worsened. Mean charges were not changed by the intervention. Conclusion: The intervention markedly improved documentation, had little effect on the appropriateness of the process of care, and had no effect on charges. Results for the febrile child module differ from those for the

  9. Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation Strategy Patterns in Veterans Affairs Primary Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A

    2007-01-01

    Background The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mandated the system-wide implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in the mid-1990s, arming all facilities with basic resources to facilitate implementation; despite this resource allocation, significant variability still exists across VA facilities in implementation success. Objective This study compares CPG implementation strategy patterns used by high and low performing primary care clinics in the VA. Research Design Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) with high and low performance on six CPGs. Subjects One hundred and two employees (management, quality improvement, clinic personnel) involved with guideline implementation at each VAMC primary care clinic. Measures Participants reported specific strategies used by their facility to implement guidelines in 1-hour semi-structured interviews. Facilities were classified as high or low performers based on their guideline adherence scores calculated through independently conducted chart reviews. Findings High performing facilities (HPFs) (a) invested significantly in the implementation of the electronic medical record and locally adapting it to provider needs, (b) invested dedicated resources to guideline-related initiatives, and (c) exhibited a clear direction in their strategy choices. Low performing facilities exhibited (a) earlier stages of development for their electronic medical record, (b) reliance on preexisting resources for guideline implementation, with little local adaptation, and (c) no clear direction in their strategy choices. Conclusion A multifaceted, yet targeted, strategic approach to guideline implementation emphasizing dedicated resources and local adaptation may result in more successful implementation and higher guideline adherence than relying on standardized resources and taxing preexisting channels. PMID:17355583

  10. Clinical practice guidelines: barriers to durability after effective early implementation.

    PubMed

    Brand, C; Landgren, F; Hutchinson, A; Jones, C; Macgregor, L; Campbell, D

    2005-03-01

    Clinical practice guidelines in general (General-CPG) may reduce variation in clinician performance and improve patient outcomes. Short-term evaluation is now routine, but demonstration of early successful implementation does not necessarily ensure longer-term effectiveness. To assess adherence to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-CPG recommendations at the Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), 2 years after successful implementation. To identify barriers to sustained success of General-CPG. A multi-faceted evaluation was performed to document: (i) current adherence to COPD management recommendations (medical record audit); (ii) awareness of attitudes towards and barriers for the use of COPD-CPG and General-CPG (staff survey, focus groups and key informant interviews) and (iii) access to and quality of available General-CPG (internet review and random sample General-CPG evaluation. Adherence to COPD-CPG recommendations was highly variable. Adherence was higher in the Emergency Department than the general wards and for specific therapeutic recommendations. It was lower for non-pharmacological therapy and for recommendations relating to processes of care. Most health professionals were in favour of General-CPG. Barriers to use of General-CPG were in keeping with previous literature reports. Organizational issues including high levels of staff turnover and lack of integration of General-CPG into hospital quality frameworks were highlighted as major barriers. Hospital intranet access and presentation of General-CPG identified lack of consistency in terminology and presentation. Short-term effectiveness of COPD-CPG implementation did not ensure sustained success. Departmental organizational behaviours and organizational system barriers are major factors influencing durability.

  11. Implementation of study results in guidelines and adherence to guidelines in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines were introduced in hospital- and practice-based otorhinolaryngology in the 1990ies, and have been undergoing further development ever since. There are currently 20 guidelines on file at the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head & Neck Surgery. The society has cooperated in further 34 guidelines. The quality of the guidelines has been continuously improved by concrete specifications put forward by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften e.V., AWMF). Since increasing digitalization has made access to scientific publications quicker and simpler, relevant study results can be incorporated in guidelines more easily today than in the analog world. S2e and S3 guidelines must be based on a formal literature search with subsequent evaluation of the evidence. The consensus procedure for S2k guidelines is also regulated. However, the implementation of guidelines in routine medical practice must still be considered inadequate, and there is still a considerable need for improvement in adherence to these guidelines. PMID:28025601

  12. [Implementation of Study Results in Guidelines and Adherence to Guidelines in Clinical Practice].

    PubMed

    Waldfahrer, F

    2016-04-01

    Guidelines were introduced in hospital and practice-based otorhinolaryngology in the 1990s, and have been undergoing further development ever since. There are currently 20 guidelines on file at the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. The Society has cooperated in a further 34 guidelines. The quality of the guidelines has been continually improved by concrete specifications put forward by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany [Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften e.V.]. Since increasing digitalisation has made access to scientific publications quicker and more simple, relevant study results can be incorporated in guidelines more easily today than in the analogue world. S2e and S3 guidelines must be based on a formal literature search with subsequent evaluation of the evidence. The consensus procedure for S2k guidelines is also regulated. However, the implementation of guidelines in routine medical practice must still be considered inadequate, and there is still a considerable need for improvement in adherence to these guidelines. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Implementing clinical guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: barriers and solutions.

    PubMed

    Overington, Jeff D; Huang, Yao C; Abramson, Michael J; Brown, Juliet L; Goddard, John R; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M; Yang, Ian A

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic lung disease characterised by progressive fixed airflow limitation and acute exacerbations that frequently require hospitalisation. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of COPD are now widely available. However, the uptake of these COPD guidelines in clinical practice is highly variable, as is the case for many other chronic disease guidelines. Studies have identified many barriers to implementation of COPD and other guidelines, including factors such as lack of familiarity with guidelines amongst clinicians and inadequate implementation programs. Several methods for enhancing adherence to clinical practice guidelines have been evaluated, including distribution methods, professional education sessions, electronic health records (EHR), point of care reminders and computer decision support systems (CDSS). Results of these studies are mixed to date, and the most effective ways to implement clinical practice guidelines remain unclear. Given the significant resources dedicated to evidence-based medicine, effective dissemination and implementation of best practice at the patient level is an important final step in the process of guideline development. Future efforts should focus on identifying optimal methods for translating the evidence into everyday clinical practice to ensure that patients receive the best care.

  14. Implementing clinical guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: barriers and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Overington, Jeff D.; Huang, Yao C.; Abramson, Michael J.; Brown, Juliet L.; Goddard, John R.; Bowman, Rayleen V.; Fong, Kwun M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic lung disease characterised by progressive fixed airflow limitation and acute exacerbations that frequently require hospitalisation. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of COPD are now widely available. However, the uptake of these COPD guidelines in clinical practice is highly variable, as is the case for many other chronic disease guidelines. Studies have identified many barriers to implementation of COPD and other guidelines, including factors such as lack of familiarity with guidelines amongst clinicians and inadequate implementation programs. Several methods for enhancing adherence to clinical practice guidelines have been evaluated, including distribution methods, professional education sessions, electronic health records (EHR), point of care reminders and computer decision support systems (CDSS). Results of these studies are mixed to date, and the most effective ways to implement clinical practice guidelines remain unclear. Given the significant resources dedicated to evidence-based medicine, effective dissemination and implementation of best practice at the patient level is an important final step in the process of guideline development. Future efforts should focus on identifying optimal methods for translating the evidence into everyday clinical practice to ensure that patients receive the best care. PMID:25478199

  15. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for HLA-B Genotype and Abacavir Dosing: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Martin, M A; Hoffman, J M; Freimuth, R R; Klein, T E; Dong, B J; Pirmohamed, M; Hicks, J K; Wilkinson, M R; Haas, D W; Kroetz, D L

    2014-05-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for HLA-B Genotype and Abacavir Dosing were originally published in April 2012. We reviewed recent literature and concluded that none of the evidence would change the therapeutic recommendations in the original guideline; therefore, the original publication remains clinically current. However, we have updated the Supplementary Material online and included additional resources for applying CPIC guidelines to the electronic health record. Up-to-date information can be found at PharmGKB (http://www.pharmgkb.org).

  16. The relationship between organizational culture and implementation of clinical practice guidelines: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Dodek, Peter; Cahill, Naomi E; Heyland, Daren K

    2010-01-01

    The context in which critical care providers work has been shown to be associated with adherence to recommendations of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Consideration of contextual factors such as organizational culture may therefore be important when implementing guidelines. Organizational culture has been defined simply as "how things are around here" and encompasses leadership, communication, teamwork, conflict resolution, and other domains. This narrative review highlights the results of recent quantitative and qualitative studies, including studies on adherence to nutrition guidelines in the critical care setting, which demonstrate that elements of organizational culture, such as leadership support, interprofessional collaboration, and shared beliefs about the utility of guidelines, influence adherence to guideline recommendations. Outside nutrition therapy, there is emerging evidence that strategies focusing on organizational change (eg, revision of professional roles, interdisciplinary teams, integrated care delivery, computer systems, and continuous quality improvement) can favorably influence professional performance and patient outcomes. Consequently, future interventions aimed at implementing nutrition guidelines should aim to measure and take into account organizational culture, in addition to considering the characteristics of the patient, provider, and guideline. Further high quality, multimethod studies are required to improve our understanding of how culture influences guideline implementation, and which organizational change strategies might be most effective in optimizing nutrition therapy.

  17. A constraint satisfaction approach to data-driven implementation of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig; O'Sullivan, Dympna; Michalowski, Wojtek; Wilk, Szymon; Farion, Ken

    2008-11-06

    Despite significant research efforts, the implementation of computerized clinical practice guidelines (CPG) in practice remains problematic for a number of reasons. In particular most guideline representation models do not deal adequately with incomplete or inconsistent clinical data. We present a constraint satisfaction approach to address such shortcomings by focusing on CPG data rather than CPG representation. We model a CPG as a set of data-driven constraints which are used to generate complete solutions for describing a patient state from incomplete clinical data, where the patient state is confirmed by the user. Inconsistent input data can be temporarily eliminated and final feasible solutions (permitted complete solutions from a CPG) can pinpoint inconsistencies in original input data alongside allowable guideline data. We demonstrate a sample implementation of the approach for a pediatric asthma CPG.

  18. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for Pharmacogenetics-Guided Warfarin Dosing: 2017 Update.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Caudle, K E; Gong, L; Whirl-Carrillo, M; Stein, C M; Scott, S A; Lee, M T; Gage, B F; Kimmel, S E; Perera, M A; Anderson, J L; Pirmohamed, M; Klein, T E; Limdi, N A; Cavallari, L H; Wadelius, M

    2017-09-01

    This document is an update to the 2011 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and warfarin dosing. Evidence from the published literature is presented for CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and rs12777823 genotype-guided warfarin dosing to achieve a target international normalized ratio of 2-3 when clinical genotype results are available. In addition, this updated guideline incorporates recommendations for adult and pediatric patients that are specific to continental ancestry. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  19. Summary of the proceedings of the international forum 2016: "Imaging referral guidelines and clinical decision support - how can radiologists implement imaging referral guidelines in clinical routine?"

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    The International Forum is held once a year by the ESR and its international radiological partner societies with the aim to address and discuss selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2016, the issue of implementing imaging referral guidelines in clinical routine was analysed. The legal environment in the USA requires that after January 1, 2017, physicians must consult government-approved, evidence-based appropriate-use criteria through a clinical decision support system when ordering advanced diagnostic imaging exams. The ESR and the National Decision Support Company are developing "ESR iGuide", a clinical decision support system for European imaging referral guidelines using ESR imaging referral guidelines based on ACR Appropriateness Criteria. In many regions of the world, the situation is different and quite diverse, depending on the specific features of health care systems in different countries, but there are, unlike in the USA and EU, no legal obligations to implement imaging referral guidelines into the clinical practice. Imaging referral guidelines and clinical decision support implementation is a complex issue everywhere and the legal environment surrounding it even more so; how they will be implemented into the clinical practice in different areas of the world needs yet to be decided.

  20. Revision and Implementation of "Clinical Guideline for Tuberculosis and HIV in Prisons", Great Tehran Prison, Iran.

    PubMed

    Farhoudi, Behnam; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Mohraz, Minoo; Golrokhy, Raheleh; Farnia, Marzieh; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Alasvand, Ramin; Ebrahimi, Bahman; Esfehani, Jafar; Tashakoriyan, Mehrzad

    2017-05-17

    To evaluate the feasibility of the revised "Clinical Guideline for HIV and TB" in the Great Tehran Prison during October 2013 to June 2014. The guideline includes all aspects of HIV/TB diagnosis based on active case finding (ACF), treatment and care services. Before the implementation, a focus group discussion was conducted, and attended by experts on jail diseases. The objective was to identify defects and limitations of the guideline. After the discussion, the guideline was revised. The Great Tehran Prison contains three separate units. All prisoners are taken first to "reception and identification unit (quarantine)" and then send to two housing units according to their legal status. An HIV ACF strategy was employed in the quarantine, and two units through a voluntary provider-initiated HIV testing. Three staffs of the triangular clinic trained the prisoners about common routes of HIV transmission and the symptoms of TB in the units. In the quarantine, all prisoners were examined for HIV-risk factors and symptoms of TB, and offered HIV testing. In unit one, healthcare staff continued the ACF process, while in unit two, the trained prisoners were assigned as the healthcare communicators to proceed the strategy. When the test result was positive, then the process of care, treatment and follow ups were initiated. Also, the use of directly observed therapy (DOTs) for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and TB was initiated. There was a follow up for released prisoner to refer them to care and treatment services outside the prison. The guideline was implemented in the prison successfully. Regarding feasibility of the guideline, the investigators suggest that the guideline to be implemented in other prisons across the country. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. [Evaluation of tools for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines on sexually transmitted infections].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jaime Hernán Rodríguez; Romero Vergara, Antonio José; De Moya, Danilo De Jesús De Alba; Jaramillo Rojas, Hernán Javier; Díaz Rojas, Claudia Milena; Ciapponi, Agustín

    2017-05-25

    Determine the acceptability, perceived usefulness, and adoption of implementation tools and technical assistance provided by the Health Technology Assessment Institute (IETS) in hospitals in two regions of Colombia. Assistance was provided for implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in 24 hospitals (17 in Antioquia and seven in Cundinamarca) in areas with high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, and for use of the implementation tools. Health professionals were given surveys and medical specialists were interviewed. Overall, 86% of respondents are familiar with the GPGs, 86% with the tracer recommendations, 79% with the interactive flow charts, and 82% with the evidence sheets, while 41% never used the implementation tools. Of the respondents who used the tools, 55% did so on their work computer, while 24% used their personal telephone. The most useful tools were the evidence sheets and flow charts (98%) and the tracer recommendations (92%). The least useful were the budgetary impact tools (81%). The implementation tools and technical assistance provided in hospitals in two regions of Colombia are perceived as useful and acceptable, although the degree of implementation is low. The findings of this research will help the different actors, such as the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the IETS, and the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (Colciencias), among others, improve their programs for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines.

  2. [Implementation of a Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Schizophrenia in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Díaz, Natalia; Duarte Osorio, Andrés; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia

    2016-01-01

    To present overall strategies and activities for the implementation process of the recommendations contained in the clinical practice guideline for the management of adults with schizophrenia (GPC_E) published by the Colombian Ministry of Health and Welfare (MSPS). Prioritize the proposed recommendations, identify barriers and solving strategies to implement the GPC_E, and develop a monitoring and evaluation system for the key recommendations. The Guideline Developer Group (GDG) included professionals with primary dedication to implementation issues that accompanied the entire process. During the GDG meetings implementation topics were identified and discussed, and later complemented by literature reviews concerning the experience of mental health guidelines implementation at national and international level. Additionally, feedback from the discussions raised during the socialization meetings, and joint meetings with the MSPS and the Institute of Technology Assessment in Health (IETS) were included. The prioritization of recommendations was made in conjunction with the GDG, following the proposed steps in the methodological guide for the development of Clinical Practice Guidelines with Economic Evaluation in the General System of Social Security in Colombian Health (GMEGPC) using the tools 13 and 14. the conclusions and final adjustments were discussed with the GPC_E leaders. The implementation chapter includes a description of the potential barriers, solution strategies, facilitators and monitoring indicators. The identified barriers were categorized in the following 3 groups: Cultural context, health system and proposed interventions. The issues related to solving strategies and facilitating education programs include community mental health, mental health training for health workers in primary care, decentralization and integration of mental health services at the primary care level, use of technologies information and communication and telemedicine. To monitor

  3. Policies and Procedures That Facilitate Implementation of Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines in U.S. Dental Schools.

    PubMed

    Polk, Deborah E; Nolan, Beth A D; Shah, Nilesh H; Weyant, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which dental schools in the United States have policies and procedures in place that facilitate the implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines. The authors sent surveys to all 65 U.S. dental schools in 2014; responses were obtained from 38 (58%). The results showed that, of the nine policies and procedures examined, only two were fully implemented by 50% or more of the responding schools: guidelines supported through clinical faculty education or available chairside (50%), and students informed of guidelines in both the classroom and clinic (65.8%). Although 92% of the respondents reported having an electronic health record, 80% of those were not using it to track compliance with guidelines. Five schools reported implementing more policies than the rest of the schools. The study found that the approach to implementing guidelines at most of the responding schools did not follow best practices although five schools had an exemplary set of policies and procedures to support guideline implementation. These results suggest that most dental schools are currently not implementing guidelines effectively and efficiently, but that the goal of schools' having a comprehensive implementation program for clinical guidelines is achievable since some are doing so. Future studies should determine whether interventions to improve implementation in dental schools are needed.

  4. Oxytocin augmentation during labor: how to implement medical guidelines into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Stina; Silfver, Kristina Gren; Lind, Cecilia; Nordström, Lennart

    2011-11-01

    To describe an extensive process to implement guidelines for oxytocin use during labor and to report its effects on compliance to clinical practice guidelines after 1 year. A multifaceted strategy was developed to involve all obstetric staff and identify possible local barriers to change in advance. The process lasted for more than 1 year. To describe the implementation of oxytocin use according to the new guidelines, and to compare management in clinical practice with guideline recommendations from audits performed before and after the project. Identification of possible barriers to change, academic detailing, audits with feedback, and local opinion leaders were important factors for a successful process. Documentation of the indication for oxytocin use increased from 54% before, to 86% after the completion of the project (P<0.01). The percentage of incidents in which oxytocin augmentation was started before the diagnosis of labor dystocia was reduced from 40% to 11% (P<0.01). Improvement was found in the documentation of cardiotocography (from 5% to 58%, P<0.01) and contraction frequency at the start of the infusion (from 23% to 63%, P<0.01). Our multifaceted strategy involved all obstetric staff, lasted for more than a year, and improved management of oxytocin use according to clinical guidelines. Established rules for documentation were used as a check list to monitor oxytocin use. However, audits with feedback need to continue for medical safety, and have been planned to take place every 6 months. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Incorporating equity into developing and implementing for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Sandoval-Vargas, Gisella; Mosquera, Paola

    2011-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are useful tools for clinical decision making, processes standardization and quality of care improvements. The current General Social Security and Health System (GSSHS) in Colombia is promoting the initiative of developing and implementing CPG based on evidence in order to improve efficiency and quality of care. The reduction of inequalities in health should be an objective of the GSSHS. The main propose of this analysis is to argue why it is necessary to consider the incorporation of equity considerations in the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines based on the evidence. A series of reflections were made. Narrative description was used for showing the arguments that support the main findings. Among them are: 1. Differential effectiveness by social groups of interventions could diminish final effectiveness of CPG in the GSSHS; 2. To not consider geographical, ethnic, socioeconomic, cultural and access diversity issues within the CPG could have a potential negative impacts of the CPG; 3. Overall effectiveness of GPC could be better if equity issues are included in the quality verification checklist of the guideline questions; 4. Incorporating equity issues in the process of developing CPG could be cost effective, because improve overall effectiveness of CPG. Conclusions To include equity issues in CPG can help in achieving more equitable health outcomes. From this point of view CPG could be key tools to promote equity in care and health outcomes.

  6. The cost of implementing the Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wish, J; Roberts, J; Besarab, A; Owen, W F

    1999-01-01

    For a clinical practice guideline to be accepted by the end-user, the system of reimbursement for the targeted service must be favorable. The National Kidney Foundation-Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-DOQI) Guideline recommendations were developed without primary concern for the costs of their execution. Arguably, an unfavorable financial environment and excessive mercantile behavior by providers and payers would offer a considerable hindrance to their implementation. Toward addressing these concerns, three leaders in the development of the DOQI Guidelines for the Treatment of Anemia of Chronic Renal Failure, Hemodialysis Adequacy, and Vascular Access, have evaluated the hypothesis that implementing the recommendations of the DOQI Guidelines will increase the treatment costs for dialysis providers but will effect savings in the entire end-stage renal disease (ESRD) program. Their analyses suggest that under the current reimbursement system, this assumption may be true. However, restructured global reimbursement in the ESRD program will permit financial incentives for dialysis providers and the payer to coincide.

  7. [Atosiban treatment for preterm labor--financial considerations and savings by implementing clinical guidelines].

    PubMed

    Hadar, Eran; Mansur, Nariman; Ambar, Irit; Hod, Moshe

    2011-06-01

    Preterm delivery is a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women, with symptoms and signs consistent with preterm labor, can be treated with various tocolytic drugs. Atosiban is one of many drugs indicated to arrest imminent preterm labor. Various studies show that the efficacy of atosiban is similar to other tocolytic drugs. The main advantage of atosiban is a relativeLy low incidence of adverse maternal reactions. Its considerable shortcoming is the financial cost, compared to other available drugs. In view of its cost, we have decided to implement a strict protocol to direct the use of atosiban, with the intent to reduce costs, without hampering quality of care. The protocol was implemented from July 2009, and it outlines the medical and procedural terms to use atosiban. We compared similar time periods before and after implementation of the protocol. The outcomes compared included: treatment success, rates of preterm deliveries and financial costs. Within the timeframe that the protocol was implemented, we have been able to demonstrate a 40% reduction in atosiban related costs, compared to a parallel period, when the clinical guidelines were not implemented. This translates into savings of about NIS 40,000 (New Israeli Shekel) (approximately $10,000). This was achieved without an increase in the rate of preterm deliveries. Implementing and enforcing a simple protocol of supervision on the use of atosiban enables a considerable reduction of financial costs related to atosiban, without hampering medical care.

  8. Barriers to implementing evidence-based clinical guidelines: A survey of early adopters

    PubMed Central

    Spallek, Heiko; Song, Mei; Polk, Deborah E; Bekhuis, Tanja; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Aravamudhan, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to identify barriers that early-adopting dentists perceive as common and challenging when implementing recommendations from evidence-based (EB) clinical guidelines. Method This is a cross-sectional study. Dentists who attended the 2008 Evidence-based Dentistry Champion Conference were eligible for inclusion. Forty-three dentists (34%) responded to a 22-item questionnaire administered online. Two investigators independently coded and categorized responses to open-ended items. Descriptive statistics were computed to assess the frequency of barriers and perceived challenges. Results The most common barriers to implementation are difficulty in changing current practice model, resistance and criticism from colleagues, and lack of trust in evidence or research. Barriers perceived as serious problems have to do with lack of up-to-date evidence, lack of clear answers to clinical questions, and contradictory information in the scientific literature. Conclusions Knowledge of barriers will help improve translation of biomedical research for dentists. Information in guidelines needs to be current, clear, and simplified for use at chairside; dentists’ fears need to be addressed. PMID:21093800

  9. [Clinical practice guidelines: qualitative study of their implementation in the Chilean health system].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Paloma; Fajreldin, Valentina; Rodríguez, María Francisca; Kraemer, Patricia; Mendoza, Carolina; Pineda, Ignacio; Burdiles, Pamela; Cornejo, Marco; Villanueva, Julio; Tohá, María Dolores; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso

    2017-06-08

    Characterize the implementation process, barriers, and facilitators of evidence-based recommendations in the context of developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) generated by the Ministry of Health of Chile, in order to make proposals to optimize the process. Qualitative "action-oriented research" study. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted and nine discussion groups were organized at various levels of the Chilean public health system. The analysis was conducted using Atlas.ti® software and manually, in a content analysis framework, by categorizing and coding information according to pre-specified dimensions and with the inclusion of emerging categories where relevant. The main challenge mentioned with regard to implementing recommendations is the lack of an explicit and structured process. Actors in the health system recognize difficulties specific to the context in which the recommendations are followed. In this unprecedented institutional review, participants suggested a series of strategies that could be implemented to overcome these challenges, presented in a management flow chart optimized for the development and implementation of CPGs. This process has raised awareness of the importance of implementing CPGs in Chile. After characterizing the implementation process, barriers, and facilitators, a plan to implement recommendations was developed in order to guide and monitor the process. It would facilitate the implementation of strategies and the introduction of improvements to the CPG development process if key informants inside and outside of the Ministry of Health were included in the review process. Studies of this kind should be conducted with physicians and patients in order to complement the collected information.

  10. Implementation of clinical practice guidelines for prevention of thromboembolism in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Burns, Stephen P; Nelson, Audrey L; Bosshart, Helen T; Goetz, Lance L; Harrow, Jeffrey J; Gerhart, Kevin D; Bowers, Harriet; Krasnicka, Barbara; Guihan, Marylou

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether publication of the "Prevention of Thromboembolism in Spinal Cord Injury" clinical practice guideline (CPG) changed patient management and whether adherence to CPG recommendations improved after a targeted implementation strategy. Data were abstracted from medical records of 134 and 520 patients with acute and chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), respectively, from 6 Veterans Affairs medical centers over 3 time periods: prepublication (T1), preimplementation (T2), and postimplementation (T3) of the CPG. Targeted interventions were developed to address provider-perceived barriers to guideline adherence, based on findings from focus groups conducted at each site. The interventions incorporated two implementation strategies: standardized documentation templates/standing orders and social marketing/outreach visits. Use of the specified duration for pharmacologic prophylaxis increased from 60% to 65% to 75% of patients with acute SCI in T1, T2, and T3, respectively (P = 0.060 and 0.041 for T1 vs T2 and T2 vs T3, respectively). Rates of use for individual pharmacologic prophylaxis agents changed significantly over the course of the study, with use of low-molecular-weight heparin increasing from 7% in T1 to 42% in T3. Physical assessments for thrombosis on hospitalization days 1 and 30 improved between T2 and T3. Use of prophylaxis in chronically injured patients with new risk factors for thromboembolism increased from 16% to 31% to 34% during T1, T2, and T3 (P = 0.001 and 0.87, respectively). The CPG publication had only a modest effect on practice. Use of structured implementation further increased the adherence to some CPG recommendations for thromboembolism prophylaxis. Similar implementation strategies should be considered for CPG recommendations with low adherence and high potential for morbidity and mortality.

  11. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  12. Implementation of clinical practice guidelines for upper respiratory infection in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Apisitwittaya, Wisit

    2004-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of implementing clinical practice guidelines (CPG) on antibiotic prescribing for adults with upper respiratory infection (URI) in terms of the changes in diagnosis and prevalence and patterns of antibiotic prescribing. The CPG on antibiotic treatments for adults with URI published in the Annals of Internal Medicine 2001; 134: 479-52 were considered to be of high quality and applicable to Thai patients. A one-page clinical practice protocol in Thai was prepared from these guidelines. The dissemination strategy provided CPG and clinical practice protocol to 12 general practitioners in Siriraj Social Security Program in Bangkok during interactive educational meetings in April 2001. The information on 837 URI episodes from January to March (pre-CPG phase) and 774 URI episodes during May to July (post-CPG phase) were extracted from the patients' medical records. Telephone follow up for patients without antibiotics in the post-CPG phase was also attempted. Changes in the post-CPG period included (1) The diagnosis of URI was used less frequently whereas the diagnosis of common cold, pharyngitis and acute bronchitis were used more frequently (p<0.05). (2) Antibiotic use fell from 74.0% to 44.1% (p<0.001). (3) Fewer prescriptions for amoxicillin, roxithromycin, co-trimoxazole and doxycycline, and more for penicillin V (p<0.05). Patients (n=97) not given antibiotics reported recovery in 83.5% and improvement in 16.5%. A locally prepared clinical practice protocol based on US CPG for appropriate antibiotic use for URI combined with interactive educational meetings is effective in promoting appropriate diagnosis and antibiotic therapy in an ambulatory setting in a tertiary care hospital in Thailand.

  13. Implementation of Pharmaceutical Practice Guidelines by a Project Model Based: Clinical and Economic Impact.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Laleh; Karamikhah, Razieh; Mahdavinia, Azadeh; Samiei, Hasan; Petramfar, Peyman; Niknam, Ramin

    2015-10-01

    All around the world a few studies have been found on the effect of guideline implementation on direct medications' expenditure. The goal of this study was to evaluate cost savings of guideline implementation among patients who had to receive 3 costly medications including albumin, enoxaparin, and pantoprazole in a tertiary hospital in Shiraz, Iran.An 8-month prospective study was performed in 2 groups; group 1 as an observational group (control group) in 4 months from June to September 2014 and group 2 as an interventional group from October 2014 to January 2015.For group 1 the pattern of costly medications usage was determined without any intervention. For group 2, after guideline implementation, the economic impact was evaluated by making comparisons between the data achieved from the 2 groups.A total of 12,680 patients were evaluated during this study (6470 in group 1; 6210 in group 2). The reduction in the total value of costly administered drugs was 56% after guideline implementation. Such reduction in inappropriate prescribing accounts for the saving of 85,625 United States dollars (USD) monthly and estimated 1,027,500 USD annually.Guideline implementation could improve the adherence of evidence-based drug utilization and resulted in significant cost savings in a major teaching medical center via a decrease in inappropriate prescribing of costly medications.

  14. The methodological quality of economic evaluations of guideline implementation into clinical practice: a systematic review of empiric studies.

    PubMed

    Hoomans, Ties; Evers, Silvia M A A; Ament, André J H A; Hübben, Mariette W A; van der Weijden, Trudy; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Severens, Johan L

    2007-01-01

    Despite the emphasis on efficiency of health-care services delivery, there is an imperfect evidence base to inform decisions about whether and how to develop and implement guidelines into clinical practice. In general, studies evaluating the economics of guideline implementation lack methodological rigor. We conducted a systematic review of empiric studies to assess advances in the economic evaluations of guideline implementation. The Cochrane Effective Professional and Organisational Change Group specialized register and the MEDLINE database were searched for English publications between January 1998 and July 2004 that reported objective effect measures and implementation costs. We extracted data on study characteristics, quality of study design, and economic methodology. It was assessed whether the economic evaluations followed methodological guidance. We included 24 economic evaluations, involving 21 controlled trials and three interrupted time series designs. The studies involved varying settings, targeted professionals, targeted behaviors, clinical guidelines, and implementation strategies. Overall, it was difficult to determine the quality of study designs owing to poor reporting. In addition, most economic evaluations were methodologically flawed: studies did not follow guidelines for evaluation design, data collection, and data analysis. The increasing importance of the value for money of providing health care seems to be reflected by an increase in empiric economic evaluations of guideline implementation. Because of the heterogeneity and poor methodological quality of these studies, however, the resulting evidence is still of limited use in decision-making. There seems to be a need for more methodological guidance, especially in terms of data collection and data synthesis, to appropriately evaluate the economics of developing and implementing guidelines into clinical practice.

  15. Impact of inpatient bronchiolitis clinical practice guideline implementation on testing and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Vineeta; Hall, Matt; Morse, Rustin; Wilson, Karen M; Mussman, Grant; Hain, Paul; Montalbano, Amanda; Parikh, Kavita; Mahant, Sanjay; Shah, Samir S

    2014-09-01

    To determine the association between institutional inpatient clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for bronchiolitis and the use of diagnostic tests and treatments. A multicenter retrospective cohort study of infants aged 29 days to 24 months with a discharge diagnosis of bronchiolitis was conducted between July 2011 and June 2012. An electronic survey was sent to quality improvement leaders to determine the presence, duration, and method of CPG implementation at participating hospitals. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to perform bivariate comparisons between hospitals with CPGs and those without CPGs. Multivariable analysis was used to determine associations between CPG characteristics and the use of tests and treatments; analyses were clustered by hospital. The response rate to our electronic survey was 77% (33 of 43 hospitals). The majority (85%) had an institutional bronchiolitis CPG in place. Hospitals with a CPG had universal agreement regarding recommendations against routine tests and treatments. The presence of a CPG was not associated with significant reductions in the use of tests and treatments (eg, complete blood count, chest radiography, bronchodilator use, steroid and antibiotic use). A longer interval duration since CPG implementation and presence of an easily accessible online CPG document were associated with significant reductions in the performance of complete blood count and chest radiography and the use of corticosteroids. Other implementation factors demonstrated mixed results. Most children's hospitals have an institutional bronchiolitis CPG in place. The content of these CPGs is largely uniform in practice recommendations against tests and treatments. The presence of institutional CPGs did not significantly reduce the ordering of tests and treatments. Online accessibility of a written CPG and prolonged duration of implementation reduce tests and treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Guidelines for clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Vleugels, A M

    1997-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements that are intended to support medical decision making in well-defined clinical situations. Essentially, their object is to reduce the variability in medical practice, to improve quality, and to make appropriated control of the financial resources possible. Internationally, ever more organisations, associations, and institutions are concerned with the development of guidelines in many different areas of care. Making implicit knowledge explicit is one of the associated advantages of guidelines: they have a potential utility in training, in process evaluation, and in the reevaluation of outcome studies. In liability issues, their existence has a double effect: they can be used to justify medical behaviour, and they constitute a generally accepted reference point. A derivative problem is the legal liability of the compilers of the guidelines. The principle of the guideline approach can be challenged academically: science cannot give a definition of optimal care with absolute certainty. What is called objectivity often rests on methodologically disputable analyses; also the opinion of opinion leaders is not always a guarantee for scientific soundness. Moreover, patients are not all identical: biological variability, situational factors, patient expectations, and other elements play a role in this differentiation. Clinicians are often hesitant with respect to clinical guidelines: they are afraid of cookbook medicine and curtailment of their professional autonomy. Patients fear reduction of individualization of care and the use of guidelines as a rationing instrument. The effects of the introduction of clinical practice guidelines on medical practice, on the results and on the cost of care vary but are generally considered to be favourable. The choice of appropriate strategies in development, dissemination, and implementation turns out to be of critical importance. The article ends with concrete

  17. Developing a questionnaire to identify perceived barriers for implementing the Dutch physical therapy COPD clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines have been developed to assist healthcare practitioners in clinical decision making. Publication of clinical practice guidelines does not automatically lead to their uptake and barrier identification has been recognized as an important step in implementation planning. This study aimed at developing a questionnaire to identify perceived barriers for implementing the Dutch COPD guideline for physical therapists and its recommended measurement instruments. Methods An overall questionnaire, based on two existing questionnaires, was constructed to identify barriers and facilitators for implementing the COPD guideline. The construct of the questionnaire was assessed in a cross-sectional study among 246 chest physical therapists. Factor analysis was conducted to explore underlying dimensions. Psychometric properties were analyzed using Cronbach’s alpha. Barriers and facilitators were assessed using descriptive statistics. Results Some 139 physical therapists (57%) responded. Factor analysis revealed 4-factor and 5-factor solutions with an explained variance of 36% and 39% respectively. Cronbach’s alpha of the overall questionnaire was 0.90, and varied from 0.66 to 0.92 for the different factors. Underlying domains of the 5-factor solution were characterized as: attitude towards using measurement instruments, knowledge and skills of the physical therapist, applicability of the COPD guideline, required investment of time & money, and patient characteristics. Physical therapists showed a positive attitude toward using the COPD guideline. Main barriers for implementation were required time investment and financial constraints. Conclusions The construct of the questionnaire revealed relevant underlying domains for the identification of barriers and facilitators for implementing the COPD guideline. The questionnaire allowed for tailoring to the target group and may be used across health care professionals as basis for in-depth analysis

  18. Barriers of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development and Implementation in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran-Seyed, Zahra; Nedjat, Sima; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge products such as clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are vitally required for evidence-based medicine (EBM). Although the EBM, to some extent, has been attended during recent years, no result has achieved thus far. The current qualitative study is to identify the barriers to establishing development system and implementation of CPGs in Iran. Methods: Twelve semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of health policy and decision makers, the experts of development and or adaptation of CPGs, and the experts of EBM education and development. In addition, 11 policy-makers, decision-makers, and managers of the health system participated in a focus group discussion. The analysis of the study data was undertaken by thematic framework approach. Result: Six themes emerged in order of their frequency include practice environment, evidence-based health care system, individual professional, politician and political context, innovation (CPG) and patients. Most of the indications in the treatment environment focused on such sub-themes as regulations and rules, economical factors, organizational context, and social context. While the barriers related to the conditions of treatment environment, service provider and the features of innovation and patients had been identified before in other studies, very little attention has been paid to the evidence-based health care system and politician and political context Conclusion: The lack of an evidence-based healthcare system and a political macro support are mentioned as the key barriers in Iran as a developing country. The establishment of a system of development and implementation of CPGs as the evidence-based practice tools will not be possible, unless the barriers are removed. PMID:23626892

  19. Barriers of clinical practice guidelines development and implementation in developing countries: a case study in iran.

    PubMed

    Baradaran-Seyed, Zahra; Nedjat, Sima; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge products such as clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are vitally required for evidence-based medicine (EBM). Although the EBM, to some extent, has been attended during recent years, no result has achieved thus far. The current qualitative study is to identify the barriers to establishing development system and implementation of CPGs in Iran. Twelve semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of health policy and decision makers, the experts of development and or adaptation of CPGs, and the experts of EBM education and development. In addition, 11 policy-makers, decision-makers, and managers of the health system participated in a focus group discussion. The analysis of the study data was undertaken by thematic framework approach. Six themes emerged in order of their frequency include practice environment, evidence-based health care system, individual professional, politician and political context, innovation (CPG) and patients. Most of the indications in the treatment environment focused on such sub-themes as regulations and rules, economical factors, organizational context, and social context. While the barriers related to the conditions of treatment environment, service provider and the features of innovation and patients had been identified before in other studies, very little attention has been paid to the evidence-based health care system and politician and political context. The lack of an evidence-based healthcare system and a political macro support are mentioned as the key barriers in Iran as a developing country. The establishment of a system of development and implementation of CPGs as the evidence-based practice tools will not be possible, unless the barriers are removed.

  20. Implementation of Early Diagnosis and Intervention Guidelines for Cerebral Palsy in a High-Risk Infant Follow-Up Clinic.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Rachel; Noritz, Garey; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2017-08-30

    Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability in childhood, and is mostly diagnosed after age 2 years. Delays in diagnosis can have negative long-term consequences for children and parents. New guidelines for early cerebral palsy diagnosis and intervention were recently published, after systematic review of the evidence by international multidisciplinary experts aiming to decrease age at diagnosis. The current study tested the feasibility of implementing these guidelines in an American clinical setting. We designed a stepwise implementation process in a neonatal intensive care follow-up clinic. Efficacy was tested by comparing 10-month pre- and post-implementation periods. Clinic visit types, cerebral palsy diagnosis, provider competencies and perspectives, and balancing measures were analyzed. Changes to infrastructure, assessments, scheduling algorithms, documentation and supports in diagnosis or counseling were successfully implemented. Number of three- to four-month screening visits increased (255 to 499, P < 0.001); mean age at diagnosis decreased (18 to 13 months, P < 0.001). Clinic team awareness of early diagnosis and interventions increased (P < 0.001). There was no decrease in family satisfaction with overall clinic function. Opportunities for improvements included documentation for transitioning patients, generalizabilty across hospital clinics, systematic identification of high-risk status during hospitalization, and need for cerebral palsy care guidelines for infants under age 2 years. We demonstrated for the first time in a US clinical setting the feasibility of implementation of international early diagnosis and treatment guidelines for cerebral palsy. This process is adaptable to other settings and underscores the necessity of future research on cerebral palsy treatments in infancy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Using a knowledge translation framework to implement asthma clinical practice guidelines in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Licskai, Christopher; Sands, Todd; Ong, Michael; Paolatto, Lisa; Nicoletti, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Quality problem International guidelines establish evidence-based standards for asthma care; however, recommendations are often not implemented and many patients do not meet control targets. Initial assessment Regional pilot data demonstrated a knowledge-to-practice gap. Choice of solutions We engineered health system change in a multi-step approach described by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation framework. Implementation Knowledge translation occurred at multiple levels: patient, practice and local health system. A regional administrative infrastructure and inter-disciplinary care teams were developed. The key project deliverable was a guideline-based interdisciplinary asthma management program. Six community organizations, 33 primary care physicians and 519 patients participated. The program operating cost was $290/patient. Evaluation Six guideline-based care elements were implemented, including spirometry measurement, asthma controller therapy, a written self-management action plan and general asthma education, including the inhaler device technique, role of medications and environmental control strategies in 93, 95, 86, 100, 97 and 87% of patients, respectively. Of the total patients 66% were adults, 61% were female, the mean age was 35.7 (SD = ±24.2) years. At baseline 42% had two or more symptoms beyond acceptable limits vs. 17% (P< 0.001) post-intervention; 71% reported urgent/emergent healthcare visits at baseline (2.94 visits/year) vs. 45% (1.45 visits/year) (P< 0.001); 39% reported absenteeism (5.0 days/year) vs. 19% (3.0 days/year) (P< 0.001). The mean follow-up interval was 22 (SD = ±7) months. Lessons learned A knowledge-translation framework can guide multi-level organizational change, facilitate asthma guideline implementation, and improve health outcomes in community primary care practices. Program costs are similar to those of diabetes programs. Program savings offset costs in a ratio of 2.1:1 PMID:22893665

  2. Using a knowledge translation framework to implement asthma clinical practice guidelines in primary care.

    PubMed

    Licskai, Christopher; Sands, Todd; Ong, Michael; Paolatto, Lisa; Nicoletti, Ivan

    2012-10-01

    Quality problem International guidelines establish evidence-based standards for asthma care; however, recommendations are often not implemented and many patients do not meet control targets. Initial assessment Regional pilot data demonstrated a knowledge-to-practice gap. Choice of solutions We engineered health system change in a multi-step approach described by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation framework. Implementation Knowledge translation occurred at multiple levels: patient, practice and local health system. A regional administrative infrastructure and inter-disciplinary care teams were developed. The key project deliverable was a guideline-based interdisciplinary asthma management program. Six community organizations, 33 primary care physicians and 519 patients participated. The program operating cost was $290/patient. Evaluation Six guideline-based care elements were implemented, including spirometry measurement, asthma controller therapy, a written self-management action plan and general asthma education, including the inhaler device technique, role of medications and environmental control strategies in 93, 95, 86, 100, 97 and 87% of patients, respectively. Of the total patients 66% were adults, 61% were female, the mean age was 35.7 (SD = ± 24.2) years. At baseline 42% had two or more symptoms beyond acceptable limits vs. 17% (P< 0.001) post-intervention; 71% reported urgent/emergent healthcare visits at baseline (2.94 visits/year) vs. 45% (1.45 visits/year) (P< 0.001); 39% reported absenteeism (5.0 days/year) vs. 19% (3.0 days/year) (P< 0.001). The mean follow-up interval was 22 (SD = ± 7) months. Lessons learned A knowledge-translation framework can guide multi-level organizational change, facilitate asthma guideline implementation, and improve health outcomes in community primary care practices. Program costs are similar to those of diabetes programs. Program savings offset costs in a ratio of 2.1:1.

  3. Implementing a clinical practice guideline for the treatment of bronchiolitis in a high-risk Hispanic pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Flores, Dora; Busen, Nancy H; Smout, Randall; Velasquez, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants and young children. Because of its frequency, a clinical practice guideline for bronchiolitis was implemented in this population in an effort to decrease costs and the number of diagnostic evaluations performed and medications used without increasing length of stay or transfers to the pediatric intensive care unit. A retrospective chart review of 322 pediatric admissions to a rural community hospital was conducted (169 before guideline implementation and 153 after guideline implementation), and data were categorically stratified into three groups for comparison purposes. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, with a p value < .05 defining significance. During the project period, patients with a mean age of 9.6 months were admitted to the hospital with bronchiolitis. Statistically significant decreases in cost per day and decreases in use of antibiotics and chest radiographs were achieved without increasing length of stay or pediatric intensive care unit transfers. This project demonstrated feasibility in implementing an evidence-based clinical practice guideline in a rural hospital to improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ACC/AHA Special Report: Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation Strategies: A Summary of Systematic Reviews by the NHLBI Implementation Science Work Group: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wiley V; Pearson, Thomas A; Bennett, Glen C; Cushman, William C; Gaziano, Thomas A; Gorman, Paul N; Handler, Joel; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kushner, Robert F; MacKenzie, Thomas D; Sacco, Ralph L; Smith, Sidney C; Stevens, Victor J; Wells, Barbara L; Castillo, Graciela; Heil, Susan K R; Stephens, Jennifer; Vann, Julie C Jacobson

    2017-02-28

    In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened an Implementation Science Work Group to assess evidence-based strategies for effectively implementing clinical practice guidelines. This was part of a larger effort to update existing clinical practice guidelines on cholesterol, blood pressure, and overweight/obesity. Review evidence from the published implementation science literature and identify effective or promising strategies to enhance the adoption and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. This systematic review was conducted on 4 critical questions, each focusing on the adoption and effectiveness of 4 intervention strategies: (1) reminders, (2) educational outreach visits, (3) audit and feedback, and (4) provider incentives. A scoping review of the Rx for Change database of systematic reviews was used to identify promising guideline implementation interventions aimed at providers. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori for each question, and the published literature was initially searched up to 2012, and then updated with a supplemental search to 2015. Two independent reviewers screened the returned citations to identify relevant reviews and rated the quality of each included review. Audit and feedback and educational outreach visits were generally effective in improving both process of care (15 of 21 reviews and 12 of 13 reviews, respectively) and clinical outcomes (7 of 12 reviews and 3 of 5 reviews, respectively). Provider incentives showed mixed effectiveness for improving both process of care (3 of 4 reviews) and clinical outcomes (3 reviews equally distributed between generally effective, mixed, and generally ineffective). Reminders showed mixed effectiveness for improving process of care outcomes (27 reviews with 11 mixed and 3 generally ineffective results) and were generally ineffective for clinical outcomes (18 reviews with 6 mixed and 9 generally ineffective results). Educational outreach visits (2 of 2

  5. The CLUES study: a cluster randomized clinical trial for the evaluation of cardiovascular guideline implementation in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The appropriate care for people with cardiovascular risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality. One strategy for improving the care for these patients involves the implementation of evidence-based guidelines. To date, little research concerning the impact of such implementation strategies in our setting has been published. Aims. To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted tailored intervention in the implementation of three cardiovascular risk-related guidelines (hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia) in primary care in the Basque Health Service compared with usual implementation. Methods/Design A two-year cluster randomized clinical trial in primary care in two districts in the Basque Health Service. All primary care units are randomized. Data from all patients with diabetes, hypertension and those susceptible to coronary risk screening will be analyzed. Interventions. The control group will receive standard implementation. The experimental group will receive a multifaceted tailored implementation strategy, including a specific web page and workshops for family physicians and nurses. Endpoints. Primary endpoints: annual request for glycosylated hemoglobin, basic laboratory tests for hypertension, cardiovascular risk screening (women between 45–74 and men between 40–74 years old). Secondary endpoints: other process and clinical guideline indicators. Analysis: Data will be extracted from centralized computerized medical records. Analysis will be performed at a primary care unit level weighted by cluster size. Discussion The main contribution of our study is that it seeks to identify an effective strategy for cardiovascular guideline implementation in primary care in our setting. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN88876909 PMID:24156549

  6. Implementing the NICE OCD/BDD guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny

    2008-12-01

    The National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) has produced a nationally coordinated programme of clinical guidelines which provide rigorous and systematically derived statements of best evidence to improve patient care. Successful implementation of the NICE guidelines into clinical practice is complex and challenging and this paper focuses on the specific barriers and facilitators of implementing the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) guidelines. Particular challenges for this guideline are the very nature of OCD/BDD, the adoption of the stepped care model and specific treatment and training issues.

  7. Multifaceted implementation of stroke prevention guidelines in primary care: cluster‐randomised evaluation of clinical and cost effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John; Bibby, John; Eastham, Joe; Harrison, Stephen; McGeorge, Maureen; Patterson, Chris; Price, Nick; Russell, Daphne; Russell, Ian; Small, Neil; Walsh, Matt; Young, John

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical and cost effectiveness of implementing evidence‐based guidelines for the prevention of stroke. Design Cluster‐randomised trial Setting Three primary care organisations in the North of England covering a population of 400 000. Participants Seventy six primary care teams in four clusters: North, South & West, City I and City II. Intervention Guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) were developed and implemented using a multifaceted approach including evidence‐based recommendations, audit and feedback, interactive educational sessions, patient prompts and outreach visits. Outcomes Identification and appropriate treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation or TIA, and cost effectiveness. Results Implementation led to 36% increase (95% CI 4% to 78%) in diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, and improved treatment of TIA (odds ratio of complying with guidelines 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.8). Combined analysis of atrial fibrillation and TIA estimates that compliance was significantly greater (OR 1.46 95% CI 1.10 to 1.94) in the condition for which practices had received the implementation programme. The development and implementation of guidelines cost less than £1500 per practice. The estimated costs per quality‐adjusted life year gained by patients with atrial fibrillation or TIA were both less than £2000, very much less than the usual criterion for cost effectiveness. Conclusions Implementation of evidence‐based guidelines improved the quality of primary care for atrial fibrillation and TIA. The intervention was feasible and very cost effective. Key components of the model include contextual analysis, strong professional support, clear recommendations based on robust evidence, simplicity of adoption, good communication and use of established networks and opinion leaders. PMID:17301206

  8. A method for subdividing clinical guidelines into process modules with associated triggers and objectives to facilitate implementation.

    PubMed

    Luckmann, Roger S; Boxwala, Aziz A; Greenes, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Representation of multi-step clinical guidelines (CG) and their implementation in computerized decision support (DS) systems are complex and logistically challenging tasks. However, many simple rules based on CGs (e.g., medical logic modules), have been successfully implemented through a few popular DS models (e.g., prevention reminders, order entry systems). To facilitate mapping of CGs to practical DS models, we propose an empirical method for sub-dividing CGs into modules according to the locus in a clinical process flow model where implementation would be most effective (e.g., post-encounter provider order entry). We further propose a classification of triggers and objectives for CG modules that provides a framework for a DS system to implement the module Successful application of the method to ten diverse CGs in the outpatient setting is described.

  9. A Method for Subdividing Clinical Guidelines into Process Modules with Associated Triggers and Objectives to Facilitate Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Luckmann, Roger; Boxwala, Aziz A.; Greenes, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Representation of multi-step clinical guidelines (CG) and their implementation in computerized decision support (DS) systems are complex and logistically challenging tasks. However, many simple rules based on CGs (e.g., medical logic modules), have been successfully implemented through a few popular DS models (e.g., prevention reminders, order entry systems). To facilitate mapping of CGs to practical DS models, we propose an empirical method for subdividing CGs into modules according to the locus in a clinical process flow model where implementation would be most effective (e.g., post-encounter provider order entry). We further propose a classification of triggers and objectives for CG modules that provides a framework for a DS system to implement the module Successful application of the method to ten diverse CGs in the outpatient setting is described. PMID:14728424

  10. GUIDELINE IMPLEMENTATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: USE OF STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL CHARTS AS VISUAL FEEDBACK DEVICES

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussein, Fahad A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To use statistical control charts in a series of audits to improve the acceptance and consistant use of guidelines, and reduce the variations in prescription processing in primary health care. Methods: A series of audits were done at the main satellite of King Saud Housing Family and Community Medicine Center, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, where three general practitioners and six pharmacists provide outpatient care to about 3000 residents. Audits were carried out every fortnight to calculate the proportion of prescriptions that did not conform to the given guidelines of prescribing and dispensing. Simple random samples of thirty were chosen from a sampling frame of all prescriptions given in the two previous weeks. Thirty six audits were carried out from September 2004 to February 2006. P-charts were constructed around a parametric specification of non-conformities not exceeding 25%. Results: Of the 1081 prescriptions, the most frequent non-conformity was failure to write generic names (35.5%), followed by the failure to record patient's weight (16.4%), pharmacist's name (14.3%), duration of therapy (9.1%), and the use of inappropriate abbreviations (6.0%). Initially, 100% of prescriptions did not conform to the guidelines, but within a period of three months, this came down to 40%. Conclusions: A process of audits in the context of statistical process control is necessary for any improvement in the implementation of guidelines in primary care. Statistical process control charts are an effective means of visual feedback to the care providers. PMID:23012184

  11. The service context for clinical guidelines: supporting guideline implementation by assuring and improving the quality of service in which clinicians work.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Adrian

    2011-08-01

    This paper argues that accreditation schemes and quality networks promote good contexts for the implementation of clinical guidelines. It raises questions about how organizational standards should be developed, structured and focused, how clinical guidelines and organizational standards should connect, how to practically increase the number of such schemes and their scope, and the role of professional bodies in this. There is a considerable amount of administration involved in running an accreditation scheme or quality network and there are risks involved in starting in new areas. One way forward is for professional bodies to partner to share risks and to build a common operating platform for the administration of the work across the professional bodies. This platform could be guided by topic experts within the bodies.

  12. [Challenges in the implementation of clinical practice guidelines in major public health institutions in Mexico: A multiple case study].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Alba, Gaudencio; González-Block, Miguel Ángel; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2015-01-01

    To identify, prioritize and relate barriers and facilitators in the implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (GPC, in Spanish). We used qualitative methods to study and compare the introduction of GPC across the domains of the consolidated research implementation framework in hospitals of the three main public institutions in a state of Mexico. Authorities and hospital staff were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The main barriers to implementation are the absence of standards, training, resources and incentives. The most important implementation facilitators are the characteristics of the GPC, which are perceived as properly designed and with simple language as well as with capacity to improve the work environment. The barriers to implementation must be solved to achieve the goal of standardizing the healthcare process across the sector; the positive perception of the GPC should promote the continuous actualization of the evidence and a sectoral view from their development stage to ensure adoption in the heterogeneous environments that characterize health institutions.

  13. Clinical Development and Implementation of an Institutional Guideline for Prospective EEG Monitoring and Reporting of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Carlos F; Shenoy, Apeksha V; OʼConnor, Kathryn L; Bechek, Sophia C; Boyle, Emily J; Guanci, Mary M; Tehan, Tara M; Zafar, Sahar F; Cole, Andrew J; Patel, Aman B; Westover, Michael B; Rosenthal, Eric S

    2016-06-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is the most common and disabling complication among patients admitted to the hospital for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Clinical and radiographic methods often fail to detect DCI early enough to avert irreversible injury. We assessed the clinical feasibility of implementing a continuous EEG (cEEG) ischemia monitoring service for early DCI detection as part of an institutional guideline. An institutional neuromonitoring guideline was designed by an interdisciplinary team of neurocritical care, clinical neurophysiology, and neurosurgery physicians and nursing staff and cEEG technologists. The interdisciplinary team focused on (1) selection criteria of high-risk patients, (2) minimization of safety concerns related to prolonged monitoring, (3) technical selection of quantitative and qualitative neurophysiologic parameters based on expert consensus and review of the literature, (4) a structured interpretation and reporting methodology, prompting direct patient evaluation and iterative neurocritical care, and (5) a two-layered quality assurance process including structured clinician interviews assessing events of neurologic worsening and an adjudicated consensus review of neuroimaging and medical records. The resulting guideline's clinical feasibility was then prospectively evaluated. The institutional SAH monitoring guideline used transcranial Doppler ultrasound and cEEG monitoring for vasospasm and ischemia monitoring in patients with either Fisher group 3 or Hunt-Hess grade IV or V SAH. Safety criteria focused on prevention of skin breakdown and agitation. Technical components included monitoring of transcranial Doppler ultrasound velocities and cEEG features, including quantitative alpha:delta ratio and percent alpha variability, qualitative evidence of new focal slowing, late-onset epileptiform activity, or overall worsening of background. Structured cEEG reports were introduced including verbal communication for findings concerning

  14. A systematic approach to implementing and evaluating clinical guidelines: The results of fifteen years of Preventive Child Health Care guidelines in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Margot A H; van Dommelen, Paula; Dunnink, Trudy

    2015-07-01

    Preventive Child Health Care (PCHC) services are delivered to all children in the Netherlands by approximately 5500 doctors, nurses and doctor's assistants. In 1996, The Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports asked for the development of evidence-based PCHC guidelines. Since 1998, twenty-five guidelines have been published. Levels of implementation affect outcomes and so implementation and evaluation of the actual use of guidelines are essential. At the outset, there was a national implementation plan with six main activities: a) determinant analysis before the implementation of a guideline, b) innovation strategies tailored to the determinants, c) dissemination to all professionals, d) ongoing evaluation of the awareness and use of the guidelines, e) trained implementation coordinator(s) in each PCHC organization and f) a national help desk. The awareness and use of the guidelines in random samples of doctors, nurses and doctor's assistants were surveyed using questionnaires. The respondents stated (on a 7-point scale) the proportion of all children they had exposed to given core elements in a guideline. The aim is for at least 90% of the professionals to be aware of the guideline and for 80% to perform the core elements for all (or nearly all) children. The six main activities, with the exception of ongoing evaluation, were gradually put into place, albeit only gradually, between 1998 and 2015 for all guidelines. In 2012, the use of individual core elements in all guidelines, dating from before 2012, varied from 28% to 100%. One guideline met both criteria of 90% awareness and 80% use, and three guidelines nearly met these criteria. Looking back on fifteen years of PCHC guidelines, we may conclude that the guidelines produced recently are implemented in accordance with the national implementation plan. Unfortunately, the evaluation of guideline use continues to be a difficulty.

  15. The challenges of implementing ADHD clinical guidelines and research best evidence in routine clinical care settings: Delphi survey and mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Taylor, John A; Newell, Karen; Baldwin, Laurence; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The landmark US Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study established the benefits of individualised medication titration and optimisation strategies to improve short- to medium-term outcomes in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This individualised medication management approach was subsequently incorporated into the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) ADHD Clinical Guidelines (NICE CG78). However, little is known about clinicians' attitudes towards implementing these medication management strategies for ADHD in routine care. To examine National Health Service (NHS) healthcare professionals' consensus on ADHD medication management strategies. Using the Delphi method, we examined perceptions on the importance and feasibility of implementing 103 ADHD treatment statements from sources including the UK NICE ADHD guidelines and US medication management algorithms. Certain recommendations for ADHD medication management were judged as important and feasible to implement, including a stepwise titration of stimulant medication. Other recommendations were perceived as important but not feasible to implement in routine practice, such as weekly clinic follow-up with the family during titration and collection of follow-up symptom questionnaires. Many of the key guideline recommendations for ADHD medication management are viewed by clinicians as important and feasible to implement. However, some recommendations present significant implementation challenges within the context of routine NHS clinical care in England. C.H. and K.S. were members of the Guideline Development Group for the NICE ADHD Clinical Guideline (NICE CG78). © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

  16. [Clinical guidelines for epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2014-05-01

    Many international guidelines for epilepsy from the countries in Europe, USA and Asia have been published since the introduction of evidence-based medicine. In Japan, the clinical guidelines for epilepsy management were published by the Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN) in 2002 and 2010. The clinical guideline for epilepsy 2010 primarily targets general practitioners treating epilepsy patients. The Japan Epilepsy Society has been publishing 16 guidelines for several topics since 2005. The clinical guideline for epilepsy 2010 recommends that carbamazepine can be regarded for new onset partial epilepsy and sodium valproate is for new onset generalized epilepsy as anti-epileptic drug (AED) monotherapy. The new AEDs received approval by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, mainly in the add-on treatment of adults with partial epilepsy. The clinical guideline for epilepsy 2010 will contribute to improvement in the management of epilepsy in Japan.

  17. IMPLEmenting a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain evidence-based manageMENT in general practice (IMPLEMENT): Cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Joanne E; French, Simon D; O'Connor, Denise A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Mortimer, Duncan; Michie, Susan; Francis, Jill; Spike, Neil; Schattner, Peter; Kent, Peter M; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Green, Sally E

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence generated from reliable research is not frequently implemented into clinical practice. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are a potential vehicle to achieve this. A recent systematic review of implementation strategies of guideline dissemination concluded that there was a lack of evidence regarding effective strategies to promote the uptake of guidelines. Recommendations from this review, and other studies, have suggested the use of interventions that are theoretically based because these may be more effective than those that are not. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the management of acute low back pain was recently developed in Australia. This provides an opportunity to develop and test a theory-based implementation intervention for a condition which is common, has a high burden, and for which there is an evidence-practice gap in the primary care setting. Aim This study aims to test the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention for implementing a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain in general practice in Victoria, Australia. Specifically, our primary objectives are to establish if the intervention is effective in reducing the percentage of patients who are referred for a plain x-ray, and improving mean level of disability for patients three months post-consultation. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the details of a cluster randomised controlled trial. Ninety-two general practices (clusters), which include at least one consenting general practitioner, will be randomised to an intervention or control arm using restricted randomisation. Patients aged 18 years or older who visit a participating practitioner for acute non-specific low back pain of less than three months duration will be eligible for inclusion. An average of twenty-five patients per general practice will be recruited, providing a total of 2,300 patient participants. General practitioners in the control arm will receive access

  18. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines for cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype and codeine therapy: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Crews, K R; Gaedigk, A; Dunnenberger, H M; Leeder, J S; Klein, T E; Caudle, K E; Haidar, C E; Shen, D D; Callaghan, J T; Sadhasivam, S; Prows, C A; Kharasch, E D; Skaar, T C

    2014-04-01

    Codeine is bioactivated to morphine, a strong opioid agonist, by the hepatic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6); hence, the efficacy and safety of codeine are governed by CYP2D6 activity. Polymorphisms are a major cause of CYP2D6 variability. We summarize evidence from the literature supporting this association and provide therapeutic recommendations for codeine based on CYP2D6 genotype. This document is an update to the 2012 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for CYP2D6 genotype and codeine therapy.

  19. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for Cytochrome P450 2D6 Genotype and Codeine Therapy: 2014 Update

    PubMed Central

    Crews, K R; Gaedigk, A; Dunnenberger, H M; Leeder, J S; Klein, T E; Caudle, K E; Haidar, C E; Shen, D D; Callaghan, J T; Sadhasivam, S; Prows, C A; Kharasch, E D; Skaar, T C

    2014-01-01

    Codeine is bioactivated to morphine, a strong opioid agonist, by the hepatic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6); hence, the efficacy and safety of codeine are governed by CYP2D6 activity. Polymorphisms are a major cause of CYP2D6 variability. We summarize evidence from the literature supporting this association and provide therapeutic recommendations for codeine based on CYP2D6 genotype. This document is an update to the 2012 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for CYP2D6 genotype and codeine therapy. PMID:24458010

  20. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  1. Can An Academic Health Care System Overcome Barriers to Clinical Guideline Implementation?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Cardiology/ American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) practice guidelines state that the utilization of beta- blockers in patients with known coronary disease or...surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines [American College of Cardiology

  2. The fracture and osteoporosis outpatient clinic: an effective strategy for improving implementation of an osteoporosis guideline.

    PubMed

    van Helden, Svenhjalmar; Cauberg, Evelyne; Geusens, Piet; Winkes, Bjorn; van der Weijden, Trudy; Brink, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Clinical screening for osteoporosis in women aged over 50 years following a fracture is advocated by all guidelines on osteoporosis, but such attitude is widely reported to be inadequate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a strategy comparing referral for a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan as part of the osteoporosis guideline by a dedicated osteoporosis nurse with referral in hospitals without the presence of an osteoporosis nurse. We retrospectively compared one reference hospital with five surrounding hospitals in the Netherlands. During a 2-week period, all female patients aged over 50 years who presented with a fracture at the emergency department of the six hospitals were included. Follow-up was minimal 11 weeks. The primary outcome was the referral for DXA measurement. In total, 135 patients were included, of whom 33 were seen in the reference hospital and 102 in the surrounding hospitals. In both groups, mean age and fracture location were similar. In the reference hospital, 14 patients qualified for DXA measurement, of whom 10 patients effectively underwent a DXA scan (71%). In the surrounding hospitals, 78 patients qualified for DXA measurement, of whom only three effectively underwent a DXA scan (4%). Taking into account a refusal percentage for DXA of 33% as was found in the reference centre, 47 patients in the surrounding hospitals should have been qualified for DXA measurement. Thus, successful referral in the surrounding hospitals was three out of 47 (6%) patients. The presence of an osteoporosis nurse did have a significant influence on the amount of DXA scans after fractures [RR 11 (95% CI: 3.6-35.1)]. This study indicates that referral for DXA is low in surrounding hospitals, and suggests that the presence of an osteoporosis nurse in the reference hospital significantly increased the number of patients receiving adequate osteoporosis screening with DXA measurement after a recent fracture. With this strategy patients

  3. The tools of an evidence-based culture: implementing clinical-practice guidelines in an Israeli HMO.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Natan R; Kahan, Ernesto; Waitman, Dan-Andrei; Kitai, Eliezer; Chintz, David P

    2009-09-01

    Although clinical-practice guidelines (CPGs) are implemented on the assumption that they will improve the quality, efficiency, and consistency of health care, they generally have limited effect in changing physicians' behavior. The purpose of this study was to design and implement an effective program for formulating, promulgating, and implementing CPGs to foster the development of an evidence-based culture in an Israeli HMO. The authors implemented a four-stage program of stepwise collaborative efforts with academic institutions composed of developing quantitative tools to evaluate prescribing patterns, updating CPGs, collecting MDs' input via focus groups and quantitative surveys, and conducting a randomized controlled trial of a two-stage, multipronged intervention. The test case for this study was the development, dissemination, and implementation of CPG for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in adult women. Interventions in the form of a lecture at a conference and a letter with personalized feedback were implemented, both individually and combined, to improve physicians' rates of prescribing the first-line drug, nitrofurantoin, and, in the absence of nitrofurantoin, adhering to the recommended duration of three days of treatment with ofloxacin. The tools and data-generating capabilities designed and constructed in Stage I of the project were integral components of all subsequent stages of the program. Personalized feedback alone was sufficient to improve the rate of adherence to the guidelines by 19.4% (95% CI = 16.7, 22.1). This study provides a template for introducing the component of experimentation essential for cultivating an evidence-based culture. This process, composed of collaborative efforts between academic institutions and a managed care organization, may be beneficial to other health care systems.

  4. Guideline implementation: Surgical attire.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-02-01

    Surgical attire helps protect patients from microorganisms that may be shed from the hair and skin of perioperative personnel. The updated AORN "Guideline for surgical attire" provides guidance on scrub attire, shoes, head coverings, and masks worn in the semirestricted and restricted areas of the perioperative setting, as well as how to handle personal items (eg, jewelry, backpacks, cell phones) that may be taken into the perioperative suite. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel adhere to facility policies and regulatory requirements for attire. The key points address the potential benefits of wearing scrub attire made of antimicrobial fabric, covering the arms when in the restricted area of the surgical suite, removing or confining jewelry when wearing scrub attire, disinfecting personal items that will be taken into the perioperative suite, and sending reusable attire to a health care-accredited laundry facility after use. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2015 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impact of Social Media on Dissemination and Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Longitudinal Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswami, Pushpa; Gronseth, Gary; Dubinsky, Richard; Penfold-Murray, Rebecca; Cox, Julie; Bever, Christopher; Martins, Yolanda; Rheaume, Carol; Shouse, Denise; Getchius, Thomas S D

    2015-08-13

    Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are statements that provide recommendations to optimize patient care for a specific clinical problem or question. Merely reading a guideline rarely leads to implementation of recommendations. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has a formal process of guideline development and dissemination. The last few years have seen a burgeoning of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, and newer methods of dissemination such as podcasts and webinars. The role of these media in guideline dissemination has not been studied. Systematic evaluation of dissemination methods and comparison of the effectiveness of newer methods with traditional methods is not available. It is also not known whether specific dissemination methods may be more effectively targeted to specific audiences. Our aim was to (1) develop an innovative dissemination strategy by adding social media-based dissemination methods to traditional methods for the AAN clinical practice guidelines "Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis" ("CAM in MS") and (2) evaluate whether the addition of social media outreach improves awareness of the CPG and knowledge of CPG recommendations, and affects implementation of those recommendations. Outcomes were measured by four surveys in each of the two target populations: patients and physicians/clinicians ("physicians"). The primary outcome was the difference in participants' intent to discuss use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with their physicians or patients, respectively, after novel dissemination, as compared with that after traditional dissemination. Secondary outcomes were changes in awareness of the CPG, knowledge of CPG content, and behavior regarding CAM use in multiple sclerosis (MS). Response rates were 25.08% (622/2480) for physicians and 43.5% (348/800) for patients. Awareness of the CPG increased after traditional dissemination (absolute difference, 95% confidence

  6. Healthcare Professionals’ and Policy Makers’ Views on Implementing a Clinical Practice Guideline of Hypertension Management: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ping Yein; Liew, Su May; Abdullah, Adina; Abdullah, Nurdiana; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Chia, Yook Chin; Lai, Pauline S. M.; Wong, Stalia S. L.; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Most studies have reported barriers to guideline usage mainly from doctors’ perspective; few have reported the perspective of other stakeholders. This study aimed to determine the views and barriers to adherence of a national clinical practice guideline (CPG) on management of hypertension from the perspectives of policymakers, doctors and allied healthcare professionals. Methods This study used a qualitative approach with purposive sampling. Seven in depth interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted with 35 healthcare professionals (policy makers, doctors, pharmacists and nurses) at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February and June 2013. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. Thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Results Two main themes and three sub-themes emerged from this study. The main themes were (1) variation in the use of CPG and (2) barriers to adherence to CPG. The three sub-themes for barriers were issues inherent to the CPG, systems and policy that is not supportive of CPG use, and attitudes and behaviour of stakeholders. The main users of the CPG were the primary care doctors. Pharmacists only partially use the guidelines, while nurses and policy makers were not using the CPG at all. Participants had suggested few strategies to improve usage and adherence to CPG. First, update the CPG regularly and keep its content simple with specific sections for allied health workers. Second, use technology to facilitate CPG accessibility and provide protected time for implementation of CPG recommendations. Third, incorporate local CPG in professional training, link CPG adherence to key performance indicators and provide incentives for its use. Conclusions Barriers to the use of CPG hypertension management span across all stakeholders. The development and implementation of CPG focused mainly on doctors with lack of involvement of other healthcare stakeholders. Guidelines

  7. Healthcare professionals' and policy makers' views on implementing a clinical practice guideline of hypertension management: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping Yein; Liew, Su May; Abdullah, Adina; Abdullah, Nurdiana; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Chia, Yook Chin; Lai, Pauline S M; Wong, Stalia S L; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2015-01-01

    Most studies have reported barriers to guideline usage mainly from doctors' perspective; few have reported the perspective of other stakeholders. This study aimed to determine the views and barriers to adherence of a national clinical practice guideline (CPG) on management of hypertension from the perspectives of policymakers, doctors and allied healthcare professionals. This study used a qualitative approach with purposive sampling. Seven in depth interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted with 35 healthcare professionals (policy makers, doctors, pharmacists and nurses) at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February and June 2013. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. Thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Two main themes and three sub-themes emerged from this study. The main themes were (1) variation in the use of CPG and (2) barriers to adherence to CPG. The three sub-themes for barriers were issues inherent to the CPG, systems and policy that is not supportive of CPG use, and attitudes and behaviour of stakeholders. The main users of the CPG were the primary care doctors. Pharmacists only partially use the guidelines, while nurses and policy makers were not using the CPG at all. Participants had suggested few strategies to improve usage and adherence to CPG. First, update the CPG regularly and keep its content simple with specific sections for allied health workers. Second, use technology to facilitate CPG accessibility and provide protected time for implementation of CPG recommendations. Third, incorporate local CPG in professional training, link CPG adherence to key performance indicators and provide incentives for its use. Barriers to the use of CPG hypertension management span across all stakeholders. The development and implementation of CPG focused mainly on doctors with lack of involvement of other healthcare stakeholders. Guidelines should be made simple, current, reliable

  8. Translating knowledge into best practice care bundles: a pragmatic strategy for EBP implementation via moving postprocedural pain management nursing guidelines into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Hannele

    2015-07-01

    To describe quantitative and qualitative best evidence as sources for practical interventions usable in daily care delivery in order to integrate best evidence into clinical decision-making at local practice settings. To illustrate the development, implementation and evaluation of a pain management nursing care bundle based on a clinical practice guideline via a real-world clinical exemplar. Successful implementation of evidence-based practice requires consistent integration of best evidence into daily clinical decision-making. Best evidence comprises high-quality knowledge summarised in systematic reviews and translated into guidelines. However, consistent integration of guidelines into care delivery remains challenging, partly due to guidelines not being in a usable form for daily practice or relevant for the local context. A position paper with a clinical exemplar of a nurse-led, evidence-based quality improvement project to design, implement and evaluate a pain management care bundle translated from a national nursing guideline. A pragmatic approach to integrating guidelines into daily practice is presented. Best evidence from a national nursing guideline was translated into a pain management care bundle and integrated into daily practice in 15 medical-surgical (med-surg) units of nine hospitals of a large university hospital system in Finland. Translation of best evidence from guidelines into usable form as care bundles adapted to the local setting may increase implementation and uptake of guidelines and improve quality and consistency of care delivery. A pragmatic approach to translating a nursing guideline into a pain management care bundle to incorporate best evidence into daily practice may help achieve more consistent and equitable integration of guidelines into care delivery, and better quality of pain management and patient outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Strategies to implement community guidelines on nutrition and their long-term clinical effects in nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Törmä, J; Winblad, U; Saletti, A; Cederholm, T

    2015-01-01

    Studies on implementation techniques that focus on nutrition in the setting of elderly care are scarce. The aims of this study were to compare two implementation strategies i.e., external facilitation (EF) and educational outreach visits (EOVs), in order to introduce nutritional guidelines (e.g. screening, food quality and mealtime ambience), into a nursing home (NH) setting and to evaluate the clinical outcomes. A controlled study with baseline and follow-up measurements. Four NHs. A total of 101 NH residents. The EF was a one-year, multifaceted intervention that included support, guidance, practice audits, and feedback that were provided to two NHs. The EOVs performed at the other NHs consisted of one session of three hours of lectures about the guidelines. Both interventions targeted a team of the unit manager, the head nurse, and 5-10 of the care staff. The outcomes were nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form, MNA-SF), body mass index (BMI), functional ability (Barthel Index, BI), cognitive function (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, SPMSQ, performed in a subgroup of communicative NH residents), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), and the levels of certain biochemical markers like for example vitamin D, albumin and insulin-like growth factor 1. After a median of 18 months, nutritional parameters (MNA-SF and BMI) remained unchanged in both groups. While there were no differences in most outcomes between the two groups, the cognitive ability of those in the EOV group deteriorated more than in individuals in the EF group (p=0.008). Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that the intervention group assignment (EF) was independently from other potentially related factors associated with less cognitive decline. An extended model of implementation of nutritional guidelines, including guidance and feedback to NH staff, did not affect nutritional status but may be associated with a delayed cognitive decline in communicative NH

  10. Benchmarking progress in the implementation of the Fourth Joint Societies' Task Force Guidelines on the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Karen; Burke, Helen; McGee, Hannah

    2013-02-01

    The Fourth Joint Societies' Task Force (4th JTF) Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice are agreed, evidence-based standards of care across European countries and professions. In advance of the publication of the 5th JTF Guidelines in 2012, this work assesses the extent to which the 4th JTF guidelines have been implemented. Qualitative study of guideline implementation in 13 European countries, focusing on the themes of guideline implementation structures, processes, and outcomes. Key personnel in 13 selected countries completed interviews or comparable questionnaires: they were national coordinators for CVD prevention (n = 14) and representatives of the national cardiac society (n = 9), heart foundations (n = 11), health ministry (n = 8), and service providers (n = 3). Interview and service-related data from each country were compiled to provide a detailed overview. Ten of the 13 countries used European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines on prevention at a national level, where three broad approaches to implementation were identified. In all 10 countries, multidisciplinary alliances oversaw implementation, but ongoing promotion of the guidelines was not evident, with just two of the 10 countries conducting evaluation of implementation. Barriers to implementation included weak health authority support, the unwieldy nature of the guidelines, guideline fatigue, and the lesser role of prevention in national healthcare systems. Substantial progress had been made in implementing the guidelines, but countries struggled with the task. Some rebalancing of the ESC focus may be warranted so that part of the effort dedicated to improving guidelines might be redirected at translating them into practice.

  11. Effectiveness of clinical practice guideline implementation on lower third molar management in improving clinical decision-making: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, Wil J M; Mettes, Dirk G; Plasschaert, Alphons J M; Grol, Richard P T M; Mulder, Jan; Verdonschot, Emiel H

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was twofold, namely to evaluate the effectiveness of a dental clinical practice guideline on the management of asymptomatic impacted lower third molars (i) on referral rates and (ii) on dentists' change in knowledge. A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial, with pre- and post-test assessments, was conducted. A guideline was implemented by multifaceted interventions (i.e. feedback, reminders, and an interactive meeting). The effect was evaluated after 1 yr by repeating the baseline questionnaire and by monitoring the number of patients who were referred for removal of their asymptomatic impacted mandibular third molars. Instruments were questionnaires for detecting changes in knowledge, patient records, and panoramic radiographs. The knowledge of dentists regarding asymptomatic mandibular third molar management was found to increase significantly in the intervention group as compared to the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in guideline-consistent patient referral rates at the post-test assessment. It was concluded that the methodology employed for dissemination and implementation of a clinical practice guideline on asymptomatic mandibular third molar management improves dentists' knowledge on this topic and is effective in improving decision-making in simulated cases; however, no clinical effect was demonstrated.

  12. Identifying the barriers and enablers in the implementation of the New Zealand and Australian Antenatal Corticosteroid Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mc Goldrick, E L; Crawford, T; Brown, J A; Groom, K M; Crowther, C A

    2016-10-28

    The ineffective implementation of evidence based practice guidelines can mean that the best health outcomes are not achieved. This study examined the barriers and enablers to the uptake and implementation of the new bi-national (Australia and New Zealand) antenatal corticosteroid clinical practice guidelines among health professionals, using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Semi-structured interviews or online questionnaires were conducted across four health professional groups and three district health boards in Auckland, New Zealand. The questions were constructed to reflect the 14 behavioural domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework. Relevant domains were identified by the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour using thematic analysis. The influence of health professional group and organisation on the different barriers and enablers identified were explored. Seventy-three health professionals completed either a semi-structured interview (n = 35) or on-line questionnaire (n = 38). Seven behavioural domains were identified as overarching enablers: belief about consequences; knowledge; social influences; environmental context and resource; belief about capabilities; social professional role and identity; and behavioural regulation. Five behavioural domains were identified as overarching barriers: environmental context and resources; knowledge; social influences; belief about consequences; and social professional role and identity. Differences in beliefs between individual health professional groups were identified within the domains: belief about consequences; social professional role and identity; and emotion. Organisational differences were identified within the domains: belief about consequences; social influences; and belief about capabilities. This study has identified some of the enablers and barriers to implementation of the New Zealand and

  13. Bridging the Guideline Implementation Gap: A Systematic, Document-Centered Approach to Guideline Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Richard N.; Michel, George; Essaihi, Abdelwaheb; Thornquist, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: A gap exists between the information contained in published clinical practice guidelines and the knowledge and information that are necessary to implement them. This work describes a process to systematize and make explicit the translation of document-based knowledge into workflow-integrated clinical decision support systems. Design: This approach uses the Guideline Elements Model (GEM) to represent the guideline knowledge. Implementation requires a number of steps to translate the knowledge contained in guideline text into a computable format and to integrate the information into clinical workflow. The steps include: (1) selection of a guideline and specific recommendations for implementation, (2) markup of the guideline text, (3) atomization, (4) deabstraction and (5) disambiguation of recommendation concepts, (6) verification of rule set completeness, (7) addition of explanations, (8) building executable statements, (9) specification of origins of decision variables and insertions of recommended actions, (10) definition of action types and selection of associated beneficial services, (11) choice of interface components, and (12) creation of requirement specification. Results: The authors illustrate these component processes using examples drawn from recent experience translating recommendations from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's guideline on management of chronic asthma into a workflow-integrated decision support system that operates within the Logician electronic health record system. Conclusion: Using the guideline document as a knowledge source promotes authentic translation of domain knowledge and reduces the overall complexity of the implementation task. From this framework, we believe that a better understanding of activities involved in guideline implementation will emerge. PMID:15187061

  14. Effectiveness of a clinical practice guideline implementation strategy for patients with anxiety disorders in primary care: cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anxiety is a common mental health problem seen in primary care. However, its management in clinical practice varies greatly. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have the potential to reduce variations and improve the care received by patients by promoting interventions of proven benefit. However, uptake and adherence to their recommendations can be low. Method/design This study involves a community based on cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in the Madrid Region (Spain). The project aims to determine whether the use of implementation strategy (including training session, information, opinion leader, reminders, audit, and feed-back) of CPG for patients with anxiety disorders in primary care is more effective than usual diffusion. The number of patients required is 296 (148 in each arm), all older than 18 years and diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and panic attacks by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). They are chosen by consecutive sampling. The main outcome variable is the change in two or more points into Goldberg anxiety scale at six and twelve months. Secondary outcome variables include quality of life (EuroQol 5D), and degree of compliance with the CPG recommendations on treatment, information, and referrals to mental health services. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the patients percentage improvement on the Goldberg scale between the intervention group and the control group. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. Discussion There is a need to identify effective implementation strategies for CPG for the management of anxiety disorders present in primary care. Ensuring the appropriate uptake of guideline recommendations can reduce clinical variation and improve the care patients receive. Trial

  15. Clinical Practice Guideline Adherence Before and After Implementation of the HEARTFELT (HEART Failure Effectiveness & Leadership Team) Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Dykes, Patricia C.; Acevedo, Kim; Boldrighini, Jodie; Boucher, Carole; Frumento, Katherine; Gray, Peggy; Hall, Danielle; Smith, Lisa; Swallow, Anne; Yarkoni, Alon; Bakken, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    HEART Failure Effectiveness & Leadership Team (HEARTFELT) is a multifaceted intervention designed to improve adherence with the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association practice guidelines for heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study was to assess differences in clinician adherence with clinical practice guidelines before and after implementation of HEARTFELT. A quasi-experimental, untreated control group design with separate pretest/posttest samples was employed at a community hospital in Connecticut. The untreated historical control group included patients aged 65 years or older with HF and a nonequivalent comparison group of patients with stroke. The posttest samples included patients with the diagnosis of HF and stroke admitted after implementation of the HEARTFELT intervention. The HEARTFELT intervention included automated pathway in electronic medical record (order sets, interdisciplinary plan of care, self-management plan), access to evidence for clinicians and patients, HF self-management education tools, and ongoing discipline-specific feedback regarding adherence. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric methods. The HEARTFELT intervention significantly improved clinician adherence with addressing all self-management categories in the electronic medical record (P = .000) and adherence with self-management education given to the patient in writing at discharge (P = .000). There were no significant differences in adherence with medical interventions (P = .39). While guideline adherence is associated with less practice variation and improved processes, methods of integration into practice in community hospital settings have been largely unexplored. The multifaceted HEARTFELT intervention is promising for its potential to integrate evidence at the point of care, to reduce unwarranted variation in practice, and ultimately to improve the outcomes of individuals with HF. PMID:16141775

  16. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for rasburicase therapy in the context of G6PD deficiency genotype.

    PubMed

    Relling, M V; McDonagh, E M; Chang, T; Caudle, K E; McLeod, H L; Haidar, C E; Klein, T; Luzzatto, L

    2014-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with development of acute hemolytic anemia (AHA) induced by a number of drugs. We provide guidance as to which G6PD genotypes are associated with G6PD deficiency in males and females. Rasburicase is contraindicated in G6PD-deficient patients due to the risk of AHA and possibly methemoglobinemia. Unless preemptive genotyping has established a positive diagnosis of G6PD deficiency, quantitative enzyme assay remains the mainstay of screening prior to rasburicase use. The purpose of this article is to help interpret the results of clinical G6PD genotype tests so that they can guide the use of rasburicase. Detailed guidelines on other aspects of the use of rasburicase, including analyses of cost-effectiveness, are beyond the scope of this document. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines are published and updated periodically on https://www.pharmgkb.org/page/cpic to reflect new developments in the field.

  17. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  2. GOSIP implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Van Norman, H.J.

    1996-07-01

    GOSIP (Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile) is a subset of ISO`s OSI protocol standards relevant to US Government operations. As a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS), GOSIP is required by law for all Federal agencies. Mandatory standards-based communications products are required when purchasing functionality equivalent to what is specified in GOSIP. This unprecedented requirement by the Federal government has caused considerable confusion concerning practical implementation of relatively immature and untested technologies. Many organizations already have substantial investment in one or more proprietary network architectures. This paper examines issues associated with conversion to the GOSIP system.

  3. Cost implications of implementing NICE guideline on chest pain in rapid access chest pain clinics: an audit and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anjan; Qasim, Asif; Woollcombe, Kate; Mechery, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Implementing the recently published National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) clinical guideline on chest pain (CG95) in rapid access chest pain clinics (RACPCs) could significantly impact on overall cost, while introducing new technology like cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning. With the National Health Service (NHS) under pressure to make £20 billion savings, applying CG95 in RACPCs could be challenging. An audit enabled us to assess the cost implications. A retrospective audit was performed of 204 consecutive cases attending Croydon RACPC from 13 July to 21 September 2010, on risk factors, demographics and planned first-line investigations. CG95 and three alternative strategies were mapped on the sample, and the estimated cost and volume of first-line investigations were compared with actual RACPC activities and costs. Application of CG95 resulted in significant increases in cost and volume of functional testing, cardiac CT scan angiography and invasive coronary angiography, with 42-43% overall cost increases. The application of three alternative strategies resulted in annual cost increases ranging from 0.1 to 33%. An alternative cost analysis showed annual savings of up to 24%. Implementing NICE CG95 can significantly increase the cost of RACPCs but alternative strategies could enable the introduction of new technology without significant cost increases and even significant savings.

  4. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Genotypes and Warfarin Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JA; Gong, L; Whirl-Carrillo, M; Gage, BF; Scott, SA; Stein, CM; Anderson, JL; Kimmel, SE; Lee, MTM; Pirmohamed, M; Wadelius, M; Klein, TE; Altman, RB

    2011-01-01

    Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index and large interpatient variability in the dose required to achieve target anticoagulation. Common genetic variants in the cytochrome P450-2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K–epoxide reductase complex (VKORC1) enzymes, in addition to known nongenetic factors, account for ~50% of warfarin dose variability. The purpose of this article is to assist in the interpretation and use of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 geno-type data for estimating therapeutic warfarin dose to achieve an INR of 2–3, should genotype results be available to the clinician. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) of the National Institutes of Health Pharmacogenomics Research Network develops peer-reviewed gene–drug guidelines that are published and updated periodically on http://www.pharmgkb.org based on new developments in the field.1 PMID:21900891

  5. Rural collaborative guideline implementation: Evaluation of a hub and spoke multidisciplinary team model of care for orthogeriatric inpatients - A before and after study of adherence to clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Drabsch, Tracey

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether adherence to orthogeriatric inpatient clinical practice guidelines increased after the implementation of an innovative hub and spoke multidisciplinary team, the Sub-Acute Care Team (SCT). This study used a before and after design and describes a medical record audit. Rural inpatient facilities with 20-50 inpatient beds. Inpatients aged 65 years and older who sustained a lower limb fracture from a fall were admitted to a regional facility and subsequent rural facility. The audit included 42 inpatients admitted before the SCT (April 2009-April 2010) and 35 inpatients admitted after the SCT (April 2011-April 2012). The SCT used interprofessional collaborative practice and orthogeriatric clinical practice guidelines to inform inpatient care. Adherence was measured by answering 10 questions representative of the guidelines. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used for each question to identify if the proportion of inpatients receiving guideline-based care changed significantly after SCT implementation. After SCT implementation, an increase in the adherence to guidelines was statistically significant (P < 0.05) for handover, nutrition support, falls prevention, bladder management and more than five guideline-based care questions. Adherence to orthogeriatric inpatient clinical practice guidelines increased after the implementation of the SCT. The mechanisms likely to have contributed include the comprehensive multidisciplinary handover and the opportunity for rural inpatient clinical follow-up. This model is likely to be effective in improving care for other frail rural inpatient populations. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  6. Towards automated generation and execution of clinical guidelines: engine design and implementation through the ICU Modified Schofield use case.

    PubMed

    De Backere, F; Moens, H; Steurbaut, K; Colpaert, K; Decruyenaere, J; De Turck, F

    2012-08-01

    As the complexity and amount of medical information keeps increasing, it is difficult to maintain the same quality of care. Therefore, clinical guidelines are used to structure best practices and care, but they also support physicians and nurses in the diagnostic and treatment process. Currently, no standardized format exists to represent these guidelines. Translating guidelines into a computer interpretable format can overcome problems in the physicians' workflow and improve clinician's uptake. An engine is proposed to automatically translate and execute clinical guidelines. These guidelines are represented as flowcharts, expressed in either (i) a computer interpretable guideline format or (ii) a UML diagram. A detailed overview of the architecture is presented and algorithms, aiming at grouping several components and distributing the guidelines, are proposed to optimize the execution of the guidelines. The Modified Schofield guideline for the calculation of the calorie need for burn patients was used for evaluation. Results show that the execution of guidelines using the engine is very efficient. Using optimization algorithms the execution times can be lowered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Implementation of a new clinical practice guideline regarding pain management during childhood vaccine injections

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Samson; Pielak, Karen; McIntyre, Cheryl; Deeter, Brittany; Taddio, Anna

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of a multifaceted knowledge translation strategy for a new vaccination pain management guideline on public health immunizers’ attitudes, beliefs and use of pain-relieving strategies during childhood vaccination. METHOD: Using a randomized controlled pre-post study design, public health nurses (PHNs) at intervention sites received a multifaceted knowledge translation intervention about new pain management guidelines incorporated in the British Columbia Immunization Program Manual, including education, supplies and online support. Attitudes and beliefs of PHNs toward immunization pain and pain management, and use of pain-relieving strategies were compared for the intervention sites between the pre- and postimplementation phases. RESULTS: A total of 516 children were immunized by 31 PHNs pre- and postimplementation in the intervention sites. Postimplementation, satisfaction and confidence with ability to manage pain and willingness to use newly recommended strategies were significantly more positive (P<0.05) in the intervention sites, and overall use of at least one newly recommended strategy increased from 49.8% preintervention to 77.6% postimplementation (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The knowledge translation intervention improved PHN immunizers’ attitudes, beliefs and practices regarding paediatric vaccination pain management. Reducing pain may result in a better immunization experience for children, caregivers and immunizers. PMID:24421712

  8. User involvement in the implementation of clinical guidelines for common mental health disorders: a review and compilation of strategies and resources.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eliana M; Moriana, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-09

    There is now broad consensus regarding the importance of involving users in the process of implementing guidelines. Few studies, however, have addressed this issue, let alone the implementation of guidelines for common mental health disorders. The aim of this study is to compile and describe implementation strategies and resources related to common clinical mental health disorders targeted at service users. The literature was reviewed and resources for the implementation of clinical guidelines were compiled using the PRISMA model. A mixed qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed based on a series of categories developed ad hoc. A total of 263 items were included in the preliminary analysis and 64 implementation resources aimed at users were analysed in depth. A wide variety of types, sources and formats were identified, including guides (40%), websites (29%), videos and leaflets, as well as instruments for the implementation of strategies regarding information and education (64%), self-care, or users' assessment of service quality. The results reveal the need to establish clear criteria for assessing the quality of implementation materials in general and standardising systems to classify user-targeted strategies. The compilation and description of key elements of strategies and resources for users can be of interest in designing materials and specific actions for this target audience, as well as improving the implementation of clinical guidelines.

  9. Dissemination Strategies to Improve Implementation of the PHS Smoking Cessation Guideline in MCH Public Health Clinics: Experimental Evaluation Results and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Warnecke, Richard; Saunders, Stephen; Sullivan, Myrtis

    2011-01-01

    We report results from an experimental study that tested the effectiveness of dissemination interventions to improve implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in maternal and child public health clinics. We additionally examine individual clinic results for contextual explanations not apparent from the experimental findings alone. Twelve…

  10. The Impact of Social Media on Dissemination and Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gronseth, Gary; Dubinsky, Richard; Penfold-Murray, Rebecca; Cox, Julie; Bever Jr, Christopher; Martins, Yolanda; Rheaume, Carol; Shouse, Denise; Getchius, Thomas SD

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are statements that provide recommendations to optimize patient care for a specific clinical problem or question. Merely reading a guideline rarely leads to implementation of recommendations. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has a formal process of guideline development and dissemination. The last few years have seen a burgeoning of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, and newer methods of dissemination such as podcasts and webinars. The role of these media in guideline dissemination has not been studied. Systematic evaluation of dissemination methods and comparison of the effectiveness of newer methods with traditional methods is not available. It is also not known whether specific dissemination methods may be more effectively targeted to specific audiences. Objective Our aim was to (1) develop an innovative dissemination strategy by adding social media-based dissemination methods to traditional methods for the AAN clinical practice guidelines “Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis” (“CAM in MS”) and (2) evaluate whether the addition of social media outreach improves awareness of the CPG and knowledge of CPG recommendations, and affects implementation of those recommendations. Methods Outcomes were measured by four surveys in each of the two target populations: patients and physicians/clinicians (“physicians”). The primary outcome was the difference in participants’ intent to discuss use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with their physicians or patients, respectively, after novel dissemination, as compared with that after traditional dissemination. Secondary outcomes were changes in awareness of the CPG, knowledge of CPG content, and behavior regarding CAM use in multiple sclerosis (MS). Results Response rates were 25.08% (622/2480) for physicians and 43.5% (348/800) for patients. Awareness of the CPG increased after traditional

  11. Clinical practice guideline dissemination and a new approach using Haddon matrix as a conceptual framework of evidence-based implementation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To err is human. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are often not followed and lead to adverse outcomes. The issue on implementation of CPG is complex. A review of CPG implementation is done to identify the barriers and enablers. For the first time, a fishbone diagram is used to delineate the root-causes. And Haddon matrix is applied to help understand the complexity of evidence-based implementation (EBI) strategies. PMID:25214934

  12. Integrating guideline development and implementation: analysis of guideline development manual instructions for generating implementation advice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Guidelines are important tools that inform healthcare delivery based on best available research evidence. Guideline use is in part based on quality of the guidelines, which includes advice for implementation and has been shown to vary. Others hypothesized this is due to limited instructions in guideline development manuals. The purpose of this study was to examine manual instructions for implementation advice. Methods We used a directed and summative content analysis approach based on an established framework of guideline implementability. Six manuals identified by another research group were examined to enumerate implementability domains and elements. Results Manuals were similar in content but lacked sufficient detail in particular domains. Most frequently this was Accomodation, which includes information that would help guideline users anticipate and/or overcome organizational and system level barriers. In more than one manual, information was also lacking for Communicability, information that would educate patients or facilitate their involvement in shared decision making, and Applicability, or clinical parameters to help clinicians tailor recommendations for individual patients. Discussion Most manuals that direct guideline development lack complete information about incorporating implementation advice. These findings can be used by those who developed the manuals to consider expanding their content in these domains. It can also be used by guideline developers as they plan the content and implementation of their guidelines so that the two are integrated. New approaches for guideline development and implementation may need to be developed. Use of guidelines might be improved if they included implementation advice, but this must be evaluated through ongoing research. PMID:22824094

  13. Canadian chiropractors’ attitudes towards chiropractic philosophy and scope of practice: implications for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Lesley; Hay, David; Mierau, Dale

    1997-01-01

    The development of effective implementation strategies for chiropractic clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) presumes knowledge about the attitudes of the Canadian chiropractic profession. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes of Canadian chiropractors to philosophy and scope of practice. We hypothesized that given most Canadian chiropractors are trained at one school, the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) in Toronto, there would be a reasonable degree of consensus about the practice of chiropractic in Canada, and therefore, effective implementation strategies could be developed. Drawing on a stratified random sample of Canadian chiropractors (n = 401), we found that 18.6% of respondents held conservative views, 22% held liberal views and 59.4% held moderate views. Conservative chiropractic philosophy rejects traditional chiropractic philosophy as espoused by D.D. and B.J. Palmer, and emphasizes the scientific validation of chiropractic concepts and methods. A conservative philosophy is associated with a narrow scope of practice in which chiropractic practice is restricted to musculoskeletal problems. A liberal chiropractic philosophy adheres to traditional chiropractic philosophy (offered either by D.D. or B.J. Palmer) and is associated with a broad scope of practice which includes the treatment of non-musculoskeletal conditions. Liberal-minded respondents are more likely to identify chiropractic as an alternate form of health care. Using ANOVA and MCA, the best predictors of the philosophy index were college of training and province of practice. Chiropractors who trained at the CMCC held more conservative views than those who were trained elsewhere. Moreover, we found significant provincial differences among the provinces on the philosophy index. Saskatchewan chiropractors held the most conservative views on the philosophy index; Quebec chiropractors held the most liberal views. We concluded that given the divergence of opinions among

  14. Impact on clinical practice of the implementation of guidelines for the toxicity management of targeted therapies in kidney cancer. The protect-2 study.

    PubMed

    Lainez, Nuria; García-Donas, Jesús; Esteban, Emilio; Puente, Javier; Sáez, M Isabel; Gallardo, Enrique; Pinto-Marín, Álvaro; Vázquez-Estévez, Sergio; León, Luis; García-Carbonero, Icíar; Suárez-Rodríguez, Cristina; Molins, Carmen; Climent-Duran, Miguel A; Lázaro-Quintela, Martín; González Del Alba, Aranzazu; Méndez-Vidal, María José; Chirivella, Isabel; Afonso, Francisco J; López-Brea, Marta; Sala-González, Nuria; Domenech, Montserrat; Basterretxea, Laura; Santander-Lobera, Carmen; Gil-Arnáiz, Irene; Fernández, Ovidio; Caballero-Díaz, Cristina; Mellado, Begoña; Marrupe, David; García-Sánchez, José; Sánchez-Escribano, Ricardo; Fernández Parra, Eva; Villa Guzmán, José C; Martínez-Ortega, Esther; Belén González, María; Morán, Marina; Suarez-Paniagua, Beatriz; Lecumberri, María J; Castellano, Daniel

    2016-02-22

    The impact of such recommendations after their implementation of guidelines has not usually been evaluated. Herein, we assessed the impact and compliance with the Spanish Oncology Genitourinary Group (SOGUG) Guidelines for toxicity management of targeted therapies in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in daily clinical practice. Data on 407 mRCC patients who initiated first-line targeted therapy during the year before and the year after publication and implementation of the SOGUG guideline program were available from 34 Spanish Hospitals. Adherence to SOGUG Guidelines was assessed in every cycle. Adverse event (AE) management was consistent with the Guidelines as a whole for 28.7% out of 966 post-implementation cycles compared with 23.1% out of 892 pre-implementation cycles (p = 0.006). Analysis of adherence by AE in non-compliant cycles showed significant changes in appropriate management of hypertension (33% pre-implementation vs. 44.5% post-implementation cycles; p < 0.0001), diarrhea (74.0% vs. 80.5%; p = 0.011) and dyslipemia (25.0% vs. 44.6%; p < 0.001). Slight but significant improvements in AE management were detected following the implementation of SOGUG recommendations. However, room for improvement in the management of AEs due to targeted agents still remains and could be the focus for further programs in this direction.

  15. Implementation of Out-of-Office Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Netherlands: From Clinical Guidelines to Patients' Adoption of Innovation.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Pricivel M; Lambooij, Mattijs S

    2015-10-01

    Out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is promoted by various clinical guidelines toward properly diagnosing and effectively managing hypertension and engaging the patient in their care process. In the Netherlands, however, the Dutch cardiovascular risk management (CVRM) guidelines do not explicitly prescribe 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) and home BP measurement (HBPM). The aim of this descriptive study was to develop an understanding of patients' and physicians' acceptance and use of out-of-office BP monitoring in the Netherlands given the CVRM recommendations.Three small focus group discussions (FGDs) with patients and 1 FGD with physicians were conducted to explore the mechanisms behind the acceptance and use of out-of-office BP monitoring and reveal real-world challenges that limit the implementation of out-of-office BP monitoring methods. To facilitate the FGDs, an analytical framework based on the technology acceptance model (TAM), the theory of planned behavior and the model of personal computing utilization was developed to guide the FGDs and analysis of the transcriptions of each FGD.ABPM was the out-of-office BP monitoring method prescribed by physicians and used by patients. HBPM was not offered to patients even with patients' feedback of poor tolerance of ABPM. Even as there was little awareness about HBPM among patients, there were a few patients who owned and used sphygmomanometers. Patients professed and seemed to exhibit self-efficacy, whereas physicians had reservations about (all of their) patients' self-efficacy in properly using ABPM. Since negative experience with ABPM impacted patients' acceptance of ABPM, the interaction of factors that determined acceptance and use was found to be dynamic among patients but not for physicians.In reference to the CVRM guidelines, physicians implemented out-of-office BP monitoring but showed a strong preference for ABPM even where there is poor tolerance of the method. We found that

  16. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation of Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines within the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL).

    PubMed

    Todd, Christopher A; Sanchez, Ana M; Garcia, Ambrosia; Denny, Thomas N; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella

    2014-07-01

    The EQAPOL contract was awarded to Duke University to develop and manage global proficiency testing programs for flow cytometry-, ELISpot-, and Luminex bead-based assays (cytokine analytes), as well as create a genetically diverse panel of HIV-1 viral cultures to be made available to National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers. As a part of this contract, EQAPOL was required to operate under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP) that are traditionally used for laboratories conducting endpoint assays for human clinical trials. EQAPOL adapted these guidelines to the management of proficiency testing programs while simultaneously incorporating aspects of ISO/IEC 17043 which are specifically designed for external proficiency management. Over the first two years of the contract, the EQAPOL Oversight Laboratories received training, developed standard operating procedures and quality management practices, implemented strict quality control procedures for equipment, reagents, and documentation, and received audits from the EQAPOL Central Quality Assurance Unit. GCLP programs, such as EQAPOL, strengthen a laboratory's ability to perform critical assays and provide quality assessments of future potential vaccines.

  18. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for UGT1A1 and Atazanavir Prescribing.

    PubMed

    Gammal, R S; Court, M H; Haidar, C E; Iwuchukwu, O F; Gaur, A H; Alvarellos, M; Guillemette, C; Lennox, J L; Whirl-Carrillo, M; Brummel, S S; Ratain, M J; Klein, T E; Schackman, B R; Caudle, K E; Haas, D W

    2016-04-01

    The antiretroviral protease inhibitor atazanavir inhibits hepatic uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, thereby preventing the glucuronidation and elimination of bilirubin. Resultant indirect hyperbilirubinemia with jaundice can cause premature discontinuation of atazanavir. Risk for bilirubin-related discontinuation is highest among individuals who carry two UGT1A1 decreased function alleles (UGT1A1*28 or *37). We summarize published literature that supports this association and provide recommendations for atazanavir prescribing when UGT1A1 genotype is known (updates at www.pharmgkb.org). © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  19. Evaluation of a tailored, multi-component intervention for implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in primary care physical therapy: a non-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines are important for transmitting research findings into practice and facilitating the application of evidence-based practice (EBP). There is a paucity of knowledge about the impact of guideline implementation strategies in primary care physical therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a guideline implementation intervention in primary care physical therapy in western Sweden. Methods An implementation strategy based on theory and current evidence was developed. A tailored, multi-component implementation intervention, addressing earlier identified determinants, was carried out in three areas comprising 28 physical therapy practices including 277 physical therapists (PTs) (intervention group). In two adjacent areas, 171 PTs at 32 practices received no intervention (control group). The core component of the intervention was an implementation seminar with group discussions. Among other components were a website and email reminders. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up with a web-based questionnaire. Primary outcomes were the self-reported awareness of, knowledge of, access to, and use of guidelines. Secondary outcomes were self-reported attitudes toward EBP and guidelines. Analyses were performed using Pearson’s χ2 test and approximative z-test. Results 168 PTs (60.6%) in the intervention group and 88 PTs (51.5%) in the control group responded to the follow-up questionnaire. 186/277 PTs (67.1%) participated in the implementation seminars, of which 97 (52.2%) responded. The proportions of PTs reporting awareness of (absolute difference in change 20.6%, p = 0.023), knowledge where to find (20.4%, p = 0.007), access to (21.7%, p < 0.001), and frequent use of (9.5%, NS) guidelines increased more in the intervention group than in the control group. The proportion of PTs reporting frequent guideline use after participation in the implementation seminar was 15.2% (p = 0.043) higher than the

  20. [Implementation of Guidelines on Conflict of Interest in Clinical Research of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology: actual status and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Mikuni, Masahiko; Kurihara, Chieko; Miyaoka, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In May 2011, the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology released their Guidelines on Conflict of Interest (COI) in Clinical Research and detailed regulations. These guidelines cover clinical research, although each committee of the society may have a policy to cover basic research as well as clinical research. The COI Committee implemented the guidelines, including a one-year trial period. According to the guidelines, members of the society have to disclose their COIs at the time of presentations, manuscript submissions, and publications; the board and committees members have to submit their COIs to the president of the society. During the trial period, the latter was limited to the four committees involved in the development of the guidelines: Conflict of Interest; Pharmaceutical Affairs; Research Ethics; and Editorial Committees. The COI Committee reviewed the COIs submitted by the board and committee members. The COI Committee found that, among the 382 board and committee members, 298 were without COI; 31 COIs were regarded by one committee member as not necessary to be circulated to all the attending members (total of these 2 categories: 329, 87%); 31 COIs (8%) were regarded as necessary to be circulated; and 18 cases (4.7%) were problematic: not submitted or explicit rejection of submission. Considering the seriousness of scientific misconduct by a researcher in another disease area who resigned his professorship and is now under investigation, we should further discuss the implementation of our COI guidelines.

  1. Barriers to implementing the "2008 Mexican Clinical Practice Guideline recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis" in primary healthcare practice.

    PubMed

    Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Richardson, Julie; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris; Sánchez, José Guadalupe; González, Martha Alicia; Sánchez-Cruz, Juan; Jiménez-Baez, María Valeria; Nolasco-Alonso, Nancy; Alvarado, Idolina; Rodríguez-Amado, Jacqueline; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Wilson, Mike G

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the implementability of the "2008 Mexican Clinical Practice Guideline for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis at the primary level of care" within primary healthcare of three Mexican regions using the Guideline Implementability Appraisal methodology version 2 (GLIA.v2). Six family physicians, representing the South, North, and Central Mexico, and one Mexican physiatrist evaluated the 45 recommendations stated by the Mexican guideline. The GLIA.v2 methodology includes the execution of qualitative and semi-quantitative techniques. Reviewers' agreement was between moderate to near complete in most cases. Sixty-nine percent of the recommendations were considered difficult to implement within clinical practice. Eight recommendations did not have an appropriate format. Only 6 recommendations were judged as able to be consistently applied to clinical practice. Barriers related to the context of one or more institutions/regions were identified in 25 recommendations. These barriers are related to health providers/patients' beliefs, processes of care within each institution, and availability of some treatments recommended by the guideline. The guideline presented problems of conciseness and clarity that negatively affect its application within the Mexican primary healthcare context. We identified individual, organizational and system characteristics, which are common to the 3 institutions/regions studied and constitute barriers for implementing the guideline to clinical practice. It is recommended that the 2008-Mexican-CPG-OA be thoroughly revised and restructured to improve the clarity of the actions implied by each recommendation. We propose some strategies to accomplish this and to overcome some of the identified regional/institutional barriers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. When rheumatologists report that they agree with a guideline, does this mean that they practise the guideline in clinical practice? Results of the International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS)

    PubMed Central

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Allaart, Cornelia F; van der Heijde, Désirée; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Smolen, Josef S; Huizinga, Tom W J; Landewé, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the treat-to-target (T2T) principles have been developed in order to improve the treatment outcome of patients with RA, and have received broad attention. It is not clear, though, whether these recommendations are indeed followed up in clinical practice. Objective To investigate if rheumatologists that report to agree with existing guidelines indeed follow them up in clinical practice. Methods The International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS) included 132 participating rheumatologists from 14 countries. Participating rheumatologists received a questionnaire measuring their awareness/commitment with the EULAR/T2T recommendations and followed a dedicated educational programme. Subsequently, they were asked to enrol 5–10 patients with new-onset RA in the online IRIS database and monitor disease activity and treatment for a period of 1–2 years. Four recommendations (3 from the EULAR recommendations and one from the T2T recommendations) were selected on the basis of testability, and analysed with regard to compliance by participating rheumatologists. Results In total, 72 of the 132 participating rheumatologists contributed 378 patients to the database. Of these participants, 70 (98%) agreed upfront with the recommendation that disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy should be started as soon as possible after diagnosis in every patient; 69 (96%) of the rheumatologists agreed with the recommendation that methotrexate (MTX) should be part of the first treatment strategy. When measuring the actual performance, it was found that the recommendation on early DMARD start was met in 253 (67%) of the recorded patients, and the recommendation on MTX in 225 (60%) of the recorded patients. Of the participants, 60 (83%) agreed that composite measures should be recorded regularly, but only in 134(54%) of the patients were

  3. When rheumatologists report that they agree with a guideline, does this mean that they practise the guideline in clinical practice? Results of the International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS).

    PubMed

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Allaart, Cornelia F; van der Heijde, Désirée; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Smolen, Josef S; Huizinga, Tom W J; Landewé, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the treat-to-target (T2T) principles have been developed in order to improve the treatment outcome of patients with RA, and have received broad attention. It is not clear, though, whether these recommendations are indeed followed up in clinical practice. To investigate if rheumatologists that report to agree with existing guidelines indeed follow them up in clinical practice. The International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS) included 132 participating rheumatologists from 14 countries. Participating rheumatologists received a questionnaire measuring their awareness/commitment with the EULAR/T2T recommendations and followed a dedicated educational programme. Subsequently, they were asked to enrol 5-10 patients with new-onset RA in the online IRIS database and monitor disease activity and treatment for a period of 1-2 years. Four recommendations (3 from the EULAR recommendations and one from the T2T recommendations) were selected on the basis of testability, and analysed with regard to compliance by participating rheumatologists. In total, 72 of the 132 participating rheumatologists contributed 378 patients to the database. Of these participants, 70 (98%) agreed upfront with the recommendation that disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy should be started as soon as possible after diagnosis in every patient; 69 (96%) of the rheumatologists agreed with the recommendation that methotrexate (MTX) should be part of the first treatment strategy. When measuring the actual performance, it was found that the recommendation on early DMARD start was met in 253 (67%) of the recorded patients, and the recommendation on MTX in 225 (60%) of the recorded patients. Of the participants, 60 (83%) agreed that composite measures should be recorded regularly, but only in 134(54%) of the patients were composite scores actually recorded in ≥50% of

  4. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  5. Design patterns for clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Mor; Tu, Samson W

    2009-09-01

    Transforming narrative guidelines into a computer-interpretable formalism is still a bottleneck in the development of decision-support systems. Our goal was to support this step by providing computer-interpretable templates for representing guideline knowledge using clinical abstractions that are appropriate for particular guideline sub-domains. We analyzed guidelines taken from the sub-domains of screening and immunization guidelines to find repeatable clinical abstractions and structured them as design templates to support encoding of these guidelines in a computer-interpretable format. To find guidelines for analysis and validation, we (1) searched the National Guideline Clearinghouse for screening guidelines in internal medicine, that have a clinical algorithm, and which were published during 2002-5 and (2) used adult and childhood immunization guidelines developed by Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. We developed two visual templates that structure screening guidelines as algorithms of guideline steps used for screening and data collection and used them to represent the guidelines collected. We validated the computability of the screening templates by executing a screening guideline in a workflow engine. We validated the computability of immunization templates by writing code that, based on represented knowledge, computes immunization due dates and by creating an algorithm that translates the knowledge into computer-interpretable guidelines. We have demonstrated that our templates could be effectively applied to screening and immunization guidelines to produce computer-interpretable representations using domain-level abstractions.

  6. Guidelines International Network: toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Forland, Frode; Macbeth, Fergus; Ollenschläger, Günter; Phillips, Sue; van der Wees, Philip

    2012-04-03

    Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have developed recommendations to define trustworthy guidelines within their locales. Many groups charged with guideline development find the lengthy list of standards developed by such organizations to be aspirational but infeasible to follow in entirety. Founded in 2002, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is a network of guideline developers that includes 93 organizations and 89 individual members representing 46 countries. The G-I-N board of trustees recognized the importance of guideline development processes that are both rigorous and feasible even for modestly funded groups to implement and initiated an effort toward consensus about minimum standards for high-quality guidelines. In contrast to other existing standards for guideline development at national or local levels, the key components proposed by G-I-N will represent the consensus of an international, multidisciplinary group of active guideline developers. This article presents G-I-N's proposed set of key components for guideline development. These key components address panel composition, decision-making process, conflicts of interest, guideline objective, development methods, evidence review, basis of recommendations, ratings of evidence and recommendations, guideline review, updating processes, and funding. It is hoped that this article promotes discussion and eventual agreement on a set of international standards for guideline development.

  7. Implementing a Fetal Health Surveillance Guideline in Clinical Practice: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of Action Learning.

    PubMed

    Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Davies, Barbara; Flowerdew, Gordon; Young, David

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an Action Learning intervention on nurses' use of a fetal health surveillance (FHS) guideline during labor of women who were low risk on admission for delivery. Using a pragmatic randomized controlled trial, nurses were randomized to Action Learning (n = 44) or Usual Care (n = 45). Low-risk women were assigned to either an Action Learning nurse (n = 122) or a Usual Care nurse (n = 148). Data on practices during an episode of care (nurses' FHS practices from admission through to delivery in low-risk women) were collected at three trial time points: 1 month prior, during 6 months, and 1 month following. Guideline adherence, women's perception of birth experience, and enablers and inhibitors to intermittent auscultation (IA) were collected. Multivariate logistic regression determined the variables (chosen by the nurses) that predicted Action Learning nurses' adherence to FHS practices. Statistically significant change was not evident between nurses' rate of FHS practices in the Action Learning group compared with Usual Care (Δ6.8%, odds ratio [OR] 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-2.83). Postpartum, women reported high satisfaction with no significant difference by study group. Two labor events, epidural and narcotic analgesia, most influenced guideline appropriate care (p = .000, OR -4.04; p = .000, OR = 2.89) within the experimental group. Despite lack of between-group significant changes in FHS practices, Action Learning nurses, who chose areas of practice that presented obstacles to their guideline adherence ability (epidurals and narcotics), significantly changed their FHS practices. Researchers need to consider whether practice is long-standing acceptance of the evidence by healthcare providers, and the provider's intentions for implementation effectiveness when choosing an implementation strategy. Supportive nurses, Doppler availability, and clear policies support adherence to an IA guideline

  8. Efficacy of clinical guideline implementation to improve the appropriateness of chest physiotherapy prescription among inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Cornuz, Jacques; Stoianov, Rebecca; Burnand, Bernard; Fitting, Jean-William; Yersin, Bertrand; Lamy, Olivier

    2008-09-01

    Although there is no strong evidence of benefit, chest physiotherapy (CP) seems to be commonly used in simple pneumonia. CP requires equipment and frequently involves the assistance of a respiratory therapist, engendering a significant medical workload and cost. To measure and compare the efficacy of two modalities of chest physiotherapy (CP) guideline implementation on the appropriateness of CP prescription among patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We measured the CP prescription rate and duration in all consecutive CAP inpatients admitted in a division of general internal medicine at an urban teaching community hospital during three consecutive one-year time periods: (1) before any guideline implementation; (2) after a passive implementation by medical grand rounds and guideline diffusion through mailing; (3) after adding a one-page reminder in the CAP patient's medical chart highlighting our recommendations. Death and recurrent hospitalisation rates within one year after hospitalisation were recorded to assess whether CP prescription reduction, if any, impaired patient outcomes. During the three successive phases, 127, 157, and 147 patients with similar characteristics were included. Among all CAP inpatients, the CP prescription rate decreased from 68% (86/127) to 51% (80/157), and to 48% (71/147), respectively (P for trend <0.01 for trend). A significant reduction in CP duration was observed after the active guideline implementation (12.0, 11.0, 7.0days, respectively) and persisted after adjustment for length of stay. Reductions in CP prescription rate and duration were also observed among CAP patients with COPD CP prescription rate: 97% (30/31), 67% (24/36), 75% (35/47), respectively (P<0.01 for trend). The mean cost of CP per patient was reduced by 56%, from $709 to $481, and to $309, respectively. Neither the in-hospital deaths, the one-year overall recurrent hospitalisation nor the one-year CAP-specific recurrent hospitalisation

  9. Contextual and temporal clinical guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Guarnero, A.; Marzuoli, M.; Molino, G.; Terenziani, P.; Torchio, M.; Vanni, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for managing clinical guidelines. We sketch a modular architecture, allowing us to separate conceptually distinct aspects in the management and use of clinical guidelines. In particular, we describe the clinical guidelines knowledge representation module and we sketch the acquisition module. The main focus of the paper is the definition of an expressive formalism for representing clinical guidelines, which allows one to deal with the context dependent character of clinical guidelines and takes into account different temporal aspects. PMID:9929306

  10. Implementation of a clinical practice guideline for identification of microalbuminuria in the pediatric patient with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathleen A; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Baluarte, H Jorge; Murphy, Kathryn M; Willi, Steven; Lipman, Terri H

    2013-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is a shift in the health care culture from basing decisions on consensus opinion, past practice, and precedent toward the use of rigorous analysis of scientific evidence using outcomes research and clinical evidence to guide clinical decision making. The development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) is critical to guide the assessment and management of children with diabetes. This article provides an overview of the infrastructure and processes that are crucial to providing evidence-based care in a large urban pediatric diabetes center. Development of a CPG to identify microalbuminuria in children with type 1 diabetes is discussed.

  11. Implementing the Exercise Guidelines for Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Schwartz, Anna L.; Matthews, Charles E.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the American College of Sports Medicine convened an expert roundtable to issue guidelines on exercise for cancer survivors. This multidisciplinary group evaluated the strength of the evidence for the safety and benefits of exercise as a therapeutic intervention for survivors. The panel concluded that exercise is safe and offers myriad benefits for survivors including improvements in physical function, strength, fatigue, quality of life (QOL), and possibly recurrence and survival. Recommendations for situations in which deviations from the US Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans are appropriate were provided. Here, we outline a process for implementing the guidelines in clinical practice, and provide recommendations for how the oncology care provider can interface with the exercise and physical therapy community. PMID:22579268

  12. Impact of the Creation and Implementation of a Clinical Management Guideline for Personality Disorders in Reducing Use of Mechanical Restraints in a Psychiatric Inpatient Unit

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Rivas, Aranzazu; Bustamante, Sonia; Rico-Vilademoros, Fernando; Vivanco, Esther; Martinez, Karmele; Angel Vecino, Miguel; Martín, Melba; Herrera, Sonia; Rodriguez, Jorge; Saenz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of the implementation of a guideline for the management of personality disorders on reducing the frequency of use of mechanical restraints in a psychiatric inpatient unit. Method: This retrospective study was conducted in a psychiatric inpatient unit with 42 beds, which serves an urban area of 330,000 inhabitants. The sample consisted of all patients with a clinical diagnosis of personality disorder (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were admitted to the unit from January 2010 to December 2010 and from January 2011 to December 2011 (ie, before and after, respectively, the implementation of the guideline). The guideline focused on cluster B disorders and follows a psychodynamic perspective. Results: Restraint use was reduced from 38 of 87 patients with personality disorders (43.7%) to 3 of 112 (2.7%), for a relative risk of 0.06 (95% CI, 0.02–0.19) and an absolute risk reduction of 41% (95% CI, 29.9%–51.6%). The risk of being discharged against medical advice increased after the intervention, with a relative risk of 1.84 (95% CI, 0.96–3.51). Restraint use in patients with other diagnoses was also reduced to a similar extent. Conclusions: The use of mechanical restraints was dramatically reduced after the implementation of a clinical practice guideline on personality disorders, suggesting that these coercive measures might be decreased in psychiatric inpatient units. PMID:25834763

  13. Dissemination strategies to improve implementation of the PHS smoking cessation guideline in MCH public health clinics: experimental evaluation results and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Warnecke, Richard; Saunders, Stephen; Sullivan, Myrtis

    2011-04-01

    We report results from an experimental study that tested the effectiveness of dissemination interventions to improve implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in maternal and child public health clinics. We additionally examine individual clinic results for contextual explanations not apparent from the experimental findings alone. Twelve clinics in Illinois were randomized to three dissemination strategies: (i) core dissemination (provision of the 2000 Public Health System Clinical Practice Guideline and a tested smoking cessation program, including program supplies and training), (ii) core dissemination and access to telephone counseling and (iii) core dissemination, telephone counseling access and outreach visits to clinics. Implementation outcomes were post-dissemination improvements over baseline in the percent of smokers reporting receipt/exposure to (i) provider advice, (ii) self-help booklet, (iii) videos, (iv) posters and (v) an adjunct intervention. Results showed significant increases in the percent of smokers receiving a booklet (overall) and an adjunct intervention (Groups 2 and 3). There were no increases in smoker-reported provider advice or videos and poster exposure. Examination of individual clinic findings showed that seven clinics accounted for all the experimental effectiveness. Smoker-reported provider advice to quit also increased in these clinics. Type of clinic and the absence of disruptive events distinguished clinics with and without effective dissemination outcomes.

  14. Developing clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Shekelle, Paul G; Woolf, Steven H; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    The methods of guideline development should ensure that treating patients according to guidelines will achieve the outcomes that are desired. This article presents a combination of the literature about guideline development and the results of our combined experience in guideline development in North America and Britain. It considers the 5 steps in the initial development of an evidence-based guideline. Imagesp348-a PMID:18751155

  15. Awareness of the 2010 guidelines implemented by the New York State Education Department for respiratory therapists in their role as clinical preceptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen G; Brittelli, John; Scott, Lisa Benz

    2014-12-01

    In 1993, the New York State (NYS) legislature and governor signed into law the Respiratory Therapy Guide to Practice Education Law to guide and regulate the profession of respiratory care under the auspices of the New York State Education Department. New guidelines were implemented by the New York State Education Department for respiratory therapists (RTs) in 2010 to provide the opportunity for RTs to receive continuing education units (CEUs) when participating as clinical preceptors. This study was conducted in June 2012 to determine the extent to which the NYS RTs are aware of the new licensing guidelines and amendments. In June 2012, a web-based survey was e-mailed to 2,503 NYS members of the New York State Society for Respiratory Care, 14% of which (n= 360) completed the survey. The survey included 21 items to assess RTs' awareness of the licensing guidelines that were implemented in 2010, and these respondents were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics. The study showed that 50% of the respondents were not aware of eligibility to earn CEUs as a clinical preceptor in NYS. Twenty-eight percent responded correctly that licensed RTs were eligible to earn CEUs as a clinical preceptor in NYS. In addition, 67% of those who responded were unaware of how many CEUs could be earned for each renewal period for clinical precepting. Finally, 70% of the respondents indicated that they would be inclined to seek employment at a facility that has a clinical affiliation with a university or college respiratory care program. The findings indicate that more education is needed in NYS to make licensed RTs aware of the 2010 guidelines. Practitioners may require incentives to become actively involved in the clinical education of respiratory care students as their clinical preceptors. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Implementing Guidelines One Patient at a Time.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Alex R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are an important component of health care delivery. Although guidelines can be viewed negatively, as "cookbook medicine," many guidelines have improved care delivery. Work is needed to refine guidelines in real-world settings and to assure that they are patient-centered.

  17. Improving treatment of depression in primary health care: a case study of obstacles to perform a clinical trial designed to implement practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Richter-Sundberg, Linda; Nyström, Monica Elisabeth; Krakau, Ingvar; Sandahl, Christer

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate factors contributing to the failure of a randomized clinical trial designed to implement and test clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of depression in primary health care (PHC). Although the occurrence of depression is increasing globally, many patients with depression do not receive optimal treatment. Clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of depression, which aim to establish evidence-based clinical practice in health care, are often underused and in need of operationalization in and adaptation to clinical praxis. This study explores a failed clinical trial designed to implement and test treatment of depression in PHC in Sweden. Qualitative case study methodology was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants from the clinical trial researcher group and 11 health care professionals at five PHC units. Additionally, archival data (ie, documents, email correspondence, reports on the clinical trial) from the years 2007-2010 were analysed. The study identified barriers to the implementation of the clinical trial in the project characteristics, the medical professionals, the patients, and the social network, as well as in the organizational, economic and political context. The project increased staff workload and created tension as the PHC culture and the research activities clashed (eg, because of the systematic use of questionnaires and changes in scheduling and planning of patient visits). Furthermore, there was a perception that the PHC units' management did not sufficiently support the project and that the project lacked basic incentives for reaching a sustainable resolution. Despite efforts by the project managers to enhance and support implementation of the innovation, they were unable to overcome these barriers. The study illustrates the complexity and barriers of performing clinical trials in the PHC.

  18. Clinical practice guideline: tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Tunkel, David E; Bauer, Carol A; Sun, Gordon H; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Cunningham, Eugene R; Archer, Sanford M; Blakley, Brian W; Carter, John M; Granieri, Evelyn C; Henry, James A; Hollingsworth, Deena; Khan, Fawad A; Mitchell, Scott; Monfared, Ashkan; Newman, Craig W; Omole, Folashade S; Phillips, C Douglas; Robinson, Shannon K; Taw, Malcolm B; Tyler, Richard S; Waguespack, Richard; Whamond, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without an external source. More than 50 million people in the United States have reported experiencing tinnitus, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 10% to 15% in adults. Despite the high prevalence of tinnitus and its potential significant effect on quality of life, there are no evidence-based, multidisciplinary clinical practice guidelines to assist clinicians with management. The focus of this guideline is on tinnitus that is both bothersome and persistent (lasting 6 months or longer), which often negatively affects the patient's quality of life. The target audience for the guideline is any clinician, including nonphysicians, involved in managing patients with tinnitus. The target patient population is limited to adults (18 years and older) with primary tinnitus that is persistent and bothersome. The purpose of this guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians managing patients with tinnitus. This guideline provides clinicians with a logical framework to improve patient care and mitigate the personal and social effects of persistent, bothersome tinnitus. It will discuss the evaluation of patients with tinnitus, including selection and timing of diagnostic testing and specialty referral to identify potential underlying treatable pathology. It will then focus on the evaluation and treatment of patients with persistent primary tinnitus, with recommendations to guide the evaluation and measurement of the effect of tinnitus and to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for tinnitus sufferers. The development group made a strong recommendation that clinicians distinguish patients with bothersome tinnitus from patients with nonbothersome tinnitus. The development group made a strong recommendation against obtaining imaging studies of the head and neck in patients with tinnitus, specifically to evaluate tinnitus that does not localize to 1 ear, is nonpulsatile

  19. The Clinical Pharmacogenomics Implementation Consortium: CPIC Guideline for SLCO1B1 and Simvastatin-Induced Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, RA; Ramsey, LB; Johnson, SG; Maxwell, WD; McLeod, HL; Voora, D; Krauss, RM; Roden, DM; Feng, Q; Cooper-DeHoff, RM; Gong, L; Klein, TE; Wadelius, M; Niemi, M

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol reduction from statin therapy has been one of the greatest public health successes in modern medicine. Simvastatin is among the most commonly used prescription medications. A non-synonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4149056, in SLCO1B1 markedly increases systemic exposure to simvastatin and the risk of muscle toxicity. This guideline explores the relationship between rs4149056 (c.521T>C, p.V174A) and clinical outcome for all statins. The strength of the evidence is high for myopathy with simvastatin. We limit our recommendations accordingly. PMID:22617227

  20. Executing clinical guidelines: temporal issues.

    PubMed Central

    Terenziani, P.; Mastromonaco, F.; Molino, G.; Torchio, M.

    2000-01-01

    In our previous work, we proposed a domain-independent language to describe clinical guidelines and a graphical tool to acquire them. In this paper, we describe an approach to execute clinical guidelines. We propose a flexible execution engine that can be used in clinical decision support applications, and also for medical education, or for integrating guidelines into the clinical workflow. We also focus our attention on temporal issues in the execution of guidelines, including the treatment of composite, concurrent and/or cyclic actions. PMID:11080004

  1. Hypertension guideline implementation: experiences of Finnish primary care nurses.

    PubMed

    Alanen, Seija; Ijäs, Jarja; Kaila, Minna; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Välimäki, Maritta

    2008-10-01

    Evidence-based guidelines on hypertension have been developed in many western countries. Yet, there is little evidence of their impact on the clinical practices of primary care nurses. We assessed the style of implementation and adoption of the national Hypertension Guideline (HT Guideline) in 32 Finnish health centres classified in a previous study as 'disseminators' (n = 13) or 'implementers' (n = 19). A postal questionnaire was sent to all nurses (n = 409) working in the outpatient services in these health centres. Additionally, senior nursing officers were telephoned to enquire if the implementation of the HT Guideline had led to a new division of labour between nurses and doctors. Questionnaires were returned from 327 nurses (80.0%), while all senior nursing officers (n = 32) were contacted. The majority of nurses were of the opinion that the HT Guideline has been adopted into clinical practice. The recommendations in the HT Guideline were adopted in clinical practice with varying success, and slightly more often in implementer health centres than in disseminator health centres. Nurses in implementer health centres more often agreed that multiple channels had been used in the implementation (P < 0.001). According to senior nursing officers the implementation of the HT Guideline had led to a new division of labour between nurses and doctors in about a half of the health centres, clearly more often in implementer health centres (P < 0.001). The HT Guideline was well adopted into clinical practice in Finland. The implementation of the HT Guideline had an impact on clinical practices, and on creating a new division of labour between nurses and doctors.

  2. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  3. Implementing the National Institute of Clinical Excellence improving outcome guidelines for head and neck cancer: developing a business plan with reorganisation of head and neck cancer services.

    PubMed

    Jeannon, J-P; Abbs, I; Calman, F; Gleeson, M; Lyons, A; Hussain, K; McGurk, M; O'Connell, M; Probert, D; Ng, R; Simo, R

    2008-04-01

    The implementation of the National Institute of Clinical Excellence improving outcome guidelines (NICE-IOG) manual for head and neck cancer may have a huge potential cost implication. Head and neck cancer is a rare disease which utilises large quantities of resources which can only be provided in a tertiary centre. Head and neck cancer services should be centralised into a single site for each cancer network. A new higher tariff rate for complex head and neck cancer cases is needed which recognises the true cost of this work. Each network should set its own tariff to make head and neck cancer care financially viable.

  4. Utilization of clinical practice guidelines: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Keiffer, Melanie R

    2015-06-01

    Clinical practice guidelines augment clinician decision making. Researchers cite a lack of knowledge of guideline existence, complexity of guidelines, staff attitude, lack of training, time and resource constraints as reasons for nonadherence. This project sought to understand factors that promote or prevent guideline implementation at the point of care. Respondents' viewed clinical practice guidelines as valid tools necessary to standardize patient care and exhibited proficiency in synthesis and integration of guidelines into clinical decisions and treatment plans. Efficient and effective guidelines impact patient safety and quality by increasing the consistency of behavior and replacing idiosyncratic behaviors with best practices.

  5. ENRICH: A promising oncology nurse training program to implement ASCO clinical practice guidelines on fertility for AYA cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy; Kelvin, Joanne; Reich, Richard R; Reinecke, Joyce; Bowman, Meghan; Sehovic, Ivana; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2016-11-01

    We describe the impact of ENRICH (Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare), a web-based communication-skill-building curriculum for oncology nurses regarding AYA fertility and other reproductive health issues. Participants completed an 8-week course that incorporated didactic content, case studies, and interactive learning. Each learner completed a pre- and post-test assessing knowledge and a 6-month follow-up survey assessing learner behaviors and institutional changes. Out of 77 participants, the majority (72%) scored higher on the post-test. Fifty-four participants completed the follow-up survey: 41% reviewed current institutional practices, 20% formed a committee, and 37% gathered patient materials or financial resources (22%). Participants also reported new policies (30%), in-service education (37%), new patient education materials (26%), a patient navigator role (28%), and workplace collaborations with reproductive specialists (46%). ENRICH improved nurses' knowledge and involvement in activities addressing fertility needs of oncology patients. Our study provides a readily accessible model to prepare oncology nurses to integrate American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines and improve Quality Oncology Practice Initiative measures related to fertility. Nurses will be better prepared to discuss important survivorship issues related to fertility and reproductive health, leading to improved quality of life outcomes for AYAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ACC/AHA Special Report: Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation Strategies: A Summary of Systematic Reviews by the NHLBI Implementation Science Work Group: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wiley V; Pearson, Thomas A; Bennett, Glen C; Cushman, William C; Gaziano, Thomas A; Gorman, Paul N; Handler, Joel; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kushner, Robert F; MacKenzie, Thomas D; Sacco, Ralph L; Smith, Sidney C; Stevens, Victor J; Wells, Barbara L

    2017-02-28

    In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened an Implementation Science Work Group to assess evidence-based strategies for effectively implementing clinical practice guidelines. This was part of a larger effort to update existing clinical practice guidelines on cholesterol, blood pressure, and overweight/obesity. Review evidence from the published implementation science literature and identify effective or promising strategies to enhance the adoption and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. This systematic review was conducted on 4 critical questions, each focusing on the adoption and effectiveness of 4 intervention strategies: (1) reminders, (2) educational outreach visits, (3) audit and feedback, and (4) provider incentives. A scoping review of the Rx for Change database of systematic reviews was used to identify promising guideline implementation interventions aimed at providers. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori for each question, and the published literature was initially searched up to 2012, and then updated with a supplemental search to 2015. Two independent reviewers screened the returned citations to identify relevant reviews and rated the quality of each included review. Audit and feedback and educational outreach visits were generally effective in improving both process of care (15 of 21 reviews and 12 of 13 reviews, respectively) and clinical outcomes (7 of 12 reviews and 3 of 5 reviews, respectively). Provider incentives showed mixed effectiveness for improving both process of care (3 of 4 reviews) and clinical outcomes (3 reviews equally distributed between generally effective, mixed, and generally ineffective). Reminders showed mixed effectiveness for improving process of care outcomes (27 reviews with 11 mixed and 3 generally ineffective results) and were generally ineffective for clinical outcomes (18 reviews with 6 mixed and 9 generally ineffective results). Educational outreach visits (2 of 2

  7. A work force model to support the adoption of best practice care in chronic diseases – a missing piece in clinical guideline implementation

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Leonie; Dalziel, Kim; Bolton, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The development and implementation of an evidence-based approach to health workforce planning is a necessary step to achieve access to best practice chronic disease management. In its absence, the widely reported failure in implementation of clinical best practice guidelines is almost certain to continue. This paper describes a demand model to estimate the community-based primary care health workforce consistent with the delivery of best practice chronic disease management and prevention. The model takes a geographic region as the planning frame and combines data about the health status of the regional population by disease category and stage, with best practice guidelines to estimate the clinical skill requirement or competencies for the region. The translation of the skill requirement into a service requirement can then be modelled, incorporating various assumptions about the occupation group to deliver nominated competencies. The service requirement, when compared with current service delivery, defines the gap or surplus in services. The results of the model could be used to inform service delivery as well as a workforce supply strategy. PMID:18559116

  8. Mapping ASTI patient's therapeutic-data model to virtual Medical Record: can VMR represent therapeutic data elements used by ASTI in clinical guideline implementations?

    PubMed

    Ebrahiminia, Vahid; Yasini, Mobin; Lamy, Jean Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    Lack of interoperability between health information systems is a major obstacle in implementing Clinical decision supports systems (CDSS) and their widespread disseminations. Virtual Medical Record (vMR) proposed by HL7 is a common data model for representing clinical information Inputs and outputs that can be used by CDSS and local clinical systems. A CDSS called ASTI used a similar model to represent clinical data and therapeutic history of patient. In order to evaluate the compatibility of ASTI with vMR, we started to map the ASTI model of representing patient's therapeutic data to vMR. We compared the data elements and associated terminologies used in ASTI and vMR and we evaluated the semantic fidelity between the models. Only one data element the qualitative description of drug dosage, did not match the vMR model. However, it can be calculated in the execution engine. The semantic fidelity was satisfactorily preserved in 12 of 17 elements mapped between the models. This model of ASTI seems compatible to vMR. Further work is necessary to evaluate the compatibility of clinical data model of ASTI to vMR and the use of vMR in implementing practice guidelines.

  9. A review of clinical practice guidelines for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David; Silvestri, Gerard A.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are important evidence-based resources to guide complex clinical decision making. However, it is challenging for health professionals to keep abreast available guidelines and to know how and where to access relevant guidelines. This review examines currently available guidelines for lung cancer published in the English language. Important key features are listed for each identified guideline. The methodology, approaches to dissemination and implementation, and associated resources are summarised. General challenges in the area of guideline development are highlighted. The potential to collaborate more widely across lung cancer guideline developers by sharing literature searches and assessments is discussed. PMID:24163752

  10. Barriers and Strategies in Guideline Implementation-A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Florian; Lange, Kerstin; Klose, Kristina; Greiner, Wolfgang; Kraemer, Alexander

    2016-06-29

    Research indicates that clinical guidelines are often not applied. The success of their implementation depends on the consideration of a variety of barriers and the use of adequate strategies to overcome them. Therefore, this scoping review aims to describe and categorize the most important barriers to guideline implementation. Furthermore, it provides an overview of different kinds of suitable strategies that are tailored to overcome these barriers. The search algorithm led to the identification of 1659 articles in PubMed. Overall, 69 articles were included in the data synthesis. The content of these articles was analysed by using a qualitative synthesis approach, to extract the most important information on barriers and strategies. The barriers to guideline implementation can be differentiated into personal factors, guideline-related factors, and external factors. The scoping review revealed the following aspects as central elements of successful strategies for guideline implementation: dissemination, education and training, social interaction, decision support systems and standing orders. Available evidence indicates that a structured implementation can improve adherence to guidelines. Therefore, the barriers to guideline implementation and adherence need to be analysed in advance so that strategies that are tailored to the specific setting and target groups can be developed.

  11. [Clinical guideline 'Turner syndrome'].

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Erica L T; van Alfen, A A E M Janiëlle; Sas, Theo C J; Kerstens, Michiel N; Cools, Martine; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2014-01-01

    Turner syndrome occurs in women who are missing one X chromosome. The most obvious symptoms are small stature and ovarian failure. Turner patients have an increased risk of a large number of disorders, and should therefore have lifelong medical supervision. Recent insights into patient management have been incorporated into the guidelines. Patients are increasingly involved in their own treatment. In patients with 45,X karyotype, Y-chromosomal material is actively sought in a larger number of cells and/or other tissues, using FISH. Pubertal induction therapy, if required, is initiated at an appropriate age. Egg donation or vitrification are new therapeutic options for fertility treatment. Monitoring for cardiac and vascular disease using cardiac ultrasound and MRI is performed more often, partly in connection with the risk of aortal dissection. The coordination of care of patients with Turner syndrome is concentrated in specialized centres in the Netherlands and Belgium.

  12. Distress management. Clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    The evaluation and treatment model expressed in the NCCN Distress Management Guidelines recommends that each new patient be rapidly assessed in the office or clinic waiting room for evidence of distress using a brief screening tool (the Distress Thermometer and Problem List) presented in Figure 1 (see page 369). A score of 5 or greater on the thermometer should trigger further evaluation and referral to a psychosocial service. The choice of which service should be determined by the problem areas specified on the Problem List. Patients with practical and psychosocial problems are referred to social work, emotional or psychological (excessive sadness, worry, nervousness) problems to mental health, and spiritual concerns to pastoral counselors. The primary oncology team members--doctor, nurse, and social worker--are central to making this model work. Team members collect information from the brief screening and problem list and expand it with the clinical evaluation. It is critical for at least one team member to be familiar with the mental health, psychosocial, and pastoral counseling resources available in the institution and the community. A list of the names and phone numbers for these resources should be kept in all oncology clinics and updated frequently. The first step in implementing this model is to establish a multidisciplinary committee in each institution or office responsible for 1) revising and modifying the standards of care to fit the particular clinical care setting and 2) implementing and monitoring the use of these standards. Because each institution has its own culture, standards must be implemented in ways that are compatible with each institution. The second step is to institute professional educational programs to ensure that staff is 1) aware that distress is under-recognized, 2) knowledgeable about the management of distress, and 3) aware of the resources available to treat it. It is important to have access to mental health professionals and

  13. Guidelines for Implementing Teletraining Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.

    Designed to provide change agents with a framework for planning and implementing successful teletraining systems, this paper discusses strategies for the introduction of sophisticated teletraining technology into corporate training programs without adversely affecting a client organization's social environment. Teletraining is defined as an…

  14. Inpatient bronchiolitis guideline implementation and resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Vineeta; Darnell, Cindy; Walsh, Brian; Mehta, Amit; Badawy, Mohamed; Morse, Rustin; Pop, Rodica; Tidwell, Jerithea; Sheehan, Maeve; McDermott, Sandra; Cannon, Carolyn; Kahn, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Provider-dependent practice variation in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis is not uncommon. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) can streamline practice and reduce utilization however, CPG implementation is complex. A multidisciplinary team developed and implemented CPGs for management of bronchiolitis for children <2 years old. Children with comorbidities, ICU admissions, and outside hospital transfers were excluded. Implementation involved teamwork and collaboration, provider education, online access to CPGs, order sets, data sharing, and monthly team meetings. Resource utilization was defined as use of chest x-rays (CXRs), antibiotics, steroids, and more than 2 doses of inhaled bronchodilator use. Outcome metrics included length of stay (LOS) and readmission rate. Bronchiolitis season was defined as September to April. Data were collected for 2 seasons post implementation. The number CPG-eligible patients in the pre- and 2 postimplementation periods were similar (1244, preimplementation; 1159, postimplementation season 1; 1283 postimplementation season 2). CXRs decreased from 59.7% to 45.1% (P < .0001) in season 1 to 39% (P < .0001) in season 2. Bronchodilator use decreased from 27% to 20% (P < .01) in season 1 to 14% (P < .002) in season 2. Steroid use significantly reduced from 19% to 11% (P < .01). Antibiotic use did not change significantly (P = .16). LOS decreased from 2.3 to 1.8 days (P < .0001) in season 1 and 1.9 days (P < .05) in season 2. All-cause 7-day readmission rate did not change (P = .45). Bronchiolitis CPG implementation resulted in reduced use of CXRs, bronchodilators, steroids, and LOS without affecting 7-day all-cause readmissions.

  15. Development of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Steven D; Areán, Patricia A; Craske, Michelle G; Crawford, Kermit A; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Magnavita, Jeffrey J; Ollendick, Thomas H; Sexton, Thomas L; Spring, Bonnie; Bufka, Lynn F; Galper, Daniel I; Kurtzman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to improve mental, behavioral, and physical health by promoting clinical practices that are based on the best available evidence. The American Psychological Association (APA) is committed to generating patient-focused CPGs that are scientifically sound, clinically useful, and informative for psychologists, other health professionals, training programs, policy makers, and the public. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2011 standards for generating CPGs represent current best practices in the field. These standards involve multidisciplinary guideline development panels charged with generating recommendations based on comprehensive systematic reviews of the evidence. The IOM standards will guide the APA as it generates CPGs that can be used to inform the general public and the practice community regarding the benefits and harms of various treatment options. CPG recommendations are advisory rather than compulsory. When used appropriately, high-quality guidelines can facilitate shared decision making and identify gaps in knowledge.

  16. [Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in oral care 3. Support for the development of clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    van Dam, B A F M; Oosterkamp, B C M; den Boer, J C L; Bruers, J J M

    2015-02-01

    Support is an important factor in the implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Data from 5 studies from 1998 through 2013 offer insight into the support for clinical practice guidelines among dentists, orthodontists, dental hygienists and denturists in the Netherlands. In these, attitudes, opinions, knowledge and behaviour were seen as indicators of support. Dentists have an increasingly positive attitude towards clinical practice guidelines. The majority is aware of and uses at least 1 of the guidelines available to them and are in favour of the development of clinical practice guidelines. Orthodontists and dental hygienists have available few such guidelines, but the majority of both groups favour their development. Among denturists, who also have little experience with clinical practice guidelines, there are fewer supporters for their development. All in all, among caregivers in oral healthcare in the Netherlands, support for the use and development of clinical practice guidelines is growing.

  17. Clinical practice guideline: allergic rhinitis executive summary.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Allergic Rhinitis. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with allergic rhinitis, including performing and interpretation of diagnostic testing and assessment and documentation of chronic conditions and comorbidities. It will then focus on the recommendations to guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for patients with allergic rhinitis.

  18. Implementation of Job Placement Services Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

    The Implementation of Job Placement Services Guidelines Project was designed to strengthen placement programs and services for California community college vocational students, and for all students needing part-time employment to realize their educational goals. The project was designed to test the validity and relevance of quality indicators…

  19. Guidelines for Implementing Workplace Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jester, Marie H.

    This document provides guidelines for implementing workplace literacy programs. Project leadership selection, characteristics and skills, education and experience, and roles and responsibilities are reviewed. Community and business involvement, partnership development, and the voluntary advisory council components of a marketing workplace literacy…

  20. Implementation of Job Placement Services Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

    The Implementation of Job Placement Services Guidelines Project was designed to strengthen placement programs and services for California community college vocational students, and for all students needing part-time employment to realize their educational goals. The project was designed to test the validity and relevance of quality indicators…

  1. A practical approach to implementing new CDC GBS guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shawna M; Bridges, Margie A; Knudsen, Alexis L; Vezeau, Toni M

    2013-01-01

    Group beta streptococcus (GBS) is a well-documented pathogen causing serious maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The CDC guidelines for managing clients who test positive for GBS in pregnancy were revised and published in 2010. However, CDC and extant literature provide limited guidance on implementation strategies for these new recommendations. Although several algorithms are included in the CDC (2010) document, none combine the maternal risk factors for practical and consistent implementation from pregnancy to newborn. In response to confusion upon initial education of these guidelines, we developed an algorithm for maternal intrapartum management. In addition, we clarified the CDC (2010) newborn algorithm in response to provider request. Without altering the recommendations, both algorithms provide clarification of the CDC (2010) guidelines. The nursing process provides an organizational structure for the discussion of our efforts to translate the complex guidelines into practice. This article could provide other facilities with tools for dealing with specific aspects of the complex clinical management of perinatal GBS.

  2. Effectiveness of a strategy that uses educational games to implement clinical practice guidelines among Spanish residents of family and community medicine (e-EDUCAGUIA project): a clinical trial by clusters.

    PubMed

    Del Cura-González, Isabel; López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa; Rodríguez-Barrientos, Ricardo; Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; Román-Crespo, Begoña; Escortell-Mayor, Esperanza; Rico-Blázquez, Milagros; Hernández-Santiago, Virginia; Azcoaga-Lorenzo, Amaya; Ojeda-Ruiz, Elena; González-González, Ana I; Ávila-Tomas, José F; Barrio-Cortés, Jaime; Molero-García, José M; Ferrer-Peña, Raul; Tello-Bernabé, María Eugenia; Trujillo-Martín, Mar

    2016-05-17

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed with the aim of helping health professionals, patients, and caregivers make decisions about their health care, using the best available evidence. In many cases, incorporation of these recommendations into clinical practice also implies a need for changes in routine clinical practice. Using educational games as a strategy for implementing recommendations among health professionals has been demonstrated to be effective in some studies; however, evidence is still scarce. The primary objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a teaching strategy for the implementation of CPGs using educational games (e-learning EDUCAGUIA) to improve knowledge and skills related to clinical decision-making by residents in family medicine. The primary objective will be evaluated at 1 and 6 months after the intervention. The secondary objectives are to identify barriers and facilitators for the use of guidelines by residents of family medicine and to describe the educational strategies used by Spanish teaching units of family and community medicine to encourage implementation of CPGs. We propose a multicenter clinical trial with randomized allocation by clusters of family and community medicine teaching units in Spain. The sample size will be 394 residents (197 in each group), with the teaching units as the randomization unit and the residents comprising the analysis unit. For the intervention, both groups will receive an initial 1-h session on clinical practice guideline use and the usual dissemination strategy by e-mail. The intervention group (e-learning EDUCAGUIA) strategy will consist of educational games with hypothetical clinical scenarios in a virtual environment. The primary outcome will be the score obtained by the residents on evaluation questionnaires for each clinical practice guideline. Other included variables will be the sociodemographic and training variables of the residents and the teaching unit

  3. Reporting guidelines for implementation and operational research.

    PubMed

    Hales, Simon; Lesher-Trevino, Ana; Ford, Nathan; Maher, Dermot; Ramsay, Andrew; Tran, Nhan

    2016-01-01

    In public health, implementation research is done to improve access to interventions that have been shown to work but have not reached many of the people who could benefit from them. Researchers identify practical problems facing public health programmes and aim to find solutions that improve health outcomes. In operational research, routinely-collected programme data are used to uncover ways of delivering more effective, efficient and equitable health care. As implementation research can address many types of questions, many research designs may be appropriate. Existing reporting guidelines partially cover the methods used in implementation and operational research, so we ran a consultation through the World Health Organization (WHO), the Alliance for Health Policy & Systems Research (AHPSR) and the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and developed guidelines to facilitate the funding, conduct, review and publishing of such studies. Our intention is to provide a practical reference for funders, researchers, policymakers, implementers, reviewers and editors working with implementation and operational research. This is an evolving field, so we plan to monitor the use of these guidelines and develop future versions as required.

  4. Reporting guidelines for implementation and operational research

    PubMed Central

    Lesher-Trevino, Ana; Ford, Nathan; Maher, Dermot; Ramsay, Andrew; Tran, Nhan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In public health, implementation research is done to improve access to interventions that have been shown to work but have not reached many of the people who could benefit from them. Researchers identify practical problems facing public health programmes and aim to find solutions that improve health outcomes. In operational research, routinely-collected programme data are used to uncover ways of delivering more effective, efficient and equitable health care. As implementation research can address many types of questions, many research designs may be appropriate. Existing reporting guidelines partially cover the methods used in implementation and operational research, so we ran a consultation through the World Health Organization (WHO), the Alliance for Health Policy & Systems Research (AHPSR) and the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and developed guidelines to facilitate the funding, conduct, review and publishing of such studies. Our intention is to provide a practical reference for funders, researchers, policymakers, implementers, reviewers and editors working with implementation and operational research. This is an evolving field, so we plan to monitor the use of these guidelines and develop future versions as required. PMID:26769997

  5. Gaining insight into the Clinical Practice Guideline development processes: qualitative study in a workshop to implement the GRADE proposal in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Carlos; Rotaeche, Rafael; Etxebarria, Arritxu; Marzo, Mercé; Rico, Rosa; Barandiaran, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Background The GRADE method represents a new approach to grading the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations in the preparation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG). In the context of a pilot study to assess the implementability of the system in Spain, we considered it relevant to gain an insight into the significance of the perceptions and attitudes expressed by the actual experts participating in the system try-out. Methods Qualitative research with an ethnographic approach, through non-participant observation and focus groups within the context of a consensus workshop in which 19 CPG experts participated to evaluate the GRADE proposal using 12 evidence tables taken from hypertension, asthma and arthritis CPGs. The interventions were recorded, under a guarantee of confidentiality. The transcriptions and field notes were analyzed, based on a sociological discourse analysis model, and the provisional findings were re-sent to participants in order to improve their validity. Results 1) Certain problems over procedure and terminology hindered the acceptance of this new method as a common reference system for the preparation of CPGs. 2). A greater closeness to clinical practice was accompanied by concerns over value judgments and subjectivity, with a demand for greater explicitness in the consensus process. 3). The type of "evidence" on which the guidelines are based, how and by whom the evidence is prepared, and what the role of the different actors should be, all constitute unresolved concerns in the CPG preparation and implementation processes. 4). The grading process is not neutral: professional background, prior experience and the degree of leadership all condition the participants' input and interactions. Conclusion The findings obtained allow the quantitative evaluation to be better interpreted and, in turn, go beyond the particularities of the GRADE method. Adaptation to the complexities of clinical practice, the need for carefully designed multi

  6. Guideline.gov: A Database of Clinical Specialty Guidelines.

    PubMed

    El-Khayat, Yamila M; Forbes, Carrie S; Coghill, Jeffrey G

    2017-01-01

    The National Guidelines Clearinghouse (NGC), also known as Guideline.gov, is a database of resources to assist health care providers with a central depository of guidelines for clinical specialty areas in medicine. The database is provided free of charge and is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The guidelines for treatment are updated regularly, with new guidelines replacing older guidelines every five years. There are hundreds of current guidelines with more added each week. The purpose and goal of NGC is to provide physicians, nurses, and other health care providers, insurance companies, and others in the field of health care with a unified database of the most current, detailed, relevant, and objective clinical practice guidelines.

  7. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for IFNL3 (IL28B) genotype and PEG interferon-α-based regimens.

    PubMed

    Muir, A J; Gong, L; Johnson, S G; Lee, M T M; Williams, M S; Klein, T E; Caudle, K E; Nelson, D R

    2014-02-01

    Pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN-α or PEG-IFN 2a and 2b)- and ribavirin (RBV)-based regimens are the mainstay for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. IFNL3 (IL28B) genotype is the strongest baseline predictor of response to PEG-IFN-α and RBV therapy in previously untreated patients and can be used by patients and clinicians as part of the shared decision-making process for initiating treatment for HCV infection. We provide information regarding the clinical use of PEG-IFN-α- and RBV-containing regimens based on IFNL3 genotype.

  8. American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guidelines: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Somerfield, Mark R; Einhaus, Kaitlin; Hagerty, Karen L; Brouwers, Melissa C; Seidenfeld, Jerome; Lyman, Gary H

    2008-08-20

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) published its first clinical practice guideline, which focused on the use of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors, in 1994. Since then, ASCO has published 24 additional guidelines or technology assessments on a range of topics and is developing 11 additional guidelines. Guidelines are among ASCO's most valued products, according to membership surveys and data from the JCO.org Web site. However, the same data from ASCO members have highlighted a number of limitations to the guideline program. These relate to the timelines of guideline updates, difficulties locating guidelines and related products, and challenges to implementing ASCO guidelines in everyday clinical practice. This article outlines the concrete steps that the ASCO Health Services Committee (HSC) is taking to address these limitations, including the institution of a more aggressive guideline updating schedule, a transition from narrative to systematic literature reviews to support the practice recommendations, a new Board of Directors-approved policy to permit endorsement of other groups' guidelines, and a robust Clinical Tools and Resources program that offers a range of guideline dissemination and implementation aids. Additional work is underway to establish stronger and deeper collaborations with practicing oncologists to expand their role in the review, field testing, and implementation of guideline clinical tools and resources. Finally, the HSC is discussing evaluation of the guidelines program to maximize the impact of ASCO clinical practice guidelines on clinical decision making and, ultimately, the quality of cancer care.

  9. Computer-based Guideline Implementation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Richard N.; Liaw, Yischon; Brandt, Cynthia A.; Corb, Geoffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    In this systematic review, the authors analyze the functionality provided by recent computer-based guideline implementation systems and characterize the effectiveness of the systems. Twenty-five studies published between 1992 and January 1998 were identified. Articles were included if the authors indicated an intent to implement guideline recommendations for clinicians and if the effectiveness of the system was evaluated. Provision of eight information management services and effects on guideline adherence, documentation, user satisfaction, and patient outcome were noted. All systems provided patient-specific recommendations. In 19, recommendations were available concurrently with care. Explanation services were described for nine systems. Nine systems allowed interactive documentation, and 17 produced paper-based output. Communication services were present most often in systems integrated with electronic medical records. Registration, calculation, and aggregation services were infrequently reported. There were 10 controlled trials (9 randomized) and 10 time-series correlational studies. Guideline adherence improved in 14 of 18 systems in which it was measured. Documentation improved in 4 of 4 studies. PMID:10094063

  10. Impact of implementing electronic clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, control and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors: A pre-post controlled study.

    PubMed

    Comin, Eva; Catalan-Ramos, Arantxa; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; Grau, Maria; Del Val, Jose Luis; Consola, Alicia; Amado, Ester; Pons, Angels; Mata-Cases, Manel; Franzi, Alicia; Ciurana, Ramon; Frigola, Eva; Cos, Xavier; Davins, Josep; Verdu-Rotellar, Jose M

    To evaluate the impact of computerized clinical practice guidelines on the management, diagnosis, treatment, control, and follow-up of the main cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pre-post controlled study. Catalonia, autonomous community located in north-eastern Spain. Individuals aged 35-74 years assigned to general practitioners of the Catalan Health Institute. The intervention group consisted of individuals whose general practitioners had accessed the computerized clinical practice guidelines at least twice a day, while the control group consisted of individuals whose general practitioner had never accessed the computerized clinical practice guidelines platform. The Chi-squared test was used to detect significant differences in the follow-up, control, and treatment variables for all three disorders (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus) between individuals assigned to users and non-users of the computerized clinical practice guidelines, respectively. A total of 189,067 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 56 years (standard deviation 12), and 55.5% of whom were women. Significant differences were observed in hypertension management, treatment and control; type 2 diabetes mellitus management, treatment and diagnoses, and the management and control of hypercholesterolaemia in both sexes. Computerized clinical practice guidelines are an effective tool for the control and follow-up of patients diagnosed with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia. The usefulness of computerized clinical practice guidelines to diagnose and adequately treat individuals with these disorders remains unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Hybrid specification, storage, retrieval and runtime application of clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Y

    2006-06-01

    Clinical guidelines are a major tool in improving the quality of medical care. However, most guidelines are in free text, are not machine-comprehensible and are not easily accessible to clinicians at the point of care. We have designed and implemented a web-based, modular, distributed architecture, the Digital Electronic Guideline Library (DeGeL), which facilitates gradual conversion of clinical guidelines from text to a formal representation in the chosen target guideline ontology. The architecture supports guideline classification, semantic markup, context-sensitive search, browsing, run-time application and retrospective quality assessment. The DeGeL hybrid meta-ontology includes elements common to all guideline ontologies, such as semantic classification and domain knowledge; it also includes four content-representation formats: free text, semi-structured text, semi-formal representation and a formal representation. These formats support increasingly sophisticated computational tasks. Guidelines can thus be in a hybrid representation in which guidelines, and even parts of the same guideline, might exist at different formalisation levels. We have also developed and rigorously evaluated a methodology and an associated web-based tool, Uruz, for gradually structuring and semi-formalising free-text clinical guidelines. Finally, we have designed, implemented and evaluated a new approach, the hybrid runtime application model, for supporting runtime application of clinical guidelines that are not necessarily in a machine-comprehensible format; in particular, when the guideline is in a semi-formal representation and the patient's data are either in an electronic medical record or in a paper format. The tool implementing this new approach, the Spock module, is customised at this point to the Asbru guideline specification language and exploits the hybrid structure of guidelines in DeGeL. The Spock module also exploits our temporal-abstraction mediator to the patient

  12. Developing and implementing dietary guidelines in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    Single nutrients are no solution to the problem of malnutrition. It is essential that food based dietary guidelines (FBDG) are developed and implemented to overcome the diet related diseases and promote health in the population. A multidisciplinary group was constituted to develop FBDGs in India. A manual with scientific details and an abridged version were prepared with 6 goals and 14 dietary guidelines covering all age groups to overcome the public health nutritional problems. The guidelines are based on dietary patterns and specific outcomes of health and disease. Dietary diversification has been suggested as the practical approach. Diets from locally available and culturally accepted foods in household measures have been suggested to ensure optimal health. For successful implementation of FBDGs, political/bureaucratic commitment are essential. It must become a tool in the developmental plans for food, nutrition, agriculture, rural, educational and biotechnology policies. Workshops and meetings were organized to sensitise the administrative set-up. The intersectoral nature of FBDG for implementation was highlighted. The department of women and child development, which is responsible for implementing the National Nutritional Policy, was recognized as nodal agency. Meetings were organised for secondary target audiences. The press was invited to participate in popularization of the FBDGs. Social marketing strategies were used to match the local dietary and cultural aspects. Interpersonal communication and professional societies were used for better dissemination. Industry and legislative bodies were requested to take active action in this regard. The FBDGs have to be implemented to achieve food and nutrition security and the Millennium Development Goals.

  13. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care.

    PubMed

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-01-01

    Programmes have had limited success in improving guideline adherence for chronic disease. Use of theory is recommended but is often absent in programmes conducted in 'real-world' rather than research settings. This mixed-methods study tested a retrospective theory-based approach to evaluate a 'real-world' programme in primary care to improve adherence to national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative data, comprising analysis of documents generated throughout the programme (n>300), in-depth interviews with planners (clinicians, managers and improvement experts involved in devising, planning, and implementing the programme, n = 14) and providers (practice clinicians, n = 14) were used to construct programme theories, experiences of implementation and contextual factors influencing care. Quantitative analyses comprised controlled before-and-after analyses to test 'early' and evolved' programme theories with comparators grounded in each theory. 'Early' theory predicted the programme would reduce emergency hospital admissions (EHA). It was tested using national analysis of standardized borough-level EHA rates between programme and comparator boroughs. 'Evolved' theory predicted practices with higher programme participation would increase guideline adherence and reduce EHA and costs. It was tested using a difference-in-differences analysis with linked primary and secondary care data to compare changes in diagnosis, management, EHA and costs, over time and by programme participation. Contrary to programme planners' predictions in 'early' and 'evolved' programme theories, admissions did not change following the programme. However, consistent with 'evolved' theory, higher guideline adoption occurred in practices with greater programme participation. Retrospectively constructing theories based on the ideas of programme planners can enable evaluators to address some limitations encountered when evaluating programmes without a theoretical

  14. Guidelines for Guidelines: Are They Up to the Task? A Comparative Assessment of Clinical Practice Guideline Development Handbooks

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Shabnam; Rashidian, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a comparative review of clinical practice guideline development handbooks. We aimed to identify the main guideline development tasks, assign weights to the importance of each task using expert opinions and identify the handbooks that provided a comprehensive coverage of the tasks. Methods We systematically searched and included handbooks published (in English language) by national, international or professional bodies responsible for evidenced-based guideline development. We reviewed the handbooks to identify the main guideline development tasks and scored each handbook for each task from 0 (the handbook did not mention the task) to 2 (the task suitably addressed and explained), and calculated a weighted score for each handbook. The tasks included in over 75% of the handbooks were considered as ‘necessary’ tasks. Result Nineteen guideline development handbooks and twenty seven main tasks were identified. The guideline handbooks’ weighted scores ranged from 100 to 220. Four handbooks scored over 80% of the maximum possible score, developed by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Swiss Centre for International Health, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and World Health Organization. Necessary tasks were: selecting the guideline topic, determining the guideline scope, identifying relevant existing guidelines, involving the consumers, forming guideline development group,, developing clinical questions, systematic search for evidence, selecting relevant evidence, appraising identifies research evidence, making group decision, grading available evidence, creating recommendations, final stakeholder consultation, guideline implementation strategies, updating recommendations and correcting potential errors. Discussion Adequate details for evidence based development of guidelines were still lacking from many handbooks. The tasks relevant to ethical issues and piloting were missing in most handbooks. The findings

  15. Guidelines for guidelines: are they up to the task? A comparative assessment of clinical practice guideline development handbooks.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Shabnam; Rashidian, Arash

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a comparative review of clinical practice guideline development handbooks. We aimed to identify the main guideline development tasks, assign weights to the importance of each task using expert opinions and identify the handbooks that provided a comprehensive coverage of the tasks. We systematically searched and included handbooks published (in English language) by national, international or professional bodies responsible for evidenced-based guideline development. We reviewed the handbooks to identify the main guideline development tasks and scored each handbook for each task from 0 (the handbook did not mention the task) to 2 (the task suitably addressed and explained), and calculated a weighted score for each handbook. The tasks included in over 75% of the handbooks were considered as 'necessary' tasks. Nineteen guideline development handbooks and twenty seven main tasks were identified. The guideline handbooks' weighted scores ranged from 100 to 220. Four handbooks scored over 80% of the maximum possible score, developed by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Swiss Centre for International Health, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and World Health Organization. Necessary tasks were: selecting the guideline topic, determining the guideline scope, identifying relevant existing guidelines, involving the consumers, forming guideline development group,, developing clinical questions, systematic search for evidence, selecting relevant evidence, appraising identifies research evidence, making group decision, grading available evidence, creating recommendations, final stakeholder consultation, guideline implementation strategies, updating recommendations and correcting potential errors. Adequate details for evidence based development of guidelines were still lacking from many handbooks. The tasks relevant to ethical issues and piloting were missing in most handbooks. The findings help decision makers in identifying the

  16. Successful implementation of spacer treatment guideline for acute asthma

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C; Maskell, G; Marks, M; South, M; Robertson, C; LENNEY, W.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To develop and implement an evidence based guideline for the treatment of acute asthma using a metered dose inhaler and spacer combination.
METHODS—Defined strategies were used for the development and implementation of a guideline, assessed by a prospective, descriptive, study using notes review, and patient, nursing, and medical staff telephone contact. The setting was a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria, Australia with 25 000 yearly admissions, and asthma accounting for about 7% of total. The first 200 children and families to use the guideline after its introduction were evaluated.
RESULTS—A total of 191 (95.5%) children were treated according to the guideline. Six (3.0%) children were given nebulisers appropriately based on severity; five (2.5%) were given nebulisers at parental or child choice; and four (2.0 %) who did not have severe asthma, received nebulised treatment inappropriately.
CONCLUSIONS—Successful implementation of a new evidence based guideline can be achieved using specific strategies for promoting the application of research findings in the clinical arena.

 PMID:11159290

  17. Implementing wound care guidelines: observations and recommendations from the bedside.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Vossen, Jan

    2009-06-01

    The successful implementation of wound care guidelines requires an appreciation for the frustrations experienced by nurses trying to incorporate these tools into clinical practice. These frustrations or barriers to best wound care practice implementation are examined from the perspective of: 1) the practice environment, which must be understood; 2) the potential adopters, predominantly nurses seeking the best fit between evidence and their clinical practice setting; and 3) the evidence-based innovation created to change wound care practice at the point of care. Barriers identified include lack of available resources, time constraints, prescriptive guidelines that incorrectly assume details of the practice environment, and wound care product confusion. Recommendations to facilitate implementation from the bedside are discussed and include expanding guidelines to incorporate detailed educational content and dissemination strategies that serve to increase relevancy to everyday practice. Additional suggestions include decreasing wound care product confusion by developing standardized, function-based product nomenclature and improving the quality of wound care research to increase nurses' confidence in the evidence and resultant recommendations. Resources currently used to develop guidelines also should be utilized to create accompanying educational material to support the transfer and uptake of knowledge.

  18. Vaccination of chemotherapy patients--effect of guideline implementation.

    PubMed

    Toleman, Michelle S; Herbert, Katharine; McCarthy, Noel; Church, David N

    2016-05-01

    Despite substantial morbidity and mortality of influenza and pneumococcal infections in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, vaccination against both illnesses is infrequent. We evaluated the impact of implementation of clinical guidelines on vaccination of chemotherapy patients treated in our institute. We performed a prospective audit before (2012) and after (2013-2014) the introduction of immunisation guidelines for chemotherapy patients in a UK tertiary cancer centre. Guideline implementation was associated with a significant increase in the rate of pneumococcal vaccination compared to the 2012 baseline (47 vs. 25 %, P = 0.0018), though this was not sustained the following year (34 %, P = 0.13, vs. baseline). Influenza vaccine coverage was high (∼ 70 %) throughout. There was a marked disparity between patients aged ≤ 65 and those >65 years in the rate of pneumococcal vaccination in both 2013 and 2014 (38 vs. 68 % and 17 vs. 53 %, respectively, both P < 0.001), and, to a lesser extent, in the rate of influenza vaccination in the same period (64 vs. 82 %, P < 0.1, and 63 vs. 85 %, P = 0.009, respectively). The implementation of clinical vaccine guidelines was associated with a significant increase in pneumococcal vaccination, though continued effort appears required to deliver persistent improvement. Initiatives to increase vaccination uptake in patients aged ≤ 65 are merited.

  19. Clinical practice guidelines in hypertension: a review.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Sosa-Rosado, José Manuel; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis Arturo

    2015-10-23

    The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in hypertension. This is the first in a series of review articles, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Of all clinical practice guidelines, three were selected and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument was used to assess each guide. The guidelines obtained the lowest score in the domain of applicability (mean 43.8%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 81.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the applicability domain (European guideline) and the highest of all scores was found in two domains: scope and purpose, and clarity of presentation (Canadian guideline). Assessing the quality of the clinical practice guidelines analyzed, the Canadian is one with the best scores obtained by applying the AGREE II instrument, and it is advised to be used without modifications.

  20. Clinical practice guideline: tinnitus executive summary.

    PubMed

    Tunkel, David E; Bauer, Carol A; Sun, Gordon H; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Cunningham, Eugene R; Archer, Sanford M; Blakley, Brian W; Carter, John M; Granieri, Evelyn C; Henry, James A; Hollingsworth, Deena; Khan, Fawad A; Mitchell, Scott; Monfared, Ashkan; Newman, Craig W; Omole, Folashade S; Phillips, C Douglas; Robinson, Shannon K; Taw, Malcolm B; Tyler, Richard S; Waguespack, Richard; Whamond, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Tinnitus. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 13 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with tinnitus, including selection and timing of diagnostic testing and specialty referral to identify potential underlying treatable pathology. It will then focus on the evaluation and treatment of patients with persistent primary tinnitus, with recommendations to guide the evaluation and measurement of the impact of tinnitus and to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for tinnitus sufferers.

  1. Clinical practice guideline: acute otitis externa executive summary.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Schwartz, Seth R; Cannon, C Ron; Roland, Peter S; Simon, Geoffrey R; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Huang, William W; Haskell, Helen W; Robertson, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the updated Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute Otitis Externa, as a supplement to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 8 recommendations developed address appropriate diagnosis of acute otitis externa (AOE) and the use of oral and topical antimicrobials and highlight the need for adequate pain relief. An updated guideline is needed due to new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group.

  2. [Clinical guidelines and health services research].

    PubMed

    Schütte, U

    2011-05-01

    Doctors are bound to ensure and improve the quality of their own work. This is a significant part of medical professionalism and lasts one's entire working life. In this regard clinical guidelines provide valuable and helpful information because they give recommendations on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and aftercare based on current evidence. However, in their medical work potential users widely ignore such guidelines. Hence it is necessary to discover barriers to compliance with the guidelines and, based on the findings, to investigate more effective strategies for implementing the guidelines. Analyses and evaluation can be performed by using health services research. Undesirable developments in doctors' daily routines, associated with negative consequences for healthy and ill people, as well as for the economics of health care, can be detected and improvements can be identified systematically. This branch of research has become ever more important - even necessary. It ist likely that the increasing demand for assessing the needs, costs, structural conditions, and quality of health care will confirm the significance of such evaluation.

  3. Guideline Implementation: Prevention of Retained Surgical Items.

    PubMed

    Fencl, Jennifer L

    2016-07-01

    A surgical item unintentionally retained in a patient after an operative or other invasive procedure is a serious, preventable medical error with the potential to cause the patient great harm. Perioperative RNs play a key role in preventing retained surgical items (RSIs). The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of retained surgical items" provides guidance for implementing a consistent, multidisciplinary approach to RSI prevention; accounting for surgical items; preventing retention of device fragments; reconciling count discrepancies; and using adjunct technologies to supplement manual count procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel provide optimal care during a procedure. Key points addressed include taking responsibility for RSI prevention as a team; minimizing distractions, noise, and interruptions during counts; using consistent counting methods; reconciling discrepancies; and participating in performance-improvement activities. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance in writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Visual representation of digital clinical guideline].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qunyi; Guo, Wei; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2009-04-01

    The digital clinical guidelines could greatly improve the safety and quality of clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, most of such guidelines were written in engineering language, which was difficult for clinicians to understand in practice. To tackle this problem, we adoped the flowchart as the visual representation method of digital clinical guidelines. The corresponding criterions expressed by the flowchart were easily understood by clinicians. Then we set the digital clinical guidelines written in Arden syntax as an example, the interconversion between flowcharts and digital clinical guidelines was realized. The result of using the visual representation method proposed in this paper shows that the clinical diagnosis logic becomes clear and intuitive. So this is an effective method for clinicians to understand and edit the digital clinical guidelines.

  5. Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases affecting adults. It is the most common chronic disease in children in the United States today and the fifth most common chronic disease in the United States overall. AR is estimated to affect nearly 1 in every 6 Americans and generates $2 to $5 billion in direct health expenditures annually. It can impair quality of life and, through loss of work and school attendance, is responsible for as much as $2 to $4 billion in lost productivity annually. Not surprisingly, myriad diagnostic tests and treatments are used in managing this disorder, yet there is considerable variation in their use. This clinical practice guideline was undertaken to optimize the care of patients with AR by addressing quality improvement opportunities through an evaluation of the available evidence and an assessment of the harm-benefit balance of various diagnostic and management options. The primary purpose of this guideline is to address quality improvement opportunities for all clinicians, in any setting, who are likely to manage patients with AR as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The guideline is intended to be applicable for both pediatric and adult patients with AR. Children under the age of 2 years were excluded from the clinical practice guideline because rhinitis in this population may be different than in older patients and is not informed by the same evidence base. The guideline is intended to focus on a limited number of quality improvement opportunities deemed most important by the working group and is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for diagnosing and managing AR. The recommendations outlined in the guideline are not intended to represent the standard of care for patient management, nor are the recommendations intended to limit treatment or care provided to individual patients. The development group made a strong

  6. Practice guidelines for tumor marker use in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Catharine

    2002-08-01

    Increasing interest in implementing the practice of evidence-based medicine in oncology has encouraged the development of clinical guidelines, many of which include recommendations about the appropriate use of serum tumor markers. Recent national and international guidelines relating to the use of tumor markers in germ cell, colorectal, breast, ovarian, prostate, lung, neuroendocrine, and thyroid cancers were identified from the scientific literature and other sources and tabulated. Guideline recommendations developed by national and international groups and relating to the use of tumor markers for specific cancers are reviewed and compared, considering the recommendations made for their use in screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of therapy. Potential advantages and disadvantages of clinical guidelines, how best to implement them, and means of auditing their effectiveness are also considered. Excellent clinical guidelines, including recommendations for the most appropriate use of tumor markers, are already available for many cancers. Many questions relating to optimal use of these important tests remain to be answered, but current guidelines already contain much valuable information and advice. Further dissemination and implementation of the guidelines should encourage better use of tumor markers in clinical practice. Careful audit studies are also required to establish the impact of these guidelines on the practice of evidence-based medicine.

  7. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Programmes have had limited success in improving guideline adherence for chronic disease. Use of theory is recommended but is often absent in programmes conducted in ‘real-world’ rather than research settings. Materials and methods This mixed-methods study tested a retrospective theory-based approach to evaluate a ‘real-world’ programme in primary care to improve adherence to national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative data, comprising analysis of documents generated throughout the programme (n>300), in-depth interviews with planners (clinicians, managers and improvement experts involved in devising, planning, and implementing the programme, n = 14) and providers (practice clinicians, n = 14) were used to construct programme theories, experiences of implementation and contextual factors influencing care. Quantitative analyses comprised controlled before-and-after analyses to test ‘early’ and evolved’ programme theories with comparators grounded in each theory. ‘Early’ theory predicted the programme would reduce emergency hospital admissions (EHA). It was tested using national analysis of standardized borough-level EHA rates between programme and comparator boroughs. ‘Evolved’ theory predicted practices with higher programme participation would increase guideline adherence and reduce EHA and costs. It was tested using a difference-in-differences analysis with linked primary and secondary care data to compare changes in diagnosis, management, EHA and costs, over time and by programme participation. Results Contrary to programme planners’ predictions in ‘early’ and ‘evolved’ programme theories, admissions did not change following the programme. However, consistent with ‘evolved’ theory, higher guideline adoption occurred in practices with greater programme participation. Conclusions Retrospectively constructing theories based on the ideas of programme planners can enable evaluators to

  8. [Asthma clinical practice guidelines: advantages and pitfalls].

    PubMed

    Plaza, Vicente; Bellido-Casado, Jesús; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Rodrigo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The Clinical Practice Guidelines on asthma have contributed towards unifying concepts and reaching a consensus on performances between different professional groups. However, they have failed in the overall improvement in the management of asthma, the final objective that they are meant to achieve. Today, almost 20 years after they appeared, the majority of asthmatic patients are still inadequately controlled, partly due to lack of follow up by doctors and the rest of health care staff who have to look after them. This lack of follow up of these recommendations is probably associated with a lack of well structured planning in their circulation and implementation. Also, although the recommendations of these guidelines agree in what is essential, they differ in other aspects, which in turn could be determining factors in clinical practice. The purpose of this article has been to establish the main differences in the recommendations that the principal clinical practice guidelines on the disease propose on the diagnosis, classification and treatment of asthma. To do this we have compared, The British Guideline on the Management of Asthma 2007, The Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention/Global Initiative for Asthma 2006 (GINA), the National Prevention program for Education on Asthma (Programa Nacional de Prevención para la Educación del Asma) (NAEPP), the Spanish Guide for the Management of Asthma (Guía Española para el Manejo del Asma 2003) (GEMA) and the ALAT y SEPAR guides, Latin-America and Spain. Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Asthma Exacerbation (América Latina y España. Recomendaciones para la Prevención y el Tratamiento de la Exacerbación Asmática 2008) (ALERTA).

  9. Supervised versus non-supervised implementation of an oral health care guideline in (residential) care homes: a cluster randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increase of the proportion of elderly people has implications for health care services. Advances in oral health care and treatment have resulted in a reduced number of edentulous individuals. An increasing number of dentate elderly people have tooth wear, periodontal disease, oral implants, and sophisticated restorations and prostheses. Hence, they are in need of both preventive and curative oral health care continuously. Weakened oral health due to neglect of self care and professional care and due to reduced oral health care utilization is already present when elderly people are still community-dwelling. At the moment of (residential) care home admittance, many elderly people are in need of oral health care urgently. The key factor in realizing and maintaining good oral health is daily oral hygiene care. For proper daily oral hygiene care, many residents are dependent on nurses and nurse aides. In 2007, the Dutch guideline "Oral health care in (residential) care homes for elderly people" was developed. Previous implementation research studies have revealed that implementation of a guideline is very complicated. The overall aim of this study is to compare a supervised versus a non-supervised implementation of the guideline in The Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium). Methods/Design The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an institution as unit of randomization. A random sample of 12 (residential) care homes accommodating somatic as well as psycho-geriatric residents in The Netherlands as well as in Flanders (Belgium) are randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. Representative samples of 30 residents in each of the 24 (residential) care homes are monitored during a 6-months period. The intervention consists of supervised implementation of the guideline and a daily oral health care protocol. Primary outcome variable is the oral hygiene level of the participating residents. To determine the stimulating or inhibiting

  10. Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Lipids.

    PubMed

    Tai, E Shyong; Chia, Boon Lock; Bastian, Amber Carla; Chua, Terrance; Ho, Sally Chih Wei; Koh, Teck Siew; Low, Lip Ping; Tey, Jeannie S; Poh, Kian Keong; Tan, Chee Eng; Ting, Peter; Tham, Tat Yean; Toh, Sue-Anne; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-03-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) has updated the Clinical Practice Guidelines on Lipids to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for lipids. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH Clinical Practice Guidelines on Lipids, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html.

  11. High concordance between HercepTest immunohistochemistry and ERBB2 fluorescence in situ hybridization before and after implementation of American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathology 2007 guidelines.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lluri, Maria E; Moatamed, Neda A; Hong, Elizabeth; Apple, Sophia K

    2012-10-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, ERBB2) is an important critical predictive marker in patients with invasive breast cancer. It is thus imperative to ensure accuracy and precision in HER2 and ERBB2 testing. In 2007, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) proposed new guidelines for immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization scoring in an effort to improve accuracy and utility of these companion diagnostic tests. The goal of the 2007 guidelines was to improve concordance rates between the diagnostic tests and decrease the number of inconclusive cases. This study examines the impact in concordance rates and number of inconclusive cases based on the recent change in guidelines in a large study cohort. HER2 immunohistochemistry and ERBB2 fluorescence in-situ hybridization were performed on all specimens from our facility from years 2003 through 2010 (n=1437). Cases from 2003-2007 (n=1016) were scored using Food and Drug Administration guidelines, with immunohistochemical 3+ cases staining >10% of tumor cells and fluorescence in-situ hybridization amplification cutoff value of 2.0. The 2007 guidelines were implemented and scored accordingly for cases from 2008-2010 (n=421), with immunohistochemical 3+ cases staining >30% of tumor cells and fluorescence in-situ hybridization amplification cutoff value of 2.2. We compared concordance rates before and after 2007 guidelines. For the 2003-2007 study population, the concordance rate between the assays was 97.6% with a corresponding kappa coefficient (k) of 0.90. For the 2008-2010 study population, concordance rate was 97.6% with a corresponding k of 0.89. There was no significant difference in number of inconclusive rates before and after 2007 guidelines. In our study, implementation of the new ASCO/CAP 2007 HER2 guidelines did not show a significant difference in concordance rates and did not decrease the number of inconclusive cases.

  12. Continuing Education, Guideline Implementation, and the Emerging Transdisciplinary Field of Knowledge Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dave

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses continuing education and the implementation of clinical practice guidelines or best evidence, quality improvement, and patient safety. Continuing education focuses on the perspective of the adult learner and is guided by well-established educational principles. In contrast, guideline implementation and related concepts…

  13. Guidelines for Implementing Training Effectiveness Evaluation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Clarence A.

    The document presents guidelines for planning, implementing, and documenting training effectiveness evaluations. The guidelines are intended to assist researchers in coping with many of the constraints associated with executing empirical research in operational settings. (NTIS)

  14. Guidelines for Implementing Training Effectiveness Evaluation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Clarence A.

    The document presents guidelines for planning, implementing, and documenting training effectiveness evaluations. The guidelines are intended to assist researchers in coping with many of the constraints associated with executing empirical research in operational settings. (NTIS)

  15. Clinical Guideline: Management of Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Parkman, Henry P.; Shafi, Mehnaz A.; Abell, Thomas L.; Gerson, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This guideline presents recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients with gastroparesis. Gastroparesis is identified in clinical practice through the recognition of the clinical symptoms and documentation of delayed gastric emptying. Symptoms from gastroparesis include nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, and upper abdominal pain. Management of gastroparesis should include assessment and correction of nutritional state, relief of symptoms, improvement of gastric emptying and, in diabetics, glycemic control. Patient nutritional state should be managed by oral dietary modifications. If oral intake is not adequate, then enteral nutrition via jejunostomy tube needs to be considered. Parenteral nutrition is rarely required when hydration and nutritional state cannot be maintained. Medical treatment entails use of prokinetic and antiemetic therapies. Current approved treatment options, including metoclopramide and gastric electrical stimulation (GES, approved on a humanitarian device exemption), do not adequately address clinical need. Antiemetics have not been specifically tested in gastroparesis, but they may relieve nausea and vomiting. Other medications aimed at symptom relief include unapproved medications or off-label indications, and include domperidone, erythromycin (primarily over a short term), and centrally acting antidepressants used as symptom modulators. GES may relieve symptoms, including weekly vomiting frequency, and the need for nutritional supplementation, based on open-label studies. Second-line approaches include venting gastrostomy or feeding jejunostomy; intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection was not effective in randomized controlled trials. Most of these treatments are based on open-label treatment trials and small numbers. Partial gastrectomy and pyloroplasty should be used rarely, only in carefully selected patients. Attention should be given to the development of new effective therapies for

  16. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation

    PubMed Central

    WEITZEL, KRISTIN W.; ELSEY, AMANDA R.; LANGAEE, TAIMOUR Y.; BURKLEY, BENJAMIN; NESSL, DAVID R.; OBENG, ANIWAA OWUSU; STALEY, BENJAMIN J.; DONG, HUI-JIA; ALLAN, ROBERT W.; LIU, J. FELIX; COOPER-DEHOFF, RHONDA M.; ANDERSON, R. DAVID; CONLON, MICHAEL; CLARE-SALZLER, MICHAEL J.; NELSON, DAVID R.; JOHNSON, JULIE A.

    2014-01-01

    Current challenges exist to widespread clinical implementation of genomic medicine and pharmacogenetics. The University of Florida (UF) Health Personalized Medicine Program (PMP) is a pharmacist-led, multidisciplinary initiative created in 2011 within the UF Clinical Translational Science Institute. Initial efforts focused on pharmacogenetics, with long-term goals to include expansion to disease-risk prediction and disease stratification. Herein we describe the processes for development of the program, the challenges that were encountered and the clinical acceptance by clinicians of the genomic medicine implementation. The initial clinical implementation of the UF PMP began in June 2012 and targeted clopidogrel use and the CYP2C19 genotype in patients undergoing left heart catheterization and percutaneous-coronary intervention (PCI). After 1 year, 1,097 patients undergoing left heart catheterization were genotyped preemptively, and 291 of those underwent subsequent PCI. Genotype results were reported to the medical record for 100% of genotyped patients. Eighty patients who underwent PCI had an actionable genotype, with drug therapy changes implemented in 56 individuals. Average turnaround time from blood draw to genotype result entry in the medical record was 3.5 business days. Seven different third party payors, including Medicare, reimbursed for the test during the first month of billing, with an 85% reimbursement rate for outpatient claims that were submitted in the first month. These data highlight multiple levels of success in clinical implementation of genomic medicine. PMID:24616371

  17. Clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    García-González, Xandra; Cabaleiro, Teresa; Herrero, María José; McLeod, Howard; López-Fernández, Luis A

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, pharmacogenetic research has been performed in different fields. However, the application of pharmacogenetic findings to clinical practice has not been as fast as desirable. The current situation of clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics is discussed. This review focuses on the advances of pharmacogenomics to individualize cancer treatments, the relationship between pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics in the clinical course of transplant patients receiving a combination of immunosuppressive therapy, the needs and barriers facing pharmacogenetic clinical application, and the situation of pharmacogenetic testing in Spain. It is based on lectures presented by speakers of the Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenetics Symposium at the VII Conference of the Spanish Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Society, held in April 20, 2015.

  18. Bullous pemphigoid: clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fuertes de Vega, I; Iranzo-Fernández, P; Mascaró-Galy, J M

    2014-05-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease in which autoantibodies are directed against components of the basement membrane. Most of these antibodies belong to the immunoglobulin G class and bind principally to 2 hemidesmosomal proteins: the 180-kD antigen (BP180) and the 230-kD antigen (BP230). It is the most common blistering disease in the adult population in developed countries, with an estimated incidence in Spain of 0.2 to 3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The disease primarily affects older people, although it can also occur in young people and even in children. In recent years, advances in clinical practice have led to a better understanding and improved management of this disorder. These advances include new diagnostic techniques, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for BP180 and new drugs for the treatment of BP, with diverse therapeutic targets. There is, however, still no international consensus on guidelines for the management of BP. This article is an updated review of the scientific literature on the treatment of BP. It focuses primarily on evidence-based recommendations and is written from a practical standpoint based on experience in the routine management of this disease.

  19. Factors affecting speech pathologists' implementation of stroke management guidelines: a thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Miao, Melissa; Power, Emma; O'Halloran, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Although clinical practice guidelines can facilitate evidence-based practice and improve the health outcomes of stroke patients, they continue to be underutilised. There is limited research into the reasons for this, especially in speech pathology. This study provides the first in-depth, qualitative examination of the barriers and facilitators that speech pathologists perceive and experience when implementing guidelines. A maximum variation sample of eight speech pathologists participated in a semi-structured interview concerning the implementation of the National Stroke Foundation's Clinical Guidelines for Stroke Management 2010. Interviews were transcribed, thematically analysed and member checked before overall themes were identified. Three main themes and ten subthemes were identified. The first main theme, making implementation explicit, reflected the necessity of accessing and understanding guideline recommendations, and focussing specifically on implementation in context. In the second theme, demand versus ability to change, the size of changes required was compared with available resources and collaboration. The final theme, Speech pathologist motivation to implement guidelines, demonstrated the influence of individual perception of the guidelines and personal commitment to improved practice. Factors affecting implementation are complex, and are not exclusively barriers or facilitators. Some potential implementation strategies are suggested. Further research is recommended. In most Western nations, stroke remains the single greatest cause of disability, including communication and swallowing disabilities. Although adherence to stroke clinical practice guidelines improves stroke patient outcomes, guidelines continue to be underutilised, and the reasons for this are not well understood. This is the first in-depth qualitative study identifying the complex barriers and facilitators to guideline implementation as experienced by speech pathologists in stroke care

  20. Management recommendations for osteoporosis in clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael; Bolland, Mark; Grey, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Numerous guidelines advise about management of osteoporosis, but little research has been conducted on their recommendations. We analysed recommendations on management of bone health in clinical guidelines. We surveyed recommendations on assessment, treatment and monitoring of bone health in 78 clinical guidelines (22 primary focus osteoporosis, 56 primary focus not osteoporosis) lodged at the Agency for Health Research and Quality National Guidelines Clearinghouse between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2014. Governance of guidelines; discussion of fracture risk in the target population; recommendations for assessment, treatment and monitoring of bone health. Only 14% of guidelines discussed fracture risk in the target population. When guidelines discussed assessment, 98% recommended bone mineral density (BMD) measurement but only 27% recommended estimation of fracture risk. When guidelines discussed treatment, 63-71% recommended calcium and/or vitamin D, while <12% recommended avoiding low body weight or smoking cessation. When guidelines discussed intervention, 53% did so on the basis of BMD measurement, and only 27% on the basis of estimated fracture risk. When guidelines discussed monitoring, >90% recommended BMD measurements, and only 3% recommended estimation of fracture risk. About 65% of guidelines that suggested a BMD monitoring interval recommended one of ≤3 years. Compared to guidelines with a primary focus on osteoporosis, guidelines whose primary focus was not osteoporosis were less likely to discuss fracture risk in the target population (2% vs 45%), recommend estimation of fracture risk (11% vs 55%) and recommend intervention on the basis of estimated fracture risk (10% vs 67%) (all P < 0·005). Our findings highlight a strong focus in clinical guidelines on BMD, a surrogate measure, rather than fracture risk, the clinically important outcome, particularly when bone health is not the primary focus. Addressing this issue might facilitate more rational use of

  1. Improving clinical practice guidelines for practicing cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Dwyer, Edward M; Eberly, Shirley; Francis, Charles; Gillespie, John A; Goldstein, Robert E; Greenberg, Henry; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald J; Klein, Helmut; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Marcus, Frank I; Moss, Arthur J; Oakes, David; Ryan, Daniel H; Bloch Thomsen, Poul E; Zareba, Wojciech

    2015-06-15

    Cardiac-related clinical practice guidelines have become an integral part of the practice of cardiology. Unfortunately, these guidelines are often long, complex, and difficult for practicing cardiologists to use. Guidelines should be condensed and their format upgraded, so that the key messages are easier to comprehend and can be applied more readily by those involved in patient care. After presenting the historical background and describing the guideline structure, we make several recommendations to make clinical practice guidelines more user-friendly for clinical cardiologists. Our most important recommendations are that the clinical cardiology guidelines should focus exclusively on (1) class I recommendations with established benefits that are supported by randomized clinical trials and (2) class III recommendations for diagnostic or therapeutic approaches in which quality studies show no benefit or possible harm. Class II recommendations are not evidence based but reflect expert opinions related to published clinical studies, with potential for personal bias by members of the guideline committee. Class II recommendations should be published separately as "Expert Consensus Statements" or "Task Force Committee Opinions," so that both majority and minority expert opinions can be presented in a less dogmatic form than the way these recommendations currently appear in clinical practice guidelines.

  2. Why we do what we do: implementation of practice guidelines by family nurse practitioner students.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frances

    2008-10-01

    To examine who or what influenced family nurse practitioner (FNP) students' implementation of Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Blood Pressure (JNC-7) guidelines for hypertension management. Eleven FNP students in their final semester completed a clinical course assignment in which they each provided care to five patients with hypertension (N = 55). Written responses to a 10-item tool eliciting patient management data as well as perceived barriers or facilitators to using JNC-7 clinical guidelines in precepted clinical settings were analyzed. The extent to which JNC-7 guidelines predicted clinical management of hypertension by student FNPs in primary care settings was congruent with the literature findings, reflecting a wide variation in implementation of guidelines from evidence-based practice (EBP) data. The literature supports utilization of clinical guidelines in patient care. Yet, implementation of guidelines in clinical practice is a complex phenomenon. Practitioners are looking for reliable evidence on which to base decision making. In the long term, EBP addresses some of the complexities of effective care delivery. The current trend is toward increasing utilization of evidence in caring for our patients. Implementation of EBP guidelines by preceptors in the workplace should increase as NP preceptors serve as role models of EBP implementation. Rewards may be important factors in implementation.

  3. Introducing the Canadian Thoracic Society framework for guideline dissemination and implementation, with concurrent evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Samir; Licskai, Christopher; Van Dam, Anne; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) is leveraging its strengths in guideline production to enable respiratory guideline implementation in Canada. The authors describe the new CTS Framework for Guideline Dissemination and Implementation, with Concurrent Evaluation, which has three spheres of action: guideline production, implementation infrastructure and knowledge translation (KT) methodological support. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research 'Knowledge-to-Action' process was adopted as the model of choice for conceptualizing KT interventions. Within the framework, new evidence for formatting guideline recommendations to enhance the intrinsic implementability of future guidelines were applied. Clinical assemblies will consider implementability early in the guideline production cycle when selecting clinical questions, and new practice guidelines will include a section dedicated to KT. The framework describes the development of a web-based repository and communication forum to inventory existing KT resources and to facilitate collaboration and communication among implementation stakeholders through an online discussion board. A national forum for presentation and peer-review of proposed KT projects is described. The framework outlines expert methodological support for KT planning, development and evaluation including a practical guide for implementers and a novel 'Clinical Assembly-KT Action Team', and in-kind logistical support and assistance in securing peer-reviewed funding.

  4. Reflections on Implementing the ITC's International Guidelines for Test Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, Cheryl D.

    2001-01-01

    Considers ways to implement the International Guidelines for Test Use (International Test Commission, 2001) to maximize their intended impact . The process calls for customizing the guidelines for specific assessment contexts and needs and using the guidelines to generate competency standards. (SLD)

  5. [Elaboration and critical evaluation of clinical guidelines].

    PubMed

    García Villar, C

    2015-11-01

    Clinical guidelines are documents to help professionals and patients select the best diagnostic or therapeutic option. Elaborating guidelines requires an efficient literature search and a critical evaluation of the articles found to select the most appropriate ones. After that, the recommendations are formulated and then must be externally evaluated before they can be disseminated. Even when the guidelines are very thorough and rigorous, it is important to know whether they fulfill all the methodological requisites before applying them. With this aim, various scales have been developed to critically appraise guidelines. Of these, the AGREE II instrument is currently the most widely used. This article explains the main steps in elaborating clinical guidelines and the main aspects that should be analyzed to know whether the guidelines are well written.

  6. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitating patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. The guideline is intended for all clinicians in any setting who are likely to diagnose and manage patients with Bell's palsy. The target population is inclusive of both adults and children presenting with Bell's palsy. ACTION STATEMENTS: The development group made a strong recommendation that (a) clinicians should assess the patient using history and physical examination to exclude identifiable causes of facial paresis or paralysis in patients presenting with acute-onset unilateral facial paresis or paralysis, (b) clinicians should prescribe oral steroids within 72 hours of symptom onset for Bell's palsy patients 16 years and older, (c) clinicians should not prescribe oral antiviral therapy alone for patients with new-onset Bell's palsy, and (d) clinicians should implement eye protection for Bell's palsy patients with impaired eye closure. The panel made recommendations that (a) clinicians should not obtain routine laboratory testing in patients with new-onset Bell's palsy, (b) clinicians should not routinely perform diagnostic imaging for patients with new-onset Bell's palsy, (c) clinicians should not perform electrodiagnostic testing in Bell's palsy patients with incomplete facial paralysis, and (d) clinicians should reassess or refer to a facial nerve specialist those Bell's palsy patients with (1) new or worsening neurologic findings at any point, (2) ocular symptoms developing at any point, or (3) incomplete facial recovery 3 months after initial symptom onset. The development group provided the following options: (a) clinicians may offer oral antiviral therapy in addition to oral steroids within 72 hours of symptom onset for patients with Bell's palsy, and (b) clinicians may offer electrodiagnostic testing to Bell's palsy patients with complete

  7. The shortcomings of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Leier, Carl V; Geleris, Paraschos; Boudoulas, Harisios

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of medical knowledge related to diagnosis and management over the last 5-6 decades has altered the course of diseases, improved clinical outcomes and increased survival. Thus, it has become difficult for the practicing physician to evaluate the long-term effects of a particular therapy on survival of an individual patient. Further, the approach by each physician to an individual patient with the same disease is not always uniform. In an attempt to assist physicians in applying newly acquired knowledge to patients, clinical practice guidelines were introduced by various scientific societies. Guidelines assist in facilitating the translation of new research discoveries into clinical practice; however, despite the improvements over the years, there are still several issues related to guidelines that often appear ‘lost in translation'. Guidelines are based on the results of randomized clinical trials, other nonrandomized studies, and expert opinion (i.e. the opinion of most members of the guideline committees). The merits and limitations of randomized clinical trials, guideline committees, and presentation of guidelines will be discussed. In addition, proposals to improve guidelines will be presented.

  8. Translation of hypertension treatment guidelines into practice: a review of implementation.

    PubMed

    Handler, Joel; Lackland, Daniel T

    2011-01-01

    Compared with the history of national guideline development, the science attached to implementation of guidelines is relatively new. Effectiveness of a highly evidence-based guideline, such as the 8th Joint National Committee recommendations on the treatment of high blood pressure, depends on successful translation into clinical practice. Implementation relies on several steps: clear and executable guideline language, audit and feedback attached to education of practitioners charged with carrying out the guidelines, team-based care delivery, credibility of blood pressure measurement, and measures to address therapeutic inertia and medication adherence. An evolving role of the electronic health record and patient empowerment are developments that will further promote implementation of the hypertension guideline. Further research will be needed to assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of various implementation tools and strategies. Copyright © 2011 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development

    PubMed Central

    Gagnier, Joel J; Kienle, Gunver; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Sox, Harold; Riley, David

    2013-01-01

    A case report is a narrative that describes, for medical, scientific or educational purposes, a medical problem experienced by one or more patients. Case reports written without guidance from reporting standards are insufficiently rigorous to guide clinical practice or to inform clinical study design. Develop, disseminate and implement systematic reporting guidelines for case reports. We used a three-phase consensus process consisting of (1) premeeting literature review and interviews to generate items for the reporting guidelines, (2) a face-to-face consensus meeting to draft the reporting guidelines and (3) postmeeting feedback, review and pilot testing, followed by finalisation of the case report guidelines. This consensus process involved 27 participants and resulted in a 13-item checklist—a reporting guideline for case reports. The primary items of the checklist are title, key words, abstract, introduction, patient information, clinical findings, timeline, diagnostic assessment, therapeutic interventions, follow-up and outcomes, discussion, patient perspective and informed consent. We believe the implementation of the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines by medical journals will improve the completeness and transparency of published case reports and that the systematic aggregation of information from case reports will inform clinical study design, provide early signals of effectiveness and harms, and improve healthcare delivery. PMID:24155002

  10. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development.

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Joel J; Kienle, Gunver; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Sox, Harold; Riley, David

    2013-10-23

    A case report is a narrative that describes, for medical, scientific or educational purposes, a medical problem experienced by one or more patients. Case reports written without guidance from reporting standards are insufficiently rigorous to guide clinical practice or to inform clinical study design. Develop, disseminate and implement systematic reporting guidelines for case reports. We used a three-phase consensus process consisting of (1) premeeting literature review and interviews to generate items for the reporting guidelines, (2) a face-to-face consensus meeting to draft the reporting guidelines and (3) postmeeting feedback, review and pilot testing, followed by finalisation of the case report guidelines. This consensus process involved 27 participants and resulted in a 13-item checklist-a reporting guideline for case reports. The primary items of the checklist are title, key words, abstract, introduction, patient information, clinical findings, timeline, diagnostic assessment, therapeutic interventions, follow-up and outcomes, discussion, patient perspective and informed consent. We believe the implementation of the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines by medical journals will improve the completeness and transparency of published case reports and that the systematic aggregation of information from case reports will inform clinical study design, provide early signals of effectiveness and harms, and improve healthcare delivery.

  11. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development.

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Joel J; Kienle, Gunver; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Sox, Harold; Riley, David

    2013-01-01

    A case report is a narrative that describes, for medical, scientific, or educational purposes, a medical problem experienced by one or more patients. Case reports written without guidance from reporting standards are insufficiently rigorous to guide clinical practice or to inform clinical study design. Develop, disseminate, and implement systematic reporting guidelines for case reports. We used a three-phase consensus process consisting of (1) pre-meeting literature review and interviews to generate items for the reporting guidelines, (2) a face-to-face consensus meeting to draft the reporting guidelines, and (3) post-meeting feedback, review, and pilot testing, followed by finalization of the case report guidelines. This consensus process involved 27 participants and resulted in a 13-item checklist-a reporting guideline for case reports. The primary items of the checklist are title, key words, abstract, introduction, patient information, clinical findings, timeline, diagnostic assessment, therapeutic interventions, follow-up and outcomes, discussion, patient perspective, and informed consent. We believe the implementation of the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines by medical journals will improve the completeness and transparency of published case reports and that the systematic aggregation of information from case reports will inform clinical study design, provide early signals of effectiveness and harms, and improve healthcare delivery. © 2013 Gagnier et al.; licensee Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development.

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Joel J; Kienle, Gunver; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Sox, Harold; Riley, David

    2013-09-10

    A case report is a narrative that describes, for medical, scientific, or educational purposes, a medical problem experienced by one or more patients. Case reports written without guidance from reporting standards are insufficiently rigorous to guide clinical practice or to inform clinical study design.Primary Objective. Develop, disseminate, and implement systematic reporting guidelines for case reports. We used a three-phase consensus process consisting of (1) pre-meeting literature review and interviews to generate items for the reporting guidelines, (2) a face-to-face consensus meeting to draft the reporting guidelines, and (3) post-meeting feedback, review, and pilot testing, followed by finalization of the case report guidelines. This consensus process involved 27 participants and resulted in a 13-item checklist-a reporting guideline for case reports. The primary items of the checklist are title, key words, abstract, introduction, patient information, clinical findings, timeline, diagnostic assessment, therapeutic interventions, follow-up and outcomes, discussion, patient perspective, and informed consent. We believe the implementation of the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines by medical journals will improve the completeness and transparency of published case reports and that the systematic aggregation of information from case reports will inform clinical study design, provide early signals of effectiveness and harms, and improve healthcare delivery.

  13. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development.

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Joel J; Riley, David; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Sox, Harold; Kienle, Gunver

    2013-09-01

    A case report is a narrative that describes, for medical, scientific, or educational purposes, a medical problem experienced by one or more patients. Case reports written without guidance from reporting standards are insufficiently rigorous to guide clinical practice or to inform clinical study design. Our primary objective was to develop, disseminate, and implement systematic reporting guidelines for case reports. We used a three-phase consensus process consisting of (1) pre-meeting literature review and interviews to generate items for the reporting guidelines, (2) a face-to-face consensus meeting to draft the reporting guidelines, and (3) post-meeting feedback, review, and pilot testing, followed by finalization of the case reporting guidelines. This consensus process involved 27 participants and resulted in a 13-item checklist-a reporting guideline for case reports. The primary items of the checklist are title, key words, abstract, introduction, patient information, clinical findings, timeline, diagnostic assessment, therapeutic interventions, follow-up and outcomes, discussion, patient perspective, and informed consent. We believe the implementation of the CARE (CAse REporting) guidelines by medical journals will improve the completeness and transparency of published case reports and that the systematic aggregation of information from case reports will inform clinical study design, provide early signals of effectiveness and harms, and improve healthcare delivery.

  14. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case report guideline development.

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Joel J; Kienle, Gunver; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Sox, Harold; Riley, David

    2013-12-01

    A case report is a narrative that describes, for medical, scientific, or educational purposes, a medical problem experienced by one or more patients. Case reports written without guidance from reporting standards are insufficiently rigorous to guide clinical practice or to inform clinical study design. Develop, disseminate, and implement systematic reporting guidelines for case reports. We used a three-phase consensus process consisting of (a) pre-meeting literature review and interviews to generate items for the reporting guidelines; (b) a face-to-face consensus meeting to draft the reporting guidelines; and (c) post-meeting feedback, review, and pilot testing, followed by finalization of the case report guidelines. This consensus process involved 27 participants and resulted in a 13-item checklist-a reporting guideline for case reports. The primary items of the checklist are title, key words, abstract, introduction, patient information, clinical findings, timeline, diagnostic assessment, therapeutic interventions, follow-up and outcomes, discussion, patient perspective, and informed consent. We believe the implementation of the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines by medical journals will improve the completeness and transparency of published case reports and that the systematic aggregation of information from case reports will inform clinical study design, provide early signals of effectiveness and harms, and improve healthcare delivery.

  15. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case report guideline development.

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Joel J; Kienle, Gunver; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Sox, Harold; Riley, David

    2014-01-01

    A case report is a narrative that describes, for medical, scientific, or educational purposes, a medical problem experienced by one or more patients. Case reports written without guidance from reporting standards are insufficiently rigorous to guide clinical practice or to inform clinical study design. Develop, disseminate, and implement systematic reporting guidelines for case reports. We used a three-phase consensus process consisting of (1) pre-meeting literature review and interviews to generate items for the reporting guidelines, (2) a face-to-face consensus meeting to draft the reporting guidelines, and (3) post-meeting feedback, review, and pilot testing, followed by finalization of the case report guidelines. This consensus process involved 27 participants and resulted in a 13-item checklist-a reporting guideline for case reports. The primary items of the checklist are title, key words, abstract, introduction, patient information, clinical findings, timeline, diagnostic assessment, therapeutic interventions, follow-up and outcomes, discussion, patient perspective, and informed consent. We believe the implementation of the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines by medical journals will improve the completeness and transparency of published case reports and that the systematic aggregation of information from case reports will inform clinical study design, provide early signals of effectiveness and harms, and improve healthcare delivery. Copyright © 2014 Reproduced with permission of Global Advances in Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Overcoming the obstacles of implementing infection prevention and control guidelines.

    PubMed

    Birgand, G; Johansson, A; Szilagyi, E; Lucet, J-C

    2015-12-01

    Reasons for a successful or unsuccessful implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines are often multiple and interconnected. This article reviews key elements from the national to the individual level that contribute to the success of the implementation of IPC measures and gives perspectives for improvement. Governance approaches, modes of communication and formats of guidelines are discussed with a view to improve collaboration and transparency among actors. The culture of IPC influences practices and varies according to countries, specialties and healthcare providers. We describe important contextual aspects, such as relationships between actors and resources and behavioural features including professional background or experience. Behaviour change techniques providing goal-setting, feedback and action planning have proved effective in mobilizing participants and may be key to trigger social movements of implementation. The leadership of international societies in coordinating actions at international, national and institutional levels using multidisciplinary approaches and fostering collaboration among clinical microbiology, infectious diseases and IPC will be essential for success. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality of clinical practice guidelines in delirium: a systematic appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Marchington, Katie L; Agar, Meera; Davis, Daniel H J; Sikora, Lindsey; Tsang, Tammy W Y

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the accessibility and currency of delirium guidelines, guideline summary papers and evaluation studies, and critically appraise guideline quality. Design Systematic literature search for formal guidelines (in English or French) with focus on delirium assessment and/or management in adults (≥18 years), guideline summary papers and evaluation studies. Full appraisal of delirium guidelines published between 2008 and 2013 and obtaining a ‘Rigour of Development’ domain screening score cut-off of >40% using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument. Data sources Multiple bibliographic databases, guideline organisation databases, complemented by a grey literature search. Results 3327 database citations and 83 grey literature links were identified. A total of 118 retrieved delirium guidelines and related documents underwent full-text screening. A final 21 delirium guidelines (with 10 being >5 years old), 12 guideline summary papers and 3 evaluation studies were included. For 11 delirium guidelines published between 2008 and 2013, the screening AGREE II ‘Rigour’ scores ranged from 3% to 91%, with seven meeting the cut-off score of >40%. Overall, the highest rating AGREE II domains were ‘Scope and Purpose’ (mean 80.1%, range 64–100%) and ‘Clarity and Presentation’ (mean 76.7%, range 38–97%). The lowest rating domains were ‘Applicability’ (mean 48.7%, range 8–81%) and ‘Editorial Independence’ (mean 53%, range 2–90%). The three highest rating guidelines in the ‘Applicability’ domain incorporated monitoring criteria or audit and costing templates, and/or implementation strategies. Conclusions Delirium guidelines are best sourced by a systematic grey literature search. Delirium guideline quality varied across all six AGREE II domains, demonstrating the importance of using a formal appraisal tool prior to guideline adaptation and implementation into clinical settings. Adding more

  18. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.

  19. Dentists United to Extinguish Tobacco (DUET): a study protocol for a cluster randomized, controlled trial for enhancing implementation of clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco dependence in dental care settings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although dental care settings provide an exceptional opportunity to reach smokers and provide brief cessation advice and treatment to reduce oral and other tobacco-related health conditions, dental care providers demonstrate limited adherence to evidence-based guidelines for treatment of tobacco use and dependence. Methods/Design Guided by a multi-level, conceptual framework that emphasizes changes in provider beliefs and organizational characteristics as drivers of improvement in tobacco treatment delivery, the current protocol will use a cluster, randomized design and multiple data sources (patient exit interviews, provider surveys, site observations, chart audits, and semi-structured provider interviews) to study the process of implementing clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco dependence in 18 public dental care clinics in New York City. The specific aims of this comparative-effectiveness research trial are to: compare the effectiveness of three promising strategies for implementation of tobacco use treatment guidelines—staff training and current best practices (CBP), CBP + provider performance feedback (PF), and CBP + PF + provider reimbursement for delivery of tobacco cessation treatment (pay-for-performance, or P4P); examine potential theory-driven mechanisms hypothesized to explain the comparative effectiveness of three strategies for implementation; and identify baseline organizational factors that influence the implementation of evidence-based tobacco use treatment practices in dental clinics. The primary outcome is change in providers’ tobacco treatment practices and the secondary outcomes are cost per quit, use of tobacco cessation treatments, quit attempts, and smoking abstinence. Discussion We hypothesize that the value of these promising implementation strategies is additive and that incorporating all three strategies (CBP, PF, and P4P) will be superior to CBP alone and CBP + PF in improving delivery of

  20. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 7: Guidelines for EEG Reporting.

    PubMed

    Tatum, William O; Olga, Selioutski; Ochoa, Juan G; Munger Clary, Heidi; Cheek, Janna; Drislane, Frank; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2016-08-01

    This EEG Guideline incorporates the practice of structuring a report of results obtained during routine adult electroencephalography. It is intended to reflect one of the current practices in reporting an EEG and serves as a revision of the previous guideline entitled "Writing an EEG Report." The goal of this guideline is not only to convey clinically relevant information, but also to improve interrater reliability for clinical and research use by standardizing the format of EEG reports. With this in mind, there is expanded documentation of the patient history to include more relevant clinical information that can affect the EEG recording and interpretation. Recommendations for the technical conditions of the recording are also enhanced to include post hoc review parameters and type of EEG recording. Sleep feature documentation is also expanded upon. More descriptive terms are included for background features and interictal discharges that are concordant with efforts to standardize terminology. In the clinical correlation section, examples of common clinical scenarios are now provided that encourages uniformity in reporting. Including digital samples of abnormal waveforms is now readily available with current EEG recording systems and may be beneficial in augmenting reports when controversial waveforms or important features are encountered.

  1. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  2. A cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to facilitate the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines in Latin American maternity hospitals: the Guidelines Trial: Study protocol [ISRCTN82417627

    PubMed Central

    Althabe, Fernando; Buekens, Pierre; Bergel, Eduardo; Belizán, José M; Kropp, Nora; Wright, Linda; Goco, Norman; Moss, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Background A significant proportion of the health care administered to women in Latin American maternity hospitals during labor and delivery has been demonstrated to be ineffective or harmful, whereas effective interventions remain underutilized. The routine use of episiotomies and the failure to use active management of the third stage of labor are good examples. Methods/Design The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted behavioral intervention on the use of two evidence-based birth practices, the selective use of episiotomies and active management of the third stage of labor (injection of 10 International Units of oxytocin). The intervention is based on behavioral and organizational change theories and was based on formative research. Twenty-four hospitals in three urban districts of Argentina and Uruguay will be randomized. Opinion leaders in the 12 intervention hospitals will be identified and trained to develop and implement evidence-based guidelines. They will then disseminate the guidelines using a multifaceted approach including academic detailing, reminders, and feedback on utilization rates. The 12 hospitals in the control group will continue with their standard in-service training activities. The main outcomes to be assessed are the rates of episiotomy and oxytocin use during the third stage of labor. Secondary outcomes will be perineal sutures, postpartum hemorrhages, and birth attendants' opinions. PMID:15823211

  3. A new impetus for guideline development and implementation: construction and evaluation of a toolbox.

    PubMed

    Hilbink, Mirrian A H W; Ouwens, Marielle M T J; Burgers, Jako S; Kool, Rudolf B

    2014-03-19

    In the last decade, guideline organizations faced a number of problems, including a lack of standardization in guideline development methods and suboptimal guideline implementation. To contribute to the solution of these problems, we produced a toolbox for guideline development, implementation, revision, and evaluation. All relevant guideline organizations in the Netherlands were approached to prioritize the topics. We sent out a questionnaire and discussed the results at an invitational conference. Based on consensus, twelve topics were selected for the development of new tools. Subsequently, working groups were composed for the development of the tools. After development of the tools, their draft versions were pilot tested in 40 guideline projects. Based on the results of the pilot tests, the tools were refined and their final versions were presented. The vast majority of organizations involved in pilot testing of the tools reported satisfaction with using the tools. Guideline experts involved in pilot testing of the tools proposed a variety of suggestions for the implementation of the tools. The tools are available in Dutch and in English at a web-based platform on guideline development and implementation (http://www.ha-ring.nl). A collaborative approach was used for the development and evaluation of a toolbox for development, implementation, revision, and evaluation of guidelines. This approach yielded a potentially powerful toolbox for improving the quality and implementation of Dutch clinical guidelines. Collaboration between guideline organizations within this project led to stronger linkages, which is useful for enhancing coordination of guideline development and implementation and preventing duplication of efforts. Use of the toolbox could improve quality standards in the Netherlands, and might facilitate the development of high-quality guidelines in other countries as well.

  4. A new impetus for guideline development and implementation: construction and evaluation of a toolbox

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last decade, guideline organizations faced a number of problems, including a lack of standardization in guideline development methods and suboptimal guideline implementation. To contribute to the solution of these problems, we produced a toolbox for guideline development, implementation, revision, and evaluation. Methods All relevant guideline organizations in the Netherlands were approached to prioritize the topics. We sent out a questionnaire and discussed the results at an invitational conference. Based on consensus, twelve topics were selected for the development of new tools. Subsequently, working groups were composed for the development of the tools. After development of the tools, their draft versions were pilot tested in 40 guideline projects. Based on the results of the pilot tests, the tools were refined and their final versions were presented. Results The vast majority of organizations involved in pilot testing of the tools reported satisfaction with using the tools. Guideline experts involved in pilot testing of the tools proposed a variety of suggestions for the implementation of the tools. The tools are available in Dutch and in English at a web-based platform on guideline development and implementation (http://www.ha-ring.nl). Conclusions A collaborative approach was used for the development and evaluation of a toolbox for development, implementation, revision, and evaluation of guidelines. This approach yielded a potentially powerful toolbox for improving the quality and implementation of Dutch clinical guidelines. Collaboration between guideline organizations within this project led to stronger linkages, which is useful for enhancing coordination of guideline development and implementation and preventing duplication of efforts. Use of the toolbox could improve quality standards in the Netherlands, and might facilitate the development of high-quality guidelines in other countries as well. PMID:24641971

  5. Implementing the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus admission care (ETAT+) clinical practice guidelines to improve quality of hospital care in Rwandan district hospitals: healthcare workers' perspectives on relevance and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hategeka, Celestin; Mwai, Leah; Tuyisenge, Lisine

    2017-04-07

    from the mode of the ETAT+ training delivery (e.g., language barriers, intense training schedule); while others were more related to uptake of guidelines in the district hospitals (e.g., staff turnover, reluctance to change, limited resources, conflicting protocols). This study highlights potential challenges to successful implementation of the ETAT+ clinical practice guidelines in order to improve quality of hospital care in Rwandan district hospitals. Understanding these challenges, especially from HCWs perspective, can guide efforts to improve uptake of clinical practice guidelines including ETAT+ in Rwanda.

  6. Clinical practice guideline (update): Adult Sinusitis Executive Summary.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Brook, Itzhak; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Kramper, Maggie; Orlandi, Richard R; Palmer, James N; Patel, Zara M; Peters, Anju; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2015-04-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation has published a supplement to this issue featuring the updated "Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis" as a supplement to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 developed recommendations address diagnostic accuracy for adult rhinosinusitis, the appropriate use of ancillary tests to confirm diagnosis and guide management (including radiography, nasal endoscopy, computed tomography, and testing for allergy and immune function), and the judicious use of systemic and topical therapy. Emphasis was also placed on identifying multiple chronic conditions that would modify management of rhinosinusitis, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, immunocompromised state, and ciliary dyskinesia. An updated guideline is needed as a result of new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group.

  7. Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media with Effusion Executive Summary (Update).

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shin, Jennifer J; Schwartz, Seth R; Coggins, Robyn; Gagnon, Lisa; Hackell, Jesse M; Hoelting, David; Hunter, Lisa L; Kummer, Ann W; Payne, Spencer C; Poe, Dennis S; Veling, Maria; Vila, Peter M; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation has published a supplement to this issue of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery featuring the updated "Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media with Effusion." To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 18 recommendations developed emphasize diagnostic accuracy, identification of children who are most susceptible to developmental sequelae from otitis media with effusion, and education of clinicians and patients regarding the favorable natural history of most otitis media with effusion and the lack of efficacy for medical therapy (eg, steroids, antihistamines, decongestants). An updated guideline is needed due to new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group.

  8. [The German program for disease management guidelines--implementation with pathways and quality management].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, Günter; Lelgemann, Monika; Kopp, Ina

    2007-07-15

    In Germany, physicians enrolled in disease management programs are legally obliged to follow evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. That is why a Program for National Disease Management Guidelines (German DM-CPG Program) was established in 2002 aiming at implementation of best-practice evidence-based recommendations for nationwide as well as regional disease management programs. Against this background the article reviews programs, methods and tools for implementing DM-CPGs via clinical pathways as well as regional guidelines for outpatient care. Special reference is given to the institutionalized program of adapting DM-CPGs for regional use by primary-care physicians in the State of Hesse.

  9. Implementing guidelines: Proposed definitions of neuropsychology services in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Baum, Katherine T; Powell, Stephanie K; Jacobson, Lisa A; Gragert, Marsha N; Janzen, Laura A; Paltin, Iris; Rey-Casserly, Celiane M; Wilkening, Greta N

    2017-08-01

    Several organizations have published guidelines for the neuropsychological care of survivors of childhood cancer. However, there is limited consensus in how these guidelines are applied. The model of neuropsychology service delivery is further complicated by the variable terminology used to describe recommended services. In an important first step to translate published guidelines into clinical practice, this paper proposes definitions for specific neuropsychological processes and services, with the goal of facilitating consistency across sites to foster future clinical program development and to clarify clinical practice guidelines. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Automating Performance Measures and Clinical Practice Guidelines: Differences and Complementarities

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Samson W.; Martins, Susana; Oshiro, Connie; Yuen, Kaeli; Wang, Dan; Robinson, Amy; Ashcraft, Michael; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Through close analysis of two pairs of systems that implement the automated evaluation of performance measures (PMs) and guideline-based clinical decision support (CDS), we contrast differences in their knowledge encoding and necessary changes to a CDS system that provides management recommendations for patients failing performance measures. We trace the sources of differences to the implementation environments and goals of PMs and CDS. PMID:28269917

  11. Guideline implementation: preoperative patient skin antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    Performing preoperative skin antisepsis to remove soil and microorganisms at the surgical site may help prevent patients from developing a surgical site infection. The updated AORN "Guideline for preoperative skin antisepsis" addresses the topics of preoperative patient bathing and hair removal, selection and application of skin antiseptics, and safe handling, storage, and disposal of skin antiseptics. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel develop protocols for patient skin antisepsis. The key points include the need for the patient to take a preoperative bath or shower and the need for perioperative personnel to manage hair at the surgical site, select a safe and effective antiseptic for the individual patient, perform a safe preoperative surgical site prep, and appropriately store skin antiseptics. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  12. Implementing clinical practice guidelines for screening and detection of delirium in a 21-hospital system in northern California: real challenges in performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Adams, Carmen L; Scruth, Elizabeth Ann; Andrade, Christina; Maynard, Susan; Snow, Kathryn; Olson, Terry L; Ingerson, Stephen D; Duffy, Barbara A; Cheng, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe a quality improvement process on a diverse adult intensive care unit (ICU) population for a large healthcare organization for early detection of delirium. Delirium is often considered a common unpreventable problem in the ICU. A process for early detection of delirium allows the critical care team to evaluate the patient and intervene to improve or reverse the delirium. A business case was first developed, and then using performance improvement methodology combined with quality improvement methods and oversight from a Delirium/Sedation Workgroup, an implementation plan was developed. Intensive care clinical nurse specialists were educated; patients in the ICU were screened for delirium twice daily by bedside nurses using the Confusion Assessment Method. The clinical nurse specialist in each ICU was instrumental for driving the process of change and supporting the bedside nurse and physicians to discuss preventing, screening, and treating delirium. System-wide process implementation was completed in 1 year, 2011. In 2012, all medical centers had a program in place to decrease the use of benzodiazepines and improve communication in the multidisciplinary teams during daily rounds about the treatment and prevention of delirium. The process of performance improvement is ongoing with continual reassessment and feedback required to ensure sustainability. Performance improvement involving 21 medical centers is a large-scale undertaking by an organization. It requires a systematic approach with key stakeholders and advanced practice nurses as subject matter experts involved throughout all phases of the implementation. Bedside clinicians assessing the patient must feel supported and valued members of the process. Challenges of all care providers need to be acknowledged and addressed.

  13. Clinical Guidelines. Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Bonnie

    This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…

  14. Clinical Guidelines. Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Bonnie

    This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…

  15. Barriers to ESC guideline implementation: results of a survey from the European Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (CCNAP).

    PubMed

    McKee, Gabrielle; Kerins, Mary; Hamilton, Glenys; Hansen, Tina; Hendriks, Jeroen; Kletsiou, Eleni; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Jennings, Catriona; Fitzsimons, Donna

    2017-05-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has a comprehensive clinical guideline development programme, relevant for all clinicians. However, implementation of guidelines is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to determine nurses' and allied professionals' awareness and barriers regarding clinical guideline implementation. A cross-sectional survey was administrated online and in print at EuroHeartCare 2015. A questionnaire was developed which examined awareness and barriers to implementation of ESC guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (2012) and ESC guidelines in general. Of the 298 respondents, 12% reported that the prevention guidelines were used in their practice area. Respondents identified, in order of magnitude, that lack of leadership, workload, time, resources and a perception that they were unable to influence current practice were barriers to the use of the prevention guidelines. When asked to rank barriers to use of any ESC guidelines, time (22%) and leadership (23%) were ranked highest. Implementation of ESC guidelines by nurses, the majority responders in this survey, is a serious problem, requiring urgent improvement to ensure patients receive optimal evidence based care. Issues of leadership, workload, time and resources are significant barriers to guideline implementation. It is of concern that these professionals perceive both that they have little influence on implementation decisions and lack of leadership regarding guideline implementation. Educational and organisational strategies to improve leadership skills are imperative. These will build self-efficacy and empower nurses and allied professionals to advocate for evidence-based care in the clinical environment.

  16. Procedures for Using Clinical Practice Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Patricia; Griffer, Mona; Lund, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides information about clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to facilitate their application to the practice of speech-language pathology. CPGs are sets of recommendations based on evidence, including expert clinical opinion, that have been developed by a panel of reviewers. In this article, CPGs are defined and their…

  17. The updated clinical guideline development process in Estonia is an efficient method for developing evidence-based guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne; Habicht, Jarno; Mathiesen, Mari; Starkopf, Joel

    2013-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the tools available to improve the quality of health care. However, it may be difficult for countries to develop their own national guidelines "from scratch" because of limitations in time, expertise, and financial resources. The Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), in collaboration with other stakeholders, has launched a national effort to develop and implement evidence-based clinical practice guidelines aimed at improving the quality of care. Although the first EHIF handbook for preparing guidelines was published in 2004, there has been wide variation in the format and quality of guidelines prepared by medical specialty societies, EHIF, and other organizations in Estonia. An additional challenge to guideline development in Estonia is that it is a country with limited human resources. Therefore, revision of the Estonian guideline process was aimed at developing an efficient method for adapting current high-quality guidelines to the Estonian setting without compromising their quality. In 2010, a comprehensive assessment of guideline development in Estonia was made by the World Health Organization, EHIF, the Medical Faculty at the University of Tartu, and selected national and international experts in an effort to streamline and harmonize the principles and processes of guideline development in Estonia. This study summarizes the evaluation of and revisions to the process. Estonia has made substantial changes in its processes of clinical practice guideline development and implementation as part of an overall program aiming for systematic quality improvement in health care. This experience may be relevant to other small or resource-limited countries.

  18. Defining and Developing Proficiency. Guidelines, Implementations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Heidi, Ed.; Canale, Michael, Ed.

    This volume presents papers that dicusss the need for more systematic and rigorous research programs to monitor the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Proficiency Guidelines and their various implementations. "A Progress Report on the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, 1982-1986" (David V. Hiple), traces the…

  19. Guidelines for Implementing State Skill Standards Certificate Program in Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Workforce Development, Madison.

    This packet contains guidelines, a student competency checklist, and student evaluation sheet for use in a Wisconsin school-to-work state skill standards certificate program in construction. The guidelines provide a planning resource for implementing the program, which was created in partnership with unions, employers, the state Department of…

  20. Guidelines for Implementing State Skill Standards Certificate Program in Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Workforce Development, Madison.

    This packet contains guidelines, a student competency checklist, and student evaluation sheet for use in a Wisconsin school-to-work state skill standards certificate program in construction. The guidelines provide a planning resource for implementing the program, which was created in partnership with unions, employers, the state Department of…

  1. Building Chronic Kidney Disease Clinical Practice Guidelines Using the openEHR Guideline Definition Language.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Heng; Lo, Ying-Chih; Hung, Pei-Yuan; Liou, Der-Ming

    2016-12-07

    As a result of the disease's high prevalence, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health problem. A clinical decision support system that integrates with computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) should improve clinical outcomes and help to ensure patient safety. The openEHR guideline definition language (GDL) is a formal language used to represent CIGs. This study explores the feasibility of using a GDL approach for CKD; it also attempts to identify any potential gaps between the ideal concept and reality. Using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) anemia guideline as material, we designed a development workflow in order to establish a series of GDL guidelines. Focus group discussions were conducted in order to identify important issues related to GDL implementation. Ten GDL guidelines and 37 archetypes were established using the KDIGO guideline document. For the focus group discussions, 16 clinicians and 22 IT experts were recruited and their perceptions, opinions and attitudes towards the GDL approach were explored. Both groups provided positive feedback regarding the GDL approach, but raised various concerns about GDL implementation. Based on the findings of this study, we identified some potential gaps that might exist during implementation between the GDL concept and reality. Three directions remain to be investigated in the future. Two of them are related to the openEHR GDL approach. Firstly, there is a need for the editing tool to be made more sophisticated. Secondly, there needs to be integration of the present approach into non openEHR-based hospital information systems. The last direction focuses on the applicability of guidelines and involves developing a method to resolve any conflicts that occur with insurance payment regulations.

  2. Clinical guidelines and the fate of medical autonomy in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Rappolt, S G

    1997-04-01

    Conceptually, clinical guidelines and professional autonomy have a paradoxical relationship. Despite being the quintessence of medical knowledge at the corporate level, guidelines diminish the clinical autonomy of individual practitioners, and therefore threaten medicine's justification for its autonomy. Theorists have argued that professional autonomy will be retained through elite dominance of practitioners, while comparative research suggests that economic autonomy can be traded off to retain clinical autonomy. Under government pressure to regulate the growth of Ontario physicians' fee-for-service public expenditure, the profession's representative organization, the Ontario Medical Association (OMA), promoted voluntary clinical guidelines, hoping to both constrain costs and preserve professional control over the content of medical care. The OMA collaborated with the Ministry of Health in developing guidelines and establishing a provincial centre for health service research. Ontario's practitioners disregarded the OMA's exhortations to implement clinical guidelines, suggesting that in the absence of external constraints, practitioners can subvert elite dominance. However, practitioners' unchecked clinical and economic autonomy, combined with evidence of wide provincial variations in medical care, served to legitimize the government's increasingly unilateral control over the schedule of insured medical services, and, in 1993, their imposition of a global cap on physicians' fee-for-service income pool. When analysed in the context of ongoing Ministry-OMA relations, the failure of the OMA's guidelines strategy to constrain medical service costs has expedited an overall decline in medical autonomy in Ontario. The emergence and course of Ontario's clinical guidelines movement is consistent with the view that medical autonomy is contingent upon broad class forces, and the conceptualization of professional organizations as instruments for mediated occupational control.

  3. Creation and implementation of standardised craniofacial views for the Institute Of Medical Illustrators National Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Vetter (1) states, "Standardisation is the key word in all discussions of clinical photography". As part of clinical photography standardised guidelines form an integral part of providing a basis to obtaining standardised images. The Institute of Medical Illustrators (IMI) provides sets of standardised guidelines that have been developed in consultation with relevant clinicians, providing theory and standardised images that are to be considered as guides to good clinical photography practice. At the time of the study there were no official standardised IMI guidelines for craniofacial photography, for this reason, the primary objective of this project was to produce a set of standardised craniofacial guidelines that could be utilised by other clinical photographers for guidance on taking craniofacial images. This paper describes the development, evaluation and implementation of the guidelines.

  4. [Clinical practice guidelines and primary care. SESPAS report 2012].

    PubMed

    Atienza, Gerardo; Bañeres, Joaquim; Gracia, Francisco Javier

    2012-03-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are intended to serve as a bridge between the decision levels and the sources of knowledge, giving decision makers the best synthesis of scientific evidence and an analysis of context, to provide elements of judgement and to transfer scientific knowledge into clinical practice. However, the actual impact on health care is variable and effectiveness in changing medical practice, moderate. Qualitative and quantitative studies show that most primary care physicians consider that the guides are a valuable source of advice and training and a kind of improving the quality of healthcare. However, they underline its rigidity, the difficulty to apply to individual patients and that their main goal is to reduce healthcare costs. In Spain, there are several experiences as GuíaSalud in developing clinical practice guidelines aimed specifically at primary care. However, the proper implementation of a clinical practice guideline includes not only the quality and thoroughness of the evidence, but the credibility of professionals and organizations and other contextual factors such as characteristics of patients, providers and organizations or systems. An important step in future research is to develop a better theoretical understanding of organizational change that is required for management and professionals to give appropriate guidance to the implementation of the clinical practice guidelines.

  5. Targeting Quality Improvement in Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines provide key action statements targeted at quality improvements. Areas of potential quality improvement can be identified by exploring known contributors to cognitive errors. Three common contributors to medical error and reduced quality care are (1) the complexity of modern medicine, (2) the tendency to apply cause and effect to random associations, and (3) our bias to our first intuition. Future authors of clinical practice guidelines should consider these 3 influences when deciding how to best provide guidance to improve patient care. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  6. Could accreditation bodies facilitate the implementation of medical guidelines in laboratories?

    PubMed

    Aakre, Kristin M; Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Misra, Shivani; Langlois, Michel R; Joseph, Watine; Twomey, Patrick J; Barth, Julian H

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that recommendations related to how laboratory testing should be performed and results interpreted are limited in medical guidelines and that the uptake and implementation of the recommendations that are available need improvement. The EFLM/UEMS Working Group on Guidelines conducted a survey amongst the national societies for clinical chemistry in Europe regarding development of laboratory-related guidelines. The results showed that most countries have guidelines that are specifically related to laboratory testing; however, not all countries have a formal procedure for accepting such guidelines and few countries have guideline committees. Based on this, the EFLM/UEMS Working Group on Guidelines conclude that there is still room for improvement regarding these processes in Europe and raise the question if the accreditation bodies could be a facilitator for an improvement.

  7. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Clinical Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    the drug may impact the overall prognosis; although, medications with long half-lives may have persistent effects despite stopping adminis- tration.19...done in all TEN patients, and preventative therapies such as emollients , lubricant gels, and topical steroids should all be considered. Late scar and...Variability in the clinical pattern of cutaneous side- effects of drugs with sys- temic symptoms: does a DRESS syndrome really exist? Br J Dermatol

  8. Appraisal Tools for Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Siering, Ulrich; Eikermann, Michaela; Hausner, Elke; Hoffmann-Eßer, Wiebke; Neugebauer, Edmund A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Clinical practice guidelines can improve healthcare processes and patient outcomes, but are often of low quality. Guideline appraisal tools aim to help potential guideline users in assessing guideline quality. We conducted a systematic review of publications describing guideline appraisal tools in order to identify and compare existing tools. Methods Among others we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1995 to May 2011 for relevant primary and secondary publications. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant publications. On the basis of the available literature we firstly generated 34 items to be used in the comparison of appraisal tools and grouped them into thirteen quality dimensions. We then extracted formal characteristics as well as questions and statements of the appraisal tools and assigned them to the items. Results We identified 40 different appraisal tools. They covered between three and thirteen of the thirteen possible quality dimensions and between three and 29 of the possible 34 items. The main focus of the appraisal tools were the quality dimensions “evaluation of evidence” (mentioned in 35 tools; 88%), “presentation of guideline content” (34 tools; 85%), “transferability” (33 tools; 83%), “independence” (32 tools; 80%), “scope” (30 tools; 75%), and “information retrieval” (29 tools; 73%). The quality dimensions “consideration of different perspectives” and “dissemination, implementation and evaluation of the guideline” were covered by only twenty (50%) and eighteen tools (45%) respectively. Conclusions Most guideline appraisal tools assess whether the literature search and the evaluation, synthesis and presentation of the evidence in guidelines follow the principles of evidence-based medicine. Although conflicts of interest and norms and values of guideline developers, as well as patient involvement, affect the trustworthiness of guidelines, they are

  9. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  10. Overactive Bladder and Continence Guidelines: implementation, inaction or frustration?

    PubMed

    Wagg, A; Cardozo, L; Chapple, C; Diaz, D C; de Ridder, D; Espuna-Pons, M; Haab, F; Kelleher, C; Kolbl, H; Milsom, I; Van Kerrebroeck, P; Vierhout, M; Kirby, M

    2008-10-01

    Guidelines for the management of continence and overactive bladder are generally available across Europe. For a majority of countries, these have been adopted by professional societies in either urology or gynaecology for local use. There has, however, been little monitoring of formal implementation of these guidelines and seldom any attempt to audit their operation. The state of continence care therefore remains largely unknown. This article reviews current guidelines and their status across Europe and examines what might be relevant from other disease areas to promote successful implementation.

  11. Use of clinical guidelines: perspectives from clinicians in paediatric and maternity hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Graham, H; Tokhi, M; Edward, A; Salehi, A S; Turkmani, S; Duke, T; Bartlett, L

    2015-04-02

    This study explored the perceived value, role and reported use of clinical guidelines by clinicians in urban paediatric and maternity hospital settings, and the effect of current implementation strategies on clinician attitudes, knowledge and behaviour. A total of 63 clinicians from 7 paediatric and maternity hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan participated in structured focus groups; content analysis methodology was used for identification and analysis of key themes. Seven sets of guidelines, protocols or standards were identified (including 5 WHO-endorsed guidelines). However, most are failing to achieve high levels of use. Factors associated with guideline use included: clinician involvement in guideline development; multidisciplinary training; demonstrable results; and positive clinician perceptions regarding guideline quality and contextual appropriateness. Implementation activities should fulfil 3 major objectives: promote guideline awareness and access; stimulate motivation among clinical guideline users; and actively facilitate adherence to guidelines.

  12. [Clinical practice guidelines and knowledge management in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, Günter

    2013-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are key tools for the translation of scientific evidence into everyday patient care. Therefore guidelines can act as cornerstones of evidence based knowledge management in healthcare, if they are trustworthy, and its recommendations are not biased by authors' conflict of interests. Good medical guidelines should be disseminated by means of virtual (digital/electronic) health libraries - together with implementation tools in context, such as guideline based algorithms, check lists, patient information, a.s.f. The article presents evidence based medical knowledge management using the German experiences as an example. It discusses future steps establishing evidence based health care by means of combining patient data, evidence from medical science and patient care routine, together with feedback systems for healthcare providers.

  13. Guidelines for clinical supervision in health service psychology.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This document outlines guidelines for supervision of students in health service psychology education and training programs. The goal was to capture optimal performance expectations for psychologists who supervise. It is based on the premises that supervisors (a) strive to achieve competence in the provision of supervision and (b) employ a competency-based, meta-theoretical approach to the supervision process. The Guidelines on Supervision were developed as a resource to inform education and training regarding the implementation of competency-based supervision. The Guidelines on Supervision build on the robust literatures on competency-based education and clinical supervision. They are organized around seven domains: supervisor competence; diversity; relationships; professionalism; assessment/evaluation/feedback; problems of professional competence, and ethical, legal, and regulatory considerations. The Guidelines on Supervision represent the collective effort of a task force convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Clinical practice guideline: management of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Joshua A.; Hsu, Jonathan; Bawazeer, Mohammad; Marshall, John; Friedrich, Jan O.; Nathens, Avery; Coburn, Natalie; May, Gary R.; Pearsall, Emily; McLeod, Robin S.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis reported worldwide. Despite improvements in access to care, imaging and interventional techniques, acute pancreatitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, recent studies auditing the clinical management of the condition have shown important areas of noncompliance with evidence-based recommendations. This underscores the importance of creating understandable and implementable recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis. The purpose of the present guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of both mild and severe acute pancreatitis as well as the management of complications of acute pancreatitis and of gall stone–induced pancreatitis. Une hausse de l’incidence de pancréatite aiguë a été constatée à l’échelle mondiale. Malgré l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins et aux techniques d’imagerie et d’intervention, la pancréatite aiguë est toujours associée à une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Bien qu’il existe des guides de pratique clinique pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, des études récentes sur la vérification de la prise en charge clinique de cette affection révèlent des lacunes importantes dans la conformité aux recommandations fondées sur des données probantes. Ces résultats mettent en relief l’importance de formuler des recommandations compréhensibles et applicables pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë. La présente ligne directrice vise à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, qu’elle soit bénigne ou grave, ainsi que de ses complications et de celles de la pancréatite causée par un calcul biliaire. PMID:27007094

  15. Clinical practice guideline: acute otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Schwartz, Seth R; Cannon, C Ron; Roland, Peter S; Simon, Geoffrey R; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Huang, William W; Haskell, Helen W; Robertson, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    This clinical practice guideline is an update and replacement for an earlier guideline published in 2006 by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. This update provides evidence-based recommendations to manage acute otitis externa (AOE), defined as diffuse inflammation of the external ear canal, which may also involve the pinna or tympanic membrane. The variations in management of AOE and the importance of accurate diagnosis suggest a need for updating the clinical practice guideline. The primary outcome considered in this guideline is clinical resolution of AOE. The primary purpose of the original guideline was to promote appropriate use of oral and topical antimicrobials for AOE and to highlight the need for adequate pain relief. An updated guideline is needed because of new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group. The target patient is aged 2 years or older with diffuse AOE. Differential diagnosis will be discussed, but recommendations for management will be limited to diffuse AOE, which is almost exclusively a bacterial infection. This guideline is intended for primary care and specialist clinicians, including otolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons, pediatricians, family physicians, emergency physicians, internists, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. This guideline is applicable in any setting in which patients with diffuse AOE would be identified, monitored, or managed. The development group made strong recommendations that (1) clinicians should assess patients with AOE for pain and recommend analgesic treatment based on the severity of pain and (2) clinicians should not prescribe systemic antimicrobials as initial therapy for diffuse, uncomplicated AOE unless there is extension outside the ear canal or the presence of specific host factors that would indicate a need for systemic therapy. The development group made recommendations

  16. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development. PMID:22762776

  17. Guidelines for the Clinical Pharmacy Preceptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Donald C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Qualities that describe the performance of the clinical pharmacy preceptor are outlined, with particular concern for the personal and technical components of his role as a teacher. The guidelines were developed at an invitational workshop at the Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical Center. (LBH)

  18. SEOM Clinical Guideline in ovarian cancer (2016).

    PubMed

    Santaballa, A; Barretina, P; Casado, A; García, Y; González-Martín, A; Guerra, E; Laínez, N; Martinez, J; Redondo, A; Romero, I

    2016-12-01

    Despite remarkable advances in the knowledge of molecular biology and treatment, ovarian cancer (OC) is the first cause of death due to gynecological cancer and the fifth cause of death for cancer in women in Spain. The aim of this guideline is to summarize the current evidence and to give evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice.

  19. State Laws and Guidelines for Implementing RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Thomas, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    The legal source of schools' use of response to intervention (RTI) is a matter of federal and state special education laws, although its implementation is largely a matter of general education practice. The only mention of RTI is in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and it is limited to identification of students with…

  20. State Laws and Guidelines for Implementing RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Thomas, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    The legal source of schools' use of response to intervention (RTI) is a matter of federal and state special education laws, although its implementation is largely a matter of general education practice. The only mention of RTI is in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and it is limited to identification of students with…

  1. Implementation of Spanish adaptation of the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The successful implementation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines relies heavily on primary care physicians (PCPs) providing risk factor evaluation, intervention and patient education. The aim of this study was to ascertain the degree of awareness and implementation of the Spanish adaptation of the European guidelines on CVD prevention in clinical practice (CEIPC guidelines) among PCPs. Methods A cross-sectional survey of PCPs was conducted in Spain between January and June 2011. A random sample of 1,390 PCPs was obtained and stratified by region. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Results More than half (58%) the physicians were aware of and knew the recommendations, and 62% of those claimed to use them in clinical practice, with general physicians (without any specialist accreditation) being less likely to so than family doctors. Most PCPs (60%) did not assess cardiovascular risk, with the limited time available in the surgery being cited as the greatest barrier by 81%. The main reason to be sceptical about recommendations, reported by 71% of physicians, was that there are too many guidelines. Almost half the doctors cited the lack of training and skills as the greatest barrier to the implementation of lifestyle and behavioural change recommendations. Conclusions Most PCPs were aware of the Spanish adaptation of the European guidelines on CVD prevention (CEIPC guidelines) and knew their content. However, only one third of PCPs used the guidelines in clinical practice and less than half CVD risk assessment tools. PMID:23506390

  2. Incorporating clinical guidelines through clinician decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Falzer, Paul R; Moore, Brent A; Garman, D Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Background It is generally acknowledged that a disparity between knowledge and its implementation is adversely affecting quality of care. An example commonly cited is the failure of clinicians to follow clinical guidelines. A guiding assumption of this view is that adherence should be gauged by a standard of conformance. At least some guideline developers dispute this assumption and claim that their efforts are intended to inform and assist clinical practice, not to function as standards of performance. However, their ability to assist and inform will remain limited until an alternative to the conformance criterion is proposed that gauges how evidence-based guidelines are incorporated into clinical decisions. Methods The proposed investigation has two specific aims to identify the processes that affect decisions about incorporating clinical guidelines, and then to develop ad test a strategy that promotes the utilization of evidence-based practices. This paper focuses on the first aim. It presents the rationale, introduces the clinical paradigm of treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and discusses an exemplar of clinician non-conformance to a clinical guideline. A modification of the original study is proposed that targets psychiatric trainees and draws on a cognitively rich theory of decision-making to formulate hypotheses about how the guideline is incorporated into treatment decisions. Twenty volunteer subjects recruited from an accredited psychiatry training program will respond to sixty-four vignettes that represent a fully crossed 2 × 2 × 2 × 4 within-subjects design. The variables consist of criteria contained in the clinical guideline and other relevant factors. Subjects will also respond to a subset of eight vignettes that assesses their overall impression of the guideline. Generalization estimating equation models will be used to test the study's principal hypothesis and perform secondary analyses. Implications The original design of phase two of the

  3. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis: an electronic guideline implementability appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines are intended to improve healthcare. However, even if guidelines are excellent, their implementation is not assured. In subfertility care, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) guidelines have been inventoried, and their methodological quality has been assessed. To improve the impact of the ESHRE guidelines and to improve European subfertility care, it is important to optimise the implementability of guidelines. We therefore investigated the implementation barriers of the ESHRE guideline with the best methodological quality and evaluated the used instrument for usability and feasibility. Methods We reviewed the ESHRE guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis to assess its implementability. We used an electronic version of the guideline implementability appraisal (eGLIA) instrument. This eGLIA tool consists of 31 questions grouped into 10 dimensions. Seven items address the guideline as a whole, and 24 items assess the individual recommendations in the guideline. The eGLIA instrument identifies factors that influence the implementability of the guideline recommendations. These factors can be divided into facilitators that promote implementation and barriers that oppose implementation. A panel of 10 experts from three European countries appraised all 36 recommendations of the guideline. They discussed discrepancies in a teleconference and completed a questionnaire to evaluate the ease of use and overall utility of the eGLIA instrument. Results Two of the 36 guideline recommendations were straightforward to implement. Five recommendations were considered simply statements because they contained no actions. The remaining 29 recommendations were implementable with some adjustments. We found facilitators of the guideline implementability in the quality of decidability, presentation and formatting, apparent validity, and novelty or innovation of the recommendations. Vaguely defined actions, lack of

  4. Nurses' intention to apply clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Ella; Tabak, Nili

    2012-12-01

    Using Ajzen and Madden's Theory of Planned Behavior, this study investigates factors which influence nurses' intention to apply clinical practice guidelines in their daily ward work. A convenience sample of 91 nurses in internal medicine wards in three Israeli hospitals answered four questionnaires. Data were processed by Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate regression. The main findings were that burnout was negatively correlated with the intention to work according to guidelines and that professionalism (in the sense of a tendency to follow taught procedure rather than personal judgment) was positively correlated with it. Furthermore, nurses who perceive their behavioral control and subjective norms to be positive will be the most determined to work according to guidelines, provided they personally command the necessary resources to do so.

  5. [Clinical practice guideline. Drug prescription in elderly].

    PubMed

    Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Valdivia-Ibarra, Francisco Javier; Hernández-Manzano, Mario; Medina-Beltrán, Gustavo Rodrigo; Cordero-Guillén, Miguel Angel; Baca-Zúñiga, José; Cruz-Avelar, Agles; Aguilar-Salas, Ismael; Avalos-Mejía, Annia Marisol

    2013-01-01

    The process of prescribing a medication is complex and includes: deciding whether it is indicated, choosing the best option, determining the dose and the appropriate management scheme to the physiological condition of the patient, and monitoring effectiveness and toxicity. We have to inform patients about the expected side effects and indications for requesting a consultation. Specific clinical questions were designed based on the acronym PICOST. The search was made in the specific websites of clinical practice guidelines, was limited to the population of older adults, in English or Spanish. We used 10 related clinical practice guidelines, eight systematic reviews and five meta-analyses. Finally, we made a search of original articles or clinical reviews for specific topics. The development and validation of clinical practice guidelines for "rational drug prescriptions in the elderly" is intended to promote an improvement in the quality of prescription through the prevention and detection of inappropriate prescribing in the elderly and, as a result of this, a decrease in the adverse events by drugs, deterioration of health of patients and expenditure of resources.

  6. Guidelines for Implementing Change: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masekela, Belinda; Nienaber, Rita

    To attain and sustain a competitive advantage organizations are continually faced with the need to change their structures, processes and technologies. Converting to new technology and implementing a new information management system in an organization results in inevitable changes in organizational procedures impacting on the people involved. A major problem encountered during this process is resistance to change, which may contribute to total failure of this system. Change management is the process that can be used to negate this impact and assist employees in transitioning to a new way of doing things.

  7. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it

  8. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D; van den Hoek, Joan; Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Carley, Meg E; Angus, Valerie

    2013-05-08

    Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. 'de novo' development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it is about the product (adapted guideline

  9. Multifaceted guideline implementation strategies improve early identification and management of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Cheryl M; Grimmer-Somers, Karen A

    2009-08-01

    Osteoporosis contributes significantly to fractures, subsequent disability and premature mortality in Australia. Better detection and management of osteoporosis will reduce unnecessary health expenditure. To evaluate, in one large tertiary metropolitan hospital, the orthopaedic health care team's approach to osteoporosis guideline implementation to improve early identification and management of osteoporosis. This paper describes the implementation of multifaceted strategies to improve health-promoting behaviours and the uptake of osteoporosis guidelines by staff in the orthopaedic outpatient clinic at one metropolitan hospital, reflecting organisational and individual commitment to embedding guideline recommendations into routine practice. Implementation strategies were aimed at the requirements and perspectives of different stakeholder groups. Five audit datasets were compared: 62 patient records in two baseline audits, and three post-implementation audits of 31 patient records, collected over the following 3-month periods (August 2006 to April 2007). All audits used the same criteria to assess compliance with clinical guidelines, and outcomes of implementation strategies. There was consistent improvement in compliance with osteoporosis guidelines over the audit periods. Comparing baseline and immediate post-implementation data, there was a significant improvement (P < 0.05) in the percentage of patients with likely fragility fractures who were identified with an osteoporotic fracture. The percentage of patients who had a likely fragility fracture, with whom staff communicated about their problems and how to deal with them, increased consistently over all post-implementation audit periods. For patients with established osteoporosis who presented with fragility fractures, there was sustained improvement over the audit periods in the percentage provided with guideline-based care. This study highlights that appropriate and targeted intervention strategies can be

  10. [Progress in methodological characteristics of clinical practice guideline for osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Xing, D; Wang, B; Lin, J H

    2017-06-01

    At present, several clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of osteoarthritis have been developed by institutes or societies. The ultimate purpose of developing clinical practice guidelines is to formulate the process in the treatment of osteoarthritis effectively. However, the methodologies used in developing clinical practice guidelines may place an influence on the transformation and application of that in treating osteoarthritis. The present study summarized the methodological features of individual clinical practice guideline and presented the tools for quality evaluation of clinical practice guideline. The limitations of current osteoarthritis guidelines of China are also indicated. The review article might help relevant institutions improve the quality in developing guide and clinical transformation.

  11. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for Codeine Therapy in the Context of Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Crews, KR; Gaedigk, A; Dunnenberger, HM; Klein, TE; Shen, DD; Callaghan, JT; Kharasch, ED; Skaar, TC

    2012-01-01

    Codeine is bioactivated to morphine, a strong opioid agonist, by the hepatic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6); hence, the efficacy and safety of codeine as an analgesic are governed by CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Codeine has little therapeutic effect in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, whereas the risk of morphine toxicity is higher in ultrarapid metabolizers. The purpose of this guideline (periodically updated at http://www.pharmgkb.org) is to provide information relating to the interpretation of CYP2D6 genotype test results to guide the dosing of codeine. PMID:22205192

  12. Assisted Knowledge Discovery for the Maintenance of Clinical Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pasche, Emilie; Ruch, Patrick; Teodoro, Douglas; Huttner, Angela; Harbarth, Stephan; Gobeill, Julien; Wipfli, Rolf; Lovis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving antibiotic prescribing practices is an important public-health priority given the widespread antimicrobial resistance. Establishing clinical practice guidelines is crucial to this effort, but their development is a complex task and their quality is directly related to the methodology and source of knowledge used. Objective We present the design and the evaluation of a tool (KART) that aims to facilitate the creation and maintenance of clinical practice guidelines based on information retrieval techniques. Methods KART consists of three main modules 1) a literature-based medical knowledge extraction module, which is built upon a specialized question-answering engine; 2) a module to normalize clinical recommendations based on automatic text categorizers; and 3) a module to manage clinical knowledge, which formalizes and stores clinical recommendations for further use. The evaluation of the usability and utility of KART followed the methodology of the cognitive walkthrough. Results KART was designed and implemented as a standalone web application. The quantitative evaluation of the medical knowledge extraction module showed that 53% of the clinical recommendations generated by KART are consistent with existing clinical guidelines. The user-based evaluation confirmed this result by showing that KART was able to find a relevant antibiotic for half of the clinical scenarios tested. The automatic normalization of the recommendation produced mixed results among end-users. Conclusions We have developed an innovative approach for the process of clinical guidelines development and maintenance in a context where available knowledge is increasing at a rate that cannot be sustained by humans. In contrast to existing knowledge authoring tools, KART not only provides assistance to normalize, formalize and store clinical recommendations, but also aims to facilitate knowledge building. PMID:23646153

  13. Clinical Pharmacogenetic Testing and Application: Laboratory Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sollip; Yun, Yeo Min; Chae, Hyo Jin; Cho, Hyun Jung; Ji, Misuk; Kim, In Suk; Wee, Kyung A; Lee, Woochang; Song, Sang Hoon; Woo, Hye In; Lee, Soo Youn; Chun, Sail

    2017-03-01

    Pharmacogenetic testing for clinical applications is steadily increasing. Correct and adequate use of pharmacogenetic tests is important to reduce unnecessary medical costs and adverse patient outcomes. This document contains recommended pharmacogenetic testing guidelines for clinical application, interpretation, and result reporting through a literature review and evidence-based expert opinions for the clinical pharmacogenetic testing covered by public medical insurance in Korea. This document aims to improve the utility of pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical settings.

  14. Clinical Pharmacogenetic Testing and Application: Laboratory Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sollip; Yun, Yeo-Min; Chae, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Ji, Misuk; Kim, In-Suk; Wee, Kyung-A; Lee, Woochang; Song, Sang Hoon; Woo, Hye In

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic testing for clinical applications is steadily increasing. Correct and adequate use of pharmacogenetic tests is important to reduce unnecessary medical costs and adverse patient outcomes. This document contains recommended pharmacogenetic testing guidelines for clinical application, interpretation, and result reporting through a literature review and evidence-based expert opinions for the clinical pharmacogenetic testing covered by public medical insurance in Korea. This document aims to improve the utility of pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical settings. PMID:28029011

  15. Physicians’ attitudes toward, use of, and perceived barriers to clinical guidelines: a survey among Swiss physicians

    PubMed Central

    Birrenbach, Tanja; Kraehenmann, Simone; Perrig, Martin; Berendonk, Christoph; Huwendiek, Soeren

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the attitudes toward, use of, and perceived barriers to clinical guidelines in Switzerland, a country with no national guideline agency. Moreover, there is no available data on the objective assessment of guideline knowledge in Switzerland. Therefore, we conducted a study at a large university’s Department of General Internal Medicine in Switzerland to assess physicians’ attitudes toward, use of, perceived barriers to, and knowledge of clinical guidelines. Participants and methods Ninety-six physicians (residents, n=78, and attendings, n=18) were invited to take part in a survey. Attitudes toward, self-reported use of, and barriers hindering adherence to the clinical guidelines were assessed using established scales and frameworks. Knowledge of the guidelines was objectively tested in a written assessment comprising of 14 multiple-choice and 3 short answer case-based questions. Results Fifty-five participants completed the survey (residents, n=42, and attendings, n=13; overall response rate 57%). Of these, 50 took part in the knowledge assessment (residents, n=37, and attendings, n=13; overall response rate 52%). Attitudes toward guidelines were favorable. They were considered to be a convenient source of advice (94% agreement), good educational tools (89% agreement), and likely to improve patient quality of care (91% agreement). Self-reported use of guidelines was limited, with only one-third reporting using guidelines often or very often. The main barriers to guideline adherence were identified as lack of guideline awareness and familiarity, applicability of existing guidelines to multimorbid patients, unfavorable guideline factors, and lack of time as well as inertia toward changing previous practice. In the assessment of guideline knowledge, the scores were rather modest (mean ± standard deviation: 60.5%±12.7% correct answers). Conclusion In general, this study found favorable physician attitudes toward clinical guidelines

  16. Dietary guidelines and implementation for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Kupper, Cynthia

    2005-04-01

    Medical nutrition therapy is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. This paper summarizes a review of scientific studies using the gluten-free diet, nutritional risk factors, controversial elements of the diet, and its implementation in treating celiac disease. Treatment for celiac disease requires elimination of the storage proteins found in wheat, rye, and barley. The inclusion of oats and wheat starch is controversial. Research supports that oats may be acceptable for patients with celiac disease and can improve the nutritional quality of the diet. However, use of oats is not widely recommended in the United States because of concerns of potential contamination of commercial oats. Studies assessing the contamination of commercial oats are limited. Research indicates no differences in patients choosing a strict wheat starch-containing, gluten-free diet vs. a naturally gluten-free diet. Factors other than trace gluten may be the cause of continued villous atrophy in some patients. The impact of nutrient malabsorption caused from untreated celiac disease is well documented. The diet and gluten-free products are often low in B vitamins, calcium, vitamin D, iron, zinc, magnesium, and fiber. Few gluten-free products are enriched or fortified, adding to the risk of nutrient deficiencies. Patients newly diagnosed or inadequately treated have low bone mineral density, imbalanced macronutrients, low fiber intake, and micronutrient deficiencies. Also troubling is the increased incidence of obesity seen in persons with celiac disease following a gluten-free diet. Because of the nutritional risks associated with celiac disease, a registered dietitian must be part of the health care team that monitors the patient's nutritional status and compliance on a regular basis.

  17. School nutrition guidelines: overview of the implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gregorič, Matej; Pograjc, Larisa; Pavlovec, Alenka; Simčič, Marjan; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca

    2015-06-01

    To holistically evaluate the extent of implementation of dietary guidelines in schools and present various monitoring systems. The study comprises three methods: (i) a cross-sectional survey (process evaluation); (ii) an indicator-based evaluation (menu quality); and (iii) a 5 d weighed food record of school lunches (output evaluation). Slovenian primary schools. A total 234 food-service managers from 488 schools completed a self-administrated questionnaire for process evaluation; 177 out of 194 randomly selected schools provided menus for menu quality evaluation; and 120 school lunches from twenty-four schools were measured and nutritionally analysed for output evaluation. The survey among food-service managers revealed high levels of implementation at almost all process evaluation areas of the guidelines. An even more successful implementation of these guidelines was found in relation to organization cultural issues as compared with technical issues. Differences found in some process evaluation areas were related to location, size and socio-economic characteristics of schools. Evaluation of school menu quality demonstrated that score values followed a normal distribution. Higher (better) nutrition scores were found in larger-sized schools and corresponding municipalities with higher socio-economic status. School lunches did not meet minimum recommendations for energy, carbohydrates or dietary fibre intake, nor for six vitamins and three (macro, micro and trace) elements. The implementation of the guidelines was achieved differently at distinct levels. The presented multilevel evaluation suggests that different success in implementation might be attributed to different characteristics of individual schools. System changes might also be needed to support and improve implementation of the guidelines.

  18. Diagnostic Imaging Guidelines Implementation Study for Spinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, André E.; Laurencelle, Louis; Peterson, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Implementation strategies of imaging guidelines can assist in reducing the number of radiographic examinations. This study aimed to compare the perceived need for diagnostic imaging before and after an educational intervention strategy. Methods: One hundred sixty Swiss chiropractors attending a conference were randomized to either receive a radiology workshop, reviewing appropriate indications for diagnostic imaging for adult spine disorders (n = 80), or be in a control group (CG). One group of 40 individuals dropped out from the CG due to logistic reasons. Participants in the intervention group were randomly assigned to three subgroups to evaluate the effect of an online reminder at midpoint. All participants underwent a pretest and a final test at 14–16 weeks. A posttest was administered to two subgroups at 8–10 weeks. Results: There was no difference between baseline scores, and overall scores for the pretest and the final tests for all four groups were not significantly different. However, the subgroup provided with access to a reminder performed significantly better than the subgroup with whom they were compared (F = 4.486; df = 1 and 30; p = .043). Guideline adherence was 50.5% (95% CI, 39.1–61.8) for the intervention group and 43.7% (95% CI, 23.7–63.6) for the CG at baseline. Adherence at follow-up was lower, but mean group differences remained insignificant. Conclusions: Online access to specific recommendations while making a clinical decision may favorably influence the intention to either order or not order imaging studies. However, a didactic presentation alone did not appear to change the perception for the need of diagnostic imaging studies. PMID:20480010

  19. How to Implement the NCAA Financial Audit Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Lawrence C., Jr.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions for implementing new National Collegiate Athletic Association guidelines for intercollegiate athletics program financial audits include forming an internal task force, preparing an organization chart, choosing the type of audit, conducting a survey of booster groups, preparing a schedule of revenues and expenditures, selecting an…

  20. How to Implement the NCAA Financial Audit Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Lawrence C., Jr.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions for implementing new National Collegiate Athletic Association guidelines for intercollegiate athletics program financial audits include forming an internal task force, preparing an organization chart, choosing the type of audit, conducting a survey of booster groups, preparing a schedule of revenues and expenditures, selecting an…

  1. Osteoporosis guideline implementation in family medicine using electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Janet; Karampatos, Sarah; Ioannidis, George; Adachi, Jonathan; Thabane, Lehana; Nash, Lynn; Mehan, Upe; Kozak, Joseph; Feldman, Sid; Hirsch, Steve; Jovaisas, Algis V.; Cheung, Angela; Lohfeld, Lynne; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify family physicians’ learning needs related to osteoporosis care; determine family physicians’ preferred modes of learning; and identify barriers to using electronic medical records (EMRs) to implement osteoporosis guidelines in practice. Design Web-based survey. Setting Ontario. Participants Family physicians. Main outcome measures Quantitative and qualitative data about learning needs related to osteoporosis diagnosis and management; preferred mode of learning about guidelines; and barriers to using EMRs to implement guidelines. Results Of the 12 332 family physicians invited to participate in the survey, 8.5% and 7.0% provided partial or fully completed surveys, respectively. More than 80% of respondents agreed that the priority areas for education were as follows: selecting laboratory tests for secondary osteoporosis and interpreting the test results; interpreting bone mineral density results; determining appropriate circumstances for ordering anterior-posterior lumbar spine x-ray scans; and understanding duration, types, and adverse effects of pharmacotherapy. Qualitative analysis revealed that managing moderate-risk patients was a learning need. Continuing medical education was the preferred mode of learning. Approximately 80% of respondents agreed that the scarcity of EMR tools to aid in guideline implementation was a barrier to using guidelines, and 50% of respondents agreed that if EMR-embedded tools were available, time would limit their ability to use them. Conclusion This survey identified key diagnostic- and treatment-related topics in osteoporosis care that should be the focus of future continuing professional development for family physicians. Developers of EMR tools, physicians, and researchers aiming to implement guidelines to improve osteoporosis care should consider the potential barriers indicated in this study.

  2. Computer-interpretable clinical guidelines: a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Mor

    2013-08-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) aim to improve the quality of care, reduce unjustified practice variations and reduce healthcare costs. In order for them to be effective, clinical guidelines need to be integrated with the care flow and provide patient-specific advice when and where needed. Hence, their formalization as computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) makes it possible to develop CIG-based decision-support systems (DSSs), which have a better chance of impacting clinician behavior than narrative guidelines. This paper reviews the literature on CIG-related methodologies since the inception of CIGs, while focusing and drawing themes for classifying CIG research from CIG-related publications in the Journal of Biomedical Informatics (JBI). The themes span the entire life-cycle of CIG development and include: knowledge acquisition and specification for improved CIG design, including (1) CIG modeling languages and (2) CIG acquisition and specification methodologies, (3) integration of CIGs with electronic health records (EHRs) and organizational workflow, (4) CIG validation and verification, (5) CIG execution engines and supportive tools, (6) exception handling in CIGs, (7) CIG maintenance, including analyzing clinician's compliance to CIG recommendations and CIG versioning and evolution, and finally (8) CIG sharing. I examine the temporal trends in CIG-related research and discuss additional themes that were not identified in JBI papers, including existing themes such as overcoming implementation barriers, modeling clinical goals, and temporal expressions, as well as futuristic themes, such as patient-centric CIGs and distributed CIGs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Neonatal abstinence syndrome clinical practice guidelines for Ontario.

    PubMed

    Dow, Kimberly; Ordean, Alice; Murphy-Oikonen, Jodie; Pereira, Jodie; Koren, Gideon; Roukema, Henry; Selby, Peter; Turner, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Ontario's clinical practice guidelines for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) provide evidence-informed recommendations that address the needs of substance using pregnant women and newborns at risk of NAS. NAS is a complex and multifaceted issue that is escalating along with rapidly rising opioid use in Ontario. Reducing the incidence and impact of NAS requires immediate action in order to improve the care of affected women and infants. This includes optimizing and standardizing treatment strategies, assessing and managing social risk, better monitoring of prescribing practices and facilitating the implementation of better treatment and prevention strategies as they become available. These clinical practice guidelines provide the framework to inform and support the development of a coordinated strategy to address this important issue and to promote safe and effective care.

  5. Current clinical practice guidelines in atrial fibrillation: a review.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Godoy-Palomino, Armando; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis

    2016-01-14

    The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in atrial fibrillation. This is the second in a series of articles of review, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Among all clinical practice guidelines, we selected the American, Canadian and NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidelines. We used the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) II instrument for the assessment. In general, the guidelines obtained the lowest score in the applicability domain (mean 36.1%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 93.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the editorial independence domain (Canadian guideline) and the highest of all scores in the applicability domain (NICE guideline). Regarding global quality, the NICE guideline obtained the AGREE II instrument best scores, followed by the American guideline, both recommended for use without modifications.

  6. Cardiac advanced life support-surgical guideline: overview and implementation.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest in the immediate postoperative recovery period in a patient who underwent cardiac surgery is typically related to reversible causes-tamponade, bleeding, ventricular arrhythmias, or heart blocks associated with conduction problems. When treated promptly, 17% to 79% of patients who experience cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery survive to discharge. The Cardiac Advanced Life Support-Surgical (CALS-S) guideline provides a standardized algorithm approach to resuscitation of patients who experience cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this article is to discuss the CALS-S guideline and how to implement it.

  7. Opening the black box: a study of the process of NICE guidelines implementation.

    PubMed

    Spyridonidis, Dimitrios; Calnan, Michael

    2011-10-01

    This study informs 'evidence-based' implementation by using an innovative methodology to provide further understanding of the implementation process in the English NHS using two distinctly different NICE clinical guidelines as exemplars. The implementation process was tracked retrospectively and prospectively using a comparative case-study and longitudinal design. 74 unstructured interviews were carried out with 48 key informants (managers and clinicians) between 2007 and 2009. This study has shown that the NICE guidelines implementation process has both planned and emergent components, which was well illustrated by the use of the prospective longitudinal design in this study. The implementation process might be characterised as strategic and planned to begin with but became uncontrolled and subject to negotiation as it moved from the planning phase to adoption in everyday practice. The variations in the implementation process could be best accounted for in terms of differences in the structure and nature of the local organisational context. The latter pointed to the importance of managers as well as clinicians in decision-making about implementation. While national priorities determine the context for implementation the shape of the process is influenced by the interactions between doctors and managers, which influence the way they respond to external policy initiatives such as NICE guidelines. NICE and other national health policy-makers need to recognise that the introduction of planned change 'initiatives' in clinical practice are subject to social and political influences at the micro level as well as the macro level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical guideline on adenotonsillectomy: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Bellussi, Luisa M; Marchisio, Paola; Materia, Enrico; Passàli, Francesco M

    2011-01-01

    Five years after publishing the document on 'The clinical and organizational appropriateness of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy' in 2003, a multidisciplinary group of experts came together again to update this document and to publish a guideline with grading of evidences and recommendations. Major revisions of the previous document were addressed to: (1) the diagnosis and indications for adenotonsillectomy in presence of OSAS in children, (2) the analysis of advantages of new surgical techniques in terms of effectiveness, costs or the risk of postsurgery bleeding and recurrences, and (3) the efficacy of perioperative management in reducing the incidence and duration of post-operative events. In fact, in the last years, a relevant number of evidence became available on the above-mentioned items making the need for a continuing updating of guidelines tangible. As a premise to the guideline, it is stressed how the previous document impact was prominent: the decrease of total number of tonsillectomy in Italy was evident and accompanied by a decrease of variations in the regional rates. Besides the document contributed to strengthen the multidisciplinary collaboration, especially between pediatricians and otorhinolaryngologists, and to divulge the Evidence-Based Medicine culture. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Guidelines for Clinical Research in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Vray, Muriel; Simon, François; Bompart, François

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of a review of current clinical research conditions in developing countries, guidelines have been formulated to ensure scientific validity as well as adherence to universal ethical principles. The main recommendation is that projects should be reviewed by two Institutional Review Boards, one in the country where the Study Sponsor is based, and another in the country where the study is being carried out. In addition, an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board should be set up and systems established to ensure the effective reporting of Serious Adverse Events and to specify the Sponsor's obligations after the end of the Study.

  10. Implementing Thrombosis Guidelines in Cancer Patients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Bounameaux, Henri; Brenner, Benjamin; Büller, Harry R.; Kakkar, Ajay; Pabinger, Ingrid; Streiff, Michael; Debourdeau, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent and serious complication in patients with cancer. It is an independent prognostic factor of death in cancer patients and the second leading cause of death, but physicians often underestimate its importance, as well as the need for adequate prevention and treatment. Management of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer requires the coordinated efforts of a wide range of clinicians, highlighting the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. However, a lack of consensus among various national and international clinical practice guidelines has contributed to knowledge and practice gaps among practitioners, and inconsistent approaches to venous thromboembolism. The 2013 international guidelines for thrombosis in cancer have sought to address these gaps by critically re-evaluating the evidence coming from clinical trials and synthesizing a number of guidelines documents. An individualized approach to prophylaxis is recommended for all patients. PMID:25386357

  11. Requirements for guidelines systems: implementation challenges and lessons from existing software-engineering efforts.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hemant; Allard, Raymond D; Enberg, Robert; Krishnan, Ganesh; Williams, Patricia; Nadkarni, Prakash M

    2012-03-09

    A large body of work in the clinical guidelines field has identified requirements for guideline systems, but there are formidable challenges in translating such requirements into production-quality systems that can be used in routine patient care. Detailed analysis of requirements from an implementation perspective can be useful in helping define sub-requirements to the point where they are implementable. Further, additional requirements emerge as a result of such analysis. During such an analysis, study of examples of existing, software-engineering efforts in non-biomedical fields can provide useful signposts to the implementer of a clinical guideline system. In addition to requirements described by guideline-system authors, comparative reviews of such systems, and publications discussing information needs for guideline systems and clinical decision support systems in general, we have incorporated additional requirements related to production-system robustness and functionality from publications in the business workflow domain, in addition to drawing on our own experience in the development of the Proteus guideline system (http://proteme.org). The sub-requirements are discussed by conveniently grouping them into the categories used by the review of Isern and Moreno 2008. We cite previous work under each category and then provide sub-requirements under each category, and provide example of similar work in software-engineering efforts that have addressed a similar problem in a non-biomedical context. When analyzing requirements from the implementation viewpoint, knowledge of successes and failures in related software-engineering efforts can guide implementers in the choice of effective design and development strategies.

  12. Requirements for guidelines systems: implementation challenges and lessons from existing software-engineering efforts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large body of work in the clinical guidelines field has identified requirements for guideline systems, but there are formidable challenges in translating such requirements into production-quality systems that can be used in routine patient care. Detailed analysis of requirements from an implementation perspective can be useful in helping define sub-requirements to the point where they are implementable. Further, additional requirements emerge as a result of such analysis. During such an analysis, study of examples of existing, software-engineering efforts in non-biomedical fields can provide useful signposts to the implementer of a clinical guideline system. Methods In addition to requirements described by guideline-system authors, comparative reviews of such systems, and publications discussing information needs for guideline systems and clinical decision support systems in general, we have incorporated additional requirements related to production-system robustness and functionality from publications in the business workflow domain, in addition to drawing on our own experience in the development of the Proteus guideline system (http://proteme.org). Results The sub-requirements are discussed by conveniently grouping them into the categories used by the review of Isern and Moreno 2008. We cite previous work under each category and then provide sub-requirements under each category, and provide example of similar work in software-engineering efforts that have addressed a similar problem in a non-biomedical context. Conclusions When analyzing requirements from the implementation viewpoint, knowledge of successes and failures in related software-engineering efforts can guide implementers in the choice of effective design and development strategies. PMID:22405400

  13. Developing clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy: A report from the ILAE Epilepsy Guidelines Working Group.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Samuel; Perucca, Emilio; French, Jacqueline; Dunkley, Colin; de Marinis, Alejandro; Kirkpatrick, Martin; Jetté, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contain evidence-based recommendations to guide clinical care, policy development, and quality of care improvement. A recent systematic review of epilepsy guidelines identified considerable variability in the quality of available guidelines. Although excellent frameworks for CPG development exist, processes are not followed uniformly internationally, and resources to develop CPGs may be limited in certain settings. An International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) working group was charged with proposing methodology to guide the development of future epilepsy-specific CPGs. A comprehensive literature search (1985-2014) identified articles related to CPG development and handbooks. Guideline handbooks were included if they were publicly available, and if their methodology had been used to develop CPGs. The working group's expertise also informed the creation of methodologies and processes to develop future CPGs for the ILAE. Five handbooks from North America (American Academy of Neurology), Europe (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network & National Institute for Health and Care Excellence), Australia (National Health and Medical Research Council), World Health Organization (WHO), and additional references were identified to produce evidence-based, consensus-driven methodology for development of epilepsy-specific CPGs. Key components of CPG development include the following: identifying the topic and defining the scope; establishing a working group; identifying and evaluating the evidence; formulating recommendations and determining strength of recommendations; obtaining peer reviews; dissemination, implementation, and auditing; and updating and retiring the CPG. A practical handbook and toolkit was developed. The resulting CPG development toolkit should facilitate the development of high-quality ILAE CPGs to improve the care of persons with epilepsy.

  14. Do guidelines on first impression make sense? Implementation of a chest pain guideline in primary care: a systematic evaluation of acceptance and feasibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most guidelines concentrate on investigations, treatment, and monitoring instead of patient history and clinical examination. We developed a guideline that dealt with the different aetiologies of chest pain by emphasizing the patient's history and physical signs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the guideline's acceptance and feasibility in the context of a practice test. Methods The evaluation study was nested in a diagnostic cross-sectional study with 56 General Practitioners (GPs) and 862 consecutively recruited patients with chest pain. The evaluation of the guideline was conducted in a mixed method design on a sub-sample of 17 GPs and 282 patients. Physicians' evaluation of the guideline was assessed via standardized questionnaires and case record forms. Additionally, practice nursing staff and selected patients were asked for their evaluation of specific guideline modules. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively for frequencies, means, and standard deviations. In addition, two focus groups with a total of 10 GPs were held to gain further insights in the guideline implementation process. The data analysis and interpretation followed the standards of the qualitative content analysis. Results The overall evaluation of the GPs participating in the evaluation study regarding the recommendations made in the chest pain guideline was positive. A total of 14 GPs were convinced that there was a need for this kind of guideline and perceived the guideline recommendations as useful. While the long version was partially criticized for a perceived lack of clarity, the short version of the chest pain guideline and the heart score were especially appreciated by the GPs. However, change of clinical behaviour as consequence of the guideline was inconsistent. While on a concrete patient related level, GPs indicated to have behaved as the guideline recommended, the feedback on a more general level was heterogeneous. Several suggestions to improve

  15. Occlusion on oral implants: current clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Koyano, K; Esaki, D

    2015-02-01

    Proper implant occlusion is essential for adequate oral function and the prevention of adverse consequences, such as implant overloading. Dental implants are thought to be more prone to occlusal overloading than natural teeth because of the loss of the periodontal ligament, which provides shock absorption and periodontal mechanoreceptors, which provide tactile sensitivity and proprioceptive motion feedback. Although many guidelines and theories on implant occlusion have been proposed, few have provided strong supportive evidence. Thus, we performed a narrative literature review to ascertain the influence of implant occlusion on the occurrence of complications of implant treatment and discuss the clinical considerations focused on the overloading factors at present. The search terms were 'dental implant', 'dental implantation', 'dental occlusion' and 'dental prosthesis'. The inclusion criteria were literature published in English up to September 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort studies and case-control studies with at least 20 cases and 12 months follow-up interval were included. Based on the selected literature, this review explores factors related to the implant prosthesis (cantilever, crown/implant ratio, premature contact, occlusal scheme, implant-abutment connection, splinting implants and tooth-implant connection) and other considerations, such as the number, diameter, length and angulation of implants. Over 700 abstracts were reviewed, from which more than 30 manuscripts were included. We found insufficient evidence to establish firm clinical guidelines for implant occlusion. To discuss the ideal occlusion for implants, further well-designed RCTs are required in the future.

  16. Comparison of international guideline programs to evaluate and update the Dutch program for clinical guideline development in physical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Van der Wees, Philip J; Hendriks, Erik JM; Custers, Jan WH; Burgers, Jako S; Dekker, Joost; de Bie, Rob A

    2007-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines are considered important instruments to improve quality in health care. Since 1998 the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF) produced evidence-based clinical guidelines, based on a standardized program. New developments in the field of guideline research raised the need to evaluate and update the KNGF guideline program. Purpose of this study is to compare different guideline development programs and review the KNGF guideline program for physical therapy in the Netherlands, in order to update the program. Method Six international guideline development programs were selected, and the 23 criteria of the AGREE Instrument were used to evaluate the guideline programs. Information about the programs was retrieved from published handbooks of the organizations. Also, the Dutch program for guideline development in physical therapy was evaluated using the AGREE criteria. Further comparison the six guideline programs was carried out using the following elements of the guideline development processes: Structure and organization; Preparation and initiation; Development; Validation; Dissemination and implementation; Evaluation and update. Results Compliance with the AGREE criteria of the guideline programs was high. Four programs addressed 22 AGREE criteria, and two programs addressed 20 AGREE criteria. The previous Dutch program for guideline development in physical therapy lacked in compliance with the AGREE criteria, meeting only 13 criteria. Further comparison showed that all guideline programs perform systematic literature searches to identify the available evidence. Recommendations are formulated and graded, based on evidence and other relevant factors. It is not clear how decisions in the development process are made. In particular, the process of translating evidence into practice recommendations can be improved. Conclusion As a result of international developments and consensus, the described processes for developing clinical

  17. Clinical guidelines contribute to the health inequities experienced by individuals with intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines are developed to improve the quality of healthcare. However, clinical guidelines may contribute to health inequities experienced by disadvantaged groups. This study uses an equity lens developed by the International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN) to examine how well clinical guidelines address inequities experienced by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Methods Nine health problems relevant to the health inequities experienced by persons with intellectual disabilities were selected. Clinical guidelines on these disorders were identified from across the world. The INCLEN equity lens was used as the basis for a purpose-designed, semistructured data collection tool. Two raters independently examined each guideline and completed the data collection tool. The data extracted by each rater were discussed at a research group consensus conference and agreement was reached on a final equity lens rating for each guideline. Results Thirty-six guidelines were identified, one of which (2.8%) explicitly excluded persons with intellectual disabilities. Of the remaining 35, six (17.1%) met the first criterion of the equity lens, identifying persons with intellectual disabilities at high risk for the specific health problem. Eight guidelines (22.9%) contained any content on intellectual disabilities. Six guidelines addressed the fourth equity lens criterion, by giving specific consideration to the barriers to implementation of the guideline in disadvantaged populations. There were no guidelines that addressed the second, third, and fifth equity lens criteria. Conclusions The equity lens is a useful tool to systematically examine whether clinical guidelines address the health needs and inequities experienced by disadvantaged groups. Clinical guidelines are likely to further widen the health inequities experienced by persons with intellectual disabilities, and other disadvantaged groups, by being preferentially advantageous to

  18. Community Implementation of a Prehospital Spinal Immobilization Guideline.

    PubMed

    Jones Rhodes, Whitney; Steinbruner, David; Finck, Lani; Flarity, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively describe the underpinnings of the successful implementation of a collaborative prehospital spinal immobilization guideline throughout the emergency medical services (EMS) community in two counties in Colorado. We also describe lessons learned that may be beneficial to other communities considering similar initiatives. Qualitative data were collected from key informants who were directly involved in the implementation of a new prehospital spinal immobilization guideline among four community hospitals in two different hospital systems and the associated EMS providers within the two counties. We interviewed a purposively selected sample of emergency department (ED) physicians and other ED staff, hospital decision makers, EMS educators as well as fire department and EMS medical directors. Data were collected and reviewed until saturation was achieved. We conducted qualitative analysis to summarize and synthesize themes. Ten key informants were interviewed, at which point saturation was achieved and several clear themes emerged. Participants described successful community-wide guideline implementation despite a history of competition, isolation, and conflict between the various EMS organizations and hospitals on past EMS and trauma initiatives. Factors related to success included the nearly universal perception that the initiative was "cutting edge" and thus an important paradigm shift in care for the community, as a whole. Participants reported the ability of community stakeholders to jointly assure a collaborative approach, characterized by intensive education for EMS personnel and others involved, and the ability of the community to together secure the new equipment required for success. Key informants described a convergence of factors as leading to the successful implementation of a prehospital spinal immobilization guideline. Lessons learned regarding how to overcome a tradition of competition and isolation to allow

  19. Implementation of Anaphylaxis Management Guidelines: A Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Grabenhenrich, Linus; Hompes, Stephanie; Gough, Hannah; Ruëff, Franziska; Scherer, Kathrin; Pföhler, Claudia; Treudler, Regina; Mahler, Vera; Hawranek, Thomas; Nemat, Katja; Koehli, Alice; Keil, Thomas; Worm, Margitta

    2012-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis management guidelines recommend the use of intramuscular adrenaline in severe reactions, complemented by antihistamines and corticoids; secondary prevention includes allergen avoidance and provision of self-applicable first aid drugs. Gaps between recommendations and their implementation have been reported, but only in confined settings. Hence, we analysed nation-wide data on the management of anaphylaxis, evaluating the implementation of guidelines. Methods Within the anaphylaxis registry, allergy referral centres across Germany, Austria and Switzerland provided data on severe anaphylaxis cases. Based on patient records, details on reaction circumstances, diagnostic workup and treatment were collected via online questionnaire. Report of anaphylaxis through emergency physicians allowed for validation of registry data. Results 2114 severe anaphylaxis patients from 58 centres were included. 8% received adrenaline intravenously, 4% intramuscularly; 50% antihistamines, and 51% corticoids. Validation data indicated moderate underreporting of first aid drugs in the Registry. 20% received specific instructions at the time of the reaction; 81% were provided with prophylactic first aid drugs at any time. Conclusion There is a distinct discrepancy between current anaphylaxis management guidelines and their implementation. To improve patient care, a revised approach for medical education and training on the management of severe anaphylaxis is warranted. PMID:22590513

  20. The Intended and Unintended Consequences of Clinical Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Lisa D.; Link, Carol L.; McKinlay, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives First, we examine whether clinical guidelines, designed to improve health care and reduce disparities in clinical practice, are achieving their intended consequences. Second, we contemplate potential unintended consequences of clinical guidelines. Method As part of a factorial experiment we presented primary care doctors (n=192) with clinically authentic vignettes of a “patient” with already diagnosed diabetes with an emerging foot neuropathy. Their proposed clinical actions were compared with established practice guidelines for this clinical situation. Results After establishing the existence of consistent socioeconomic disparities in the proposed management of the case presented, we found that reported use of practice guidelines had no measurable effect towards their reduction (one intended consequence). However, the reported use of practice guidelines appeared to precipitate more clinical actions, without eliminating documented disparities. Conclusions Consistent with other research we find clinical practice guidelines are not producing a principal intended result, and may even produce unintended consequences. PMID:20367703

  1. Evidence-based clinical guidelines in Kyrgyz Republic.

    PubMed

    Zurdinova, A A

    2015-01-01

    Improving quality of care in many countries is one of the priorities of health systems. At the same time one of the most important methods of improving quality of care is the widespread use of methods and principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) [1]. The implementation of EBM in public health practice provides for the optimization of quality of care in terms of safety, efficacy and cost, one way of which is the use of clinical guidelines. Clinical guidelines developed with the use of EBM, provide an opportunity to use the latest and accurate information to optimize or neutralize impact on physician decision-making of subjective factors such as intuition, expertise, opinion of respected colleagues, recommendations of popular manuals and handbooks, etc. To assess and analyze the developed clinical guidelines (CG) and protocols (CP) in the Kyrgyz Republic in the period from 2008 to 2014 and evaluate their implementation in practical healthcare. Retrospective analysis of the developed clinical guidelines and protocols according to the approved methodology, interviewing leaders, questioning doctors and patients for their implementation. All participants gave informed consent for voluntary participation in the study. Within the framework of the National Program "Manas Taalimi" "Strategy for development of evidence-based medicine in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2006-2010" (MOH Order №490 from 09.04.06) was developed and approved for use. Its main purpose was to create a sustainable system of development, deployment and monitoring of the CG and CP and further promotion of EBM into practical health care, education and science. As a result, a number of documents ("Expert Council for assessing the quality of clinical guidelines/protocols", "AGREE instrument to assess the methodological content of clinical guidelines" [2], "The methodology of development and adaptation of clinical guidelines based on evidence-based medicine") were approved by the Order of the Ministry of

  2. Implementing thrombolytic guidelines in stroke care: perceived facilitators and barriers.

    PubMed

    Stecksén, Anna; Lundman, Berit; Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta; Asplund, Kjell

    2014-03-01

    We performed a qualitative study to identify facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of national guidelines on thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. We interviewed physicians and nurses at nine Swedish hospitals using 16 explorative, semistructured interviews, and selected hospitals based on their implementation rate of new stroke care methods according to data from the Swedish Stroke Register, Riks-Stroke. Through content analysis, we identified facilitators and barriers to implementation, which we classified into three categories: (a) individuals, (b) social interactions and context, and (c) organizational and resource issues. Insights obtained from this study can be used to identify target areas for improving the implementation of thrombolytic therapy and other new methods in stroke care.

  3. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Lyme guidelines: a cautionary tale about the development of clinical practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Flawed clinical practice guidelines may compromise patient care. Commercial conflicts of interest on panels that write treatment guidelines are particularly problematic, because panelists may have conflicting agendas that influence guideline recommendations. Historically, there has been no legal remedy for conflicts of interest on guidelines panels. However, in May 2008, the Attorney General of Connecticut concluded a ground-breaking antitrust investigation into the development of Lyme disease treatment guidelines by one of the largest medical societies in the United States, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Although the investigation found significant flaws in the IDSA guidelines development process, the subsequent review of the guidelines mandated by the settlement was compromised by a lack of impartiality at various stages of the IDSA review process. This article will examine the interplay between the recent calls for guidelines reform, the ethical canons of medicine, and due process considerations under antitrust laws as they apply to the formulation of the IDSA Lyme disease treatment guidelines. The article will also discuss pitfalls in the implementation of the IDSA antitrust settlement that should be avoided in the future. PMID:20529367

  4. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Lyme guidelines: a cautionary tale about the development of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lorraine; Stricker, Raphael B

    2010-06-09

    Flawed clinical practice guidelines may compromise patient care. Commercial conflicts of interest on panels that write treatment guidelines are particularly problematic, because panelists may have conflicting agendas that influence guideline recommendations. Historically, there has been no legal remedy for conflicts of interest on guidelines panels. However, in May 2008, the Attorney General of Connecticut concluded a ground-breaking antitrust investigation into the development of Lyme disease treatment guidelines by one of the largest medical societies in the United States, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Although the investigation found significant flaws in the IDSA guidelines development process, the subsequent review of the guidelines mandated by the settlement was compromised by a lack of impartiality at various stages of the IDSA review process. This article will examine the interplay between the recent calls for guidelines reform, the ethical canons of medicine, and due process considerations under antitrust laws as they apply to the formulation of the IDSA Lyme disease treatment guidelines. The article will also discuss pitfalls in the implementation of the IDSA antitrust settlement that should be avoided in the future.

  5. SAGEDesktop: an environment for testing clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Berg, David; Ram, Prabhu; Glasgow, Julie; Castro, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines have begun to appear in electronic form with the expectation that they will be used to provide automated clinical decision support. Systems capable of executing these clinical practice guidelines are emerging concurrently. A few research projects have developed guideline authoring tools that allow encoding electronic clinical practice guidelines. However, we are not aware of tools that allow testing of electronic clinical practice guidelines by their authors. We have developed a tool called SAGEDesktop for the testing of electronic clinical practice guidelines. SAGEDesktop does not require external infrastructure to carry out this testing. It includes: 1) an embedded guideline engine which can execute electronic clinical practice guidelines 2) functionality that emulates the capabilities of a clinical information system necessary for the execution of the guideline, and 3) terminology server functionality that encapsulates standard clinical terms. Coupled with an authoring tool, SAGEDesktop provides a complete development environment in which precise and robust electronic clinical practice guidelines can be encoded and tested. We describe the features of SAGEDesktop, narrate our vision of the tool's use, and discuss SAGEDesktop's strengths and weaknesses.

  6. Supporting a distributed execution of clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bottrighi, Alessio; Molino, Gianpaolo; Montani, Stefania; Terenziani, Paolo; Torchio, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Clinical guidelines (GL) play an important role in medical practice: the one of optimizing the quality of patient care on the basis of evidence based medicine. In order to achieve this goal, the interaction between different agents, who cooperate in the execution of the same GL, is a crucial issue. As a matter of fact, in many cases (e.g. in chronic disorders) the GL execution requires that patient treatment is not performed/completed in the hospital, but is continued in different contexts (e.g. at home, or in the general practitioner's ambulatory), under the responsibility of different agents. In this situation, the correct interaction and communication between the agents themselves is critical for the quality of care, and human resources coordination is a key issue to be addressed by the managers of the involved healthcare services. In this paper we describe how GLARE (Guideline Acquisition, Representation, and Execution), a computerized GL management system, has been extended in order to support such a need. In particular, we have provided: (i) an extension to GL actions representation languages, (ii) proper scheduling and (iii) querying services. By means of these enhancements we aimed at guaranteeing (1) treatment continuity and (2) responsibility assignment support in the various steps of a coordinated and distributed patient care process. We illustrate our approach by means of a practical case study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Delirium Management: Potential Application in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Shirley H.; Bruera, Eduardo; Lawlor, Peter G.; Kanji, Salmaan; Davis, Daniel H.J.; Agar, Meera; Wright, David; Hartwick, Michael; Currow, David C.; Gagnon, Bruno; Simon, Jessica; Pereira, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Context Delirium occurs in patients across a wide array of health care settings. The extent to which formal management guidelines exist or are adaptable to palliative care is unclear. Objectives This review aims to 1) source published delirium management guidelines with potential relevance to palliative care settings, 2) discuss the process of guideline development, 3) appraise their clinical utility, and 4) outline the processes of their implementation and evaluation and make recommendations for future guideline development. Methods We searched PubMed (1990–2013), Scopus, U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse, Google, and relevant reference lists to identify published guidelines for the management of delirium. This was supplemented with multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and other relevant stakeholders at an international delirium study planning meeting. Results There is a paucity of high-level evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in the management of delirium in palliative care. However, multiple delirium guidelines for clinical practice have been developed, with recommendations derived from “expert opinion” for areas where research evidence is lacking. In addition to their potential benefits, limitations of clinical guidelines warrant consideration. Guidelines should be appraised and then adapted for use in a particular setting before implementation. Further research is needed on the evaluation of guidelines, as disseminated and implemented in a clinical setting, focusing on measurable outcomes in addition to their impact on quality of care. Conclusion Delirium clinical guidelines are available but the level of evidence is limited. More robust evidence is required for future guideline development. PMID:24766743

  8. Clinical practice guidelines for delirium management: potential application in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Bush, Shirley H; Bruera, Eduardo; Lawlor, Peter G; Kanji, Salmaan; Davis, Daniel H J; Agar, Meera; Wright, David Kenneth; Hartwick, Michael; Currow, David C; Gagnon, Bruno; Simon, Jessica; Pereira, José L

    2014-08-01

    Delirium occurs in patients across a wide array of health care settings. The extent to which formal management guidelines exist or are adaptable to palliative care is unclear. This review aims to 1) source published delirium management guidelines with potential relevance to palliative care settings, 2) discuss the process of guideline development, 3) appraise their clinical utility, and 4) outline the processes of their implementation and evaluation and make recommendations for future guideline development. We searched PubMed (1990-2013), Scopus, U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse, Google, and relevant reference lists to identify published guidelines for the management of delirium. This was supplemented with multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and other relevant stakeholders at an international delirium study planning meeting. There is a paucity of high-level evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in the management of delirium in palliative care. However, multiple delirium guidelines for clinical practice have been developed, with recommendations derived from "expert opinion" for areas where research evidence is lacking. In addition to their potential benefits, limitations of clinical guidelines warrant consideration. Guidelines should be appraised and then adapted for use in a particular setting before implementation. Further research is needed on the evaluation of guidelines, as disseminated and implemented in a clinical setting, focusing on measurable outcomes in addition to their impact on quality of care. Delirium clinical guidelines are available but the level of evidence is limited. More robust evidence is required for future guideline development. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation Guidelines for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs)

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Doris M.; Thomas, Veronica G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), a part of the National Institutes of Health, currently funds the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs), a national consortium of 61 medical research institutions in 30 states and the District of Columbia. The program seeks to transform the way biomedical research is conducted, speed the translation of laboratory discoveries into treatments for patients, engage communities in clinical research efforts, and train a new generation of clinical and translational researchers. An endeavor as ambitious and complex as the CTSA program requires high‐quality evaluations in order to show that the program is well implemented, efficiently managed, and demonstrably effective. In this paper, the Evaluation Key Function Committee of the CTSA Consortium presents an overall framework for evaluating the CTSA program and offers policies to guide the evaluation work. The guidelines set forth are designed to serve as a tool for education within the CTSA community by illuminating key issues and practices that should be considered during evaluation planning, implementation, and utilization. Additionally, these guidelines can provide a basis for ongoing discussions about how the principles articulated in this paper can most effectively be translated into operational reality. PMID:23919366

  10. Guidelines on Good Clinical Laboratory Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ezzelle, J.; Rodriguez-Chavez, I. R.; Darden, J. M.; Stirewalt, M.; Kunwar, N.; Hitchcock, R.; Walter, T.; D’Souza, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    A set of Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) standards that embraces both the research and clinical aspects of GLP were developed utilizing a variety of collected regulatory and guidance material. We describe eleven core elements that constitute the GCLP standards with the objective of filling a gap for laboratory guidance, based on IND sponsor requirements, for conducting laboratory testing using specimens from human clinical trials. These GCLP standards provide guidance on implementing GLP requirements that are critical for laboratory operations, such as performance of protocol-mandated safety assays, peripheral blood mononuclear cell processing and immunological or endpoint assays from biological interventions on IND-registered clinical trials. The expectation is that compliance with the GCLP standards, monitored annually by external audits, will allow research and development laboratories to maintain data integrity and to provide immunogenicity, safety, and product efficacy data that is repeatable, reliable, auditable and that can be easily reconstructed in a research setting. PMID:18037599

  11. Do guidelines influence the implementation of health programs? — Uganda’s experience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A guideline contains processes and procedures intended to guide health service delivery. However, the presence of guidelines may not guarantee their implementation, which may be a result of weaknesses in the development process. This study was undertaken to describe the processes of developing health planning, services management, and clinical guidelines within the health sector in Uganda, with the goal of understanding how these processes facilitate or abate the utility of guidelines. Methods Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to collect and analyze data. Data collection was undertaken at the levels of the central Ministry of Health, the district, and service delivery. Qualitative methods included review of documents, observations, and key informant interviews, as well as quantitative aspects included counting guidelines. Quantitative data were analyzed with Microsoft Excel, and qualitative data were analyzed using deductive content thematic analysis. Results There were 137 guidelines in the health sector, with programs related to Millennium Development Goals having the highest number (n = 83). The impetus for guideline development was stated in 78% of cases. Several guidelines duplicated content, and some conflicted with each other. The level of consultation varied, and some guidelines did not consider government-wide policies and circumstances at the service delivery level. Booklets were the main format of presentation, which was not tailored to the service delivery level. There was no framework for systematic dissemination, and target users were defined broadly in most cases. Over 60% of guidelines available at the central level were not available at the service delivery level, but there were good examples in isolated cases. There was no framework for systematic monitoring of use, evaluation, and review of guidelines. Suboptimal performance of the supervision framework that would encourage the use of guidelines, assess their

  12. Applying HIV testing guidelines in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Megan R; Fogler, Jess; Weber, Shannon; Goldschmidt, Ronald H

    2009-12-15

    An estimated one fourth of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not aware they are infected. Early diagnosis of HIV has the potential to ensure optimal outcomes for infected persons and to limit the spread of the virus. Important barriers to testing among physicians include insufficient time, reimbursement issues, and lack of patient acceptance. Current HIV testing guidelines address many of these barriers by making the testing process more streamlined and less stigmatizing. The opt-out consent process has been shown to improve test acceptance. Formal pretest counseling and written consent are no longer recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nevertheless, pretest discussions provide an opportunity to give information about HIV, address fears of discrimination, and identify ongoing high-risk activities. With increased HIV screening in the primary care setting, more persons with HIV could be identified earlier, receive timely and appropriate care, and get treatment to prevent clinical progression and transmission.

  13. Librarian contributions to clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Cruse, Peggy; Protzko, Shandra

    2014-01-01

    Librarians have become more involved in developing high quality systematic reviews. Evidence-based practice guidelines are an extension of systematic reviews and offer another significant area for librarian involvement. This column highlights opportunities and challenges for the librarian working on guideline panels and provides practical considerations for meaningful contributions to the guideline creation process.

  14. Effectiveness of multifaceted implementation strategies for the implementation of back and neck pain guidelines in health care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Suman, Arnela; Dikkers, Marije F; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Tulder, Maurits W; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-09-20

    For the optimal use of clinical guidelines in daily practice, mere distribution of guidelines and materials is not enough, and active implementation is needed. This review investigated the effectiveness of multifaceted implementation strategies compared to minimal, single, or no implementation strategy for the implementation of non-specific low back and/or neck pain guidelines in health care. The following electronic databases were searched from inception to June 1, 2015: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Library, and CINAHL. The search strategy was restricted to low back pain, neck pain, and implementation research. Studies were included if their design was a randomized controlled trial, reporting on patients (age ≥18 years) with non-specific low back pain or neck pain (with or without radiating pain). Trials were eligible if they reported patient outcomes, measures of healthcare professional behaviour, and/or outcomes on healthcare level. The primary outcome was professional behaviour. Guidelines that were evaluated in the studies had to be implemented in a healthcare setting. No language restrictions were applied, and studies had to be published full-text in peer-reviewed journals, thus excluding abstract only publications, conference abstracts, and dissertation articles. Two researchers independently screened titles and abstract, extracted data from included studies, and performed risk of bias assessments. After removal of duplicates, the search resulted in 4750 abstracts to be screened. Of 43 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 12 were included in this review, reporting on 9 individual studies, and separate cost-effectiveness analyses of 3 included studies. Implementation strategies varied between studies. Meta-analyses did not reveal any differences in effect between multifaceted strategies and controls. This review showed that multifaceted strategies for the implementation of neck and/or back pain guidelines in health care do not

  15. Alcohol use and pregnancy consensus clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Carson, George; Cox, Lori Vitale; Crane, Joan; Croteau, Pascal; Graves, Lisa; Kluka, Sandra; Koren, Gideon; Martel, Marie-Jocelyne; Midmer, Deana; Nulman, Irena; Poole, Nancy; Senikas, Vyta; Wood, Rebecca

    2010-08-01

    to establish national standards of care for the screening and recording of alcohol use and counselling on alcohol use of women of child-bearing age and pregnant women based on the most up-to-date evidence. published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in May 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., pregnancy complications, alcohol drinking, prenatal care) and key words (e.g., pregnancy, alcohol consumption, risk reduction). Results were restricted to literature published in the last five years with the following research designs: systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment (HTA) and HTA-related agencies, national and international medical specialty societies, clinical practice guideline collections, and clinical trial registries. Each article was screened for relevance and the full text acquired if determined to be relevant. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the members of the Expert Workgroup established by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The quality of evidence was evaluated and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. the quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. these consensus guidelines have been endorsed by the Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Quebec; the Canadian Association of Midwives; the Canadian Association of Perinatal, Women's Health and Neonatal Nurses (CAPWHN); the College of Family Physicians of

  16. Attitudes to clinical guidelines--do GPs differ from other medical doctors?

    PubMed

    Carlsen, B; Bringedal, B

    2011-02-01

    Clinical guidelines are important for ensuring quality of treatment and care. For this reason, it is essential that clinicians adhere to guidelines. Review studies conclude that barriers to using guidelines are context specific. Nevertheless, there is a lack of studies that compare the attitudes of different groups of doctors to guidelines. To survey the attitudes of Norwegian medical practitioners to clinical guidelines and the reasons for any scepticism, and to compare general practitioners (GPs) with other medical doctors in Norway in this respect. Postal questionnaire to a panel of 1649 Norwegian medical doctors. 1072 doctors responded (65%). 97% claimed to be familiar with and following guidelines. A majority expressed confidence in guidelines issued by the health authorities and the medical association. GPs are significantly more uncertain about the legal status of, accessibility of and evidence in guidelines than other doctors. The most important barriers to guideline adherence are concerns about the uniqueness of individual cases and reliance on one's own professional discretion. Both groups rank attitudinal constraints higher than practical constraints, but GPs more often report practical issues as reasons for non-adherence. It is suggested that creating trust in guidelines could be more important than more efforts to improve guideline format and accessibility. It may also be worth considering whether guidelines should be implemented using different processes in generalist and specialist care.

  17. Innovations in American Society of Clinical Oncology Practice Guideline Development.

    PubMed

    Somerfield, Mark R; Bohlke, Kari; Browman, George P; Denduluri, Neelima; Einhaus, Kaitlin; Hayes, Daniel F; Khorana, Alok A; Miller, Robert S; Mohile, Supriya G; Oliver, Thomas K; Ortiz, Eduardo; Lyman, Gary H

    2016-09-10

    Since the beginning of its guidelines program in 1993, ASCO has continually sought ways to produce a greater number of guidelines while maintaining its commitment to using the rigorous development methods that minimize the biases that threaten the validity of practice recommendations. ASCO is implementing a range of guideline development and implementation innovations. In this article, we describe innovations that are designed to (1) integrate consideration of multiple chronic conditions into practice guidelines; (2) keep more of its guidelines current by applying evolving signals or (more) rapid, for-cause updating approaches; (3) increase the number of high-quality guidelines available to its membership through endorsement and adaptation of other groups' products; (4) improve coverage of its members' guideline needs through a new topic nomination process; and (5) enhance dissemination and promote implementation of ASCO guidelines in the oncology practice community through a network of volunteer ambassadors. We close with a summary of ASCO's plans to facilitate the integration of data from its rapid learning system, CancerLinQ, into ASCO guidelines and to develop tactics through which guideline recommendations can be embedded in clinicians' workflow in digital form. We highlight the challenges inherent in reconciling the need to provide clinicians with more interactive, point-of-care guidance with ASCO's abiding commitment to methodologic rigor in guideline development.

  18. Determinants of implementation of maternal health guidelines in Kosovo: mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Straus, Sharon E; Moore, Julia E; Uka, Sami; Marquez, Christine; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2013-09-09

    One of the challenges to implementing clinical practice guidelines is the need to adapt guidelines to the local context and identify barriers to their uptake. Several models of framework are available to consider for use in guideline adaptation. We completed a multiphase study to explore the implementation of maternal health guidelines in Kosovo, focusing on determinants of uptake and methods to contextualize for local use. The study involved a survey, individual interviews, focus groups, and a consensus meeting with relevant stakeholders, including clinicians (obstetricians, midwives), managers, researchers, and policy makers from the national Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization office in Pristina, Kosovo. Participants identified several important barriers to implementation. First, lack of communication between clinicians and ministry representatives was seen as leading to duplication of effort in creating or adapting guidelines, as well as substantial mistrust between clinicians and policy makers. Second, there was a lack of communication across clinical groups that provide obstetric care and a lack of integration across the entire healthcare system, including rural and urban centers. This fragmentation was thought to have directly resulted from the war in 1998 - 1999. Third, the conflict substantially and adversely affected the healthcare infrastructure in Kosovo, which has resulted in an inability to monitor quality of care across the country. Furthermore, the impact on infrastructure has affected the ability to access required medications consistently and to smoothly transfer patients from rural to urban centers. Another issue raised during this project was the appropriateness of including guideline recommendations perceived to be 'aspirational'. Implementing clinical practice guidelines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) requires consideration of several specific barriers. Particularly pertinent to this study were the effects of

  19. Determinants of implementation of maternal health guidelines in Kosovo: mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the challenges to implementing clinical practice guidelines is the need to adapt guidelines to the local context and identify barriers to their uptake. Several models of framework are available to consider for use in guideline adaptation. Methods We completed a multiphase study to explore the implementation of maternal health guidelines in Kosovo, focusing on determinants of uptake and methods to contextualize for local use. The study involved a survey, individual interviews, focus groups, and a consensus meeting with relevant stakeholders, including clinicians (obstetricians, midwives), managers, researchers, and policy makers from the national Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization office in Pristina, Kosovo. Results Participants identified several important barriers to implementation. First, lack of communication between clinicians and ministry representatives was seen as leading to duplication of effort in creating or adapting guidelines, as well as substantial mistrust between clinicians and policy makers. Second, there was a lack of communication across clinical groups that provide obstetric care and a lack of integration across the entire healthcare system, including rural and urban centers. This fragmentation was thought to have directly resulted from the war in 1998 – 1999. Third, the conflict substantially and adversely affected the healthcare infrastructure in Kosovo, which has resulted in an inability to monitor quality of care across the country. Furthermore, the impact on infrastructure has affected the ability to access required medications consistently and to smoothly transfer patients from rural to urban centers. Another issue raised during this project was the appropriateness of including guideline recommendations perceived to be ‘aspirational’. Conclusions Implementing clinical practice guidelines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) requires consideration of several specific barriers. Particularly

  20. [Methodological approaches in the development of clinical guidelines].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, K

    2017-03-01

    Practical guidelines assist the clinical decision-making process in modern medicine. In rheumatology the number of practical guidelines dealing with diagnostics and therapy of rheumatic diseases is also constantly increasing. Methodological standards for guidelines ensure adequate development under consideration of precisely defined structures. Expert recommendations for action (S1) are distinguished from consensus (S2k) or evidence-based (S2e) as well as consensus and evidence-based (S3) guidelines. Levels of evidence categorize available studies by study design. Parameters for the evaluation of guidelines are summarized in the German instrument for the assessment of guidelines (DELBI).

  1. Reporting Items for Updated Clinical Guidelines: Checklist for the Reporting of Updated Guidelines (CheckUp)

    PubMed Central

    Vernooij, Robin W. M.; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Brouwers, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Scientific knowledge is in constant development. Consequently, regular review to assure the trustworthiness of clinical guidelines is required. However, there is still a lack of preferred reporting items of the updating process in updated clinical guidelines. The present article describes the development process of the Checklist for the Reporting of Updated Guidelines (CheckUp). Methods and Findings We developed an initial list of items based on an overview of research evidence on clinical guideline updating, the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II Instrument, and the advice of the CheckUp panel (n = 33 professionals). A multistep process was used to refine this list, including an assessment of ten existing updated clinical guidelines, interviews with key informants (response rate: 54.2%; 13/24), a three-round Delphi consensus survey with the CheckUp panel (33 participants), and an external review with clinical guideline methodologists (response rate: 90%; 53/59) and users (response rate: 55.6%; 10/18). CheckUp includes 16 items that address (1) the presentation of an updated guideline, (2) editorial independence, and (3) the methodology of the updating process. In this article, we present the methodology to develop CheckUp and include as a supplementary file an explanation and elaboration document. Conclusions CheckUp can be used to evaluate the completeness of reporting in updated guidelines and as a tool to inform guideline developers about reporting requirements. Editors may request its completion from guideline authors when submitting updated guidelines for publication. Adherence to CheckUp will likely enhance the comprehensiveness and transparency of clinical guideline updating for the benefit of patients and the public, health care professionals, and other relevant stakeholders. PMID:28072838

  2. [A new generation of reliable clinical practice guidelines through MAGIC].

    PubMed

    Olav Vandvik, Per; Fog Heen, Anja; Brandt, Linn

    2014-01-01

    Safe and effective disease diagnosis and treatment requires that health personnel can access the best evidence, preferably through reliable clinical practice guidelines. Most guidelines have methodological weaknesses, suboptimal reporting formats, and frequently fail to update content. New standards developed by the US Institute of Medicine and the Guidelines International Network and Systems for Trustworthy Guidelines offer better opportunities for success in the development of guidelines, but also increase the demand for methodological competence, clinical experience and time. It is important to provide clinical practice guidelines with reliable content, and achieve their dissemination and update as needed. In this article we describe how to apply new standards, methods and tools for the creation, dissemination and updating of reliable clinical practice guidelines. Key steps were set for the elaboration of guidelines by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. It will be explained how an innovative research program, Making GRADE the Irresistible Choice (MAGIC) (www.magicproject.org), through its authorship and publication platform (MAGICapp), offers new solutions to facilitate the production, dissemination and dynamic update of reliable clinical practice guidelines. An example will be described about a recently published Norwegian guideline on the new oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation, showing how a guideline published in MAGICapp can be used in medical practice.

  3. Adherence to EBM guidelines in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Khafizianova, R Kh; Burykin, I M

    2015-01-01

    Adequate and rational pharmacotherapy is an important element of rehabilitation of patients with myocardial infarction. Orders of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, domestic and international guidelines, and scientific publications - all contain a complete algorithm for rational pharmacotherapy [1, 2]. These documents are based on the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and help practicing physicians to carry out individualized and rational pharmacotherapy. However, clinical studies have shown low adherence of physicians to clinical guidelines. In the Russian Federation the death rate from cardiovascular diseases is higher than in developed countries. Thus, studies of the causes of high cardiovascular mortality are needed. To assess adherence of practicing physicians to principles of evidence-based medicine in treating patients after myocardial infarction at the stage of rehabilitation. A retrospective analysis of 157 cases of patients in rehabilitation after myocardial infarction for the years 2006 and 2009 was undertaken.We analyzed the list of drugs, prescribed to patients during the period of rehabilitation, drug combinations, regimens and pharmacoepidemiological parameters. We used the following rehabilitation criteria: blood pressure control, smoking cessation, and weight control. Recommendations of controlled physical activities have also been studied. Patient care was compared with the guideline recommendations. Statistical analysis was performed using the OLAP system. 65 patients with myocardial infarction received rehabilitation therapy in 2006, and 92 - in 2009. It was found, that in 2006 physicians prescribed an average of 4.5 drugs per patient, and in 2009 - 4.6 drugs per patient. The average number of cardiovascular drugs (category C of ATC classification) per patient was 2.9 in 2006, and 2.6 - in 2009. Polypharmacy was found in half of the patients.In terms of evidence-based medicine, an important element in the rehabilitation

  4. Prioritization strategies in clinical practice guidelines development: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective Few methodological studies address the prioritization of clinical topics for the development of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs). The aim of this study was to validate a methodology for Priority Determination of Topics (PDT) of CPGs. Methods and results Firstly, we developed an instrument for PDT with 41 criteria that were grouped under 10 domains, based on a comprehensive systematic search. Secondly, we performed a survey of stakeholders involved in CPGs development, and end users of guidelines, using the instrument. Thirdly, a pilot testing of the PDT procedure was performed in order to choose 10 guideline topics among 34 proposed projects; using a multi-criteria analysis approach, we validated a mechanism that followed five stages: determination of the composition of groups, item/domain scoring, weights determination, quality of the information used to support judgments, and finally, topic selection. Participants first scored the importance of each domain, after which four different weighting procedures were calculated (including the survey results). The process of weighting was determined by correlating the data between them. We also reported the quality of evidence used for PDT. Finally, we provided a qualitative analysis of the process. The main domains used to support judgement, having higher quality scores and weightings, were feasibility, disease burden, implementation and information needs. Other important domains such as user preferences, adverse events, potential for health promotion, social effects, and economic impact had lower relevance for clinicians. Criteria for prioritization were mainly judged through professional experience, while good quality information was only used in 15% of cases. Conclusion The main advantages of the proposed methodology are supported by the use of a systematic approach to identify, score and weight guideline topics selection, limiting or exposing the influence of personal biases. However, the methodology was

  5. Clinical Practice Guideline (Update): Earwax (Cerumen Impaction)

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth R; Magit, Anthony E; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Ballachanda, Bopanna B; Hackell, Jesse M; Krouse, Helene J; Lawlor, Claire M; Lin, Kenneth; Parham, Kourosh; Stutz, David R; Walsh, Sandy; Woodson, Erika A; Yanagisawa, Ken; Cunningham, Eugene R

    2017-01-01

    Objective This update of the 2008 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation cerumen impaction clinical practice guideline provides evidence-based recommendations on managing cerumen impaction. Cerumen impaction is defined as an accumulation of cerumen that causes symptoms, prevents assessment of the ear, or both. Changes from the prior guideline include a consumer added to the development group; new evidence (3 guidelines, 5 systematic reviews, and 6 randomized controlled trials); enhanced information on patient education and counseling; a new algorithm to clarify action statement relationships; expanded action statement profiles to explicitly state quality improvement opportunities, confidence in the evidence, intentional vagueness, and differences of opinion; an enhanced external review process to include public comment and journal peer review; and 3 new key action statements on managing cerumen impaction that focus on primary prevention, contraindicated intervention, and referral and coordination of care. Purpose The primary purpose of this guideline is to help clinicians identify patients with cerumen impaction who may benefit from intervention and to promote evidence-based management. Another purpose of the guideline is to highlight needs and management options in special populations or in patients who have modifying factors. The guideline is intended for all clinicians who are likely to diagnose and manage patients with cerumen impaction, and it applies to any setting in which cerumen impaction would be identified, monitored, or managed. The guideline does not apply to patients with cerumen impaction associated with the following conditions: dermatologic diseases of the ear canal; recurrent otitis externa; keratosis obturans; prior radiation therapy affecting the ear; previous tympanoplasty/myringoplasty, canal wall down mastoidectomy, or other surgery affecting the ear canal. Key Action Statements The panel made a strong

  6. How good is the evidence base for test selection in clinical guidelines?

    PubMed

    Misra, Shivani; Barth, Julian H

    2014-05-15

    Clinical guidelines are ubiquitous, manifold and form an integral component of evidence-based clinical practice. Guidelines on test selection are often considered a useful adjunct to aid clinical decision-making, as test selection is a complex process that is influenced by many patient, clinician and laboratory factors. However, it is important to carefully evaluate several aspects of these guidelines, which include the context of the test in the guideline, the quality of the studies underpinning recommendations, the extent of the evaluation of effectiveness (or performance) of the specific test and in the clinical pathway, its applicability and ease of implementation. A robust evaluation of a diagnostic test should incorporate several stages including evaluation in healthy, symptomatic but unaffected and affected populations, and importantly a measurement of impact on patient outcomes. Few diagnostic studies meet these criteria, and therefore crucial aspects of test evaluation are overlooked prior to incorporation into clinical guidelines. Whilst efforts are made to standardise reporting of studies, strength of evidence and quality of guidelines, further work is required to improve the quality of the diagnostic studies that formulate these guidelines. It is important that clinicians using guidelines for test selection appreciate the limitations of the diagnostic test, and the guidelines themselves.

  7. [The local adaptation of clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Cavada, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The ADAPTE process is a systematic approach to adapting guidelines produced in one setting for use in a different cultural and organizational context. It ensures that the guideline addresses specific health questions relevant to the context, accounting for the needs, priorities, legislation, policies, and resources in the targeted setting. The ADAPTE process was developed to meet the needs of different user groups, including guideline developers, health care providers, and policy makers at the local, national, and international level. The process is flexible; the transparent and explicit reporting enhances the quality and validity of the adapted guideline. The ADAPTE process is briefly described.

  8. Clinical practice guideline: Tympanostomy tubes in children.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Schwartz, Seth R; Pynnonen, Melissa A; Tunkel, David E; Hussey, Heather M; Fichera, Jeffrey S; Grimes, Alison M; Hackell, Jesse M; Harrison, Melody F; Haskell, Helen; Haynes, David S; Kim, Tae W; Lafreniere, Denis C; LeBlanc, Katie; Mackey, Wendy L; Netterville, James L; Pipan, Mary E; Raol, Nikhila P; Schellhase, Kenneth G

    2013-07-01

    Insertion of tympanostomy tubes is the most common ambulatory surgery performed on children in the United States. Tympanostomy tubes are most often inserted because of persistent middle ear fluid, frequent ear infections, or ear infections that persist after antibiotic therapy. Despite the frequency of tympanostomy tube insertion, there are currently no clinical practice guidelines in the United States that address specific indications for surgery. This guideline is intended for any clinician involved in managing children, aged 6 months to 12 years, with tympanostomy tubes or being considered for tympanostomy tubes in any care setting, as an intervention for otitis media of any type. The primary purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations on patient selection and surgical indications for and management of tympanostomy tubes in children. The development group broadly discussed indications for tube placement, perioperative management, care of children with indwelling tubes, and outcomes of tympanostomy tube surgery. Given the lack of current published guidance on surgical indications, the group focused on situations in which tube insertion would be optional, recommended, or not recommended. Additional emphasis was placed on opportunities for quality improvement, particularly regarding shared decision making and care of children with existing tubes. ACTION STATEMENTS: The development group made a strong recommendation that clinicians should prescribe topical antibiotic eardrops only, without oral antibiotics, for children with uncomplicated acute tympanostomy tube otorrhea. The panel made recommendations that (1) clinicians should not perform tympanostomy tube insertion in children with a single episode of otitis media with effusion (OME) of less than 3 months' duration; (2) clinicians should obtain an age-appropriate hearing test if OME persists for 3 months or longer (chronic OME) or prior to surgery when

  9. [Knowledge and implementation of the S3 guideline on delirium management in Germany].

    PubMed

    Saller, T; V Dossow, V; Hofmann-Kiefer, K

    2016-10-01

    Delirium is a common complication in critical care. The syndrome is often underestimated due to its potentially no less dangerous course as a hypoactive delirium. Therefore, current guidelines ask for a structured, regular and routine screening in all intensive care units. If delirium is diagnosed, symptomatic therapy should be initiated promptly. The aim of the current study was to evaluate recent German anesthetists' strategies regarding delirium care compared to the German guidelines for sedation and delirium in intensive care. In an online survey German hospitals' senior anesthetists (n = 922) were interviewed anonymously between May and June 2015 regarding guideline use in delirium management in German intensive care units. In 33 direct questions the anesthetists were invited to answer items regarding the structure of their hospitals, intensive care and delirium therapy in order to review their knowledge of the German delirium guidelines that expired in 2014. The 249 senior anesthetists who responded to the survey, can be associated with (or represent) a quarter of German intensive care beds and cases, respectively. In every tenth clinic that runs an intensive care unit the guideline was unknown. In three of four intensive care units physicians specified a preferred delirium score, the CAM-ICU (49.4 %) is used most frequently. With knowledge of the guidelines more often a recommended delirium score is used (p = 0.017). However, only 53.6 % of the respondents ascertain a score every eight hours and 36 % have no facility for standardized documentation in the records. At intensive care rounds, a possible diagnosis of delirium is an inherent part in only 34.9 % of the responders even with guideline knowledge. The particular gold standard for the therapy of delirium (alphaagonists for vegetative symptoms; 89.6 %, benzodiazepines for anxiety, 77.5 %; antipsychotics in 86.7 % for psychotic symptoms) is implemented more often with growing knowledge of

  10. Towards local implementation of Dutch health policy guidelines: a concept-mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Kuunders, Theo J M; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van de Goor, Ien A M; Paulussen, Theo G W M; van Oers, Hans A M

    2017-02-22

    To develop a targeted implementation strategy for a municipal health policy guideline, implementation targets of two guideline users [Regional Health Services (RHSs)] and guideline developers of leading national health institutes were made explicit. Therefore, characteristics of successful implementation of the guideline were identified. Differences and similarities in perceptions of these characteristics between RHSs and developers were explored. Separate concept mapping procedures were executed in two RHSs, one with representatives from partner local health organizations and municipalities, the second with RHS members only. A third map was conducted with the developers of the guideline. All mapping procedures followed the same design of generating statements up to interpretation of results with participants. Concept mapping, as a practical implementation tool, will be discussed in the context of international research literature on guideline implementation in public health. Guideline developers consider implementation successful when substantive components (health issues) of the guidelines, content are visible in local policy practice. RHSs, local organizations and municipalities view the implementation process itself within and between organizations as more relevant, and state that usability of the guideline for municipal policy and commitment by officials and municipal managers are critical targets for successful implementation. Between the RHSs, differences in implementation targets were smaller than between RHSs and guideline developers. For successful implementation, RHSs tend to focus on process targets while developers focus more on the thematic contents of the guideline. Implications of these different orientations for implementation strategies are dealt with in the discussion. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Optimal Pain Assessment in Pediatric Rehabilitation: Implementation of a Nursing Guideline.

    PubMed

    Kingsnorth, Shauna; Joachimides, Nick; Krog, Kim; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn Smith

    2015-12-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the Registered Nurses' Association promotes a Best Practice Spotlight Organization initiative to enhance evidence-based practice. Qualifying organizations are required to implement strategies, evaluate outcomes, and sustain practices aligned with nursing clinical practice guidelines. This study reports on the development and evaluation of a multifaceted implementation strategy to support adoption of a nursing clinical practice guideline on the assessment and management of acute pain in a pediatric rehabilitation and complex continuing care hospital. Multiple approaches were employed to influence behavior, attitudes, and awareness around optimal pain practice (e.g., instructional resources, electronic reminders, audits, and feedback). Four measures were introduced to assess pain in communicating and noncommunicating children as part of a campaign to treat pain as the fifth vital sign. A prospective repeated measures design examined survey and audit data to assess practice aligned with the guideline. The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (KNAS) was adapted to ensure relevance to the local practice setting and was assessed before and after nurses' participation in three education modules. Audit data included client demographics and pain scores assessed annually over a 3-year window. A final sample of 69 nurses (78% response rate) provided pre-/post-survey data. A total of 108 pediatric surgical clients (younger than 19 years) contributed audit data across the three collection cycles. Significant improvements in nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to optimal pain care for children with disabilities were noted following adoption of the pain clinical practice guideline. Targeted guideline implementation strategies are central to supporting optimal pain practice.

  12. Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Su Yen; Ang, Seng Bin; Bee, Yong Mong; Chen, Richard YT; Gardner, Daphne; Ho, Emily; Adaikan, Kala; Lee, Alvin; Lee, Chung Horn; Lim, Fong Seng; Lim, Hwee Boon; Lim, Su Chi; Seow, Julie; Soh, Abel Wah Ek; Sum, Chee Fang; Tai, E Shyong; Thai, Ah Chuan; Wong, Tien Yin; Yap, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) have updated the clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for diabetes mellitus. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines. PMID:25017409

  13. Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Goh, S Y; Ang, S B; Bee, Y M; Chen, Y T; Gardner, D S; Ho, E T; Adaikan, K; Lee, Y C; Lee, C H; Lim, F S; Lim, H B; Lim, S C; Seow, J; Soh, A W; Sum, C F; Tai, E S; Thai, A C; Wong, T Y; Yap, F

    2014-06-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) have updated the clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for diabetes mellitus. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.

  14. Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Leslie; Chan, Hong Ngee; Chew, Peng Hoe; Chua, Sze Ming; Ho, Carolyn; Kwek, Seow Khee Daniel; Lee, Tih Shih; Loh, Patricia; Lum, Alvin; Tan, Yong Hui Colin; Wan, Yi Min; Woo, Matthew; Yap, Hwa Ling

    2015-06-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) has developed the clinical practice guidelines on Anxiety Disorders to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on anxiety disorders, for the information of SMJ readers. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/healthprofessionalsportal/doctors/guidelines/cpg_medical.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.

  15. Methodology for lung cancer evidence review and guideline development: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd Edition).

    PubMed

    McCrory, Douglas C; Lewis, Sandra Zelman; Heitzer, Julia; Colice, Gene; Alberts, W Michael

    2007-09-01

    To assemble a geographically diverse panel of experts in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer, representative of multiple clinical specialties, with the intention of developing clinically relevant practice guidelines for chest medicine and primary care physicians, including recommendations covering the full spectrum of care of the patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The Duke University Center for Clinical Health Policy Research was selected to review and summarize the current evidence in the treatment of NSCLC. The BlueCross BlueShield Association Technology Evaluation Center was chosen and funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to review and synthesize the current evidence on treatment of SCLC. Other chapters received existing guidelines, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses that were published since the first edition of these guidelines, as collected by the Duke University Evidence-based Practice Center. The writing committees for these chapters conducted searches for the primary articles and additional evidence in their topic area. The expert panel established clinical recommendations founded on the synthesis of this evidence. This section describes the approach used to develop the guidelines, including identifying, evaluating, and synthesizing the evidence, assessing the strength of evidence and grading the individual recommendations, and suggestions for implementation of the guidelines.

  16. Clinical practice guidelines to inform evidence-based clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J Stuart; Hubbard, Heddy; Faraday, Martha M; Forrest, John B

    2011-06-01

    With the volume of medical research currently published, any one practitioner cannot independently review the literature to determine best evidence-based medical care. Additionally, non-specialists usually do not have the experience to know best practice for all of the frequent clinical circumstances for which there is no good evidence. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) help clinicians to address these problems because they are systematically created documents that summarize knowledge and provide guidance to assist in delivering high-quality medicine. They aim to improve health care by identifying evidence that supports the best clinical care and making clear which practices appear to be ineffective. Non-structured literature review. CPGs combine evidence-based medicine (on topics for which evidence exists) with expert opinion (on topics for which there is no evidence). The optimal CPG applies structured and transparent judgments, from an unbiased and diverse panel which includes both clinical experts and non-physicians, to a systematic evidence review. It includes decisions in areas in which clinical data are both available and unavailable. The resulting guideline statements should be clearly linked to the quality of the available evidence and the target patient(s) should be clearly defined, so that the reader can assess strength and applicability of the statements to an individual patient. The application of high-quality CPGs improves patient care, but all too often CPGs are not used to the greatest advantage because of inadequate dissemination and incorporation into practice. This article provides an overview of CPGs, focusing on their justification, creation, improvement, and use.

  17. A service oriented approach for guidelines-based clinical decision support using BPMN.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Loya, Salvador; Aziz, Ayesha; Chatwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medical practice requires that clinical guidelines need to be documented in such a way that they represent a clinical workflow in its most accessible form. In order to optimize clinical processes to improve clinical outcomes, we propose a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) based approach for implementing clinical guidelines that can be accessed from an Electronic Health Record (EHR) application with a Web Services enabled communication mechanism with the Enterprise Service Bus. We have used Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) for modelling and presenting the clinical pathway in the form of a workflow. The aim of this study is to produce spontaneous alerts in the healthcare workflow in the diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The use of BPMN as a tool to automate clinical guidelines has not been previously employed for providing Clinical Decision Support (CDS).

  18. PRACTICAL BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF THYROID CANCER GUIDELINES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION.

    PubMed

    Yang, Samantha Peiling; Ying, Lee Suat; Saw, Stephanie; Tuttle, R Michael; Venkataraman, Kavita; Su-Ynn, Chia

    2015-11-01

    Numerous published guidelines have described the optimal management of thyroid cancer. However, these rely on the clinical availability of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. We hypothesized that the availability of medical resources and economic circumstances vary in Asia-Pacific countries, making it difficult to implement guideline recommendations into clinical practice. We surveyed participants at the 2009 and 2013 Congresses of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Federation of Endocrine Societies by distributing questionnaires to attendees at registration. Responses were obtained from 268 respondents in 2009 and 163 respondents in 2013. Similar to the high prevalence of low-risk thyroid cancer observed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, across the Asia-Pacific countries surveyed in 2009 and 2013, 50 to 100% of the respondents from the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Korea, and Sri Lanka reported that more than 50% of the patients had low-risk thyroid cancer on follow-up. Importantly, there was much variation with regards to the perceived availability of investigation and treatment modalities. We found a wide variation in clinicians' perception of availability of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the face of a rise in thyroid cancer incidence and thyroid cancer management guidelines that emphasized their importance. The lack of availability of management tools and treatments will prove to be a major barrier to the implementation of thyroid cancer management guidelines in Southeast Asia, and likely in other parts of the world as well.

  19. The effectiveness of guideline implementation strategies on improving antipsychotic medication management for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Richard R; Hudson, Teresa; Thrush, Carol; Thapa, Purushottam; Armitage, Tracey; Landes, Reid D

    2008-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a conceptually-based, multicomponent "enhanced" strategy with a "basic" strategy for implementing antipsychotic management recommendations of VA schizophrenia guidelines. Two VA medical centers in each of 3 Veterans Integrated Service Networks were randomized to either a basic educational implementation strategy or the enhanced strategy, in which a trained nurse promoted provider guideline adherence and patient compliance. Patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia were enrolled and assessed at baseline and 6 months and their medical records were abstracted; 291 participants were included in analyses. Logistic regression models were developed for rates of: (1) switching patients from first-generation antipsychotics (FGA) to second-generation antipsychotics (SGA), and (2) guideline-concordant antipsychotic dose. Of participants prescribed FGAs at baseline, those at enhanced sites were significantly more likely than participants at basic sites to have an SGA added to the FGA during the study (29% vs. 8%; adjusted OR = 7.7; 95% CI: 2.0-30.1), but were not significantly more likely to be switched to monotherapy with an SGA (29% vs. 23%). Guideline-concordant antipsychotic dosing was not significantly affected by the intervention. The enhanced guideline implementation strategy increased addition of SGAs to FGA therapy, but did not significantly increase guideline-recommended switching from FGA to SGA monotherapy. Antipsychotic dosing was not significantly altered. The study illustrates the challenges of changing clinical behavior. Strategies to improve medication management for schizophrenia are needed, and must incorporate recommendations likely to emerge from recent research suggesting comparable effectiveness of SGAs and FGAs.

  20. Quality appraisal of clinical practice guidelines on glioma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hongliang; Gou, Yani; Pan, Yawen; Li, Qiao; Wei, Dang; Wang, Zhenwei; Niu, Xiaodong; Liang, Wentao; Zhang, Yinian

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play an important role in healthcare. The guideline development process should be precise and rigorous to ensure that the results are reproducible and not vague. To determine the quality of guidelines, the Appraisal of Guidelines and Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument was developed and introduced. The aim of the present study was to assess the methodological quality of clinical practice guidelines on glioma. Eight databases (including MEDLINE and Embase) were searched till to August, 2013. The methodological quality of the guidelines was assessed by four authors independently using the AGREE II instrument. Fifteen relevant guidelines were included from 940 citations. The overall agreement among reviewers was moderate (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.92). The mean scores were moderate for the domains "scope and purpose" (59.54) and "clarity of presentation" (65.46); however, there were low scores for the domains "stakeholder involvement" (43.80), "rigor of development" (39.01), "applicability" (31.89), and "editorial independence" (30.83). Only one third of the guidelines described the systematic methods for searching, and nearly half of the (47%) guidelines did not give a specific recommendation. Only four of 15 described a procedure for updating the guideline; meanwhile, just six guidelines in this field can be considered to be evidence-based. The quality and transparency of the development process and the consistency in the reporting of glioma guidelines need to be improved. And the quality of reporting of guidelines was disappointing. Many other methodological disadvantages were identified. In the future, glioma CPGs should be based on the best available evidence and rigorously developed and reported. Greater efforts are needed to provide high-quality guidelines that serve as a useful and reliable tool for clinical decision-making in this field.

  1. Implementing distress management guidelines in ambulatory oncology: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Hammelef, Karen J; Friese, Christopher R; Breslin, Tara M; Riba, Michelle; Schneider, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Distress assessment and referral to psychosocial services is an essential component of evidence-based oncologic nursing care. Oncology nurses have an opportunity to address patient distress needs through leadership of implementation programs and support for the positive outcomes that engaging in psychosocial services provides. This quality improvement project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and utility of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network's distress management clinical practice guidelines in ambulatory oncology. A theoretical framework guided the process design that included staff education, screening, and management in a cohort implementation project with historical control.

  2. Implementing the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research pain management pediatric guideline in a multicultural practice setting.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, L; Voigtman, J; Mills, H

    1997-02-01

    This article describes the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of a clinical practice guideline for managing pediatric patient pain. The standard of care used was the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research acute pain management guideline. It was used to assess current levels of care and to make recommendations for improvements. Information was gathered from a sample of 240 pediatric patients aged 1 week to 14 years. Recommendations for improving care are given. The guideline was found to be clinically useful as a general standard of care, but more work needs to be done to individualize care for specific populations, age groups, and cultures.

  3. Designing an automated clinical decision support system to match clinical practice guidelines for opioid therapy for chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Opioid prescribing for chronic pain is common and controversial, but recommended clinical practices are followed inconsistently in many clinical settings. Strategies for increasing adherence to clinical practice guideline recommendations are needed to increase effectiveness and reduce negative consequences of opioid prescribing in chronic pain patients. Methods Here we describe the process and outcomes of a project to operationalize the 2003 VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Opioid Therapy for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain into a computerized decision support system (DSS) to encourage good opioid prescribing practices during primary care visits. We based the DSS on the existing ATHENA-DSS. We used an iterative process of design, testing, and revision of the DSS by a diverse team including guideline authors, medical informatics experts, clinical content experts, and end-users to convert the written clinical practice guideline into a computable algorithm to generate patient-specific recommendations for care based upon existing information in the electronic medical record (EMR), and a set of clinical tools. Results The iterative revision process identified numerous and varied problems with the initially designed system despite diverse expert participation in the design process. The process of operationalizing the guideline identified areas in which the guideline was vague, left decisions to clinical judgment, or required clarification of detail to insure safe clinical implementation. The revisions led to workable solutions to problems, defined the limits of the DSS and its utility in clinical practice, improved integration into clinical workflow, and improved the clarity and accuracy of system recommendations and tools. Conclusions Use of this iterative process led to development of a multifunctional DSS that met the approval of the clinical practice guideline authors, content experts, and clinicians involved in testing. The process and experiences described

  4. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Endoscope Reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy is effective and safe for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disease. However, issues regarding endoscope-transmitted infections are emerging. Many countries have established and continuously revise guidelines for endoscope reprocessing in order to prevent infections. While there are common processes used in endoscope reprocessing, differences exist among these guidelines. It is important that the reprocessing of gastrointestinal endoscopes be carried out in accordance with the recommendations for each step of the process. PMID:26473117

  5. Considerations on the Improved Integration of Medical Guidelines into Routine Clinical Practice – a Review and Concept Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, M. W.; Schlieter, H.; Richter, P.; Wesselmann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Medical guidelines have become established as the standard for the comprehensive synopsis of all available information (scientific trials, expert opinion) on diagnosis and treatment recommendations. The transfer of guidelines to clinical practice and subsequent monitoring has however proven difficult. In particular the potential interaction between guideline developers and guideline users has not been fully utilised. This review article analyses the status quo and existing methodological and technical information solutions supporting the guideline life cycle. It is shown that there are numerous innovative developments that in isolation do not provide comprehensive support. The vision of the “Living Guidelines 2.0” is therefore presented. This outlines the merging of guideline development and implementation on the basis of clinical pathways and guideline-based quality control, and building on this, the generation of information for guideline development and research. PMID:27134291

  6. [Medico-economic assessment of two methods for implementing thyroid testing guidelines].

    PubMed

    Saillour-Glénisson, F; Michel, P; Daucourt, V

    2005-09-01

    To compare independent and combined effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two implementation interventions of guidelines for ordering thyroid function tests. The two implementation interventions were a Memorandum Pocket Card (MPC) and a Test Request Form (TRF). Intervention groups were wards. The study used an experimental 2*2 factorial design with matching hospitals according to size and activity and wards according to pre-intervention appropriateness for test ordering. Four ward groups were established: the dual intervention group, the order form group, the pocket card group and the control group. Physicians in all groups received guidelines and were invited to a local information meeting. The main outcome measure of effectiveness was the Guideline Conformity Rate (GCR). The cost-effectiveness ratio was the cost difference between the tested intervention and the control intervention upon effectiveness difference between the tested intervention and the control intervention. Six hospitals participated in the study (two middle-sized hospitals, two small-sized hospitals and two psychiatric hospitals). A total of 1412 orders for thyroid function tests were collected. GCR was 78% in the dual intervention group, 83% in the order form group, 73% in the pocket card group and 62% in the control group. The interaction between TRF and MPC was not significant (B=-0.70, p=0.21). Compared to simple information, TRF was effective in increasing GCR (OR=2.65, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.52-4.62), unlike MPC (OR=1.28, CI: 0.75-2.19). TRF was the less expensive and the most effective intervention. Using a robust design, our study shows a greater effectiveness of TRF than MPC and their association in implementing thyroid function test guidelines. The development of clinical practice improvement projects through the second procedure of accreditation in France is a good opportunity to develop a guidelines implementation research project.

  7. [Evaluation of oncology clinical practice guidelines: the contribution of certified centers].

    PubMed

    Wesselmann, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The German Guideline Program in Oncology defines quality indicators which provide the basis for the certification of oncology centers of the German Cancer Society. The results of the quality indicators are published annually in benchmarking reports which summarize the data of over 400,000 oncological patients in the course of time. The reports will be presented to the guideline groups during their guideline updating process. In addition, the explanation of the certified centers and the auditors for non-adherence to guideline recommendations is being recorded. In this way, the guideline group obtains important information about how and to which extent the guideline is implemented in clinical routine, and can derive conclusions for the further definition of recommendations and quality indicators.

  8. Methodology manual for European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Uva, Miguel; Head, Stuart J; Thielmann, Matthias; Cardillo, Giuseppe; Benedetto, Umberto; Czerny, Martin; Dunning, Joel; Castella, Manuel; Gudbjartsson, Tomas; Howell, Neil; Hazekamp, Mark; Kolh, Philippe; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Pagano, Domenico; Kappetein, A Pieter

    2015-12-01

    The goal of all clinical guidelines is to assist patients and practitioners in making healthcare decisions. However, clinical guidelines have been questioned about their quality, transparency and independence. Based on the revision of manuals by other scientific cardiothoracic organizations, this document provides instructions for the development of European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) clinical guidelines and other types of evidence-based documents. Four key areas have been addressed: (i) selection of taskforce members and transparency of relations with the industry, (ii) methods for critical appraisal of medical evidence, (iii) rules for writing recommendations and (iv) review process. It is hoped that, by adopting this methodology, clinical guidelines produced by the EACTS will be well balanced, objective and, importantly, trusted by physicians and patients who benefit from their implementation.

  9. Impact of a clinical guideline for prescribing antibiotics to inpatients reporting penicillin or cephalosporin allergy.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Shenoy, Erica S; Varughese, Christy A; Hurwitz, Shelley; Hooper, David C; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-10-01

    Self-reported penicillin allergy infrequently reflects an inability to tolerate penicillins. Inpatients reporting penicillin allergy receive alternative antibiotics that might be broader spectrum, more toxic, or less effective. To develop and assess a clinical guideline for the general inpatient provider that directs taking a history and prescribing antibiotics for patients with penicillin or cephalosporin allergy. A guideline was implemented to assist providers with assessing allergy history and prescribing antibiotics for patients with reported penicillin or cephalosporin allergy. The guideline used a standard 2-step graded challenge or test dose. A quasi-experimental study was performed to assess safety, feasibility, and impact on antibiotic use by comparing treatment 21 months before guideline implementation with 12 months after guideline implementation. Significantly more test doses to β-lactam antibiotics were performed monthly after vs before guideline implementation (median 14.5, interquartile range 13-16.25, vs 2, interquartile range 1-3.25, P < .001). Seven adverse drug reactions occurred during guideline-driven test doses, with no significant difference in rate (3.9% vs 6.1%, P = .44) or severity (P > .5) between periods. Guideline-driven test doses decreased alternative antimicrobial therapy after the test dose, including vancomycin (68.3% vs 37.2%, P < .001), aztreonam (11.5% vs 0.5%, P < .001), aminoglycosides (6.0% vs 1.1%, P = .004), and fluoro quinolones (15.3% vs 3.3%, P < .001). The implementation of an inpatient antibiotic prescribing guideline for patients with penicillin or cephalosporin allergy was associated with an almost 7-fold increase in the number of test doses to β-lactams without increased adverse drug reactions. Patients assessed with guideline-driven test doses were observed to have significantly decreased alternative antibiotic exposure. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  10. Representing clinical guidelines in UMl: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hederman, Lucy; Smutek, Daniel; Wade, Vincent; Knape, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Clinical guidelines can be represented using models, such as GLIF, specifically designed for healthcare guidelines. This paper demonstrates that they can also be modelled using a mainstream business modelling language such as UML. The paper presents a guideline in GLIF and as UML activity diagrams, and then presents a mapping of GLIF primitives to UML. The potential benefits of using a mainstream modelling language are outlined. These include availability of advanced modelling tools, transfer between modelling tools, and automation via business workflow technology.

  11. Defining ‘elderly’ in clinical practice guidelines for pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shamsher; Bajorek., Beata

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify how ‘elderly’ patients are defined and considered within Australian clinical guidelines for the use of pharmacotherapy. Method: Guidelines pertaining to the use of pharmacotherapy, focusing on conditions described in National Health Priority Areas, were identified using databases (Medline, Google Scholar) and organisation websites (Department of Health and Ageing, National Heart Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council). Guidelines were reviewed and qualitatively analysed to identify any references or definitions of ‘elderly’ persons. Results: Among the 20 guidelines reviewed, 3 defined ‘elderly’ by chronological age (i.e., years since birth) while the remaining 17 guidelines did not define ‘elderly’ in any way. All 20 guidelines used the term ‘elderly’, whilst some guidelines provided age (chronological)-based dosage recommendations suggesting an ageist or generalist approach in their representation of ‘elderly’, for which rationale was seldom provided. Thematic analysis of the statements revealed five key themes regarding how ‘elderly’ was considered within the guidelines, broadly describing ‘elderly’ persons as being frail and with altered pharmacology. Some guidelines also highlighted the limited evidence base to direct clinical decision-making. A continuum of perceptions of ageing also emerged out of the identified themes. Conclusion: Clinical practice guidelines currently do not adequately define ‘elderly’ persons and provide limited guidance on how to apply treatment recommendations to older persons. The representation of ‘elderly’ in guidelines needs to be less based on chronological age or generic definitions focusing more on establishing a direct link between an individual patient’s characteristics and the pharmacology of their prescribed medication. Clinical guidelines that do not offer any practical descriptions of the features of ageing that are specifically related to the

  12. Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Shawn L; Lieberthal, Allan S; Meissner, H Cody; Alverson, Brian K; Baley, Jill E; Gadomski, Anne M; Johnson, David W; Light, Michael J; Maraqa, Nizar F; Mendonca, Eneida A; Phelan, Kieran J; Zorc, Joseph J; Stanko-Lopp, Danette; Brown, Mark A; Nathanson, Ian; Rosenblum, Elizabeth; Sayles, Stephen; Hernandez-Cancio, Sinsi

    2014-11-01

    This guideline is a revision of the clinical practice guideline, "Diagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis," published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2006. The guideline applies to children from 1 through 23 months of age. Other exclusions are noted. Each key action statement indicates level of evidence, benefit-harm relationship, and level of recommendation. Key action statements are as follows: Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Wiki-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Adult Onset Sarcoma: A New Paradigm in Sarcoma Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, S. J.; Thomas, D.; Desai, J.; Vuletich, C.; von Dincklage, J.; Olver, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Australia introduced Wiki-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Adult Onset Sarcoma. These guidelines utilized a customized MediaWiki software application for guideline development and are the first evidence-based guidelines for clinical management of sarcoma. This paper presents our experience with developing and implementing web-based interactive guidelines and reviews some of the challenges and lessons from adopting an evidence-based (rather than consensus-based) approach to clinical sarcoma guidelines. Digital guidelines can be easily updated with new evidence, continuously reviewed and widely disseminated. They provide an accessible method of enabling clinicians and consumers to access evidence-based clinical practice recommendations and, as evidenced by over 2000 views in the first four months after release, with 49% of those visits being from countries outside of Australia. The lessons learned have relevance to other rare cancers in addition to the international sarcoma community. PMID:25784832

  14. Venous thromboembolism prevention guidelines for medical inpatients: mind the (implementation) gap.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Greg; Jenkins, Ian H; Merli, Geno J

    2013-10-01

    Hospital-associated nonsurgical venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important problem addressed by new guidelines from the American College of Physicians (ACP) and American College of Chest Physicians (AT9). Narrative review and critique. Both guidelines discount asymptomatic VTE outcomes and caution against overprophylaxis, but have different methodologies and estimates of risk/benefit. Guideline complexity and lack of consensus on VTE risk assessment contribute to an implementation gap. Methods to estimate prophylaxis benefit have significant limitations because major trials included mostly screening-detected events. AT9 relies on a single Italian cohort study to conclude that those with a Padua score ≥4 have a very high VTE risk, whereas patients with a score <4 (60% of patients) have a very small risk. However, the cohort population has less comorbidity than US inpatients, and over 1% of patients with a score of 3 suffered pulmonary emboli. The ACP guideline does not endorse any risk-assessment model. AT9 includes the Padua model and Caprini point-based system for nonsurgical inpatients and surgical inpatients, respectively, but there is no evidence they are more effective than simpler risk-assessment models. New VTE prevention guidelines provide varied guidance on important issues including risk assessment. If Padua is used, a threshold of 3, as well as 4, should be considered. Simpler VTE risk-assessment models may be superior to complicated point-based models in environments without sophisticated clinical decision support. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  15. [S1 Clinical guideline"adenoids and adenoidectomy"].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, T; Hilger, G; Begall, K; Lautermann, J; Kaschke, O; Mir-Salim, P; Zahnert, T

    2012-08-01

    On behalf of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, a clinical guideline for adenoids and adenoidectomy was developed in 5 consensus meetings after taking into consideration the current literature. This guideline was released by the presidium on 13 April 2011. Anatomy, pathology and pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, therapy, and course are presented.

  16. [The role of atherogenic dyslipidaemia in clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Mantilla-Morató, Teresa; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ángel; Brea-Hernando, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Pintó, Xavier; Millán Núñez-Cortés, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidaemia is underdiagnosed, undertreated, and under-controlled. The aim of the present study was to assess the positioning of clinical guidelines as regards atherogenic dyslipidaemia. The major clinical guidelines of scientific societies or official agencies issued between January 1, 2012 and March 31, 2015 were collected from the MEDLINE database. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein (apo) B were gathered from the 10 selected guidelines, and it was assessed whether these parameters were considered a cardiovascular risk factor, a therapeutic target, or proposed a pharmacological strategy. American guidelines, except the National Lipid Association (NLA), do not consider HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in cardiovascular prevention. The NLA emphasises the relevance of atherogenic dyslipidaemia. The Canadian guidelines introduced non-HDL cholesterol and ApoB as alternative targets, and proposes non-statin treatment in the presence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridaemia. The International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS) and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines promote the importance of non-HDL cholesterol. European, Brazilian and Japanese guidelines highlight HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, but with the limitation that the main evidence comes from sub-analysis of clinical studies. The clinical guidelines analysed do not consider, or unconvincingly address, the importance of atherogenic dyslipidaemia. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  18. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  19. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  20. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  1. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  2. Does nurse case management improve implementation of guidelines for cardiovascular disease risk reduction?

    PubMed

    Berra, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 5 decades, research has demonstrated that cardiovascular risk reduction mediated through medical and surgical therapies, as well as lifestyle change, reduces morbidity and mortality from diseases of the vascular system. Based on this extensive research, government and professional organizations publish evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with, or at risk of developing, cardiovascular disease. However, recommended interventions are frequently neither initiated nor adhered to, and when appropriate therapies are initiated, patient adherence is poor. This review sought to evaluate how nurse-based case management (NCM) according to recommended guidelines improves patient outcomes and enhances cardiovascular risk reduction. English-language articles (1950 to January 2009) were identified using a combination of the following terms: (case) management; nurse(-led) or nursing; guideline and/or implement or implementation; cardiovascular (disease) (risk); hypertension or dyslipidemia, or diabetes, or smoking (cessation), or nutritionist, or cardiac rehabilitation. Primary articles were reviewed for focus on modifiable risk factor management involving a nurse acting as a "case manager," having a prominent role within the management of a patient's cardiovascular health, and following scientifically based, published guidelines. From the Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project in the 1990 s to EUROACTION published 2008, NCM has appreciably evolved. The studies summarized demonstrate that individualized, systematic, and guideline-based NCM can translate into clinically meaningful reductions in cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the NCM model was effective for hospitalized patients, especially during the postdischarge period, in primary care, low-income clinics, and in the community including the workplace. Providing NCM for those at risk of or with cardiovascular disease may help toward reducing the related loss of

  3. Advancing Clinical Practice and Policy through Guidelines. The Role of the American Thoracic Society

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    In the face of an overwhelmingly large and growing medical literature, providers often turn to clinical practice guidelines to inform the decisions they make with patients. By systematically appraising the evidence and providing transparent recommendations for practice, guidelines have the potential to improve both bedside decision-making and health policy. This potential has not been fully realized because most guidelines lack transparency, are tainted by conflicts of interest, or fail to employ rigorous methods to appraise the evidence. To address the shortcomings of past guidelines, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published recommendations for trustworthy guidelines, effectively setting the “gold standard” for what constitutes a high-quality guideline. Along with many other groups that develop guidelines, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) is rapidly evolving processes for development and implementation to meet many of the IOM standards. This Pulmonary Perspective describes the rapidly changing landscape of clinical practice guidelines, the role of the ATS in this landscape, and the activities the ATS is engaged in to ensure that the guidelines it produces are of the highest quality with the broadest impact. PMID:23392437

  4. Guidelines for randomized clinical trial protocol content: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) require a protocol; however, numerous studies have highlighted protocol deficiencies. Reporting guidelines may improve the content of research reports and, if developed using robust methods, may increase the utility of reports to stakeholders. The objective of this study was to systematically identify and review RCT protocol guidelines, to assess their characteristics and methods of development, and to compare recommendations. Methods We conducted a systematic review of indexed literature (MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Methodology Register from inception to September 2010; reference lists; related article features; forward citation searching) and a targeted search of supplementary sources, including a survey of major trial funding agencies in six countries. Records were eligible if they described a content guideline in English or French relevant to RCT protocols. Guidelines were excluded if they specified content for protocols for trials of specific procedures or conditions or were intended to assess trial quality. We extracted guideline characteristics and methods. Content was mapped for a subset of guidelines that described development methods or had institutional endorsement. Results Forty guidelines published in journals, books and institutional reports were included in the review; seven were specific to RCT protocols. Only eight (20%) described development methods which included informal consensus methods, pilot testing and formal validation; no guideline described all of these methods. No guideline described formal consensus methods or a systematic retrieval of empirical evidence to inform its development. The guidelines included a median of 23 concepts per guideline (interquartile range (IQR) = 14 to 34; range = 7 to 109). Among the subset of guidelines (n = 23) for which content was mapped, approximately 380 concepts were explicitly addressed (median concepts per guideline IQR = 31 (24

  5. Japanese clinical practice guidelines for congenital biliary dilatation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hiroki; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kamisawa, Terumi; Fujii, Hideki; Hamada, Yoshinori; Kubota, Masayuki; Urushihara, Naoto; Endo, Itaru; Nio, Masaki; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Ando, Hisami

    2017-01-01

    Until now, there have been no practical clinical guidelines for congenital biliary dilatation (CBD). In this review article, the Japanese Study Group on Congenital Biliary Dilatation (JSCBD) propose to establish clinical practice guidelines for CBD. Because the evidence-based literature is relatively small, we decided to create guidelines based on the consensus of experts, using the medical literature for reference. A total of 20 clinical questions (CQs) were considered by the members of the editorial committee responsible for the guidelines. The CQs included the distinct aspects of CBD: (1) Concepts and Pathology (three CQs); (2) Diagnosis (six CQs); (3) Pancreaticobiliary Complications (three CQs); Treatments and Prognosis (eight CQs). Each statements and comments for CQs were made by the guidelines committee members. CQs were finally approved after review by members of the editorial committee and the guidelines evaluation board of CBD. These guidelines were created to provide assistance in the clinical practice of CBD management; their contents focus on clinical utility, and they include general information on CBD to make this disease more widely recognized. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  6. Implementation of national palliative care guidelines in Swedish acute care hospitals: A qualitative content analysis of stakeholders' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Lind, S; Wallin, L; Brytting, T; Fürst, C J; Sandberg, J

    2017-09-21

    In high-income countries a large proportion of all deaths occur in hospitals. A common way to translate knowledge into clinical practice is developing guidelines for different levels of health care organisations. During 2012, national clinical guidelines for palliative care were published in Sweden. Later, guidance for palliative care was issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare. The aim of this study was two-fold: to investigate perceptions regarding these guidelines and identify obstacles and opportunities for implementation of them in acute care hospitals. Interviews were conducted with local politicians, chief medical officers and health professionals at acute care hospitals. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used in a directed content analysis approach. The results showed little knowledge of the two documents at all levels of the health care organisation. Palliative care was primarily described as end of life care and only few of the participants talked about the opportunity to integrate palliative care early in a disease trajectory. The environment and culture at hospitals, characterised by quick decisions and actions, were perceived as obstacles to implementation. Health professionals' expressed need for palliative care training is an opportunity for implementation of clinical guidelines. There is a need for further implementation of palliative care in hospitals. One option for further research is to evaluate implementation strategies tailored to acute care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A long run for a short jump: understanding clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    McGuire, L B

    1990-11-01

    Clinical guidelines for application of medical technologies are being advanced as consensus recommendations by consumer groups, professional societies, and health care managers. Although different groups' guidelines for use of a given technology may vary--or even conflict--depending on the methods by which they were formulated, their proponents' interests, and the subjective values attached to potential outcomes, they make it possible to quantify somewhat and predict, on a population basis, clinical gains relative to costs. Clinical guidelines can introduce into patient-physician decision making systematic consideration of a given technology's demonstrated efficacy and its likely advantages compared with its personal and its societal costs. Provided there is flexibility to allow for individual departures from consensus recommendations and for development of new technologies, applying clinical guidelines in health care can serve both individual patients and society and help to balance their respective needs for informed decision making and for resource allocation.

  8. Applying the knowledge to action framework to plan a strategy for implementing breast cancer screening guidelines: an interprofessional perspective.

    PubMed

    Munce, Sarah; Kastner, Monika; Cramm, Heidi; Lal, Shalini; Deschêne, Sarah-Maude; Auais, Mohammad; Stacey, Dawn; Brouwers, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) interventions may be one solution to improving the uptake of clinical guidelines. IKT research initiatives are particularly relevant for breast cancer research and initiatives targeting the implementation of clinical guidelines and guideline implementation initiatives, where collaboration with an interdisciplinary team of practitioners, patients, caregivers, and policy makers is needed for producing optimum patient outcomes. The objective of this paper was to describe the process of developing an IKT strategy that could be used by guideline developers to improve the uptake of their new clinical practice guidelines on breast cancer screening. An interprofessional group of students as well as two faculty members met six times over three days at the KT Canada Summer Institute in 2011. The team used all of the phases of the action cycle in the Knowledge to Action Framework as an organizing framework. While the entire framework was used, the step involving assessing barriers to knowledge use was judged to be particularly relevant in anticipating implementation problems and being able to inform the specific KT interventions that would be appropriate to mitigate these challenges and to accomplish goals and outcomes. This activity also underscored the importance of group process and teamwork in IKT. We propose that an a priori assessment of barriers to knowledge use (i.e., level and corresponding barriers), along with the other phases of the Knowledge to Action Framework, is a strategic approach for KT strategy development, implementation, and evaluation planning and could be used in the future planning of KT strategies.

  9. Clinical practice guidelines in dentistry: opinions of dental practitioners on their contribution to the quality of dental care

    PubMed Central

    van der Sanden, W J M; Mettes, D; Plasschaert, A; van't, H; Grol, R; Verdonschot, E

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the opinions of general dental practitioners regarding the development and importance of clinical practice guidelines and their contribution to the quality of dental care. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to a representative sample of 1656 dentists in the Netherlands. Factor analysis was conducted to identify scales of variables, and a reliability analysis was conducted to verify the reliability of the identified scales. The effect of the independent variables is expressed as odds ratio per scale part (standard deviation, SD). Regression analyses were conducted to study determinants of the opinions on clinical guidelines. Results: The response rate was 73%; 54% of the respondents supported the development of clinical practice guidelines for dentists. Most respondents indicated that clinical practice guidelines could be used as a checklist, as a support in daily clinical decision making, and as a basis for continuing dental education. The factor analyses yielded four scale factors—contribution of guidelines to effectiveness of care (OR 1.95/SD), contribution of guidelines to professional autonomy (OR 1.70/SD), contribution of guidelines to quality of care (OR 2.52/SD), and contribution of guidelines to collaboration (OR 1.49/SD)—which complied with the criterion of Cronbach's alpha >0.60. Multiple regression analysis with the four scale factors as dependent variables yielded only extremely low correlations for practice and dentist characteristics (R2=0.01–0.04). Conclusions: Only about 50% of dentists support the development and implementation of clinical guidelines. Guidelines are seen as helpful in the provision of continuing dental education and as a support in daily clinical decision making. The most important barrier to successful implementation of clinical practice guidelines is the fear of dental practitioners that guidelines will reduce their professional autonomy. Practice and dentist characteristics are unrelated to dentists

  10. Memoranda about Implementation of the Cancer Guidelines and Accompanying Supplemental Guidance - Science Policy Council Cancer Guidelines Implementation Workgroup Communication I and II

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memoranda from the Chair of EPA's Science Policy Council to the Science Policy Council and the Science Policy Council Steering Committee regarding Implementation of the Cancer Guidelines and Accompanying Supplemental Guidance.

  11. Enhanced implementation of low back pain guidelines in general practice: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines may improve treatment quality, but the uptake of guideline recommendations is often incomplete and slow. Recently new low back pain guidelines are being launched in Denmark. The guidelines are considered to reduce personal and public costs. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a complex, multifaceted implementation strategy of the low back pain guidelines will reduce secondary care referral and improve patient outcomes compared to the usual simple implementation strategy. Methods/design In a two-armed cluster randomised trial, 100 general practices (clusters) and 2,700 patients aged 18 to 65 years from the North Denmark region will be included. Practices are randomly allocated 1:1 to a simple or a complex implementation strategy. Intervention practices will receive a complex implementation strategy, including guideline facilitator visits, stratification tools, and quality reports on low back pain treatment. Primary outcome is referral to secondary care. Secondary outcomes are pain, physical function, health-related quality of life, patient satisfaction with care and treatment outcome, employment status, and sick leave. Primary and secondary outcomes pertain to the patient level. Assessments of outcomes are blinded and follow the intention-to-treat principle. Additionally, a process assessment will evaluate the degree to which the intervention elements will be delivered as planned, as well as measure changes in beliefs and behaviours among general practitioners and patients. Discussion This study provides knowledge concerning the process and effect of an intervention to implement low back pain guidelines in general practice, and will provide insight on essential elements to include in future implementation strategies in general practice. Trial registration Registered as NCT01699256 on ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:24139140

  12. Changing Current Practice in Urology: Improving Guideline Development and Implementation Through Stakeholder Engagement.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Sara J; MacLennan, Steven; Bex, Axel; Catto, James W F; De Santis, Maria; Glaser, Adam W; Ljungberg, Borje; N'Dow, James; Plass, Karin; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Wright, Penny; Giles, Rachel H

    2017-08-01

    Effective stakeholder integration for guideline development should improve outcomes and adherence to clinical practice guidelines. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Eija, Paavilainen; Mika, Helminen; Aune, Flinck; Leila, Lehtomäki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38), intervene in it better (4.15), and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6). Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better (P < 0.001), intervene better (P < 0.001), and implement the guideline better (P < 0.001) than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice. PMID:25505986

  14. [Prevention of perioperative hypothermia : Implementation of the S3 guideline].

    PubMed

    Horn, E-P; Klar, E; Höcker, J; Bräuer, A; Bein, B; Wulf, H; Torossian, A

    2017-01-09

    To improve perioperative quality and patient safety, the German S3 guideline should be consistently implemented to avoid perioperative hypothermia. Perioperative normothermia is a quality indicator and should be achieved by anesthesiologists and surgeons. To detect hypothermia early during the perioperative process, measuring body temperature should be started 1-2 h preoperatively. Patients should be actively warmed for 20-30 min before starting anesthesia. Prewarming is most effective and should be included in the preoperative process. Patients should be informed about the risks of perioperative hypothermia and members of the perioperative team should be educated. A standard operating procedure (SOP) to avoid hypothermia should be introduced in every operative unit. The incidence of postoperative hypothermia should be evaluated in operative patients every 3-6 months. The goals should be to measure body temperature in >80% of patients undergoing surgery and for >70% to exhibit a core temperature >36 °C at the end of surgery.

  15. [The Process of Developing Clinical Practice Guidelines: Example of the "2015 Taiwan Chronic Kidney Disease Clinical Guidelines"].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsueh-Erh; Lee, Hsiu-Fang; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), representing the current best-practice guidelines and recommendations for care, are supported by systematic review and evidence-based research. CPGs provide an effective and efficient approach to caring for patients and improving quality of care. Recently, the National Health Insurance Administration and National Institutes of Health developed CPGs for major diseases in Taiwan. This paper introduces the process that was used to develop one of these CPGs, the Taiwan Chronic Kidney Disease Clinical Guidelines, which was published in 2015. Further, we introduce the general development of published nursing guidelines in Taiwan. These CPGs are expected to initiate various renal-care guidelines and to promote the quality of renal care in the country.

  16. Implementation of treatment guidelines to support judicious use of antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Deuster, S; Roten, I; Muehlebach, S

    2010-02-01

    Judicious use of antibiotics is essential considering the growth of antimicrobial resistance and escalating costs in health care. This intervention study used treatment guidelines to improve antibiotic therapy by changing prescribing practice. A before-after intervention study was performed in a 550-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in Switzerland, with an additional follow-up analysis 1 year later. The pre-intervention phase included chart analysis of current antibiotic use in 100 consecutive patients from the representative medical and surgical wards included in the study. Treatment guidelines were defined, taking into account published guidelines, the local antibacterial sensitivity of the pathogens, and the hospital antibiotic formulary defined by the drug and therapeutics committee. The guidelines were presented to the medical residents on a pocket card. They were informed and educated by the pharmacist (intervention). In the post-intervention phase immediately after the instruction, and in the follow-up phase 1 year later, a prospective analysis of antibiotic prescription was performed by chart review of 100 antibacterial treatments in consecutive patients to detect changes in antibiotic prescribing (treatment) and to determine whether these changes were sustained. The pre-intervention review of antibiotic use showed the need for therapy improvements in urinary tract infections (UTI) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). In the post-intervention phase 100% of UTI were treated as recommended, compared to 30% before the intervention (P < 0.001). The follow-up analysis showed a decrease in guideline adherence to 39% in patients with UTI. Before implementation of the clinical guidelines, HAP was inappropriately treated like community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Immediately after the intervention, 50% of HAP patients were treated as recommended, and 1 year later (follow-up phase) 56% of HAP patients received the recommended antibiotic medication. This change in

  17. Adopting Health Behavior Change Theory throughout the Clinical Practice Guideline Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceccato, Natalie E.; Ferris, Lorraine E.; Manuel, Douglas; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    Adopting a theoretical framework throughout the clinical practice guideline (CPG) process (development, dissemination, implementation, and evaluation) can be useful in systematically identifying, addressing, and explaining behavioral influences impacting CPG uptake and effectiveness. This article argues that using a theoretical framework should…

  18. Adopting Health Behavior Change Theory throughout the Clinical Practice Guideline Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceccato, Natalie E.; Ferris, Lorraine E.; Manuel, Douglas; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    Adopting a theoretical framework throughout the clinical practice guideline (CPG) process (development, dissemination, implementation, and evaluation) can be useful in systematically identifying, addressing, and explaining behavioral influences impacting CPG uptake and effectiveness. This article argues that using a theoretical framework should…

  19. [Guideline implementation study on asthma: Results of a pragmatic implementation approach].

    PubMed

    Redaèlli, Marcus; Vollmar, Horst Christian; Simic, Dusan; Maly-Schürer, Cornelia; Löscher, Susanne; Koneczny, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge transfer from theory to practice in healthcare systems poses a challenge worldwide. Typical examples include national disease management guidelines. The present study contributes towards improving implementation strategies for an asthma guideline. A guideline implementation strategy was examined in a four-armed, non-randomised, controlled intervention study with an additional control group. The study participants were general practitioners and paediatricians recruited from primary care quality circles. All study participants attended an interactive seminar on the evidence-based recommendations for patients with asthma. In addition, the participants were asked to choose among the following options: no further intervention, additional e-learning, training of their practice nurses, or e-learning and training of their practice nurses. The success of the intervention was measured by questionnaire (and the success rate expressed as a percentage). About one third of all participants (n=313) opted for the combination of an interactive seminar and a training of practice nurses; two third preferred the classic way of continuing medical education with an interactive seminar without a further intervention. Just 10 % of the physicians participated in e-learning. Independently of their choice for continuing medical education, all participants demonstrated an increase in knowledge about asthma and an improvement in the management of asthma. The physicians exhibited an average increase in both categories of about 10 % of the percentage values, compared to an increase of about 28 % among the practice nurses without continuing medical education. The physicians' free choice of the educative modules might be an integral part of successful implementation strategies. However, this will require a change of focus from general continuing medical education packages to a more individualised culture of continuing professional development in Germany. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  20. Thou shalt versus thou shalt not: a meta-synthesis of GPs' attitudes to clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire; Pope, Catherine

    2007-12-01

    GPs' adherence to clinical practice guidelines is variable. Barriers to guideline implementation have been identified but qualitative studies have not been synthesised to explore what underpins these attitudes. To explore and synthesise qualitative research on GPs' attitudes to and experiences with clinical practice guidelines. Systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Social Science Citation Index, and Science Citation Index were used as data sources, and independent data extraction was carried out. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Initial thematic analysis was conducted, followed by interpretative synthesis. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Five were excluded following quality appraisal. Twelve papers were synthesised which reported research in the UK, US, Canada, and the Netherlands, and covered different clinical guideline topics. Six themes were identified: questioning the guidelines, GPs' experience, preserving the doctor-patient relationship, professional responsibility, practical issues, and guideline format. Comparative analysis and synthesis revealed that GPs' reasons for not following guidelines differed according to whether the guideline in question was prescriptive, in that it encouraged a certain type of behaviour or treatment, or proscriptive, in that it discouraged certain treatments or behaviours. Previous analyses of guidelines have focused on professional attitudes and organisational barriers to adherence. This synthesis suggests that the purpose of the guideline, whether its aims are prescriptive or proscriptive, may influence if and how guidelines are received and implemented.

  1. Thou shalt versus thou shalt not: a meta-synthesis of GPs' attitudes to clinical practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire; Pope, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Background GPs' adherence to clinical practice guidelines is variable. Barriers to guideline implementation have been identified but qualitative studies have not been synthesised to explore what underpins these attitudes. Aim To explore and synthesise qualitative research on GPs' attitudes to and experiences with clinical practice guidelines. Design of study Systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. Method PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Social Science Citation Index, and Science Citation Index were used as data sources, and independent data extraction was carried out. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Initial thematic analysis was conducted, followed by interpretative synthesis. Results Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Five were excluded following quality appraisal. Twelve papers were synthesised which reported research in the UK, US, Canada, and the Netherlands, and covered different clinical guideline topics. Six themes were identified: questioning the guidelines, GPs' experience, preserving the doctor–patient relationship, professional responsibility, practical issues, and guideline format. Comparative analysis and synthesis revealed that GPs' reasons for not following guidelines differed according to whether the guideline in question was prescriptive, in that it encouraged a certain type of behaviour or treatment, or proscriptive, in that it discouraged certain treatments or behaviours. Conclusion Previous analyses of guidelines have focused on professional attitudes and organisational barriers to adherence. This synthesis suggests that the purpose of the guideline, whether its aims are prescriptive or proscriptive, may influence if and how guidelines are received and implemented. PMID:18252073

  2. Report on activities and attitudes of organizations active in the clinical practice guidelines field.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, A O; Battista, R N; Hodge, M J; Lewis, S; Basinski, A; Davis, D

    1995-01-01

    The organizing committee of a workshop on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) surveyed invited organizations on their attitudes and activities related to five topics to be covered during the workshop sessions: organizational roles, priority setting, guidelines implementation, guidelines evaluation and development of a network of those active in the CPG field. Organizational roles: The national specialty societies were felt to have the largest role to play; the smallest roles were assigned to consumers, who were seen to have a role mainly in priority setting, and to industry and government, both of which were seen to have primarily a funding role. Many barriers to collaboration were identified, the solutions to all of which appeared to be better communication, establishment of common principles and clear role definitions. Priority setting: There was considerable agreement on the criteria that should be used to set priorities for CPG activities: the burden of disease on population health, the state of scientific knowledge, the cost of treatment and the economic burden of disease on society were seen as important factors, whereas the costs of guidelines development and practitioner interest in guidelines development were seen as less important. Organizations were unable to give much information on how they set priorities. Guidelines implementation: Most of the organizations surveyed did not actively try to ensure the implementation of guidelines, although a considerable minority devoted resources to implementation. The 38% of organizations that implemented guidelines actively listed a wide variety of activities, including training, use of local opinion leaders, information technology, local consensus processes and counter detailing. Guidelines evaluation: Formal evaluation of guidelines was undertaken by fewer than 13% of the responding organizations. All the evaluations incorporated assessments before and after guideline implementation, and some used primary patient

  3. In the lymelight: law and clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ronn, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Almost from the beginning, the Ixodes scapularis and I pacificus, adult deer ticks, have been a breeding ground not only for Lyme disease, but also for political dissent. Most recently, the battleground moved into the arena of clinical practice guidelines. Both camps in the "Lyme Wars"-the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS)-have published Lyme disease practice guidelines. The guidelines conflict regarding diagnosis and treatment. The state of Connecticut's Attorney General's office conducted an investigation, under antitrust laws, into the development and promulgation of IDSA's 2006 guidelines. In an unprecedented move, IDSA and the AG have entered into a legal agreement that necessitates a rethinking of the guidelines, requiring a new review panel reflecting balanced, conflict-of-interest-free perspectives on Lyme disease.

  4. Implementing the Fatigue Guidelines at One NCCN Member Institution: Process and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Borneman, Tami; Piper, Barbara F.; Sun, Virginia Chih-Yi; Koczywas, Marianna; Uman, Gwen; Ferrell, Betty

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue, despite being the most common and distressing symptom in cancer, is often unrelieved because of numerous patient provider, and system barriers. The overall purpose of this 5-year prospective clinical trial is to translate the NCCN Cancer-Related Fatigue Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology and NCCN Adult Cancer Pain Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology into practice and develop a translational interventional model that can be replicated across settings. This article focuses on one NCCN member institution’s experience related to the first phase of the NCCN Cancer-Related Fatigue Guidelines implementation, describing usual care compared with evidence-based guidelines. Phase 1 of this 3-phased clinical trial compared the usual care of fatigue with that administered according to the NCCN guidelines. Eligibility criteria included age 18 years or older; English-speaking; diagnosed with breast, lung, colon, or prostate cancer; and fatigue and/or pain ratings of 4 or more on a 0 to 10 screening scale. Research nurses screened all available subjects in a cancer center medical oncology clinic to identify those meeting these criteria. Instruments included the Piper Fatigue Scale, a Fatigue Barriers Scale, a Fatigue Knowledge Scale, and a Fatigue Chart Audit Tool. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. At baseline, 45 patients had fatigue only (≥4) and 24 had both fatigue and pain (≥4). This combined sample (N = 69) was predominantly Caucasian (65%), female (63%), an average of 60 years old, diagnosed with stage 3 or 4 breast cancer, and undergoing treatment (82%). The most common barriers noted were patients’ belief that physicians would introduce the subject of fatigue if it was important (patient barrier); lack of fatigue documentation (professional barrier); and lack of supportive care referrals (system barrier). Findings showed several patient, professional, and system barriers that distinguish usual care from that

  5. Implementing healthier foodservice guidelines in hospital and federal worksite cafeterias: barriers, facilitators and keys to success.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, S B; Graham, J; Mojica, A; Stewart, L; Walter, M; Schille, C; McGinty, J; Pearsall, M; Whitt, O; Mihas, P; Bradley, A; Simon, C

    2016-12-01

    Healthy foodservice guidelines are being implemented in worksites and healthcare facilities to increase access to healthy foods by employees and public populations. However, little is known about the barriers to and facilitators of implementation. The present study aimed to examine barriers to and facilitators of implementation of healthy foodservice guidelines in federal worksite and hospital cafeterias. Using a mixed-methods approach, including a quantitative survey followed by a qualitative, in-depth interview, we examined: (i) barriers to and facilitators of implementation; (ii) behavioural design strategies used to promote healthier foods and beverages; and (iii) how implementation of healthy foodservice guidelines influenced costs and profitability. We used a purposive sample of five hospital and four federal worksite foodservice operators who recently implemented one of two foodservice guidelines: the United States Department of Health and Human Services/General Services Administration Health and Sustainability Guidelines ('Guidelines') in federal worksites or the Partnership for a Healthier America Hospital Healthier Food Initiative ('Initiative') in hospitals. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative survey data. Qualitative data were analysed using a deductive approach. Implementation facilitators included leadership support, adequate vendor selections and having dietitians assist with implementation. Implementation barriers included inadequate selections from vendors, customer complaints and additional expertise required for menu labelling. Behavioural design strategies used most frequently included icons denoting healthier options, marketing using social media and placement of healthier options in prime locations. Lessons learned can guide subsequent steps for future healthy foodservice guideline implementation in similar settings. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Attitudes and Perceptions about Clinical Guidelines: A Qualitative Study with Spanish Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Solà, Ivan; Carrasco, José Miguel; Díaz del Campo, Petra; Gracia, Javier; Orrego, Carola; Martínez, Flora; Kotzeva, Anna; Guillamón, Imma; Calderón, Enrique; de Gaminde, Idoia; Louro, Arturo; Rotaeche, Rafael; Salcedo, Flavia; Velázquez, Paola; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines (CGs) are popular for healthcare decision making but their acceptability and use by healthcare providers is influenced by numerous factors. Some of these factors are professional-related, such as knowledge and perceptions of and attitudes toward CGs in general. The aim of our study was to evaluate attitudes and perceptions of Spanish physicians towards CGs. Methods We coordinated six discussion groups with a total of 46 physicians. The participants were drawn from 12 medical specialties from both specialized and primary care. We recorded the sessions and transcribed the content verbatim. We analyzed the data using an approach based on the grounded theory. Results We identified two main constructs that defined the physicians' perceptions towards guidelines: knowledge and usefulness. “Knowledge” defined the theoretical meanings of guidelines, while “Usefulness” referred to the pragmatic approach to guidelines. These constructs were interrelated through a series of categories such as confidence, usability, accessibility, dissemination and formats. Conclusions In our study, the constructs that impacted most on physician's attitudes to clinical guidelines were knowledge and usefulness. The tension between the theoretical and the pragmatic constructs determined the attitudes and how physicians use guidelines. Groups developing guidelines should ask relevant clinical questions and develop implementable and context specific recommendations. Developers should be explicit and consistent in the development and presentation of recommendations. PMID:24505253

  7. Implementation of cancer pain guidelines by acute care nurse practitioners using an audit and feedback strategy.

    PubMed

    Dulko, Dorothy; Hertz, Elisheva; Julien, Jerelyn; Beck, Susan; Mooney, Kathi

    2010-01-01

    Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for cancer pain, consistent integration of these principles into practice has not been achieved. The optimal method for implementing CPGs and the impact of guidelines on healthcare outcomes remain uncertain. This study evaluated the effect of an audit and feedback (A/F) intervention on nurse practitioner (NP) implementation of cancer pain CPGs and on hospitalized patients' self-report of pain and satisfaction with pain relief. Eight NPs and two groups of 96 patients were the sources of data. Eligible patients in both groups completed the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) within 24 h of admission and every 48 h until discharge. During A/F, NPs received weekly feedback on pain scores and guideline adherence. Nurse practitioner adherence to CPGs increased during A/F. Pain intensity did not significantly differ between groups. Intervention group patients reported significantly less overall pain interference (p < .0001), interference with general activity (p = .0003), and sleep (p = .006). Satisfaction with pain relief increased from 68.4% to 95.1% during A/F (p < .0001). A/F is an effective strategy to promote CPG use. Improved functional status in the absence of decreased pain severity underscores the need to consider symptom clusters when studying pain.

  8. Factors influencing the implementation of the guideline triage in emergency departments: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Maaike A P; van Achterberg, Theo; Adriaansen, Marian J M; Kampshoff, Caroline S; Schalk, Donna M J; Mintjes-de Groot, Joke

    2012-02-01

    The objectives are: (1) to identify factors that influence the implementation of the guideline Triage in emergency departments [2004] in emergency departments in the Netherlands, and (2) to develop tailored implementation strategies for implementation of this guideline. Guideline dissemination is no guarantee for guideline implementation. In 2004 the guideline Triage in Emergency Departments was disseminated in Dutch hospitals. Guideline revision was scheduled in 2008. Prior to the revision, factors which influenced the implementation of the guideline [2004] were studied to be addressed at the implementation of the revised guideline. This is an exploratory study using a qualitative design including: a questionnaire sent to all emergency departments in the Netherlands (n = 108): four focus group interviews, including nurses and ward managers and in-depth interviews with ward managers and doctors. Based on the results, tailored implementation strategies and activities were suggested which target the identified influencing factors. Various factors at individual, social context and organisational level were identified as influencing the implementation of the 2004 version of the guideline, namely: level of knowledge; insight and skills; work preferences; motivation and/or commitment; support; informed doctors; preliminary work and arrangements for implementation; description of tasks and responsibilities; workload and resources. Ward managers, nurses and doctors mentioned similar as well as different factors. Consequently, tailored implementation strategies and activities related to education, maintenance of change, motivation and consensus-building, information, organisation and facilitation were suggested. Nurses, ward managers and doctors broadly indicated similar influencing factors, although the importance of these factors differed for the different groups. For nurses, resistance and lack of resources are most important, ward managers mentioned culture and doctors

  9. [Regional clinical audit, guideline targets, and local and regional benchmarks].

    PubMed

    Casino, F G; Lopez, T

    2005-01-01

    Regional clinical Audit, guideline Targets and local and regional Benchmarks In order to improve the quality of dialysis treatment, we have devised some routines, particularly suitable for electronic data management systems. First, we suggest a systematic monthly analysis of 10 common clinical performance measures (CPM), with the following guideline based targets: predialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg; session length >/= 240 min; dialysis dose (spKt/V) >/=1.3; normalized protein catabolic rate (NPCR) >/=1.2 g/kg/d; hemoglobin (Hb) >/=11 g/dL; serum calcium (Ca) 8.4-9.5 mg/dL; serum phosphorus (P) 3.5-5.5 mg/dL; Ca x P /=20 mmol/L; serum potassium (K) 3.5-6.0 mmol/L. The Hb target should be reached in at least 85% of all maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients in the unit; for all other targets, an arbitrary >/=80% is proposed. Since the above percentages are quite difficult to reach on a short-term basis, an intermediate local or regional standard (benchmark) could be devised as an average of the percentage of patients who actually reach the targets for each CPM at any dialysis unit in a given regional area; and therefore, from truly comparable patients. As an example, we simulated a regional audit by using the above targets with available data from 398 patients from southern Italy. A further step in this process was to find the cause(s) of failure in each patient who did not reach the targets. To this end, we suggest a systematic search of the well-known factors that could affect each CPM, for each failed patient. As an example, we screened all patients with Hb < 11 g/dL at a single unit, to establish the presence/absence of any common cause associated with inadequate response to epoetin treatment. Moreover, by using criteria for prescribing iron therapy or increasing epoetin dose, we found that some patients did not receive the appropriate therapy after blood sampling results. To avoid this possible

  10. Developing and implementing health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service.

    PubMed

    Kimmons, Joel; Jones, Sonya; McPeak, Holly H; Bowden, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service are directed at improving dietary intake and increasing the ecological benefits of the food system. The development and implementation of institutional food service guidelines, such as the Health and Human Services (HHS) and General Services Administration (GSA) Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations (HHS/GSA Guidelines), have the potential to improve the health and sustainability of the food system. Institutional guidelines assist staff, managers, and vendors in aligning the food environment at food service venues with healthier and more sustainable choices and practices. Guideline specifics and their effective implementation depend on the size, culture, nature, and management structure of an institution and the individuals affected. They may be applied anywhere food is sold, served, or consumed. Changing institutional food service practice requires comprehensive analysis, engagement, and education of all relevant stakeholders including institutional management, members of the food supply chain, and customers. Current examples of food service guidelines presented here are the HHS and GSA Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations, which translate evidence-based recommendations on health and sustainability into institutional food service practices and are currently being implemented at the federal level. Developing and implementing guidelines has the potential to improve long-term population health outcomes while simultaneously benefitting the food system. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers should consider working with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate food service guidelines for health and sustainability.

  11. Developing and Implementing Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Institutional Food Service123

    PubMed Central

    Kimmons, Joel; Jones, Sonya; McPeak, Holly H.; Bowden, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service are directed at improving dietary intake and increasing the ecological benefits of the food system. The development and implementation of institutional food service guidelines, such as the Health and Human Services (HHS) and General Services Administration (GSA) Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations (HHS/GSA Guidelines), have the potential to improve the health and sustainability of the food system. Institutional guidelines assist staff, managers, and vendors in aligning the food environment at food service venues with healthier and more sustainable choices and practices. Guideline specifics and their effective implementation depend on the size, culture, nature, and management structure of an institution and the individuals affected. They may be applied anywhere food is sold, served, or consumed. Changing institutional food service practice requires comprehensive analysis, engagement, and education of all relevant stakeholders including institutional management, members of the food supply chain, and customers. Current examples of food service guidelines presented here are the HHS and GSA Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations, which translate evidence-based recommendations on health and sustainability into institutional food service practices and are currently being implemented at the federal level. Developing and implementing guidelines has the potential to improve long-term population health outcomes while simultaneously benefitting the food system. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers should consider working with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate food service guidelines for health and sustainability. PMID:22585909

  12. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  13. Evidence for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics in Cardiac Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Amy L.; Spitz, Jared; Jacobs, Michael; Sorrentino, Matthew; Yuen, Shennin; Danahey, Keith; Saner, Donald; Klein, Teri E.; Altman, Russ B.; Ratain, Mark J.; O’Donnell, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To comprehensively assess the pharmacogenomic evidence of routinely-used drugs for clinical utility. Methods From January 2, 2011 to May 31, 2013, we assessed 71 drugs by identifying all drug/genetic variant combinations with published clinical pharmacogenomic evidence. Literature supporting each drug/variant pair was assessed for study design and methodology, outcomes, statistical significance, and clinical relevance. Proposed clinical summaries were formally scored using a modified AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) II instrument, including recommendation for or against guideline implementation. Results Positive pharmacogenomic findings were identified for 51 of 71 cardiovascular drugs (71.8%) representing 884 unique drug/variant pairs from 597 publications. After analysis for quality and clinical relevance, 92 drug/variant pairs were proposed for translation into clinical summaries, encompassing 23 drugs (32.4% of drugs reviewed). All were found recommended for clinical implementation using AGREE, with average overall quality scores of 5.18 (out of 7.0; range 3.67 to 7.0; SD 0.91). Drug guidelines had highest scores in AGREE domain 1 (Scope) (average 91.9 out of 100; SD 6.1), and moderate but still robust scores in domain 3 (Rigour) (average 73.1; SD 11.1), domain 4 (Clarity) (average 67.8; SD 12.5), and domain 5 (Applicability) (average 65.8; SD 10). The drugs clopidogrel (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), simvastatin (rs4149056), dabigatran (rs2244613), hydralazine (rs1799983, rs1799998), and warfarin (CYP2C9/VKORC1) were distinguished by the highest scores. Eight of the 10 most commonly-prescribed drugs warranted translation guidelines summarizing clinical pharmacogenomic information. Conclusions Considerable clinically actionable pharmacogenomic information for cardiovascular drugs exists, supporting the idea that consideration of such information when prescribing is warranted. PMID:26046407

  14. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  15. Involving Stakeholders in the Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jennifer J

    2014-06-01

    Clinical practice guidelines make recommendations that are relevant to large populations of practitioners, patients, and administrators. Although not all individuals with interest can physically sit on each development panel, there are numerous opportunities for stakeholder involvement in the guideline development process. Such involvement is encouraged, particularly at the time of topic selection, panel development, scope determination, and prerelease critique. Interface with the guidelines development process may occur either via representation through stakeholder organizations or at the individual level. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  16. [Insufficient implementation of guidelines for basic life support in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Steensen, Christian Overgaard; Krarup, Niels Henrik; Løfgren, Bo

    2008-08-25

    Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival following out of hospital cardiac arrest. Bystanders perform basic life support in less than one third of witnessed cardiac arrests. Furthermore, the quality of CPR differs considerably. Unambiguous course material may improve education in resuscitation and further the provision and efficiency of CPR. In 2005 the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) published guidelines for adult basic life support. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the adherence of Danish course material for laypeople to the ERC Guidelines. Printed Danish course material is compared to the ERC Guidelines with respect to algorithm, resuscitation techniques and illustrations. The majority of the investigated material does not adhere to the ERC Guidelines, especially with regard to resuscitation techniques and illustrations. There were considerable discrepancies concerning airway management, recognition of cardiac arrest, activation of emergency medical services and chest compressions. We demonstrate substantial differences between Danish course material and the ERC Guidelines. This may have implications for CPR provided by bystanders.

  17. Comparing Drug-Disease Associations in Clinical Practice Guideline Recommendations and Drug Product Label Indications.

    PubMed

    Leung, Tiffany I; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and structured product labels (SPLs) are both intended to promote evidence-based medical practices and guide clinicians' prescribing decisions. However, it is unclear how well CPG recommendations about pharmacologic therapies for certain diseases match SPL indications for recommended drugs. In this study, we use publicly available data and text mining methods to examine drug-disease associations in CPG recommendations and SPL treatment indications for 15 common chronic conditions. Preliminary results suggest that there is a mismatch between guideline-recommended pharmacologic therapies and SPL indications. Conflicting or inconsistent recommendations and indications may complicate clinical decision making and implementation or measurement of best practices.

  18. Family meetings in palliative care: Multidisciplinary clinical practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Peter; Quinn, Karen; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Aranda, Sanchia

    2008-01-01

    Background Support for family carers is a core function of palliative care. Family meetings are commonly recommended as a useful way for health care professionals to convey information, discuss goals of care and plan care strategies with patients and family carers. Yet it seems there is insufficient research to demonstrate the utlility of family meetings or the best way to conduct them. This study sought to develop multidisciplinary clinical practice guidelines for conducting family meetings in the specialist palliative care setting based on available evidence and consensus based expert opinion. Methods The guidelines were developed via the following methods: (1) A literature review; (2) Conceptual framework; (3) Refinement of the guidelines based on feedback from an expert panel and focus groups with multidisciplinary specialists from three palliative care units and three major teaching hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Results The literature review revealed that no comprehensive exploration of the conduct and utility of family meetings in the specialist palliative care setting has occurred. Preliminary clinical guidelines were developed by the research team, based on relevant literature and a conceptual framework informed by: single session therapy, principles of therapeutic communication and models of coping and family consultation. A multidisciplinary expert panel refined the content of the guidelines and the applicability of the guidelines was then assessed via two focus groups of multidisciplinary palliative care specialists. The complete version of the guidelines is presented. Conclusion Family meetings provide an opportunity to enhance the quality of care provided to palliative care patients and their family carers. The clinical guidelines developed from this study offer a framework for preparing, conducting and evaluating family meetings. Future research and clinical implications are outlined. PMID:18710576

  19. Guidelines for clinical use of CBCT: a review

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, L; Taylor, K; Glenny, A-M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify guidelines on the clinical use of CBCT in dental and maxillofacial radiology, in particular selection criteria, to consider how they were produced, to appraise their quality objectively and to compare their recommendations. Methods: A literature search using MEDLINE (Ovid®) was undertaken prospectively from 1 January 2000 to identify published material classifiable as “guidelines” pertaining to the use of CBCT in dentistry. This was supplemented by searches on websites, an internet search engine, hand searching of theses and by information from personal contacts. Quality assessment of publications was performed using the AGREE II instrument. Publications were examined for areas of agreement and disagreement. Results: 26 publications were identified, 11 of which were specifically written to give guidelines on the clinical use of CBCT and contained sections on selection criteria. The remainder were a heterogeneous mixture of publications that included guidelines relating to CBCT. Two had used a formal evidence-based approach for guideline development and two used consensus methods. The quality of publications was frequently low as assessed using AGREE II, with many lacking evidence of adequate methodology. There was broad agreement between publications on clinical use, apart from treatment planning, in implant dentistry. Conclusions: Reporting of guideline development is often poorly presented. Guideline development panels should aim to perform and report their work using the AGREE II instrument as a template to raise standards and avoid the risk of suspicions of bias. PMID:25270063

  20. American Geriatrics Society abstracted clinical practice guideline for postoperative delirium in older adults.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The abstracted set of recommendations presented here provides essential guidance both on the prevention of postoperative delirium in older patients at risk of delirium and on the treatment of older surgical patients with delirium, and is based on the 2014 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Guideline. The full version of the guideline, American Geriatrics Society Clinical Practice Guideline for Postoperative Delirium in Older Adults is available at the website of the AGS. The overall aims of the study were twofold: first, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the prevention of postoperative delirium in older adults; and second, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the treatment of postoperative delirium in older adults. Prevention recommendations focused on primary prevention (i.e., preventing delirium before it occurs) in patients who are at risk for postoperative delirium (e.g., those identified as moderate-to-high risk based on previous risk stratification models such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, Delirium: Diagnosis, Prevention and Management. Clinical Guideline 103; London (UK): 2010 July 29). For management of delirium, the goals of this guideline are to decrease delirium severity and duration, ensure patient safety and improve outcomes.

  1. Antiemetics: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update.

    PubMed

    Basch, Ethan; Prestrud, Ann Alexis; Hesketh, Paul J; Kris, Mark G; Feyer, Petra C; Somerfield, Mark R; Chesney, Maurice; Clark-Snow, Rebecca Anne; Flaherty, Anne Marie; Freundlich, Barbara; Morrow, Gary; Rao, Kamakshi V; Schwartz, Rowena N; Lyman, Gary H

    2011-11-01

    To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guideline for antiemetics in oncology. A systematic review of the medical literature was completed to inform this update. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, and meeting materials from ASCO and the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer were all searched. Primary outcomes of interest were complete response and rates of any vomiting or nausea. Thirty-seven trials met prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria for this systematic review. Two systematic reviews from the Cochrane Collaboration were identified; one surveyed the pediatric literature. The other compared the relative efficacy of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonists. Combined anthracycline and cyclophosphamide regimens were reclassified as highly emetic. Patients who receive this combination or any highly emetic agents should receive a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin 1 (NK(1)) receptor antagonist. A large trial validated the equivalency of fosaprepitant, a single-day intravenous formulation, with aprepitant; either therapy is appropriate. Preferential use of palonosetron is recommended for moderate emetic risk regimens, combined with dexamethasone. For low-risk agents, patients can be offered dexamethasone before the first dose of chemotherapy. Patients undergoing high emetic risk radiation therapy should receive a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist before each fraction and for 24 hours after treatment and may receive a 5-day course of dexamethasone during fractions 1 to 5. The Update Committee noted the importance of continued symptom monitoring throughout therapy. Clinicians underestimate the incidence of nausea, which is not as well controlled as emesis.

  2. Appraisal of the Quality of Neurosurgery Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ducis, Katrina; Florman, Jeffrey E; Rughani, Anand I

    2016-06-01

    The rate of neurosurgery guidelines publications was compared over time with all other specialties. Neurosurgical guidelines and quality of supporting evidence were then analyzed and compared by subspecialty. The authors first performed a PubMed search for "Neurosurgery" and "Guidelines." This was then compared against searches performed for each specialty of the American Board of Medical Specialties. The second analysis was an inventory of all neurosurgery guidelines published by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Guidelines clearinghouse. All Class I evidence and Level 1 recommendations were compared for different subspecialty topics. When examined from 1970-2010, the rate of increase in publication of neurosurgery guidelines was about one third of all specialties combined (P < 0.0001). However, when only looking at the past 5 years the publication rate of neurosurgery guidelines has converged upon that for all specialties. The second analysis identified 49 published guidelines for assessment. There were 2733 studies cited as supporting evidence, with only 243 of these papers considered the highest class of evidence (8.9%). These papers were used to generate 697 recommendations, of which 170 (24.4%) were considered "Level 1" recommendations. Although initially lagging, the publication of neurosurgical guidelines has recently increased at a rate comparable with that of other specialties. However, the quality of the evidence cited consists of a relatively low number of high-quality studies from which guidelines are created. Wider implications of this must be considered when defining and measuring quality of clinical performance in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Mobile Clinical Decision Support Tool for Pediatric Cardiovascular Risk-Reduction Clinical Practice Guidelines: Development and Description

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Widespread application of research findings to improve patient outcomes remains inadequate, and failure to routinely translate research findings into daily clinical practice is a major barrier for the implementation of any evidence-based guideline. Strategies to increase guideline uptake in primary care pediatric practices and to facilitate adherence to recommendations are required. Objective Our objective was to operationalize the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents into a mobile clinical decision support (CDS) system for healthcare providers, and to describe the process development and outcomes. Methods To overcome the difficulty of translating clinical practice guidelines into a computable form that can be used by a CDS system, we used a multilayer framework to convert the evidence synthesis into executable knowledge. We used an iterative process of design, testing, and revision through each step in the translation of the guidelines for use in a CDS tool to support the development of 4 validated modules: an integrated risk assessment; a blood pressure calculator; a body mass index calculator; and a lipid management instrument. Results The iterative revision process identified several opportunities to improve the CDS tool. Operationalizing the integrated guideline identified numerous areas in which the guideline was vague or incorrect and required more explicit operationalization. Iterative revisions led to workable solutions to problems and understanding of the limitations of the tool. Conclusions The process and experiences described provide a model for other mobile CDS systems that translate written clinical practice guidelines into actionable, real-time clinical recommendations. PMID:28270384

  4. Improvement in Adherence to Surgical Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Guidelines after Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Quality Improvement Project

    PubMed Central

    Telfah, Shorouq; Nazer, Lama; Dirani, Manar; Daoud, Faiez

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to show the impact of a multidisciplinary quality improvement project on adherence to antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines in oncological surgery. Methods: This pre- and post-intervention prospective observational study was carried out at the King Hussein Cancer Centre (KHCC) in Amman, Jordan, between August 2009 and February 2012. The quality improvement project consisted of revising the institutional guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis, assigning a clinical pharmacist to the surgical department, establishing an operating room satellite pharmacy and providing education regarding the appropriate utilisation of antibiotics. The medical records of adult cancer patients who underwent surgery were evaluated one month before and one month after the project was implemented to assess adherence to the guidelines with regards to antibiotics prescribed, drug doses and timing and treatment duration. Results: A total of 70 patients were evaluated before and 97 patients were evaluated after the intervention, of which 57 (81.4%) and 95 (97.9%) patients received antibiotics, respectively. In comparing the pre- and post-intervention groups, an improvement was observed in the proportion of patients who received antibiotics at the appropriate time (n = 12 versus n = 79; 21.1% versus 83.2%; P <0.01), for the appropriate duration of time (n = 22 versus n = 94; 38.6% versus 99.0%; P <0.01) and in the appropriate dose (n = 9 versus n = 87; 56.3% versus 98.9%; P <0.01). Conclusion: Adherence to the antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines at KHCC improved significantly after the implementation of a quality improvement project. PMID:26629381

  5. Computerized clinical guidelines: current status & principles for future research.

    PubMed

    Kondylakis, Haridimos; Tsiknakis, Manolis

    2012-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that the adoption of computerized clinical guidelines would improve the quality of the provided health care, their influence in the daily practice is limited. In this paper we provide insights on the core topics related to computer interpretable clinical guidelines and we present shortly the main approaches in the area. Then we discuss the current limitations, and we present three simple principles that according to our view should be adopted to enhance the penetration of computerized clinical guidelines in the health care organizations. The overall goal of this paper is not only to give readers a quick overview of the works in the area, but also to provide necessary insights for the practical understanding of the issues involved and draw directions for future research and development activities.

  6. The validity of recommendations from clinical guidelines: a survival analysis

    PubMed Central

    García, Laura Martínez; Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Álvarez, Elvira García; Trujillo-Martín, Maria Mar; Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Itziar; Kotzeva, Anna; Rigau, David; Louro-González, Arturo; Barajas-Nava, Leticia; del Campo, Petra Díaz; Estrada, Maria-Dolors; Solà, Ivan; Gracia, Javier; Salcedo-Fernandez, Flavia; Lawson, Jennifer; Haynes, R. Brian; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical guidelines should be updated to maintain their validity. Our aim was to estimate the length of time before recommendations become outdated. Methods: We used a retrospective cohort design and included recommendations from clinical guidelines developed in the Spanish National Health System clinical guideline program since 2008. We performed a descriptive analysis of references, recommendations and resources used, and a survival analysis of recommendations using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: We included 113 recommendations from 4 clinical guidelines with a median of 4 years since the most recent search (range 3.9–4.4 yr). We retrieved 39 136 references (range 3343–14 787) using an exhaustive literature search, 668 of which were related to the recommendations in our sample. We identified 69 (10.3%) key references, corresponding to 25 (22.1%) recommendations that required updating. Ninety-two percent (95% confidence interval 86.9–97.0) of the recommendations were valid 1 year after their development. This probability decreased at 2 (85.7%), 3 (81.3%) and 4 years (77.8%). Interpretation: Recommendations quickly become outdated, with 1 out of 5 recommendations being out of date after 3 years. Waiting more than 3 years to review a guideline is potentially too long. PMID:25200758

  7. [Clinical guideline for detection and diagnosis of hypertensive pregnancy disease].

    PubMed

    Lagunes-Espinosa, Alma Luisa; Ríos-Castillo, Brenda; Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; del Rocío Cruz-Cruz, Polita; Sánchez-Ambríz, Slivia; Sánchez-Santana, Joaquín Renato; Ramírez-Mota, Carolina; Zavaleta-Vargas, Norma Octavia; López-Cisneros, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) are the main complication and cause of maternal and perinatal death. Pre-eclampsia represents a 34%, according to the Secretaría de Salud de México. To offer the family physicians tools for the opportune detection and diagnosis of HDP a clinical guideline was developmented. Clinical questions were formulated and structured. A standardized sequence to search for Practice Guidelines, based on the key words: hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, pre-eclampsia. Tripdatabase, MDConsult, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence were used. In addition, Cochrane Library Plus, Science Direct and OVID were used. Most of the recommendations were taken from guidelines selected and supplemented with the remaining material. The information is expressed in levels of evidence and grade of recommendation according to the characteristics of the study design and type of publications. To reduce morbidity and mortality from HDP health professionals should identify risk factors; conduct a close monitoring and early diagnosis. It is essential to provide information to the pregnant patient on alarm data and behavior to follow. This clinical practice guide offers current evidence for screening and diagnosis of HDP in primary care.

  8. Examining the use of facilitation within guideline dissemination and implementation studies in nursing.

    PubMed

    Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Harrison, Margaret; Graham, Ian; Keeping-Burke, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    implementation interventions in 60% (n = 6) of the studies. Drawing conclusions regarding effectiveness of interventions involving facilitation was difficult due to the small number of studies that were included. Furthermore, the included studies varied in the detail provided about the intervention or combination of interventions tested and how interventions were delivered. Using an existing systematic review for the purpose of gaining insight into additional research questions was valuable. Although facilitation process and activities are used in interventions to enhance guideline uptake in nursing, these were not conceptualized or referred to by researchers as 'facilitation.' As such, facilitation may be a broader intervention that includes organizing and delivering other interventions. Further research is required to evaluate the relationship between facilitation and other guideline implementation interventions in nursing. The facilitation uncovered within included studies was located primarily in the context of research as it was the researchers who performed most of the facilitation activities. Future inquiries must explore non-researcher-initiated and delivered facilitation intervention activities by following local groups naturally within clinical contexts.

  9. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for cholelithiasis 2016.

    PubMed

    Tazuma, Susumu; Unno, Michiaki; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Inui, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa; Kai, Masahiro; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Mori, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji; Ryozawa, Shomei; Nimura, Yuji; Fujita, Naotaka; Kubota, Keiichi; Shoda, Junichi; Tabata, Masami; Mine, Tetsuya; Sugano, Kentaro; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2017-03-01

    Cholelithiasis is one of the commonest diseases in gastroenterology. Remarkable improvements in therapeutic modalities for cholelithiasis and its complications are evident. The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology has revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for cholelithiasis. Forty-three clinical questions, for four categories-epidemiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatments, and prognosis and complications-were selected, and a literature search was performed for the clinical questions with use of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases for the period between 1983 and June 2012. The guidelines were developed with use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This article preferentially describes the clinical management of cholelithiasis and its complications. Following description of the diagnosis performed stepwise through imaging modalities, treatments of cholecystolithiasis, choledocholithiasis, and hepatolithiasis are introduced along with a flowchart. Since there have been remarkable improvements in endoscopic treatments and surgical techniques, the guidelines ensure flexibility in choices according to the actual clinical environment. The revised clinical practice guidelines are appropriate for use by clinicians in their daily practice.

  10. A Typology for Modeling Processes in Clinical Guidelines and Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Samson W.; Musen, Mark A.

    We analyzed the graphical representations that are used by various guideline-modeling methods to express process information embodied in clinical guidelines and protocols. From this analysis, we distilled four modeling formalisms and the processes they typically model: (1) flowcharts for capturing problem-solving processes, (2) disease-state maps that link decision points in managing patient problems over time, (3) plans that specify sequences of activities that contribute toward a goal, (4) workflow specifications that model care processes in an organization. We characterized the four approaches and showed that each captures some aspect of what a guideline may specify. We believe that a general guideline-modeling system must provide explicit representation for each type of process.

  11. Healthcare professionals' intentions to use clinical guidelines: a survey using the theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Finnish clinical guidelines are evolving toward integration of knowledge modules into the electronic health record in the Evidence-Based Medicine electronic Decision Support project. It therefore became important to study which factors affect professionals' intention to use clinical guidelines generally in their decision-making on patient care. A theory-based approach is a possible solution to explore determinants of professionals' behaviour. The study's aim was to produce baseline information for developers and implementers by using the theory of planned behaviour. Methods A cross-sectional internet-based survey was carried out in Finnish healthcare organisations within three hospital districts. The target population (n = 2,252) included physicians, nurses, and other professionals, of whom 806 participated. Indicators of the intention to use clinical guidelines were observed by using a theory-based questionnaire. The main data analysis was done by means of multiple linear regressions. Results The results indicated that all theory-based variables--the attitude toward the behaviour, the subjective norm, and the perceived behaviour control--were important factors associated with the professionals' intention to use clinical practice guidelines for their area of specialisation in the decisions they would make on the care of patients in the next three months. In addition, both the nurse and the physician factors had positive (p < 0.01) effects on this intention in comparison to other professionals. In the similar models for all professions, the strongest factor for the physicians was the perceived behaviour control, while the key factor for the nurses and the other professionals was the subjective norm. This means that context- and guideline-based factors either facilitate or hinder the intention to use clinical guidelines among physicians and, correspondingly, normative beliefs related to social pressures do so for nurses and other healthcare professionals

  12. Operational Earthquake Forecasting: Proposed Guidelines for Implementation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is to provide the public with authoritative information about how seismic hazards are changing with time. During periods of high seismic activity, short-term earthquake forecasts based on empirical statistical models can attain nominal probability gains in excess of 100 relative to the long-term forecasts used in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Prospective experiments are underway by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) to evaluate the reliability and skill of these seismicity-based forecasts in a variety of tectonic environments. How such information should be used for civil protection is by no means clear, because even with hundredfold increases, the probabilities of large earthquakes typically remain small, rarely exceeding a few percent over forecasting intervals of days or weeks. Civil protection agencies have been understandably cautious in implementing formal procedures for OEF in this sort of “low-probability environment.” Nevertheless, the need to move more quickly towards OEF has been underscored by recent experiences, such as the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake sequence and other seismic crises in which an anxious public has been confused by informal, inconsistent earthquake forecasts. Whether scientists like it or not, rising public expectations for real-time information, accelerated by the use of social media, will require civil protection agencies to develop sources of authoritative information about the short-term earthquake probabilities. In this presentation, I will discuss guidelines for the implementation of OEF informed by my experience on the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council, convened by CalEMA, and the International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting, convened by the Italian government following the L’Aquila disaster. (a) Public sources of information on short-term probabilities should be authoritative, scientific, open, and

  13. Educating APNs for Implementing the Guidelines for Adolescents in "Bright Futures: Guidelines of Health Supervision of Infants, Children, and Adolescents."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Cornelia P.; Pender, Nola J.; Hayman, Laura L.; Armstrong, Myrna L.; Riesch, Susan K.; Lewis, Mary Ann

    1997-01-01

    Discusses recommendations for preparing advanced practice nurses (APNs) to implement guidelines of a health curriculum: (1) ensuring age-appropriate teaching; (2) emphasizing the complex relationships of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender; (3) reinforcing the self-care and resilience of adolescents; and (4) examining transitions…

  14. Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media with Effusion (Update).

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shin, Jennifer J; Schwartz, Seth R; Coggins, Robyn; Gagnon, Lisa; Hackell, Jesse M; Hoelting, David; Hunter, Lisa L; Kummer, Ann W; Payne, Spencer C; Poe, Dennis S; Veling, Maria; Vila, Peter M; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    This update of a 2004 guideline codeveloped by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians, provides evidence-based recommendations to manage otitis media with effusion (OME), defined as the presence of fluid in the middle ear without signs or symptoms of acute ear infection. Changes from the prior guideline include consumer advocates added to the update group, evidence from 4 new clinical practice guidelines, 20 new systematic reviews, and 49 randomized control trials, enhanced emphasis on patient education and shared decision making, a new algorithm to clarify action statement relationships, and new and expanded recommendations for the diagnosis and management of OME. The purpose of this multidisciplinary guideline is to identify quality improvement opportunities in managing OME and to create explicit and actionable recommendations to implement these opportunities in clinical practice. Specifically, the goals are to improve diagnostic accuracy, identify children who are most susceptible to developmental sequelae from OME, and educate clinicians and patients regarding the favorable natural history of most OME and the clinical benefits for medical therapy (eg, steroids, antihistamines, decongestants). Additional goals relate to OME surveillance, hearing and language evaluation, and management of OME detected by newborn screening. The target patient for the guideline is a child aged 2 months through 12 years with OME, with or without developmental disabilities or underlying conditions that predispose to OME and its sequelae. The guideline is intended for all clinicians who are likely to diagnose and manage children with OME, and it applies to any setting in which OME would be identified, monitored, or managed. This guideline, however, does not apply to patients <2 months or >12 years old. The update group made strong recommendations that clinicians (1

  15. Rethinking the Role of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play a major role in pharmacy education. Students learn to locate, retrieve, and apply CPGs in didactic coursework and practice experiences. However, they often memorize and quote recommendations without critical analysis, which tends to undermine their clinical growth. Students should become genuine drug experts, based on strong critical-thinking skills and the ability to assimilate extensive clinical and scientific knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines improve health care, and students should be familiar with them, but there are legitimate criticisms of CPGs, stemming largely from potential conflicts of interest and limitations in the quality and scope of available evidence. Despite such flaws, CPGs can be used to facilitate the clinical growth of students if the emphasis is placed on critically analyzing and evaluating CPG recommendations, as opposed to blindly accepting them. From that perspective, the role that CPGs have come to play in education may need to be reconsidered. PMID:26889060

  16. [How to implement a guideline from theory to practice: the example of the venous thromboembolism prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Edison F; Rocha, Ana T C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to discuss the existing barriers for the dissemination of medical guidelines, and to present strategies that facilitate the adaptation of the recommendations into clinical practice. The literature shows that it usually takes several years until new scientific evidence is adopted in current practice, even when there is obvious impact in patients' morbidity and mortality. There are some examples where more than thirty years have elapsed since the first case reports about the use of a effective therapy were published until its utilization became routine. That is the case of fibrinolysis for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Some of the main barriers for the implementation of new recommendations are: the lack of knowledge of a new guideline, personal resistance to changes, uncertainty about the efficacy of the proposed recommendation, fear of potential side-effects, difficulties in remembering the recommendations, inexistence of institutional policies reinforcing the recommendation and even economical restrains. In order to overcome these barriers a strategy that involves a program with multiple tools is always the best. That must include the implementation of easy-to-use algorithms, continuous medical education materials and lectures, electronic or paper alerts, tools to facilitate evaluation and prescription, and periodic audits to show results to the practitioners involved in the process. It is also fundamental that the medical societies involved with the specific medical issue support the program for its scientific and ethical soundness. The creation of multidisciplinary committees in each institution and the inclusion of opinion leaders that have pro-active and lasting attitudes are the key-points for the program's success. In this manuscript we use as an example the implementation of a guideline for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, but the concepts described here can be easily applied to any other guideline

  17. An Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support framework for medical guidelines--Lyme borreliosis as an example.

    PubMed

    Seitinger, Alexander; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Wurm, Elisabeth; Aberer, Elisabeth; Binder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Medicine is evolving at a very fast pace. The overwhelming quantity of new data compels the practician to be consistently informed about the most recent scientific advances. While medical guidelines have proven to be an acceptable tool for bringing new medical knowledge into clinical practice and also support medical personnel, reading them may be rather time-consuming. Clinical decision support systems have been developed to simplify this process. However, the implementation or adaptation of such systems for individual guidelines involves substantial effort. This paper introduces a clinical decision support platform that uses Arden Syntax to implement medical guidelines using client-server architecture. It provides a means of implementing different guidelines without the need for adapting the system's source code. To implement a prototype, three Lyme borreliosis guidelines were aggregated and a knowledge base created. The prototype employs transfer objects to represent any text-based medical guideline. As part of the implementation, we show how Fuzzy Arden Syntax can improve the overall usability of a clinical decision support system.

  18. The Good Clinical Practice guideline and its interpretation - perceptions of clinical trial teams in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Vischer, N; Pfeiffer, C; Joller, A; Klingmann, I; Ka, A; Kpormegbe, S K; Burri, C

    2016-08-01

    To explore the advantages and challenges of working with the Good Clinical Practice (GCP)-International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) E6 guideline and its interpretation from the perspective of clinical trial teams based in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted 60 key informant interviews with clinical trial staff at different levels in clinical research centres in Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Senegal and thematically analysed the responses. Clinical trial teams perceived working with ICH-GCP as highly advantageous and regarded ICH-GCP as applicable to their setting and efficiently applied. Only for informed consent did some clinical trial staff (one-third) perceive the guideline as insufficiently applicable. Specific challenges included meeting the requirements for written and individual consent, conditions for impartial witnesses for illiterates or legally acceptable representatives for children, guaranteeing voluntary participation and ensuring full understanding of the consent given. It was deemed important to have ICH-GCP compliance monitored by relevant ethics committees and regulatory authorities, without having guidelines applied overcautiously. Clinical trial teams in sub-Saharan Africa perceived GCP as a helpful guideline, despite having been developed by northern organisations and despite the high administrative burden of implementing it. To mitigate consent challenges, we suggest adapting GCP and making use of the flexibility it offers. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clinical Practice Guideline for Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D and its metabolites have clinical significance because they play a critical function in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Although not all of the pathologic mechanisms have been adequately described, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, as measured by low levels of 25-OH vitamin D, are associated with a variety of clinical conditions including osteoporosis, falls and fractures in the elderly, decreased immune function, bone pain, and possibly colon cancer and cardiovascular health.2 Apart from inadequate dietary intake, patients may present with low levels of vitamin D if they receive inadequate sunlight. The astronaut population is potentially vulnerable to low levels of vitamin D for several reasons. Firstly, they may train for long periods in Star City, Russia, which by virtue of its northern latitude receives less sunlight in winter months. Secondly, astronauts are deprived of sunlight while aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In addition, ISS crew members are exposed to microgravity for prolonged durations and are likely to develop low bone mineral density despite the use of countermeasures. Therefore, closely monitoring and maintaining adequate vitamin D levels is important for the astronaut corps.

  20. [Graphic synopsis of implementation of German guideline clearing reports in national disease management guidelines].

    PubMed

    Thole, Henning

    2011-01-01

    While methods for the production of guidelines (evidence analysis, assessment, adaptation) have been continually refined throughout the past years, there is a lack of instruments for the production of easily understandable synopses. Definition of a methodological approach to encompass synopses by Spidernet diagrams. Tables of synopses can be generated with distinct information to bring down the main results in one Spidernet diagram. This is possible for both the entire synopsis and parts of it. Guideline comparisons require detailed analyses on the one hand and easily understandable presentations of their results on the other. Guideline synopses can be substantially supported by graphic presentation of the results of synopsis. Graphic synopsis is also helpful in other cases; it may be used, for example, to summarise HTA reports, systematic reviews or guidelines. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Guideline Implementation: Energy-Generating Devices, Part 1-Electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Eder, Sheryl P

    2017-03-01

    Energy-generating devices are standard equipment in the surgical suite, with electrosurgical units being the most common type of electrical device used in the OR. Prevention of injuries to patients and personnel related to the use of energy-generating devices is a key component of the perioperative nurse's role. The AORN "Guideline for safe use of energy-generating devices" provides guidance on the use and maintenance of devices that deliver energy in the forms of radiofrequency waves, ultrasound waves, or lasers. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which address precautions specific to electrosurgical units, patients with implanted electronic devices, and minimally invasive surgery, and documentation of the use of energy-generating devices. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  2. Not of One Mind: Mental Models of Clinical Practice Guidelines in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Moore, Frank I

    2005-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to present differences in mental models of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) among 15 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities throughout the United States. Data Sources Two hundred and forty-four employees from 15 different VHA facilities across four service networks around the country were invited to participate. Participants were selected from different levels throughout each service setting from primary care personnel to facility leadership. Study Design This qualitative study used purposive sampling, a semistructured interview process for data collection, and grounded theory techniques for analysis. Data Collection A semistructured interview was used to collect information on participants' mental models of CPGs, as well as implementation strategies and barriers in their facility. Findings Analysis of these interviews using grounded theory techniques indicated that there was wide variability in employees' mental models of CPGs. Findings also indicated that high-performing facilities exhibited both (a) a clear, focused shared mental model of guidelines and (b) a tendency to use performance feedback as a learning opportunity, thus suggesting that a shared mental model is a necessary but not sufficient step toward successful guideline implementation. Conclusions We conclude that a clear shared mental model of guidelines, in combination with a learning orientation toward feedback are important components for successful guideline implementation and improved quality of care. PMID:15960693

  3. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for chronic pancreatitis 2015.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ohara, Hirotaka; Kamisawa, Terumi; Sakagami, Junichi; Sata, Naohiro; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Hirota, Morihisa; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Hisato; Lee, Lingaku; Fujiyama, Takashi; Hijioka, Masayuki; Ueda, Keijiro; Tachibana, Yuichi; Sogame, Yoshio; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Kato, Ryusuke; Kataoka, Keisho; Shiratori, Keiko; Sugiyama, Masanori; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Tando, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-02-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is considered to be an irreversible progressive chronic inflammatory disease. The etiology and pathology of chronic pancreatitis are complex; therefore, it is important to correctly understand the stage and pathology and provide appropriate treatment accordingly. The newly revised Clinical Practice Guidelines of Chronic Pancreatitis 2015 consist of four chapters, i.e., diagnosis, staging, treatment, and prognosis, and includes a total of 65 clinical questions. These guidelines have aimed at providing certain directions and clinically practical contents for the management of chronic pancreatitis, preferentially adopting clinically useful articles. These revised guidelines also refer to early chronic pancreatitis based on the Criteria for the Diagnosis of Chronic Pancreatitis 2009. They include such items as health insurance coverage of high-titer lipase preparations and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, new antidiabetic drugs, and the definition of and treatment approach to pancreatic pseudocyst. The accuracy of these guidelines has been improved by examining and adopting new evidence obtained after the publication of the first edition.

  4. Computerization of workflows, guidelines, and care pathways: a review of implementation challenges for process-oriented health information systems

    PubMed Central

    Roudsari, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Objective There is a need to integrate the various theoretical frameworks and formalisms for modeling clinical guidelines, workflows, and pathways, in order to move beyond providing support for individual clinical decisions and toward the provision of process-oriented, patient-centered, health information systems (HIS). In this review, we analyze the challenges in developing process-oriented HIS that formally model guidelines, workflows, and care pathways. Methods A qualitative meta-synthesis was performed on studies published in English between 1995 and 2010 that addressed the modeling process and reported the exposition of a new methodology, model, system implementation, or system architecture. Thematic analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and data visualisation techniques were used to identify and cluster the underlying implementation ‘challenge’ themes. Results One hundred and eight relevant studies were selected for review. Twenty-five underlying ‘challenge’ themes were identified. These were clustered into 10 distinct groups, from which a conceptual model of the implementation process was developed. Discussion and conclusion We found that the development of systems supporting individual clinical decisions is evolving toward the implementation of adaptable care pathways on the semantic web, incorporating formal, clinical, and organizational ontologies, and the use of workflow management systems. These architectures now need to be implemented and evaluated on a wider scale within clinical settings. PMID:21724740

  5. Clinical Pathway and Monthly Feedback Improve Adherence to Antibiotic Guideline Recommendations for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Almatar, Maher; Peterson, Gregory M.; Thompson, Angus; McKenzie, Duncan; Anderson, Tara; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Compliance with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) guidelines remains poor despite a substantial body of evidence indicating that guideline-concordant care improves patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of a general educational and a targeted emergency department intervention on improving physicians’ concordance with CAP guidelines. Methods Two distinct interventions were implemented over specific time periods. The first intervention was educational, focusing on the development of local CAP guidelines and their dissemination through hospital-wide educational programmes. The second intervention was a targeted one for the emergency department, where a clinical pathway for the initial management of CAP patients was introduced, followed by monthly feedback to the emergency department (ED) physicians about concordance rates with the guidelines. Data on the concordance rate to CAP guidelines was collected from a retrospective chart review. Results A total of 398 eligible patient records were reviewed to measure concordance to CAP guidelines over the study period. Concordance rates during the baseline and educational intervention periods were similar (28.1% vs. 31.2%; p > 0.05). Significantly more patients were treated in accordance with the CAP guidelines after the ED focused intervention when compared to the baseline (61.5% vs. 28.1%; p < 0.05) or educational period (61.5% vs. 31.2%; p < 0.05). Conclusions A targeted intervention with a CAP clinical pathway and monthly feedback was a successful strategy to increase adherence to empirical antibiotic recommendations in CAP guidelines. PMID:27454581

  6. Using multimodal mining to drive clinical guidelines development.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We present exploratory investigations of multimodal mining to help designing clinical guidelines for antibiotherapy. Our approach is based on the assumption that combining various sources of data, such as the literature, a clinical datawarehouse, as well as information regarding costs will result in better recommendations. Compared to our baseline recommendation system based on a question-answering engine built on top of PubMed, an improvement of +16% is observed when clinical data (i.e. resistance profiles) are injected into the model. In complement to PubMed, an alternative search strategy is reported, which is significantly improved by the use of the combined multimodal approach. These results suggest that combining literature-based discovery with structured data mining can significantly improve effectiveness of decision-support systems for authors of clinical practice guidelines.

  7. Clinical imaging guidelines part 2: Risks, benefits, barriers, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Malone, James; del Rosario-Perez, Maria; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Jung, Seung Eun; Holmberg, Ola; Bettmann, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    A recent international meeting was convened by two United Nations bodies to focus on international collaboration on clinical appropriateness/referral guidelines for use in medical imaging. This paper, the second of 4 from this technical meeting, addresses barriers to the successful development/deployment of clinical imaging guidelines and means of overcoming them. It reflects the discussions of the attendees, and the issues identified are treated under 7 headings: ■ Practical Strategy for Development and Deployment of Guidelines; ■ Governance Arrangements and Concerns with Deployment of Guidelines; ■ Finance, Sustainability, Reimbursement, and Related Issues; ■ Identifying Benefits and Radiation Risks from Radiological Examinations; ■ Information Given to Patients and the Public, and Consent Issues; ■ Special Concerns Related to Pregnancy; and ■ The Research Agenda. Examples of topics identified include the observation that guideline development is a global task and there is no case for continuing it as the project of the few professional organizations that have been brave enough to make the long-term commitment required. Advocacy for guidelines should include the expectations that they will facilitate: (1) better health care delivery; (2) lower cost of that delivery; with (3) reduced radiation dose and associated health risks. Radiation protection issues should not be isolated; rather, they should be integrated with the overall health care picture. The type of dose/radiation risk information to be provided with guidelines should include the uncertainty involved and advice on application of the precautionary principle with patients. This principle may be taken as an extension of the well-established medical principle of "first do no harm."

  8. Representation of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Conventional and Augmented Decision Tables

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Richard N.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To develop a knowledge representation model for clinical practice guidelines that is linguistically adequate, comprehensible, reusable, and maintainable. Design: Decision tables provide the basic framework for the proposed knowledge representation model. Guideline logic is represented as rules in conventional decision tables. These tables are augmented by layers where collateral information is recorded in slots beneath the logic. Results: Decision tables organize rules into cohesive rule sets wherein complex logic is clarified. Decision table rule sets may be verified to assure completeness and consistency. Optimization and display of rule sets as sequential decision trees may enhance the comprehensibility of the logic. The modularity of the rule formats may facilitate maintenance. The augmentation layers provide links to descriptive language, information sources, decision variable characteristics, costs and expected values of policies, and evidence sources and quality. Conclusion: Augmented decision tables can serve as a unifying knowledge representation for developers and implementers of clinical practice guidelines. PMID:9292844

  9. Guidelines for Implementing a Real Estate Cooperative Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Thomas R.

    Background information and guidelines are provided for the development of cooperative education programs for real estate industry personnel. The first section outlines the operation of cooperative education programs and presents two organizational plans: the alternating plan, where students attend class full-time and work full-time during…

  10. Development and implementation of a piperacillin-tazobactam extended infusion guideline.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Lynley S; Tokumaru, Sheri; Clark, Nina M; Garofalo, John; Paek, Jamie L; Grim, Shellee A

    2011-12-01

    Administration of β-lactam antibiotics by extended infusion optimizes the pharmacodynamic properties and bactericidal activity of these agents resulting in a potential improvement in patient outcomes and reduction in drug expenditure. Consequently, a pharmacist-led piperacillin-tazobactam extended 4-hour infusion guideline was implemented hospital-wide at a 500-bed academic medical center. Each piperacillin-tazobactam infusion was prospectively monitored for 5 weeks to ensure accurate administration and identify barriers to guideline adherence. Overall, a total of 103 patients received 1215 doses of piperacillin-tazobactam by extended infusions. In all, 98% of the doses were administered at the correct extended infusion rate and 94% of the doses were given at the scheduled time. There were a total of 20 missed doses and 53 delayed doses, accounting for 2% and 4% of the total administered doses, respectively. The primary barrier to adherence was the patient not being on the unit at the time of the scheduled dose followed by the piperacillin-tazobactam dose not being available on the floor. While insufficient power prevented meaningful evaluation of clinical outcomes, we anticipate a conservative annual estimated cost savings of $108,529. Key elements contributing to our success included consistent pharmacy leadership, multidisciplinary involvement, thorough inservicing to health care professionals, hospital-wide implementation, and extensive quality assurance monitoring.

  11. Utilization of the American Telemedicine Association's Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Antoniotti, Nina; Bernard, Jordana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) Standards and Guidelines Committee develops practice standards and guidelines. Key to the Committee's mission is dissemination so the standards can be used in the practice of telemedicine. Over a 2-year period, when a standards document was accessed from the ATA Web site, a short survey was completed, but it did not assess how the documents were used once downloaded. A more formal survey was conducted to determine the impact ATA standards and guidelines are having on healthcare delivery via telemedicine. Materials and Methods: A survey was developed and distributed via SurveyMonkey to 13,177 ATA members and nonmembers in November 2011. Results were compiled and analyzed after a 90-day open period for responses to be submitted. Results: The majority of respondents (96%) believe the practice of telemedicine/telehealth should have standards and guidelines and that the ATA and other professional societies/associations should be responsible for developing them. The top uses of guidelines include guidance for clinical practice, training, gaining reimbursement, and research. Respondents indicating a need for standards and guidelines said the ATA (78.7%) and other professional societies/associations (74.5%) should be responsible for development. When asked to list specific practice guidelines or standards they are using for telehealth, the majority (21.5%) are using in-house (e.g., hospital, company)-developed guidelines, followed by those from professional associations/societies (20.4%) and those developed by the ATA (18.2%). Conclusions: Overall, the survey results indicate guidelines documents developed by the ATA and other professional societies and those developed in-house are being regularly accessed and used in both public and private sectors. Practitioners of telemedicine believe that standards and guidelines are needed for guidance for clinical practice, training, gaining reimbursement, and research

  12. 2 CFR 180.35 - By when must a Federal agency implement these guidelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false By when must a Federal agency implement these guidelines? 180.35 Section 180.35 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT...

  13. 2 CFR 180.20 - What must a Federal agency do to implement these guidelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What must a Federal agency do to implement these guidelines? 180.20 Section 180.20 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT...

  14. 2 CFR 180.30 - Where does a Federal agency implement these guidelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where does a Federal agency implement these guidelines? 180.30 Section 180.30 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  15. Association for Counselor Education and Supervision Guidelines for Research Mentorship: Development and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, L. DiAnne; Wester, Kelly L.; Granello, Darcy Haag; Chang, Catherine Y.; Hays, Danica G.; Pepperell, Jennifer; Spurgeon, Shawn L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe guidelines endorsed by the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision for research mentorship, including characteristics of mentors and mentees. Suggestions for implementing the guidelines at the individual, program, institution, and professional levels are focused on enhancing mentoring relationships as well as…

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 224 - Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports C Appendix C to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations... REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT ROLLING STOCK Pt. 224, App. C Appendix C to Part 224—Guidelines for...

  17. Developing clinical guidelines: how much rigour is required?

    PubMed

    Haroon, Munib; Ranmal, Rita; McElroy, Helen; Dudley, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Clinical guidelines that are rigorously developed play a fundamental role in improving healthcare and reducing unnecessary variations in practice. National guidelines are increasingly used by healthcare professionals, patients and commissioners; however, national bodies are unable to meet the demand for guidance on all topics. There are fewer resources available for guidance produced locally or by specialty groups, and it is necessary to achieve a balance between pragmatism and rigour while conforming to the widely accepted norms of what constitutes a good guideline. This paper introduces the key concepts around this topic with suggestions for those interested in developing their own guideline. An example of challenges encountered in generating high-quality clinical guidance is given in box 1. Box 1 Challenges in guideline development Professor Johnson runs a local developmental paediatrics service with eight other colleagues. All have different ways of managing children with PAVING syndrome. This was difficult for patients and staff and has led to disagreements on how certain patients should be managed. As a result, Professor Johnson developed a Guideline Development Group to look at the management of PAVING syndrome. The group identified 12 clinical questions (including diagnosis, exclusion of comorbidities, treatment modalities), searched the PubMed database and found some useful evidence that they used to formulate key recommendations. For one question about behavioural therapy, PubMed did not suggest any evidence so they informally arrived at a consensus among themselves and wrote up their guideline. On the back of this success, they applied for the guideline to be endorsed or supported by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH). To their frustration, it was turned down on methodological grounds. Professor Johnson wrote to the RCPCH saying that he was "pretty peeved that the PAVING syndrome guideline had been rejected" for the College

  18. 78 FR 17679 - Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical... the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals:...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 224 - Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports C Appendix C to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 224 - Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports C Appendix C to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENT THE NATIONAL GUIDELINES ON NEWBORN CARE IN A RURAL MOUNTAINOUS PROVINCE OF VIETNAM

    PubMed Central

    Thi, Le Minh; Ha, BuiThiThu; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the disparity in neonatal health among regions to ensure every mother and her newborn receive the health care they need is a priority in Vietnam. This study was conducted to assess the barriers in implementing the National guidelines on newborn care in a rural mountainous province of Vietnam. Qualitative methods were applied with 28 in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions in DakNong province. The results showed that there exist many barriers in implementing the national guideline in newborn care services. There is a big gap between health policy development and policy implementation. The Vietnam government had approved a good strategy and guidelines. Efforts now need to focus on implementing the national guideline and improving quality of care. PMID:27516812

  2. [Agreements and disagreements among the main clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Calderón Montero, A

    2014-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus has an enormous health and social impact and its incidence is rising exponentially in the industrialized world as a result of unhealthy lifestyles. In the last few years, research in this field has increased, leading to the development of new drugs and new indications. Consequently, numerous updates of clinical practice guidelines for diabetes have been published in the last 12 months, which provide health professionals with an up-to-date view of therapeutic possibilities. The present article reviews the guidelines with the greatest scientific impact and discusses areas of agreement and disagreement among these documents.

  3. Development of tuberculosis infection control guidelines in a pediatric HIV clinic in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Carlucci, J. G.; Jin, L.; Mohapi, E. Q.; Mandalakas, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: A well-established pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic in Lesotho with initial infection control (IC) measures prioritizing blood-borne disease. In line with international recommendations, services have been expanded to include the management of patients with tuberculosis (TB). The creation of comprehensive IC guidelines with an emphasis on TB has become a priority. Objective: To provide a model for developing and implementing IC guidelines in ambulatory care facilities in limited-resource settings with high HIV and TB prevalence. Activities: An IC plan that includes guidance covering both general IC measures and TB-specific guidelines was created by integrating local and international recommendations and emphasizing the importance of administrative measures, environmental controls, and disease-specific precautions. An interdisciplinary committee was established to oversee its implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Discussion: Development and implementation of IC guidelines in resource-limited settings are feasible and should be a priority in high HIV and TB prevalence areas. Education should be the cornerstone of such endeavors. Many interventions can be implemented with minimal expertise and material resources. Administrative support and institutional investment are essential to the sustainability of an effective IC program. PMID:26400595

  4. Offering prenatal diagnostic tests: European guidelines for clinical practice [corrected].

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather; Goldsmith, Lesley; Jackson, Leigh; Lewis, Celine; Chitty, Lyn

    2014-05-01

    For over four decades, it has been possible to offer prenatal diagnostic testing for fetal abnormalities. Prenatal testing is now available for a wide range of monogenic disorders as well as chromosomal abnormalities and should be provided within the ethical framework of informed consent and autonomous choice. However, there are no published guidelines for health professionals from varied disciplines who offer prenatal diagnosis (PND) in a range of possible settings including departments of maternity, obstetrics and clinical genetics. We used an Expert Group technique to develop a set of guidelines for provision of prenatal diagnostic services. Thirteen European health professionals, all experts in PND, participated in a workshop to develop the guidelines, which were then subjected to a wide consultation process. The objective of PND was defined as providing prenatal diagnostic testing services (for genetic conditions) that enable families to make informed choices consistent with their individual needs and values and which support them in dealing with the outcome of such testing. General principles, logistical considerations, clinical care and counselling topics are all described and are equally applicable to invasive and non-invasive testing. These guidelines provide a framework for ethical clinical care; however, they are flexible enough to enable practitioners to adapt them to their particular setting. Ideally, an individualised approach to each family is required to ensure autonomous choice and informed consent regarding prenatal diagnostic testing within the local ethical and legal framework.

  5. [Identifying gaps between guidelines and clinical practice in Clostridium difficile infection].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, C; Serrano-Morte, A; Sánchez-Muñoz, L A; de Santos-Castro, P A; Bratos-Pérez, M A; Ortiz de Lejarazu-Leonardo, R

    2016-01-01

    The first aim was to determine whether patients are being treated in accordance with the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA/SHEA) Clostridium difficile guidelines and whether adherence impacts patient outcomes. The second aim was to identify specific action items in the guidelines that are not being translated into clinical practice, for their subsequent implementation. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted over a 36 month period, on patients with compatible clinical symptoms and positive test for C. difficile toxins A and/or B in stool samples, in an internal medicine department of a tertiary medical centre. Patient demographic and clinical data (outcomes, comorbidity, risk factors) and compliance with guidelines, were examined A total of 77 patients with C. difficile infection were identified (87 episodes). Stratified by disease severity criteria, 49.3% of patients were mild-moderate, 35.1% severe, and 15.6% severe-complicated. Full adherence with the guidelines was observed in only 40.2% of patients, and was significantly better for mild-moderate (71.0%), than in severe (7.4%) or severe-complicated patients (16.6%) (P<.003). Adherence was significantly associated with clinical cure (57% vs 42%), fewer recurrences (22.2% vs 77.7%), and mortality (25% vs 75%) (P<.01). The stratification of severity of the episode, and the adequacy of antibiotic to clinical severity, need improvement. Overall adherence with the guidelines for management of Clostridium difficile infection was poor, especially in severe and severe-complicated patients, being associated with worse clinical outcomes. Educational interventions aimed at improving guideline adherence are warranted. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaidurya: a multiple-ontology, concept-based, context-sensitive clinical-guideline search engine.

    PubMed

    Moskovitch, Robert; Shahar, Yuval

    2009-02-01

    We designed and implemented a generic search engine (Vaidurya), as part of our Digital clinical-Guideline Library (DeGeL) framework. Two search methods were implemented in addition to full-text search: (1) concept-based search, which relies on pre-indexing the guidelines in a clinically meaningful fashion, and (2) context-sensitive search, which relies on first semi-structuring the guidelines according to a given ontology, then searching for terms within specific labeled text segments. The Vaidurya engine is fully functional and is used within the DeGeL system. We describe the Vaidurya ontological and algorithmic framework; we also briefly summarize the results of a detailed evaluation in the clinical-guideline domain, demonstrating that both concept-based and context-sensitive ontology-independent search are highly feasible and significantly improve on free text search retrieval performance. We conclude by analyzing the limitations and advantages of the approach, and the steps that we have started to take to extend it based on user feedback.

  7. Developing and Introducing Evidence Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Serious Illness in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Irimu, Grace; Wamae, Annah; Wasunna, Aggrey; Were, Fred; Ntoburi, Stephen; Opiyo, Newton; Ayieko, Philip; Peshu, Norbert; English, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The under-5 mortality rate in most developing countries remains high yet many deaths could be averted if available knowledge was put into practice. For seriously ill children in hospital investigations in low-income countries commonly demonstrate incorrect diagnosis and treatment and frequent prescribing errors. To help improve hospital management of the major causes of inpatient childhood mortality we developed simple clinical guidelines for use in Kenya, a low-income setting. The participatory process we used to adapt existing WHO materials and further develop and build support for such guidelines is discussed. To facilitate use of the guidelines we also developed job-aides and a 5.5 days training programme for their dissemination and implementation. We attempted to base our training on modern theories around adult learning and deliberately attempted to train a ‘critical mass’ of health workers within each institution at low cost. Our experience suggests that with sustained effort it is possible to develop locally owned, appropriate clinical practice guidelines for emergency and initial hospital care for seriously ill children with involvement of pertinent stake holders throughout. Early experience suggests that the training developed to support the guidelines, despite the fact that it challenges many established practices, is well received, appropriate to the needs of front line health workers in Kenya and feasible. To our knowledge the process described in Kenya is among a handful of attempts globally to implement inpatient or referral care components of WHO / UNICEF’s Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach. However, whether guideline dissemination and implementation result in improved quality of care in our environment remains to be seen. PMID:18719161

  8. Assessment of quality guidelines implementation using a continuous quality improvement programme.

    PubMed

    Richards, Nick; Ayala, Juan Antonio; Cesare, Salvatore; Chazot, Charles; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Gassia, Jean-Paul; Merello, Jose-Ignacio; Rentero, Ramon; Scatizzi, Laura; Marcelli, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) study suggest that the level of implementation of the European Best Practice Guidelines (EBPG) is at best partial. The main aim of this study is to describe the level of implementation of the EBPG in the European Fresenius Medical Care (FME) clinic network. Data presented in this investigation were gained through the FME database EuCliD (European Clinical Database). Patient data from 4 countries (Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain) were selected from the EuCliD database. The parameters chosen were haemodialysis adequacy, biocompatibility, anaemia control and serum phosphate control, which are surrogate indicators for quality of care. They were compared, by country, between the first quarter (Q1) 2002 and the fourth quarter (Q4) 2005. During Q1 2002 and Q4 2005, respectively, a total of 7,067 and 9,232 patients were treated in FME clinics located in France, Italy, Spain and the UK. This study confirms variations in haemodialysis practices between countries as already described by the DOPPS study. A large proportion of patients in each country achieved the targets recommended by the EBPG in Q4 2005 and this represented a significant improvement over the results achieved in Q1 2002. Differences in practices between countries still exist. The FME CQI programme allows some of these differences to be overcome leading to an improvement in the quality of the treatment delivered. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. International antiemetic guidelines on chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV): content and implementation in daily routine practice.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Karin; Gralla, Richard; Jahn, Franziska; Molassiotis, Alex

    2014-01-05

    Over the past decades major improvements in the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) were obtained. With the correct use of antiemetic drugs, CINV can be prevented in almost 70%, and even up to, 80% of patients. Treatment guidelines enable physicians to integrate the latest clinical research into their daily practice. The large volume of rapidly evolving clinical data has been summarised and incorporated into treatment recommendations by well-known and reliable institutions. These organisations include the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC), the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). However, despite the availability of these guidelines, there is an emerging evidence that adherence to, and implementation of, treatment recommendations is less than optimal. This review will especially focus on the content of the current antiemetic guidelines and will address the important question of how these guidelines are implemented in routine practice. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Making sense of complex data: a mapping process for analyzing findings of a realist review on guideline implementability.

    PubMed

    Kastner, Monika; Makarski, Julie; Hayden, Leigh; Durocher, Lisa; Chatterjee, Ananda; Brouwers, Melissa; Bhattacharyya, Onil

    2013-09-12

    Realist reviews offer a rigorous method to analyze heterogeneous data emerging from multiple disciplines as a means to develop new concepts, understand the relationships between them, and identify the evidentiary base underpinning them. However, emerging synthesis methods such as the Realist Review are not well operationalized and may be difficult for the novice researcher to grasp. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of an analytic process to organize and synthesize data from a realist review. Clinical practice guidelines have had an inconsistent and modest impact on clinical practice, which may in part be due to limitations in their design. This study illustrates the development of a transparent method for organizing and analyzing a complex data set informed by a Realist Review on guideline implementability to better understand the characteristics of guidelines that affect their uptake in practice (e.g., clarity, format). The data organization method consisted of 4 levels of refinement: 1) extraction and 2) organization of data; 3) creation of a conceptual map of guideline implementability; and 4) the development of a codebook of definitions. This new method is comprised of four steps: data extraction, data organization, development of a conceptual map, and operationalization vis-a-vis a codebook. Applying this method, we extracted 1736 guideline attributes from 278 articles into a consensus-based set of categories, and collapsed them into 5 core conceptual domains for our guideline implementability map: Language, Format, Rigor of development, Feasibility, Decision-making. This study advances analysis methods by offering a systematic approach to analyzing complex data sets where the goals are to condense, organize and identify relationships.

  11. Clinical guidelines development and usage: a critical insight and literature review: thyroid disease diagnostic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Murgić, Jure; Salopek, Daniela; Prpić, Marin; Jukić, Tomislav; Kusić, Zvonko

    2008-12-01

    Clinical guidelines have been increasingly used in medicine. They represent a system of recommendations for the conduction of specific procedures used in fields from public health to different diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in clinical medicine. Guidelines are designed to facilitate to medical practitioners the adoption, evaluation and application of an increasing body of evidence and arising number of expert opinions regarding the presently best treatment and to help in delivering proper decision for the management of a patient or condition. Clinical guidelines represent a part of complementary activity by which research is implemented into praxis, standards are defined and clinical excellence is promoted in all health care fields. There are specific conditions which quality guidelines should meet. First of all, they need to be founded on comprehensive literature review, apart from clinical studies and trials in the target field. Also, there are more systems for analyzing and grading the strength of clinical evidence and the level of recommendation emerging from it. Algorithms are used to organize and summarize guidelines. The algorithm itself has a form of an informatic record and a logical flow. Algorithms, especially in case of clinical uncertainty, must be used for the improvement of health care, increasing it's availability and integration of the newest scientific knowledge. They should have an important role in the health care rationalisation, fight against non-rational diagnostics manifested as diagnostic procedures with no clinical indications, it's unnecessary repetition and wrong sequence. Several diagnostic algorithms used in the field of thyroid diseases are presented, since they have been proved to be of great use.

  12. Application of Agree II Instrument for Appraisal of Postpartum Hemorrhage Clinical Practice Guidelines in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Novo, Ahmed; Subotic-popovic, Andreja; Strbac, Savka; Kandic, Alma; Horga, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Federal Minister of Health and Minister of Health and Social Welfare of the Republika Srpska as a Governmental health authorities in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and the Republika Srpska nominated/appointed health professionals as their representatives to a multidisciplinary Guidelines Adaptation Group (GAG). This group started with its work in September 2015. The main purpose of the guidelines development exercise is to develop guidelines with worldwide recognized methodology for clinical guidelines development and adaptation. At the end of this consultancy, GAG would have develop a clinical practice guideline on Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) through the adaptation method, starting from published international clinical guidelines and adapting it according to the country specific requirements. Methodology: During the process of identifying the best guideline for adaptation, the GAG had to pass several steps. One of the crucial steps was to identify the questions related to clinical practice and health policy for which answers are needed to be addressed by the guideline. These questions included relevant issues regarding the topic area such as diagnosis, prognosis, intervention, service delivery, and training. After that, six guidelines have been researched by the six members of the GAG to see if they answered the identified questions. Evaluating the methodological quality of the selected clinical guidelines was a second essential step before deciding which ones could best fit the needs and interests. AGREE II instrument has been chosen as methods for evaluating clinical guideline quality and appropriateness. Four appraisers conducted the assessment of each of the selected guidelines for PPH. All appraisers passed the training for the AGREE II instrument before conducting appraisals, as recommended by the AGREE collaboration. Each of the four guidelines was rated independently with the AGREE II tool by each appraiser. Results: The highest

  13. Towards improving the reporting quality of clinical case reports in complementary medicine: assessing and illustrating the need for guideline development.

    PubMed

    van Haselen, R A

    2015-04-01

    Case reports have had a varying level of recognition as a source of evidence throughout the history of medicine. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in clinical case reports in both conventional and complementary medicine. There is a need to further improve the reporting quality of clinical case reports of different Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies. To provide an overview of the different objectives for clinical case reports, identify those that are most relevant for CAM, and to develop a conceptual framework for purpose orientated clinical case reporting guidelines for CAM therapies. To practically illustrate the chosen approach by developing a clinical case reporting guideline for homeopathic cases. The various objectives of clinical case reports were described by Prof. Milos Jenicek, and the potential relevance of these objectives for CAM were discussed and graded by a mixed panel of experts. A conceptual framework for developing clinical case reporting guidelines for CAM treatments with specific objectives is proposed. The aim is to integrate both 'generic' and 'CAM therapy specific' quality items. This framework has been practically applied to the development of a reporting guideline for clinical case reports in homoeopathy which will be reported in a second article. An overview is given of the clinical case reporting literature. The conceptual framework for the development of purpose orientated CAM clinical case reporting guidelines is presented. This framework is based on alignment with the recently published 'generic' CARE guideline for reporting of clinical case reports, whilst addressing the CAM specific elements at the same time. The scope and importance of clinical case reporting guideline development in CAM is illustrated. A conceptual framework for developing CAM specific clinical case reporting guidelines was established. It has been implemented using homoeopathy as an illustration, and this will be reported in

  14. Sustainability of professionals' adherence to clinical practice guidelines in medical care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ament, Stephanie M C; de Groot, Jeanny J A; Maessen, José M C; Dirksen, Carmen D; van der Weijden, Trudy; Kleijnen, Jos

    2015-12-29

    To evaluate (1) the state of the art in sustainability research and (2) the outcomes of professionals' adherence to guideline recommendations in medical practice. Systematic review. Searches were conducted until August 2015 in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Guidelines International Network (GIN) library. A snowball strategy, in which reference sections of other reviews and of included papers were searched, was used to identify additional papers. Studies needed to be focused on sustainability and on professionals' adherence to clinical practice guidelines in medical care. Studies had to include at least 2 measurements: 1 before (PRE) or immediately after implementation (EARLY POST) and 1 measurement longer than 1 year after active implementation (LATE